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Sample records for cross sectional quality

  1. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  2. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  3. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  4. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar

    2016-02-09

    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  5. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees.

  6. Determinants of sleep quality among pregnant women in China: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Mao, Jing; Ye, Zhiying; Zeng, Xiaoli; Zhao, Huimin; Liu, Yueting; Li, Jie

    2017-08-03

    Sleep disturbances are common during pregnancy, yet few studies are currently available regarding the determinants of sleep quality among pregnant women in China. This study aimed to: (a) calculate the prevalence of sleep disorder during pregnancy, (b) examine the difference in sleep quality among three trimesters, and (c) identify determinants of sleep quality in pregnant women. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. Five hundred pregnant women were recruited at the outpatient department of obstetrics and gynecology of two teaching hospitals in central China. Five selfreport questionnaires were used for gathering data, including information of sample characteristics, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)), prenatal depression (the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), and perceived social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS)). A total of 454 pregnant women participated in the study between September 2016 and April 2017. Eighty-seven percent pregnant women experienced sleep disorder (PSQI score >5). Poorer global sleep quality, subjective sleep quality, lower sleep efficiency and sleep disturbances were most prevalent during third trimester. The significant contributors to sleep quality for pregnant women were prenatal depression, maternal age, and gestational age. Sleep disorder is very common in pregnant women from China. Depressive symptoms, increased maternal age, and gestational age are determinants of sleep quality. These determinants can assist healthcare professionals in preventative intervention.

  7. Customer quality and type 2 diabetes from the patients' perspective: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Jafar S; Wilson, Andrew J; O'Rourke, Peter K

    2010-12-18

    Quality in health care can be seen as having three principal dimensions: service, technical and customer quality. This study aimed to measure Customer Quality in relation to self-management of Type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional survey of 577 Type 2 diabetes people was carried out in Australia. The 13-item Patient Activation Measure was used to evaluate Customer Quality based on self-reported knowledge, skills and confidence in four stages of self-management. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 13.0. All participants achieved scores at the level of stage 1, but ten percent did not achieve score levels consistent with stage 2 and a further 16% did not reach the actual action stage. Seventy-four percent reported capacity for taking action for self-management and 38% reported the highest Customer Quality score and ability to change the action by changing health and environment. Participants with a higher education attainment, better diabetes control status and those who maintain continuity of care reported a higher Customer Quality score, reflecting higher capacity for self-management. Specific capacity building programs for health care providers and people with Type 2 diabetes are needed to increase their knowledge and skills; and improve their confidence to self-management, to achieve improved quality of delivered care and better health outcomes.

  8. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  9. [Quality of sleep and selective attention in university students: descriptive cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Fontana, Silvia Alicia; Raimondi, Waldina; Rizzo, María Laura

    2014-09-05

    Sleep quality not only refers to sleeping well at night, but also includes appropriate daytime functioning. Poor quality of sleep can affect a variety of attention processes. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between the perceived quality of sleep and selective focus in a group of college students. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in a group of 52 Argentinian college students of the Universidad Adventista del Plata. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Continuous Performance Test and the Trail Making Test were applied. The main results indicate that students sleep an average of 6.48 hours. Generally half of the population tested had a good quality of sleep. However, the dispersion seen in some components demonstrates the heterogeneity of the sample in these variables. It was observed that the evaluated attention processes yielded different levels of alteration in the total sample: major variability in the process of process and in the divided-attention processes were detected. A lower percentage of alteration was observed in the process of attention support. Poor quality of sleep has more impact in the sub processes with greater participation of corticocortical circuits (selective and divided attention) and greater involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Fewer difficulties were found in the attention-support processes that rely on subcortical regions and have less frontal involvement.

  10. Short daily versus conventional hemodialysis quality of life: a cross-sectional multicentric study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puñal Rioboó, J; Sánchez-Iriso, E; Ruano-Ravina, A; Varela Lema, M L; Sánchez-Guisande, D; González-Rodríguez, L; Herrero, J A; Barril, G; Maduell, F; Hernández, J; Otero, A; Bajo, M A; Sánchez, R

    2009-01-01

    End-stage renal disease is a major health problem worldwide nowadays. Although conventional hemodialysis is the most widely used modality, short daily hemodialysis has been proposed as a more physiologic treatment. The objective of this article is to compare the quality of life of patients on each hemodialysis modality. A multicentric cross-sectional study was performed in 9 Spanish hospitals. Patients treated for at least 3 months with conventional or short daily hemodialysis were included and quality of life measured using the Euroqol-5D quality of life questionnaire. Bayesian models were used for analyzing quality of life results. Ninety-three patients were included, 27 were on daily hemodialysis and 66 on conventional hemodialysis. All models demonstrated a better quality of life for daily hemodialysis versus conventional hemodialysis. Only 14% of the patients on conventional hemodialysis were willing to change to a daily schedule. Short daily hemodialysis shows a better quality of life than conventional hemodialysis with all Bayesian approaches considered. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Nurse work environment and quality of care by unit types: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chenjuan; Olds, Danielle M; Dunton, Nancy E

    2015-10-01

    Nursing unit is the micro-organization in the hospital health care system in which integrated patient care is provided. Nursing units of different types serve patients with distinct care goals, clinical tasks, and social structures and norms. However, empirical evidence is sparse on unit type differences in quality of care and its relation with nurse work environment. Nurse work environment has been found as an important nursing factor predicting nurse and patient outcomes. To examine the unit type differences in nurse-reported quality of care, and to identify the association between unit work environment and quality of care by unit types. This is a cross-sectional study using nurse survey data (2012) from US hospitals nationwide. The nurse survey collected data on quality of care, nurse work environment, and other work related information from staff nurses working in units of various types. Unit types were systematically classified across hospitals. The unit of analysis was the nursing unit, and the final sample included 7677 units of 14 unit types from 577 hospitals in 49 states in the US. Multilevel regressions were used to assess the relationship between nurse work environment and quality of care across and by unit types. On average, units had 58% of the nurses reporting excellent quality of care and 40% of the nurses reporting improved quality of care over the past year. Unit quality of care varied by unit types, from 43% of the nurses in adult medical units to 73% of the nurses in interventional units rating overall quality of care on unit as excellent, and from 35% of the nurses in adult critical care units to 44% of the nurses in adult medical units and medical-surgical combined units reporting improved quality of care. Estimates from regressions indicated that better unit work environments were associated with higher quality of care when controlling various hospital and unit covariates; and this association persisted among units of different types. Unit

  12. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  13. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  14. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  15. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  16. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  17. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  18. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Teles, Mariza Alves Barbosa; Barbosa, Mirna Rossi; Vargas, Andréa Maria Duarte; Gomes, Viviane Elizângela; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    2014-05-15

    Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.

  19. Burden of Keloid Disease: A Cross-sectional Health-related Quality of Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bijlard, Eveline; Kouwenberg, Casimir A E; Timman, Reinier; Hovius, Steven E R; Busschbach, Jan J V; Mureau, Marc A M

    2017-02-08

    Keloid scars may be painful, itch severely and be cosmetically disturbing. The burden of keloid disease, however, has not yet been determined. This study evaluated the association of keloid disease with health-related quality of life (HRQL) and identified indicators of burden using a cross-sectional survey study, with one disease-specific HRQL measure (Skindex-29) and 2 generic HRQL measures (SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L). A total of 106 keloid patients with no other skin diseases participated in the study. Having keloid disease was associated with a considerable impairment of emotional wellbeing, with most impairment on the emotional and mental HRQL. Pain and itch were the strongest indicators of HRQL impairment in keloid patients. Having painful or itchy keloids was related to low mental and emotional HRQL, implying that patients with keloids require access to effective treatment aimed at alleviating physical symptoms.

  20. Diet quality is associated with obesity and hypertension in Australian adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Katherine M; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-10-01

    Poor diet, characterized by a low diet quality score, has been associated with greater prevelence of obesity and hypertension. However, the evidence is inconsistent across diet quality scores and by sex. The aim was to investigate the relationship between diet quality and obesity and hypertension. Adults (n = 4908; age 45.2 ± 0.24 years) were included from the cross-sectional Australian Health Survey 2011-2013. Two 24-h dietary recalls were used to derive the dietary guideline index (DGI) and recommended food score (RFS). Logistic regression investigated relationships between diet quality score and odds ratio of obesity, hypertension and obesity-associated hypertension. In the highest tertile of DGI, but not RFS, individuals were less likely to be obese (men: OR 0.64, CI: 0.45, 0.92, P-trend = 0.014; women: 0.68, 0.48, 0.96, P-trend = 0.025) and to have central adiposity (men: 0.68, 0.48, 0.97, P-trend = 0.030; women: 0.53, 0.37, 0.77, P-trend = 0.001) compared with the lowest tertile. Men, but not women, in the highest tertile of DGI and RFS were less likely to be hypertensive (DGI: 0.56, 0.37, 0.85, P-trend = 0.006; RFS: 0.62, 0.41, 0.94, P-trend = 0.021) compared with the lowest tertile. In men with obesity, but not normal weight men or women, those in the highest tertile of DGI were less likely to be hypertensive (0.53, 0.36, 0.78, P-trend = 0.001) compared with the highest tertile. Higher diet quality, as estimated using DGI, was associated with lower odds ratio of obesity in men and women. Odds ratio of hypertension was lower in men, but not women, with a high diet quality score compared with a low score, while obesity-associated hypertension was only associated with diet quality score in men with obesity. Longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate whether diet quality predicts risk of obesity and hypertension.

  1. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Surani, AA; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2012 to January 2013. The study population comprised of junior doctors (house physicians and house surgeons). A consecutive sample of 350 physicians was drawn from the above-mentioned study setting. The subject underwent two validated self-administered questionnaires, that is, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: A total of 334 physicians completely filled out the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.4% (334/350). Of 334 physicians, 36.8% (123/334) were classified as “poor sleepers” (global PSQI score > 5). Poor sleep quality was associated with female gender (P = 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (P < 0.01), lower total sleep time (P < 0.001), increased sleep onset latency (P < 0.001), and increased frequency of sleep disturbances (P < 0.001). Abnormal ESS scores (ESS > 10) were more prevalent among poor sleepers (P < 0.01) signifying increased level of daytime hypersomnolence. Conclusion: Sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians is significantly poor. Efforts must be directed towards proper sleep hygiene education. Regulations regarding duty hour limitations need to be considered. PMID:26500789

  2. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  3. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Martin J; Brennan, Marnie L; Williams, Hywel C; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. Design An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs. A consensus of 80% was required from the Delphi panel for any component to be included in the final tool. Results An initial list of 39 components was identified through examination of existing resources. An international Delphi panel of 18 medical and veterinary experts was established. After 3 rounds of the Delphi process, the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool) was developed by consensus and consisted of 20 components. A detailed explanatory document was also developed with the tool, giving expanded explanation of each question and providing simple interpretations and examples of the epidemiological concepts being examined in each question to aid non-expert users. Conclusions CA of the literature is a vital step in evidence synthesis and therefore evidence-based decision-making in a number of different disciplines. The AXIS tool is therefore unique and was developed in a way that it can be used across disciplines to aid the inclusion of CSSs in systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical decision-making. PMID:27932337

  4. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura.

  5. [Bipolar disorder and quality of life: A cross-sectional study including 104 Tunisian patients].

    PubMed

    Marrag, I; Hajji, K; Hadj Ammar, M; Zarrouk, L; Kachouri, R; Nasr, M

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder affects many psychosocial and functional aspects, leading to a real social handicap and an alteration in quality of life. To evaluate bipolar patients' quality of life and to identify the risk factors responsible for a deterioration. Our cross-sectional study lasted for four months and included 104 bipolar patients treated at the psychiatry consultation of the university hospital in Mahdia. The data were collected through a questionnaire composed of 52 items exploring the general characteristics of subjects, the clinical and evolutional characteristics of bipolar disorder and providing information on the treatment. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short form) generic scale. A global average score was calculated and it was considered that quality of life was altered if the score was less than 66.7, according to the threshold value of Léan. Moreover, an average score was calculated for each dimension, thus permitting us to identify those most affected. We standardized initial average scores. The assessment of quality of life revealed a global average of 52.2 and an alteration in 78.8% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that all dimensions were affected. The standardization also revealed deterioration in all dimensions, the mental component being particularly more affected than the physical component with respectively estimated scores of 31.7 and 40.5. The analytic approach concerned the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables and the occurrence of an alteration in quality of life. For this effect, a bivariate study displayed a statistically significant correlation between the eight dimensions of the SF-36 and 8 variables. In order to take into account the relationships that link each variable to the others, and to avoid the bias of the bivariate study, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Only 4 variables with discriminating weight emerged from this analysis. According to the

  6. Quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jassim, Ghufran Ahmed; Whitford, David L

    2013-04-28

    Breast cancer can impact survivors in many aspects of their life. Scarce information is currently available on the quality of life of cancer survivors in Bahrain. The objective of this study is to describe the quality of life of Bahraini women with breast cancer and its association with their sociodemographic and clinical data. This is a cross sectional study in which the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Cancer Specific version translated into Arabic was administered to a random sample of 337 Bahraini women with breast cancer. Relevant descriptive statistics were computed for all items. The equality of means across the categories of each categorical independent variable was tested using parametric tests (ANOVA and independent t-test) or non-parametric tests (Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests) of association where appropriate. Of the total sample, 239 consented to participation. The mean and median age of participants were 50.2 (SD ± 11.1) and 48.0 respectively. Participants had a mean score for global health of 63.9 (95% CI 61.21-66.66). Among functional scales, social functioning scored the highest (Mean 77.5 [95% CI 73.65-81.38]) whereas emotional functioning scored the lowest (63.4 [95% CI 59.12-67.71]). The most distressing symptom on the symptom scales was fatigability (Mean 35.2 [95% CI 31.38-39.18]). Using the disease specific tool it was found that sexual functioning scored the lowest (Mean 25.9 [95% CI 70.23-77.90]). On the symptom scale, upset due to hair loss scored the highest (Mean 46.3 [95% CI 37.82-54.84]). Significant mean differences were noted for many functional and symptom scales. Bahraini breast cancer survivors reported favorable overall global quality of life. Factors associated with a major reduction in all domains of quality of life included the presence of metastases, having had a mastectomy as opposed to a lumpectomy and a shorter time elapsed since diagnosis. Poorest functioning was noted in

  7. A cross-sectional investigation of the quality of selected medicines in Cambodia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, in collaboration with Kanazawa University, Japan, initiated a project to combat SFFC medicines. Methods To assess the quality of medicines and prevalence of SFFC medicines among selected products, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Cambodia. Cefixime, omeprazole, co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, and sildenafil were selected as candidate medicines. These medicines were purchased from private community drug outlets in the capital, Phnom Penh, and Svay Rieng and Kandal provinces through a stratified random sampling scheme in July 2010. Results In total, 325 medicine samples were collected from 111 drug outlets. Non-licensed outlets were more commonly encountered in rural than in urban areas (p < 0.01). Of all the samples, 93.5% were registered and 80% were foreign products. Samples without registration numbers were found more frequently among foreign-manufactured products than in domestic ones (p < 0.01). According to pharmacopeial analytical results, 14.5%, 4.6%, and 24.6% of the samples were unacceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test, respectively. All the ultimately unacceptable samples in the content uniformity tests were of foreign origin. Following authenticity investigations conducted with the respective manufacturers and medicine regulatory authorities, an unregistered product of cefixime collected from a pharmacy was confirmed as an SFFC medicine. However, the sample was acceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test. Conclusions The results of this survey indicate that medicine counterfeiting is not limited to essential medicines in Cambodia: newer-generation medicines are also targeted. Concerted efforts by both domestic and foreign manufacturers, wholesalers

  8. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  9. A cross-sectional study of medical students' knowledge of patient safety and quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, Rachel C; Stokes, Claire L; Meyerhoff, Karen L; Hines, Rachel E; Wilson, Lindsay A; Viera, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges and the World Health Organization have endorsed formal patient safety and quality improvement (QI) education for medical students. We surveyed medical students to assess their current level of patient safety and QI knowledge and to identify factors associated with increased knowledge. A literature review, focus groups with medical students, and local expert interviews were used to develop an electronic survey, which was distributed to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. Fifty-seven percent of the medical school student body (N = 790) participated in the survey. A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety education than to QI education (79% vs 47%). Students scored an average of 56% and 58% on the patient safety and QI knowledge tests, respectively. Having or pursuing an advanced degree (P = .02) and previous exposure to patient safety education (P = .02) were associated with higher knowledge scores. After adjusting for confounding variables, only previous exposure to QI education (P = .02) was associated with higher QI knowledge scores. There is a risk of measurement bias due to the use of an unvalidated instrument. Students who have greater knowledge of patient safety or QI might recall exposure at a greater frequency, inflating the association between exposure and knowledge. Also, this is a cross-sectional study, so we cannot draw conclusions about causality. Medical students' knowledge of patient safety and QI is low. Previous formal or informal education about these topics is associated with increased knowledge.

  10. Cross-sectional analysis of health-related quality of life and elements of yoga practice.

    PubMed

    Birdee, Gurjeet S; Ayala, Sujata G; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2017-01-31

    Mind-body practices such as yoga have been studied for their generally positive effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The association between how a person practices yoga and the person's HRQOL is not known. Yoga practitioners were sent invitations to participate in an online survey via email. Yoga characteristics, HRQOL, and other sociodemographics were collected. Analyses of data from 309 consenting responders evaluated associations between yoga practice characteristics (use of yoga tools, length of practice, location, method, etc.) and the 10-item PROMIS Global Health scale for both physical and mental health components. Multivariable regression models demonstrated higher mental health scores were associated with regular meditation practice, higher income, and the method of practicing in a community group class (versus one-on-one). Higher physical health scores were associated with length of lifetime practice, teacher status, Krishnamacharya yoga style, and practicing in a yoga school/studio (versus at home). Meditation practice in yoga is positively associated with mental health. Length of lifetime yoga practice was significantly associated with better physical health, suggesting yoga has a potential cumulative benefit over time. Different locations and methods of practice may be associated with varying effects on health outcomes. Comparative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the variations in yoga practice are needed to further characterize health benefits of yoga.

  11. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Brett D; Mansfield, Peter R; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Ward, Alison M

    2008-05-20

    Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the assessment of cardiovascular risk

  12. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brett D; Mansfield, Peter R; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Ward, Alison M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the

  13. Health literacy and quality of care of patients with diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Zuercher, Emilie; Diatta, Ibrahima Dina; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    Limited health literacy (HL) may lead to poor health outcomes and inappropriate healthcare use, particularly in patients with chronic diseases. We aimed to assess the association between functional HL (FHL) and quality of care, as measured by process- and outcome-of-care indicators, in patients with diabetes. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2013 CoDiab-VD cohort follow-up, which included non-institutionalised adults with diabetes from canton of Vaud, Switzerland. Using self-administered questionnaires, we collected patients' characteristics, processes [annual HbA1C check, lipid profile, urine test, foot examination, influenza vaccination, eye examination (24 months), physical activity and diet recommendations] and outcomes of care (HbA1C knowledge, HbA1C value, SF-12, ADDQoL, PACIC, self-efficacy). A single validated screening question assessed FHL. Unadjusted and adjusted regression analyses were performed. Of 381 patients 52.5% (95%CI: 47.5%-57.5%), 40.7% (95%CI: 35.7%-45.6%) and 6.8% (95%CI: 4.3%-9.4%) reported high, medium and poor FHL, respectively. Significant associations were found for two out of seven outcomes of care; lower self-efficacy scores associated with medium and poor FHL (adjusted: β -0.6, 95%CI -0.9 to -0.2 and β -1.8, 95%CI -2.5 to -1.2, respectively), lower SF-12 mental scores associated with poor FHL (adjusted: β -8.4, 95%CI -12.5 to -4.2). This study found few outcomes of care associated with FHL. Further exploration of the impact of limited HL on quality of care indicators will help tailor initiatives - both on patients' and providers' side - to improve diabetes care. Copyright © 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of life, sleepiness and depressive symptoms in adolescents with insomnia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Maria Odete Pereira; de Almeida Garrido, António José; de Figueiredo Pereira, Carlos; Master, Nélio Veiga; de Rosário Delgado Nunes, Carla; Sakellarides, Constantino Theodor

    2017-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of insomnia in a sample of Portuguese adolescents and assess its repercussions on HRQoL, daytime sleepiness and depressive symptomatology. We carried out a cross-sectional school-based study evaluating students from Viseu. Students from twenty-six public secondary schools in the county of Viseu, Portugal. Of 9237 questionnaires distributed, 7581 were collected (82.1%). We excluded from analysis all questionnaires from adolescents younger than 12 or older than 18 years of age (211) and unfilled forms (451). The sample comprised 6919 adolescents, the 7th to 12th grade, from 26 public secondary schools. None. Data gathering was done using a self-applied questionnaire. Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - IV criteria. HRQoL was evaluated with the Quality of Life Health Survey SF-36, depressive symptomatology with BDI-II and daytime sleepiness with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Prevalence of insomnia was 8.3% and the prevalence of adolescents with symptoms of insomnia without daytime impairment (disturbed sleepers) was 13.1%. HRQoL was significantly reduced among adolescents with insomnia compared to normal sleepers (p<0.001) and even when compared to disturbed sleepers (p<0.001). There was an increase in daytime sleepiness from normal sleepers to disturbed sleepers and to adolescents with insomnia (p<0.001). There was also an increase in the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms (p<0.001). Our results show that insomnia is associated with a significantly lower health related quality of life among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Interpersonal Trust and Quality-of-Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Jimba, Masamine; Yanai, Haruo; Fujii, Seiji; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL) or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. Methodology and Principal Findings Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women), greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men), those aged 60–69 (vs. 20–29), or the high-income group (vs. low-income). Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. Conclusions and Significance Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL. PMID:19096704

  16. Anal incontinence and Quality of Life in late pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, H H; Mørkved, S; Stordahl, A; Sandvik, L; Wibe, A

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the association between different types of anal incontinence (AI) and Quality of Life (QoL) in late pregnancy. Cross-sectional study. Two maternity units in Norway 2009-2010. Primiparae aged 18 or over. Participants answered questions about AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy on the St. Mark's score and impact of QoL in the Fecal Incontinence QoL score. Socioeconomic data were obtained from hospital records. Self-reported AI and impact on QoL. 1571 primiparae responded; 573 (37%) had experienced AI during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy. One third of the incontinent women reported reduced QoL in the domain 'Coping'. 'Women experiencing urgency alone reported markedly better QoL compared to any other AI symptoms. AI appeared to have the strongest impact on the domains 'Coping' and 'Embarrassment'. Depression was only associated with experiencing the combination of all three symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 13; 95%confidence interval (CI) 3.2-51]. Experiencing flatus alone weekly or more was associated with the highest impact on 'Embarrassment' (OR 20; 95%CI 6.4-61) compared with all other symptoms or combination of AI symptoms, except the combination of all three AI symptoms. Between 3 and 10% of the primiparae in this material experienced AI to such a extent that it affected QoL. The greatest impact was seen in the QoL domain 'Coping'. These findings highlight the importance of an increased awareness of AI in late pregnancy among health professionals and the need to implement routine discussions about AI with expectant and new mothers. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Is hormonal therapy associated with better quality of life in transsexuals? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gorin-Lazard, Audrey; Baumstarck, Karine; Boyer, Laurent; Maquigneau, Aurélie; Gebleux, Stéphanie; Penochet, Jean-Claude; Pringuey, Dominique; Albarel, Frédérique; Morange, Isabelle; Loundou, Anderson; Berbis, Julie; Auquier, Pascal; Lançon, Christophe; Bonierbale, Mireille

    2012-02-01

    Although the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the self-reported outcomes of transsexuals has been largely described, the data available regarding the impact of hormone therapy on the daily lives of these individuals are scarce. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between hormonal therapy and the self-reported quality of life (QoL) in transsexuals while taking into account the key confounding factors and to compare the QoL levels between transsexuals who have, vs. those who have not, undergone cross-sex hormone therapy as well as between transsexuals and the general population (French age- and sex-matched controls). This study incorporated a cross-sectional design that was conducted in three psychiatric departments of public university teaching hospitals in France. The inclusion criteria were as follows: 18 years or older, diagnosis of gender identity disorder (302.85) according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition text revision (DSM-IV TR), inclusion in a standardized sex reassignment procedure following the agreement of a multidisciplinary team, and pre-sex reassignment surgery. QoL was assessed using the Short Form 36 (SF-36). The mean age of the total sample was 34.7 years, and the sex ratio was 1:1. Forty-four (72.1%) of the participants received hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy and depression were independent predictive factors of the SF-36 mental composite score. Hormonal therapy was significantly associated with a higher QoL, while depression was significantly associated with a lower QoL. Transsexuals' QoL, independently of hormonal status, did not differ from the French age- and sex-matched controls except for two subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire: role physical (lower scores in transsexuals) and general health (lower scores in controls). The present study suggests a positive effect of hormone therapy on transsexuals' QoL after accounting for confounding factors. These results will be useful for

  18. Neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook displays curves of neutron cross sections in the energy range of 0.01 eV to 200 MeV (and associated information) as a function of incident neutron energy. Tables include reference to all data. Information on isomeric state production is also included. This book represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, the third edition of which was published in 1976.

  19. Factors affecting quality of life in patients on haemodialysis: a cross-sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Daraghmeh, Dala N; Mezyed, Diana O; Khdeir, Razan L; Sawafta, Mayas N; Ayaseh, Nora A; Tabeeb, Ghada H; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Al-Jabi, Samah W

    2016-04-27

    Haemodialysis (HD) is a life-sustaining treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). HD can bring about significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and outcomes. Therefore, we sought to describe the patterns of HRQOL and determine the independent factors associated with poor HRQOL in Palestinian patients on HD. A multicenter cross-sectional study was performed from June 2014 to January 2015 using the EuroQOL-5 Dimensions instrument (EQ-5D-5L) for the assessment of HRQOL. ESRD patients undergoing HD in all dialysis centres in the West Bank of Palestine were approached and recruited for this study. Multiple linear regression was carried out to identify factors that were significantly associated with HRQOL. Two hundred and sixty-seven patients were participated in the current study giving response rate of 96 %. Overall, 139 (52.1 %) were male, and the mean ± standard deviation age was 53.3 ± 16.2 years. The reported HRQOL as measured by mean EQ-5D-5L index value and Euro QOL visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score was 0.37 ± 0.44 and 59.38 ± 45.39, respectively. There was a moderate positive correlation between the EQ-VAS and the EQ-5D-5L index value (r = 0.42, p < 0.001). The results of multiple linear regression showed a significant negative association between HRQOL with age, total number of chronic co-morbid diseases and the total number of chronic medications. However, a significant positive association was found between HRQOL with male gender, university education level and patients who live in village. Our results provided insight into a number of associations between patient variables and their HRQOL. Healthcare providers should be aware of low HRQOL among patients with no formal education, female gender, patient's residents of refugee camps, multiple co-morbid diseases, multiple chronic medications, and elderly patients to improve their quality of life.

  20. The recent absolute total np and pp cross section determinations: quality of data description and prediction of experimental observables

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    The absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region. Comparison of the np evaluation with the result of most recent np total and differential cross section measurements will be discussed. Results of those measurements were not used in the evaluation database. A comparison was done to check a quality of evaluation and its capabilities to predict experimental observables. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  1. Quality of life and functional capacity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2017-04-08

    To analyze the Health related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical function in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and compare it with the general population. We also intended to analyze about disease activity influence in HRQoL and functional capacity, as well as determine potential determinants for these outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in RA patients from a university hospital of Portugal. We obtained Short Form 36, EuroQoL 5D, health assessment questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain and patient's assessment of disease activity. Comparisons between SF-36 and EQ-5D values with our population reference values were conducted using the Mann-Whitney test. Data were compared in different levels of disease activity, using Kruskal Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the potential determinants of outcomes. RA sample showed significantly lower values than the portuguese general population on physical summary measure of SF-36 (median=32 vs. 50, p<0.001) and EQ-5D (median=0.620 vs. 0.758 respectively; p<0.001). Lower disease activity levels had better PROs and this was true even when compared patients achieving remission with those in low disease activity. The HAQ (r(2)=67%), VAS-P (r(2)=62%) and VAS-DA (r(2)=58%) were the variables that strongly related to SF-36. Considering HAQ, the strongest relation was found with VAS-P, VAS-DA and age (r(2)=60%, 61% and 33%, respectively). Multiple regression analysis identified HAQ, VAS-P and educational status as determinants of the HRQoL; age, female gender, employment, VAS-P and VAS-DA as determinants of physical function. Impairment of HRQoL in RA patients is enormous. We found significant differences between different levels of disease activity, showing higher HRQoL and functional capacity at lower disease activity levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights

  2. Quality of Life and Costs in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross Sectional Study in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Tamás, Gertrúd; Gulácsi, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Baji, Petra; Takáts, Annamária; Brodszky, Valentin; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL) and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Hungary, and to analyze their associations. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY) scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective. Results 110 patients (34.5% female) were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD = 11.3) and disease duration of 8.2 (SD = 5.8) years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD = 13.4). The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD = 0.28), and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45–74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (−0.47, p = 0.000), the HY scale and EQ-5D (−0.3416, p = 0.0008) and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p = 0.0006) scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD = 6163.0)/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%). A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant. Conclusions Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs. PMID:25229404

  3. Quality of Life of Transgender Women From China and Associated Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Zhao, Lina; Wang, Lie; Hao, Chun; Gu, Yuan; Song, Wei; Zhao, Qun; Wang, Xiaoli

    2016-06-01

    Transgender women are exposed to stressful situations such as gender transition and transition-related discrimination because of their limited acceptance by the general population and inadequate government-supplied resources, which can compromise their quality of life (QOL). However, there is a paucity of research on the QOL of transgender women from China. To assess the QOL of transgender women from China and explore its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by convenience sampling in Shenyang, China from January 2014 to July 2014. This sample consisted of 209 transgender women. The women were interviewed face-to-face to assess their QOL and related factors using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, the Adult Dispositional (Trait) Hope Scale, and the EGO Resilience Scale. Response scores were calculated based on a questionnaire design. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore factors associated with QOL. Transgender women who used hormone therapy reported significantly lower levels of the physical component summary (PCS) and the mental component summary (MCS) compared with those who did not (P < .05). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that of the 23 independent variables, 8 were significantly associated with the PCS and 9 were significantly associated with the MCS. The PCS was significantly and negatively associated with age and being chased or insulted by law enforcement officials. The PCS was positively associated with not using hormone therapy, having no casual partners, less discrimination from friends, knowledge of HIV prevention, hope, and resilience. Educational level and being chased or insulted by law enforcement officials were negatively associated with the MCS, whereas not using hormone therapy, having no regular partners or casual partners, less discrimination from friends, less social discrimination, knowledge of HIV prevention, and hope were positively associated with the MCS. Chinese

  4. Health-related quality of life after pulmonary embolism: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tavoly, Mazdak; Utne, Kristin Kornelia; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Wik, Hilde Skuterud; Klok, Frederikus A; Sandset, Per Morten; Ghanima, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The psychological effects of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have scarcely been studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a history of PE compared with that of the general population and buddy controls, and to explore factors that may predict impaired HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Haematology and thrombosis unit in Fredrikstad, Norway. Participants 213 consecutive patients treated for PE were identified from hospital registries. Eligible patients were scheduled for a single study visit, including a functional capacity test (6 min walking test). HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol 5D dimensions 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, of which the results were compared with Danish population norms and age-matched and sex-matched buddy controls. The buddy controls were recruited by asking every patient to hand over the EQ-5D questionnaire to 2 age-matched and sex-matched friends or relatives. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine possible determinants of reduced HRQoL. Results Mean age was 61 years (SD 15), 117 (55%) were males, and median time since diagnosis was 3.8 years (range 0.3–9.5). Mean EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) was 67 in PE as compared with 81 in the general population (p<0.005) and corresponding EQ-5D index values were 0.80 and 0.86 (p<0.005). Patients reported more problems in all 5 EQ-5D compared with both the buddy controls and the general population, p<0.05. Shorter 6 min walking distance (β=0.09, p<0.005) and patient-reported dyspnoea (β=11.27, p<0.005) were independent predictors of lower EQ VAS scores. Conclusions Our findings show that patients with a history of PE have impaired HRQoL when compared with the general population and buddy controls. Reduced functional capacity and persistent dyspnoea were the main predictors of this impairment. PMID:27810979

  5. Employment contracts: cross-sectional and longitudinal relations with quality of working life, health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Kompier, Michiel; Ybema, Jan Fekke; Janssen, Julia; Taris, Toon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance (i) insight in the relationship between different types of employment contract and the quality of working life, health and well-being, and (ii) our causal understanding of these relationships by comparing employees whose contract type changes across time. Analyses were based on a two-year prospective cohort study. Cross-sectional analyses were based upon a sample of 2,454 Dutch employees (2004). Longitudinal data were available for 1,865 respondents (2004-2006). We distinguished among 5 contract types, and subgroups of 'Upward' (i.e., towards permanent employment) and 'Downward' (towards temporary employment) movers across time. Data were analysed with analysis of variance and cross table analysis. Cross-sectionally, we found differences between contract types in quality of working life: generally permanent employees had better jobs, whereas temporary agency workers and on call workers had more 'bad work characteristics'. We also found a difference in health behaviour (smoking) and that psychological health was worst among temporary agency workers. In longitudinal analyses we found some evidence that a positive change in employment contract was associated with a better quality of working life and better psychological health, whereas the opposite was true for a negative contract change. The quality of working life, health and well-being are unequally distributed over employment contract groups. Temporary agency workers and on-call workers deserve special attention in terms of job design and human resource management.

  6. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  7. The association between suicidal ideation and sleep quality in elderly individuals: A cross-sectional study in Shandong, China.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yangyang; Sun, Long; Zhou, Chengchao; Ge, Dandan; Zhang, Li

    2017-07-10

    Previous studies have identified global associations between sleep quality and suicidal ideation. However, little is known regarding the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation among Chinese older adults. We examined the relationship between sleep quality and suicidal ideation in older adults in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 3313 seniors in Shandong, China. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the interviewees' answers to the question "Have you ever seriously considered wanting to die?". Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for confounders. When controlling for sex, age, living condition, economic status, marital status, education, past occupation, relationship with children, non-communicable diseases, and mental health, the odds of suicidal ideation increased in association with an increase in the total score for sleep quality and its components (subjective sleep quality, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, and daytime dysfunction). Poor sleep quality was associated with increased odds of suicidal ideation in Chinese older adults. Sleep-based interventions should be developed to prevent suicide in older adults in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results.

  9. The impact of learned resourcefulness on quality of life in type II diabetic patients: a cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better

  10. Quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The radar cross section σC is an objective measure of the "radar visibility" of an object. As such, σC is an important concept for the correct characterization of the operational performance of radar systems. Furthermore, σC is equally essential for the design and development of stealth weapon systems and platforms. Recent years have seen the theoretical development of quantum radars, that is, radars that operate with a small number of photons. In this regime, the radar-target interaction is described through photon-atom scattering processes governed by the laws of quantum electrodynamics. As such, it is theoretically inconsistent to use the same σC to characterize the performance of a quantum radar. In this paper we define a quantum radar cross section σQ based on quantum electrodynamics and interferometric considerations. We discuss the theoretical challenges of defining σQ, as well as computer simulations of σC and σQ for simple targets.

  11. Resilience as a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pozuelo-Carrascosa, Diana P; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the relationship between resilience, cardiorespiratory fitness, and mental health-related quality of life, and examined whether resilience acts as a mediator between the latter two. The study included 770 university students, aged 18-30 years, from Cuenca, Spain. Anthropometric, sociodemographic, cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run test), biochemical parameters, resilience, and mental health-related quality of life measurements were analyzed. The results showed that mental health-related quality-of-life values were significantly higher in students who had good cardiorespiratory fitness and a high level of resilience. Moreover, resilience acted as a partial mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life at 33.79%. Therefore, in young adults, resilience mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and mental health-related quality of life. These findings should be taken into account by nurses and other public health professionals, because in addition to the development of physical activity interventions to improve mental health-related quality of life, it is necessary to implement measures that increase resilience to achieve mental wellness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Obstetric Facility Quality and Newborn Mortality in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Hannah H; Fink, Günther; Nsona, Humphreys; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-10-01

    Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi. Data on facility infrastructure as well as processes of routine and basic emergency obstetric care for all facilities in the country were obtained from 2013 Malawi Service Provision Assessment. Birth location and mortality for children born in the preceding two years were obtained from the 2013-2014 Millennium Development Goals Endline Survey. Facilities were classified as higher quality if they ranked in the top 25% of delivery facilities based on an index of 25 predefined quality indicators. To address risk selection (sicker mothers choosing or being referred to higher-quality facilities), we employed instrumental variable (IV) analysis to estimate the association of facility quality of care with neonatal mortality. We used the difference between distance to the nearest facility and distance to a higher-quality delivery facility as the instrument. Four hundred sixty-seven of the 540 delivery facilities in Malawi, including 134 rated as higher quality, were linked to births in the population survey. The difference between higher- and lower-quality facilities was most pronounced in indicators of basic emergency obstetric care procedures. Higher-quality facilities were located a median distance of 3.3 km further from women than the nearest delivery facility and were more likely to be in urban areas. Among the 6,686 neonates analyzed, the overall neonatal mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births. Delivery in a higher-quality facility (top 25%) was associated with a 2.3 percentage point lower newborn mortality (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.046, 0.000, p-value 0.047). These results imply a newborn mortality

  13. Factors affecting quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Fang; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Hsi, Mo-Song; Chen, Jui-Chen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess eight factors considered important for quality of life in persons with epilepsy in order to determine which of these components affect quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan. A cross-sectional, correlational study using structured questionnaires assessed 260 patients with epilepsy purposively sampled from a medical center in Northern Taiwan. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated with the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Data also included personal and health-related characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy, efficacy in the self-management of epilepsy, and social support. Scores for the QOLIE-31 were correlated with the following factors: (1) demographic characteristics of age, gender, and income; (2) sleep quality; (3) symptoms of anxiety and depression; (4) epilepsy-specific variables: seizure frequency; types, number, and frequency of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and adverse events of AEDs; and (5) social support. Stepwise regression analysis showed that seven factors were predictive for quality of life: anxiety, depression, adverse events of AEDs, social support, seizure frequency of at least once in three months, household income of NT$ 40,001-100,000, and male gender. These factors accounted for 58.2% of the variance of quality of life. Our study assessed multiple factors in an examination of relationships and predictive factors for quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan. Knowledge of these contributing factors can assist health-care providers when evaluating patients with epilepsy to help target interventions for improving quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between quality management and performance indicators in Dutch diabetes care groups: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-05-11

    To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices. We hypothesised that this new level of quality management might be associated with the aggregate performance indicators on the patient level. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between quality management at the care group level and its aggregate performance indicators. A cross-sectional study. All Dutch care groups (n=97). 23 care groups provided aggregate register-based performance indicators of all their practices as well as data on quality management measured with a questionnaire filled out by 1 or 2 of their quality managers. The association between quality management, overall and in 6 domains ('organisation of care', 'multidisciplinary teamwork', 'patient centredness', 'performance management', 'quality improvement policy' and 'management strategies') on the one hand and 3 process indicators (the percentages of patients with at least 1 measurement of glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and systolic blood pressure), and 3 intermediate outcome indicators (the percentages of patients with glycated haemoglobin below 53 mmol/mol (7%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol below 2.5 mmol/L; and systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg) by weighted univariable linear regression. The domain 'management strategies' was significantly associated with the percentage of patients with a glycated haemoglobin <53 mmol/mol (β 0.28 (0.09; 0.46) p=0.01) after correction for multiple testing. The other domains as well as overall quality management were not associated with aggregate process or outcome indicators. This first exploratory study on quality management showed weak or no associations between quality management of diabetes care groups and their performance. It remains

  15. Determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Su, Xi; Zhen, Li; Zhu, Mulan; Kuang, Yinyi; Qin, Fang; Ye, Xinmei; Yin, Xuexia; Wang, Huizhen

    2017-02-01

    To identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life in patients with temporary enterostomy. Anterior resection with temporary enterostomy is the preferred treatment for patients with rectal cancer, which may impair patients' quality of life. So far, most studies have focused on quality of life in patients with permanent enterostomy, but few studies have looked at that in those with temporary enterostomy. Self-efficacy may determine quality of life in these patients, but few studies have identified determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. Multicentre, cross-sectional survey and regression analysis to identify determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life. A convenience sample of patients undergoing temporary enterostomy at five hospitals in Guangdong Province (China) were surveyed at least four weeks after stoma surgery using validated Chinese versions of internationally recognised questionnaires, including a Stoma Self-Efficacy Scale and the City of Hope Quality of Life-Ostomy Questionnaire. Backward multiple regression analysis was performed to identify whether quality of life was determined by self-efficacy and other clinico-demographic characteristics. Of the 180 questionnaires distributed, 149 (82·8%) were returned, and 135 (75%) were used in the final analysis. Mean global quality of life was 5·40 ± 1·58, and mean global self-efficacy was 79·59 ± 20·21. Significant determinants of self-efficacy and quality of life were identified (β = 0·62, p < 0·01). Quality of life was determined by type of enterostomy (β = 0·18, p = 0·01) and payment method (β = 0·14, p = 0·03). Quality of life may be determined by self-efficacy, type of enterostomy and payment method, after temporary enterostomy. Promoting stoma-related self-efficacy in patients with temporary enterostomy may improve their quality of life. Healthcare providers should focus on quality of life in those either with temporary loop ileostomy or entirely

  16. [Quality of life in major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Omer; Ergün, Hakan; Soygür, Haldun; Kesebir, Sermin; Tulunay, Cankat

    2009-01-01

    To investigate quality of life and its association with depression in patients with major depressive disorder. The study included 74 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) was used to assess the severity of depression; and the, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and EuroQol 5-D (EQ-5D) were used to measure quality of life. In the assessment of quality of life, it was determined that Patients with major depressive disorder scored significantly lower on all domains of MOS SF-36 compared to Turkish normative data. The depressive disorder patients had lower EQ-5D health utility index scores, in comparison to Turkish normative data. There was a significant negative correlation between mean HAM-D score and all domains of MOS SF-36 and EQ-5D health utility index scores. When quality of life in depressive patients was compared according to episode type, patients with recurrent type major depressive disorder had lower quality of life in terms of physical functioning, general health perception, and physical component summary score than patients with single episode type major depressive disorder. All domains of quality of life were lower in patients with major depressive disorder and quality of life decreased as severity of depression increased. Physical health perception was impaired to a greater degree in patients with recurrent major depressive disorder when compared with single episode depressive patients.

  17. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  18. Gender Difference in Associations between Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders and General Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Ahn, Yong-jun; Park, Ki Byung; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is known to have strong correlations with psychological factors and to display gender disparity. However, while chronic TMD is known to affect quality of life, large-scale studies investigating the influence on quality of life by gender are scarce. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed the data of 17,198 participants aged ≥19 years who completed chronic TMD and EuroQol-5 Dimension sections in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009). We adjusted for covariates (health behavior, sociodemographic factors) in regression analysis for complex sampling design to calculate regression coefficients and 95% CIs for gender difference in the association between chronic TMD and quality of life. We also evaluated which covariates of somatic health, mental health, health behavior, and sociodemographic factors weakened the relationship between TMD and EQ-5D. Results Prevalence of chronic TMD was 1.6% (men 1.3%, women 1.8%), and chronic TMD persisted to negatively impact quality of life even after adjusting for confounding variables. Low sociodemographic factors and health behavior had a negative effect on quality of life. Somatic health and mental health were most affected by chronic TMD. As for quality of life, women were affected to a greater extent than men by TMD. Women were more affected by osteoarthritis and general mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, and thoughts of suicide), and men by employment. Conclusions These results imply that chronic diseases and psychological factors are important in chronic TMD, and that there may be physiological and pathological gender differences in TMD. PMID:26673219

  19. Obstetric Facility Quality and Newborn Mortality in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Günther; Nsona, Humphreys

    2016-01-01

    Background Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi. Methods and Findings Data on facility infrastructure as well as processes of routine and basic emergency obstetric care for all facilities in the country were obtained from 2013 Malawi Service Provision Assessment. Birth location and mortality for children born in the preceding two years were obtained from the 2013–2014 Millennium Development Goals Endline Survey. Facilities were classified as higher quality if they ranked in the top 25% of delivery facilities based on an index of 25 predefined quality indicators. To address risk selection (sicker mothers choosing or being referred to higher-quality facilities), we employed instrumental variable (IV) analysis to estimate the association of facility quality of care with neonatal mortality. We used the difference between distance to the nearest facility and distance to a higher-quality delivery facility as the instrument. Four hundred sixty-seven of the 540 delivery facilities in Malawi, including 134 rated as higher quality, were linked to births in the population survey. The difference between higher- and lower-quality facilities was most pronounced in indicators of basic emergency obstetric care procedures. Higher-quality facilities were located a median distance of 3.3 km further from women than the nearest delivery facility and were more likely to be in urban areas. Among the 6,686 neonates analyzed, the overall neonatal mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births. Delivery in a higher-quality facility (top 25%) was associated with a 2.3 percentage point lower newborn mortality (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.046, 0.000, p-value 0.047). These

  20. Quality of life, self-stigma, and hope in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Holubova, Michaela; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara

    2017-01-01

    Goals The aim of this study was to explore the quality of life, self-stigma, personality traits, and hope in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients and methods A total of 52 outpatients participated in this cross-sectional study. The attending psychiatrist assessed each patient with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The patients then completed Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised (TCI-R), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Drug Attitude Inventory 10 (DAI-10), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)-Self-report. The psychiatrist evaluated Clinical Global Impression Severity – the objective version (objCGI-S), and the patients completed the Clinical Global Impression Severity – the subjective version (subjCGI-S). Each participant also completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results The quality of life was significantly higher in employed patients and individuals with higher hope, self-directedness (SD), and persistence (PS). The quality of life was lower among patients with higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, those with higher severity of the disorder, and individuals who were taking higher doses of antipsychotics. Patients with more pronounced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social anxiety had a lower quality of life. Finally, the quality of life was lower among individuals with higher harm avoidance (HA) and self-stigmatization (ISMI). Backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis showed that occupation, level of depression (BDI-II), attitude to using medication (DAI-10), social anxiety (LSAS), and antipsychotic index were the most relevant factors associated with lower quality of life. Conclusion Detection of the quality of life in the context of

  1. Coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenia: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales

    2015-01-01

    The modern psychiatric view of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their treatment has led to an increasing focus on coping strategies and the quality of life of these patients. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and the quality of life in psychotic patients. It is important to study the inner experience and striving of these individuals as it has been linked to their well-being and treatment adherence. Psychiatric outpatients who met International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for a psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder) were recruited in the study. Questionnaires measuring the coping strategies (The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire [SVF-78]), the quality of life (Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]), and symptom severity (objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression - objCGI; subjCGI) were assessed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis. A total of 109 psychotic patients were included in the study. The quality of life was significantly related to both the positive and negative coping strategies. The severity of disorder was highly negatively correlated with the quality of life score. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis using the quality of life as a dependent variable showed that symptom severity (subjCGI, difference between subjCGI, and objCGI), negative coping strategies, positive coping strategies, and the difference between positive and negative coping strategies explain more than half variance. Our study suggests the importance of utilizing the positive coping strategies in improving the quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders.

  2. Difference between interaction cross sections and reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2008-12-15

    We study the validity of the substitution of interaction cross sections for total reaction cross sections for a nucleus incident on a target nucleus at relativistic energies. We show that, for incident stable nuclei, the predicted difference between interaction and total reaction cross sections is large enough to probe the nuclear structure, particularly in a mass region of less than around 40. For analyses of the difference, we construct ''pseudo data'' for the reaction cross sections because empirical data are very limited at high energies. The construction of the pseudo data is based on our assumption that empirically unknown total reaction cross sections are precisely predicted by the phenomenological black-sphere model of nuclei that we developed recently. The comparison with the empirical interaction cross sections suggests a significant difference between the reaction and interaction cross sections for stable projectiles on a carbon target, which is of the order of 0-100 mb.

  3. Quality of life among people with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study from rural southern India.

    PubMed

    S, Rakesh P; Ramesh, R; Rachel, P; Chanda, R; Satish, N; Mohan, V R

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy can be associated with profound physical, social and psychological consequences and it has an impact on a person's quality of life. We assessed the quality of life and factors associated with a poor quality of life, among adults with epilepsy in a rural block of Tamil Nadu. We interviewed 91 epilepsy patients from 20 randomly selected villages using a structured questionnaire including World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF (WHOQOL-BREF), Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ-2) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) questionnaires. The mean (SD) total score of the quality of life scale was 61.49 (12.56). Those who were single, separated or widowed (t statistic= -2.71, p<0.01), had not completed primary education (t statistic=-2.308, p<0.05), not currently going for work (t statistic=-2.748, p<0.01), had seizure in the past one year (t statistic=-4.068, p<0.01),had depressive symptoms (t statistic=-3.207, p<0.01),had higher anxiety scores (t statistic=-2.727, p<0.01), had low scores in the quality of life questionnaire. Multivariate analysis showed increasing age, education less than grade V, being unmarried, widowed or separated, lower per capita income, a high anxiety score and experiencing a seizure episode in the past one year to be significantly associated with a low score in the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire (adjusted R²=0.378, SE 9.90). The presence of anxiety, lack of primary education, being single, separated or widowed, increasing age, low per capita income and having a seizure episode in the past year are associated with lower quality of life among people with epilepsy. Copyright 2012, NMJI.

  4. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. METHODS Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. RESULTS The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (p<0.0001). Female patients presented with lower self-esteem than male patients. CONCLUSION Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions. PMID:26734865

  5. A Cross-Sectional Snapshot of Sleep Quality and Quantity Among US Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Erin E; Berry, Rani; Winseman, Jeffrey S; Mason, Hyacinth Rc

    2017-01-13

    Fatigue is a well-known risk factor for mood disturbances, decreased cognitive acuity, and impaired judgment. Sleep research in medical students typically focuses on sleep quantity, but less is known about the quality of a student's sleep. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the subjective sleep quality and quantity of US medical students and to identify differences in sleep characteristics across demographic groups. Medical students (N = 860) representing 49 medical colleges completed the Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale and a demographic questionnaire between December 2015 and March 2016. Although participants reported obtaining nearly 7 h of sleep per night, the majority of students reported indicators of poor sleep quality. First and third year students reported higher rates of sleep-related problems compared to second and fourth year students. First and second year students reported the highest levels of sleep somnolence. Ethnic minority students reported significantly lower levels of sleep adequacy and sleep quantity and significantly higher levels of sleep somnolence than Caucasian students. Impaired sleep quality may contribute to fatigue in medical students even when sleep quantity seems adequate. Students appear to begin medical school with disrupted sleep patterns that may not improve until their final year of study. Education regarding proper sleep habits and the significant role of sleep quality in sustaining healthy sleep is especially important in the early stages of medical education. Minority, first year, and third year students may benefit the most from learning new behaviors that promote sufficient sleep quality during periods of sustained stress.

  6. Diet quality of Australian breast cancer survivors: a cross-sectional analysis from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Potter, J L; Collins, C E; Brown, L J; Hure, A J

    2014-12-01

    Evidence supports strong associations between healthful eating patterns and maintaining a healthy weight with favourable health outcomes for breast cancer survivors (BCS). The present study aimed to evaluate the diet quality of Australian BCS and to determine whether diet quality differed between BCS and age-matched healthy controls (HC) or by geographical location. This cross-sectional study included 281 BCS and 4069 HC from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health mid-aged cohort completing Survey 3 in 2001. Data from the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies food frequency questionnaire were used to calculate the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), a validated summary estimate of diet quality based on adherence to the Australian dietary guidelines. The mean (SD) ARFS of the BCS group was 33.2 (9.4) out of a maximum of 74. Mean (SD) total ARFS and component scores of BCS did not differ from the HC group [32.9 (8.7)] and no differences were found in ARFS between urban and rural BCS. This is the first study dedicated exclusively to describing the diet quality of Australian BCS. Although no difference was found when comparisons were made with a HC group, there is considerable room for improvement in the diet quality of Australian BCS. Given research suggesting higher risk of chronic conditions such as obesity amongst BCS, and the recognition of optimising diet quality as a key factor in health promotion for all population groups, data from the present study suggest the need for research targeting the feasibility and impact of improving diet quality of Australian BCS. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  7. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD) age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40%) had a university degree with a mean (±SD) official education of 10.8 (±4.9) years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential. PMID:23173572

  8. A Method of Assembling Cross-Sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Donald R.; Menon, Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a new method of measuring quality of life at the local and state level. Further, it presents a methodology that combines heterogeneous indicators from different fields, such as economics, social, and health, into one total measurement. The technique shown can be used to compare one region with another, or compare one metro area…

  9. A Method of Assembling Cross-Sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Donald R.; Menon, Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a new method of measuring quality of life at the local and state level. Further, it presents a methodology that combines heterogeneous indicators from different fields, such as economics, social, and health, into one total measurement. The technique shown can be used to compare one region with another, or compare one metro area…

  10. Perceived family functioning and friendship quality: cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviours.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Andrew J; Corder, Kirsten; Goodyer, Ian; Bamber, Diane; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Dunn, Valerie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-02-21

    This study examined the association of adolescent-reported family functioning and friendship quality with objectively-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and self-reported sedentary behaviours. Data are from the ROOTS study. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed using combined movement and heart rate sensing. Time spent TV viewing, using the internet, playing video games, doing homework and reading for pleasure was self-reported. Data on objectively-measured and self-reported outcomes for weekdays was available for 738 (age 14.5y, 55.7% female) and 800 (56.3% female) participants, respectively. Adolescents perceived family functioning and friendship quality (Two subscales: 'Good friendship qualities', 'Friendship difficulties') was assessed by questionnaire. Analyses were conducted using multi-level linear or logistic regression. Adolescents reporting better family functioning accumulated more MVPA on weekdays (beta; 95% confidence interval: 0.57; 0.17,0.98). Higher scores on the good friendship qualities subscale was associated with greater MVPA throughout the week (weekdays: 1.13; 0.62,1.65, weekend: 0.56; 0.09,1.02) and lower sedentary time on weekdays (-10.34; -17.03,-3.66). Boys from better functioning families were less likely to report playing video games at the weekend (OR; 95% confidence interval: 0.73; 0.57,0.93) or reading for pleasure (weekday: 0.73; 0.56,0.96 weekend: 0.75; 0.58,0.96). Boys who attained higher scores on the good friendship qualities scale were less likely to play video games at the weekend (0.61; 0.44,0.86) or report high homework on weekdays (0.54; 0.31,0.94). A higher score for good friendship qualities was associated with lower odds of girls playing video games during the week (0.76; 0.58,1.00) or reading for pleasure at the weekend (0.61; 0.42,0.88). Girls that reported fewer friendship difficulties had lower odds of high TV viewing (0.76; 0.62,0.93) or playing video games (0.71; 0.52,0.97) at

  11. Impact of Crohn's Disease on Marital Quality of Life: A Preliminary Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanwei; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Gu, Guosheng; Ren, Huajian; Chen, Jun; Wu, Qin; Wu, Xiuwen; Anjum, Nadeem; Guo, Kun; Li, Ranran; Li, Yuan; Liu, Song; Hong, Zhiwu; Li, Jieshou

    2015-10-01

    Quality of marriage exerts a great effect on quality of life [QOL] and health outcomes. Few data are available on the effects of Crohn's disease [CD] on quality of marriage. We aimed to clarify whether and how CD affected the marital relationship. Web-based questionnaires were created including an ENRICH marital inventory, a general QOL survey [SF12], a short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [SIBDQ] and a modified Harvey-Bradshaw Index [HBI]. Married patients were enrolled through the outpatient registration system and diverse social media websites. Controls were subsequently enrolled and matched with the ratio of 1:1 through invitation emails and internet advertising. A total of 243 patients completed valid questionnaires and then 243 matched individuals were enrolled. Male patients were more affected, representing a significantly reduced total marital score. CD impaired the dimensions of idealistic distortion and marital satisfaction in both genders. There were correlations between quality of marriage, SF12, SIBDQ and HBI. Mental scale of SF12 correlated best with the marital relationship, indicating more significant involvement of mental adjustment. Multiple linear regression demonstrated that spouse's educational background, duration of marriage from disease onset, enteral nutrition, hospitalisation in past 12 months, and number of previous hospitalisations, independently impacted on quality of marriage. Certain aspects of the marital relationship were impaired in CD patients, especially in male subjects. In addition to medication, mental interventions should be given attention to improve the marriage of CD patients. Despite some novel findings in this study, this research orientation deserves more attention. Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pain and quality of life in leprosy patients in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Victor S; Santana, Jamilly C V; Castro, Fabrícia D N; Oliveira, Laudice S; Santana, Julianne C V; Feitosa, Vera L C; Gurgel, Ricardo Q; Cuevas, Luis E

    2016-03-07

    Pain emerges as a challenge in the treatment of leprosy patients. In this study, we describe the prevalence and type of pain in patients with leprosy, and its effect on patients' quality of life in an endemic area of Northeast Brazil. A cross-sectional survey of 260 patients attending leprosy reference centres in Sergipe, Northeast Brazil was conducted. Individuals were assessed for the presence and type of pain, skin sensory loss, peripheral nerve enlargement, touch and pinprick sensations, mechanical allodynia and nerve palpation. Participants completed the Douleur Neuropathique 4 questionnaire, and we also used the Brief Pain Inventory scale and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF instrument to arrive at our results. One hundred and ninety-five (75 %) patients reported pain, mostly of the neuropathic type. Pain was moderate in 84 (43.1 %) and severe in 94 (48.2 %) participants. The presence of pain was associated with disability (p = 0.001), leprosy reactions (p = 0.004) and lower quality of life. Most patients with neuropathic pain were treated with steroids, despite their low efficacy for this type of pain. Pain is highly prevalent among leprosy patients and is associated with low quality of life. Leprosy management should include a systematic assessment of the type of pain a patient experiences in order to provide adequate treatment.

  13. Sleep quality and health service utilization in Chinese general population: a cross-sectional study in Dongguan, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Shan; Mai, Yan-Bing; Li, Wei-Da; Xi, Wen-Tao; Wang, Jin-Ming; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    The aims of this study were to explore the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and health service utilization in Chinese general population, to investigate the association between PSQI and health service utilization and to identify the independent contributions of social demographic variables, health related factors and PSQI to health service utilization. In a cross-sectional community-based health survey using a multi-instrument questionnaire, 4067 subjects (≥15 years old) were studied. The Chinese version of the PSQI was used to assess sleep quality. Health service utilization was measured by recent two-week physician visit and annual hospitalization rates. Higher PSQI scores were associated with more frequent health service utilization. Higher scores in subjective sleep quality were associated with higher rate of recent two-week physician visit (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.015). Higher scores in habitual sleep efficiency (adjusted OR = 1.24 per SD increase, P = 0.038) and sleep disturbances (adjusted OR = 2.09 per SD increase, P < 0.001) were associated with more frequent annual hospitalization. The independent influence of PSQI on the risk of recent two-week physician visit was 0.7%, and that of annual hospitalization 31.4%. Poorer sleep quality predicted more frequent health service utilization. The independent contribution of PSQI on health service utilization was smaller than social demographic variables. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Social support network, mental health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Flávia Batista; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues; Correia, Celina Ragoni; Gonçalves, Daniel Almeida; Ballester, Dinarte; Tófoli, Luis Fernando; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Gask, Linda; Dowrick, Christopher; Bower, Peter; Fortes, Sandra

    2016-12-22

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between emotional distress and social support networks with quality of life in primary care patients. This was a cross-sectional study involving 1,466 patients in the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2009/2010. The General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument were used. The Social Support Network Index classified patients with the highest and lowest index as socially integrated or isolated. A bivariate analysis and four multiple linear regressions were conducted for each quality of life outcome. The means scores for the physical, psychological, social relations, and environment domains were, respectively, 64.7; 64.2; 68.5 and 49.1. In the multivariate analysis, the psychological domain was negatively associated with isolation, whereas the social relations and environment domains were positively associated with integration. Integration and isolation proved to be important factors for those in emotional distress as they minimize or maximize negative effects on quality of life.

  15. A cross-sectional study to identify organisational processes associated with nurse-reported quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify organisational processes and structures that are associated with nurse-reported patient safety and quality of nursing. Design This is an observational cross-sectional study using survey methods. Setting Respondents from 31 Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds were included in the survey. Participants All registered nurses working in direct patient care in a position of 20% or more were invited to answer the survey. In this study, 3618 nurses from surgical and medical wards responded (response rate 58.9). Nurses' practice environment was defined as organisational processes and measured by the Nursing Work Index Revised and items from Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Outcome measures Nurses' assessments of patient safety, quality of nursing, confidence in how their patients manage after discharge and frequency of adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results Quality system, nurse–physician relation, patient safety management and staff adequacy were process measures associated with nurse-reported work-related and patient-related outcomes, but we found no associations with nurse participation, education and career and ward leadership. Most organisational structures were non-significant in the multilevel model except for nurses’ affiliations to medical department and hospital type. Conclusions Organisational structures may have minor impact on how nurses perceive work-related and patient-related outcomes, but the findings in this study indicate that there is a considerable potential to address organisational design in improvement of patient safety and quality of care. PMID:23263021

  16. Assessing the quality of referral letters written by general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in rural Iran.

    PubMed

    Janati, Ali; Amini, Abolgasem; Adham, Davoud; Naseriasl, Mansour

    2017-03-30

    Establishing effective communication between general practitioners (GPs) and medical specialists is a key component of the referral system. Written communication between GPs and medical specialists is the most common communication tool. This study was conducted to evaluate quality (information content) of the referral letters written by GPs and addressed to gynecologists and cardiologists. We evaluated quality of the referral letters through a cross-sectional study in the villages of Sarab city, located in East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran. The study was conducted during August and September 2015 in which a total of 400 referral letters were evaluated according to specific quality criteria. Cluster sampling was implemented and data were collected using an instrument designed by the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Manitoba, Canada. A specifically designed referral form was used to refer pregnant women to gynecologists. Referrals addressed to gynecologists showed better quality in comparison to cases referred to cardiologists. Legibility of referral letters was 73%. It is recommended that agreed-upon referral letters be designed cooperatively for different groups of diseases. Furthermore, primary health care providers should be trained to write proper referral letters.

  17. Dyadic Cross-Sectional Associations Between Negative Mood, Marital Idealization, and Relationship Quality.

    PubMed

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Broc, Guillaume; Koleck, Michèle; Cazauvieilh, Christophe

    2016-10-02

    This study aimed to evaluate (a) dyadic associations between relationship quality (RQ) and both depressive and anxious mood (DM and AM), (b) reciprocity hypotheses of negative mood within dyadic interactions, and (c) mediational role of marital idealization between negative mood and relationship quality. Actor-partner interdependence models (APIMs) were performed using data from a sample of 198 dyads. Our results showed that (a) these two facets of negative mood did not have the same weight on RQ and that they had a gender-specific effects pattern, and (b) there was no support for the mood transmission hypothesis. Men's DM displayed direct and indirect (via marital idealization) actor as well as partner effects on RQ, whereas women's DM displayed only a direct actor effect on RQ. There were no significant direct actor effects of AM on RQ, meaning that this link is fully mediated by marital idealization. However, only women's AM showed such indirect effects on RQ.

  18. Risk profile and quality of dental restorations: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sonbul, Helal; Birkhed, Dowen

    2010-03-01

    The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the percentage of recurrent caries with respect to the estimated caries risk profile obtained with a Cariogram, (2) to evaluate the quality of restorations in a Saudi population with several restorations and (3) to determine the additional value of bite-wing radiographs as an aid to quality evaluation. A total of 803 restorations were examined in 100 adults according to the United States Public Health Service/Ryge criteria. Salivary and microbiological factors, dietary habits and plaque index were investigated. The Cariogram was used to evaluate the risk profiles. Class II bite-wing radiographs (n = 281) were taken to examine the marginal integrity and the anatomic form proximally. The patients were categorized according to 'the chance of avoiding caries' into three risk groups: 0%-20% (n = 38), 21%-40% (n = 28) and 41%-100% (n = 34). ANOVA revealed statistically significant differences between the risk groups with respect to the recurrent caries (P < 0.05). A high percentage of the total restorations (56%) were diagnosed with recurrent caries. The quality of anatomic form and surface texture was unacceptable in the majority of cases. After adding the evaluations of class II bite-wings, the percentage of unacceptable restorations increased by 28% and 17% with regard to marginal integrity and anatomic form, respectively (P < 0.001). Recurrent caries was related to the percentage 'chance of avoiding caries' as estimated by the Cariogram. The importance of bite-wings was emphasized as an aid to quality evaluation.

  19. The quality of the outdoor environment influences childrens health -- a cross-sectional study of preschools.

    PubMed

    Söderström, M; Boldemann, C; Sahlin, U; Mårtensson, F; Raustorp, A; Blennow, M

    2013-01-01

    To test how the quality of the outdoor environment of child day care centres (DCCs) influences children's health. The environment was assessed using the Outdoor Play Environmental Categories (OPEC) tool, time spent outdoors and physical activity as measured by pedometer. 172/253 (68%) of children aged 3.0-5.9 from nine DCCs participated in Southern Sweden. Health data collected were body mass index, waist circumference, saliva cortisol, length of night sleep during study, and symptoms and well-being which were scored (1-week diary - 121 parent responders). Also, parent-rated well-being and health of their child were scored (questionnaire, 132 parent responders). MANOVA, ANOVA and principal component analyses were performed to identify impacts of the outdoor environment on health. High-quality outdoor environment at DCCs is associated with several health aspects in children such as leaner body, longer night sleep, better well-being and higher mid-morning saliva cortisol levels. The quality of the outdoor environment at DCCs influenced the health and well-being of preschool children and should be given more attention among health care professionals and community planners. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  20. Coping style and quality of life in patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Westerhuis, Willemien; Fischer, Kathelijn; van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Having epilepsy has a large impact on one's well-being, but often seizure frequency and severity do not explain self-reported quality of life. We hypothesized that one's personal coping style is more important. In this study, 105 patients attending the outpatient neurological clinic at the University Medical Centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands, with a diagnosis of partial epilepsy, aged 17–80 years, completed questionnaires. Demographic information, disease characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and coping styles were obtained by postal-validated HRQoL questionnaires: the EQ5D and RAND-36 and the Utrecht Coping List. A passive coping style explained 45% of the variance in the mental component of HRQoL and was more important than ‘objective’ seizure-related measures. Confounders such as employment, gender, and side-effects of treatment explained another 6%. Passive coping style also influenced the physical component of the HRQoL, but here seizure-related factors predominated. Overall, epilepsy patients showed a more avoiding coping style, and female patients a less active coping style and more reassuring thoughts, compared to the Dutch population. The personal coping style of patients appears to be more important than seizure-related measures in predicting mental aspects of quality of life. Coping style characteristics rather than disease characteristics should guide clinical decision-making in patients with epilepsy. Further studies should investigate the effect on HRQoL of behavioral interventions to improve coping. PMID:20658245

  1. Coping style and quality of life in patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Westerhuis, Willemien; Zijlmans, Maeike; Fischer, Kathelijn; van Andel, Judith; Leijten, Frans S S

    2011-01-01

    Having epilepsy has a large impact on one's well-being, but often seizure frequency and severity do not explain self-reported quality of life. We hypothesized that one's personal coping style is more important. In this study, 105 patients attending the outpatient neurological clinic at the University Medical Centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands, with a diagnosis of partial epilepsy, aged 17-80 years, completed questionnaires. Demographic information, disease characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and coping styles were obtained by postal-validated HRQoL questionnaires: the EQ5D and RAND-36 and the Utrecht Coping List. A passive coping style explained 45% of the variance in the mental component of HRQoL and was more important than 'objective' seizure-related measures. Confounders such as employment, gender, and side-effects of treatment explained another 6%. Passive coping style also influenced the physical component of the HRQoL, but here seizure-related factors predominated. Overall, epilepsy patients showed a more avoiding coping style, and female patients a less active coping style and more reassuring thoughts, compared to the Dutch population. The personal coping style of patients appears to be more important than seizure-related measures in predicting mental aspects of quality of life. Coping style characteristics rather than disease characteristics should guide clinical decision-making in patients with epilepsy. Further studies should investigate the effect on HRQoL of behavioral interventions to improve coping.

  2. Work environment characteristics associated with quality of care in Dutch nursing homes: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Ramona; Rossum, Erik van; Verbeek, Hilde; Halfens, Ruud J G; Tan, Frans E S; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Hamers, Jan P H

    2017-01-01

    A lack of relationship between direct care staffing levels and quality of care, as found in prior studies, underscores the importance of considering the quality of the work environment instead of only considering staff ratios. Only a few studies, however, have combined direct care staffing with work environment characteristics when assessing the relationship with quality of care in nursing homes. To examine the relationship between direct care staffing levels, work environment characteristics and perceived quality of care in Dutch nursing homes. Cross-sectional, observational study in cooperation with the Dutch Prevalence Measurement of Care Problems. Twenty-four somatic and 31 psychogeriatric wards from 21 nursing homes in the Netherlands. Forty-one ward managers and 274 staff members (registered nurses or certified nurse assistants) from the 55 participating wards. Ward rosters were discussed with managers to obtain an insight into direct care staffing levels (i.e, total direct care staff hours per resident per day). Participating staff members completed a questionnaire on work environment characteristics (i.e., ward culture, team climate, communication and coordination, role model availability, and multidisciplinary collaboration) and they rated the quality of care in their ward. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses (random intercept). Separate analyses were conducted for somatic and psychogeriatric wards. In general, staff members were satisfied with the quality of care in their wards. Staff members from psychogeriatric wards scored higher on the statement 'In the event that a family member had to be admitted to a nursing home now, I would recommend this ward'. A better team climate was related to better perceived quality of care in both ward types (p≤0.020). In somatic wards, there was a positive association between multidisciplinary collaboration and agreement by staff of ward recommendation for a family member (p=0.028). In

  3. Quality of websites of obstetrics and gynecology departments: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rezniczek, Günther A; Küppers, Laura; Heuer, Hubertus; Hefler, Lukas A; Buerkle, Bernd; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2015-04-26

    The internet has become an easily accessible and widely used source of healthcare information. There are, however, no standardized or commonly accepted criteria for the quality of Obstetrics and Gynecology websites. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the quality of websites of Obstetrics and Gynecology departments in German-speaking countries and to compare websites nationally and internationally. We scored 672 websites from Germany (n = 566), Austria (n = 57), and Switzerland (n = 49) using the objective criteria: Google search rank (2 items), technical aspects (11 items), navigation (8 items), and content (6 items) for a 26 point score. Scores were compared nationally and internationally. Multivariable regression models assessed good quality scores (≥50% of maximum) as the dependent variables and country, academic affiliation, being member of a healthcare consortium, confessional affiliation, and content management system (CMS) use as independent variables. The mean score of websites was 13.8 ± 3.3. 4.2% were rated as good (≥75% of maximum), 61.8% as fair (≥50% of maximum). German (14.0 ± 3.2) and Swiss (13.8 ± 4.0) websites scored significantly higher compared to Austrian websites (11.6 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively). Within Germany, academic had higher scores than non-academic departments (14.9 ± 3.2 vs. 13.7 ± 3.1, P < 0.001). Single institutions had higher scores compared to healthcare consortium institutions (14.1 ± 3.2 vs. 13.2 ± 2.6, P = 0.003). Departments in Northern and Southern states had higher scores compared to Eastern states (14.4 ± 3.2 and 14.2 ± 3.2 vs. 13.0 ± 3.0, P < 0.001). In multivariate regression models, all subscores (all: P < 0.001) independently predicted a website's reaching a good quality score, with navigation subscore as strongest predictor. Affiliations were predictors for some good individual subscores, but not for

  4. Food neophobia and its association with diet quality and weight in children aged 24 months: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rebecca A; Mallan, Kimberley M; Koo, Jasly; Mauch, Chelsea E; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2015-02-13

    Food neophobia, the rejection of unknown or novel foods, may result in poor dietary patterns. This study investigates the cross-sectional relationship between neophobia in children aged 24 months and variety of fruit and vegetable consumption, intake of discretionary foods and weight. Secondary analysis of data from 330 parents of children enrolled in the NOURISH RCT (control group only) and SAIDI studies was performed using data collected at child age 24 months. Neophobia was measured at 24 months using the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The cross-sectional associations between total CFNS score and fruit and vegetable variety, discretionary food intake and BMI (Body Mass Index) Z-score were examined via multiple regression models; adjusting for significant covariates. At 24 months, more neophobic children were found to have lower variety of fruits (β = -0.16, p = 0.003) and vegetables (β = -0.29, p < 0.001) but have a greater proportion of daily energy from discretionary foods (β = 0.11, p = 0.04). There was no significant association between BMI Z-score and CFNS score. Neophobia is associated with poorer dietary quality. Results highlight the need for interventions to (1) begin early to expose children to a wide variety of nutritious foods before neophobia peaks and (2) enable health professionals to educate parents on strategies to overcome neophobia.

  5. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meegan, Amy P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:28273871

  6. Comorbidities against Quality Control of VKA Therapy in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A French National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Agnes; Hanon, Olivier; Boureau, Anne-Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population, thromboembolic prevention by means of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is one of the most frequent daily concerns of practitioners. The effectiveness and safety of treatment with VKA correlates directly with maximizing the time in therapeutic range, with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The older population concentrates many of factors known to influence INR rate, particularly concomitant medications and concurrent medical conditions, also defined as comorbidities. Objective Determine whether a high burden on comorbidities, defined by a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, is associated a lower quality of INR control. Study-Design Cross-sectional study. Settings French geriatric care units nationwide. Participants 2164 patients aged 80 and over and treated with vitamin K antagonists. Measurements Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The recorded data included age, sex, falls, kidney failure, hemorrhagic event, VKA treatment duration, and the number and type of concomitant medications. Quality of INR control, defined as time in therapeutic range (TTR), was assessed using the Rosendaal method. Results 487 patients were identified the low-quality control of INR group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low-quality control of INR was independently associated with a CCI ≥3 (OR = 1.487; 95% CI [1.15; 1.91]). The other variables associated with low-quality control of INR were: hemorrhagic event (OR = 3.151; 95% CI [1.64; 6.07]), hospitalization (OR = 1.614, 95% CI [1.21; 2.14]). Conclusion An elevated CCI score (≥3) was associated with low-quality control of INR in elderly patients treated with VKA. Further research is needed to corroborate this finding. PMID:25789771

  7. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Amy P; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2017-03-05

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15-2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14-3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  8. The association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lynna; Bell, J Simon; Visvanathan, Renuka; Hilmer, Sarah N; Emery, Tina; Robson, Leonie; Hughes, Jessica M; Tan, Edwin C K

    2016-11-26

    Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) for their sedative and anxiolytic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality in residents of RACFs. A cross-sectional study involving 383 participants was conducted in six Australian RACFs. Night-time sleep quality, day-time drowsiness and day-time napping behavior were assessed using a validated questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality. Covariates included pain, dementia severity, depression, insomnia and other sedative use. Of the 383 residents (mean age 87.5 years, 77.5% female), 96(25.1%) used a benzodiazepine on a regular basis. Residents who used long-acting benzodiazepines on a regular basis had higher night-time sleep quality than non-users (AOR = 4.00, 95%CI 1.06 - 15.15). Residents who used short-acting benzodiazepines on a PRN only basis had longer daytime napping times than non-users (AOR = 1.77, 95%CI 1.01 - 3.08). No benzodiazepine category was associated with day-time drowsiness. The association between benzodiazepine use and sleep quality is dependent on the half-life and prescribing pattern of the benzodiazepine. Short-acting PRN benzodiazepines were associated with lower night time sleep quality and longer day-time napping compared to long-acting regular benzodiazepines. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these findings reflect channeling of short-acting agents to residents at higher risk of sleep disorders.

  9. Perceived quality of social relations and frequent drunkenness: a cross-sectional study of Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, Thora M; Rivera, Francisco; Jiménez-Iglesias, Antonia; Moreno, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine, for female and male students separately, whether perceived quality of relationships with peers and parents and relations in school predict self-reported frequent drunkenness among Spanish adolescents. The Spanish data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (HBSC) 2010 survey were used including 1177 female and 1126 male students aged between 15 and 16 years. For both genders, students reporting low school satisfaction had increased odds of frequent drunkenness. Among females, low and medium levels of classmate support were associated with decreased odds of frequent drunkenness, whereas low perceived maternal knowledge as well as medium and low satisfaction with the family increased odds of being frequently drunk. The proportion of male students reporting medium satisfaction with friendships had significantly lower odds of frequent drunkenness compared with those with high level of satisfaction with friendships. We found different associations between perceived quality of social relations and frequent drunkenness among male and female students. Results showed that social relations seemed to better predictors of frequent drunkenness among female than male students and that other factors than social relations may contribute to explain excessive alcohol use among Spanish adolescents. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Religiosity and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study on Filipino Christian Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Colet, Paolo C; Qubeilat, Hikmet; Al-Otaibi, Jazi; Coronel, Erwin I; Suminta, Roderick C

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the religiosity and health-related quality of life of Filipino Christian HD patients. A cross-sectional study of 100 HD patients was conducted. The Duke University Religion Index and the Ferrans and Powers QLI Dialysis Version-III were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson r correlation. Attendance to organizational religious activities and NORA were found to be correlated with some of the dimensions of HRQoL. Intrinsic religiosity showed a strong, positive correlation with HRQoL. It is essential to attend to and nourish their religious needs. Holistic approach in providing care to HD patients, with emphasis on spiritual care, is encouraged to improve their total health.

  11. Use of standardized patients to assess quality of tuberculosis care: a pilot, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jishnu; Kwan, Ada; Daniels, Ben; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Bergkvist, Sofi; Das, Ranendra K.; Das, Veena; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Existing studies on quality of tuberculosis care mostly reflect knowledge, not actual practice. Methods We conducted a validation study on the use of standardized patients (SPs) for assessing quality of TB care. Four cases, two for presumed TB and one each for confirmed TB and suspected MDR-TB, were presented by 17 SPs, with 250 SP interactions among 100 consenting providers in Delhi, including qualified (29%), alternative medicine (40%) and informal providers (31%). Validation criteria were: (1) negligible risk and ability to avoid adverse events for providers and SPs; (2) low detection rates of SPs by providers, and (3) data accuracy across SPs and audio verification of SP recall. We used medical vignettes to assess provider knowledge for presumed TB. Correct case management was benchmarked using Standards for TB Care in India (STCI). Findings SPs were deployed with low detection rates (4.7% of 232 interactions), high correlation of recall with audio recordings (r=0.63; 95% CI: 0.53 – 0.79), and no safety concerns. Average consultation length was 6 minutes with 6.2 questions/exams completed, representing 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33%–38%) of essential checklist items. Across all cases, only 52 of 250 (21%; 95% CI: 16%–26%) were correctly managed. Correct management was higher among MBBS doctors (adjusted OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.17–4.93) as compared to all others. Provider knowledge in the vignettes was markedly more consistent with STCI than their practice. Interpretation The SP methodology can be successfully implemented to assess TB care. Our data suggest a big gap between provider knowledge and practice. PMID:26268690

  12. Quality of care in rural youth with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional pilot assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stumetz, Kyle S; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Mitrovich, Connor

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) presents a significant health burden for patients and families. The quality of care (QOC) among those living in rural communities is thought to be subpar compared with those in urban communities; however, little data exist to reflect this, especially in pediatric diabetes. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate diabetes QOC among families living in rural versus urban areas. 6 QOC markers were used to compare youth with T1DM: appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, diabetes education during clinic visit, congruency with diabetes standards of care, diabetes self-management behaviors, and diabetes-related hospitalizations. Research design and methods Participants were rural or urban adult caregivers of youth ages 2–18 with ≥10-month history of T1DM receiving treatment at Seattle Children's Hospital, USA. Participants were from rural areas of central Washington, or urban areas of western Washington. Caregivers completed a 26-item survey pertaining to the 6 QOC markers. The 6 QOC markers were compared across 61 participants (34 rural, 27 urban), to determine how diabetes care quality and experiences differed. Data were collected over 12 months. Groups were compared using t-tests and χ2 tests, as appropriate. Results Compared with urban families, rural families reported significantly lower income and a 4-fold greater usage of public insurance. Among the QOC measures, rural participants were significantly worse off in the appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, and hospitalizations categories. Congruence with diabetes standards of care (foot care only) was also significantly poorer in rural participants. Conclusions The burden of travel in conjunction with the lack of resources in this rural population of families with T1DM youth is cause for concern and warrants further research. PMID:27933188

  13. Energy drink consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality among college students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam E; Jahrami, Haitham; Al-Hilali, Marwa M; Chehyber, Noor J; Ali, Sara O; Shahda, Sara D; Obaid, Reyad S

    2017-07-01

    Intake of caffeinated energy drinks has significantly increased, specifically among young adults and adolescents. College students are prone to developing unhealthy eating habits and dependence on stimulants, which puts them at a greater risk of sleep problems. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of caffeinated energy drink consumption and its association with sleep quality in college students. A sample of 919 randomly selected adults (237 males and 682 females) from various colleges at the University of Sharjah/United Arab Emirates participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were collected using an online validated questionnaire. The current study revealed that 376 students (41%) were consuming energy drinks on a regular basis. Approximately half of the students had normal sleep patterns; the other half had sleep problems (anxiety and intermittent sleep). Results of the present study revealed a significant (r = -0.10, P < 0.05) relationship between the consumption of energy drinks and sleep quality and patterns. Moderate consumption of energy drinks was reported among college students. Consumption of energy drinks was significantly associated with changes in sleep quality and patterns of students. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  14. Semen quality and reproductive hormones in Faroese men: a cross-sectional population-based study of 481 men

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Jørgensen, Niels; Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young Faroese men. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study of Faroese men compared with Danish men. Setting Faroese one-centre study. Participants 481 men born from 1981 to 1987 and investigated from 2007 to 2010. Outcome measures Sperm concentration, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and reproductive hormone levels. Results Sperm concentrations for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danish men (crude median 40 vs 48 mill/ml, p<0.0005). Semen volume was higher, and thus the total sperm counts did not differ (159 vs 151 mill, p=0.2). Motility and morphology did not differ between the Faroese and Danes. The inhibin B/follicle-stimulating hormone ratios for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danes (64 vs 76, p=0.001). Similarly, lower total testosterone/luteinising hormone (LH) ratio (4.6 vs 6.0, p<0.0005) and lower calculated free-testosterone/LH ratio (94 vs 134, p<0.0005) were detected for the Faroese men. Conclusions Semen quality among the Faroese men is at the same low level as reported for Danish men, and the reproductive hormone levels furthermore indicated a lower Leydig cell capacity for testosterone production. The influence of environmental exposure and genetic factors on semen quality has to be studied further. PMID:23457323

  15. Quality of life associated with treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Yolanda V; Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón A; Valdivia-Martínez, José J

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite certain contradictions, an association has been identified between adherence to drug treatment and the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The contradictions observed emphasize the importance of using different methods to measure treatment adherence, or the association of psychological precursors of adherence with quality of life. For this reason, we have used an indirect method to measure adherence (pill count), as well as two adherence behaviour precursors (attitude and knowledge), to assess the association between adherence and the quality of life in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study on a random sample of 238 type 2 diabetic patients was carried out over one year in four family medicine units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Treatment adherence was measured using the indirect method of pill count to assess adherence behaviour, obtaining information at two home visits. In the first we recorded the medicine prescribed and in the second, we counted the medicine remaining to determine the proportion of the medicine taken. We also assessed two adherence behaviour precursors: the patients' knowledge regarding their medical prescription measured through a structured questionnaire; and attitudes to treatment adherence using a Likert scale. Quality of life was measured through the WHOQOL-100 (the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire). Information concerning both knowledge and attitude was obtained through interviews with the patients. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to establish the relationship between each quality of life domain and the variables related to adherence, controlling for covariates. Results There was no association between quality of life and treatment adherence behaviour. However, the combination of strong knowledge and a positive attitude was associated with five of the six quality of life domains. Conclusion The results

  16. Quality of life in people living with HIV: a cross-sectional study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bakiono, Fidèle; Ouédraogo, Laurent; Sanou, Mahamoudou; Samadoulougou, Sékou; Guiguemdé, Patrice Wendpouiré Laurent; Kirakoya-Samadoulougou, Fati; Robert, Annie

    2014-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is a leading cause of death in most of sub-Saharan countries. HIV/AIDS impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV in Burkina Faso hasn't been well documented. The aim of the study was to assess the quality of life in persons living with HIV and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ouagadougou. 424 persons living with HIV were included in the study according to their status with regard to Highly Active Anti Retroviral Treatment: 115 were not yet under treatment, 21 started the treatment within the three months preceding the enrolment and 288 were under treatment for at least 12 months. The quality of life was assessed through the WHOQOL HIV-BREF. Statistical comparisons were made using Mann Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis H test, Pearson's khi2 or Fisher's exact test. Correlations were appreciated using Spearman's rho. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between the quality of life scores and sociodemographic or clinical variables. The mean global score of quality of life in all patients was 82.4. Better scores were recorded in the spiritual domain and worst scores in the environmental domain. Men had a higher global score than women (p < 0.001). Illiteracy was significantly associated with a lower quality of life (p = 0.001). Patients having support for medical treatment had a significantly better quality of life (p < 0.01). In multivariate analysis, being a man, having a support for medical care, getting older and self-perceived as healthy, were associated with a global score of quality of life higher than 77, that corresponds to the mid-range of the score in our data. These findings suggest the importance of the socio-psychological support and of a good environment in order to improve the quality of life of people living with HIV, especially in women, in younger and in those having no support for medical care. In the environmental domain, actions of HIV services providers should focus on better

  17. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate services in hospitals providing internship training to graduate doctors in Kenya. A survey of 22 internship training hospitals was conducted. Availability of key resources spanning infrastructure, personnel, equipment and drugs was assessed by observation. Outcomes and process of care for pre-specified priority conditions (head injury, chest injury, fractures, burns and acute abdomen) were evaluated by auditing case records. Each hospital had at least one consultant surgeon. Scheduled surgical outpatient clinics, major ward rounds and elective (half day) theatre lists were provided once per week in 91%, 55% and 9%, respectively. In all other hospitals, these were conducted twice weekly. Basic drugs were not always available (e.g. gentamicin, morphine and pethidine in 50%, injectable antistaphylococcal penicillins in 5% hospitals). Fewer than half of hospitals had all resources needed to provide oxygen. One hundred and forty-five of 956 cases evaluated underwent operations under general or spinal anaesthesia. We found operation notes for 99% and anaesthetic records for 72%. Pre-operatively measured vital signs were recorded in 80% of cases, and evidence of consent to operation was found in 78%. Blood loss was documented in only one case and sponge and instrument counts in 7%. Evaluation of surgical services would be improved by development and dissemination of clear standards of care. This survey suggests that internship hospitals may be poorly equipped and documented care suggests inadequacies in quality and training. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Quality of life is associated with chronic inflammation in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Faugere, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Alessandrini, M; Richieri, R; Faget-Agius, C; Auquier, P; Lançon, C; Boyer, L

    2015-06-04

    Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55-11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01-1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Perceptions of Saudi medical students on the qualities of effective teachers. A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A; Khan, Nauman Z

    2014-02-01

    To identify the attributes of an effective medical teacher that students value the most. A quantitative survey was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between April and May 2012, using a pretested self-administered questionnaire distributed to all students. It captured their opinions on the qualities and attributes of good teachers. Each item was measured on a 5-point Likert scale. Data were entered and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 17. Three hundred and fifty-six students from all years responded. The most important attributes from the students' perspectives were "respectful to students", "expert on the subject", "organizes good lectures", "understands/relates to students", and "good communication skills". On the other hand, "good sense of humor", "explains and shares personal experiences", "self-sacrificing", "gives good marks to all students", and "dresses up appropriately" were least valued by students. Attributes related to performance were valued more by students compared to personality attributes. Medical teachers and administrators should focus on improving the attributes identified most important to the students. Future studies could define the important attributes more explicitly.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Perceived Quality of Primary Care by Hypertensive Patients in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Martin Chi-Sang; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Nan; Griffiths, Sian M

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension should be best managed under primary care settings. This study aimed to compare, between Shanghai and Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care in terms of accessibility, continuity, co-ordination, and comprehensiveness among hypertensive patients.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 8 community health centers. Data from primary care users were collected through on-site face-to-face interviews using the primary care assessment tool. Good quality standard was set as a value of 3 for each attribute and a value of 18 for total score.We included 568 patients in Shanghai and 128 patients in Shenzhen. Compared with those in Shenzhen, hypertensive patients in Shanghai reported a higher score in co-ordination of information (3.37 vs 3.66; P < 0.001), but lower scores in continuity of care (3.36 vs 3.27; P < 0.001), and comprehensiveness-service provision (3.26 vs 2.79; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in total scores between the 2 cities (18.19 vs 18.15). Over 3-quarters of hypertensive patients in both cities reported accessibility (97.2% vs 91.4%) and co-ordination of services (76.1% vs 80.5%) under good quality standard, while <1-quarter of them rated continuity of care (23.6% vs 22.7%), co-ordination of information (4.8% vs 21.1%), and comprehensiveness-service availability (15.1% vs 25.0%) under that standard.Compared with Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care for hypertensive patients in Shanghai was better in terms of co-ordination of information, but poorer on continuity of care and comprehensiveness-service provision. Our study suggests that there is room for quality improvement in both cities.

  1. TUR-PSO: A cross-sectional, study investigating quality of life and treatment status of psoriasis patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atakan, Nilgün; Yazici, Ayça Cordan; Özarmağan, Güzin; İnalÖz, Hüseyin Serhat; Gürer, Mehmet Ali; Sabuncu, İlham; Kİremİtçİ, Ümmühan; Alper, Sibel; Aytekİn, Sema; Arican, Özer; Polat, Mualla; Doğan, Sibel; Aldİnç, Emre

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease that has a severe impact on quality of life. There is lack of data regarding epidemiological and clinical features of psoriasis patients in Turkey, a country with a population of 76 million. The aim of this study was to define the demographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life and treatment patterns of psoriasis patients in Turkey. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 40 centers, chosen from geographically diverse locations in Turkey. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were assessed by investigators who were specialists of dermatology using standardized study questionnaire forms. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) forms were also filled out by each patient. 3971 psoriasis patients were included in this study. 24.2% of plaque psoriasis patients had moderate to severe psoriasis (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, ≥10). Mean DLQI was 7.03 ± 6.02; quality of life was moderately, severely or very severely affected in 49.2% of patients. The most severely affected component of EQ-5D was anxiety/depression. Among all patients, 22.9% were not receiving any treatment, 39.8% were receiving only topical treatment, 11.5% were on phototherapy, 26.1%, were taking conventional systemic agents and 4.1% were on a biologic treatment. 31.3% of psoriasis patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with only topical agents and only 30.5% of moderate to severe psoriasis patients were receiving systemic therapy. Moderate to severe psoriasis has a considerable impact on quality of life. Treatment in Turkey of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is insufficient.

  2. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  3. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Perceived Quality of Primary Care by Hypertensive Patients in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Martin Chi-Sang; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Nan; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension should be best managed under primary care settings. This study aimed to compare, between Shanghai and Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care in terms of accessibility, continuity, co-ordination, and comprehensiveness among hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 8 community health centers. Data from primary care users were collected through on-site face-to-face interviews using the primary care assessment tool. Good quality standard was set as a value of 3 for each attribute and a value of 18 for total score. We included 568 patients in Shanghai and 128 patients in Shenzhen. Compared with those in Shenzhen, hypertensive patients in Shanghai reported a higher score in co-ordination of information (3.37 vs 3.66; P < 0.001), but lower scores in continuity of care (3.36 vs 3.27; P < 0.001), and comprehensiveness-service provision (3.26 vs 2.79; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in total scores between the 2 cities (18.19 vs 18.15). Over 3-quarters of hypertensive patients in both cities reported accessibility (97.2% vs 91.4%) and co-ordination of services (76.1% vs 80.5%) under good quality standard, while <1-quarter of them rated continuity of care (23.6% vs 22.7%), co-ordination of information (4.8% vs 21.1%), and comprehensiveness-service availability (15.1% vs 25.0%) under that standard. Compared with Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care for hypertensive patients in Shanghai was better in terms of co-ordination of information, but poorer on continuity of care and comprehensiveness-service provision. Our study suggests that there is room for quality improvement in both cities. PMID:26313780

  4. Health-related quality of life among children with Turner syndrome: controlled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Amedro, Pascal; Tahhan, Nabil; Bertet, Helena; Jeandel, Claire; Guillaumont, Sophie; Mura, Thibault; Picot, Marie-Christine

    2017-08-28

    The aim of the study was to assess health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in children with Turner syndrome in comparison with controls. We prospectively recruited 16 female girls with Turner syndrome (mean age 15.2±2.6 years) and 78 female controls (mean age 12.7±2.8 years) in randomly selected schools. We used the PedsQL, a generic HR-QoL questionnaire (self and parents' versions). Global HR-QoL scores in Turner syndrome were lower than controls for self-reports (respectively, 74.3±3.0 vs. 82.8±1.3, p=0.01) and parents' reports (62.7±3.8 vs. 80.1±1.7, p<0.0001). In Turner syndrome, self-reported HR-QoL was impaired in school functioning (70.6±4.0 vs. 80.71±1.7, p=0.02), social functioning (78.2±4.0 vs. 90.4±1.8, p<0.01) and physical functioning (78.5±3.2 vs. 87.1±1.4, p=0.02), but not in emotional functioning. Parents' reported HR-QoL was impaired in all four dimensions. HR-QoL was impaired in this cohort of young females with Turner syndrome, as in previously reported adult studies. In addition to medical treatment and routine clinical follow-up, female girls and teenagers with Turner syndrome should also be supported psychologically by social, educational and psychotherapeutic interventions that aim to address their self-esteem and emotional difficulties.

  5. Quality of life is associated with chronic inflammation in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    M., Faugere; J.A., Micoulaud-Franchi; M., Alessandrini; R., Richieri; C., Faget-Agius; P., Auquier; C., Lançon; L., Boyer

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94–0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55–11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01–1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26041435

  6. Loss of interest, depressed mood and impact on the quality of life: cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Guajardo, Valeri D; Souza, Bruno Pf; Henriques, Sérgio G; Lucia, Mara Cs; Menezes, Paulo R; Martins, Milton A; Tardivo, Leila Slpc; Gattaz, Wagner F; Fráguas, Renério

    2011-10-25

    Depressive symptoms and chronic disease have adverse effects on patients' health-related quality of life (H-RQOL). However, little is known about this effect on H-RQOL when only the two core depressive symptoms - loss of interest and depressed mood - are considered. The objective of this study is to investigate H-RQOL in the presence of loss of interest and depressed mood at a general medical outpatient unit. We evaluated 553 patients at their first attendance at a general medical outpatient unit of a teaching hospital. H-RQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Depressed mood and loss of interest were assessed by the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD)-Patient Questionnaire. A physician performed the diagnosis of chronic diseases by clinical judgment and classified them in 13 possible pre-defined categories. We used multiple linear regression to investigate associations between each domain of H-RQOL and our two core depression symptoms. The presence of chronic diseases and demographic variables were included in the models as covariates. Among the 553 patients, 70.5% were women with a mean age of 41.0 years (range 18-85, SD ± 15.4). Loss of interest was reported by 54.6%, and depressed mood by 59.7% of the patients. At least one chronic disease was diagnosed in 59.5% of patients; cardiovascular disease was the most prevalent, affecting 20.6% of our patients. Loss of interest and depressed mood was significantly associated with decreased scores in all domains of H-RQOL after adjustment for possible confounders. The presence of any chronic disease was associated with a decrease in the domain of vitality. The analysis of each individual chronic disease category revealed that no category was associated with a decrease in more than one domain of H-RQOL. Loss of interest and depressed mood were associated with significant decreases in H-RQOL. We recommend these simple tests for screening in general

  7. Perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Bereket; Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels and factors affecting the perceived quality of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia in one hospital and five health centres providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-ART. Participants 481 persons infected with HIV on outpatient care, 408 (83.8%) on ART and 73 (16.2%) on pre-ART care. Results 324 (71.4%) of the participants perceived the quality of HIV care as ‘good’, while 130 (28.6%) stated that it was ‘not good’; 219 (46.2%) and 255 (53.8%) were satisfied and not satisfied with the services, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a unit increase in the doctors subscale of multidimensional health locus of control-form c score resulted in a 1.27 (1.04 to 1.55) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of care (p<0.05). Similarly, a unit increase in the responsiveness, perceived financial fairness, and perceived transportation convenience scores was associated with a 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) (p<0.05), 1.08 (1.05 to 1.15) (p<0.01), and 1.07 (1.05 to 1.18) (p<0.05) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of HIV care, respectively. In terms of client satisfaction with services, a 1 km increase in the distance from health facilities, and unemployment were associated with a 4.64 (2.61 to 8.25) (p<0.001), 1.02 (1.01 to 1.04) (p<0.05) and 2.23 (1.30 to 4.54) (p<0.01) times, respectively, increase in the perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services. Conclusions The majority of the participants reported perceptions of good quality HIV care and satisfaction with the services. Satisfaction with services; responsiveness; health locus of control; perceived financial fairness; perceived transportation convenience; employment status; and distance from the health facility were predictors of the perceived quality of HIV care. Thus, improving quality of HIV treatment services may require addressing the above

  8. Mandatory quality reports in Germany from the hospitals’ point of view: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public reporting of hospital quality is to enable providers, patients and the public to make comparisons regarding the quality of care and thus contribute to informed decisions. It stimulates quality improvement activities in hospitals and thus positively impacts treatment results. Hospitals often use publicly reported data for further internal or external purposes. As of 2005, German hospitals are obliged to publish structured quality reports (QR) every two years. This gives them the opportunity to demonstrate their performance by number, type and quality in a transparent way. However, it constitutes a major burden to hospitals to generate and publish data required, and it is yet unknown if hospitals feel adequately represented and at the same time consider the effort appropriate. This study assesses hospital leaders’ judgement about the capability of QR to put legally defined aims effectively and efficiently into practice. It also explores the additional purposes hospitals use their QR for. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, a representative random sample out of 2,064 German hospitals (N=748) was invited to assess QR via questionnaire; 333 hospitals participated. We recorded the suitability of QR for representing number, type and quality of services, the adequacy of cost and benefits (6-level Likert scales) and additional purposes QR are used for (free text question). For representation purposes, the net sample was weighted for hospital size and hospital ownership (direct standardization). Data was analyzed descriptively and using inferential statistics (chi-2 test) or for the purpose of generating hypotheses. Results German hospitals rated the QR as suitable to represent the number of services but less so for the type and quality of services. The cost-benefit ratio was seen as inadequate. There were no significant differences between hospitals of different size or ownership. Public hospitals additionally used their reports for mostly

  9. Health-related quality of life in the Brazilian Amazon: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Caicedo Roa, Monica; Galvao, Tais Freire

    2017-08-14

    To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner cities (0.908 ± 0.122; p < 0.001)). The dimension for which the highest proportion of people reported moderate to severe problems was pain/discomfort (39%), followed by anxiety/depression (18%). Men had a higher quality of life than women (β = 0.041, p < 0.001). Not working was a factor that increased quality of life compared with being formally employed (β = 0.031, p = 0.037). The poorest people had a lower quality of life than the richest people (β = -0.118, p < 0.001). Better health perceptions increased utility scores (p < 0.001), while being separated decreased the scores (β = -0.052, p = 0.001). Health-related quality of life in the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, as expected for the general population, and was higher among individuals who lived in the inner cities, men and those in higher social classes. Gender discrepancies and differences in quality of life between the capital and inner cities should be further investigated.

  10. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  11. A cross-sectional study regarding the impact of end-stage renal disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Donciu, Mihaela-Dora; Tasmoc, Alexandra; Dumea, Raluca; Hogas, Simona; Voroneanu, Luminita; Siriopol, Mihaela Daniela; Covic, A

    2013-01-01

    The number and severity of physical and psychological symptoms reported by chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients are significant and increasing; with a clear need to clarify which symptom intervention is the most needed. Measurements of quality of life (QoL) have shown, for many decades, an impairment of both physical and psychological aspects in both chronic kidney disease (CKD) pre-dialysis and in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted assess the quality of life of a Romanian hemodialysis population and the impact of several clinical and biochemical factors. A total of 102 patients (41 males, 61 females) with a mean age of 52.5 +/- 12.0 years, who were treated with HD three times per week in our dialysis center were included in the study. All subjects completed the Short Form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36). Clinical and biochemical parameters were extracted from the EUCLID electronic database. Our measurement showed a deteriorated QoL in our population, all of the included subjects presenting with much lower scores in both physical and mental components than the reference values of SF-36. We did not found any statistic significant correlation between hemoglobin (Hgb) levels or dialysis adequacy and different domains of the SF-36. The only significant association was found between age and the physical component of the SF-36, implying that older patients perceive a more degraded quality of life. HD patients experience a great burden from physical and psychological symptoms of the disease, perceiving an important impairment in their quality of life, especially regarding the physical component.

  12. Work stress, asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life: Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Bettina; Leucht, Verena; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is positively associated with asthma morbidity. One major source of stress in adulthood is one's occupation. However, to date, potential links of work stress with asthma control or asthma-specific quality of life have not been examined. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. In 2014/2015, we conducted a cross-sectional study among adults with asthma in Germany (n = 362). For the current analyses that sample was restricted to participants in employment and reporting to have never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 94). Work stress was operationalized by the 16-item effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, which measures the subcomponents "effort", "reward" and "overcommitment." Participants further completed the Asthma Control Test and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire-Sydney. Multivariable associations were quantified by linear regression and logistic regression. Effort, reward and their ratio (i.e. ERI ratio) did not show meaningful associations with asthma morbidity. By contrast, increasing levels of overcommitment were associated with poorer asthma control and worse quality of life in both linear regression (ß = -0.26, p = 0.01 and ß = 0.44, p < 0.01, respectively) and logistic regression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.07 and OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.32-4.15, respectively). The present study provides initial evidence of a positive relationship of work-related overcommitment with asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life. Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our findings and to disentangle the potential causality of associations.

  13. Relationships between nurses' empathy, self-compassion and dimensions of professional quality of life: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Joana; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Cruz, Bárbara

    2016-08-01

    Job stress and burnout are common among healthcare professionals, and nurses in particular. In addition to the heavy workload and lack of recourses, nurses are also confronted with emotionally intense situations associated with illness and suffering, which require empathic abilities. Although empathy is one of the core values in nursing, if not properly balanced it can also have detrimental consequences, such as compassion fatigue. Self-compassion, on the other hand, has been shown to be a protective factor for a wide range of well-being indicators and has been associated with compassion for others. The main goal of this study was to explore how empathy and self-compassion related to professional quality of life (compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout). In addition, we wanted to test whether self-compassion may be a protective factor for the impact of empathy on compassion fatigue. Using a cross-sectional design, 280 registered nurses from public hospitals in Portugal's north and center region were surveyed. Professional quality of life (Professional Quality of Life), empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and self-compassion (Self-compassion Scale) were measured using validated self-report measures. Correlations and regression analyses showed that empathy and self-compassion predicted the three aspects of professional quality of life. Empathic concern was positively associated with compassion satisfaction as well as with compassion fatigue. Mediation models suggested that the negative components of self-compassion explain some of these effects, and self-kindness and common humanity were significant moderators. The same results were found for the association between personal distress and compassion fatigue. High levels of affective empathy may be a risk factor for compassion fatigue, whereas self-compassion might be protective. Teaching self-compassion and self-care skills may be an important feature in interventions that aim to reduce burnout

  14. Production and quality of clinical practice guidelines in Argentina (1994–2004): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Esandi, María Eugenia; Ortiz, Zulma; Chapman, Evelina; Dieguez, Marcelo García; Mejía, Raúl; Bernztein, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last decades, a sustained increment of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) production in the world has been accompanied by a growing concern about their quality. Many studies related to quality assessment of guidelines produced in High Income Countries were published; however, evidence on this topic is scarce in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The objectives of this research were: a) to describe guideline production in Argentina at different levels of the health system (macro, meso and micro) from 1994 to 2004; and b) to assess their quality by using the AGREE instrument. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to describe guidelines production in Argentina between 1994 and 2004. CPG were identified through Internet and electronic databases (MEDLINE and LILACS). Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select guidelines. Each CPG was independently assessed by two reviewers using the AGREE instrument. Domain scores were calculated as recommended by the AGREE Collaboration. The internal consistency of each domain was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and inter-observer agreement by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Results A total amount of 431 potential CPG were identified, but only 144 were considered CPG. At the end, 101 CPG were included for further assessment. Median standardized score for each domain were: scope = 39%; stakeholder involvement = 13%; rigour of development = 10%; clarity = 42%; applicability = 6%; editorial independence = 0%. Only 22 CPG were recommended with modifications by both appraisers. ICC and Cronbach's alpha for each domain were in all cases moderate or high (greater than 0.40), except for editorial independence. Conclusion This study has systematically employed the AGREE instrument for the critical assessment of guidelines produced in a LMIC. Guideline development and diffusion in Argentina from 1994 to 2004 shows a constant increment, although quality of reporting did not improve

  15. A Lebanese dietary pattern promotes better diet quality among older adults: findings from a national cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Itani, Leila; Chamieh, Marie Claire; Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Naja, Farah

    2016-04-19

    Proper nutrition is critical for healthy aging and maintaining functional independence. Limited research has been done on the assessment of dietary patterns of older adults and their association with diet quality indices. This study was conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the dietary patterns and diet quality of older adults in Lebanon, a middle-income country undergoing nutrition transition. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling older adults aged >50 years (n = 525). Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle variables were collected through interviews, and dietary intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Five commonly used diet quality indices (DQIs) were calculated, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMed), the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) style diet score, and the Lebanese Mediterranean Diet index. Dietary patterns (DPs) were derived using exploratory factor analysis. Associations of identified DPs with energy, energy-adjusted nutrients, and DQIs were evaluated by Pearson's correlations. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine correlates of DPs. Three DPs were derived: Lebanese, Western, and High Protein/Alcohol patterns. The Lebanese pattern had highest correlations with fiber, folate, vitamin C, and all five DQIs. The Western was positively associated with energy and sodium and was inversely correlated with fiber, most vitamins, and a number of DQIs, namely AHEI, aMED, and DASH-style diet score. Highest correlations with intakes of proteins and fat were observed for the High Protein/Alcohol pattern. The Lebanese pattern was associated with female gender, education, nonsmoking and physical activity, whereas the Western pattern was associated with adverse health behaviors, including smoking, skipping breakfast, and physical inactivity

  16. Symptom Experience and Quality of Life in Children after Sport-Related Head Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Vassilyadi, Michael; Macartney, Gail; Barrowman, Nick; Anderson, Peter; Dube, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Sports are a major cause of concussions, and little is known about the symptom experience and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children who remain symptomatic for over 3 months following such head injuries. A cross-sectional study of children aged 10-18 years was performed who were referred to the Neurosurgery Clinic at our centre following a head injury. Symptom experience was measured using the modified Concussion Symptom Scale, and HRQL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) was administered to assess neurocognitive and neurobehavioural sequelae. Symptoms with the highest mean symptom scores on a Likert scale of 0-6 in 35 children at the time of assessment included headaches (3.1), poor concentration (2.7), memory problems (2.1), fatigue (2.1) and sensitivity to noise (2.0). Compared with normative data, children in this study had ImPACT summary scores between the 28th and 38th percentiles and a comparably low Cognitive Efficiency Index score. Mean scores for females were consistently statistically significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for males across all of the HRQL domains. Trouble falling asleep and memory problems explained 62% of the variance in the PedsQL total scores. Children continue to experience many symptoms at least 3 months following sport-related head injuries that significantly impact their HRQL and neurocognitive abilities. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL). This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder) and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of self-stigma level on QoL in patients suffering from depressive disorders. PMID:27799775

  18. Correlation between health-related quality of life and venous leg ulcer's severity and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    González de la Torre, Héctor; Quintana-Lorenzo, María L; Perdomo-Pérez, Estrella; Verdú, José

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients suffering with venous ulceration and to correlate wound's severity status with HRQoL loss as well as identify the aspects of HRQoL most negatively affected by the presence of venous ulcers. In this observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical multi-centre study, data was compiled over a period of 3·5 months. Thrity-four patients with venous ulceration were recruited. The RESVECH 2·0 scale was used to monitor wounds. The MAID scale was used to measure wound's severity. The Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQe) (Spanish version) was used to evaluate quality of life. The mean CCVUQe score was 60·58 ± 16·04. The HRQoL dimension most affected was 'Emotional state' (mean score = 77. 67 ± 17·34). The average RESVECH 2.0 score for the wounds was 13·15 ± 5·07. A statistically significant association between total CCVUQ-e score and total RESVECH 2.0 score was detected [Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0·546 (P ≤ 0·001)]. Venous ulcers affect patients' HRQoL, particularly their emotional status. There is a relationship between the severity of the wound and loss of HRQoL. The presence of non-viable tissue, poor exudate control and infection all determine loss of HRQoL. New studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Health-related quality of life and related factors among elderly people in Jinzhou, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dai, H; Jia, G; Liu, K

    2015-06-01

    With rapid reductions in fertility and mortality, China has to face the dramatic ageing of its population. Although an ageing population is associated with greater life expectancy, and reflects a huge improvement in people's living standards and health care services, it also means that more elderly people suffer from non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The prolonged course of illness and disability associated with chronic diseases may significantly reduce health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among elderly people. The aims of this study were to evaluate HRQoL of elderly people living in Jinzhou, and to identify the predictors of HRQoL. Cross-sectional study with stratified sampling. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1015 elderly people (≥60 years) living in the three administrative regions (Linghe, Guta and Taihe) of Jinzhou. A demographic questionnaire and Short Form-36 were employed to collect demographic variables and evaluate HRQoL, respectively. Multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to estimate factors related to HRQoL of the subjects. Lowest HRQoL scores were obtained in the following dimensions: general health (65.44), role-emotional (69.74) and role-physical (70.20). Multiple stepwise regression showed that factors associated with HRQoL of elderly people were medical health checks, age, socio-economic status, NCDs, and various unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as smoking, excessive drinking and insufficient exercise. This study described overall HRQoL of elderly people in Jinzhou, and found that medical health checks, age, socio-economic status, NCDs, smoking, excessive drinking and insufficient exercise affected HRQoL. These findings will provide a basis for recommendations regarding health management of elderly people, and will also help local government to devise appropriate health intervention strategies for promoting the health status of elderly people in this region. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public

  20. Significance of quality of care for quality of life in persons with dementia at risk of nursing home admission: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bökberg, Christina; Ahlström, Gerd; Karlsson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Quality of life in persons with dementia is, in large part, dependent on the quality of care they receive. Investigating both subjective and objective aspects of quality of care may reveal areas for improvement regarding their care, which information may ultimately enable persons with dementia to remain living in their own homes while maintaining quality of life. The aim of this study was to 1) describe self-reported quality of life in persons with dementia at risk of nursing home admission. 2) describe subjective and objective aspects of quality of care, 3) investigate the significance of quality of care for quality of life. A cross-sectional interview study design was used, based on questionnaires about quality of life (QoL-AD) and different aspects of quality of care (CLINT and quality indicators). The sample consisted of 177 persons with dementia living in urban and rural areas in Skåne County, Sweden. Descriptive and comparative statistics (Mann-Whitney U-test) were used to analyse the data. Based upon Lawton's conceptual framework for QoL in older people, persons with pain showed significantly lower quality of life in the dimensions behavioural competence (p = 0.026) and psychological wellbeing (p = 0.006) compared with those without pain. Satisfaction with care seemed to have a positive effect on quality of life. The overall quality of life was perceived high even though one-third of the persons with dementia had daily pain and had had a weight loss of ≥4% during the preceding year. Furthermore, 23% of the persons with dementia had fallen during the last month and 40% of them had sustained an injury when falling. This study indicates need for improvements in home care and services for persons with dementia at risk for nursing home admission. Registered nurses are responsible for nursing interventions related to pain, patient safety, skin care, prevention of accidents, and malnutrition. Therefore, it is of great importance for nurses to have knowledge

  1. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. "Management and empowerment of human resources'' (weight = 0.465) and "requirements and facilities" (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country's hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative and quantitative criteria involved and thereby take a decisive step towards

  2. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  3. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  4. Khat chewing and health related quality of life: cross-sectional study in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The chewing of Khat leaves, a natural psychoactive substance is widely chewed in countries of East Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula, and is reported to be associated with a range of unfavorable health outcomes including khat dependence. The impact of Khat chewing on Health Related Quality of Life is yet to be explored. Aims: to measure and compare the quality of life of the khat chewers and non-khat chewers using a short form health survey (SF36), and to assess factors associated with Khat chewing using SF36 in a sample of adult population in Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods A total of 630 participants from two independent male populations of khat chewers and non-khat chewers were recruited into a cross-sectional survey study. A self administrative survey based on the SF-36 questionnaire was used to collect data on measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Socioeconomic data of the respondents were also collected for detailed analysis. Data analysis include: descriptive statistics, reliability tests (Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient), and bivariate analysis (Chi square and Mann–Whitney U-test) to compare HRQoL of Khat chewers and non-Khat chewers. Results The odds of being a khat chewer were higher in respondents with a lower socioeconomic status. The SF-36 scores were significantly lower in all domains for respondents with khat chewing, indicating that non-khat chewers had higher health perceptions compared with those chewing khat. The overall mean score of HRQoL for non-khat chewers was 92.7% (SD 5.53) compared with 63.5% (SD 21.73) for the khat chewing group. The study had shown good internal consistency and reproducibility across the eight subscales of SF-36 questionnaire (α 0.74-0.95). The Mann–Whitney U-test showed a significant difference between khat chewers and non-khat chewers (P < 0.001). Conclusions This study measured and compared the quality of life of khat chewers and non

  5. Quality of hip and knee osteoarthritis management in primary health care in a Norwegian county: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grønhaug, Gudmund; Østerås, Nina; Hagen, Kåre Birger

    2014-11-25

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common causes of pain and disability in the adult population. Several studies have documented discordance between general practioners (GP) practice and management recommendations, but there is limited published information about patient reported experience of quality of care. The primary aim of this study was to assess the patient perceived quality of OA management in primary health care. Secondly, we wanted to explore the factors associated with the perceived quality of OA care. A cross-sectional survey in six general practices in the county of Nord-Trøndelag in Norway, patients with radiologically diagnosed OA, according to ICPC codes L89, L90 or L91 or clinical signs and symptoms corresponding to OA in the hip or knee and patient-reported quality of OA care on the 17-item OsteoArthritis Quality Indicator questionnaire (OA-QI). OA-QI summary pass rates were calculated, in which the numerator represents the number with indicators passed and the denominator represents the total number of eligible persons. Associations with summary pass rates were explored with demographic, disease related and health care related factors as independent variables. A total of 119 patients were included (response rate 42%). The median summary QI pass rate for all 17 QIs was 47% (Inter Quartile Range 33-65%), but there were large variation between the different items. The referral for weight reduction had the lowest pass rate (8%), whereas the highest pass rate was having received information about the importance of physical activity and exercise (84%). The median summary QI pass rates for both non-pharmacological- (QIs 1-11) and pharmacological (QIs 13-16) treatments were 50% (IQR 25-75). In bivariate regression analyses, only overall treatment satisfaction was significantly associated with QI pass rate (p = 0.001), with unstandardized beta = 6.1 (95% CI 2.7 to 9.5), i.e. a one-point increase on the five-point satisfaction scale was associated

  6. Influencing Factors for Sleep Quality Among Shift-working Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study in China Using 3-factor Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Sun, Dong-Mei; Li, Chang-Bing; Tao, Min-Fang

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify influencing factors for sleep quality among shift-working nurses based on a three-factor scoring model that included sleep efficacy, sleep quality and daily dysfunction. A cross-sectional survey of 513 nurses in a hospital in Shanghai, China, was conducted using a self-reported questionnaire. Sleep quality was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were analyzed based on the three-factor PSQI model: Factor 1, sleep efficacy; Factor 2, sleep quality; Factor 3, daily disturbances. After adjusting for age, marital status, and having children, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that participants who had previous shift work experience which was at least 6 months ago, or were currently performing shift work were significantly more likely to have poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) than those who had never done shift work (adjusted odds ratios of 3.943 and 3.975, respectively, both p < .001). Mean scores of the three individual factors increased significantly among nurses currently performing shift work compared with those who had never done shift work (Factor 1, β = 0.61, p < .001; Factor 2, β = 1.86, p < .001; Factor 3, β = 0.45, p = .002). Mean scores of Factor 2 and Factor 3 increased significantly among nurses with previous shift work experience compared with those who had never done shift work (Factor 2, β = 1.15, p = .003; Factor 3, β = 0.52, p = .005). Performing current shift work and performing shift work previously were significantly associated with poor sleep quality. An appropriate arrangement and intervention strategies are needed in Chinese hospitals in order to improve sleep quality among shift-working nurses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. A cross-sectional study on vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular GvHD.

    PubMed

    Pezzotta, S; Rossi, G C; Scudeller, L; Antoniazzi, E; Bianchi, P E; Perotti, C; Del Fante, C

    2015-09-01

    Ocular GvHD affects about 40-60% of patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. Ocular complaints worsen quality of life (QoL), which, besides survival time, is a primary end point in a patient's follow-up. The aim of our study was to assess the ocular surface status and vision-related QoL (VRQoL) and explore the potential determinants in VRQoL in patients with chronic GvHD with ocular involvement. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 40 patients with ocular GvHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation assessing ocular symptoms and signs, VRQoL and ophthalmologic parameters. The median age was 52.1 years; 32.5% were females. Most of them presented a multiple organ involvement. Ophthalmological parameter examinations were on average abnormal. Corneal staining was severe/very severe in 25%; conjunctival staining in 10% of subjects. The worse QoL scores were on 'general vision', 'ocular pain', 'vision-specific mental health' and 'vision-specific role difficulties'. Both symptoms and sign scores indicate poor VRQoL. A lower VRQoL was related to schooling level, job position, underlying disease and extracorporeal photopheresis. Corneal staining, Schirmer and tear film breakup time were negatively associated to visual function-related subscales. An accurate ophthalmological and VRQoL assessment should be mandatory for a long time to promptly recognize early signs of ocular suffering, and to prevent irreversible ocular complications.

  8. Vision-related Quality of Life in Patients with Non-infectious Uveitis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Arriola-Villalobos, Pedro; Abásolo, Lydia; García-Feijoo, Julián; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Méndez-Fernández, Rosalía; Pato, Esperanza; Díaz-Valle, David; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis

    2017-03-21

    To analyze the influence of socio-demographic, comorbidity, and clinical-related variables in the vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) of non-infectious uveitis patients. Cross-sectional study includes 156 consecutive non-infectious uveitis patients from a tertiary uveitis clinic from Madrid (Spain). The main outcome was the log-transformed composite score of the Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression models were performed and results expressed using effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In the multivariate analysis, one unit increase in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale [i.e., worse best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)] was associated with a seven times worse VR-QoL (a 0.14-fold change [95% CI: 0.07-0.27]). Patients with ocular comorbidities had a 64% worse VR-QoL (a 0.61-fold change [95% CI: 0.49-0.77]). Lower BCVA and the presence of ocular comorbidities had a significant, independent, and deleterious effect in the VR-QoL of non-infectious uveitis patients.

  9. Sleep, lung function, and quality of life in patients with myasthenia gravis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ezequiel Fernandes; Nacif, Sergio Roberto; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Silva, Anderson Soares; Oliveira, Claudia Santos; Perez, Eduardo Araujo; Polaro, Melissa Nunes; Valerio, Berenice Cataldo Oliveira; Stirbulov, Roberto; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Acary Sousa Bulle; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological variables of lung function, respiratory muscle strength, and sleep in clinically stable patients with myasthenia gravis. This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted in accordance with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. Patients adhering to the eligibility criteria were consecutively recruited from the Research Department of Neuromuscular Diseases at the Federal University of Sao Paulo and the Department of Neurology at Santa Casa de Misericordia of Sao Paulo and were referred to the Nove de Julho University Sleep Laboratory (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The study included 25 patients (21 female) with a mean age of 45.28 ± 12.33 years. Only one patient exhibited a restrictive ventilatory pattern. The maximum ventilatory pressures observed were considerably reduced in most patients as compared to reference values. In sleep studies, the patients exhibited significantly reduced oxygen saturation, reduced rapid eye movement sleep time, increased non-rapid eye movement stage 3 sleep, and considerable apnoea/hypopnoea indexes. Clinically stable patients with myasthenia gravis exhibit a high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing, significant reductions in maximum ventilatory pressures, and impairment of health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mental health and quality of life of gay men and lesbians in England and Wales: controlled, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    King, Michael; McKeown, Eamonn; Warner, James; Ramsay, Angus; Johnson, Katherine; Cort, Clive; Wright, Lucie; Blizard, Robert; Davidson, Oliver

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the mental health of gay men and lesbians living in Europe. To compare psychological status, quality of life and use of mental health services by lesbians and gay men with heterosexual people. Cross-sectional study in England and Wales using 'snowball' sampling. 656 gay men, 505 heterosexual men, 430 lesbians and 588 heterosexual women. Gay men were more likely than heterosexual men to score above threshold on the Clinical Interview Schedule, indicating greater levels of psychological distress (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43), as were lesbians compared with heterosexual women (RR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.52). Gay men and lesbians were more likely than heterosexuals to have consulted a mental health professional in the past, deliberately harmed themselves and used recreational drugs. Lesbians were more likely to have experienced verbal and physical intimidation and to consume more alcohol than heterosexual women. Awareness of mental health issues for gay men and lesbians should become a standard part of training for mental health professionals, who need to be aware of the potential for substance misuse and self-harm in this group and of the discrimination experienced by many lesbians.

  11. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  12. Quality of life of glaucoma patients in China: sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological correlates-a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuandi; Qian, Shaohong; Wu, Peixia; Qiu, Chen

    2014-04-01

    To assess vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in Chinese glaucoma patients and explore its sociodemographic, clinical and psychological correlates, and determine which of them explain the largest variation. This cross-sectional study included 508 Chinese glaucoma patients. Chinese-version Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 questionnaire (CHI-GQL-15) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were administered to all participants to evaluate their VRQoL and psychological distresses. Visual functions (habitual-corrected visual acuity (HCVA), intraocular pressure, and mean defect (MD) of visual field) were assessed through clinical examinations by professionals. Sociodemographic information and other treatment histories were collected via interviews and chart review. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of VRQoL. The mean summary score for CHI-GQL-15 was 28.79 ± 12.74. Patients exhibited the greatest difficulty in activities involving glare and dark adaptation (28.19 ± 22.86), followed by central and near vision (26.18 ± 26.56), peripheral vision (18.03 ± 21.37), and the least difficulty for outdoor mobility (15.06 ± 24.57). Moderate and heavy economic burden, HCVA and MD of both the better and the worse eyes, number of glaucoma surgeries in the treatment history and the presence of depression were independent predictors for VRQoL of glaucoma patients. Clinical factors explained the largest variation. VRQoL of glaucoma patients is multifactorial and was primarily determined by clinical indices. VRQoL assessment could be informative when adopted as a complement to objective visual measures in clinical practice.

  13. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents' oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL). This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents' malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents' age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents' malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents'/caregivers' perception on the oral symptoms (p< 0.05), functional limitations (p < 0.001), emotional well-being (p < 0.001), and social well-being (p < 0.001) subscale scores as well as on the overall P-CPQ score (p < 0.001), even after having been adjusted for the controlling variables. Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents' OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL.

  14. Quality of diet plans for weight loss featured in women's magazines. A cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Martinighi, Maiara; Koga da Silva, Edina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has the fifth largest population of obese individuals in the world. Women's magazines publish a large number of diet plans, and therefore the objective of this study was to assess the quality of these plans. Cross-sectional descriptive study. We included the Brazilian women's magazines of highest circulation published between January and June 2014 that advertised diets for weight loss on their covers. We extracted the quantities of macro and micronutrients from each of these diet plans and compared these quantities with the World Health Organization nutritional guidelines for adult women. We also checked the total energy quantities of these plans, and any recommendations about water intake and physical activity. We identified 136 potentially eligible magazine issues; 41 were excluded and 95 issues of 6 different magazines were included in the study. We found that 83.1 % of the plans had carbohydrate and fiber levels below the recommendations. On the other hand, the protein and saturated fatty acid levels were above the recommendations in 97.8% and 95.7% of the plans, respectively; 75.7% of the diets had inadequate calcium levels and 70.5% had low iron levels. Only 30 plans specified the total daily quantity of dietary energy and in 53.3% of these, the information was inconsistent with our estimates; 20% of the plans had no recommendations on daily water intake and 37.5% did not give recommendations regarding physical activity practices. The diet plans for weight loss featured in Brazilian women's magazines are of low quality.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Quality of Life among Subjects with Epilepsy Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, K; Basavanna, P.L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is a chronic disorder associated with profound physical and psychological consequences leading to impaired quality of life (QoL). Evaluation of the QoL among epileptics would throw light on various factors that impair or affect the QoL in such a population. Aim To study the QoL among epileptic patients attending outpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital and to identify various factors that affect the QoL in such a population. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational questionnaire based study, including patients with epilepsy, who were on antiepileptic drugs, on follow-up for minimum one year, aged more than 18years, both sexes and who were seizure free in the previous 24hours. The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was administered to those included in the study. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and statistical tests like t-test for independent variables and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the QoL scores. Results Of the 98 subjects 61.2% were males, majority were educated upto high school level and most of them were employed in unskilled labour. The mean total QOL score was 53.9 (15.8). There was a significant lower mean total QOL score among people with low educational status and poor seizure control. Conclusion Epilepsy is a syndrome associated with chronic drug use and regular long term follow-ups to hospitals. These treatment and disease associated problems affects the QOL of the subjects significantly in various squares of life. We found that a lower education and having seizure in the recent past affected the QOL scores. PMID:28208904

  16. Fatigue and quality of life in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Vika, Margrethe Elin

    2015-02-01

    To examine the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers and, for these cancers, to assess fatigue in relation to distress, health-related quality of life, demography and treatment characteristics. Advances in treatment of cancer have improved the likelihood of survival. Consequently, there are a growing number of patients who become survivors after cancer and who face side effects even years after treatment. One of the most frequently reported side effects across all types and stages of the disease is cancer-related fatigue. A descriptive cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty women treated for gynaecological cancers who were participants in an intervention study were included. Fatigue, psychological distress, health-related QoL and demographics were assessed by questionnaires. Disease and treatment characteristics were extracted from medical records. Cancer-related fatigue was reported in 53% of the women treated for gynaecological cancers, with a higher proportion in the group of cervical cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Younger participants reported fatigue more frequently than older participants. When adjusting for age, the type of cancer a woman experiences was shown to have little impact on her risk of experiencing fatigue. The participants with fatigue reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than participants without fatigue. There was a relationship between fatigue and quality of life as measured by SF-36 domains. The findings underscore the importance of screening for fatigue, patient education and symptom management. This should be included in a standard procedure during treatment and follow-up. Both somatic and psychological aspects of fatigue should be emphasised. The findings imply the need for health personnel to have focus on fatigue during the entire cancer trajectory of women after gynaecological cancers, as well as the need for screening, information, guidance and symptom

  17. Assessment of physical performance and quality of life in kidney-transplanted patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Furini, Francesco; Rampino, Teresa; Gregorini, Marilena; Petrucci, Lucia; Klersy, Catherine; Dal Canton, Antonio; Dalla Toffola, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Background Information on physical and mental wellness in renal transplantation is limited. Therefore, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate and describe the different components of physical performance and quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of kidney-transplanted patients. Methods Physical performance and QoL were determined through the administration of validated tests and questionnaires [muscle strength, dynamometer handgrip, tactile sensitivity, visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Timed Up and Go (TUG) test, Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and the 36-item Short Form Health Survey]. The patients were divided into three groups based on time elapsed since transplantation: early (in the first 6 months), middle (from 7 to 60 months) and late (>60 months). Results Of 132 enrolled patients, 11 patients (8.3%) presented a severe reduction of muscle strength, 63 patients (47%) had significant bilateral impaired handgrip and tactile sensitivity was altered in 23 patients (17.4%). TUG assessment showed significant mobility limitation in 29 patients (21.9%). The FSS presented a pathological value in 50 patients (37.3%), while the mean VAS was 1.8 ± 2.7. There were no significant differences in physical performance parameters among the three patient groups. There were inverse correlations among different components of physical performance and age, comorbidity and dialysis vintage, and there was a direct correlation with renal function. During the first months after transplantation there were limitations in physical, social and emotional activities. Overall, the self-perceived physical performance was significantly lower in transplanted patients with respect to the normal reference level. Conclusion Kidney-transplanted patients may present different degrees of impairment in physical performance and quality of life. Systematic functional assessment is essential to identify patients needing intensive and personalized rehabilitation programmes. PMID:28638612

  18. Chronic insomnia, quality-of-life, and utility scores: comparison with good sleepers in a cross-sectional international survey.

    PubMed

    Léger, Damien; Morin, Charles M; Uchiyama, Makoto; Hakimi, Zalmaï; Cure, Sandrine; Walsh, James K

    2012-01-01

    Chronic insomnia has a recognized impact on health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) but data on utility scores across countries are lacking. The objective of the present study was to assess health related quality of life (HRQoL) and utility scores in individuals from three different countries (USA, France, and Japan), comparing sufferers of chronic insomnia to good sleepers. A cross-sectional survey (SLEEPI-i) of 4067 persons in the US (n=1298; 478 good sleepers and 820 patients with insomnia), France (n=1858; 998 good sleepers and 860 patients with insomnia) and Japan (n=911; 506 good sleepers and 405 patients with insomnia). Enrollment and data collection using consumer panels were web-based in the US and France, and gathered via a postal survey in Japan. People with chronic insomnia (>6 months) were selected based on Insomnia Severity Index scores (ISI). Severity of insomnia was assessed using the ISI score and HRQoL was assessed using the self-administered Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. Utility scores were derived using the algorithm developed by Brazier et al. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding factors. In all countries, people with chronic insomnia (40% treated) reported lower SF-36 scores in each of eight domains compared with good sleepers (P<.0001). Chronic insomnia was associated with significantly lower utility scores compared with good sleepers (mean scores 0.63 versus 0.72 in the US, 0.57 versus 0.67 in France, and 0.67 versus 0.77 in Japan, P<.0001). This survey suggests that chronic insomnia is associated with significant impairment of HRQoL and decreased utilities across the different geographical regions studied. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Sedláčková, Zuzana; Hruby, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Borderline personality disorder (BPD) significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Sheehan Anxiety Scale. Results BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%), social phobia (20.7%), generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%), adjustment disorder (22.8%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%); 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general) was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21) and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities). The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales) negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains. Conclusion Patients suffering from BPD and comorbid anxiety disorders have a lower level of QoL compared to healthy controls in all measured domains. Negative correlations of the Q-LES-Q domains with clinical scales (Dissociative Experiences Scale, BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Sheehan Anxiety Scale, Clinical Global Impression, and SDS) are noticeable. PMID:27536074

  20. Fatigue and quality of life in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Vika, Margrethe Elin

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To examine the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers and, for these cancers, to assess fatigue in relation to distress, health-related quality of life, demography and treatment characteristics. Background Advances in treatment of cancer have improved the likelihood of survival. Consequently, there are a growing number of patients who become survivors after cancer and who face side effects even years after treatment. One of the most frequently reported side effects across all types and stages of the disease is cancer-related fatigue. Design A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and twenty women treated for gynaecological cancers who were participants in an intervention study were included. Fatigue, psychological distress, health-related QoL and demographics were assessed by questionnaires. Disease and treatment characteristics were extracted from medical records. Results Cancer-related fatigue was reported in 53% of the women treated for gynaecological cancers, with a higher proportion in the group of cervical cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Younger participants reported fatigue more frequently than older participants. When adjusting for age, the type of cancer a woman experiences was shown to have little impact on her risk of experiencing fatigue. The participants with fatigue reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than participants without fatigue. There was a relationship between fatigue and quality of life as measured by SF-36 domains. Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of screening for fatigue, patient education and symptom management. This should be included in a standard procedure during treatment and follow-up. Both somatic and psychological aspects of fatigue should be emphasised. Relevance to clinical practice The findings imply the need for health personnel to have focus on fatigue during the entire cancer trajectory of women

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders and their influence on the quality of life of the dockworker: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Maitê Peres; Schmidt, Lídia Garcia; Soares, Maria Cristina Flores

    2016-02-15

    Dockworkers are subjected to intense physical labor which leads to frequent occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aims to measure the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) of temporary dockworkers and its influence on their quality of life. This was a cross-sectional study developed with temporary dockworkers in Brazil. Recruitment was done by inviting workers when they presented themselves for work at the trade union. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire and the Short-Form Health Survey were used. The association between the outcome and the different investigated factors was analyzed through Poisson Regression with robust variance. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the data from the Short-Form Health Survey scale among the groups both with and without work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The sample was composed of 318 temporary dockworkers with a mean age of 48 years. WMSD prevalence was 37.4%. WMSD was associated with not practicing physical activity (PR = 2.03; p = 0.005), participation in housework (PR = 1.88; p = 0.029), taking care of preschool children (PR = 1.65; p <  0.000) and handling heavy objects (PR = 1.83; p = 0.007). The lumbar spine was the most frequently mentioned area of the body (22.5%) in the WMSD analysis. Workers without WMSD had higher (p <  0.00) quality of life scale scores in relation to functional capacity, physical and social aspects, pain and vitality. The results highlight the relevance of developing action plans regarding the needs of this specific population of workers, especially concerning the reduction of risk factors.

  2. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents’ malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents’ age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents’ malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents’/caregivers’ perception on the oral symptoms (p< 0.05), functional limitations (p < 0.001), emotional well-being (p < 0.001), and social well-being (p < 0.001) subscale scores as well as on the overall P-CPQ score (p < 0.001), even after having been adjusted for the controlling variables. Conclusions: Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL. PMID:28125143

  3. Professional medical writing support and the quality of randomised controlled trial reporting: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gattrell, William T; Hopewell, Sally; Young, Kate; Farrow, Paul; White, Richard; Wager, Elizabeth; Winchester, Christopher C

    2016-02-21

    Authors may choose to work with professional medical writers when writing up their research for publication. We examined the relationship between medical writing support and the quality and timeliness of reporting of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Cross-sectional study. Primary reports of RCTs published in BioMed Central journals from 2000 to 16 July 2014, subdivided into those with medical writing support (n=110) and those without medical writing support (n=123). Proportion of items that were completely reported from a predefined subset of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist (12 items known to be commonly poorly reported), overall acceptance time (from manuscript submission to editorial acceptance) and quality of written English as assessed by peer reviewers. The effect of funding source and publication year was examined. The number of articles that completely reported at least 50% of the CONSORT items assessed was higher for those with declared medical writing support (39.1% (43/110 articles); 95% CI 29.9% to 48.9%) than for those without (21.1% (26/123 articles); 95% CI 14.3% to 29.4%). Articles with declared medical writing support were more likely than articles without such support to have acceptable written English (81.1% (43/53 articles); 95% CI 67.6% to 90.1% vs 47.9% (23/48 articles); 95% CI 33.5% to 62.7%). The median time of overall acceptance was longer for articles with declared medical writing support than for those without (167 days (IQR 114.5-231 days) vs 136 days (IQR 77-193 days)). In this sample of open-access journals, declared professional medical writing support was associated with more complete reporting of clinical trial results and higher quality of written English. Medical writing support may play an important role in raising the quality of clinical trial reporting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  4. Professional medical writing support and the quality of randomised controlled trial reporting: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gattrell, William T; Hopewell, Sally; Young, Kate; Farrow, Paul; White, Richard; Winchester, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Authors may choose to work with professional medical writers when writing up their research for publication. We examined the relationship between medical writing support and the quality and timeliness of reporting of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design Cross-sectional study. Study sample Primary reports of RCTs published in BioMed Central journals from 2000 to 16 July 2014, subdivided into those with medical writing support (n=110) and those without medical writing support (n=123). Main outcome measures Proportion of items that were completely reported from a predefined subset of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist (12 items known to be commonly poorly reported), overall acceptance time (from manuscript submission to editorial acceptance) and quality of written English as assessed by peer reviewers. The effect of funding source and publication year was examined. Results The number of articles that completely reported at least 50% of the CONSORT items assessed was higher for those with declared medical writing support (39.1% (43/110 articles); 95% CI 29.9% to 48.9%) than for those without (21.1% (26/123 articles); 95% CI 14.3% to 29.4%). Articles with declared medical writing support were more likely than articles without such support to have acceptable written English (81.1% (43/53 articles); 95% CI 67.6% to 90.1% vs 47.9% (23/48 articles); 95% CI 33.5% to 62.7%). The median time of overall acceptance was longer for articles with declared medical writing support than for those without (167 days (IQR 114.5–231 days) vs 136 days (IQR 77–193 days)). Conclusions In this sample of open-access journals, declared professional medical writing support was associated with more complete reporting of clinical trial results and higher quality of written English. Medical writing support may play an important role in raising the quality of clinical trial reporting. PMID:26899254

  5. Relations of low contrast visual acuity, quality of life and multiple sclerosis functional composite: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Schinzel, Johann; Zimmermann, Hanna; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens; Hahn, Katrin; Brandt, Alexander U; Dörr, Jan

    2014-02-20

    Although common and often disabling in multiple sclerosis (MS), visual dysfunction is currently not adequately accounted for in both clinical routine and MS trials. Sloan low contrast letter acuity (SLCLA) is a standardised chart-based measure of visual function particular at low contrast and has been suggested as additional visual component to the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC). Here, we evaluate the relations between SLCLA, retinal integrity, MSFC, and quality of life (QoL) in MS patients. Cross-sectional analysis of retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness, MSFC, SLCLA (2.5% and 1.25% contrast levels), visual evoked potentials, and QoL (Short Form (SF) 36, National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEIVFQ)) using baseline data of 92 MS patients from an ongoing prospective longitudinal trial. Relations between RNFL thickness or P100 latency and SLCLA were analysed using generalised estimating equations (GEE) accounting for intra-individual inter-eye dependencies and corrected for age, gender, and history of optic neuritis. Pearson's correlations were used to assess relations between SLCLA, MSFC, and QoL. SLCLA reflected RNFL thickness (p = 0.021) and P100 latency (p = 0.004) and predicted vision-related QoL, reflected by the NEIVFQ39 subscores "general vision" and "near activities" (p < 0.008 for both). SLCLA did not predict general QoL reflected by SF36. Implementing SLCLA into MSFC, thus creating a four-dimensional MSFC4, captured aspects of disability reflected by the NEIVFQ39 subscores "general vision" (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) and "near activity" (r = 0.3, p = 0.014) which were not captured by standard MSFC3. SLCLA at 2.5% and 1.25% contrast levels correlates with retinal morphology and P100 latency and predicts some aspects of vision-related QoL in MS. More importantly, using a prospective cross-sectional approach we provide evidence that extending the MSFC by SLCLA as an additional visual component

  6. Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colver, Allan; Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Ehlinger, Virginie; Thyen, Ute; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4

  7. Drinking-Water Disinfection By-products and Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. Results: The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01–10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans. Citation: Zeng Q, Wang YX, Xie SH, Xu L, Chen YZ, Li M, Yue J, Li YF, Liu AL, Lu WQ. 2014. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect 122:741–746; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  8. A cross sectional assessment of health related quality of life among patients with Hepatitis-B in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study by adopting European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) for the assessment of HRQoL was conducted. All registered HB patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta, Pakistan were approached for study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. HRQoL was scored using values adapted from the United Kingdom general population survey. EQ-5D scale scores were compared with Mann–Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Standard multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HRQoL. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0. Results Three hundred and ninety HB patients were enrolled in the study. Majority of the participants (n = 126, 32.3%) were categorized in the age group of 18-27 years (36.07 ± 9.23). HRQoL was measured as poor in the current study patients (0.3498 ± 0.31785). The multivariate analysis revealed a significant model (F10, 380 = 40.04, P < 0.001, adjusted r2 = 0.401). Educational level (β = 0.399, p = 0.025) emerged as a positive predictor of HRQoL. Age, gender, occupation, income and locality were not predictive of better quality of life in HB patients. Conclusions Hepatitis B has an adverse affect on patients’ well-being and over all HRQoL. The study findings implicate the need of health promotion among HB patients. Improving the educational status and imparting disease related information for the local population can results in better control and management of HB. PMID:22866752

  9. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Li, Yu-Feng; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong; and others

    2011-02-15

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) {mu}g/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  10. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  11. High impact of sleeping problems on quality of life in transgender individuals: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Matthias K.; Liedl, Anita; Fuss, Johannes; Nieder, Timo; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K.; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies in the general population suggest that determinants of QoL are often sex-dependent. Sex-dependent analyses of QoL in transgender populations have not been performed so far. Aim To identify sex-specific and potentially modifiable determinants of QoL in transgender patients Methods In this cross-sectional multicentre study including 82 transwomen (TW) and 72 transmen (TM) at different treatment stages, we investigated potential determinants for QoL focusing on the impact of mood (BDI, STAI-X), sleep quality (PSQI), chronic pain (GPQ), body image (FBeK) and social support (SSS). Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life measured with the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Results The age-adjusted SF-36 total score and its subscales did not significantly differ between TM and TW. Using a multivariate regression analysis approach, we identified common but also sex-dependent determinants for QoL (Adjusted R2 = 0.228; 0.650 respectively). Accounting for general characteristics such as age, BMI and treatment status, sleep quality according to the PSQI was an independent and strong determinant of QoL in both sexes (β = -0.451, p = 0.003 TM; β = -0.320; p = 0.0029 TW). Chronic pain was a significant independent predictor of QoL in TM (β = -0.298; p = 0.042) but not in TW. In contrast, anxiety (β = -0.451; p< 0.001) being unemployed (β = -0.206; p = 0.020) and insecurity about the own appearance (FBeK) (β = -0.261; p = 0.01) were independent predictors of QoL in TW. The rate of those reporting high sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥5) was high with 79.2% in TW and 81.2% in TM. Accordingly, age-adjusted QoL was also significantly lower in those reporting poor sleep in both sexes. Conclusions Sleep strongly affected QoL in both genders, while other factors, like pain and body image, seem to be gender specific in transgender individuals. PMID:28199359

  12. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  13. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  14. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  15. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. Objectives: The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. Materials and Methods: This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. Results: “Management and empowerment of human resources’’ (weight = 0.465) and “requirements and facilities” (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. Conclusion: The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country’s hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative

  16. Quality of life in patients with vitiligo: a cross-sectional study based on Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL).

    PubMed

    Hedayat, Kosar; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Ghiasi, Maryam; Goodarzi, Azadeh; Fakour, Yousef; Akbari, Zahra; Ghayoumi, Afsaneh; Ghandi, Narges

    2016-06-07

    Vitiligo is a multi-factorial pigmentary skin disorder. Recently, the importance of emotional and psychological issues is proposed in incidence, progression, relapse and remission of vitiligo. There are limited studies conducted in developing countries, which assess life quality of patients with vitiligo. The aim of this study was the application and evaluation of a disease-specific quality of life index in Iranian patients, for the first time. This cross-sectional biphasic study was conducted on 25 patients as a pilot and another 173 patients as the main study group, in Razi Hospital, Tehran, Iran, 2013-2014. Persian version of Vitiligo Quality of Life index (VitiQoL) was developed with backward-forward method. Based on the pilot study, the validity and reliability were assessed. The Vitiligo Area and Score Index (VASI), VitiQoL, and their relationship, demographic and clinical characteristic of patients were measured. The Mean and standard deviation of the VitiQoL score was 30.5 ± 14.5 (range 0-60 in Persian version). There was a significant relationship between VASI score and VitiQoL (p = 0.015, r = 0.187). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed three important factors within VitiQoL: participation limitation, stigma, and behavior. In subscale analysis based on behavior factor, female patients had poorer quality of life (p = 0.02). Concomitant psychiatric problems, e.g. anxiety and depression, were not associated with QOL; however, they were near to being meaningful (p = 0.06, r = 0.14). VitiQoL is a valid index in estimating life quality of vitiligo patients and has proper relation to disease severity. Focusing on patient's life quality is an important entity in the management of vitiligo patients; relevant supportive group-based consultations and therapies are also important arms when approaching vitiligo.

  17. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  18. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study among civil servants in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted among Chinese civil servants owing to the different lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the HRQoL among Chinese civil servants and to identify factors might be associated with their HRQoL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate HRQoL of 15,000 civil servants in China using stratified random sampling methods. Independent-Samples t-Test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyse the influencing factors and the HRQoL of the civil servants. Results A univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences among physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and TS between lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions showed that there were significant differences among TS between lifestyle factors, such as breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, operating computers, sedentariness, work time, and drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion In this study, using Short Form 36 items (SF-36), we assessed the association of HRQoL with lifestyle factors, including smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness in China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large-scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of the HRQoL status in Chinese civil servants. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness affect the HRQoL of civil servants in China. PMID:22559315

  19. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Saeed ur Rashid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Bashir, Sajid; Hashmi, Furqan; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001). Conclusion: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible. PMID:26957872

  20. Factors associated with generic health-related quality of life in adult asthma patients in Germany: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Böhmer, Merle M; Brandl, Magdalena; Brandstetter, Susanne; Finger, Tamara; Fischer, Wiebke; Pfeifer, Michael; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Given a 9% lifetime prevalence of asthma in Germany and the impairment of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that goes along with it, it is important to understand parameters affecting HRQOL in asthma patients. Objective of this study was therefore to determine factors associated with generic HRQOL in asthma patients. Data for cross-sectional analyses were obtained from the baseline of an ongoing cohort study. physician-diagnosed asthma; age ≥18 years; disease duration ≥3 months; no acute psychiatric/neurological disease; sufficient knowledge of German. HRQOL was assessed by the Short Form 12 Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-12), which comprises a physical (PCS-12) and a mental component (MCS-12). Information on a broad range of parameters potentially influencing HRQOL was collected by examining the patients' medical records and via a self-administered questionnaire. Those parameters were of socio-demographic, disease-specific, treatment-related or psychosocial nature. We conducted multivariable linear regression analyses to assess determinants of HRQOL. In total, 196 asthma patients participated in the study (mean age: 48 years (range: 18-90); 60.2% females). In multivariable analysis, PCS-12 was negatively associated with older age, being female, insufficient disease control, higher number of medications in tablet form and reporting symptoms of depression. MCS-12 was negatively associated with being female, living alone, insufficient disease control, and reporting symptoms of anxiety or depression. Focusing on disease control and screening for depression and anxiety may be promising approaches to improve HRQOL in adult asthma patients. If a patient shows alarming symptoms of anxiety and/or depression, the patient should then be referred for psychiatric treatment.

  1. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian preschoolers in the Gaza Strip: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research on children's responses to wartime trauma has mostly addressed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). However, PTSD is only one aspect of a complex set of responses. This study proposes to expand knowledge of well-being in children exposed to political violence through widening the conceptualization of well-being beyond PTSD, morbidity, and mortality by measuring health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its facets, physical health, and psychosocial health. Methods In 2007, we used a cross-sectional random sample of kindergartens to examine factors associated with HRQOL, as measured by the PedsQL 4.0, in 350 preschoolers in the Gaza Strip, Palestine, where political violence and deprivation are widespread. Results About 65% of the mothers reported severely impaired psychosocial and emotional functioning in their children. Preschoolers had lower HRQOL than the US reference sample and samples of children in other low income countries with large effect size. HRQOL was comparable to those of US children with several chronic diseases. Factors associated with lower HRQOL were older child age, male gender, and more exposures to traumatic events. Factors associated with HRQOL subscales were for lower psychosocial health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and witnessing assassination of people by rockets. For lower physical health: older child age, history of food, water, and electricity deprivation during incursion, and having heard of a killing of a friend by soldiers. Conclusions HRQOL, including psychosocial health and emotional functioning is often severely impaired among preschoolers in the Gaza Strip. Exposure to both violent and non-violent negative events was associated with HRQOL in preschoolers. PMID:21510877

  2. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors in Chinese Unemployed People: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Yao, Lutian; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    With the global economic crisis and industrial restructuring, the unemployed are suffering from job loss-related stress and loss of income, which is believed to impair their mental and physical health, while coping and self-efficacy could combat the adverse effects of unemployment on health. Thus, this study aims to describe quality of life (QOL) among unemployed Chinese people and explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted by convenience sampling, composed of 1825 unemployed people, from January 2011 to September 2011. Questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the abbreviated version of the Cope Inventory (Brief COPE) and self-efficacy scales were used to collect information from unemployed people in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors of QOL. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations among coping, self-efficacy, and QOL. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL in Chinese unemployed people. Coping had significant effects on both physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), while self-efficacy played the mediating role in the association between Coping and QOL. Unemployed Chinese people’s mental QOL was disrupted more seriously than their physical QOL. An increase in coping could improve QOL by promoting better management of issues brought about by unemployment. In addition, self-efficacy has the ability to reduce the impact of unemployment on QOL, through the mediating path of coping on QOL. This study highlights the need of coping skills training and self-efficacy enhancement for better management of unemployment in order to improve QOL and well-being. PMID:27509514

  3. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  4. Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With α1 Antitrypsin Deficency: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Torres Redondo, Margarida; Campoa, Elsa; Ruano, Luis; Sucena, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Measures of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) can help to determine the impact of the disease and provide an important insight into the intervention outcomes. There is few data regarding this issue in the literature. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between HRQoL and gender, functional parameters and history of hospitalizations in patients with AATD. This is a cross-sectional study of 26 patients with severe AATD recruited in the pulmonology outpatient clinic at a tertiary care medical center. Social-demographic, clinical and functional parameters were recorded and HRQoL was assessed with the Portuguese version of the medical outcome study short form-36 (SF-36) self-administered questionnaire. Older patients, females and patients with at least one hospitalization in the previous year due to respiratory disease had statistical lower scores in some dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire. Superior FEV1 and higher distance mark in the 6-min walking test distance influenced positively several dimensions of the questionnaire. Higher scores in the mMRC scale influenced negatively the HRQoL. These data suggests that older and female patients with AATD have worse HRQoL. Hospitalizations and functional markers of respiratory disease progression influenced negatively the HRQoL, suggesting that the SF-36 questionnaire could be useful as an outcome for AATD patients with lung involvement. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study among civil servants in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jun; Qiu, Jincai; Chen, Jie; Zou, Liai; Feng, Liyi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Qian; Zhang, Jinhua

    2012-05-04

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted among Chinese civil servants owing to the different lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the HRQoL among Chinese civil servants and to identify factors might be associated with their HRQoL. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate HRQoL of 15,000 civil servants in China using stratified random sampling methods. Independent-Samples t-Test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyse the influencing factors and the HRQoL of the civil servants. A univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences among physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and TS between lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions showed that there were significant differences among TS between lifestyle factors, such as breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, operating computers, sedentariness, work time, and drinking (P < 0.05). In this study, using Short Form 36 items (SF-36), we assessed the association of HRQoL with lifestyle factors, including smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness in China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large-scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of the HRQoL status in Chinese civil servants. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness affect the HRQoL of civil servants in China.

  6. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  7. Quality of care and quality of life of people with dementia living at green care farms: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Bram; Hamers, Jan P H; Zwakhalen, Sandra M G; Tan, Frans E S; Verbeek, Hilde

    2017-07-19

    Many countries are introducing smaller, more home-like care facilities that represent a radically new approach to nursing home care for people with dementia. The green care farm is a new type of nursing home developed in the Netherlands. The goal of this study was to compare quality of care, quality of life and related outcomes in green care farms, regular small-scale living facilities and traditional nursing homes for people with dementia. A cross-sectional design was used. Three types of nursing homes were included: (1) green care farms; (2) regular small-scale living facilities; (3) traditional nursing homes. All participating nursing homes were non-profit, collectively funded nursing homes in the south of the Netherlands. One hundred and fifteen residents with a formal diagnosis of dementia were included in the study. Data on quality of care was gathered and consisted of outcome indicators (e.g. falling incidents, pressure ulcers), structure indicators (e.g. hours per resident per day), and process indicators (e.g. presence, accessibility and content of protocols on care delivery). Furthermore, questionnaires on cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, quality of life, social engagement, neuropsychiatric symptoms, agitation, and depression were used. Data showed that quality of care was comparable across settings. No large differences were found on clinical outcome measures, hours per resident per day, or process indicators. Higher quality of life scores were reported for residents of green care farms in comparison with residents of traditional nursing homes. They scored significantly higher on the Quality of Life - Alzheimer's disease Scale (p < 0.05, ES = 0.8) indicating a better quality of life. In addition, residents of green care farms scored higher on three quality of life domains of the Qualidem: positive affect, social relations and having something to do (p < 0.05, ES > 0.7). No differences with regular small-scale living facilities

  8. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0–83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0–10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0–5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0–8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients’ emotional situation, daily activities, and social

  9. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness’ severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Methods Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Results Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. Conclusions The

  10. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces

  11. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-05

    Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0-83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0-10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0-5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0-8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). PMPS seriously impacts patients' emotional situation, daily activities, and social relationships and is a major economic burden for health

  12. Neurologic morbidity and quality of life in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Raja B.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Ledet, Davonna S.; Morris, E. Brannon; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.; Krull, Kevin R.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Crom, Debbie; Browne, Emily; Zhu, Liang; Rai, Shesh; Srivastava, Deokumar; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with potentially neurotoxic drugs and neurologic complications in long-term survivors are inadequately studied. This study investigated neurologic morbidity and its effect on quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Methods Prospective, single institution, cross-sectional, institutional review board-approved study of long-term ALL survivors. Participants were recruited from institutional clinics. Participants answered an investigator-administered questionnaire followed by evaluation by a neurologist. Quality of life (QOL) was also assessed. Results Of the 162 participants recruited over a 3-year period, 83.3 % reported at least one neurologic symptom of interest, 16.7 % had single symptom, 11.1 % had two symptoms, and 55.6 % had three or more symptoms. Symptoms were mild and disability was low in the majority of participants with neurologic symptoms. Median age at ALL diagnosis was 3.9 years (0.4–18.6), median age at study enrollment was 15.7 years (6.9–28.9), and median time from completion of ALL therapy was 7.4 years (1.9–20.3). On multivariable analyses, female sex correlated with presence of dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, and neuropathy; use of≥10 doses of triple intrathecal chemotherapy correlated with uri-nary incontinence, back pain, and neuropathy; cranial radiation with ataxia; history of ALL relapse with fatigue; and CNS leukemia at diagnosis with seizures. Decline in mental QOL was associated with migraine and tension type headaches, while physical QOL was impaired by presence of dizziness and falls. Overall, good QOL and physical function was maintained by a majority of participants. Conclusions Neurologic symptoms were present in 83 % long-term ALL survivors. Symptoms related morbidity and QOL impairment is low in majority of survivors. Female sex, ≥10 doses of intrathecal chemotherapy, and history of ALL relapse predispose to impaired QOL

  13. Predictors of family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Black, Sandra E; Beattie, B Lynn; Patterson, Christopher; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Borrie, Michael; Byszewski, Anna; Bergman, Howard; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and caregiver factors consistently predict family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample. : Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. : Family caregivers (n = 412) of community-living patients with AD of all severities. Caregiver ratings of patient QOL using three utility indexes, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Quality of Well-Being Scale and Health Utilities Index; a global QOL visual analogue scale; a disease-specific measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease; and a generic health status measure, the Short Form-36. Patient cognition was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregiver burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview and caregiver depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between patient dementia symptom and caregiver variables with QOL ratings. In multivariable analyses, caregiver ratings of patient function and depressive symptoms were the only consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL across the QOL measures. Caregiver ratings of patient function and depression were consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL, using a spectrum of QOL measures, while measures of patient cognition and caregiver burden and depression were not. These findings support the continued use of caregiver ratings as an important source of information about patient QOL and endorse the inclusion in AD clinical trials of caregiver-rated measures of patient function, depression

  14. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  15. Relationship Between Types of Exercise and Quality of Life in a Korean Metabolic Syndrome Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang Ho; Son, Sun Han; Kang, Si Hyun; Kim, Don-Kyu; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Sang Yoon

    2017-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) significantly correlates with exercise. MetS also has an independent and inverse correlation to quality of life (QoL). However, few studies have examined the association between exercise and QoL in people with MetS. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship between exercise and QoL in a MetS population. This was a cross-sectional study using public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2014 (n = 7550). MetS was defined on the basis of the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Demographic factors, three types of exercise (resistance, flexibility, walking), five subsets of EuroQoL (mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, anxiety/depression), and QoL scores (EQ-VAS), were investigated. Independent associations of each exercise on five subsets of QoL were determined using odds ratios (OR) adjusted for four demographic factors (age group, sex, weight change, and area of residence) using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Prevalence of MetS was 26.4% and the ratio of subjects performing resistance, flexibility, or walking exercise was 17.7%, 45.8%, and 71.5% among this population, respectively. EQ-VAS of exercisers was significantly higher than that of non-exercisers in resistance, flexibility, and walking exercise. Although resistance and flexibility exercise did not correlate with any subsets of QoL, mobility and self-care were significantly associated with walking exercise (OR = 0.635, 95% CI = 0.439-0.919 and OR = 0.577, 95% CI = 0.348-0.958, respectively). All exercisers showed higher QoL scores than non-exercisers. Among QoL subsets, mobility and self-care were independently associated with walking exercise in the MetS population. Regular walking exercise was important to higher QoL in those with MetS. This is the first clinical report to indicate that QoL could be independently influenced by walking exercise.

  16. A cross-sectional study on the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meats sold in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Odwar, Joyce Arua; Kikuvi, Gideon; Kariuki, James Ngumo; Kariuki, Samuel

    2014-09-10

    Chicken is a rich source of meat protein and is increasingly being consumed in urban areas in Kenya. However, under poor hygienic environment, raw chicken meat presents an ideal substrate supporting the growth of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Coliform bacteria indicating the potential presence of other pathogenic bacteria; this may constitute a major source of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study sought to assess the microbiological quality and safety of raw chicken meat sold in Nairobi, Kenya by determining the E. coli/coliform contamination levels as well as the antimicrobial resistance patterns and pathogenicity of E. coli isolated. We conducted a Cross-sectional study to collect two hundred raw chicken samples that were randomly purchased between the periods of August 2011-February 2012. Enumeration of bacteria was done using 3 M Petri film E. coli/Coliform count plates, isolation and identification of E. coli through standard cultural and biochemical testing, antimicrobial susceptibilities interpreted according to criteria set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (2012) while Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine presence of virulence genes in isolated E. coli. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Contamination rates were 97% and 78% respectively for Coliform bacteria and E. coli. Seventy six percent of samples fell under the unacceptable microbial count limit (>100 cfu/ml) and significant differences in the E. coli/coliform counts (p < 0.001) were observed among the chicken retail outlets with samples from supermarkets having the lowest level of contamination compared to the rest of the retail outlets. Seventy five percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one of the 12 antibiotics tested with resistance to tetracycline being the highest at 60.3%. In addition 40.4% E. coli isolates were positive for the ten virulence genes tested. Raw retail chicken meats in Nairobi are not only highly contaminated

  17. Characteristics Associated with Quality of Life in Long-Term Care Residents with Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Maartje S.; Caljouw, Monique A.A.; Pieper, Marjoleine J.C.; van der Steen, Jenny T.; Achterberg, Wilco P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine which characteristics are associated with quality of life (QOL) in residents with moderate to very severe dementia in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of a cluster randomized controlled study in 12 Dutch LTCFs that enrolled 288 residents, with moderate to severe dementia assessed with the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale (Reisberg GDS) and QOL with the QUALIDEM. Characteristics that were hypothesized to be associated with the six domains of QOL (applicable to very severe dementia) included demographic variables, activities of daily living (Katz ADL), cognitive performance (Cognitive Performance Scale; CPS), pain (Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate; PACSLAC-D), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version; NPI-NH) and comorbidities. Results Multivariate logistic regression modelling showed associations with age in the domain Social isolation [odds ratio, OR, 0.95 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.91-0.99)], ADL level in the domain Positive affect [OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.95)] and the domain Social relations [OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93)], severity of dementia in the domain Social relations [OR 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.62)] and in the domain Social isolation [OR 2.10 (95% CI 1.17-3.78)], psychiatric disorders in the domain Positive affect [OR 0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.87)] and pulmonary diseases in the domain Negative affect [OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.61)] of the QUALIDEM. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were independently associated with all six domains of the QUALIDEM [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) to OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99)]. Pain was associated with the domains Care relationship [OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00)] and Negative affect [OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-1.00)]. Conclusion QOL in dementia is independently associated with age, ADL, dementia severity, pain, psychiatric disorders, pulmonary diseases and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is possible

  18. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep and health-related quality of life in pregnant women: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Pei-Lin; Lin, Jou-Wei; Lee, Chien-Nan

    2016-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in women, especially during pregnancy. Previous studies have confirmed the importance of sleep disturbances as a risk factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes and the need for screening and treatment of inadequate sleep. These reports, however, did not examine health-related quality of life which may be affected by sleep long before adverse clinical consequences are detectable in women during pregnancy. To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal association between sleep and health-related quality of life in pregnant women. A prospective observational study. A university-affiliated hospital in Taiwan and participants' homes. A total of 164 pregnant women completed questionnaires and wore a wrist actigraphy monitor for 7 days each trimester. Objective sleep was measured by actigraphy, subjective sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and health-related quality of life was measured using the SF-12v2 questionnaire across three trimesters. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between sleep and health-related quality of life. Sixty-four (39.0%) women consistently had an average sleep efficiency<85% by actigraphy and 40 (24.4%) had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score>5 in all three trimesters. Cross-sectionally, more actigraphic daytime sleep (p=0.04) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better physical health-related quality of life in first-trimester pregnant women. Better actigraphic sleep efficiency (p=0.04) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better mental health-related quality of life in second-trimester pregnant women. Longer actigraphic total nighttime sleep (p<0.01) and better subjective sleep quality (p<0.01) were associated with better mental health-related quality of life in third-trimester pregnant women. Longitudinally, first-trimester actigraphic total nighttime

  19. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  20. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  1. Quality of anaesthesia for Caesarean sections: a cross-sectional study of a university hospital in a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jesper; Baker, Tim; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Mulungu, Moses; Larsson, Emma

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the quality of anaesthesia for Caesarean sections at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We developed an instrument consisting of 40 quality indicators using an expert group process based on the existing literature. Using the instrument, we observed 50 Caesarean sections. Twenty-eight of the indicators were structural indicators, such as essential drugs, oxygen supply and anaesthetic equipment. Twelve were process indicators such as evaluation of airway, blood pressure assessment or insertion of an intravenous line. The median patient age was 28.5 years. A total of 75% (range 61-82%) of the structural indicators were present in the operating theatres, and 55% (range 33-83%) of the process indicators were performed. The neonates' median Apgar score was 9 (range 3-10). Seven babies required ventilation, four babies were stillborn, and all others were alive at follow-up 2 days after partus. All mothers were alive 2 days post-surgery. The low process score suggests that quality improvement initiatives should focus on the processes of anaesthesia for Caesarean sections rather than new drugs and equipment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Predictors of patient self-ratings of quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Beattie, B Lynn; Black, Sandra E; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Patterson, Christopher; Borrie, Michael; Bergman, Howard; Byszewski, Anna; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) consistently predict patient self-rated quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample of AD patients. Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. Community-living patients with AD (n = 370) with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores greater than 10. Patients rated their QOL by using two utility indexes, the European QOL-5 Dimensions and the Quality of Well-Being Scale, a global QOL Visual Analog Scale, and the disease-specific QOL-AD instrument. Cognition was assessed with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale and MMSE, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between core dementia symptoms and QOL ratings. The QOL measures had only small-to-moderate correlations with each other. For all QOL measures, patient ratings were significantly lower among patients with more depressive symptoms. In multivariable analyses, the GDS score was the only significant independent predictor of patient self-ratings for all four QOL measures. Self-rated symptoms of depression were a consistent independent predictor of patient-rated QOL across diverse QOL measures, while performance-based measures of cognition and informant-based functional status were not. These findings confirm the importance of identifying and treating depression in patients with AD and endorse the use of measures of self-rated depressive symptoms and QOL as outcomes in AD clinical trials.

  3. The relationship between quality of work life and location of cross-training among obstetric nurses in urban northeastern Ontario, Canada: A population-based cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Lightfoot, Nancy; Carter, Lorraine; Larivière, Michel; Rukholm, Ellen; Schinke, Robert; Belanger-Gardner, Diane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the quality of work life of registered nurses working in obstetrics at 4 hospitals in northeastern Ontario and explore demographic and occupational factors related to nurses' quality of work life (QWL). A stratified random sample of registered nurses (N = 111) selected from the 138 eligible registered nurses (80.4%) of staff in the labor, delivery, recovery, and postpartum areas at the 4 hospitals participated. Logistic regression analyses were used to consider QWL in relation to the following: 1) demographic factors, and 2) stress, employment status and educational attainment. In the logistic regression model, the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were cross trained (nurses who can work across all areas of obstetrical care) were estimated to be 3.82 (odds ratio = 3.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-14.5) times the odds of a higher quality of work life for nurses who were not cross trained. This study highlights a relationship between quality of work life and associated factors including location of cross-training among obstetrical nurses in northeastern Ontario. These findings are supported by the qualitative interviews that examine in depth their relationship to QWL. Given the limited number of employment opportunities in the rural and remote regions, it is paramount that employers and employees work closely together in creating positive environments that promote nurses' QWL. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  5. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  6. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  7. The mediating role of sleep quality on the relationship between perceived stress and depression among the elderly in urban communities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Li, T; Guo, L; Zhang, R; Feng, X; Liu, K

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between perceived stress, sleep quality, and depression among the elderly in urban communities, and further to determine whether sleep quality can serve as a mediator among the elderly in urban communities. A cross-sectional survey. Between May and July in 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1050 community residents aged ≥60 years from Liaoning province, China. The Perceived Stress Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale were used to estimate perceived stress, sleep quality, and depression, respectively. The data were analyzed with correlation, multiple linear regression, and structural equation modeling. Of the 1050 participants surveyed, 1032 completed responses were ultimately acquired (98.3% effective response rate) and were included in the data analysis. Results revealed that the scores of perceived stress and sleep quality were positively correlated with Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score. Sense of uncontrol, sense of nervous, sleep duration, and daytime dysfunction were identified as significant predictors of depression among the elderly. The effect of perceived stress on depression was partly mediated by sleep quality. Our study reveals that not all dimensions of sleep quality are relevant factors affecting depression in the elderly, and there may be partial mediation effects of sleep quality, mainly through sleep duration and daytime dysfunction, within the impact of perceived stress on depression. This signifies that coping with perceived stress can be expected to ameliorate the severity of depression in the elderly by the intermediary role of sleep quality as well as the direct effect. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm these findings and to investigate other mediators between perceived stress and depression among the elderly. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  9. Fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight: cross-sectional and prospective associations in a community sample of working adults.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Timothy L; French, Simone A; Mitchell, Nathan R; Wolfson, Julian

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between fast-food consumption, diet quality and body weight in a community sample of working adults. Cross-sectional and prospective analysis of anthropometric, survey and dietary data from adults recruited to participate in a worksite nutrition intervention. Participants self-reported frequency of fast-food consumption per week. Nutrient intakes and diet quality, using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), were computed from dietary recalls collected at baseline and 6 months. Metropolitan medical complex, Minneapolis, MN, USA. Two hundred adults, aged 18-60 years. Cross-sectionally, fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher daily total energy intake (β=72·5, P=0·005), empty calories (β=0·40, P=0·006) and BMI (β=0·73, P=0·011), and lower HEI-2010 score (β=-1·23, P=0·012), total vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·004), whole grains (β=-0·39, P=0·005), fibre (β=-0·83, P=0·002), Mg (β=-6·99, P=0·019) and K (β=-57·5, P=0·016). Over 6 months, change in fast-food consumption was not significantly associated with changes in energy intake or BMI, but was significantly inversely associated with total intake of vegetables (β=-0·14, P=0·034). Frequency of fast-food consumption was significantly associated with higher energy intake and poorer diet quality cross-sectionally. Six-month change in fast-food intake was small, and not significantly associated with overall diet quality or BMI.

  10. Quality of doctoral nursing education in the United Kingdom: exploring the views of doctoral students and staff based on a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Hugh; Keeney, Sinead; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the quality of doctoral education in nursing in the United Kingdom. In recent decades, doctoral education programmes in nursing are increasing worldwide. There are many reasons for this and concerns have been raised regarding the quality of provision in and across countries. To date, the quality of doctoral education on a global level has not been reported in the literature. This United Kingdom study is part of a seven country investigation into the quality of doctoral education in nursing (Australia, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Thailand, United Kingdom and United States of America). A quantitative study using a cross-sectional comparative survey design. An online survey was administered to collect the views of doctoral students and staff members on four domains: programme, faculty/staff, resource and evaluation. The study was carried out between 2010-2012. In most cases, staff perceived these more positively than students and the differences in perception were often statistically significant. Interestingly, many students rated the quality of supervision as excellent, whereas no staff member rated supervision this highly. The crucial importance of resources was confirmed in the path analysis of the four Quality of Doctoral Nursing Education domains. This demonstrates that investment in resources is much more cost-effective than investment in the other domains in relation to improving the overall quality of doctoral education in nursing. This study has wide-ranging implications for how the quality of doctoral education is monitored and enhanced. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yi-Long; Liu, Li; Wang, Lie

    2016-05-06

    Improvement of quality of life has been one of goals in health care for people living with bladder cancer. Meanwhile, positive psycho-social variables in oncology field have increasingly received attention. However, the assessment of quality of life of bladder cancer patients and the integrative effects of positive psycho-social variables has limited reporting. The aim of this study was to assess quality of life as well as the integrative effects of social support, hope and resilience on quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the First Hospital of China Medical University in Liaoning Province, China. A total of 365 bladder cancer patients eligible for this study completed questionnaires on demographic variables, FACT-BL, Perceived Social Support Scale, Adult Hope Scale, and Resilience Scale-14 during July 2013 to July 2014. The average score of FACT-BL was 87.60 ± 16.27 (Mean ± SD). Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that social support, hope and resilience as a whole accounted for 30.3 % variance of quality of life. Under standardized estimate (β) sequence, social support, hope and resilience significantly and positively associated with quality of life, respectively. Quality of life for bladder cancer patients was at a low level in China, which should receive more attention in Chinese medical institutions. More importantly, efforts to increase social support, hope and resilience might be useful to support the quality of life among Chinese bladder cancer patients.

  12. Contributing influences of work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants in long-term care facilities: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The effect of shift work on nurses' sleep is well-studied, but there are other challenging aspects of health care work that might also affect the sleep of direct caregivers. This study examined the influence of the long-term care work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants. A cross-sectional survey collected data from 650 nursing assistants in 15 long-term care facilities; 46% reported short sleep duration and 23% reported poor sleep quality. A simple additive index of the number of beneficial work features (up to 7) was constructed for analysis with Poisson regression. With each unit increase of beneficial work features, nursing assistants were 7% less likely to report short sleep duration and 17% less likely to report poor sleep quality. These results suggest that effective workplace interventions should address a variety of work stressors, not only work schedule arrangements, in order to improve nursing assistants' sleep health.

  13. Frailty and quality of life: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic kidney disease (CKD) induces frailty and worsens quality of life (QOL), even in the early stages of the disease and in young patients. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the relationship between frailty and QOL in CKD patients. Thus, we investigated this relationship in a sample of CKD patients. Methods A cross-observational study was conducted, in which 61 CKD patients receiving pre-dialysis treatment were assessed. All participants completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We used valid and reliable methods to classify subjects as frail or non-frail according to Johansen’s et al. (2007) criteria. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. In addition, Spearman’s correlation analysis was conducted to measure associations between identified variables and frailty. We also performed simple linear regression using the SF-36 physical and mental composite scores. Results Almost half of the sample (42.6%) exhibited evidence of frailty. The groups differed significantly in terms of age, gender, and all SF-36 domains, excluding Social Functioning and Role Emotional. Frailty was significantly associated with all SF-36 domains, again excluding Social Functioning and Role Emotional. Regression analysis revealed no significant between-group differences in composite physical and mental health scores generated by the SF-36 (p > 0.05). Conclusion Frail and non-frail CKD patients differed significantly in seven of the eight SF-36 domains. The frail group displayed diminished physical and mental functioning when their SF-36 scores were divided by their physical and mental composite scores. Frailty was correlated with QOL domains, with the exception of the social domain. There is a need for interventions targeting the characteristics of frailty, to provide better treatment and optimize overall QOL. PMID:24580960

  14. Health-related quality of life of patients with asthma: a cross-sectional study in Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Naim S; Malek, Farhad; Ghods, Elaheh; Fathi, Mona

    2017-08-27

    Asthma can profoundly affect the quality of life of individuals with the disease. There are limited data on the quality of life of people with asthma in the Islamic Republic of Iran. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate quality of life in adults with asthma in Semnan using the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). The effect of sociodemographic characteristics on quality of life scores was examined. The study included a convenience sample of 385 outpatients with asthma attending a pulmonary clinic from June to December 2013. The mean physical and mental component scores were 58.8 (SD 18.3) and 57.3 (SD 17.0) respectively. The study sample had lower quality of life scores in all the fields than the reference population (P < 0.05). Patients with lower education, urban residents, widowed/divorced patients and manual workers had lower quality of life scores (P < 0.05). Efforts are needed to improve the quality of life of people with asthma in parallel with precise management plans.

  15. The mediating role of organizational justice in the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Gillet, Nicolas; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Mokounkolo, René; Colombat, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    The importance of transformational leadership for nurses' well-being is increasingly acknowledged. However, there is a paucity of research examining the mechanisms that may explain the relationships between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life. First, to examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviors to nurses' quality of work life. Second, to study the relationship between nurses' quality of work life and their work engagement. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in 47 different hematology, oncology, and hematology/oncology units in France. Participants were nurses and auxiliary nurses. 343 nurses completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all nurses working in the units. 95% were female, the average age was 36.30 years. Nurses were asked to rate their supervisor's transformational leadership style and their perceptions of distributive and interactional justice in the unit. They were also asked to evaluate their own level of quality of work life and their work engagement. Distributive justice and interactional justice were found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and nurses' quality of work life. In addition, nurses' quality of work life positively related to their work engagement. Transformational leaders may help ensure nurses' quality of work life which in turn increases their work engagement. These leadership practices are thus beneficial for both employees and organization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence and dental anxiety: an epidemiological cross-sectional study of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Boman, Ulla Wide; Wennström, Anette; Stenman, Ulrika; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2012-06-18

    Few publications report on the relationship between salutogenesis, as measured by the concept of sense of coherence, and oral health-related quality of life. Even less information is to be found when the behavioural aspect of dental anxiety is added. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oral health-related quality of life is related to sense of coherence and dental anxiety. The study had a cross-sectional design and included 500 randomly selected women in Gothenburg, Sweden, 38 and 50 years of age, from health examinations in 2004-05. The survey included questionnaires covering global questions concerning socio-economic status, oral health/function and dental care behaviour, and tests of oral health-related quality of life, sense of coherence, and dental anxiety. High dental anxiety and low sense of coherence predicted low oral health-related quality of life. In addition, socioeconomic status as measured by income, perceived oral functional status as captured by chewing ability and self-reported susceptibility to periodontal disease were also important predictors of oral health-related quality of life. Dental anxiety and sense of coherence had an inverse relationship with regard to oral health-related quality of life. These associations were stronger than other risk factors for low oral health-related quality of life.

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  18. A path model of health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Wu, Li-Chu; Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh

    2011-12-01

    To construct a path model about relationships of perceptions of empowerment, diabetes distress, self-care behaviour and glycemic control to health-related quality of life in Taiwanese Type 2 diabetic patients, suffering from diabetes for 10 years or less. Health-related quality of life is the primary end point for people with diabetes. Understanding the path model of health-related quality of life in Type 2 diabetic patients is useful for nurses to design early intervention programmes. This was a cross-sectional study. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect data from 2007 to 2008. Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was also collected. Data from 428 Type 2 diabetic patients were analysed with structural equation modelling to test the fit of the hypothesized path model to the data. A model was produced in which self-care behaviour had a statistically significantly direct influence on satisfaction, impact and worry aspects of health-related quality of life. Glycosylated haemoglobin had a statistically significantly negative influence on satisfaction, and impact aspects of health-related quality of life. Perceptions of empowerment had a statistically significantly direct influence on satisfaction aspect of health-related quality of life. Diabetes distress had a statistically significantly direct influence on satisfaction, impact and worry aspects of health-related quality of life. Nurses should develop new approaches to improve various aspects of health-related quality of life. Nurses could empower patients to improve satisfaction aspect of health-related quality of life. To improve the impact and worry aspects of health-related quality of life, nurses should reduce diabetes distress felt by patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Association of Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality and Shift-Work Schedule in Relation to Hypertension Prevalence in Chinese Adult Males: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Ding, Rongjing; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated that measurement of sleep only by duration and quality may be biased. This study aimed to investigate the interactive association of self-reported sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males. Methods: A total of 4519 Chinese adult males (≥18 years) were enrolled into the cross-sectional survey. Sleep attributes were measured from the responses to the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relevant questions in a structured questionnaire survey. The association of sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, considering the interaction between them or not. Results: Taking the potential interaction of the three aspects of sleep into consideration, only short sleep duration combined with poor sleep quality was found to be related to hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males (odds ratio (OR): 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–2.31), which could be modified by occasional and frequent shift-work schedule (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05–1.95; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40–2.79). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adult males unless poor sleep quality exists, which could be further modified by shift-work schedule. Assessment of sleep by measuring sleep duration only was not sufficient when exploring the association of sleep with hypertension. PMID:28230809

  20. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health: results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Björk, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated with three self-reported indicators of well-being: neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. Effect sizes were compared with objective (GIS-based) assessments of the same five qualities. Area-aggregated SGS was positively associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. The association with general health was mediated by physical activity and neighborhood satisfaction. Three perceived qualities had salutogenic potential: historical remains (culture), silence such that sounds of nature can be heard (serene) and species richness (lush). Spacious and wild were not appreciated. Some independent positive effects of the GIS-based index were noted, but could not be consistently attributed to specific qualities. Perceived qualities within green areas, not merely quantity, are related to aspects of well-being in suburban and rural areas.

  1. Association of Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality and Shift-Work Schedule in Relation to Hypertension Prevalence in Chinese Adult Males: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Ding, Rongjing; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2017-02-21

    Background: Previous studies indicated that measurement of sleep only by duration and quality may be biased. This study aimed to investigate the interactive association of self-reported sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males. Methods: A total of 4519 Chinese adult males (≥18 years) were enrolled into the cross-sectional survey. Sleep attributes were measured from the responses to the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relevant questions in a structured questionnaire survey. The association of sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, considering the interaction between them or not. Results: Taking the potential interaction of the three aspects of sleep into consideration, only short sleep duration combined with poor sleep quality was found to be related to hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males (odds ratio (OR): 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-2.31), which could be modified by occasional and frequent shift-work schedule (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05-1.95; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40-2.79). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adult males unless poor sleep quality exists, which could be further modified by shift-work schedule. Assessment of sleep by measuring sleep duration only was not sufficient when exploring the association of sleep with hypertension.

  2. Food insecurity, mental health and quality of life among people living with HIV commencing antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Markos; Kaestel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Girma, Tsinuel; Yilma, Daniel; Abdissa, Alemseged; Ritz, Christian; Prince, Martin; Friis, Henrik; Hanlon, Charlotte

    2016-03-03

    Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested the hypothesis that food insecurity and CMDs would be associated with poorer quality of life of PLHIV in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 348 PLHIV who were initiating antiretroviral therapy recruited from two primary care centers and a tertiary Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Food insecurity, CMD, and quality of life were measured using instruments adapted and validated in Ethiopia (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Kessler-6, and WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-ETH, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with quality of life after adjusting for confounders. The prevalence of severe household food insecurity among PLHIV was 38.7 %. After adjusting for confounders, severe food insecurity (β = -3.24, 95 % CI: -6.19; -0.29) and higher levels of CMD symptoms (β = -1.72 for each 1 point increase, 95 % CI: -1.94; -1.49) were associated with lower quality of life. Other factors associated with lower quality of life were advanced HIV disease (β = -3.80, 95 % CI: -6.18; -1.42), and being underweight (BMI = 17.0 - 18.5 kg/m(2)) (β = -3.45, 95 % CI: -6.18; -0.71). Owning more household assets was associated with higher quality of life (β = 0.99 for owning one more asset, 95 % CI: 0.09; 1.89). Poor mental health and food insecurity are associated with lower quality of life in PLHIV. There is a need for longitudinal studies to elucidate the pathways linking CMD, food insecurity and quality of life.

  3. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  4. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  6. The influence of social support on patients' quality of life after an intensive care unit discharge: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Tilburgs, Bram; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Esther C; van der Hoeven, Hans

    2015-12-01

    To determine the influence of instrumental, emotional and informative support on the quality of life of former intensive care unit (ICU) patients and to establish their preferred sources of social support. In a cross-sectional survey, former intensive care patients (n=88) completed the "social support interactions/discrepancies list", the "RAND-36 Health Survey" and reported their preferred sources of the different types of social support. A 35 bed intensive care unit in the Radboudumc university hospital in the Netherlands. Psychological, physical and social domains of quality of life and patient preferences regarding sources of social support. Instrumental and emotional support show a buffering effect on the physical dimension of the quality of life. The discrepancies between the expected and the received instrumental, informative and emotional support have a negative influence on psychological quality of life. Former ICU patients prefer receiving social support from family members rather than friends, professional caregivers or fellow former ICU patients. This study emphasises the buffering effect of social support on diminished quality of life in former intensive care patients. It is suggested that hospitals provide an intensive care after-care programme including both patients and relatives to help fulfilling this need for social support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of quality of life in head and neck cancer survivors up to 5 years after end of treatment: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wells, Mary; Swartzman, Samantha; Lang, Heidi; Cunningham, Margaret; Taylor, Lesley; Thomson, Jane; Philp, Julie; McCowan, Colin

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess quality of life (QoL) in head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors and determine factors predictive of poor QoL in the first 5 years after the end of treatment. A cross-sectional survey, including the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) measure, was sent to HNC survivors in three Scottish health regions, with responses linked to routinely collected clinical data. Independent sample t tests, ANOVAs, Pearson correlations and multiple hierarchical regressions were used to explore associations between and to determine the contribution made by demographic, lifestyle and clinical factors to predicting 'generic' and 'cancer-specific' quality of life. Two hundred eighty patients (65 %) returned questionnaires. After adjustment, multivariate analysis showed that younger age, lower socio-economic status, unemployment and self-reported comorbidity independently contributed to poorer generic and cancer-specific quality of life. In addition to these factors, having had a feeding tube or a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer were independently predictive of poorer cancer-specific quality of life. Socio-economic factors and comorbidity are important predictors of QoL in HNC survivors. These factors and the detrimental long-term effects of feeding tubes need further attention in research and practice.

  8. Associations between depression subtypes, depression severity and diet quality: cross-sectional findings from the BiDirect Study.

    PubMed

    Rahe, Corinna; Baune, Bernhard T; Unrath, Michael; Arolt, Volker; Wellmann, Jürgen; Wersching, Heike; Berger, Klaus

    2015-03-04

    Depression is supposed to be associated with an unhealthy lifestyle including poor diet. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in diet quality between patients with a clinical diagnosis of depression and population-based controls. Additionally, we aimed to examine effects of specific depression characteristics on diet by analyzing if diet quality varies between patients with distinct depression subtypes, and if depression severity is associated with diet quality. The study included 1660 participants from the BiDirect Study (n = 840 patients with depression, n = 820 population-based controls). The psychiatric assessment was based on clinical interviews and a combination of depression scales in order to provide the classification of depression subtypes and severity. Diet quality scores, reflecting the adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, were calculated on the basis of an 18-item food frequency questionnaire. Using analysis of covariance, we calculated adjusted means of diet quality scores and tested differences between groups (adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle-, and health-related factors). We found no differences in diet quality between controls and patients with depression if depression was considered as one entity. However, we did find differences between patients with distinct subtypes of depression. Patients with melancholic depression reported the highest diet quality scores, whereas patients with atypical depression reported the lowest scores. Depression severity was not associated with diet quality. Previous literature has commonly treated depression as a homogeneous entity. However, subtypes of depression may be associated with diet quality in different ways. Further studies are needed to enlighten the diet-depression relationship and the role of distinct depression subtypes.

  9. Quality of recording of diabetes in the UK: how does the GP's method of coding clinical data affect incidence estimates? Cross-sectional study using the CPRD database

    PubMed Central

    Tate, A Rosemary; Dungey, Sheena; Glew, Simon; Beloff, Natalia; Williams, Rachael; Williams, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of coding quality on estimates of the incidence of diabetes in the UK between 1995 and 2014. Design A cross-sectional analysis examining diabetes coding from 1995 to 2014 and how the choice of codes (diagnosis codes vs codes which suggest diagnosis) and quality of coding affect estimated incidence. Setting Routine primary care data from 684 practices contributing to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (data contributed from Vision (INPS) practices). Main outcome measure Incidence rates of diabetes and how they are affected by (1) GP coding and (2) excluding ‘poor’ quality practices with at least 10% incident patients inaccurately coded between 2004 and 2014. Results Incidence rates and accuracy of coding varied widely between practices and the trends differed according to selected category of code. If diagnosis codes were used, the incidence of type 2 increased sharply until 2004 (when the UK Quality Outcomes Framework was introduced), and then flattened off, until 2009, after which they decreased. If non-diagnosis codes were included, the numbers continued to increase until 2012. Although coding quality improved over time, 15% of the 666 practices that contributed data between 2004 and 2014 were labelled ‘poor’ quality. When these practices were dropped from the analyses, the downward trend in the incidence of type 2 after 2009 became less marked and incidence rates were higher. Conclusions In contrast to some previous reports, diabetes incidence (based on diagnostic codes) appears not to have increased since 2004 in the UK. Choice of codes can make a significant difference to incidence estimates, as can quality of recording. Codes and data quality should be checked when assessing incidence rates using GP data. PMID:28122831

  10. Are Staffing, Work Environment, Work Stressors, and Rationing of Care Related to Care Workers' Perception of Quality of Care? A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Hamers, Jan P H; Engberg, Sandra; Simon, Michael; Schwendimann, René

    2015-10-01

    To describe care worker-reported quality of care and to examine its relationship with staffing variables, work environment, work stressors, and implicit rationing of nursing care. Cross-sectional study. National, randomly selected sample of Swiss nursing homes, stratified according to language region and size. A total of 4311 care workers of all educational backgrounds (registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nurse aides) from 402 units in 155 nursing homes completed a survey between May 2012 and April 2013. Care worker-reported quality of care was measured with a single item; predictors were assessed with established instruments (eg, Practice Environment Scale-Nurse Working Index) adapted for nursing home use. A multilevel logistic regression model was applied to assess predictors for quality of care. Overall, 7% of care workers rated the quality of care provided as rather low or very low. Important factors related to better quality of care were higher teamwork and safety climate (odds ratio [OR] 6.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.36-8.79); better staffing and resources adequacy (OR 2.94, 95% CI 2.08-4.15); less stress due to workload (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.93); less implicit rationing of caring, rehabilitation, and monitoring (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.24-0.49); and less rationing of social care (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.92). Neither leadership nor staffing levels, staff mix, or turnover was significantly related to quality of care. Work environment factors and organizational processes are vital to provide high quality of care. The improvement of work environment, support in handling work stressors, and reduction of rationing of nursing care might be intervention points to promote high quality of care in nursing homes. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross-sectional study on quality of life among the elderly in non-governmental organizations' elderly homes in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Onunkwor, Obinna Francis; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; George, Philip Parikial; Arokiasamy, John; Yadav, Hemetram; Barua, Ankur; Shuaibu, Hassana Ojonuba

    2016-01-12

    There is a rapid increase in the population of the elderly globally, and Malaysia is anticipated to become an ageing nation in 2030. Maintaining health, social participation, reducing institutionalization, and improving quality of life of the elderly are public health challenges of the 21(st) century. Quality of life among elderly in Elderly Homes in Malaysia is under researched. This study aims to determine the quality of life and its associated factors among the Elderly in Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur. This was a cross-sectional study among 203 residents aged 60 years or more in eight randomly selected Elderly Homes in Kuala Lumpur in September 2014. Stratified simple random sampling was used to select participants. Study instruments included World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support, and a questionnaire for Socio-demographic variables. Data collection was by face to face interview. Univariate and Multivariate analysis were used to determine associations, and P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean (Standard deviation) for the physical domain was 14.3 (±2.7), 13.7 (±2.5) for the psychological domain, 10.8 (±3.4) for the social domain, and 13.0 (±2.5) for the environment domain. Factors significantly associated with quality of life included age, gender, level of education, economic status, outdoor leisure activity, physical activity, duration of residence, type of accommodation, co-morbidities, and social support. This study confirms that multiple factors are associated with quality of life among elderly in elderly homes. Social support, chronic co-morbidities, gender and outdoor leisure activity were significantly associated with all the domains of quality of life. Among the four domains of quality of life, the physical domain had the highest score while the social domain had the lowest score. This emphasizes the need for more social

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Inner Mongolia Medical University students: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan

    2016-10-30

    Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle.

  13. Long term nutritional status and quality of life following major upper gastrointestinal surgery - a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Carey, Sharon; Storey, David; Biankin, Andrew V; Martin, David; Young, Jane; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2011-12-01

    Major upper gastrointestinal surgery results in permanent alterations to the gastrointestinal tract, and previously been shown to impair nutritional status. The aim of this study was to assess long term nutritional status and quality of life in people having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery, and the relationship between the two measures. People having had major upper gastrointestinal surgery greater than 6 months ago were recruited. Nutrition assessment included weight, anthropometry, Subjective Global Assessment, dietary intake and assessment of gastrointestinal symptoms; quality of life was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Associations between nutritional status, type of surgery and quality of life were analysed. Thirty people were recruited with fourteen people showing a degree of malnutrition according to subjective global assessment. Total gastrectomy and oesophagectomy surgery resulted in significantly higher percent weight loss than those having undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (p = 0.01). Subjective global assessment correlated with quality of life (p = 0.003). Subjective global assessment and gastrointestinal symptoms were both significant variables in explaining quality of life (p < 0.001). Nutritional status in this group was significantly compromised, and impacted on quality of life. Individualised nutrition intervention to address malnutrition and gastrointestinal symptoms should be integrated into post surgery management. 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health-related quality of life of patients with severe heart failure. A cross-sectional multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Fotos, Nikolaos V; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Kollia, Zoi; Galanis, Petros; Copanitsanou, Panagiota; Pananoudaki, Evangelia; Brokalaki, Hero

    2013-09-01

    Heart failure is a serious chronic syndrome that is accompanied by significant physical and psychological burdens, resulting in poor quality of life. To assess the quality of life of patients with severe heart failure and its correlation with patient demographic, socio-economic and clinical characteristics. We studied 199 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized in the Cardiology Department of three general hospitals of Greece during a 1-year period. Demographic and socio-economic data were obtained using a short questionnaire, while clinical data were obtained from medical record review. The assessment of the patients' quality of life was performed using Minnesota Life with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLWHFQ). The mean MLWHFQ score was 62.7 (±20.3). Significantly lower quality of life was found in patients with diabetes mellitus (Coefficient beta (β)=11.4; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 5.2-17.5), hypertension (β=10.3; CI, 1.4-19.1), chronic renal failure (β=13.9; CI, 5.9-21.9), chronic respiratory failure (β=11.2; CI, 4.7-17.7), cancer (β=12.3; CI, 2.3-22.4), psychiatric disease (β=10.5; CI, 0.6-20.4) and those patients who were classified in New York Heart Association class IV (β=10.6, CI=4.1-17.0). The average score of the MLWHFQ was high, and this reflects the poor quality of life of patients. Higher scores in specific patient groups show the negative influence of these factors in quality of life. The holistic care of patients with heart failure by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals could improve their quality of life. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  15. Social Anxiety and Quality of Life in Vitiligo and Acne Patients with Facial Involvement: A Cross-Sectional Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Salman, Andac; Kurt, Emel; Topcuoglu, Volkan; Demircay, Zeynep

    2016-06-01

    Vitiligo and acne vulgaris, commonly affecting the face, have significant psychological effects and impair the quality of life of the affected individuals. Because of their negative effect on physical appearance, these conditions may act as a potential barrier to social relationships and cause social anxiety. The objective of the study was to investigate the social anxiety, quality of life, anxiety, and depression levels of acne and vitiligo patients with facial involvement and compare these levels with healthy controls. Thirty-seven vitiligo and 37 acne patients, aged older than 18 years, with facial involvement and 74 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. The patients and healthy controls were asked to complete the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Dermatology Life Quality Index. Disease severity was evaluated both objectively by the physician and subjectively by the patients using a visual analog scale. Social anxiety, depression, and anxiety levels of vitiligo and acne patients were significantly higher than healthy controls (p < 0.05). Quality of life was impaired in both patient groups (Dermatology Life Quality Index scores for vitiligo: 5.6 ± 5.1; acne: 6.4 ± 6.2). There was no correlation between psychiatric scale scores and disease severity. Quality of life was negatively correlated with social anxiety and depression levels in both patient groups in our study. Vitiligo and acne patients had higher levels of social anxiety, anxiety, and depression compared with healthy control subjects. Considering that increased psychosocial morbidity was regardless of age, sex, and disease severity and was correlated with quality of life impairment, evaluation of the psychosocial morbidity, in particular social anxiety, may be valuable in all vitiligo and acne patients.

  16. A cross-sectional study of the radiation dose and image quality of X-ray equipment used in IVR.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Chida, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ryota; Zuguchi, Masayuki

    2016-07-01

    There are case reports of injuries caused by the radiation from interventional radiology (IVR) X-ray systems. Therefore, the management of radiation doses in IVR is important. However, no detailed report has evaluated image quality for a large number of IVR X-ray systems. As a result, it is unclear whether the image quality of the X-ray equipment currently used in IVR procedures is optimal. We compared the entrance surface doses and image quality of multiple IVR X-ray systems. This study was conducted in 2014 at 13 medical facilities using 18 IVR X-ray systems. We evaluated image quality and simultaneously measured the radiation dose. Entrance surface doses for fluoroscopy (duration, 1 min) and cineradiography (duration, 10 s) are measured using a 20-cm-thick acrylic plate and skin dose monitor. The image quality (such as spatial resolution and low-contrast detectability) of both fluoroscopy and cineradiography was evaluated using a QC phantom. For fluoroscopy, the average entrance surface dose using the 20-cm-thick acrylic plate was 13.9 (range 2.1-28.2) mGy/min. For cineradiography, the average entrance surface dose was 24.6 (range 5.1-49.3) mGy/10 s. We found positive correlations between radiation doses and image quality scores, in general, especially for fluoroscopy. The differences in surface dose among the 18 IVR X-ray systems were high (max/min, 9.7-fold for cineradiography; 13.4-fold for fluoroscopy). The differences in image quality scores (spatial resolution, low-contrast detectability, and dynamic range) were also very large. In general, there tended to be a correlation between radiation dose and image quality. Periodical measurements of the radiation dose and image quality of the X-ray equipment used for cineradiography and fluoroscopy in IVR are necessary. The need to minimize patient exposure requires that the dose be reduced to the minimum level that will generate an image with an acceptable degree of noise. PACS number(s): 87.57.C, 87.57.uq, 87

  17. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  18. Exposure–Response Relationship Between Aircraft Noise and Sleep Quality: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Chai, Sang Kug; Lee, Keou Won; Park, Jae-Beom; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Kil, Hyun Gwon; Lee, Chan; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to aircraft noise has been shown to have adverse health effects, causing annoyance and affecting the health-related quality of life, sleep, and mental states of those exposed to it. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in participants residing near an airfield and to evaluate the relationship between the levels of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Methods Neighboring regions of a military airfield were divided into three groups: a high exposure group, a low exposure group, and a control group. A total of 1082 participants (aged 30–79 years) completed a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire requesting information about demographics, medical history, lifestyle, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results Of the 1082 participants, 1005 qualified for this study. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 45.5% in the control group, 71.8% in the low exposure group, and 77.1% in the high exposure group (p for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we determined the exposure–response relationship between the degree of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Of the participants with a normal mental status, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 2.61-fold higher in the low exposure group and 3.52-fold higher in the high exposure group than in the control group. Conclusion The relationship between aircraft noise and health should be further evaluated through a large-scale follow-up study. PMID:24955321

  19. Exposure-Response Relationship Between Aircraft Noise and Sleep Quality: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Chai, Sang Kug; Lee, Keou Won; Park, Jae-Beom; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Kil, Hyun Gwon; Lee, Chan; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to aircraft noise has been shown to have adverse health effects, causing annoyance and affecting the health-related quality of life, sleep, and mental states of those exposed to it. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in participants residing near an airfield and to evaluate the relationship between the levels of aircraft noise and sleep quality. NEIGHBORING REGIONS OF A MILITARY AIRFIELD WERE DIVIDED INTO THREE GROUPS: a high exposure group, a low exposure group, and a control group. A total of 1082 participants (aged 30-79 years) completed a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire requesting information about demographics, medical history, lifestyle, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Of the 1082 participants, 1005 qualified for this study. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 45.5% in the control group, 71.8% in the low exposure group, and 77.1% in the high exposure group (p for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we determined the exposure-response relationship between the degree of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Of the participants with a normal mental status, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 2.61-fold higher in the low exposure group and 3.52-fold higher in the high exposure group than in the control group. The relationship between aircraft noise and health should be further evaluated through a large-scale follow-up study.

  20. Higher Dietary Cost Is Associated with Higher Diet Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study among Selected Malaysian Adults.

    PubMed

    Pondor, Ibnteesam; Gan, Wan Ying; Appannah, Geeta

    2017-09-16

    Food price is a determining factor of food choices; however its relationship with diet quality is unclear in Malaysia. This study aimed to examine socio-economic characteristics and daily dietary cost (DDC) in relation to diet quality in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Dietary intake was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and diet quality was estimated using a Malaysian Healthy Eating Index (M-HEI). DDC in Malaysian Ringgit (RM) was calculated from dietary intake and national food prices. Linear regression models were fitted to determine associations between DDC and M-HEI scores and predictors of diet quality. The mean M-HEI score of respondents was 61.31 ± 10.88 and energy adjusted DDC was RM10.71/2000 kcal (USD 2.49). The highest quintile of adjusted DDC had higher M-HEI scores for all respondents (Q1: 57.14 ± 10.07 versus Q5: 63.26 ± 11.54, p = 0.001). There were also positive associations between DDC and M-HEI scores for fruits (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p = 0.017) for all respondents. Predictors of diet quality included carbohydrate (β = 0290; p < 0.001) and fat intakes (β = -0.242; p < 0.001) and energy adjusted DDC (β = 0.196; p < 0.001). Higher dietary cost is associated with healthy eating among Malaysian adults.

  1. Effect of Qigong on quality of life: a cross-sectional population-based comparison study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Qigong, similar to Tai Chi Chuan, is beneficial to health. In Taiwan, Waitankung, a type of Qigong, is as popular as Tai Chi Chuan. This population-based comparison study compares the health-related quality of life between people practicing Waitankung and their comparable community residents. Methods A total of 165 individuals practicing Waitankung were matched by age and sex with 660 general individuals for comparison. Information about health-related quality of life, measured by the SF-36, and other basic and health conditions was obtained from the questionnaires. This study used the linear mixed-effect regression model to examine the association between health-related quality of life and the practice of Waitankung. Results Compared with either sedentary individuals or individuals practicing other types of exercise, the Waitankung group scored higher for eight and five out of ten SF-36 components, respectively. The Waitankung group scored better in general health, vitality, and physical component summary compared to individuals participating in other types of exercise, even when considering the energy expended by exercise. Conclusion The results suggest that Waitankung exercising is significantly associated with health-related quality of life. Waitankung may serve as an exercise choice for middle-aged and older people to improve overall quality of life. PMID:21740594

  2. The challenges of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Layani, Géraldine; Fleet, Richard; Dallaire, Renée; Tounkara, Fatoumata K; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Ouimet, Mathieu; Gauthier, Josée; Dupuis, Gilles; Tanguay, Alain; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Haggerty, Jeannie; Légaré, France

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based indicators of quality of care have been developed to improve care and performance in Canadian emergency departments. The feasibility of measuring these indicators has been assessed mainly in urban and academic emergency departments. We sought to assess the feasibility of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments in Quebec. We previously identified rural emergency departments in Quebec that offered medical coverage with hospital beds 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and were located in rural areas or small towns as defined by Statistics Canada. A standardized protocol was sent to each emergency department to collect data on 27 validated quality-of-care indicators in 8 categories: duration of stay, patient safety, pain management, pediatrics, cardiology, respiratory care, stroke and sepsis/infection. Data were collected by local professional medical archivists between June and December 2013. Fifteen (58%) of the 26 emergency departments invited to participate completed data collection. The ability to measure the 27 quality-of-care indicators with the use of databases varied across departments. Centres 2, 5, 6 and 13 used databases for at least 21 of the indicators (78%-92%), whereas centres 3, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 15 used databases for 5 (18%) or fewer of the indicators. On average, the centres were able to measure only 41% of the indicators using heterogeneous databases and manual extraction. The 15 centres collected data from 15 different databases or combinations of databases. The average data collection time for each quality-of-care indicator varied from 5 to 88.5 minutes. The median data collection time was 15 minutes or less for most indicators. Quality-of-care indicators were not easily captured with the use of existing databases in rural emergency departments in Quebec. Further work is warranted to improve standardized measurement of these indicators in rural emergency departments in the province and to generalize the

  3. Social support and Quality of Life: a cross-sectional study on survivors eight months after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake resulted in extensive loss of life and physical and psychological injuries for survivors. This research examines the relationship between social support and health-related quality of life for the earthquake survivors. Methods A multistage cluster sampling strategy was employed to select participants from 11 shelters in nine counties exposed to different degrees of earthquake damage, for a questionnaire survey. The participants were asked to complete the Short Form 36 and the Social Support Rating Scale eight months after the earthquake struck. A total of 1617 participants returned the questionnaires. The quality of life of the survivors (in the four weeks preceding the survey) was compared with that of the general population in the region. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and canonical correlation analysis were performed to determine the association between social support and quality of life. Results The earthquake survivors reported poorer quality of life than the general population, with an average of 4.8% to 19.62% reduction in scores of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that those with stronger social support were more likely to have better quality of life. The canonical correlation analysis found that there was a discrepancy between actual social support received and perceived social support available, and the magnitude of this discrepancy was inversely related to perceived general health (rs = 0.467), and positively related to mental health (rs = 0.395). Conclusion Social support is associated with quality of life in the survivors of the earthquake. More attention needs to be paid to increasing social support for those with poorer mental health. PMID:20863410

  4. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  5. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  6. Quality of life in schizophrenia on conventional versus atypical antipsychotic medication: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, Ann M; Al-Agib, Ahmed Omar Ahmed

    2007-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs, with superior tolerability and possibly superior efficacy, were expected to give schizophrenia patients better quality of life (QOL) than conventional treatment. Research findings are equivocal. We evaluated QOL using three subjective measures--Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI); Sickness Impact Profile (SIP); Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS)--in 126 routinely seen patients whose treatment was stable for six months, regardless of co-morbidity, current clinical status and concomitant medications. Severity of disorder was assessed with the Global Assessment Schedule (GAS). Fifty patients were on conventional treatment and 76 on atypical treatment. Atypical patients were more likely to be abusing substances (p = 0.02) and living independently (p = 0.00). Conventionally treated patients were older than atypically treated patients. Conventionally treated patients suffered schizophrenia almost twice as long as atypically treated patients. Atypically treated patients enjoyed substantially better quality of life than conventionally treated patients on all measures. The effects of confounding variables, i.e. age, duration, accommodation, co-morbid substance misuse and time spent in hospital, were evaluated with the General Linear Model. This confirmed the status of drug treatment as the primary predictor of all aspects of QOL. We conclude that quality of life is genuinely superior on atypical treatment even allowing for the confounding effects of differential prescribing habits: atypical treatment tends to be reserved for younger, less seriously ill patients. There is no scientific or clinical rationale to support this practice.

  7. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  8. Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Paarlahti, Pilvi; Kurppa, Kalle; Ukkola, Anniina; Collin, Pekka; Huhtala, Heini; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri

    2013-04-30

    Evidence suggests that many coeliac disease patients suffer from persistent clinical symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life despite a strict gluten-free diet. We aimed to find predictors for these continuous health concerns in long-term treated adult coeliac patients. In a nationwide study, 596 patients filled validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires and were interviewed regarding demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment of coeliac disease, time and place of diagnosis and presence of coeliac disease-associated or other co-morbidities. Dietary adherence was assessed by a combination of self-reported adherence and serological tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression. Diagnosis at working age, long duration and severity of symptoms before diagnosis and presence of thyroidal disease, non-coeliac food intolerance or gastrointestinal co-morbidity increased the risk of persistent symptoms. Patients with extraintestinal presentation at diagnosis had fewer current symptoms than subjects with gastrointestinal manifestations. Impaired quality of life was seen in patients with long duration of symptoms before diagnosis and in those with psychiatric, neurologic or gastrointestinal co-morbidities. Patients with persistent symptoms were more likely to have reduced quality of life. There were a variety of factors predisposing to increased symptoms and impaired quality of life in coeliac disease. Based on our results, early diagnosis of the condition and consideration of co-morbidities may help in resolving long-lasting health problems in coeliac disease.

  9. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  10. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  11. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rappazzo, Kristen M; Messer, Lynne C; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Gray, Christine L; Grabich, Shannon C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2015-06-09

    Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measure of cumulative environmental exposure across all US counties from 2000-2005, was used to investigate associations between ambient environment and PTB. With 2000-2005 birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics for the United States (n = 24,483,348), we estimated the association between increasing quintiles of the EQI and county-level and individual-level PTB; we also considered environmental domain-specific (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment) and urban-rural stratifications. Effect estimates for the relationship between environmental quality and PTB varied by domain and by urban-rural strata but were consistent across county- and individual-level analyses. The county-level prevalence difference (PD (95% confidence interval) for the non-stratified EQI comparing the highest quintile (poorest environmental quality) to the lowest quintile (best environmental quality) was -0.0166 (-0.0198, -0.0134). The air and sociodemographic domains had the strongest associations with PTB; PDs were 0.0196 (0.0162, 0.0229) and -0.0262 (-0.0300, -0.0224) for the air and sociodemographic domain indices, respectively. Within the most urban strata, the PD for the sociodemographic domain index was 0.0256 (0.0205, 0.0307). Odds ratios (OR) for the individual-level analysis were congruent with PDs. We observed both strong positive and negative associations between measures of broad environmental quality and preterm birth. Associations differed by rural-urban stratum and by the five environmental domains. Our study demonstrates the use of a large scale composite environment exposure metric with preterm birth, an important indicator of population health and shows potential for future

  12. Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the

  13. Patient safety and quality improvement education: a cross-sectional study of medical students' preferences and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Teigland, Claire L; Blasiak, Rachel C; Wilson, Lindsay A; Hines, Rachel E; Meyerhoff, Karen L; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-02-05

    Recent educational initiatives by both the World Health Organization and the American Association of Medical Colleges have endorsed integrating teaching of patient safety and quality improvement (QI) to medical students. Curriculum development should take into account learners' attitudes and preferences. We surveyed students to assess preferences and attitudes about QI and patient safety education. An electronic survey was developed through focus groups, literature review, and local expert opinion and distributed via email to all medical students at a single medical school in the spring of 2012. A greater proportion of students reported previous exposure to patient safety than to quality improvement topics (79% vs. 47%). More than 80% of students thought patient safety was of the same or greater importance than basic science or clinical skills whereas quality improvement was rated as the same or more important by about 70% of students. Students rated real life examples of quality improvement projects and participation in these projects with actual patients as potentially the most helpful (mean scores 4.2/5 and 3.9/5 respectively). For learning about patient safety, real life examples of mistakes were again rated most highly (mean scores 4.5/5 for MD presented mistakes and 4.1/5 for patient presented mistakes). Students rated QI as very important to their future career regardless of intended specialty (mean score 4.5/5). Teaching of patient safety and quality improvement to medical students will be best received if it is integrated into clinical education rather than solely taught in pre-clinical lectures or through independent computer modules. Students recognize that these topics are important to their careers as future physicians regardless of intended specialty.

  14. Environmental exposure to arsenic may reduce human semen quality: associations derived from a Chinese cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As) is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure. Methods We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n = 96) were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality. Results Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, μg g-1 creatinine) of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8) for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7) for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33) for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67) for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV). DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA. Conclusion Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort. PMID:22776062

  15. Bladder and bowel dysfunction affect quality of life. A cross sectional study of 60 patients with aquaporin-4 antibody positive Neuromyelitis Optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Kerry; Zhao, Sizheng; Hamid, Shahd; Methley, Abigail; Elsone, Liene; Singh, Gurpreet; Young, Carolyn; Emmanuel, Anton; Panicker, Jalesh; Jacob, Anu

    2015-11-01

    Transverse myelitis (TM) associated with Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) can be severe and is well known to reduce mobility early in the disease. However the burden of bladder and bowel dysfunction is unknown and overlooked. We studied the frequency of bladder and bowel dysfunction and their impact on quality of life. A cross-sectional study of 60 patients who had AQP4-IgG positive NMO associated TM was performed using the Bladder Control Scale, Lower Urinary Tract Quality of Life, Bowel Control Scale and Neurogenic Bowel Score, Short-Form-36 Health Survey and EDSS. The relationships between the variables were analysed with multiple linear regression. Fifty women and 10 men participated. 78% (47/60) patients reported bladder symptoms and a similar number reported bowel problems. 87% (52/60) patients reported either bladder or bowel dysfunction. 65% (39/60) developed residual symptoms after the first episode of myelitis and the remaining by the second episode. Both bladder and bowel dysfunction reduced quality of life and required modification of lifestyle in 83% (39/47) and 70% (33/47) respectively. Bladder and bowel dysfunction is very common in NMO associated myelitis developing early in the disease and significantly affects quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comorbidities, metabolic risk profile and health-related quality of life in German patients with plaque-type psoriasis: a cross-sectional prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Arnd; Kupke, Carina; Behzad, Melika; Hertl, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Patients with psoriasis experience a higher risk of cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities and have a high burden of treatment. There is still a gap between treatment options and quality of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic data, comorbidities, and the limitations of quality of life in patients with plaque-type psoriasis. This epidemiological evaluation was designed as a single-center, cross-sectional, prospective study in Marburg, Germany. To investigate the association between mild to severe psoriasis and comorbidities, data were obtained from 133 patients. The average Psoriasis Area and Severity Index was 13.4, and the average Dermatology Life Quality Index was 6.3. Among the patients with severe psoriasis, 95% had been prescribed systemic treatments. Comorbidities were evaluated, with depression 30.8%, arterial hypertension 39.1%, and hypercholesterolemia 20.3% in all patients. Our findings underscore the importance of cardiovascular and metabolic risk screening for all patients with psoriasis. There is still a need for systemic treatments and the definition of treatment goals for psoriasis as a systemic inflammatory disease. Such goals should integrate parameters that include comorbidities and an improvement in health-related quality of life. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. The interaction between erectile dysfunction complaints and depression in men: a cross-sectional study about sleep, hormones and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Soterio-Pires, J H; Hirotsu, C; Kim, L J; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2017-03-01

    Depression (DEP) is one of the main disabling diseases and is considered a contributor factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Both of these conditions may be associated with hormonal changes and sleep disturbances. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ED complaints and depression symptoms on sleep parameters, hormone levels and quality of life in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 468 men aged 20-80 years. The participants were classified according to the presence of ED and/or DEP in groups of healthy individuals, ED, DEP and DEP with ED (DEP-ED). All participants completed questionnaires about sleep, clinical history and quality of life, and underwent polysomnography with blood collection the following morning. ED participants showed higher frequency of insomnia symptoms (65.5%), whereas DEP group had more complaints of difficulty in falling asleep and early morning awakening. In the polysomnography, all groups showed similar parameters. No differences were found in cortisol and total testosterone levels; however, free testosterone levels and the physiological domain of quality of life were lower in DEP-ED group. ED and DEP, as independent factors, negatively affected subjective sleep parameters. The interaction between these factors led to a low quality of life and was related to a decrease in free testosterone levels.

  18. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  19. The challenges of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Layani, Géraldine; Fleet, Richard; Dallaire, Renée; Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Ouimet, Mathieu; Gauthier, Josée; Dupuis, Gilles; Tanguay, Alain; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Haggerty, Jeannie; Légaré, France

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based indicators of quality of care have been developed to improve care and performance in Canadian emergency departments. The feasibility of measuring these indicators has been assessed mainly in urban and academic emergency departments. We sought to assess the feasibility of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments in Quebec. Methods: We previously identified rural emergency departments in Quebec that offered medical coverage with hospital beds 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and were located in rural areas or small towns as defined by Statistics Canada. A standardized protocol was sent to each emergency department to collect data on 27 validated quality-of-care indicators in 8 categories: duration of stay, patient safety, pain management, pediatrics, cardiology, respiratory care, stroke and sepsis/infection. Data were collected by local professional medical archivists between June and December 2013. Results: Fifteen (58%) of the 26 emergency departments invited to participate completed data collection. The ability to measure the 27 quality-of-care indicators with the use of databases varied across departments. Centres 2, 5, 6 and 13 used databases for at least 21 of the indicators (78%-92%), whereas centres 3, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 15 used databases for 5 (18%) or fewer of the indicators. On average, the centres were able to measure only 41% of the indicators using heterogeneous databases and manual extraction. The 15 centres collected data from 15 different databases or combinations of databases. The average data collection time for each quality-of-care indicator varied from 5 to 88.5 minutes. The median data collection time was 15 minutes or less for most indicators. Interpretation: Quality-of-care indicators were not easily captured with the use of existing databases in rural emergency departments in Quebec. Further work is warranted to improve standardized measurement of these indicators in rural emergency departments

  20. Breast cancer on the world wide web: cross sectional survey of quality of information and popularity of websites

    PubMed Central

    Meric, Funda; Bernstam, Elmer V; Mirza, Nadeem Q; Hunt, Kelly K; Ames, Frederick C; Ross, Merrick I; Kuerer, Henry M; Pollock, Raphael E; Musen, Mark A; Singletary, S Eva

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To determine the characteristics of popular breast cancer related websites and whether more popular sites are of higher quality. Design The search engine Google was used to generate a list of websites about breast cancer. Google ranks search results by measures of link popularity—the number of links to a site from other sites. The top 200 sites returned in response to the query “breast cancer” were divided into “more popular” and “less popular” subgroups by three different measures of link popularity: Google rank and number of links reported independently by Google and by AltaVista (another search engine). Main outcome measures Type and quality of content. Results More popular sites according to Google rank were more likely than less popular ones to contain information on ongoing clinical trials (27% v 12%, P=0.01 ), results of trials (12% v 3%, P=0.02), and opportunities for psychosocial adjustment (48% v 23%, P<0.01). These characteristics were also associated with higher number of links as reported by Google and AltaVista. More popular sites by number of linking sites were also more likely to provide updates on other breast cancer research, information on legislation and advocacy, and a message board service. Measures of quality such as display of authorship, attribution or references, currency of information, and disclosure did not differ between groups. Conclusions Popularity of websites is associated with type rather than quality of content. Sites that include content correlated with popularity may best meet the public's desire for information about breast cancer. What is already known on this topicPatients are using the world wide web to search for health informationBreast cancer is one of the most popular search topicsCharacteristics of popular websites may reflect the information needs of patientsWhat this study addsType rather than quality of content correlates with popularity of websitesMeasures of quality correlate with accuracy

  1. Assessing health-care providers' readiness for reporting quality and patient safety indicators at primary health-care centres in Lebanon: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Alameddine, Mohamad; Saleh, Shadi; Natafgi, Nabil

    2015-05-22

    Successful endorsement of quality indicators hinges on the readiness and acceptability of care providers for those measures. This paper aims to assess the readiness of care providers in the primary health-care sector in Lebanon for the implementation of quality and patient safety indicators. A cross-sectional survey methodology was utilized to gather information from 943 clinical care providers working at 123 primary health-care centres in Lebanon. The questionnaire included two sections: the first assessed four readiness dimensions (appropriateness, management support, efficacy, and personal valence) of clinical providers to use quality and safety indicators using the Readiness for Organization Change (ROC) scale, and the second section assessed the safety attitude at the primary care centre utilizing the Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ)-Ambulatory version. Although two thirds (66%) of respondents indicated readiness for implementation of quality and patient safety indicators in their centres, there appear to be differences by professional group. Physicians displayed the lowest scores on all readiness dimensions except for personal valence which was the lowest among nurses (60%). In contrast, allied health professionals displayed the highest scores across all readiness dimensions. Generally, respondents reflected a positive safety attitude climate in the centres. Yet, there remain a few areas of concern related to punitive culture (only 12.8% agree that staff should not be punished for reported errors/incidents), continuity of care (41.1% believe in the negative consequences of lack in continuity of care process), and resources (48.1% believe that the medical equipment they have are adequate). Providers with the highest SAQ score had 2.7, 1.7, 7 and 2.4 times the odds to report a higher readiness on the appropriateness, efficacy, management and personal valence ROC subscales, respectively (P value <0.01). Nurses

  2. Predictors of persistent symptoms and reduced quality of life in treated coeliac disease patients: a large cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that many coeliac disease patients suffer from persistent clinical symptoms and reduced health-related quality of life despite a strict gluten-free diet. We aimed to find predictors for these continuous health concerns in long-term treated adult coeliac patients. Methods In a nationwide study, 596 patients filled validated Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale and Psychological General Well-Being questionnaires and were interviewed regarding demographic data, clinical presentation and treatment of coeliac disease, time and place of diagnosis and presence of coeliac disease-associated or other co-morbidities. Dietary adherence was assessed by a combination of self-reported adherence and serological tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by binary logistic regression. Results Diagnosis at working age, long duration and severity of symptoms before diagnosis and presence of thyroidal disease, non-coeliac food intolerance or gastrointestinal co-morbidity increased the risk of persistent symptoms. Patients with extraintestinal presentation at diagnosis had fewer current symptoms than subjects with gastrointestinal manifestations. Impaired quality of life was seen in patients with long duration of symptoms before diagnosis and in those with psychiatric, neurologic or gastrointestinal co-morbidities. Patients with persistent symptoms were more likely to have reduced quality of life. Conclusions There were a variety of factors predisposing to increased symptoms and impaired quality of life in coeliac disease. Based on our results, early diagnosis of the condition and consideration of co-morbidities may help in resolving long-lasting health problems in coeliac disease. PMID:23631482

  3. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Time kinetics of physical activity, sitting, and quality of life measures within a regional workplace: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Daniel B; Devine, Sue; Sealey, Rebecca M; Leicht, Anthony S

    2016-08-15

    Interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviours within the workplace have been previously investigated. However, the evolution of these constructs without intervention has not been well documented. This retrospective study explored the natural progression or time kinetics of physical activity, sedentary behaviours and quality of life in a professional skilled workplace where focussed interventions were lacking. Participants (n = 346) employed as full-time staff members at a regional university completed an online survey in 2013 assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviours via the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and quality of life via the Short-Form 36v2 questionnaire. Differences between that cohort of participants and an initial sample of similar participants (2009, n = 297), accounting for gender and staff categories (academic vs. professional), were examined using ANCOVAs with working hours as a co-variate. In comparison to the initial cohort, the follow-up cohort reported significantly less leisure-time, total walking, total vigorous and total physical activity levels, and lower overall physical health for quality of life (p < 0.05). In contrast, the follow-up cohort reported a significantly greater weekly sitting time, greater mental health scores for quality of life and greater total moderate physical activity levels (p < 0.05) compared to the initial cohort. Over a 4-year timeframe and without focussed workplace interventions, total physical activity levels were lower with sedentary behaviours greater at a rate twice that reported previously. Continuation of these undesirable health behaviours may impact negatively on worker productivity and health at a greater rate than that currently reported. Workplace interventions targeting sedentary behaviours and physical activity should be actively incorporated into organisations to counteract the alarming behavioural trends found in this study to

  5. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Poole, S A; Hart, C N; Jelalian, E; Raynor, H A

    2016-04-01

    Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4-9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food) . After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOW(food+bev) and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGH(food+bev) and HIGHfood , with higher scores indicating greater quality. Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. © 2015 World Obesity.

  6. Improvement in Trainees' Attitude and Resuscitation Quality With Repeated Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training: Cross-Sectional Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hun; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Hong, Dae Young; Baek, Kwang Je; Park, Sang O

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of increasing numbers of training sessions in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for hospital employees was held every year from 2006 to 2010. Participants were recruited among the trainees in 2010. The trainees' attitudes toward CPR were surveyed by questionnaire, and the quality of their CPR was measured using 5-cycle 30:2 CPR on a manikin. Participants were categorized according to the number of consecutive CPR training sessions as T1 (only 2010), T2 (2009 and 2010), T3 (from 2008 to 2010) and T4-5 (from 2006 or 2007 to 2010). The trainee attitude and CPR quality were compared among the 4 groups. Of 923 CPR trainees, 267 were enrolled in the study. There was significant increase in willingness to start CPR and confidence in chest compression and mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MTMV) with increasing number of CPR training sessions attended (especially for ≥ 3 sessions). There was a significant increase in mean compression depth and decrease in percentage of chest compressions with depth of less than 38 mm in the T3 and T4-5 compared with the T1 and T2. No-flow time decreased significantly, and the percentage of MTMV with visible chest rise increased, as the number of training sessions increased. Repeated CPR training improved trainees' attitude and CPR quality. Because the number of training sessions increased (≥3), the willingness to start CPR and the confidence in skills increased significantly, and chest compression depth, no-flow time, and MTMV improved.

  7. Relationship between dietary energy density and dietary quality in overweight young children: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Poole, S. A.; Hart, C. N.; Jelalian, E.; Raynor, H. A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Observational research has found that lower energy density (ED) diets are related to reduced intake of fat and greater intake of fruits and vegetables. No study has examined the relationship between dietary ED and dietary quality, as determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI), in children who are overweight and obese. Objective Examine the relationship between dietary ED and HEI, determined from 3-d food records, in 156 children, aged 4–9 years, who had ≥85th percentile body mass index presenting for family-based obesity treatment. Method Dietary ED, in kcal/g, was calculated using two methods: food and all beverages consumed (food+bev) and food only consumed (food). For calculation of HEI, all components of the HEI were included except oils. Results Participants were classified as consuming a low-ED, medium-ED or high-ED diet using tertile cut-off points with ED calculated using food and beverages(food+bev) or food only(food). After controlling for group difference in child sex and race and parent sex, LOWfood+bev and LOWfood had significantly (P < 0.05) higher total HEI scores, and total fruit, total vegetable and saturated fat HEI scores than HIGHfood+bev and HIGHfood, with higher scores indicating greater quality. Conclusions Lower dietary ED is associated with higher dietary quality in children presenting for obesity treatment. Additional research investigating an ED prescription on dietary quality in children who are overweight or obese is needed to better understand this relationship. PMID:25914331

  8. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia de; Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues de; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  9. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between disease progression and different health-related quality of life domains in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Imelda J M; Post, Marcel W M; van Heuveln, Tineke; Van den Berg, Leonard H; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-12-01

    In ALS it would be expected that quality of life (QoL) would be decreased. However, studies to date show diverging results. Our study focuses on how ALS affects QoL on the different domains of the SF-36 cross-sectionally and during progression. The method used was a prospective cohort study, with assessments at baseline, at six months, and at one year. Patients were included with possible, probable or definite ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria and were between 30 and 70 years of age. ALS functional rating scale was used to establish disease status, SF-36 as QoL scale. At baseline 73 completed ALSFRS forms were available and 62 completed SF-36 forms. The ALSFRS showed disease progression. SF-36 scores showed lower QoL scores of persons with ALS compared to the general population both in cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects in the domains of Physical Functioning, Role Physical, and Social Functioning, but similar compared with the general population in the Mental Health and Role Emotional domains. This study shows deteriorating physical health but stable mental health, thereby illustrating the diverging correlations between ALS severity and HRQoL. The diverging pattern of physical and mental health suggests a frame-shift in the experience of HRQoL.

  10. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  11. Health-related quality of life in adults with irritable bowel syndrome in a Mexican specialist hospital. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Cuén, Jaime Alberto; Irineo Cabrales, Ana Bertha; Bernal Magaña, Gregorio; Peraza Garay, Felipe de Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Evidence shows the negative impact of irritable bowel syndrome on the quality of life of patients who suffer from the condition as compared to the general population. The objective of this study was to determine the health-related quality of life in adults with irritable bowel syndrome who are receiving treatment at a specialist hospital. The study had a cross-sectional prospective design. The study included consecutive patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome under the Rome III criteria and attending outpatient appointments. The SF-36 questionnaire was applied in its standard Spanish version and the results were compared with population reference scores in Mexico. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student's t test, analysis of variance and the Chi-squared test, considering a significance of 0.05%. One hundred and fifty-four patients were included in the study, 137 (89%) women and 17 (11%) men, with an average age of 52.8 (SD 12.6). The constipation, diarrhea and mixed subtypes comprised 85 (55.2%), 27 (17.5%) and 42 (27.3%) patients, respectively. The quality of life of patients with irritable bowel syndrome vs the population reference scores in Mexico were 50 vs 79 for the physical health sub-scale and 59.1 vs 76.7 for the mental health sub-scale, respectively (p = 0.000). No significant difference was found in quality of life among the irritable bowel syndrome subtypes (p > 0.05). Health-related quality of life is lower in patients with irritable bowel syndrome in a population in the North East of Mexico compared to the data taken from a population reference study undertaken in the same country, enabling an inference in the female population and a cautious one from the results found in the small male sample studied. There was no significant difference found in the quality of life according to the clinical subtype of irritable bowel syndrome.

  12. Health-related quality of life of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD: the multicentre cross-sectional ACHILLE study.

    PubMed

    Amedro, Pascal; Basquin, Adeline; Gressin, Virginie; Clerson, Pierre; Jais, Xavier; Thambo, Jean-Benoit; Guerin, Patrice; Cohen, Sarah; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess health-related quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD and correlations with clinical status. This prospective cross-sectional observational study included CHD patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension in 14 tertiary-care centres in France. We used two health-related quality of life questionnaires - SF-36 and Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (CAMPHOR) - and one anxiety/depression Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. Clinical data were collected for the 208 included patients (mean age: 42.6 years, range from 15.1 to 85.8 years, 69.7% female). Most patients were in NYHA functional class II (48.1%) and III (37.5%). Patients' phenotype was classified as Eisenmenger syndrome (70.7%), pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic-to-pulmonary shunts (12.0%), with small defects (3.4%), or after corrective cardiac surgery (13.9%). In total, 76.4% of the patients were receiving pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific treatments. SF-36 scores showed impairment compared with normalised data. Health-related quality of life scores were significantly lower in females than in males for most dimensions of both questionnaires and were independent of the patients' phenotype, even after gender adjustment - except for CAMPHOR functioning - but significantly depended on NYHA functional class. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores suggested anxiety and depression associated with increasing NYHA functional class but independent of patients' phenotype. NYHA functional class, 6-minute walk distance, HADS, gender, and recent stressful event significantly affected quality of life in the multivariate analysis. This study showed impairment of quality of life in a large cohort of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with CHD with both generic and specific questionnaires. NYHA functional class and HADS scores were predictive

  13. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-12-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0-9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Nationally representative sample of the US population. Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005-2006 NHANES (n 4419). Participants with high PDQ (33 %) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high v. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention.

  14. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study).

    PubMed

    Groene, O; Lombarts, M J M H; Klazinga, N; Alonso, J; Thompson, A; Suñol, R

    2009-02-01

    There is growing recognition of patients' contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess whether these strategies are associated with hospital characteristics and the development of the hospital's quality improvement system. Cross-sectional survey of 351 European hospital managers and professionals. Patients' rights, patient information and empowerment, patient involvement in quality management, learning from patients, and patient hotel services at the hospital and ward level were assessed. The hypothesis that the implementation of strategies to improve patient-centredness is associated with hospital characteristics, including maturity of the hospital's quality management system, was tested using binary logistic regression. In general, hospitals reported high implementation of policies for patients' rights (85.5%) and informed consent (93%), whereas strategies to involve patients (71%) and learn from their experience (66%) were less frequently implemented. For 13 out of 18 hospital strategies, institutions with a more developed quality improvement system consistently reported better results (percentage differences within maturity classification ranged from 12.4% to 46.6%). The strength of association between implementation of patient-centredness strategies and the quality improvement system, however, seemed lower at the ward than at the hospital level. Some associations (OR 2.1 to 5.1) disappeared or were weaker after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR 2.2 to 3.7). Although quality improvement systems seem to be effective with regard to the implementation of selected patient-centredness strategies, they seem to be insufficient to ensure widespread implementation of patient-centredness throughout the organisation.

  15. Is patient-centredness in European hospitals related to existing quality improvement strategies? Analysis of a cross-sectional survey (MARQuIS study)

    PubMed Central

    Groene, O; Lombarts, M J M H; Klazinga, N; Alonso, J; Thompson, A; Suñol, R

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is growing recognition of patients’ contributions to setting objectives for their own care, improving health outcomes and evaluating care. Objective: To quantify the extent to which European hospitals have implemented strategies to promote a patient-centred approach, and to assess whether these strategies are associated with hospital characteristics and the development of the hospital’s quality improvement system. Design: Cross-sectional survey of 351 European hospital managers and professionals. Main outcome measures: Patients’ rights, patient information and empowerment, patient involvement in quality management, learning from patients, and patient hotel services at the hospital and ward level were assessed. The hypothesis that the implementation of strategies to improve patient-centredness is associated with hospital characteristics, including maturity of the hospital’s quality management system, was tested using binary logistic regression. Results: In general, hospitals reported high implementation of policies for patients’ rights (85.5%) and informed consent (93%), whereas strategies to involve patients (71%) and learn from their experience (66%) were less frequently implemented. For 13 out of 18 hospital strategies, institutions with a more developed quality improvement system consistently reported better results (percentage differences within maturity classification ranged from 12.4% to 46.6%). The strength of association between implementation of patient-centredness strategies and the quality improvement system, however, seemed lower at the ward than at the hospital level. Some associations (OR 2.1 to 5.1) disappeared or were weaker after adjustment for potential confounding variables (OR 2.2 to 3.7). Conclusions: Although quality improvement systems seem to be effective with regard to the implementation of selected patient-centredness strategies, they seem to be insufficient to ensure widespread implementation of patient

  16. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  17. Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Methods Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ. Conclusion In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606 PMID:20214820

  18. Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Giardino, Nicholas D; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Fan, Vincent S; Benditt, Joshua O; Lyubkin, Mark; Naunheim, Keith; Criner, Gerard; Make, Barry; Wise, Robert A; Murray, Susan K; Fishman, Alfred P; Sciurba, Frank C; Liberzon, Israel; Martinez, Fernando J

    2010-03-09

    Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ. In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606.

  19. Effort-reward imbalance and quality of life of healthcare workers in military hospitals: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Dong-Sheng; Chung, Wei-Ching; Lin, Chi-Hung; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-09-08

    Taiwan's National Defense Bureau has been merging its hospitals and adjusting hospital accreditation levels since the beginning of 2006. These changes have introduced many stressors to the healthcare workers in these hospitals. This study investigates the association between job stress, psychological morbidity and quality of life in healthcare workers in three military hospitals. We posted surveys to 1269 healthcare workers in three military hospitals located in southern Taiwan. The surveys included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire. High effort-reward (ER) ratio and overcommitment were defined when scores fell into the upper tertile of the total distribution. The survey was completed by 791 healthcare workers. On average, women reported a higher ERI than men. High ERI was associated with younger age, higher psychological morbidity, and poor physical and psychological QOL domains in this population. High ER ratio and high overcommitment were associated with psychological morbidity and poor QOL in both sexes. However, high ER ratio was not significantly associated with the social QOL domain in either sexes or the physical QOL domain in males. There was a clear association between ERI and QOL in the healthcare workers in the military hospitals under reorganization and accreditation in this study. We found ER ratio and overcommitment to be suitable indicators of job stress.

  20. A Cross-sectional Assessment of Health-related Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel Ángel; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Olivares, Pedro Rufino; Adsuar, José Carmelo; Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio

    2017-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality characterized by progressive airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways, which has an impact on health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D-5L is one of the most used preference-based, health-related quality of life questionnaire. The objective of this study was to provide normative values of EQ-5D-5L for Spanish people suffering from COPD. Data were extracted from the Spanish National Health Survey (2011/2012). Overall, 1130 people with COPD participated in this survey. The utility index of EQ-5D-5L and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score were defined by gender, region, and age. Mean (SD) EQ-5D-5L utility index and VAS score for Spanish people with COPD were 0.742 (0.309) and 60.466 (21.934) respectively. In general, men reported better health status than women. Ceiling effect of the whole sample was 30.35%. The current study provides normative values of EQ-5D-5L for Spanish people affected by COPD. Ceiling effect was high and better results were observed in men compared with women.

  1. A Cross-sectional Assessment of Health-related Quality of Life among Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-GORDILLO, Miguel Ángel; COLLADO-MATEO, Daniel; OLIVARES, Pedro Rufino; ADSUAR, José Carmelo; MERELLANO-NAVARRO, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of mortality characterized by progressive airflow obstruction and inflammation in the airways, which has an impact on health-related quality of life. The EQ-5D-5L is one of the most used preference-based, health-related quality of life questionnaire. The objective of this study was to provide normative values of EQ-5D-5L for Spanish people suffering from COPD. Methods: Data were extracted from the Spanish National Health Survey (2011/2012). Overall, 1130 people with COPD participated in this survey. The utility index of EQ-5D-5L and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score were defined by gender, region, and age. Results: Mean (SD) EQ-5D-5L utility index and VAS score for Spanish people with COPD were 0.742 (0.309) and 60.466 (21.934) respectively. In general, men reported better health status than women. Ceiling effect of the whole sample was 30.35%. Conclusion: The current study provides normative values of EQ-5D-5L for Spanish people affected by COPD. Ceiling effect was high and better results were observed in men compared with women. PMID:28894705

  2. Effort-reward imbalance and quality of life of healthcare workers in military hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Taiwan’s National Defense Bureau has been merging its hospitals and adjusting hospital accreditation levels since the beginning of 2006. These changes have introduced many stressors to the healthcare workers in these hospitals. This study investigates the association between job stress, psychological morbidity and quality of life in healthcare workers in three military hospitals. Methods We posted surveys to 1269 healthcare workers in three military hospitals located in southern Taiwan. The surveys included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire. High effort-reward (ER) ratio and overcommitment were defined when scores fell into the upper tertile of the total distribution. Results The survey was completed by 791 healthcare workers. On average, women reported a higher ERI than men. High ERI was associated with younger age, higher psychological morbidity, and poor physical and psychological QOL domains in this population. High ER ratio and high overcommitment were associated with psychological morbidity and poor QOL in both sexes. However, high ER ratio was not significantly associated with the social QOL domain in either sexes or the physical QOL domain in males. Conclusions There was a clear association between ERI and QOL in the healthcare workers in the military hospitals under reorganization and accreditation in this study. We found ER ratio and overcommitment to be suitable indicators of job stress. PMID:22958365

  3. Quality of drug prescribing in elderly people in nursing homes and special care units for dementia: a cross-sectional computerized pharmacy register analysis.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jonny; Bergman, Asa; Carlsten, Anders; Oké, Thimothy; Bernsten, Cecilia; Schmidt, Ingrid K; Fastbom, Johan

    2010-01-01

    Drug prescribing to the elderly is extensive and often inappropriate. Furthermore, the number of drugs used is the most important risk factor for adverse drug reactions. Despite this, drug prescribing in the elderly in Sweden is high and increasing. In 2003 the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare launched a set of indicators to evaluate the quality of drug therapy in the elderly. Use of this tool in combination with the Swedish computerized national register covering all persons receiving multi-dose drug dispensing (drugs dispensed in one dose unit bag for each dose occasion) would enable detection of inappropriate drug prescribing and could help reduce the risk of drug-related problems among the elderly. To assess the extent and quality of drug prescribing in younger and older elderly residents receiving multi-dose drug dispensing in ordinary nursing homes (NHs) and special care units for dementia (NHDs), and to evaluate the relationship between the quality of prescribing and the number of prescribers per resident, in a Swedish county. The computerized national pharmacy drug register provided the database and a cross-sectional design was used. Selected drug-specific quality indicators proposed by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in 2003 were used to assess the quality of drug prescribing. This study included 3705 residents. Their mean age was 85 years and 72% were women. The mean number of prescribed drugs was 10.3 per resident. The proportion of residents with prescriptions for psychotropic drugs was 80% in NHs and 85% in NHDs. The prevalence of each drug-specific quality indicator was as follows: long-acting benzodiazepines 16.4% (NHs) versus 11.7% (NHDs), anticholinergic drugs 20.7% versus 18.5%, drug duplication 14.6% versus 13.6%, three or more psychotropic drugs 25.6% versus 35.3%, class C interactions (drug combinations that may require dose adjustment) 41.9% versus 38.7% and class D interactions (drug combinations that should be

  4. Nutritional status and body composition in patients with peripheral arterial disease: A cross-sectional examination of disease severity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brostow, Diana P; Hirsch, Alan T; Pereira, Mark A; Bliss, Robin L; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and body weight recommendations for cardiovascular diseases are well established, yet there are no equivalent guidelines for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This cross-sectional study measured the prevalence of cardiovascular-related nutritional and body composition risk factors in sixty PAD patients and their association with PAD severity. A diet that exceeds daily recommended intake of fat and that falls short of recommended intakes of fiber, folate, and vitamin D was associated with increased leg pain and walking difficulty. Increased body fat and waist circumference were associated with diminished walking ability and poorer psychosocial quality of life. Future prospective investigations are merited to inform both PAD clinical care and disease management guidelines.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Quality of Life Between Physically Active and Underactive Older Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Samara; Krägeloh, Chris; Shepherd, Daniel; Ryan, Clare; Masters, Jonathan; Osborne, Sue; MacLeod, Rod D; Gray, Marion; Keogh, Justin W

    2016-10-01

    Men with prostate cancer experience many side effects and symptoms that may be improved by a physically active lifestyle. It was hypothesized that older men with prostate cancer who were physically active would report significantly higher levels of quality of life (QOL) as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD. Of the 348 prostate cancer survivors who were invited to participate in the present postal survey, 137 men returned the questionnaires. Those who were physically active had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) scores and higher social participation than those insufficiently active. These findings offer some support for the benefits of physical activity (PA) within the prostate cancer population in managing the adverse side effects of their treatments on aspects of their QOL. Future research should more closely examine what types of PA best promote improvements in varying aspects of QOL and psychological well-being for prostate cancer survivors.

  6. Quality of life and functional vision in children treated for cataract-a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tailor, V K; Abou-Rayyah, Y; Brookes, J; Khaw, P T; Papadopoulos, M; Adams, G G W; Bunce, C; Dahlmann-Noor, A

    2017-01-27

    PurposeChildren with cataract and their families face intensive medical and surgical management, with numerous hospital attendances, topical medications, and surgical procedures, as well as uncertainty about the child's future visual ability, education, and independence. Little is known about the impact on functional visual ability, vision-, and health-related quality of life (VR-, HR-QoL).Patients and methodsSeventy two children aged 2-16 years (mean 8.45, SD 4.1) treated for developmental or secondary cataract and their parents/carers completed three validated instruments measuring functional visual ability, VR-, and HR-QoL: the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC), Impact of Vision Impairment for Children (IVI-C), and PedsQL V 4.0.ResultsAll scores are markedly reduced: median (interquartile range (IQR)) CVAQC score -1.42 (-2.28 to -0.03), mean (SD) IVI-C score 65.67 (16.91), median (IQR) PedsQL family impact score 75 (56.94-88.19), parent report 71.74 (51.98-88.5), self-report 76.09 (61.96-89.13). Psychosocial PedsQL subscores are lower than physical subscores. Parent-completed tools (PedsQL family and parent report) state greater impact on HR-QoL than tools completed by children/young people, particularly in teenagers. Older children/young people have higher functional visual ability scores than younger children.ConclusionsCataract has a marked a long-term impact on functional visual ability and quality of life of children and young people, with HR-QoL affected to degrees reported in children with severe congenital cardiac defects or liver transplants.Eye advance online publication, 27 January 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2016.323.

  7. Reporting quality of conference abstracts on randomised controlled trials in gerontology and geriatrics: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Mann, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Without transparent reporting of how a randomised controlled trial was designed and conducted and of the methods used, its internal validity cannot be assessed by the reader. A congress abstract is often the only source providing information about a trial. In January 2008, an extended CONSORT statement on abstract reporting was published. Its impact has yet to be evaluated. Using a slightly modified CONSORT checklist comprising 17 items, we thus investigated the reporting quality of randomised controlled trials published in the book of abstracts presented at the World Congress of Geriatrics and Gerontology in Paris in July 2009. A total of n=4,416 abstracts was screened for inclusion; n=129 met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the abstracts was remarkably poor. The primary outcome was mentioned in 34/129 abstracts (26%), none of the abstracts reported on the procedure of random allocation of participants or clusters, 21/129 abstracts (16%) reported some kind of blinding, and the attrition rate was mentioned in only 12/129 abstracts (9%). The majority of abstracts fulfilled two items: description of intended intervention for each group (102/129; 79%) and general interpretation of results (107/129; 83%). Trial status was reported in all abstracts. Both journal editors and committees organising congresses are requested to define the use of the CONSORT statement as a prerequisite in their guidelines for authors and to instruct reviewers to conduct compliance checks. Medical associations should finally endorse the indispensability of the CONSORT statement and publish it in their journals. Otherwise the intended benefits cannot be fully generated.

  8. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01-10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans.

  9. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total). No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42). Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women. PMID:26446326

  10. Effects of perceptions of care, medical advice, and hospital quality on patient satisfaction after primary total knee replacement: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increase in the number of patients presenting with osteoarthritis in the past decade has led to a 32% increase in knee replacement surgeries designed to reduce restrictions on patient movement and improve their quality of life. Patient satisfaction is becoming an increasingly important indicator of quality of care. This study was designed to identify predictors of various service components in the treatment process and hospital key performance indicators significantly associated with patient satisfaction. Materials and methods A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted with 856 patients having their primary total knee replacements at 41 hospitals. Patient satisfaction was queried via a validated, multidimensional questionnaire mainly using a six-point scale. In addition to bivariate calculations, patient satisfaction was the dependent variable in a binary logistic regression model. Results The bivariate analysis showed a strong association between satisfaction and sex (male or female), the patients’ health before admission, and the length of stay. The number of cases treated at each hospital did not reveal any impact on satisfaction. The multivariate analysis identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction. The strongest factor was the treatment outcome and the weakest was the quality of food. It became apparent that the statutory procedure minimums were not being met. Conclusions The relevant factors influencing patient satisfaction were partially the same as previous study results and allowed more detailed conclusions. The results provide suggestions across hospitals that could help health care providers better meet needs of patients after knee arthroplasties. PMID:28609474

  11. Effects of perceptions of care, medical advice, and hospital quality on patient satisfaction after primary total knee replacement: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The increase in the number of patients presenting with osteoarthritis in the past decade has led to a 32% increase in knee replacement surgeries designed to reduce restrictions on patient movement and improve their quality of life. Patient satisfaction is becoming an increasingly important indicator of quality of care. This study was designed to identify predictors of various service components in the treatment process and hospital key performance indicators significantly associated with patient satisfaction. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted with 856 patients having their primary total knee replacements at 41 hospitals. Patient satisfaction was queried via a validated, multidimensional questionnaire mainly using a six-point scale. In addition to bivariate calculations, patient satisfaction was the dependent variable in a binary logistic regression model. The bivariate analysis showed a strong association between satisfaction and sex (male or female), the patients' health before admission, and the length of stay. The number of cases treated at each hospital did not reveal any impact on satisfaction. The multivariate analysis identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction. The strongest factor was the treatment outcome and the weakest was the quality of food. It became apparent that the statutory procedure minimums were not being met. The relevant factors influencing patient satisfaction were partially the same as previous study results and allowed more detailed conclusions. The results provide suggestions across hospitals that could help health care providers better meet needs of patients after knee arthroplasties.

  12. Associations between quality of life, physical activity, worry, depression and insomnia: A cross-sectional designed study in healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mourady, Danielle; Richa, Sami; Karam, Rita; Papazian, Tatiana; Hajj Moussa, Fabienne; El Osta, Nada; Kesrouani, Assaad; Azouri, Joseph; Jabbour, Hicham; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (QOL) is reported to be reduced during pregnancy. Associations between QOL, physical activity (PA), insomnia, depression and worry are insufficiently investigated among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to evaluate QOL and PA patterns among healthy pregnant women, and to examine how QOL might correlate to PA, sleep, worry and depression. This is an observational cross-sectional study, conducted among a convenient sample of 141 healthy pregnant women using five questionnaires: WHOQOL-brief (WHO quality of life questionnaire, brief version, ISI (Insomnia Severity Index), PSWQ (Penn State Worry Questionnaire), ZSRDS (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale), and Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ). Pre-gestational BMI was inversely correlated to overall health while education was positively correlated to psychological health, social relationships and environment domains. Smoking before and during pregnancy significantly impacted the general health and psychological health. Total and light PA were positively correlated to psychological health and social relationships. Sports/exercise showed positive correlations with several QOL domains. Insomnia and depression were significantly associated with a decrease in all domains of QOL, while worries were associated with a decrease in physical, psychological and environmental domains. There were significant negative correlations between ZSRDS scores and total activity. PA, worries, depression and insomnia affected QOL during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnant women presenting depression had a reduced total PA. Sleep and mental health as well as encouraging PA during pregnancy are necessary to improve the quality of life of pregnant women.

  13. Acculturation, quality of life and work environment of international nurses in a multi-cultural society: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-05-01

    The aim is to examine the acculturation level of international nurses working in a multi-cultural society. The relationship between acculturation, working environment and quality of life of international nurses was also explored. A cross-sectional, correlational study using self-report questionnaire was conducted on 814 international nurses using stratified random sampling based on the nationality distribution of international nurses registered with the Singapore Nursing Board. Outcome measures included World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL_BREF) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index-Revised (PES-NWI-R). Data were collected from June to December 2012. There were variations in the acculturation level among different nationality groups of international nurses. Acculturation levels were the lowest among Mainland Chinese international nurses (M=27.47, SD 5.23). A positive correlation was found between acculturation and quality of life whereas a lower perception of work environment was associated with lower acculturation level. Data obtained from this study can be utilized to develop interventions targeted at the unique needs of the international nurses as they migrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cross-sectional study of urinary problems in adults with cerebral palsy: awareness and impact on the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Necmettin; Akkoç, Yeşim; Ersöz, Murat; Gündüz, Berrin; Erhan, Belgin; Yesil, Hilal; Bardak, Ayşe Nur; Ozdolap, Senay; Tunç, Hakan; Koklu, Kurtulus; Alemdaroğlu, Ebru; Erden, Ender; Sungur, Ulas; Satır, Ozlem; Erdogan, Cagdaş; Alkan, Hakan

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to assess the functional status, urinary problems, and awareness of these problems in adults with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship with the quality of life. One-hundred-seventeen adults with CP (53 women, 64 men) were included in this study. Subjects were asked to fill out a urological questionnaire which dealt with urinary symptoms, awareness of urinary problems, and pharmacological treatment they received. Subjects were also assessed with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), Functional Independence Measures (FIM), Functional Mobility Scale (FMS), and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ). The mean age of the subjects was 25.3 ± 7.8 years. Of the patients, 83.8% were currently unemployed, 95.7% were single, and 96.5% were living with family. Of the patients, 20.5% had experienced frequency, 38.5% had nocturia, 48.7% had urgency, and 36.8% had urge urinary incontinence. Approximately 80% of the patients did not refer to physician due to urinary problems, and 60% of patients were not recorded history about urinary problem by any physician. Urge urinary incontinence was statistically more frequent in females than males (54.7 and 21.9%,respectively, p < 0.05).Female patients had significantly higher KHQ incontinence impact, role limitation, physical limitation, emotion, incontinence severity measures, and symptom severity subgroup scores than male patients (p < 0.05). Urge urinary incontinence was most frequent (65.4%) in spastic quadriplegic CP (p < 0.05). All functional status scores (GMFCS, FIM-toilet transfer, and FMSs) were worse in spastic quadriplegic patients than other topographical involvement of CP (p < 0.0125). Although the urinary problems are common in adult with CP, it is yet an overlooked condition that could affect quality of life. Therefore, health care professionals, patients, and their caregivers should be aware of the increased risk of urinary problems in these patients.

  15. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  16. Cross-sectional relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-2).

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Ubink-Veltmaat, L J; Houweling, S T; Groenier, K H; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, H J G

    2005-06-01

    To describe the relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life (HRQOL) in type 2 diabetic patients. In a shared-care diabetes project HRQOL was assessed. A total of 1664 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified in 32 primary healthcare practices. Of these patients, 1149 were included. HRQOL was measured using a generic questionnaire (Rand-36), completed by 1006 of the 1149 participants. The number of hyperglycaemic symptoms was higher in women (1.88) compared with men (1.64), without differences in mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (7.5%)-Univariate analyses showed negative relationships between all dimensions of the Rand-36 and hyperglycaemic symptoms (p<0.001), but between only one dimension and HbA1c (p=0.005). Multivariate analyses showed no association between any of the dimensions of the Rand-36 and HbA1c, but the relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms persisted in all dimensions (p<0.001). Notwithstanding these results, the presence of hyperglycaemic symptoms was related to higher HbA1c. In type 2 diabetic patients, as assessed by a generic questionnaire, there is an evident relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms and HRQOL and not between HbA1c and HRQOL. Subjective hyperglycaemic symptoms are, independent of HbA1c, important for HRQOL in type 2 diabetic patients, and should therefore not be neglected in the management of diabetes.

  17. Determinants of health-related quality of life in anti-MAG neuropathy: a cross-sectional multicentre European study.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Emilien; Hiew, Fu Liong; Cassereau, Julien; Aubé-Nathier, Anne-Catherine; Grapperon, Aude-Marie; Attarian, Shahram; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to assess determinants of quality of life (QoL) in anti-myelin associated glycoprotein antibody (MAG) neuropathy. The SF-36 questionnaire was assessed in 55 patients, from Marseille, Angers (France) and Birmingham (UK). Routine clinical evaluations included Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score, inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score, inflammatory Rasch-built overall disability score (I-RODS), ataxia score, Jamar grip dynamometry, timed 10-m walk, neuropathic pain symptom inventory (NPSI) score, and fatigue severity score (FSS). Physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF36 questionnaire were significantly lower than in reported normal subjects of both countries (p < 0.001). All SF-36 domains correlated with I-RODS, except MCS for which significance was, however, approached (p = 0.056). PCS correlated with MRC sum score, ataxia score, timed 10-m walk, tremor, Jamar grip dynamometry, NPSI pain score, FSS and level of social support. MCS correlated exclusively with FSS and level of social support. In multivariate regression, PCS was associated independently with I-RODS (p < 0.001) and NPSI pain score (p = 0.011), whereas MCS was associated independently with FSS (p = 0.022). QoL is accurately predicted in anti-MAG neuropathy by the I-RODS and FSS, lending support to their use in clinical and research settings. Effective measures to improve QoL should include tremor and neuropathic pain treatment, fatigue management, and improved social support.

  18. Psychological distress as predictor of quality of life in men experiencing infertility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infertility is associated with impairment in human life. The quality of life (QOL) construct allows measuring the impact of health conditions in a broader way. The study aimed to explore the impact of the psychological distress on QOL's dimensions in men experiencing infertility. Methods 162 men were completed a socio-demographic form, SF-36, WHOQOL-BREF, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Hierarchical regressions included demographic and clinic variables, and subsequently depression and anxiety were added. Results and Discussion Model 1 was not accurate in predicting QOL. R2 values ranged from 0.029 (Social Functioning) to 0.149 (Mental Health). Eight domains were not associated with any of the predictors. In the second model, a R2increase was observed in all domains. R2 of QOL scores ranged from .209 (Role Physical) to .406 (Social Functioning). The intensity of the depression was a significant predictor for all outcomes. The load of depression was higher than the ones of the socio-demographic and clinical variables. Anxiety levels have also presented the same effect, but with less intensity. Conclusion Subthreshold depression and anxiety were major predictors of QOL in men experiencing infertility. Health professionals need to include assessment of psychological symptomatology to plan more efficient interventions to infertile patients. PMID:20459694

  19. Effect of low income on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ou, Fengrong; Gao, Shuang; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Following the dramatic socioeconomic transition since the 1980s in China, some people became unemployed and experienced a significant drop in income. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low income on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among the population in northeast China. A total of 5100 individuals in northeast China were randomly sampled and investigated using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) from November 2005 to October 2006. According to the monthly per capita income level, the population was divided into different groups for analysis. Multiple linear regressions showed that low income, older age, disease, and unemployment were the important factors that could lead to worse HRQOL. Covariance analysis showed that there were significant differences in HRQOL scores among the subgroups of the low-income population. When the income level increased, HRQOL scores improved. This study could provide valuable information for planning integrated economic and public health policies to improve the health of people living in poverty.

  20. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pratibha

    2012-03-13

    In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status.

  1. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Kaan; Avsever, Hakan; Orhan, Kaan; Demirkaya, Kadriye

    2011-06-20

    To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration.

  2. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal-treated teeth in a rural, male adult, Turkish population and to investigate the influence of the quality of root canal fillings on prevalence of periapical lesions. Methods The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 552 adult male patients, 18-32 years of age, presenting consecutively as new patients seeking routine dental care at the Dental Sciences of Gulhane Military Medicine, Ankara. The radiographs of the 1014 root canal-treated teeth were evaluated. The teeth were grouped according to the radiographic quality of the root canal filling and the coronal restoration. The criteria used for the examination were slightly modified from those described by De Moor. Periapical status was assessed by the Periapical Index scores (PAI) proposed by Orstavik. Results The overall success rate of root canal treatment was 32.1%. The success rates of adequately root canal treatment were significantly higher than inadequately root canal treatment, regardless of the quality or presence of the coronal restoration (P < .001). In addition, the success rate of inadequate root canal treatment was also significantly affected by the quality of coronal restorations. Conclusions Our results revealed a high prevalence of periapical lesions in root canal treatment, which is comparable to that reported in other methodologically compatible studies from diverse geographical locations. In addition, the results from the present study confirm the findings of other studies that found the quality of the root canal treatment to be a key factor for prognosis with or without adequate coronal restoration. PMID:21689415

  3. The association between social capital and quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Anhui province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fuyong; Niu, Li; Chen, Ren; Ma, Ying; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    To investigate the association between social capital and quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Anhui province, China. In a cross-sectional study, 436 adults with type 2 diabetes were interviewed. The two domains of Quality of life, physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), were measured using the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). A modified instrument scale was used to measure cognitive and structural social capital. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess the associations between social capital and quality of life, adjusting for social economic status and risk factors for health. 24.3 % of participants (106) were in poor PCS and 25.0 % (109) in poor MCS. The proportions of participants who had low cognitive and structural social capital were 47.0 % (205) and 64.4 % (281), respectively. Results of logistic regression models showed that cognitive social capital was positively associated with PCS (OR = 1.84; 95 % CI: 1.12, 3.02) and MCS (OR = 1.65; 95 % CI: 1.03, 2.66). However, the associations between structural social capital and PCS (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI: 0.48, 1.34) and MCS (OR = 0.62; 95 % CI: 0.38, 1.01) were not statistically significant. It is the first study in China to investigate associations between quality of life and social capital in type 2 diabetes. Findings document that cognitive social capital is associated with the quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients. Our study suggests that the social capital theory may provide a new approach to increase physical resources in diabetes prevention and control, especially in Low and Middle Income countries (LMICs).

  4. Prevalence of malnutrition among older people in medical and surgical wards in hospital and quality of nutritional care: a multicenter, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Loris; Terzoni, Stefano; Lusignani, Maura; Negri, Marina; Froldi, Marco; Destrebecq, Anne

    2017-08-22

    to determine and compare the prevalence of malnutrition in medical and surgical hospital units; to assess quality of nutritional care and patients' perception about quality of food and nutritional care. hospital malnutrition in older people leads to increased mortality, length of stay, risk of infections and pressure ulcers. Several studies show that malnutrition is often caused by hospitalization, and related to poor nutritional care. Few studies report data on surgical older patients. a cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 12 hospitals in northern Italy. Malnutrition prevalence was determined according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment full version. Head nurses were interviewed in 80 units, through a validated questionnaire regarding quality of nutritional care. Semi-structured interviews were administered to a sample of patients, to investigate their perception about quality of food and nutritional care. 228 patients out of 1066 were malnourished (21.4%). Medical patients were at higher risk, so were women, patients aged 85 or more, with impaired autonomy, pressure ulcers or taking more than three drugs. The lack of personnel impacts on quality of care: in 55% of the units, no nutritional screening is performed; nutritional history is investigated in 48% only. No protocols for nutritional problems exist in 70% of the wards; hardly ever the intake is measured. Patients are mostly satisfied, even though they report that food has no taste and is not well presented. They remark the need for more personnel. prevalence was high, as found in other studies. Medical patients were at higher risk. Nutritional care was inadequate, and often no measures were adopted to prevent malnutrition. Staffing should be increased during meals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Amplitude and Stability of Circadian Rhythm, Sleep Quality, and Occupational Stress with Sickness Absence among a Gas Company Employees-A Cross Sectional Study from Iran.

    PubMed

    Zare, Rezvan; Choobineh, Alireza; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2017-09-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the relationship between sickness absence and occupational stress, sleep quality, and amplitude and stability of circadian rhythm as well as to determine contributing factors of sickness absence. This cross sectional study was conducted on 400 randomly selected employees of an Iranian gas company. The data were collected using Pittsburgh sleep quality index, Karolinska sleepiness scale, circadian type inventory, and Osipow occupational stress questionnaires. The mean age and job tenure of the participants were 33.18 ± 5.64 years and 6.06 ± 4.99 years, respectively. Also, the participants had been absent from work on average 2.16 days a year. According to the results, 209 participants had no absences, 129 participants had short-term absences, and 62 participants had long-term absences. The results showed a significant relationship between short-term absenteeism and amplitude of circadian rhythm [odds ratio (OR) = 6.13], sleep quality (OR = 14.46), sleepiness (OR = 2.08), role boundary (OR = 6.45), and responsibility (OR = 5.23). Long-term absenteeism was also significantly associated with amplitude of circadian rhythm (OR = 2.42), sleep quality (OR = 21.56), sleepiness (OR = 6.44), role overload (OR = 4.84), role boundary (OR = 4.27), and responsibility (OR = 3.72). The results revealed that poor sleep quality, amplitude of circadian rhythm, and occupational stress were the contributing factors for sickness absence in the study population.

  6. The influences of nursing transformational leadership style on the quality of nurses' working lives in Taiwan: a cross-sectional quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping-Yi; MacLennan, Sara; Hunt, Nigel; Cox, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan's NHI system is one of the most successful health care models for countries around the globe. However, little research has demonstrated the mental health issues associated with nursing transformational leadership style under the NHI system, especially in the quality of nurses' working lives in Taiwan. It is important to know the relationship between transformational leadership style and the mental health of nurses, organisational commitment and job satisfaction. The research aimed to understand the influences of nursing transformational leadership style on the quality of nurses' working lives in Taiwan. The research hypothesis was that transformational leadership styles would have positive influence on the quality of nurses' working lives. This was a cross-sectional quantitative study. Nurses from each type of hospital ownership (private, public and religious) were recruited. Participation was voluntary and signed informed consent was obtained. The inclusion criteria were nurses with at least one year's work experience in the hospitals. Self-administrated questionnaires were used. A total of 807 participants were contacted and 651 questionnaires were fully completed (response rate 80.7 %). A theory driven model was used to test the research hypotheses using structural equation modelling performed with AMOS 16.0. Transformational leadership contributes significantly to supervisor support. Workplace support, particularly from the supervisor, is an important mediator variable that explains the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction. Organisational commitment was the strongest factor relevant to the general health well-being in Taiwanese nurses than job satisfaction. The hypothesized positive relationships between transformational leadership and all variables were supported by the data. Our findings have important consequences for organisational health. Our model demonstrates a complete picture of the work relationships on the

  7. Quality of life after aortic valve repair is similar to Ross patients and superior to mechanical valve replacement: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zacek, Pavel; Holubec, T; Vobornik, M; Dominik, J; Takkenberg, J; Harrer, J; Vojacek, J

    2016-04-02

    In patients after aortic valve surgery, the quality of life is hypothesized to be influenced by the type of the valve procedure. A cross-sectional study on the postoperative quality of life was carried out in patients after aortic valve-sparing surgery (with regards to the age of the patient), Ross procedure and mechanical aortic valve replacement. Quality of life was studied in 139 patients after aortic valve surgery divided into four study groups (Y - aortic valve-sparing procedure at the age below 50 years, mean age 36.2 years; O - aortic valve-sparing procedure at the age 50 years and over, mean age 59.2 years; R - Ross procedure, mean age 37.8 years and M - mechanical aortic valve replacement at the age below 50 years, mean age 39.2 years). SF-36 Short Form and valve-specific questionnaires were mailed to the patients after 6 months or later following surgery (median 26.9 months). In SF-36, the younger aortic valve repair patients and the Ross patients scored significantly better in 4 of 4 physical subscales and in 2 of 4 mental subscales than the older aortic valve repair and mechanical valve replacement patients. In the valve-specific questionnaire; however, all 3 groups free of anticoagulation (Y, O, and R) displayed greater freedom from negative valve-related concerns. Postoperative quality of life is influenced by the type of aortic valve procedure and is negatively linked with mechanical prosthesis implantation and long-term anticoagulation. Aortic valve-sparing strategy should be considered in cases with suitable valve morphology due to favorable clinical results and beneficial impact on the long-term quality of life.

  8. Quality of life among long-term survivors of advanced stage ovarian cancer: A cross-sectional approach.

    PubMed

    Lutgendorf, Susan K; Shinn, Eileen; Carter, Jeanne; Leighton, Susan; Baggerly, Keith; Guindani, Michele; Fellman, Bryan; Matzo, Marianne; Slavich, George M; Goodman, Marc T; Tew, William; Lester, Jenny; Moore, Kathleen M; Karlan, Beth Y; Levine, Douglas A; Sood, Anil K

    2017-07-01

    Long-term survival of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer is relatively rare. Little is known about quality of life (QOL) and survivorship concerns of these women. Here, we describe QOL of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer surviving for 8.5 years or longer and compare women with 0-1 recurrence to those with multiple recurrences. Participants (n=56) recruited from 5 academic medical centers and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance completed surveys regarding QOL (FACT-O), mood (CESD), social support (SPS), physical activity (IPAQ-SF), diet, and clinical characteristics. Median survival was 14.0 years (range 8.8-33.3). QOL and psychological adjustment of long-term survivors was relatively good, with mean FACT-G scores (multiple recurrences: 80.81±13.95; 0-1 recurrence: 89.05 ±10.80) above norms for healthy community samples (80.1±18.1). Survivors with multiple recurrences reported more compromised QOL in domains of physical and emotional well-being (p <.05), and endorsed a variety of physical and emotional concerns compared to survivors with 0-1 recurrence. Difficulties in sexual functioning were common in both groups. Almost half (43%) of the survivors reported low levels of physical activity. Overall, women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer who have survived at least 8.5 years report good QOL and psychological adjustment. QOL of survivors with multiple recurrences is somewhat impaired compared to those with 0-1 recurrence. Limitations include a possible bias towards participation by healthier survivors, thus under-representing the level of compromise in long-term survivors. Health care practitioners should be alert to psychosocial issues faced by these long-term survivors to provide interventions that enhance QOL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A measure for quantifying the impact of housing quality on respiratory health: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Keall, Michael D; Crane, Julian; Baker, Michael G; Wickens, Kristin; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Cunningham, Malcolm

    2012-05-14

    Damp and mould in homes have been established as risk factors for respiratory health. There is a need for a relatively straightforward assessment of the home that quantifies this risk. Using data from 891 New Zealand houses, the utility of a Respiratory Hazard Index quantifying key attributes related to damp and mould was tested by studying its associations with self-reported respiratory symptoms. A dose-response relationship was found whereby each unit increase in the Respiratory Hazard Index was associated with an 11% increase in the odds of at least one episode of wheezing/whistling in the chest over the last 12 months (relative odds of 1.11 with a 95% CI 1.04%-1.20%). An 11% increase in the odds of an asthma attack over the last 12 months was estimated (relative odds of 1.11 with a 95% CI 1.01%-1.22%). These estimates were adjusted for household crowding levels, age, sex and smoking status. There was suggestive evidence of more steeply increasing odds of respiratory symptoms with increasing levels of the Respiratory Hazard Index for children aged under 7. In the worst performing houses according to the Index, a 33% reduction in the number of people experiencing respiratory symptoms (relative risk 0.67 with 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85) could be expected if people were housed in the best performing houses. This study showed that increased evidence of housing conditions supporting dampness and mould was associated with increased odds of respiratory symptoms. A valid housing assessment tool can provide a rational basis for investment in improved housing quality to improve respiratory health.

  10. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  11. Correlates of quality of life of pre-obese and obese patients: a pharmacy-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Laforest, Laurent; Van Ganse, Eric; Ritleng, Cécile; Desamericq, Gaelle; Letrilliart, Laurent; Moreau, Alain; Rosen, Sarah; Mechin, Hubert; Chamba, Genevieve

    2009-09-15

    The correlates of quality of life (QOL), as measured by the OSQOL questionnaire were investigated in a convenience sample of overweight patients recruited in pharmacies. A convenience sample of patients with a Body Mass Index > or = 28 kg/m(2) were recruited in community-based pharmacies. Baseline characteristics and QOL dimensions (1-Physical state, 2-Vitality-desire to do things, 3-Relations with others, 4-Psychological state) were reported in self-completed questionnaires from which the risk of obtaining a low QOL was assessed for each dimension. QOL was inadequate for all dimensions in the 494 patients included in the study (median age = 61, 48% women, 21% professional persons/top executives). Older pre-obese and obese patients were more likely to report impaired physical functioning (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = [1.10-3.70]), but were less severely affected socially (OR = 0.32, 95%CI = [0.15-0.69]). Pre-obese and obese professional persons and top executives showed better physical capabilities (OR = 0.35, 95%CI = [0.15-0.81]) and increased vitality (OR = 0.47, 95%CI = [0.23-0.95]). Overall, men's psychological state was better than females' (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = [0.25-0.82]). A body-mass index > or = 35 kg/m(2) was significantly associated with poorer QOL scores on physical, relational and psychological dimensions. Our data highlighted the influence of the severity of excess weight, gender, age and socioeconomic status on QOL. These factors should be taken into account when interpreting QOL in pre-obese and obese persons.

  12. Correlates of quality of life of pre-obese and obese patients: a pharmacy-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Laforest, Laurent; Van Ganse, Eric; Ritleng, Cécile; Desamericq, Gaelle; Letrilliart, Laurent; Moreau, Alain; Rosen, Sarah; Mechin, Hubert; Chamba, Genevieve

    2009-01-01

    Background The correlates of quality of life (QOL), as measured by the OSQOL questionnaire were investigated in a convenience sample of overweight patients recruited in pharmacies. Methods A convenience sample of patients with a Body Mass Index ≥ 28 kg/m2 were recruited in community-based pharmacies. Baseline characteristics and QOL dimensions (1-Physical state, 2-Vitality-desire to do things, 3-Relations with others, 4-Psychological state) were reported in self-completed questionnaires from which the risk of obtaining a low QOL was assessed for each dimension. Results QOL was inadequate for all dimensions in the 494 patients included in the study (median age = 61, 48% women, 21% professional persons/top executives). Older pre-obese and obese patients were more likely to report impaired physical functioning (OR = 2.02, 95%CI = [1.10-3.70]), but were less severely affected socially (OR = 0.32, 95%CI = [0.15-0.69]). Pre-obese and obese professional persons and top executives showed better physical capabilities (OR = 0.35, 95%CI = [0.15-0.81]) and increased vitality (OR = 0.47, 95%CI = [0.23-0.95]). Overall, men's psychological state was better than females' (OR = 0.46, 95%CI = [0.25-0.82]). A body-mass index ≥ 35 kg/m2 was significantly associated with poorer QOL scores on physical, relational and psychological dimensions. Conclusion Our data highlighted the influence of the severity of excess weight, gender, age and socioeconomic status on QOL. These factors should be taken into account when interpreting QOL in pre-obese and obese persons. PMID:19754928

  13. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  14. The relationship between dietary quality and the local food environment differs according to level of educational attainment: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children’s centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer

  15. The relationship between dietary quality and the local food environment differs according to level of educational attainment: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christina; Lewis, Daniel; Ntani, Georgia; Cummins, Steven; Cooper, Cyrus; Moon, Graham; Baird, Janis

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence that food outlet access differs according to level of neighbourhood deprivation but little is known about how individual circumstances affect associations between food outlet access and diet. This study explored the relationship between dietary quality and a measure of overall food environment, representing the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlet access in individualised activity spaces. Furthermore, this study is the first to assess effect modification of level of educational attainment on this relationship. A total of 839 mothers with young children from Hampshire, United Kingdom (UK) completed a cross-sectional survey including a 20-item food frequency questionnaire to measure diet and questions about demographic characteristics and frequently visited locations including home, children's centre, general practitioner, work, main food shop and physical activity location. Dietary information was used to calculate a standardised dietary quality score for each mother. Individualised activity spaces were produced by creating a 1000m buffer around frequently visited locations using ArcGIS. Cross-sectional observational food outlet data were overlaid onto activity spaces to derive an overall food environment score for each mother. These scores represented the balance between healthy and unhealthy food outlets using weightings to characterise the proportion of healthy or unhealthy foods sold in each outlet type. Food outlet access was dominated by the presence of unhealthy food outlets; only 1% of mothers were exposed to a healthy overall food environment in their daily activities. Level of educational attainment moderated the relationship between overall food environment and diet (mid vs low, p = 0.06; high vs low, p = 0.04). Adjusted stratified linear regression analyses showed poorer food environments were associated with better dietary quality among mothers with degrees (β = -0.02; 95%CI: -0.03, -0.001) and a tendency toward poorer

  16. Health-related quality of life and migration: a cross-sectional study on elderly Iranians in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Koochek, Afsaneh; Montazeri, Ali; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-11-23

    Although elderly Iranian immigrants in Sweden are the largest elderly group born outside Europe, little is known about their health-related quality of life (HRQL). The aim of this study was to examine the association between migration status and HRQL in a comparison of elderly Iranians in Iran, elderly Iranian immigrants in Sweden, and elderly Swedes in Sweden. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) was administered to a total of 625 men and women aged 60-84 years to collect HRQL information on elderly Iranians in Sweden (n = 176) and elderly Iranians in Iran (n = 298). A Swedish control group (n = 151) was also randomly selected from the general population. Multiple linear regression procedures were applied to analyze data while adjusting for age, which was categorized into 60-69, and 70-84 years, and education. Iranian women in Sweden with shorter times of residence scored lower on vitality (beta-coefficient = -7.9, 95% CI = -14.3 to -1.5) compared with other women in this study. The lower vitality dimension score remained nearly unchanged in the main model (beta-coefficient = -7.3, 95% CI = -13.7 to -0.9). A longer period of residence in Sweden had a positive association with social functioning (beta-coefficient = 14.1, 95% CI = 3.1-25.1) and role limitation due to emotional problems (beta-coefficient = 18.3, 95% CI = 1.4-35.2) among elderly Iranian women. In general, the Swedish subsample scores higher on all dimensions of the SF-36 among women and in six out of eight among men in relation to the rest of the subsamples. The HRQL of elderly Iranians in Sweden was more like that of their countrymen in Iran than that of Swedes, who reported a better HRQL than Iranians in this study. However, length of time since migration to Sweden is not associated with poorer HRQL among elderly Iranians. The association varied, however, with sex. Elderly Iranian women showed an increase in two of eight dimensions of the SF-36 with additional years in Sweden, whereas, among elderly

  17. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  19. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  20. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  1. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  2. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  3. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  4. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  5. Polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity as factors associated with staff informant rated quality of life in residents of aged care facilities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lalic, Samanta; Jamsen, Kris M; Wimmer, Barbara C; Tan, Edwin C K; Hilmer, Sarah N; Robson, Leonie; Emery, Tina; Bell, J Simon

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between polypharmacy with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and medication regimen complexity with HRQoL in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A cross-sectional study of 383 residents from six Australian RACFs was conducted. The primary exposures were polypharmacy (≥9 regular medications) and the validated Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI). The outcome measure was staff informant rated quality of life assessed using the Quality of Life Alzheimer's disease (QoL-AD) scale. Covariates included age, sex, Charlson's comorbidity index, activities of daily living, and dementia severity. Logistic quantile regression was used to characterize the association between polypharmacy and QoL-AD (model 1) and MRCI and QoL-AD (model 2). The median age of the 383 residents was 88 years and 297 (78 %) residents were female. In total, 63 % of residents were exposed to polypharmacy and the median MRCI score (range) was 43.5 (4-113). After adjusting for the covariates, polypharmacy was not associated with either higher or lower QoL-AD scores (estimate -0.02; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -0.165, 0.124; p = 0.78). Similarly, after adjusting for the covariates, MRCI was not associated with either higher or lower QoL-AD scores (estimate -0.0009, 95 % CI -0.005, 0.003; p = 0.63). These findings suggest that polypharmacy and medication regimen complexity are not associated with staff informant rated HRQoL. Further research is needed to investigate how specific medication classes may impact change in quality of life over time.

  6. Family functioning and quality of parent-adolescent relationship: cross-sectional associations with adolescent weight-related behaviors and weight status.

    PubMed

    Haines, Jess; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horton, Nicholas J; Kleinman, Ken; Bauer, Katherine W; Davison, Kirsten K; Walton, Kathryn; Austin, S Bryn; Field, Alison E; Gillman, Matthew W

    2016-06-14

    Little is known about how factors within the general family environment are associated with weight and related behaviors among adolescents/young adults. We studied 3768 females and 2614 males, 14-24 years old in 2011, participating in the Growing Up Today Study 2. We used generalized mixed models to examine cross-sectional associations of family functioning and quality of mother- and father-adolescent relationship with adolescent/young adult weight status, disordered eating, intake of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages, screen time, physical activity, and sleep duration. In all models, we included participant's age and family structure. Eighty percent of participants reported high family functioning and 60% and 50% of participants reported high-quality mother and father relationship, respectively. Among both males and females, high family functioning was associated with lower odds of disordered eating (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] females = 0.53; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.45-0.63; AOR males = 0.48; CI = 0.39-0.60), insufficient physical activity, i.e., less than 1 h/day, (AOR females = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89; AOR males = 0.73; CI = 0.58-0.92), and insufficient sleep, i.e., less than 7 h/day, (AOR females = 0.56; CI = 0.45-0.68; AOR males = 0.65; CI 0.5-0.85). High family functioning was also associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese (AOR = 0.73; CI = 0.60-0.88) and eating fast food one or more times/week (AOR = 0.74; CI = 0.61-0.89) among females only. Among females, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of being overweight/obese and disordered eating, eating fast food, and insufficient sleep and the magnitude of associations were similar for mother and father relationship quality (AOR range 0.61-0.84). Among males, high-quality mother and father relationship were both associated with lower odds of disordered eating, insufficient physical activity

  7. Relationship between the presence of baccalaureate-educated RNs and quality of care: a cross-sectional study in Dutch long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Backhaus, Ramona; van Rossum, Erik; Verbeek, Hilde; Halfens, Ruud J G; Tan, Frans E S; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Hamers, Jan P H

    2017-01-19

    Recent evidence suggests that an increase in baccalaureate-educated registered nurses (BRNs) leads to better quality of care in hospitals. For geriatric long-term care facilities such as nursing homes, this relationship is less clear. Most studies assessing the relationship between nurse staffing and quality of care in long-term care facilities are US-based, and only a few have focused on the unique contribution of registered nurses. In this study, we focus on BRNs, as they are expected to serve as role models and change agents, while little is known about their unique contribution to quality of care in long-term care facilities. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 282 wards and 6,145 residents from 95 Dutch long-term care facilities. The relationship between the presence of BRNs in wards and quality of care was assessed, controlling for background characteristics, i.e. ward size, and residents' age, gender, length of stay, comorbidities, and care dependency status. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, using a generalized estimating equation approach, were performed. 57% of the wards employed BRNs. In these wards, the BRNs delivered on average 4.8 min of care per resident per day. Among residents living in somatic wards that employed BRNs, the probability of experiencing a fall (odds ratio 1.44; 95% CI 1.06-1.96) and receiving antipsychotic drugs (odds ratio 2.15; 95% CI 1.66-2.78) was higher, whereas the probability of having an indwelling urinary catheter was lower (odds ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.53-0.91). Among residents living in psychogeriatric wards that employed BRNs, the probability of experiencing a medication incident was lower (odds ratio 0.68; 95% CI 0.49-0.95). For residents from both ward types, the probability of suffering from nosocomial pressure ulcers did not significantly differ for residents in wards employing BRNs. In wards that employed BRNs, their mean amount of time spent per resident was low, while quality of care on most wards was

  8. Perception of quality of care of patients with potentially severe diseases evaluated at a distinct quick diagnostic delivery model: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sanclemente-Ansó, Carmen; Salazar, Albert; Bosch, Xavier; Capdevila, Cristina; Giménez-Requena, Amparo; Rosón-Hernández, Beatriz; Corbella, Xavier

    2015-09-30

    Although hospital-based outpatient quick diagnosis units (QDU) are an increasingly recognized cost-effective alternative to hospitalization for the diagnosis of potentially serious diseases, patient perception of their quality of care has not been evaluated well enough. This cross-sectional study analyzed the perceived quality of care of a QDU of a public third-level university hospital in Barcelona. One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years attending the QDU over a 9-month period were invited to participate. A validated questionnaire distributed by the QDU attending physician and completed at the end of the first and last QDU visit evaluated perceived quality of care using six subscales. Response rate was 98 %. Perceived care in all subscales was high. Waiting times were rated as 'short'/'very short' or 'better'/'much better' than expected by 69-89 % of respondents and physical environment as 'better'/'much better' than expected by 94-96 %. As to accessibility, only 3 % reported not finding the Unit easily and 7 % said that frequent travels to hospital for visits and investigations were uncomfortable. Perception of patient-physician encounter was high, with 90-94 % choosing the positive extreme ends of the clinical information and personal interaction subscales items. Mean score of willingness to recommend the Unit using an analogue scale where 0 was 'never' and 10 'without a doubt' was 9.5 (0.70). On multivariate linear regression, age >65 years was an independent predictor of clinical information, personal interaction, and recommendation, while age 18-44 years was associated with lower scores in these subscales. No schooling predicted higher clinical information and recommendation scores, while university education had remarkable negative influence on them. Having ≥4 QDU visits was associated with lower time to diagnosis and recommendation scores and malignancy was a negative predictor of time to diagnosis, clinical information, and

  9. Comparison of self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Marackova, Marketa; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Aleš; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Background The views of one’s self-stigma and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia and depressive disorders are significant subjective notions, both being proven to affect patient’s functioning in life. The objective of this study was to investigate the QoL and self-stigma in connection with demographic factors and compare the two groups of patients in terms of those variables. Methods In a cross-sectional study, the outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depressive disorders completed the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire during a routine psychiatric control. Furthermore, both patients and their psychiatrists evaluated the severity of the disorder by Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Results The QoL of patients with depressive disorders or schizophrenia spectrum disorders did not significantly differ between the two groups. In both groups, unemployment was perceived to be a significant factor decreasing the QoL. Self-stigma was detected to be higher in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders than in patients with depressive disorders. A strong correlation was found between the two scales, meaning that those with higher levels of self-stigmatization were less prone to see their life as fulfilling and joyful. Conclusion This study shows that the degree of the internalized stigma can be an important aspect linked to the QoL irrespective of the diagnostic category. PMID:27920539

  10. Association between objectively measured sleep quality and obesity in community-dwelling adults aged 80 years or older: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objective measures of sleep quality and obesity in older community-dwelling people. This cross-sectional study included 189 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 yr (83.4 ± 2.5 yr [age range, 80-95 yr]). Participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on their non-dominant wrist 24 hr per day for 7 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters measured included total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) during the night. Associations between sleep parameters and obesity were investigated by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate models, those with sleep efficiency lower than 85% had a 2.85-fold increased odds of obesity, compared with those with sleep efficiency of 85% or higher. Similarly, those with WASO of ≥ 60 min (compared with < 60 min) had a 3.13-fold increased odds of obesity. However, there were no significant associations between total sleep time or self-reported napping duration and obesity. We found that poor sleep quality was an independent risk factor for obesity in community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 80 yr, even after controlling for potential confounding factors, including daily physical activity.

  11. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Depression and anxiety disorders in chronic hemodialysis patients and their quality of life: A cross-sectional study about 106 cases in the northeast of morocco.

    PubMed

    El Filali, Abdelilah; Bentata, Yassamine; Ada, Naima; Oneib, Bouchra

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) has a severe impact on the life of HD patients. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and the quality of life among HD patients. Associated factors were also studied. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 103 HD patients treated at the HD Center of Al Farabi Hospital of Oujda during a period of six months in 2015. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) were used for the assessment. Major depressive episode (MDE) was found in 34% of our patients, whereas anxiety disorder was observed in 25.2%. Suicidal ideation was found in 16.5% and 1.9% of our patients planned their suicide. The EQ-5D index was 0.41 ± 0.36 and the EQ-Visual Analog Scale score was 45.73 ± 14. Multivariate analysis showed that MDEs were associated with three factors: marital status, pain, and anxiety disorder. There was also an association between anxiety disorder and age and EQ-Visual Analog Scale score. Suicidal ideation was associated with marital status and anxiety disorders. Together, these results underline the importance of the collaboration between nephrologists and psychiatrists for a better care of HD patients.

  13. Co Relation between PUFA Index and Oral Health Related Quality of Life of a Rural Population in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prathibha, B.; Reddy, P. Parthasarthi; Monica, M.; Samba, Amit; Rajesh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A new measuring system called PUFA index had been identified to quantify the consequences of untreated dental caries. The co relation between PUFA index and oral health related quality of life has not been documented so far in India and thereby the need for this study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Sample size of 212 subjects, who are the residents of a town in Rangareddy district were included to be a part of this study. The subjects were interviewed for the OHIP score and the clinical examination done to record the PUFA scores. Results: The main objective of this study was to find out if there was any correlation between the OHIP scores and the study subjects and using the Pearson’ s co relation coefficient, there was a significant correlation between the OHIP and the PUFA scores.(Pearson’ s correlation= 0.31) Conclusion: The mean OHIP and PUFA scores of the study subjects were 2.21 and 0.40 respectively. There is a positive correlation between the OHIP score and the PUFA score among the study population i.e. with the PUFA scores increasing, it has a detrimental effect on the oral health related quality of life of the individual. PMID:25738084

  14. Cross-sectional study of availability and pharmaceutical quality of antibiotics requested with or without prescription (Over The Counter) in Surabaya, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Usman; van den Broek, Peterhans; Kolopaking, Erni P; Zairina, Nun; Gardjito, Widjoseno; Gyssens, Inge C

    2010-07-09

    Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in developing countries and antibiotic use is widespread. Our previous surveys in Java, Indonesia, revealed that most antibiotic use was probably unnecessary or ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore a potential connection between resistance and substandard antibiotics sold in the area. A cross-sectional field study using the simulated client method was conducted in Surabaya. Five first-line antibiotics were requested with or without prescription (OTC). A certified laboratory analysed the drug content using validated methods. Possible determinants of substandard quality were explored. In total, 104 samples from 75 pharmacies, ten drug stores and 39 roadside stalls (kiosks) were obtained. Pharmacy employees filled all OTC requests. Three quarters of kiosks sold antibiotics. Antibiotics were dispensed as single blister strips or repackaged (16%) without label. Ninety five percent of samples carried the label of 14 Indonesian manufacturers. The pharmaceutical quality did not meet BP standards for 18% of samples. Deviations (less active ingredient) were small. There was no association between low content and type of outlet, sold with or without prescription, registration type, price or packaging. Median retail prices of products carrying the same label varied up to 20 fold. Antibiotics were available OTC in all visited pharmacies and sold in the streets of an Indonesian city. Most samples contained an active ingredient. We urge to increase enforcement of existing regulations, including legislation that categorizes antibiotics as prescription-only drugs for all types of medicine outlets, to limit further selection of antimicrobial resistance.

  15. Pelvic floor muscle activity, quality of life, and sexual function in peri- and recently postmenopausal women with and without dyspareunia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schvartzman, Renata; Bertotto, Adriane; Schvartzman, Luiza; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor alterations during menopausal years, resulting from aging and hormonal decline, may lead to several forms of sexual dysfunction. Dyspareunia-pain during sexual intercourse-is among the most frequent. Nevertheless, few studies so far have evaluated pelvic floor muscle function in postmenopausal women with dyspareunia. The authors thus carried out a cross-sectional study to assess myoelectric activity in pelvic floor muscles in peri- and postmenopausal women with and without dyspareunia receiving routine care at an outpatient clinic. In addition, sexual function (using the Female Sexual Function Index) and quality of life (using the Cervantes Scale) were assessed. Fifty-one peri- and postmenopausal women between 45 to 60 years of age (M = 52.1, SD = 4.9) were evaluated, 27 with and 24 without dyspareunia. There were no statistically significant differences in resting muscle activity, maximal voluntary contraction, and sustained contraction between women with and without dyspareunia. There were statistically significant between-group differences on the Cervantes Scale (p =.009) and in all Female Sexual Function Index domains except desire and satisfaction (arousal, p =.019; lubrication, p =.030; orgasm, p =.032; pain, p <.001; desire, p =.061; satisfaction, p =.081), indicating that women with dyspareunia experience worse quality of life and less satisfactory sexual function as compared with women without dyspareunia.

  16. Expression and ambivalence over expression of negative emotion: cross-sectional associations with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Michael, Yvonne L; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Perrin, Nancy; Bowen, Deborah; Cochrane, Barbara B; Brzyski, Robert; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of emotional expression has been associated with the incidence and progression of breast cancer and other chronic illnesses. The important health-related factor, however, may be ambivalence about the expression of emotions rather than repression itself. This cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 159,557 participants in the Women's Health Initiative examined the influence of expression of negative emotion and ambivalence about expression of emotion on psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36). Overall, observed correlations were modest but in the expected direction; that is, greater ambivalence about negative emotional expression was associated with worse general health and poorer psychosocial risk profile. Ambivalence about expressing negative emotion was more highly correlated with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life than emotional expression. In general, our analysis supports prior studies suggesting that ambivalence may be more important to consider in studies of health-related outcomes than expression.

  17. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  18. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  19. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  20. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  1. Associations between state regulations, training length, perceived quality and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants: cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Kihye; Trinkoff, Alison M; Storr, Carla L; Lerner, Nancy; Johantgen, Meg; Gartrell, Kyungsook

    2014-08-01

    In the U.S., there are federal requirements on how much training and annual continuing education a certified nursing assistant must complete in order to be certified. The requirements are designed to enable them to provide competent and quality care to nursing home residents. Many states also require additional training and continuing education hours as improved nursing home quality indicators have been found to be related to increased training. This study investigated the associations among state level regulations, initial training quality and focus, and job satisfaction in certified nursing assistants. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis. This study used the National Nursing Home Survey and National Nursing Assistant Survey as well as data on state regulations of certified nursing assistant training. 2897 certified nursing assistants in 580 nursing homes who were currently working at a nursing home facility, who represented 680,846 certified nursing assistants in US. State regulations were related to initial training and job satisfaction among certified nursing assistants using chi square tests and binomial logistic regression models. Analyses were conducted using SAS-callable SUDAAN to correct for complex sampling design effects in the National Nursing Home Survey and National Nursing Assistant Survey. Models were adjusted for personal and facility characteristics. Certified nursing assistants reporting high quality training were more likely to work in states requiring additional initial training hours (p=0.02) and were more satisfied with their jobs (OR=1.51, 95% CI=1.09-2.09) than those with low quality training. In addition, those with more training focused on work life skills were 91% more satisfied (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.41-2.58) whereas no relationship was found between training focused on basic care skills and job satisfaction (OR=1.36, 95% CI=0.99-1.84). Certified nursing assistants with additional initial training were more likely to report that their

  2. Nurse staffing level and overtime associated with patient safety, quality of care, and care left undone in hospitals: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunhee; Lee, Nam-Ju; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Sinhye; Lee, Kyongeun; Park, Kwang-Ok; Sung, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the association of nurse staffing and overtime with nurse-perceived patient safety, nurse-perceived quality of care, and care left undone. A cross-sectional survey. A total of 65 hospitals were selected from all of the acute hospitals (n=295) with 100 or more beds in South Korea by using a stratified random sampling method based on region and number of beds, and 60 hospitals participated in the study. All RNs working on the date of data collection in units randomly selected from the list of units in each hospital were invited to participate. The analyses in this study included only bedside RNs (n=3037) and hospitals (n=51) with responses from at least 10 bedside RNs. We collected data on nurse staffing level, overtime, nurse-perceived patient safety, nurse-perceived quality of care, nurse-reported care left undone, and nurse characteristics through a nurse survey. Facility data from the Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) were used to collect hospital characteristics. Multilevel logistic regression models considering that nurses are clustered in hospitals were used to analyze the effects of hospital nurse staffing and overtime on patient safety, quality of care, and care left undone. A higher number of patients per RN was significantly associated with higher odds of reporting poor/failing patient safety (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.004-1.03) and poor/fair quality of care (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.04), and of having care left undone due to lack of time (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.05). Compared with RNs who did not work overtime, RNs working overtime reported an 88% increase in failing or poor patient safety (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.40-2.52), a 45% increase in fair or poor quality of nursing care (OR=1.45, 95% CI=1.17-1.80), and an 86% increase in care left undone (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.48-2.35). Our findings suggest that ensuring appropriate nurse staffing and working hours is important to improve the quality and safety of care and to reduce care

  3. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman’s rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  4. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AL-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassan, Asim; Alrasheedy, Alian A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life profile among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Centre at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) scale was used for the assessment of health-related quality of life. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Inferential statistics were applied to evaluate associations between study variables. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was used for data analysis; p <0.05 was set as the level of statistical significance. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were categorised into the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. Forty-four (58.7%) were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and 40 (53.3%) had a university level of education. A moderate level of health-related quality of life (0.70 ± 0.22) was measured in the study cohort. Gender was significantly associated with health-related quality of life scores (p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs 0.74 ± 0.20). There were no statistically significant associations between health-related quality of life scores and age groups, duration of diabetes, marital status, educational level and type of treatment. Conclusion: This study has highlighted that Saudi diabetes patients have low levels of health-related quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to consider this when planning holistic patient treatment approaches. PMID:26770806

  5. Patients' self-perceived burden, caregivers' burden and quality of life for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Geng, Dan; Ou, RuWei; Miao, XiaoHui; Zhao, LiHong; Wei, QianQian; Chen, XuePing; Liang, Yan; Shang, HuiFang; Yang, Rong

    2017-10-01

    This study surveys the quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and the factors associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and their caregivers' burden. Burdens of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their caregivers in Chinese population are largely unknown. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 81 pairs of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and their caregivers. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and caregivers' burden were assessed by the Self-Perceived Burden Scale and Zarit-Burden Interview, respectively. Quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients was measured using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref. The amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised questionnaire was used to estimate patients' physical function. Both patients and caregivers reported a mild to moderate burden. The World Health Organization quality of life-Bref scores were decreased in respondents with lower amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised, higher Self-Perceived Burden Scale and higher Zarit-Burden Interview scores. Self-Perceived Burden Scale scores were associated with patients' knowledge of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respiratory function and female sex. Zarit-Burden Interview scores were associated with caregivers' age, patients' motor function and out-of-pocket payment. With increase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' self-perceived burden and caregivers' burden, quality of life of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients decreased. Female patients, who had known more about the disease, and those with severe respiratory dysfunction were subject to higher self-perceived burden. Older caregivers and caregivers of patients with severe motor dysfunction and more out-of-pocket payment experienced more care burdens. Our study suggests that paying more attention to female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

  6. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India.

    PubMed

    Shad, Rohan; Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-10-21

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman's rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  7. The impact of self-perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Broersma, Feddrik; Oeseburg, Barth; Dijkstra, Jacob; Wynia, Klaske

    2017-09-01

    To examine the impact of perceived limitations, stigma and sense of coherence on quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients. Cross-sectional survey. Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. Multiple sclerosis patients. World Health Organization Quality of Life - abbreviated version, Stigma Scale for Chronic Illness, Sense of Coherence Scale, background and disease-related questions. In total, 185 patients (61% response rate) participated in the study with moderate to severe limitations. Stigma was highly prevalent but low in severity. Patients with a higher sense of coherence experienced a lower level of limitations ( B = -0.063, P < 0.01) and less stigma (enacted stigma B = -0.030, P < 0.01; self-stigma B = -0.037, P < 0.01). Patients with a higher level of limitations experienced more stigma (enacted stigma B = 0.044, P < 0.05; self-stigma B = 0.063, P < 0.01). Patients with a higher sense of coherence experienced better quality of life (physical health B = 0.059, P < 0.01; psychological health B = 0.062, P < 0.01; social relationships B = 0.052, P < 0.01; environmental aspects B = 0.030, P < 0.01). Patients with a higher level of limitations experienced poorer quality of life (physical health B = -0.364, P < 0.01; psychological health B = -0.089, P < 0.05) and patients with more stigma also experienced poorer quality of life (self-stigma: physical health B = -0.073, P < 0.01; psychological health B = -0.089, P < 0.01; social relationships B = -0.124, P < 0.01; environmental aspects B = -0.052, P < 0.01, and enacted stigma: physical health B = -0.085, P < 0.10). Patients with less perceived limitations and stigma and a higher level of sense of coherence experienced better quality of life. Patients with a higher sense of coherence experienced a lower level of limitations and less stigma.

  8. Dietary quality in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland; a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of dietary quality indices (DQIs) have been developed to assess the quality of dietary intake. Analysis of the intake of individual nutrients does not reflect the complexity of dietary behaviours and their association with health and disease. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a variety of validated DQIs. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 111 Caucasian adults, 65 cases with T2DM were recruited from the Diabetes Day Care Services of St. Columcille’s and St. Vincent’s Hospitals, Dublin, Ireland. Forty-six controls did not have T2DM and were recruited from the general population. Data from 3-day estimated diet diaries were used to calculate 4 DQIs. Results Participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score for consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern compared to the control group, measured using the Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) (mean ± SD) (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.5 vs 4.2 ± 1.8, P = 0.02 respectively). Participants with T2DM also had lower dietary quality than the control population as assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (Range 0–9) (T2DM; 2.6 ± 2.3, control; 3.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.001). No differences between the two groups were found when dietary quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Micronutrient intake was assessed using the Micronutrient Adequacy Score (Range 0–8) and participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score than the control group (T2DM; 1.6 ± 1.4, control; 2.3 ± 1.4, P = 0.009). When individual nutrient intakes were assessed, no significant differences were observed in macronutrient intake. Conclusion Overall, these findings demonstrate that T2DM was associated with a lower score when dietary quality was assessed using a number of validated indices

  9. A cross-sectional study of sociodemographic factors and their influence on quality of life in medical students at Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Serinolli, Mario Ivo; Novaretti, Marcia Cristina Zago

    2017-01-01

    Various sociodemographic factors can affect the quality of life of medical students and interfere in their ability to study. A deeper understanding of these factors may facilitate improvements in learning and retention of medical students. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 405 medical students, representing 65.3% of the total student body (years 1-6), at a private medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Among the entire study group, 177 students (43.7%) were male, and 228 (56.3%) were female. The mean age was 23.55 years (SD = 3.98 years, range: 18-40). The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Biomedical Research and Education Facility (WHOQOL-BREF) scale was used to evaluate the following sociodemographic factors: age, sex, academic year, daily traveling time, housing conditions, smoking, weight, height, participant's and his/her parents' education background, students who had a degree or not and religious beliefs. The reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF was evaluated using Cronbach's analysis, and the association of sociodemographic factors with quality of life was examined using multivariate regression analysis. Quality of life was significantly higher in medical students with religious beliefs (β 0.14 for psychological domain; β 0.11 for environmental domain) when compared with that in those with no religious beliefs. BMI was negative associated with QOL in medical students (β -0.11 for physical domain; β -18.9 for the psychological domain). In both male and female students, longer daily traveling time was negative related to QOL (β -0.11 for environmental domain). Having at least one parent who was a doctor was associated with a better quality of life (β 0.17 for environmental domain). Male students presented with significantly higher mean scores for three of the four domains evaluated (β 0.20 for physical domain; β 0.25 for psychological domain; β 0.14 for social domain). This study has provided novel insights into the effects of sociodemographic

  10. Methodological quality of meta-analyses on treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study using the AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Robin ST; Wu, Xinyin; Yuan, Jinqiu; Liu, Siya; Lai, Xin; Wong, Samuel YS; Chung, Vincent CH

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meta-analysis (MA) of randomised trials is considered to be one of the best approaches for summarising high-quality evidence on the efficacy and safety of treatments. However, methodological flaws in MAs can reduce the validity of conclusions, subsequently impairing the quality of decision making. Aims: To assess the methodological quality of MAs on COPD treatments. Methods: A cross-sectional study on MAs of COPD trials. MAs published during 2000–2013 were sampled from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect. Methodological quality was assessed using the validated AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool. Results: Seventy-nine MAs were sampled. Only 18% considered the scientific quality of primary studies when formulating conclusions and 49% used appropriate meta-analytic methods to combine findings. The problems were particularly acute among MAs on pharmacological treatments. In 48% of MAs the authors did not report conflict of interest. Fifty-eight percent reported harmful effects of treatment. Publication bias was not assessed in 65% of MAs, and only 10% had searched non-English databases. Conclusions: The methodological quality of the included MAs was disappointing. Consideration of scientific quality when formulating conclusions should be made explicit. Future MAs should improve on reporting conflict of interest and harm, assessment of publication bias, prevention of language bias and use of appropriate meta-analytic methods. PMID:25569783

  11. Factors Influencing Quality of Life and Predictors of Low Quality of Life Scores in Patients on Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adeyeye, Olufunke O.; Coker, Ayodele; Kuyinu, Yetunde; Bamisile, Raymond T.; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Onadeko, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    There is paucity of information on the quality of life of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nigeria. This study assessed the factors influencing their quality of life and the independent predictors of low quality of life scores. Two hundred and sixty consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were evaluated for health related quality of life using the World Health Organization Quality of life instrument (WHOQoL-BREF). Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were related to the various domains of quality of life and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of low quality of life scores in the patients. The mean age of the patients was 36.7±12 years. Sex, age and marital status of patients were found to influence quality of life scores. The independent predictors of low quality of life scores were low monthly income, duration of the illness, concomitant illnesses, unemployment, advancing age and male gender. Several socio demographic and economic factors influenced the quality of life of patients with tuberculosis and are predictive of poor scores. It is important to consider these factors when treating patients with tuberculosis to optimise outcome of care. PMID:28299129

  12. Pion production cross sections and associated parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, J. N.

    Negative pions have been used for radiotherapy at the meson factories LAMPF (USA), SIN (Switzerland), and TRIUMF (Canada) and have been planned for use at new meson facilities under construction (USSR) and at proposed dedicated medical facilities. Providing therapeutically useful dose rates of pions requires a knowledge of the pion production cross sections as a function of primary proton energy (500 to 1000 MeV), pion energy (less than or equal to100 MeV), production angle, and target material. The current status of the data base in this area is presented including theoretical guidelines for extrapolation purposes. The target material and geometry, as well as the proton and pion beam parameters, will affect the electron (and muon) contamination in the beam which may have an important effect on both the LET characteristics of the dose and the dose distribution. In addition to cross-section data, channel characteristics such as length of pion trajectory, solid-angle acceptance, and momentum analysis will affect dose rate, distribution, and quality. Such considerations are briefly addressed in terms of existing facilities and proposed systems.

  13. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education. PMID:28448455

  14. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16–27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening – the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004–2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing ‘perfect health’ in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score < 1 implying ‘less than perfect health’ in women with and without chlamydia infection, and women with symptomatic chlamydia versus the remainder. The proportion of women with EQ-5D score < 1 was similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia: 34% (47/138) versus 31% (697/2263; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.41). However, more women with symptomatic chlamydia had EQ-5D score < 1 than the remainder: 45% (25/55) versus 31% (714/2319; RR 1.47, CI 1.10 to 1.98). In this community-based study, EQ-5D scores were similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia. However, a higher proportion of women with symptomatic chlamydia infection had ‘less than perfect health’. Undiagnosed chlamydia infection may not have a major short-term effect on health-related quality of life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group. PMID:27154958

  15. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: -40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): -59.2, -16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  16. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  17. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  18. Health related quality of life and perception of stigmatisation in adolescents living with sickle cell disease in Nigeria: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adeyemo, Titilope A; Ojewunmi, Oyesola O; Diaku-Akinwumi, Ijeoma N; Ayinde, Oluwaseyi C; Akanmu, Alani S

    2015-07-01

    Sickle cell disease impacts the physical, emotional and psychological aspects of life of the affected persons, often times exposing them to disease associated stigma from the society and alters the health related quality of life (HRQoL). This study compared the HRQoL of adolescents with sickle cell disease with their healthy peers, identified socio-demographic and clinical factors impacting HRQoL, and determined the extent and effects of SCD related stigma on quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 160 adolescents, 80 with SCD and 80 adolescents without SCD. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. HRQoL was investigated using the Short Form (SF-36v2) Health Survey. SCD perceived stigma was measured using an adaptation of a perceived stigma questionnaire. Adolescents with SCD have significantly worse HRQoL than their peers in all of the most important dimensions of HRQoL (physical functioning, physical roles limitation, emotional roles limitation, social functioning, bodily pain, vitality and general health perception) except mental health. Recent hospital admission and SCD related complication further lowered HRQoL scores. Over seventy percent of adolescents with SCD have moderate to high level of perception of stigmatisation. Hospitalisation, SCD complication, SCD stigma were inversely, and significantly associated with HRQoL. Adolescents living with SCD in Nigeria have lower health related quality of life compared to their healthy peers. They also experience stigma that impacts their HRQoL. Complications of SCD and hospital admissions contribute significantly to this impairment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Hamzah Abdul; Jarrar, Mu’taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The number of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia is very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. Methodology: A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total of 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Results: Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents who participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses’ roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Conclusions: Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards’ nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care. PMID:26153190

  20. Nurse Level of Education, Quality of Care and Patient Safety in the Medical and Surgical Wards in Malaysian Private Hospitals: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, Hamzah; Jarrar, Mu'taman; Don, Mohammad Sobri

    2015-04-23

    Nursing knowledge and skills are required to sustain quality of care and patient safety. The numbers of nurses with Bachelor degrees in Malaysia are very limited. This study aims to predict the impact of nurse level of education on quality of care and patient safety in the medical and surgical wards in Malaysian private hospitals. A cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was conducted. A total 652 nurses working in the medical and surgical wards in 12 private hospitals were participated in the study. Multistage stratified simple random sampling performed to invite nurses working in small size (less than 100 beds), medium size (100-199 beds) and large size (over than 200) hospitals to participate in the study. This allowed nurses from all shifts to participate in this study. Nurses with higher education were not significantly associated with both quality of care and patient safety. However, a total 355 (60.9%) of respondents participated in this study were working in teaching hospitals. Teaching hospitals offer training for all newly appointed staff. They also provide general orientation programs and training to outline the policies, procedures of the nurses' roles and responsibilities. This made the variances between the Bachelor and Diploma nurses not significantly associated with the outcomes of care. Nursing educational level was not associated with the outcomes of care in Malaysian private hospitals. However, training programs and the general nursing orientation programs for nurses in Malaysia can help to upgrade the Diploma-level nurses. Training programs can increase their self confidence, knowledge, critical thinking ability and improve their interpersonal skills. So, it can be concluded that better education and training for a medical and surgical wards' nurses is required for satisfying client expectations and sustaining the outcomes of patient care.

  1. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  2. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  3. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bondor, Cosmina I.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Gavan, Norina A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs. PMID:27019852

  4. Vision-Related Quality of Life and Appearance Concerns Are Associated with Anxiety and Depression after Eye Enucleation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juan; Lou, Lixia; Jin, Kai; Xu, Yufeng; Ye, Xin; Moss, Timothy; McBain, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables with levels of anxiety and depression in participants wearing an ocular prosthesis after eye enucleation. This cross-sectional study included 195 participants with an enucleated eye who were attending an ophthalmic clinic for prosthetic rehabilitation between July and November 2014. Demographic and clinical data, and self-reported feelings of shame, sadness and anger were collected. Participants also completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, the Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression models were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression. The proportion of participants with clinical anxiety was 11.8% and clinical depression 13.8%. More anxiety and depression were associated with poorer vision-related quality of life and greater levels of appearance concerns. Younger age was related to greater levels of anxiety. Less educated participants and those feeling more angry about losing an eye are more prone to experience depression. Clinical variables were unrelated to anxiety or depression. Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in eye-enucleated patients than the general population, which brings up the issues of psychiatric support in these patients. Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were associated with anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the direction of causality before interventions to improve mood states are developed.

  5. Independent association of joint space narrowing and osteophyte formation at the knee with health-related quality of life in Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Shigeyuki; Oka, Hiroyuki; Akune, Toru; En-yo, Yoshio; Yoshida, Munehito; Suzuki, Takao; Yoshida, Hideyo; Ishibashi, Hideaki; Tokimura, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Seizo; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the individual associations of joint space narrowing (JSN) and osteophytosis at the knee with quality of life (QOL) in Japanese men and women using a large-scale population-based cohort from the Research on Osteoarthritis Against Disability (ROAD) study. The associations of minimum joint space width (JSW) and osteophyte area in the medial compartment of the knee with QOL parameters, such as the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), were examined. Minimum JSW and osteophyte area in the medial compartment of the knee were measured using a computer-aided system for the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis. Of the 3,040 participants in the ROAD study, the present study included 2,039 participants age 40 years or older who completed the questionnaires (741 men and 1,298 women with a mean ± SD age of 68.6 ± 10.9 years). Multiple regression analysis after adjustment for age and body mass index showed that minimum JSW was significantly associated with scores on the pain domains of the WOMAC in men and women, while osteophyte area was significantly associated with scores on the physical function domains of the WOMAC in men and women. The findings of this cross-sectional study using a large-scale population from the ROAD study indicate that JSN and osteophytosis are independently associated with QOL. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  6. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  7. Worsening trends and increasing disparities in health-related quality of life: evidence from two French population-based cross-sectional surveys, 1995-2003.

    PubMed

    Audureau, Etienne; Rican, Stéphane; Coste, Joël

    2013-02-01

    To investigate time trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in France and to report existing and changing demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities. Data were drawn from two independent national cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1995 and 2003, including 3,243 individuals aged 18–84 in 1995 and 22,743 in 2003. HRQoL was measured with the 8 subscales of the French version of the SF-36. After multiple linear regression, a significant decrease was observed between 1995 and 2003 in all scales scores, from −0.11 adjusted standard deviations for Social Functioning (95% CI: −0.15 to −0.08) to −0.23 for Vitality (−0.26 to −0.19). Increasing age, female gender, divorce/widowhood, lowest educational levels, chronic conditions, and living in the Northern region were identified as independent predictors of lower HRQoL scores. Testing interactions showed significantly greater differences between 1995 and 2003 for subjects aged 75–84 and for least educated subjects (Physical Functioning, General Health). The Gini index increased for all scales. We report evidence of worsening trends and possibly increasing demographic, socioeconomic, and regional disparities in HRQoL between 1995 and 2003 in France. Monitoring HRQoL in populations can provide unique and sensitive data, complementary to classical indicators based on mortality and morbidity.

  8. Vision-Related Quality of Life and Appearance Concerns Are Associated with Anxiety and Depression after Eye Enucleation: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Juan; Lou, Lixia; Jin, Kai; Xu, Yufeng; Ye, Xin; Moss, Timothy; McBain, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate the association of demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables with levels of anxiety and depression in participants wearing an ocular prosthesis after eye enucleation. Methods This cross-sectional study included 195 participants with an enucleated eye who were attending an ophthalmic clinic for prosthetic rehabilitation between July and November 2014. Demographic and clinical data, and self-reported feelings of shame, sadness and anger were collected. Participants also completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire, the Facial Appearance subscale of the Negative Physical Self Scale, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Regression models were used to identify the factors associated with anxiety and depression. Results The proportion of participants with clinical anxiety was 11.8% and clinical depression 13.8%. More anxiety and depression were associated with poorer vision-related quality of life and greater levels of appearance concerns. Younger age was related to greater levels of anxiety. Less educated participants and those feeling more angry about losing an eye are more prone to experience depression. Clinical variables were unrelated to anxiety or depression. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are more prevalent in eye-enucleated patients than the general population, which brings up the issues of psychiatric support in these patients. Psychosocial rather than clinical characteristics were associated with anxiety and depression. Longitudinal studies need to be conducted to further elucidate the direction of causality before interventions to improve mood states are developed. PMID:26317860

  9. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  10. Cross-sectional study of availability and pharmaceutical quality of antibiotics requested with or without prescription (Over The Counter) in Surabaya, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in developing countries and antibiotic use is widespread. Our previous surveys in Java, Indonesia, revealed that most antibiotic use was probably unnecessary or ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore a potential connection between resistance and substandard antibiotics sold in the area. Methods A cross-sectional field study using the simulated client method was conducted in Surabaya. Five first-line antibiotics were requested with or without prescription (OTC). A certified laboratory analysed the drug content using validated methods. Possible determinants of substandard quality were explored. Results In total, 104 samples from 75 pharmacies, ten drug stores and 39 roadside stalls (kiosks) were obtained. Pharmacy employees filled all OTC requests. Three quarters of kiosks sold antibiotics. Antibiotics were dispensed as single blister strips or repackaged (16%) without label. Ninety five percent of samples carried the label of 14 Indonesian manufacturers. The pharmaceutical quality did not meet BP standards for 18% of samples. Deviations (less active ingredient) were small. There was no association between low content and type of outlet, sold with or without prescription, registration type, price or packaging. Median retail prices of products carrying the same label varied up to 20 fold. Conclusions Antibiotics were available OTC in all visited pharmacies and sold in the streets of an Indonesian city. Most samples contained an active ingredient. We urge to increase enforcement of existing regulations, including legislation that categorizes antibiotics as prescription-only drugs for all types of medicine outlets, to limit further selection of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:20618975

  11. Impact of genital warts on health related quality of life in men and women in mainland China: a multicenter hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with genital warts (GW) in populations in mainland China is still limited. The aim of the study was to use a generic instrument to measure the impact of genital warts on HRQoL in men and women in this setting. Methods A multi-centre hospital-based cross-sectional study across 18 centers in China was conducted to interview patients using the European quality of life-5 dimension (EQ-5D) instrument; respondents' demographic and clinical data were also collected. Results A total of 1,358 GW patients (612 men, 746 women) were included in the analysis, with a mean age of 32.0 ± 10.6 years. 56.4% of the patients reported some problems in the dimension of Anxiety/Depression (highest), followed by Pain/Discomfort (24.7%) and Mobility (3.5%). The overall visual analogue scale (VAS) score of the study population was found to be 65.2 ± 22.0, and the EQ-5D index score was found to be 0.843 ± 0.129 using Japanese preference weights (the Chinese preference was unavailable yet). Patients with lower VAS means and EQ-5D index scores were more often female, living in urban area, and suffering multiple GW (all p values < 0.05), but the values did not differ notably by age (p values > 0.05). Conclusions The HRQoL of patients with GW was substantially lower, compared to a national representative general population in China (VAS = ~80); the findings of different subgroups are informative for future GW prevention and control efforts. PMID:22381149

  12. Blood glucose control and quality of health care in non-insulin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes in Spain: a retrospective and cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, A; Calle, A; Vázquez, L; Chacón, F; Polavieja, P; Reviriego, J

    2011-01-01

    Aims To assess blood glucose control and quality of health care provided to non-insulin-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus in routine clinical practice in Spain. Methods In this observational, retrospective, cross-sectional study, patients were grouped as either having good or suboptimal blood glucose control according to International Diabetes Federation or American Diabetes Association HbA1c goals. Clinical and socio-demographic data and compliance with the main standard level of care recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation were recorded during a routine visit. Correlates of glucose control were analysed by logistic regression. Results Many patients were grouped as having suboptimal control under International Diabetes Federation (61.9%) or American Diabetes Association (45.0%) criteria. The mean number of accomplished International Diabetes Federation recommendations (7.3 out of 11) was higher for endocrinologists (than for internists or primary care physicians), and significantly more patients under their care were in the good glucose control group (than with primary care physicians). More recommendations were associated with blood glucose control using International Diabetes Federation than American Diabetes Association criteria, demanding higher quality of health care for achieving stricter goals. Some recommendations were poorly observed, particularly those concerning patients’ education on diabetes, the prompt prescription of effective treatments and monitoring of complications. Diabetes complications were associated with being in the suboptimal control group. Patients’ education on diabetes and HbA1c monitoring were associated with being in the good control group. Conclusions These results demonstrate the need for improvement in the management of patients with non-insulin-treated Type 2 diabetes in actual clinical practice in Spain. Such improvement would entail a stricter adherence to International Diabetes Federation

  13. The quality of hospital work environments and missed nursing care is linked to heart failure readmissions: a cross-sectional study of US hospitals.

    PubMed

    Carthon, J Margo Brooks; Lasater, Karen B; Sloane, Douglas M; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2015-04-01

    Threats to quality and patient safety may exist when necessary nursing care is omitted. Empirical research is needed to determine how missed nursing care is associated with patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between missed nursing care and hospital readmissions. Cross-sectional examination, using three linked data sources-(1) nurse survey, (2) patient discharge data from three states (California, New Jersey and Pennsylvania) and (3) administrative hospital data- from 2005 to 2006. We explored the incidence of 30-day readmission for 160 930 patients with heart failure in 419 acute care hospitals in the USA. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of missed care on the odds of readmission, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. The most frequently missed nursing care activities across all hospitals in our sample included talking to and comforting patients (42.0%), developing and updating care plans (35.8%) and educating patients and families (31.5%). For 4 of the 10 studied care activities, each 10 percentage-point increase in the number of nurses reporting having missed the activity was associated with an increase in the odds of readmission by 2-8% after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. However, missed nursing care was no longer a significant predictor of readmission once adjusting for the nurse work environment, except in the case of the delivery of treatments and procedures (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14). Missed care is an independent predictor of heart failure readmissions. However, once adjusting for the quality of the nurse work environment, this relationship is attenuated. Improvements in nurses' working conditions may be one strategy to reduce care omissions and improve patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The nursing work environment and quality of care: A cross-sectional study using the Essentials of Magnetism II Scale in England.

    PubMed

    Oshodi, Titilayo O; Crockett, Rachel; Bruneau, Benjamin; West, Elizabeth

    2017-09-01

    To explore the structure of the Essentials of Magnetism II (EOMII) scale using data from nurses working in England; and to describe the impact of different aspects of the nursing work environment on nurse-assessed care quality (NACQ). The EOMII Scale was developed in the United States to measure nursing work environments. It has been widely used in the United States and in a number of other countries, but has not yet been used in the UK. Cross-sectional study. Registered nurses (n = 247) providing direct patient care in two National Health Service hospitals in England completed the EOMII scale and a single-item measuring NACQ. Principal components analysis was used to assess the structure of the scale. Correlation and regression analyses were used to describe the relationships between factors and NACQ. A solution with explanatory variance of 45.25% was identified. Forty items loaded on five factors, with satisfactory consistency: (i) ward manager support; (ii) working as a team; (iii) concern for patients; (iv) organisational autonomy; and (v) constraints on nursing practice. While in univariate analyses, each of the factors was significantly associated with NACQ, in multivariate analyses, the relationship between organisational autonomy and NACQ no longer reached significance. However, a multiple mediation model indicated that the effect of organisational autonomy on NACQ was mediated by nurse manager support, working as a team and concern for patients but not constraints on nursing practice. Subscales of the EOMII identified in an English sample of nurses measured important aspects of the nursing work environment, each of which is related to NACQ. The EOMII could be a very useful tool for measuring aspects of the nursing work environment in the English Trusts particularly in relation to the quality of care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Health-related Quality of Life After Radical Cystectomy: A Cross-sectional Study With Matched-pair Analysis on Ileal Conduit vs Ileal Orthotopic Neobladder Diversion.

    PubMed

    Cerruto, Maria Angela; D'Elia, Carolina; Siracusano, Salvatore; Saleh, Omar; Gacci, Mauro; Cacciamani, Giovanni; De Marco, Vincenzo; Porcaro, Antonio Benito; Balzarro, Matteo; Niero, Mauro; Lonardi, Cristina; Iafrate, Massimo; Bassi, Pierfrancesco; Imbimbo, Ciro; Racioppi, Marco; Talamini, Renato; Ciciliato, Stefano; Serni, Sergio; Carini, Marco; Verze, Paolo; Artibani, Walter

    2017-10-01

    To examine the different and health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) outcomes between ileal conduit (IC) and ileal orthotopic neobladder (IONB) in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC), by using validated self-reported cancer-specific instruments. This retrospective, cross-sectional, multicenter cohort study included 148 and 171 patients with either IC or IONB. HR-QoL was evaluated with Quality of Life Core Questionnaire and bladder module (BLM)-30 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires. Baseline HR-QoL scores were dichotomized at the median to give "good" or "poor" score profiles. A matched-pair analysis compared HR-QoL aspects between 79 IC patients and 79 IONB patients. At univariate analysis IONB resulted favorable for physical functioning, emotional functioning, cognitive functioning (CF), fatigue, dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation (CO), and abdominal bloating flatulence (AB). At multivariate analyses, IONB showed better scores for emotional functioning (85 vs 79, P = .023), CF (93 vs 85, P <.001), CO (16 vs 31, P <.001), and AB (12 vs 25, P <.001). A significant worsening of sexual and urinary function was observed for IONB patients in the long-term. At matched-pair analysis, global health status was similar (65 vs 62, P = .385). Significantly better scores were observed in the IONB group for the following items: CF (P = .007), fatigue (P = .003), pain (P = .019), dyspnea (P = .016), CO (P = .001), and AB (P = .00). IONB and IC after RC were similar in terms of global health status. IONB provides better results in some aspects of HR-QoL related to bowel function, but a worsening of urinary and sexual functions. Further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Do Health Care Providers Use Online Patient Ratings to Improve the Quality of Care? Results From an Online-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Physician-rating websites have become a popular tool to create more transparency about the quality of health care providers. So far, it remains unknown whether online-based rating websites have the potential to contribute to a better standard of care. Objective Our goal was to examine which health care providers use online rating websites and for what purposes, and whether health care providers use online patient ratings to improve patient care. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study by surveying 2360 physicians and other health care providers (September 2015). In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed multilevel logistic regression models to ascertain the effects of providers’ demographics as well as report card-related variables on the likelihood that providers implement measures to improve patient care. Results Overall, more than half of the responding providers surveyed (54.66%, 1290/2360) used online ratings to derive measures to improve patient care (implemented measures: mean 3.06, SD 2.29). Ophthalmologists (68%, 40/59) and gynecologists (65.4%, 123/188) were most likely to implement any measures. The most widely implemented quality measures were related to communication with patients (28.77%, 679/2360), the appointment scheduling process (23.60%, 557/2360), and office workflow (21.23%, 501/2360). Scaled-survey results had a greater impact on deriving measures than narrative comments. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed medical specialty, the frequency of report card use, and the appraisal of the trustworthiness of scaled-survey ratings to be significantly associated predictors for implementing measures to improve patient care because of online ratings. Conclusions Our results suggest that online ratings displayed on physician-rating websites have an impact on patient care. Despite the limitations of our study and unintended consequences of physician-rating websites, they still may have the potential to

  17. The quality of hospital work environments and missed nursing care is linked to heart failure readmissions: a cross-sectional study of US hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Carthon, J Margo Brooks; Lasater, Karen B; Sloane, Douglas M; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Threats to quality and patient safety may exist when necessary nursing care is omitted. Empirical research is needed to determine how missed nursing care is associated with patient outcomes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between missed nursing care and hospital readmissions. Methods Cross-sectional examination, using three linked data sources—(1) nurse survey, (2) patient discharge data from three states (California, New Jersey and Pennsylvania) and (3) administrative hospital data— from 2005 to 2006. We explored the incidence of 30-day readmission for 160 930 patients with heart failure in 419 acute care hospitals in the USA. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of missed care on the odds of readmission, adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. Results The most frequently missed nursing care activities across all hospitals in our sample included talking to and comforting patients (42.0%), developing and updating care plans (35.8%) and educating patients and families (31.5%). For 4 of the 10 studied care activities, each 10 percentage-point increase in the number of nurses reporting having missed the activity was associated with an increase in the odds of readmission by 2–8% after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics. However, missed nursing care was no longer a significant predictor of readmission once adjusting for the nurse work environment, except in the case of the delivery of treatments and procedures (OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14). Conclusions Missed care is an independent predictor of heart failure readmissions. However, once adjusting for the quality of the nurse work environment, this relationship is attenuated. Improvements in nurses’ working conditions may be one strategy to reduce care omissions and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25672342

  18. Worse quality of life in young and recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Mikael; Dar, Huma; Brandberg, Yvonne; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2016-12-01

    Literature focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by cancer site among women only is scarce. This study examines HRQoL of breast cancer (BC) survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers, and to understand which subgroups of BC survivors were particularly at risk of reduced HRQoL. We placed emphasis on young (<50 years) and recently diagnosed (≤5 years) survivors, where the deficits in HRQoL were most pronounced. The cross-sectional study consisted of 2,224 BC survivors, 8,504 non-cancer controls and 2,205 other cancer survivors in the Karma study. We examined HRQoL differences using linear regression analyses in the whole cohort and in a subset of young and recently diagnosed BC survivors (n = 242) and female survivors of other cancers (n = 140) with comparable ages at diagnosis (43.6 vs 43.6, p = 0.917) and time since diagnosis (2.3 vs 2.8 years, p < 0.001). HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. While only cognitive functioning was significantly compromised in BC survivors compared with survivors of other cancers when women of all ages were included, young BC survivors reported significantly lower HRQoL on multiple functional scales (global quality of life, emotional, role, social and cognitive functioning) and experienced more fatigue and insomnia. BC survivors with any prior medical history of mental disorders reported poorer HRQoL than those without such a history. We also observed a close-knit relationship between tumor and treatment characteristics. BC survivors perform poorly in HRQoL in comparison with female survivors of other cancers. Our results emphasize the importance of age- and gender-appropriate comparison groups.

  19. Translation and Validation of Bahasa Malaysia Version of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life Questionnaires (IIQ-7), a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nusee, Zalina; Rusly, Azizah; Jamalludin, AR; Abdulwahab, Dalia F; Ismail, Rozihan

    2016-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) demonstrates major prevalence in women of different population groups. Reduced quality of life (QOL) is observed due to incontinence problems. Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life (IIQ-7) are useful disease-specific questionnaires evaluating the impact of urinary incontinence on the QOL of women which is accepted internationally. Objective This study aims to translate and validate UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in Malay language. Methods A cross sectional study, which recruited 100 participants from two urogynecology clinics. Both questionnaires were initially translated from English to Bahasa Malaysia followed by back translation and final correction done by the professional translators. The participants were requested to maintain a urinary record of the upcoming week for three days that assisted in quantifying the severity of symptoms. None of the subjects were assigned any treatment during the study period. Validity and reliability of the translated questionnaires were determined by checking the internal consistency and also by doing test-retest. Results The internal consistency levels of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires were 0.73 and 0.90 respectively with good test-retest (0.86 and 0.95). Incontinence episodes were strongly associated with obstructive, irritative, and stress symptoms. The factor of day time voiding had strong correlation with obstructive and irritative symptoms. Conclusion UDI-6 and IIQ-7 did not measure similar outcomes; however, both questionnaires have their strengths in clinical settings. Analysis has also revealed that the Malaysian versions of both questionnaires had appropriate test-retest validity and reliability. Thus, it can be said that both of the questionnaires had great importance for screening patients with urinary incontinence in Malaysia. PMID:27418870

  20. Health-related quality of life in infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease: a cross-sectional survey from South India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Manu; Sudhakar, Abish; Roy, Rinku; Soman, Sumi; Antony, Libin; Champaneri, Bhavik; Kumar, Raman Krishna

    2017-08-30

    There are limited data on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for infants and toddlers with congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to compare generic HRQOL of infants and toddlers between CHD subjects and controls. Dual-setting, cross-sectional analytical survey. We collected HRQOL data on infants and toddlers through a community survey for controls and through a hospital-based survey for those with CHD. A total of 499 subjects with confirmed CHD in the age group of 1-24 months admitted for elective surgery in the study institution were selected by consecutive sampling. In addition, we selected 628 control children in the same age group from an area within the 10 km radius of the study institution. The data contain parent proxy report of HRQOL. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) was used to collect HRQOL data. Questionnaires were self-administered for parents. The mean total proxy HRQOL scores were significantly higher in control infants compared with infants with CHD (adjusted mean difference 5.0, 99% CI 2.5 to 7.5, p<0.001). Corresponding figure for toddlers was 7.6 (95% CI 5.0 to 10.2, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in total HRQOL scores across CHD functional classes among infants and toddlers (p=0.212 and p=0.502, respectively). Infants and toddlers with uncorrected CHD have significant deficiency in proxy HRQOL compared with their controls. The functional class of CHD appears to have no differential impact on overall HRQOL deficiency in this age group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Do GPs know their patients with cancer? Assessing the quality of cancer registration in Dutch primary care: a cross-sectional validation study

    PubMed Central

    Sollie, Annet; Roskam, Jessika; Sijmons, Rolf H; Numans, Mattijs E; Helsper, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quality of cancer registry in primary care. Design and setting A cross-sectional validation study using linked data from primary care electronic health records (EHRs) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Population 290 000 patients, registered with 120 general practitioners (GPs), from 50 practice centres in the Utrecht area, the Netherlands, in January 2013. Intervention Linking the EHRs of all patients in the Julius General Practitioners’ Network database at an individual patient level to the full NCR (∼1.7 million tumours between 1989 and 2011), to determine the proportion of matching cancer diagnoses. Full-text EHR extraction and manual analysis for non-matching diagnoses. Main outcome measures Proportions of matching and non-matching breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer diagnoses between 2007 and 2011, stratified by age category, cancer type and EHR system. Differences in year of diagnosis between the EHR and the NCR. Reasons for non-matching diagnoses. Results In the Primary Care EHR, 60.6% of cancer cases were registered and coded in accordance with the NCR. Of the EHR diagnoses, 48.9% were potentially false positive (not registered in the NCR). Results differed between EHR systems but not between age categories or cancer types. The year of diagnosis corresponded in 80.6% of matching coded diagnoses. Adding full-text EHR analysis improved results substantially. A national disease registry (the NCR) proved incomplete. Conclusions Even though GPs do know their patients with cancer, only 60.6% are coded in concordance with the NCR. Reusers of coded EHR data should be aware that 40% of cases can be missed, and almost half can be false positive. The type of EHR system influences registration quality. If full-text manual EHR analysis is used, only 10% of cases will be missed and 20% of cases found will be wrong. EHR data should only be reused with care. PMID:27633642

  2. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  3. Ultrahigh-energy photonuclear cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, R.; Sarcevic, I.; Burrows, A. ); Durand, L.; Pi, H. )

    1990-07-01

    We present results of calculations of the total inelastic photon-air cross sections at ultrahigh energies (up to 10{sup 8} GeV in the laboratory) of relevance to on-going cosmic-ray experiments. The calculations take into account the high-energy QCD structure of the photon and are performed for a variety of photon and proton structure functions. The total inelastic photon-air cross section is obtained from the photon-proton jet cross section via an eikonalization procedure using a QCD-based diffractive model. The results are discussed in the context of the apparent excess muon content of air showers associated with point sources.

  4. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  5. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  6. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  7. Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Linda H; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bruyneel, Luk; McHugh, Matthew; Maier, Claudia B; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; Ball, Jane E; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of their care and indicators of quality of care. Design Cross-sectional patient discharge data, hospital characteristics and nurse and patient survey data were merged and analysed using generalised estimating equations (GEE) and logistic regression models. Setting Adult acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain and Switzerland. Participants Survey data were collected from 13 077 nurses in 243 hospitals, and 18 828 patients in 182 of the same hospitals in the six countries. Discharge data were obtained for 275 519 surgical patients in 188 of these hospitals. Main outcome measures Patient mortality, patient ratings of care, care quality, patient safety, adverse events and nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Results Richer nurse skill mix (eg, every 10-point increase in the percentage of professional nurses among all nursing personnel) was associated with lower odds of mortality (OR=0.89), lower odds of low hospital ratings from patients (OR=0.90) and lower odds of reports of poor quality (OR=0.89), poor safety grades (OR=0.85) and other poor outcomes (0.80

  8. Nursing skill mix in European hospitals: cross-sectional study of the association with mortality, patient ratings, and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Aiken, Linda H; Sloane, Douglas; Griffiths, Peter; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Bruyneel, Luk; McHugh, Matthew; Maier, Claudia B; Moreno-Casbas, Teresa; Ball, Jane E; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Sermeus, Walter

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association of hospital nursing skill mix with patient mortality, patient ratings of their care and indicators of quality of care. Cross-sectional patient discharge data, hospital characteristics and nurse and patient survey data were merged and analysed using generalised estimating equations (GEE) and logistic regression models. Adult acute care hospitals in Belgium, England, Finland, Ireland, Spain and Switzerland. Survey data were collected from 13 077 nurses in 243 hospitals, and 18 828 patients in 182 of the same hospitals in the six countries. Discharge data were obtained for 275 519 surgical patients in 188 of these hospitals. Patient mortality, patient ratings of care, care quality, patient safety, adverse events and nurse burnout and job dissatisfaction. Richer nurse skill mix (eg, every 10-point increase in the percentage of professional nurses among all nursing personnel) was associated with lower odds of mortality (OR=0.89), lower odds of low hospital ratings from patients (OR=0.90) and lower odds of reports of poor quality (OR=0.89), poor safety grades (OR=0.85) and other poor outcomes (0.80quality and safety of hospital care and contribute to hospital nurse

  9. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sermeus, Walter; Van den Heede, Koen; Sloane, Douglas M; Busse, Reinhard; McKee, Martin; Bruyneel, Luk; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Griffiths, Peter; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Tishelman, Carol; Scott, Anne; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kinnunen, Juha; Schwendimann, Rene; Heinen, Maud; Zikos, Dimitris; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Smith, Herbert L; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. Design Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. Setting Nurses were surveyed in general acute care hospitals (488 in 12 European countries; 617 in the United States); patients were surveyed in 210 European hospitals and 430 US hospitals. Participants 33 659 nurses and 11 318 patients in Europe; 27 509 nurses and more than 120 000 patients in the US. Main outcome measures Nurse outcomes (hospital staffing, work environments, burnout, dissatisfaction, intention to leave job in the next year, patient safety, quality of care), patient outcomes (satisfaction overall and with nursing care, willingness to recommend hospitals). Results The percentage of nurses reporting poor or fair quality of patient care varied substantially by country (from 11% (Ireland) to 47% (Greece)), as did rates for nurses who gave their hospital a poor or failing safety grade (4% (Switzerland) to 18% (Poland)). We found high rates of nurse burnout (10% (Netherlands) to 78% (Greece)), job dissatisfaction (11% (Netherlands) to 56% (Greece)), and intention to leave (14% (US) to 49% (Finland, Greece)). Patients’ high ratings of their hospitals also varied considerably (35% (Spain) to 61% (Finland, Ireland)), as did rates of patients willing to recommend their hospital (53% (Greece) to 78% (Switzerland)). Improved work environments and reduced ratios of patients to nurses were associated with increased care quality and patient satisfaction. In European hospitals, after adjusting for hospital and nurse characteristics, nurses with better work environments were half as likely to report poor or fair care quality (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.61) and give their hospitals poor or failing grades on patient safety (0.50, 0.44 to 0.56). Each additional

  10. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  13. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  14. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; et al.

    Dijet cross sections are presented using photoproduction data obtained with the ZEUS detector during 1994. These measurements represent an extension of previous results, as the higher statistics allow cross sections to be measured at higher jet transverse energy ( ETjet). Jets are identified in the hadronic final state using three different algorithms, and the cross sections compared to complete next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Agreement with these calculations is seen for the pseudorapidity dependence of the direct photon events with ETjet > 6 GeV and of the resolved photon events with ETjet > 11 GeV. Calculated cross sections for resolved photon processes with 6 GeV < ETjet < 11 GeV lie below the data.

  15. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  16. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  17. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  18. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  19. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  20. High precision neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, A.; Belloni, F.; Borcea, C.; Boromiza, M.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Pirovano, E.; Plompen, A.

    2017-06-01

    High precision neutron inelastic scattering cross section data are very important for the development of the new generation of nuclear reactors (Gen IV). Our experiments, performed using the GELINA neutron source and the GAINS spectrometer of the European Commission Joint Research Center, Geel, produce highly reliable and precise cross section data. We will present the details of the setup and the data analysis technique allowing production of such unique results, and we will show examples of two experimental results.

  1. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  2. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  3. Relationships between dietary intakes of children and their parents: a cross-sectional, secondary analysis of families participating in the Family Diet Quality Study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, L N; Rollo, M E; Watson, J; Burrows, T L; Collins, C E

    2015-10-01

    Being overweight and obese in Australian children is common. Current evidence related to parental influence on child dietary intake is conflicting, and is particularly limited in terms of which parent exerts the stronger relationship. The present study aimed to assess mother-father and parent-child dietary relationships and to identify which parent-child relationship is stronger. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of dietary intake data from 66 families with one parent and one child aged 8-12 years who were participating in the Family Diet Quality Study, in the Hunter and Forster regions of New South Wales, Australia. Dietary intakes were assessed using adult and child specific, validated semi-quantitative 120-item food frequency questionnaires. Diet quality and variety subscores were assessed using the Australian Recommended Food Scores for adults and children/adolescents. Pearson's correlations were used to assess dietary relationships between mother-father, father-child and mother-child dyads. Weak-to-moderate correlations were found between mother-child dyads for components of dietary intake (r = 0.27-0.47). Similarly, for father-child dyads, predominantly weak-to-moderate correlations were found (r = 0.01-0.52). Variety of fruit intake was the most strongly correlated in both parent-child dyads, with the weakest relationships found for fibre (g 1000 kJ(-1) ) in father-child and percentage energy from total fats for mother-child dyads. Mother-father dyads demonstrated mostly moderate-to-strong correlations (r = 0.13-0.73), with scores for condiments showing the weakest relationship and vegetables the strongest. For all dyads, strong correlations were observed for overall diet quality (r = 0.50-0.59). Parent-child dietary intake is significantly related but differs for mother versus fathers. Further research is required to examine whether differing dietary components should be targeted for mothers versus fathers in interventions aiming to

  4. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  5. Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients’ self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients’ were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Results Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p < 0.05). Significant association was also found between non-adherence to exercise and poor mobility, self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p

  6. Association between objectively measured sleep quality and physical function among community-dwelling oldest old Japanese: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji; Yoshida, Hideyo; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Narumi; Kim, Hunkyung

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the association between objective measures of sleep quality and performance-based measures of physical function in community-dwelling oldest old Japanese. This cross-sectional study included 207 community-dwelling adults aged 80 years or older (92 men, 115 women; age 83.5 ± 2.6 years [range 80-95 years]). Participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on their non-dominant wrist for 24 h per day over seven consecutive nights. Sleep parameters included total sleep time, sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset during the night for a week. Performance-based physical function measures were handgrip strength, knee extension strength, and usual and maximum walking speeds. Multivariable linear regression was carried out to determine the associations between weekly sleep parameter averages and physical function measures. Approximately 24% of participants had a total sleep time of less than 6 h a night, and 13% had greater than 8 h a night. Overall, average daily physical activity was 1771.8 ± 520.6 (counts/min/day). In multiple linear regression, sleep efficiency and wake after sleep onset were significantly associated with maximum walking speed (β = 0.277; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.103 to 0.351 and β = -0.214; 95% CI -0.339 to -0.082, respectively) and usual walking speed (β = 0.200, 95% CI 0.035 to 0.305 and β = -0.174; 95% CI -0.341 to -0.064, respectively), after adjusting for potential confounding factors including daily physical activity. Both sleep qualities were also independently associated with knee extension strength. However, wake after sleep onset was not associated with handgrip strength. Objectively measured sleep quality was associated with physical function in the oldest old. Further research is required to identify the temporality of associations between sleep and physical function. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Farzana; Mumu, Shirin J; Ara, Ferdous; Hafez, Md Abdul; Ali, Liaquat

    2014-05-07

    Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients' self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients' were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p < 0.05). Significant association was also found between non-adherence to exercise and poor mobility, self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p < 0.05). Non-adherence to diet

  8. Association between stigma, depression and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in South India – a community based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background India has around 2.27 million adults living with HIV/AIDS who face several challenges in the medical management of their disease. Stigma, discrimination and psychosocial issues are prevalent. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of severe stigma and to study the association between this, depression and the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Tamil Nadu. Methods This was a community based cross sectional study carried out in seven districts of Tamil Nadu, India, among 400 PLHA in the year 2009. The following scales were used for stigma, depression and quality of life, Berger scale, Major Depression Inventory (MDI) scale and the WHO BREF scale. Both Stigma and QOL were classified as none, moderate or severe/poor based on the tertile cut off values of the scale scores. Depression was classified as none, mild, moderate and severe. Logistic regression analyses were performed to study the risk factors. Results Twenty seven per cent of PLHA had experienced severe forms of stigma. These were severe forms of personalized stigma (28.8%), negative self-image (30.3%), perceived public attitude (18.2%) and disclosure concerns (26%). PLHA experiencing severe depression were 12% and those experiencing poor quality of life were 34%. Poor QOL reported in the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains was 42.5%, 40%, 51.2% and 34% respectively. PLHA who had severe personalized stigma and negative self-image had 3.4 (1.6-7.0) and 2.1 (1.0-4.1) times higher risk of severe depression respectively (p < .001). PLHA who had severe depression had experienced 2.7(1.1-7.7) times significantly poorer QOL. Conclusions Severe forms of stigma were equivalently prevalent among all the categories of PLHA. However, PLHA who had experienced severe depression had only developed poor QOL. A high level of social support was associated with a high level of QOL. PMID:22720691

  9. Physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake and health-related quality of life in Chinese breast cancer survivors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiao-Huan; Wang, Ji-Wei; Li, Jiang; Chen, Xue-Fen; Sun, Li; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Breast cancer has long-term effects on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of cancer survivors after treatment. Few research studies have focused on the association between health behaviors and HRQOL of Chinese breast cancer survivors (BCS). The aim of this study was to examine the separate and combined influence of physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake on health-related quality of life of BCS. A cross-sectional study was conducted among BCS from April to July 2013, in Shanghai, China. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire, which included questions about basic socio-demographic characteristics, health conditions and treatments, health behaviors and HRQOL. HRQOL was measured using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) simplified Chinese V3.0 version and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) simplified Chinese 4th version. Multiple linear regression models were performed to estimate the effects of physical exercise, vegetable and fruit intake as well as the effects of health behavior patterns on HRQOL adjusting for potential confounding variables. Exercisers reported significantly higher scores in most HRQOL dimensions than non-exercisers. Participants who ate more than 250 g of vegetables reported significantly higher scores in most HRQOL dimensions than participants who ate equal or less than 250 g of vegetables. Participants who ate fruit every day reported significantly higher scores in all HRQOL dimensions than those who did not eat fruit every day (P Adjusted ≤ 0.032), except symptom subscales. All subscale scores and total scores of HRQOL, except symptom subscales, were positively associated with the number of adopted healthy lifestyle behaviors (P Trend ≤ 0.003). Compared to participants who adopted only one healthy behavior, participants who adopted two or three healthy behaviors both reported significantly higher

  10. Collaborative Patient-Centered Quality Improvement: A Cross-Sectional Survey Comparing the Types and Numbers of Quality Initiatives Selected by Patients and Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Collins, Nicolas; Ackland, Stephen P; Bellamy, Douglas; Levi, Christopher R

    2016-12-01

    Identification of patients' and health professionals' quality improvement preferences is an essential first step in collaborative improvement models. This includes experience-based codesign (EBCD), where service change is strategically introduced following stakeholder consultation. This study compared the number and types of improvement initiatives selected by outpatients and health professionals. Using electronic surveys designed to inform EBCD studies, 541 outpatients (71.1% consent) and 124 professionals (47.1% response) selected up to 23 general initiatives. On average, outpatients selected 2.4 (median = 1, interquartile range = 1-3) initiatives and professionals selected 10.7 (median = 10; interquartile range = 6-15) initiatives. Outpatients demonstrated a strong preference for improvements to clinic organization, such as appointment scheduling and clinic contact. Outpatients selected relatively fewer initiatives potentially reducing the complexity of service change and resources required to address preferences. Comparatively, professionals indicated a greater degree of change is needed and selected initiatives related to communication with patients and other professionals, including coordinating multidisciplinary care. Improvements to information provision were commonly selected by both groups and offered a strategic opportunity to address patients' and professionals' preferences. By quantifying the ways in which preferences differed, this study emphasizes the need for collaborative approaches to health service change and may be used to initiate an informed discussion on patients' and professionals' quality improvement preferences in tertiary care.

  11. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  12. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  13. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Arefeh

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36). The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD) scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2) for men and 51.2 (17.9) for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles.

  14. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Arefeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36). The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD) scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2) for men and 51.2 (17.9) for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles. PMID:28299296

  15. Quality of Life of People With HIV/AIDS Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Cuba: A Cross-Sectional Study of the National Population

    PubMed Central

    Aragonés-López, Carlos; Pérez-Ávila, Jorge; Smith Fawzi, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the quality of life (QOL) of Cubans with HIV/AIDS. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study including administration of the Medical Outcomes Study–HIV Health Survey Questionnaire to a representative sample of the 1592 Cubans receiving ART in 2004. For univariate analyses, we compared mean HIV scale scores. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between role function and year of diagnosis, between pain and sex, and between health transition and region of diagnosis, with adjustment for demographics, ART regimen, and clinical status. Results. There were 354 participants (73 women, 281 men). Scores for all functional activities showed means higher than 80 out of 100. Pain interfered more in women than in men (73.2 vs 81.9; P = .01). When HIV diagnosis occurred after 2001, the probability of experiencing difficulties performing work (odds ratio [OR] = 4.42; 95% CI = 1.83, 10.73) and pain (OR = 1.70; 95% CI = 1.01, 2.88) increased compared with earlier diagnosis. People treated with indinavir showed a greater perception of general health (58.9 vs 52.4; P = .045) and greater health improvement (78.6 vs 67.8; P = .002). Conclusions. Although Cubans receiving ART are maintaining a high QOL, we observed significant differences by sex and time of diagnosis. QOL assessment can serve as a health outcome and may allow identification of QOL reductions potentially related to ART side effects. PMID:22420793

  16. Cognitive function alone is a poor predictor of health-related quality of life in employed patients with MS: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Depression, anxiety, disease severity, and cognitive functions impact on the quality of life of people with MS. However, the majority of studies were not based on multivariate models and did not target employed patients. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of HRQoL in persons with MS in the workforce considering cognitive, psychological, disease severity, and disability-related variables. Cross-sectional study. Hierarchical block regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of physical and mental components of HRQoL, measured with the MSQOL-54. Candidate predictors included cognitive functioning (a selection of Rao's BRB-NT), sample features (age, education, MS duration), depressive symptoms (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-Y), disability (WHODAS 2.0), and MS severity (EDSS): those that correlated with PCS and MCS with p < .250 and those that correlated with other predictors with coefficients >.800 were excluded from regression analyses. In total, 181 patients (60.8% females, mean age 39.6, median EDSS 1.5) were included. In both models, cognitive variables had a poor explicative power. The models improved significantly when psychological, as well as, disease severity and disability variables were added. R(2) of complete models was 0.732 for the physical component, 0.697 for the mental one: BDI-II, STAI-State and, some WHODAS 2.0 scales were significant predictors of HRQoL. Monitoring anxiety, depressive symptoms, and level of disability through self-reported questionnaires may provide useful suggestions to improve the HRQoL of persons with MS in the workforce, permitting to address possible problems in the work context and plan corrective actions.

  17. Current analgesic use predicts low emotional quality of life in youth: A cross-sectional survey among university students in Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Ahongshangbam, Shurmala; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Occurrence of chronic physical pain is increasingly identified among youth, and medically unsupervised analgesic use is a possible risk factor for opioid dependence and other mental diseases in later life. Therefore, the present study was carried out in young student population in Sikkim, India, to explore predictors (including current chronic pain and current analgesic use) of low QoL in youth to identify a subset of population vulnerable to substance use and mental diseases in later life. Methods: The study was conducted in a health university setting in Sikkim, North East India. In this cross-sectional study, 156 participants were enrolled with almost equal number of males and females. Generic instruments for demographics and current analgesic use and SF - 36, for assessment of quality of life (QoL), were used. QoL was measured in general, physical and emotional domains. Presence of chronic physical pain during past four weeks was captured using SF - 36. Results: Almost two-third participants reported presence of current physical pain (69%, n=108); and (14%, n=22) reported current analgesic use for pain. In logistic regression model controlled for age, ethnicity, gender and residence, higher body mass index (BMI) (β=-0.16, P=0.02) and current analgesic use (β=1.6, P=0.006) predicted low QoL in emotional domain (less accomplishment due to emotional problem). Current analgesic use also predicted low QoL in another measure of emotional domain (depressed β=2.0, P=0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: This study identified a subset of participants in their youth with low QoL in emotional domain predicted by current analgesic use and possible overweight problem. Low QoL in more than one emotional domain also identifies possibility of later psychiatric impairment. However, chronic pain did not emerge as a significant predictor of low QoL in emotional domain. PMID:23852302

  18. The clinical burden of generalized osteoarthritis represented by self-reported health-related quality of life and activity limitations: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cuperus, Nienke; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Mahler, Elien A M; Kersten, Clarinda C; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; van den Ende, Cornelia H M

    2015-05-01

    The involvement of multiple joints is common in osteoarthritis (OA), often referred to as generalized osteoarthritis (GOA). However, since research and practice mainly focus on a specific OA localization, the health status of patients with GOA is largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to describe the clinical burden of GOA in terms of self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and activity limitations. In this cross-sectional study, individuals clinically diagnosed with GOA and referred to multidisciplinary treatment, completed questionnaires on socio-demographics, joint involvement, HRQoL (SF-36) and activity limitations (HAQ-DI). SF-36 physical (PCS) and mental component summary scores (MCS) were calculated using norm-based data. The patient's specific most important activity limitations were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. A total of 147 patients participated [85 % female; mean (SD) age 60 (8) years]. The majority (93 %) had symptomatic OA in both the upper and lower extremities. Predominant joints with symptomatic OA were the hands (85 %) and knees (82 %). Mean (SD) SF-36 PCS and MCS scores were 37 (7) and 48 (10), respectively, showing a broad impact of GOA on the physical component of health. The mean (SD) HAQ-DI score was 1.27 (0.50) indicating moderate to severe functional limitations. Activities concerning mobility and domestic life were considered most important activity limitations, especially walking. The results show a high clinical burden of GOA in terms of HRQoL and activity limitations. This study points to the need of developing non-pharmacological interventions for patients with GOA that should target on improving the physical component of health and mobility limitations.

  19. Association of social support and quality of life among people with schizophrenia receiving community psychiatric service: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Munikanan, Thurkadevi; Midin, Marhani; Daud, Tuti Iryani Mohd; Rahim, Riana Abdul; Bakar, Abdul Kadir Abu; Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei Nik; Sidi, Hatta; Baharuddin, Najwa

    2017-05-01

    To understand the needs of patients with schizophrenia for recovery, this study examined the type and level of social support and its association with quality of life (QOL) among this group of patients in the city of Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 individuals with schizophrenia receiving community psychiatric services in Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL). The WHOQOL-BREF, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) were used to assess QOL, severity of symptoms and social support, respectively. The study respondents were predominantly Malay, aged less than 40, males, single, unmarried, had lower education levels and unemployed. About 72% of the respondents had poor perceived social support, with support from significant others being the lowest, followed by friends and family. From multiple regression analysis, social support (total, friend and family) significantly predicted better QOL in all domains; [B=0.315 (p<0.001), B=0.670 (p<0.001), B=0.257 (p<0.031)] respectively in Physical Domain; [B=0.491 (p<0.001), B=0.735 (p<0.001), B=0.631 (p<0.001)] in Psychological Domain; [B=1.065 (p<0.001), B=0.670 (p<0.017), B=2.076 (p<0.001)] in Social Domain and; [B=0.652 (p<0.001), B=1.199 (p<0.001), B=0.678 (p<0.001)] in Environmental Domain. Being married and having shorter duration of illness, lower BPRS (total) scores, female gender and smoking, were also found to significantly predict higher QOL. Social support is an important missing component among people with schizophrenia who are already receiving formal psychiatric services in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: a cross-sectional study in primary care on the role of illness perceptions.

    PubMed

    Weldam, Saskia W M; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Heijmans, Monique J W M; Schuurmans, Marieke J

    2014-08-03

    Previous research has shown that in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients, it is important to consider not only physical functioning and complaints but also psychological factors, such as illness perceptions, to explain differences in Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). The objective of this study is to analyse the extent to which the specific dimensions of illness perceptions according to the Common Sense Model (corrected for airflow limitation, dyspnoea and comorbidities) contribute to HRQoL. In a cross-sectional study in primary care, 90 COPD patients completed questionnaires: The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Medical Research Council dyspnoea scale, the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ). Analyses were performed with multiple linear regression. When corrected for confounders (airflow limitation, dyspnoea and comorbidities), identity (β = .42) and comprehensibility (β = -.16) were associated with HRQoL (CCQ). Identity, comprehensibility and dyspnoea explained 56% of the variation in HRQoL (R2 = .56). Consequences (β = -.50) and treatment control (β = .20) were associated with HRQoL (the CRQ's physical domain). They explained 59% of the variation in the CRQ physical (R2 = .59) domain. Treatment control (β = .19) and emotional response (β = -.33) were associated with the CRQ emotional domain. Patients who experience fewer symptoms attributed to COPD, who have a better understanding of the disease, who experience less impact of COPD in daily life, who experience better treatment control and who have less of an emotional response have better HRQoL. This study indicates that the HRQoL of COPD patients is associated with illness perceptions as well as with the severity of dyspnoea as experienced by patients. Airflow limitation measures or comorbidities do not add to the explanation of HRQoL. The results of this study provide starting points for the development of interventions

  1. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Project to Assess Undergraduate Nursing Students' Clinical Exposure to Patients With Wounds in an Introductory Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Keves-Foster, Mary Kathryn; Ashare, JoAnn; Zugcic, Mary; Albdour, Maha; Albdour, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    Because nurses frequently participate in decisions related to wound care, learning about wounds and their care during undergraduate education is critical. A cross-sectional, descriptive, quality improvement project was conducted in an introductory baccalaureate nursing course to identify: 1) the types of patients with wounds assigned to beginning students, 2) patient wound care procedures and dressings, and 3) student level of participation in wound care. Data were collected from the weekly notes recorded about students' (N = 49) patient care experiences in 3 acute care hospitals for 9 clinical days during 1 semester. Data were recorded on a paper-and-pencil form by instructors at the end of the clinical day and included type of wound, wound irrigation, dressing, technique of care, and student's participation. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the frequency and distribution of the wound characteristics and care assessed. Of the 284 patients assigned to students, 75 (26.4%) had a wound. The most common wound was a surgical incision (49, 65%) and was closed (36, 73.5%). Twenty-six (26) patients had a pressure ulcer, most commonly Stage II. The most common dressing was dry gauze (29). Damp gauze was used on 18 wounds. Wound irrigation was recorded for 24 wound protocols and performed with a bulb syringe or by pouring the solution from a container. Generally, nonsterile wound care was performed. Twenty-five (25) students performed wound care with the instructor, 16 watched the care performed by another clinician, and 10 participated with another nurse in the wound care. For 22 patients, the wound care was neither observed nor performed because either it was not time for the dressing to be changed or it was only to be changed by a medical team. From these data, it was concluded beginning nursing students had some, but limited, clinical experience with patients with wounds. Students' wound care experiences need further examination, especially across multiple

  2. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an association with chronic pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P < 0.001) and in those who received radio(chemo)therapy (OR 1.31 [1.01-1.7], P = 0.041) or underwent abdominoperineal excision (OR 1.71 [1.19-2.44], P = 0.003), total mesorectal excision (OR 1.39 [1.01-1.90], P = 0.041), and Hartmann procedure (OR 1.72 [1.04-2.84], P = 0.33) compared with partial mesorectal excision. Ordinal regression analysis showed a strong association between all QoL subgroups and pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  3. Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. Results The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. Conclusions A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception. PMID:23295063

  4. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Alzaid, Aus A.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with high mortality, morbidity, poor general health, and loss of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with HRQOL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 283 T2DM patients during June 2011 and September 2012 at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected according to their availability during their routine visit to the outpatient clinics and they were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Short-Form 36-item survey (SF-36) to assess the HRQOL. Results The mean age of the participants was 56.4±13.2 years. Around 63% (178) were males and 37% (105) were females. Glycosylated hemoglobin level was found to be significantly higher among female and HRQOL was higher among male. Respondents who were more than 50 years old had poor HRQOL than less than 50 years age group. Poor economic status, reported diabetic complications and longer duration of diabetes were significantly associated with poor HRQOL. The respondents treated with combination of therapies (oral medication plus insulin) indicated better HRQOL than patients with insulin therapy alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, economic status (except subscale energy), and complications of DM (except subscale energy) as independent risk factor for HRQOL. Conclusion Gender, economic status, and complication of DM were independent risk factors for majority of the subscales of HRQOL. PMID:25003076

  5. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J Jaime; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Quistberg, D Alex; Paca-Palao, Ada; Gianella, Camila; Perel, Pablo; Lopez, Luis; Luna, Diego; Best, Pablo; Huicho, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial "golden" hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was high, mainly at public institutions indicating much need for

  6. Remarkable damage along with poor quality of life in Takayasu arteritis: cross-sectional results of a long-term followed-up multicentre cohort.

    PubMed

    Omma, Ahmet; Erer, Burak; Karadag, Omer; Yilmaz, Neslihan; Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Yildiz, Fatih; Kalfa, Melike; Kimyon, Gezmis; Kiraz, Sedat; Direskeneli, Haner; Erken, Eren; Aksu, Kenan; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Gül, Ahmet; Ocal, Lale; Inanc, Murat; Kamali, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the outcome of a large Takayasu arteritis (TAK) cohort using the vasculitis damage index (VDI) and quality of life (QoL) scale, tools which have been validated for vasculitis. Disease activity, damage and QoL were cross-sectionally evaluated in 165 TAK patients from 6 centres. SF-36 were applied to 51 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Persistent activity for ≥6 months was considered as treatment resistance (r-TAK). The correlation between VDI, clinical characteristics and mental (MCS)/physical (PCS) component scores of SF-36 were analysed. SF-36 and VDI scores were compared between TAK subgroups and HC. The median age, follow-up time and disease duration were 40 (17-68), 60 (6-384), and 72 (6-396) months, respectively. 35% of them were r-TAK. VDI scores (VDIs) in TAK 4 (1-12) were mainly due to the disease itself [4 (1-10)]. VDIs in r-TAK were significantly higher than nr-TAK [5 (2-12) vs. 3 (2-10), p<0.001)]. In the TAK patients, MCS and PCS were found as 43±10 and 38±11, respectively. A high proportion of poor MCS (70%) and PCS (80%) were demonstrated in TAK. A significantly negative but weak correlation was observed between VDI and MCS (p=0.003, r=-0.23), PCS (p<0.001, r=-0.34). Higher VDIs were detected in patients with PCS <50 [5 (1-12) vs. 2 (1-6) p<0.001)]. SF-36 score was significantly lower in TAK than HC. Disease-related damage mainly caused by peripheral vascular involvement was more predominant than treatment-related damage without reaching the level of severe damage scores, but contributing to poor QoL, in the TAK cohort.

  7. Variations in anxiolytic and hypnotic prescribing by GPs: a cross-sectional analysis using data from the UK Quality and Outcomes Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Ashworth, Mark; Jones, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Background Wide variations in anxiolytic and hypnotic prescribing by GPs in England have been described, but are largely unexplained. Aim To examine the relationships between the volume of anxiolytics and hypnotics prescribed by GPs and their practice characteristics, population demography, and performance indicators. Design of study Cross-sectional study. Setting All general practices in England. Methods A dataset was constructed for 8469 (98.8%) general practices including: standardised prescribing volume data for anxiolytics and hypnotics (average daily quantities per 1000 STAR-PUs [Specific Therapeutic group Age-sex weightings Related Prescribing Units]), practice descriptors, Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004, ethnicity data (2001 UK Census), and Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) data. Results The standardised volume of anxiolytics and hypnotics prescribed varied eightfold between practices on the 5th and 95th centiles. A regression model was constructed which explained 20.5% of the variation. Higher prescribing practices were located in more deprived areas (standardised β 0.31), but also in areas with a lower proportion of ethnic minorities (black or black British = −0.22; Asian or Asian British = −0.12). Higher volumes were also prescribed by practices with lower QOF scores (‘Clinical Care’ domain = −0.12; ‘Organisational’ domain = −0.08). Other significant but weaker predictors were: lower proportions of female GPs, higher recorded prevalence of serious mental illness and non-training status. The proportion of GPs trained outside UK was not a predictor. Conclusion Demographic factors were more powerful determinants of prescribing than characteristics of the practice itself. Nevertheless, the findings provide some support for the notion that high prescribing practices were less well developed, in that their QOF scores were lower and they were less likely to be training practices. PMID:19520017

  8. Physical activity level, nutritional intake, functional status and quality of life of geriatric individuals in Lagos, South-West, Nigeria: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Osho, O A; Abidoye, R O; Owoeye, O B A; Akinfeleye, A M; Akinbo, S R A

    2011-01-01

    Participation in physical activity (PA) and healthy nutrition are important factors that affects muscle and bone strength and the resultant functioning in the activities of daily living (ADL) skills including the overall quality of life (QoL) of geriatric individuals. However, the relationships between all these parameters are yet to be fully documented and studies from developing countries are lacking. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between PA level, frequency of nutritional intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D and the basic ADL, instrumental ADL and QoL of geriatric individuals in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 394 geriatric individuals. A combination of standardized questionnaires which assessed the socio-demographic parameters, PA level, frequency of intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D, ADL skills, and QoL of the geriatric individuals was used. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's chi-square. The highest proportion (35.5%) of participating geriatric individuals was at the active PA level. PA level was statistically associated with QoL, basic and instrumental ADL, (X2 = 199.57, p = 0.001; X2 = 87.07, p = 0.000; and X2 = 164.53, p = 0.001 respectively). There was also an association between frequency of intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D and the basic ADL (X2 = 97.43, p = 0.001), instrumental ADL (X2 = 151.56, p = 0.001) and QoL (X2 = 250.21, p = 0.001) of the studied geriatric individuals. The study demonstrated that an increase in PA level and regular intake of food rich in calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, vitamin D were associated with optimal functional status and better QoL in geriatric individuals. Educational programmes on the importance of participation in regular PA and healthy nutrition are imperative and recommended for geriatric individuals.

  9. Quality of life and brace-treated idiopathic scoliosis: a cross-sectional study performed at the Centre des Massues on a population of 120 children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deceuninck, J; Bernard, J C

    2012-03-01

    To determine the influence of orthopedic treatment on quality of life (QoL) in children and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and treated with either the carbon brace (CMCR, corset monocoque carbone respectant la respiration) or the Lyon brace. To compare these braces. A cross-sectional study on a population of 120 patients with idiopathic scoliosis, visiting for routine evaluation following the onset of an orthopedic treatment at the Centre des Massues in Lyon. Eighty-two patients used the carbon brace and 38 patients used the Lyon brace. The patients completed the SRS-22 questionnaire (where a low score means a bad QoL), an evaluation scale of QoL specific to spinal deformities, and visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain, motivation and QoL ranging from 0 to 100mm. The QoL of Lyon brace-treated patients is significantly worse than that of patients treated with a carbon brace for the overall score (mean±SD, 4.05±0.37 vs 3.77±0.46, P=0.002) as well as for function (P=0.01), pain (P=0.001), and appearance (P=0.004). These results are confirmed by the VAS for QoL (P=0.001). The use of the carbon brace and of the Lyon brace induces a reduction in QoL whatever the evaluation tool, either SRS-22 or VAS. However, the use of the Lyon brace impairs QoL more than the use of the carbon brace. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Is glaucoma comprehension associated with psychological disturbance and vision-related quality of life for patients with glaucoma? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang Mei; Zhu, Wen Qing; Hong, Jia Xu; Sun, Xing Huai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether understanding of glaucoma is associated with psychological disturbance and vision-related quality of life (QoL) in patients with glaucoma. Design A prospective, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Setting Shanghai, China. Participants Five hundred patients with glaucoma were included in the study. Participants were asked to complete the glaucoma comprehension questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire, and the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Outcome measures Sociodemographic data and clinical data were collected. Multivariate adjusted linear regression analyses were performed to examine factors related to psychological disorder and QoL. The relationship between understanding of glaucoma and psychological status or QoL was analysed. Results The mean age of patients was 56.5±17.2 years, and the mean duration of glaucoma was 4.6±6.3 years. About half (54.2%) of the patients had primary open angle glaucoma, 37.2% had primary angle closure glaucoma, and 8.6% had secondary glaucoma. The total score and the subscores of knowledge of glaucoma, compliance and habits were all negatively correlated with the HADS-Depression and HADS scores. For NEI VFQ-25, the total comprehension score was positively related to general vision, near activity, distance activity, social function, colour vision and the composite score. Habits had a significant influence on both HADS-Depression and the composite score of NEI VFQ-25. Conclusions The level of understanding about glaucoma is an independent factor negatively associated with psychological disturbance and positively associated with QoL in patients with glaucoma. However, it is a subjective factor which can be regulated, so imparting knowledge about glaucoma and establishing appropriate habits might help patients alleviate psychological disturbance and enhance their QoL. PMID:24861547

  11. Quality of life of immigrant and non-immigrant infertile patients in a publicly funded in vitro fertilisation program: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hasson, J; Tulandi, T; Shavit, T; Shaulov, T; Seccareccia, E; Takefman, J

    2017-04-26

    To investigate whether there are differences in fertility quality of life (FertiQoL) and socio-demographic characteristics between immigrants and non-immigrant patients attending a government-funded fertility program. Cross-sectional study. McGill University Reproductive Center in Montreal, Canada, at a time when governmental funding for in vitro fertilisation (IVF) was provided to all residents. All infertile patients, males and females, attending the center between March and July 2015. Patients were invited to complete anonymous questionnaires which included socio-demographic items and the validated FertiQoL questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital state, infertility type & duration, previous IVF attempts; education, employment, income, ethnicity, spoken languages) and FertiQoL scores. In all, 1020 patients completed the questionnaires; of these, 752 (77.7%) non-immigrant Canadian citizens and 215 (22.3%) resident immigrants were included in the analysis. Median duration in Canada for immigrants was 4 years. Immigrants were more likely to have university/graduate degrees (75% versus 64%), to be unemployed (37% versus 13.1%) and to have lower annual household incomes (72.8% versus 39.5%, all P < 0.05). They also reported poorer QoL and achieved significantly lower scores in the emotional, mind/body, social, treatment and total FertiQoL domains. Multivariate analysis showed male gender, lower education level and Caucasian/European ethnicity to be significantly associated with higher QoL. Despite governmental funding of IVF, immigrants experience reduced fertility QoL, implying cost is not the only barrier to IVF use. The reduced QoL may stem from cross-cultural differences in infertility perception. This population may be at greater risk for depression and anxiety and should be flagged accordingly. Immigrants' fertility QoL is lower despite publicly funded IVF implying cost is not the only barrier to IVF use. © 2017 Royal College

  12. Modified versus standard intention-to-treat reporting: Are there differences in methodological quality, sponsorship, and findings in randomized trials? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that use the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) approach are increasingly being published. Such trials have a preponderance of post-randomization exclusions, industry sponsorship, and favourable findings, and little is known whether in terms of these items mITT trials are different with respect to trials that report a standard intention-to-treat. Methods To determine differences in the methodological quality, sponsorship, authors' conflicts of interest, and findings among trials with different "types" of intention-to-treat, we undertook a cross-sectional study of RCTs published in 2006 in three general medical journals (the Journal of the American Medical Association, the New England Journal of Medicine and the Lancet) and three specialty journals (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the American Heart Journal and the Journal of Clinical Oncology). Trials were categorized based on the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting as follows: ITT, trials reporting the use of standard ITT approach; mITT, trials reporting the use of a "modified intention-to-treat" approach; and "no ITT", trials not reporting the use of any intention-to-treat approach. Two pairs of reviewers independently extracted the data in duplicate. The strength of the associations between the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting and the quality of reporting (sample size calculation, flow-chart, lost to follow-up), the methodological quality of the trials (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blindi