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Sample records for cross sectional quality

  1. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  2. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  3. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  4. Anxiety, stress, and quality of life among Iraqi refugees in Jordan: A cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala Fawzi; Alshraifeen, Ali; Gougazeh, Yazeed Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to identify the predictors, levels, and prevalence of anxiety and stress and to assess the relationship between these factors and quality of life in recently displaced Iraqis. A cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 171 Iraqi refugees was recruited. The results indicated that more than half of the sample suffered from high anxiety levels, while 42.8% reported high stress. The regression model explained 46.3% of the variance in levels of quality of life. Unemployment, fewer than three family members, and high anxiety significantly predicted low-level quality of life. These three predictors need to be taken into consideration when developing health-related interventions to improve the quality of life of Iraqi refugees.

  5. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  6. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  7. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  8. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  9. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  10. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  11. Burden of Keloid Disease: A Cross-sectional Health-related Quality of Life Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bijlard, Eveline; Kouwenberg, Casimir A E; Timman, Reinier; Hovius, Steven E R; Busschbach, Jan J V; Mureau, Marc A M

    2017-02-08

    Keloid scars may be painful, itch severely and be cosmetically disturbing. The burden of keloid disease, however, has not yet been determined. This study evaluated the association of keloid disease with health-related quality of life (HRQL) and identified indicators of burden using a cross-sectional survey study, with one disease-specific HRQL measure (Skindex-29) and 2 generic HRQL measures (SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L). A total of 106 keloid patients with no other skin diseases participated in the study. Having keloid disease was associated with a considerable impairment of emotional wellbeing, with most impairment on the emotional and mental HRQL. Pain and itch were the strongest indicators of HRQL impairment in keloid patients. Having painful or itchy keloids was related to low mental and emotional HRQL, implying that patients with keloids require access to effective treatment aimed at alleviating physical symptoms.

  12. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Surani, AA; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2012 to January 2013. The study population comprised of junior doctors (house physicians and house surgeons). A consecutive sample of 350 physicians was drawn from the above-mentioned study setting. The subject underwent two validated self-administered questionnaires, that is, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: A total of 334 physicians completely filled out the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.4% (334/350). Of 334 physicians, 36.8% (123/334) were classified as “poor sleepers” (global PSQI score > 5). Poor sleep quality was associated with female gender (P = 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (P < 0.01), lower total sleep time (P < 0.001), increased sleep onset latency (P < 0.001), and increased frequency of sleep disturbances (P < 0.001). Abnormal ESS scores (ESS > 10) were more prevalent among poor sleepers (P < 0.01) signifying increased level of daytime hypersomnolence. Conclusion: Sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians is significantly poor. Efforts must be directed towards proper sleep hygiene education. Regulations regarding duty hour limitations need to be considered. PMID:26500789

  13. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  14. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Martin J; Brennan, Marnie L; Williams, Hywel C; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. Design An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs. A consensus of 80% was required from the Delphi panel for any component to be included in the final tool. Results An initial list of 39 components was identified through examination of existing resources. An international Delphi panel of 18 medical and veterinary experts was established. After 3 rounds of the Delphi process, the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool) was developed by consensus and consisted of 20 components. A detailed explanatory document was also developed with the tool, giving expanded explanation of each question and providing simple interpretations and examples of the epidemiological concepts being examined in each question to aid non-expert users. Conclusions CA of the literature is a vital step in evidence synthesis and therefore evidence-based decision-making in a number of different disciplines. The AXIS tool is therefore unique and was developed in a way that it can be used across disciplines to aid the inclusion of CSSs in systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical decision-making. PMID:27932337

  15. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura.

  16. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  17. Interpersonal Trust and Quality-of-Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Jimba, Masamine; Yanai, Haruo; Fujii, Seiji; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL) or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. Methodology and Principal Findings Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women), greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men), those aged 60–69 (vs. 20–29), or the high-income group (vs. low-income). Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. Conclusions and Significance Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL. PMID:19096704

  18. The recent absolute total np and pp cross section determinations: quality of data description and prediction of experimental observables

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    The absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region. Comparison of the np evaluation with the result of most recent np total and differential cross section measurements will be discussed. Results of those measurements were not used in the evaluation database. A comparison was done to check a quality of evaluation and its capabilities to predict experimental observables. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  19. Quality of Life and Costs in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross Sectional Study in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Tamás, Gertrúd; Gulácsi, László; Bereczki, Dániel; Baji, Petra; Takáts, Annamária; Brodszky, Valentin; Péntek, Márta

    2014-01-01

    Background Patient reported outcomes and costs of illness are useful to capture some of the multiple effects of a disease and its treatments. Our aim was to assess quality of life (QoL) and costs of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Hungary, and to analyze their associations. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in one neurology university clinic. Clinical characteristics, PD related resource utilizations and productivity loss in the past 12 months were recorded; the Hoehn&Yahr (HY) scale, PDQ-39 and EQ-5D questionnaires were applied. Cost calculation was performed from the societal perspective. Results 110 patients (34.5% female) were involved with mean age of 63.3 (SD = 11.3) and disease duration of 8.2 (SD = 5.8) years. PDQ-39 summary score was 48.1 (SD = 13.4). The average EQ-5D score was 0.59 (SD = 0.28), and was significantly lower than the population norm in age-groups 45–74. The correlation was significant between EQ-5D and PDQ-39 (−0.47, p = 0.000), the HY scale and EQ-5D (−0.3416, p = 0.0008) and PDQ-39 (0.3419, p = 0.0006) scores. The total mean cost was €6030.2 (SD = 6163.0)/patient/year (direct medical 35.7%, direct non-medical 29.4%, indirect cost 34.9%). A one year increase in disease duration and 0.1 decrease of the EQ-5D utility score increase the yearly costs by 8 to 10%, and 7.8%, respectively. The effect of the PDQ-39 score on total cost was not significant. Conclusions Disease severity and public health importance of PD are clearly demonstrated by the magnitude of QoL loss. PD-related costs are substantial, but are much lower in Hungary than in Western European countries. Disease duration and EQ-5D score are significant proxy of costs. PMID:25229404

  20. Health-related quality of life after pulmonary embolism: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tavoly, Mazdak; Utne, Kristin Kornelia; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Wik, Hilde Skuterud; Klok, Frederikus A; Sandset, Per Morten; Ghanima, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The psychological effects of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have scarcely been studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a history of PE compared with that of the general population and buddy controls, and to explore factors that may predict impaired HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Haematology and thrombosis unit in Fredrikstad, Norway. Participants 213 consecutive patients treated for PE were identified from hospital registries. Eligible patients were scheduled for a single study visit, including a functional capacity test (6 min walking test). HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol 5D dimensions 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, of which the results were compared with Danish population norms and age-matched and sex-matched buddy controls. The buddy controls were recruited by asking every patient to hand over the EQ-5D questionnaire to 2 age-matched and sex-matched friends or relatives. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine possible determinants of reduced HRQoL. Results Mean age was 61 years (SD 15), 117 (55%) were males, and median time since diagnosis was 3.8 years (range 0.3–9.5). Mean EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) was 67 in PE as compared with 81 in the general population (p<0.005) and corresponding EQ-5D index values were 0.80 and 0.86 (p<0.005). Patients reported more problems in all 5 EQ-5D compared with both the buddy controls and the general population, p<0.05. Shorter 6 min walking distance (β=0.09, p<0.005) and patient-reported dyspnoea (β=11.27, p<0.005) were independent predictors of lower EQ VAS scores. Conclusions Our findings show that patients with a history of PE have impaired HRQoL when compared with the general population and buddy controls. Reduced functional capacity and persistent dyspnoea were the main predictors of this impairment. PMID:27810979

  1. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  2. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results.

  3. The impact of learned resourcefulness on quality of life in type II diabetic patients: a cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better

  4. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  5. Obstetric Facility Quality and Newborn Mortality in Malawi: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Günther; Nsona, Humphreys

    2016-01-01

    Background Ending preventable newborn deaths is a global health priority, but efforts to improve coverage of maternal and newborn care have not yielded expected gains in infant survival in many settings. One possible explanation is poor quality of clinical care. We assess facility quality and estimate the association of facility quality with neonatal mortality in Malawi. Methods and Findings Data on facility infrastructure as well as processes of routine and basic emergency obstetric care for all facilities in the country were obtained from 2013 Malawi Service Provision Assessment. Birth location and mortality for children born in the preceding two years were obtained from the 2013–2014 Millennium Development Goals Endline Survey. Facilities were classified as higher quality if they ranked in the top 25% of delivery facilities based on an index of 25 predefined quality indicators. To address risk selection (sicker mothers choosing or being referred to higher-quality facilities), we employed instrumental variable (IV) analysis to estimate the association of facility quality of care with neonatal mortality. We used the difference between distance to the nearest facility and distance to a higher-quality delivery facility as the instrument. Four hundred sixty-seven of the 540 delivery facilities in Malawi, including 134 rated as higher quality, were linked to births in the population survey. The difference between higher- and lower-quality facilities was most pronounced in indicators of basic emergency obstetric care procedures. Higher-quality facilities were located a median distance of 3.3 km further from women than the nearest delivery facility and were more likely to be in urban areas. Among the 6,686 neonates analyzed, the overall neonatal mortality rate was 17 per 1,000 live births. Delivery in a higher-quality facility (top 25%) was associated with a 2.3 percentage point lower newborn mortality (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.046, 0.000, p-value 0.047). These

  6. Gender Difference in Associations between Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders and General Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Ahn, Yong-jun; Park, Ki Byung; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is known to have strong correlations with psychological factors and to display gender disparity. However, while chronic TMD is known to affect quality of life, large-scale studies investigating the influence on quality of life by gender are scarce. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed the data of 17,198 participants aged ≥19 years who completed chronic TMD and EuroQol-5 Dimension sections in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009). We adjusted for covariates (health behavior, sociodemographic factors) in regression analysis for complex sampling design to calculate regression coefficients and 95% CIs for gender difference in the association between chronic TMD and quality of life. We also evaluated which covariates of somatic health, mental health, health behavior, and sociodemographic factors weakened the relationship between TMD and EQ-5D. Results Prevalence of chronic TMD was 1.6% (men 1.3%, women 1.8%), and chronic TMD persisted to negatively impact quality of life even after adjusting for confounding variables. Low sociodemographic factors and health behavior had a negative effect on quality of life. Somatic health and mental health were most affected by chronic TMD. As for quality of life, women were affected to a greater extent than men by TMD. Women were more affected by osteoarthritis and general mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, and thoughts of suicide), and men by employment. Conclusions These results imply that chronic diseases and psychological factors are important in chronic TMD, and that there may be physiological and pathological gender differences in TMD. PMID:26673219

  7. Quality of life, self-stigma, and hope in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Holubova, Michaela; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara

    2017-01-01

    Goals The aim of this study was to explore the quality of life, self-stigma, personality traits, and hope in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Patients and methods A total of 52 outpatients participated in this cross-sectional study. The attending psychiatrist assessed each patient with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The patients then completed Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory – Revised (TCI-R), Adult Dispositional Hope Scale (ADHS), Drug Attitude Inventory 10 (DAI-10), and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)-Self-report. The psychiatrist evaluated Clinical Global Impression Severity – the objective version (objCGI-S), and the patients completed the Clinical Global Impression Severity – the subjective version (subjCGI-S). Each participant also completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results The quality of life was significantly higher in employed patients and individuals with higher hope, self-directedness (SD), and persistence (PS). The quality of life was lower among patients with higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, those with higher severity of the disorder, and individuals who were taking higher doses of antipsychotics. Patients with more pronounced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and social anxiety had a lower quality of life. Finally, the quality of life was lower among individuals with higher harm avoidance (HA) and self-stigmatization (ISMI). Backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis showed that occupation, level of depression (BDI-II), attitude to using medication (DAI-10), social anxiety (LSAS), and antipsychotic index were the most relevant factors associated with lower quality of life. Conclusion Detection of the quality of life in the context of

  8. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. METHODS Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. RESULTS The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (p<0.0001). Female patients presented with lower self-esteem than male patients. CONCLUSION Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions. PMID:26734865

  9. A Method of Assembling Cross-Sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Donald R.; Menon, Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a new method of measuring quality of life at the local and state level. Further, it presents a methodology that combines heterogeneous indicators from different fields, such as economics, social, and health, into one total measurement. The technique shown can be used to compare one region with another, or compare one metro area…

  10. Comparing health-related quality of life of employed women and housewives: a cross sectional study from southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Considering the role of women in family and social health and the specific cultural characteristics of our province, we aimed to compare the quality of life of employed women with housewives in Zahedan, Iran. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out during 2009–2010 in Zahedan, Iran. The sample consisted of 110 housewives and 110 employed women selected randomly from ten health care centers. Health-related quality of life was assessed using the SF-36. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare quality of life in housewives and employed women while controlling for age, education and income. Results The mean (±SD) age of participants was 33.87± 8.95 years. Eighty-eight women (40%) had a university degree with a mean (±SD) official education of 10.8 (±4.9) years. The results indicated that employed women scored higher than housewives in all measures except for physical functioning. The differences were found to be remarkable for vitality, mental health and role emotional. However, after controlling for age, education and family income, none of differences reached significant level. Conclusion After controlling for potential confounders, the findings from this study indicated that there were no significant differences in quality of life between employed women and housewives. However, employed women scored higher on the SF-36, especially on the role emotional, vitality, and mental health. The findings suggest that associations exist between some aspects of health-related quality of life and employment. Indeed improving health-related quality of life among housewives seems essential. PMID:23173572

  11. Assessing the quality of referral letters written by general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in rural Iran.

    PubMed

    Janati, Ali; Amini, Abolgasem; Adham, Davoud; Naseriasl, Mansour

    2017-03-30

    Establishing effective communication between general practitioners (GPs) and medical specialists is a key component of the referral system. Written communication between GPs and medical specialists is the most common communication tool. This study was conducted to evaluate quality (information content) of the referral letters written by GPs and addressed to gynecologists and cardiologists. We evaluated quality of the referral letters through a cross-sectional study in the villages of Sarab city, located in East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran. The study was conducted during August and September 2015 in which a total of 400 referral letters were evaluated according to specific quality criteria. Cluster sampling was implemented and data were collected using an instrument designed by the Department of Family Medicine at the University of Manitoba, Canada. A specifically designed referral form was used to refer pregnant women to gynecologists. Referrals addressed to gynecologists showed better quality in comparison to cases referred to cardiologists. Legibility of referral letters was 73%. It is recommended that agreed-upon referral letters be designed cooperatively for different groups of diseases. Furthermore, primary health care providers should be trained to write proper referral letters.

  12. Correlation between health-related quality of life and venous leg ulcer's severity and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    González de la Torre, Héctor; Quintana-Lorenzo, María L; Perdomo-Pérez, Estrella; Verdú, José

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients suffering with venous ulceration and to correlate wound's severity status with HRQoL loss as well as identify the aspects of HRQoL most negatively affected by the presence of venous ulcers. In this observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical multi-centre study, data was compiled over a period of 3·5 months. Thrity-four patients with venous ulceration were recruited. The RESVECH 2·0 scale was used to monitor wounds. The MAID scale was used to measure wound's severity. The Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQe) (Spanish version) was used to evaluate quality of life. The mean CCVUQe score was 60·58 ± 16·04. The HRQoL dimension most affected was 'Emotional state' (mean score = 77. 67 ± 17·34). The average RESVECH 2.0 score for the wounds was 13·15 ± 5·07. A statistically significant association between total CCVUQ-e score and total RESVECH 2.0 score was detected [Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0·546 (P ≤ 0·001)]. Venous ulcers affect patients' HRQoL, particularly their emotional status. There is a relationship between the severity of the wound and loss of HRQoL. The presence of non-viable tissue, poor exudate control and infection all determine loss of HRQoL. New studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Comorbidities against Quality Control of VKA Therapy in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A French National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Agnes; Hanon, Olivier; Boureau, Anne-Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population, thromboembolic prevention by means of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is one of the most frequent daily concerns of practitioners. The effectiveness and safety of treatment with VKA correlates directly with maximizing the time in therapeutic range, with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The older population concentrates many of factors known to influence INR rate, particularly concomitant medications and concurrent medical conditions, also defined as comorbidities. Objective Determine whether a high burden on comorbidities, defined by a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, is associated a lower quality of INR control. Study-Design Cross-sectional study. Settings French geriatric care units nationwide. Participants 2164 patients aged 80 and over and treated with vitamin K antagonists. Measurements Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The recorded data included age, sex, falls, kidney failure, hemorrhagic event, VKA treatment duration, and the number and type of concomitant medications. Quality of INR control, defined as time in therapeutic range (TTR), was assessed using the Rosendaal method. Results 487 patients were identified the low-quality control of INR group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low-quality control of INR was independently associated with a CCI ≥3 (OR = 1.487; 95% CI [1.15; 1.91]). The other variables associated with low-quality control of INR were: hemorrhagic event (OR = 3.151; 95% CI [1.64; 6.07]), hospitalization (OR = 1.614, 95% CI [1.21; 2.14]). Conclusion An elevated CCI score (≥3) was associated with low-quality control of INR in elderly patients treated with VKA. Further research is needed to corroborate this finding. PMID:25789771

  14. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Amy P; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2017-03-05

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15-2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14-3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  15. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meegan, Amy P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:28273871

  16. Quality of care in rural youth with type 1 diabetes: a cross-sectional pilot assessment

    PubMed Central

    Stumetz, Kyle S; Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Mitrovich, Connor

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) presents a significant health burden for patients and families. The quality of care (QOC) among those living in rural communities is thought to be subpar compared with those in urban communities; however, little data exist to reflect this, especially in pediatric diabetes. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate diabetes QOC among families living in rural versus urban areas. 6 QOC markers were used to compare youth with T1DM: appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, diabetes education during clinic visit, congruency with diabetes standards of care, diabetes self-management behaviors, and diabetes-related hospitalizations. Research design and methods Participants were rural or urban adult caregivers of youth ages 2–18 with ≥10-month history of T1DM receiving treatment at Seattle Children's Hospital, USA. Participants were from rural areas of central Washington, or urban areas of western Washington. Caregivers completed a 26-item survey pertaining to the 6 QOC markers. The 6 QOC markers were compared across 61 participants (34 rural, 27 urban), to determine how diabetes care quality and experiences differed. Data were collected over 12 months. Groups were compared using t-tests and χ2 tests, as appropriate. Results Compared with urban families, rural families reported significantly lower income and a 4-fold greater usage of public insurance. Among the QOC measures, rural participants were significantly worse off in the appointment adherence, patient–provider communication, and hospitalizations categories. Congruence with diabetes standards of care (foot care only) was also significantly poorer in rural participants. Conclusions The burden of travel in conjunction with the lack of resources in this rural population of families with T1DM youth is cause for concern and warrants further research. PMID:27933188

  17. Use of standardized patients to assess quality of tuberculosis care: a pilot, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Jishnu; Kwan, Ada; Daniels, Ben; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Bergkvist, Sofi; Das, Ranendra K.; Das, Veena; Pai, Madhukar

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Existing studies on quality of tuberculosis care mostly reflect knowledge, not actual practice. Methods We conducted a validation study on the use of standardized patients (SPs) for assessing quality of TB care. Four cases, two for presumed TB and one each for confirmed TB and suspected MDR-TB, were presented by 17 SPs, with 250 SP interactions among 100 consenting providers in Delhi, including qualified (29%), alternative medicine (40%) and informal providers (31%). Validation criteria were: (1) negligible risk and ability to avoid adverse events for providers and SPs; (2) low detection rates of SPs by providers, and (3) data accuracy across SPs and audio verification of SP recall. We used medical vignettes to assess provider knowledge for presumed TB. Correct case management was benchmarked using Standards for TB Care in India (STCI). Findings SPs were deployed with low detection rates (4.7% of 232 interactions), high correlation of recall with audio recordings (r=0.63; 95% CI: 0.53 – 0.79), and no safety concerns. Average consultation length was 6 minutes with 6.2 questions/exams completed, representing 35% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33%–38%) of essential checklist items. Across all cases, only 52 of 250 (21%; 95% CI: 16%–26%) were correctly managed. Correct management was higher among MBBS doctors (adjusted OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.17–4.93) as compared to all others. Provider knowledge in the vignettes was markedly more consistent with STCI than their practice. Interpretation The SP methodology can be successfully implemented to assess TB care. Our data suggest a big gap between provider knowledge and practice. PMID:26268690

  18. Quality of life is associated with chronic inflammation in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Faugere, M; Micoulaud-Franchi, J A; Alessandrini, M; Richieri, R; Faget-Agius, C; Auquier, P; Lançon, C; Boyer, L

    2015-06-04

    Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94-0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55-11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06-1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01-1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Quality of life associated with treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Yolanda V; Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón A; Valdivia-Martínez, José J

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite certain contradictions, an association has been identified between adherence to drug treatment and the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The contradictions observed emphasize the importance of using different methods to measure treatment adherence, or the association of psychological precursors of adherence with quality of life. For this reason, we have used an indirect method to measure adherence (pill count), as well as two adherence behaviour precursors (attitude and knowledge), to assess the association between adherence and the quality of life in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study on a random sample of 238 type 2 diabetic patients was carried out over one year in four family medicine units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Treatment adherence was measured using the indirect method of pill count to assess adherence behaviour, obtaining information at two home visits. In the first we recorded the medicine prescribed and in the second, we counted the medicine remaining to determine the proportion of the medicine taken. We also assessed two adherence behaviour precursors: the patients' knowledge regarding their medical prescription measured through a structured questionnaire; and attitudes to treatment adherence using a Likert scale. Quality of life was measured through the WHOQOL-100 (the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire). Information concerning both knowledge and attitude was obtained through interviews with the patients. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to establish the relationship between each quality of life domain and the variables related to adherence, controlling for covariates. Results There was no association between quality of life and treatment adherence behaviour. However, the combination of strong knowledge and a positive attitude was associated with five of the six quality of life domains. Conclusion The results

  20. TUR-PSO: A cross-sectional, study investigating quality of life and treatment status of psoriasis patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atakan, Nilgün; Yazici, Ayça Cordan; Özarmağan, Güzin; İnalÖz, Hüseyin Serhat; Gürer, Mehmet Ali; Sabuncu, İlham; Kİremİtçİ, Ümmühan; Alper, Sibel; Aytekİn, Sema; Arican, Özer; Polat, Mualla; Doğan, Sibel; Aldİnç, Emre

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease that has a severe impact on quality of life. There is lack of data regarding epidemiological and clinical features of psoriasis patients in Turkey, a country with a population of 76 million. The aim of this study was to define the demographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life and treatment patterns of psoriasis patients in Turkey. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 40 centers, chosen from geographically diverse locations in Turkey. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were assessed by investigators who were specialists of dermatology using standardized study questionnaire forms. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) forms were also filled out by each patient. 3971 psoriasis patients were included in this study. 24.2% of plaque psoriasis patients had moderate to severe psoriasis (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, ≥10). Mean DLQI was 7.03 ± 6.02; quality of life was moderately, severely or very severely affected in 49.2% of patients. The most severely affected component of EQ-5D was anxiety/depression. Among all patients, 22.9% were not receiving any treatment, 39.8% were receiving only topical treatment, 11.5% were on phototherapy, 26.1%, were taking conventional systemic agents and 4.1% were on a biologic treatment. 31.3% of psoriasis patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with only topical agents and only 30.5% of moderate to severe psoriasis patients were receiving systemic therapy. Moderate to severe psoriasis has a considerable impact on quality of life. Treatment in Turkey of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is insufficient.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  2. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Perceived Quality of Primary Care by Hypertensive Patients in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Martin Chi-Sang; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Nan; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension should be best managed under primary care settings. This study aimed to compare, between Shanghai and Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care in terms of accessibility, continuity, co-ordination, and comprehensiveness among hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 8 community health centers. Data from primary care users were collected through on-site face-to-face interviews using the primary care assessment tool. Good quality standard was set as a value of 3 for each attribute and a value of 18 for total score. We included 568 patients in Shanghai and 128 patients in Shenzhen. Compared with those in Shenzhen, hypertensive patients in Shanghai reported a higher score in co-ordination of information (3.37 vs 3.66; P < 0.001), but lower scores in continuity of care (3.36 vs 3.27; P < 0.001), and comprehensiveness-service provision (3.26 vs 2.79; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in total scores between the 2 cities (18.19 vs 18.15). Over 3-quarters of hypertensive patients in both cities reported accessibility (97.2% vs 91.4%) and co-ordination of services (76.1% vs 80.5%) under good quality standard, while <1-quarter of them rated continuity of care (23.6% vs 22.7%), co-ordination of information (4.8% vs 21.1%), and comprehensiveness-service availability (15.1% vs 25.0%) under that standard. Compared with Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care for hypertensive patients in Shanghai was better in terms of co-ordination of information, but poorer on continuity of care and comprehensiveness-service provision. Our study suggests that there is room for quality improvement in both cities. PMID:26313780

  3. Quality of life is associated with chronic inflammation in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    M., Faugere; J.A., Micoulaud-Franchi; M., Alessandrini; R., Richieri; C., Faget-Agius; P., Auquier; C., Lançon; L., Boyer

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94–0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55–11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01–1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26041435

  4. Mandatory quality reports in Germany from the hospitals’ point of view: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Public reporting of hospital quality is to enable providers, patients and the public to make comparisons regarding the quality of care and thus contribute to informed decisions. It stimulates quality improvement activities in hospitals and thus positively impacts treatment results. Hospitals often use publicly reported data for further internal or external purposes. As of 2005, German hospitals are obliged to publish structured quality reports (QR) every two years. This gives them the opportunity to demonstrate their performance by number, type and quality in a transparent way. However, it constitutes a major burden to hospitals to generate and publish data required, and it is yet unknown if hospitals feel adequately represented and at the same time consider the effort appropriate. This study assesses hospital leaders’ judgement about the capability of QR to put legally defined aims effectively and efficiently into practice. It also explores the additional purposes hospitals use their QR for. Methods In a cross-sectional observational study, a representative random sample out of 2,064 German hospitals (N=748) was invited to assess QR via questionnaire; 333 hospitals participated. We recorded the suitability of QR for representing number, type and quality of services, the adequacy of cost and benefits (6-level Likert scales) and additional purposes QR are used for (free text question). For representation purposes, the net sample was weighted for hospital size and hospital ownership (direct standardization). Data was analyzed descriptively and using inferential statistics (chi-2 test) or for the purpose of generating hypotheses. Results German hospitals rated the QR as suitable to represent the number of services but less so for the type and quality of services. The cost-benefit ratio was seen as inadequate. There were no significant differences between hospitals of different size or ownership. Public hospitals additionally used their reports for mostly

  5. Perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Bereket; Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels and factors affecting the perceived quality of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia in one hospital and five health centres providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-ART. Participants 481 persons infected with HIV on outpatient care, 408 (83.8%) on ART and 73 (16.2%) on pre-ART care. Results 324 (71.4%) of the participants perceived the quality of HIV care as ‘good’, while 130 (28.6%) stated that it was ‘not good’; 219 (46.2%) and 255 (53.8%) were satisfied and not satisfied with the services, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a unit increase in the doctors subscale of multidimensional health locus of control-form c score resulted in a 1.27 (1.04 to 1.55) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of care (p<0.05). Similarly, a unit increase in the responsiveness, perceived financial fairness, and perceived transportation convenience scores was associated with a 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) (p<0.05), 1.08 (1.05 to 1.15) (p<0.01), and 1.07 (1.05 to 1.18) (p<0.05) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of HIV care, respectively. In terms of client satisfaction with services, a 1 km increase in the distance from health facilities, and unemployment were associated with a 4.64 (2.61 to 8.25) (p<0.001), 1.02 (1.01 to 1.04) (p<0.05) and 2.23 (1.30 to 4.54) (p<0.01) times, respectively, increase in the perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services. Conclusions The majority of the participants reported perceptions of good quality HIV care and satisfaction with the services. Satisfaction with services; responsiveness; health locus of control; perceived financial fairness; perceived transportation convenience; employment status; and distance from the health facility were predictors of the perceived quality of HIV care. Thus, improving quality of HIV treatment services may require addressing the above

  6. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  7. Production and quality of clinical practice guidelines in Argentina (1994–2004): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Esandi, María Eugenia; Ortiz, Zulma; Chapman, Evelina; Dieguez, Marcelo García; Mejía, Raúl; Bernztein, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Background In the last decades, a sustained increment of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) production in the world has been accompanied by a growing concern about their quality. Many studies related to quality assessment of guidelines produced in High Income Countries were published; however, evidence on this topic is scarce in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). The objectives of this research were: a) to describe guideline production in Argentina at different levels of the health system (macro, meso and micro) from 1994 to 2004; and b) to assess their quality by using the AGREE instrument. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken to describe guidelines production in Argentina between 1994 and 2004. CPG were identified through Internet and electronic databases (MEDLINE and LILACS). Explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to select guidelines. Each CPG was independently assessed by two reviewers using the AGREE instrument. Domain scores were calculated as recommended by the AGREE Collaboration. The internal consistency of each domain was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha and inter-observer agreement by the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Results A total amount of 431 potential CPG were identified, but only 144 were considered CPG. At the end, 101 CPG were included for further assessment. Median standardized score for each domain were: scope = 39%; stakeholder involvement = 13%; rigour of development = 10%; clarity = 42%; applicability = 6%; editorial independence = 0%. Only 22 CPG were recommended with modifications by both appraisers. ICC and Cronbach's alpha for each domain were in all cases moderate or high (greater than 0.40), except for editorial independence. Conclusion This study has systematically employed the AGREE instrument for the critical assessment of guidelines produced in a LMIC. Guideline development and diffusion in Argentina from 1994 to 2004 shows a constant increment, although quality of reporting did not improve

  8. Self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patients’ lives and have a negative impact on their quality of life (QoL). This study explored the association between self-stigma, QoL, demographic data, and the severity of symptoms in patients with depressive disorder. Patients and methods Patients who met the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, research criteria for depressive disorder were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. All outpatients completed the following measurements: the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, demographic questionnaire, and the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression-Severity scales that measure the severity of disorder. A total of 81 depressive disorder patients (with persistent affective disorder – dysthymia, major depressive disorder, or recurrent depressive disorder) and 43 healthy controls participated in this study. Results Compared with the healthy control group, a lower QoL was observed in patients with depressive disorder. The level of self-stigma correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and score of self-stigma were significantly associated with QoL. Conclusion This study suggests a lower QoL in patients with depressive disorder in comparison with healthy controls and a negative impact of self-stigma level on QoL in patients suffering from depressive disorders. PMID:27799775

  9. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  10. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  11. Health-related quality of life in adolescents with chronic physical illness in northern Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important subjectively evaluated outcome of adolescents physical, mental, and social functioning. It gives us the possibility to assess the disease impact on life of adolescents, and to sort out target groups of adolescents for future psychological interventions. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to study HRQoL in 173 adolescents with chronic physical illness (CPI - diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy), and to find HRQoL predictors in each disease group. Methods Disease-specific questionnaires were completed by each adolescent recruited from the local outpatient clinic; mothers answered the questions on socioeconomic status (SES); and the patients’ clinicians evaluated the severity of the disease. Results A high proportion of adolescents in each disease specific sample reported moderate to high levels of HRQoL. Gender was the most prominent predictor of HRQoL in all three studied groups, while disease severity predicted HRQoL in the diabetic group and to some extent in the asthma group. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that adolescents with diabetes, asthma, and epilepsy in northern Russia maintain relatively moderate to high levels of HRQoL. The domains affecting HRQoL were related to both disease-specific (severity) and non-disease factors (gender and SES). Our study suggests that future psychosocial interventions should focus on aspects of CPI impacting adolescents in gendered ways, furthermore taking into account disease specific factors. PMID:24460738

  12. A cross-sectional study on vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular GvHD.

    PubMed

    Pezzotta, S; Rossi, G C; Scudeller, L; Antoniazzi, E; Bianchi, P E; Perotti, C; Del Fante, C

    2015-09-01

    Ocular GvHD affects about 40-60% of patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. Ocular complaints worsen quality of life (QoL), which, besides survival time, is a primary end point in a patient's follow-up. The aim of our study was to assess the ocular surface status and vision-related QoL (VRQoL) and explore the potential determinants in VRQoL in patients with chronic GvHD with ocular involvement. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 40 patients with ocular GvHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation assessing ocular symptoms and signs, VRQoL and ophthalmologic parameters. The median age was 52.1 years; 32.5% were females. Most of them presented a multiple organ involvement. Ophthalmological parameter examinations were on average abnormal. Corneal staining was severe/very severe in 25%; conjunctival staining in 10% of subjects. The worse QoL scores were on 'general vision', 'ocular pain', 'vision-specific mental health' and 'vision-specific role difficulties'. Both symptoms and sign scores indicate poor VRQoL. A lower VRQoL was related to schooling level, job position, underlying disease and extracorporeal photopheresis. Corneal staining, Schirmer and tear film breakup time were negatively associated to visual function-related subscales. An accurate ophthalmological and VRQoL assessment should be mandatory for a long time to promptly recognize early signs of ocular suffering, and to prevent irreversible ocular complications.

  13. Perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Lucas Guimarães; Melgaço, Camilo Aquino; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Lages, Elizabeth Maria Bastos; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this article was to assess the perception of parents and caregivers regarding the impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ oral health -related quality of life (OHRQoL). Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 280 parents/caregivers of 11 and 12-year-old adolescents who answered the Parental-Caregiver Perceptions Questionnaire (P-CPQ). Parent-assessed quality of life of adolescents was the dependent variable. The main independent variable was adolescents’ malocclusion which was diagnosed by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Based on DAI cut-off points, adolescents were classified into four grades of malocclusion, with different orthodontic treatment recommendations assigned to each grade: no need/slight treatment need, elective treatment, highly desirable treatment and mandatory treatment. Adolescents’ age and sex, as well as family monthly income, were considered as confounding variables. Statistical analysis involved descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: Of the 280 parents/caregivers initially accepted in this study, 18 refused to answer the P-CPQ. Therefore, 262 individuals participated in this assessment, providing a response rate of 93.5%. The severity of adolescents’ malocclusion was significantly associated with a higher negative impact on parents’/caregivers’ perception on the oral symptoms (p< 0.05), functional limitations (p < 0.001), emotional well-being (p < 0.001), and social well-being (p < 0.001) subscale scores as well as on the overall P-CPQ score (p < 0.001), even after having been adjusted for the controlling variables. Conclusions: Parents/caregivers reported a negative impact of malocclusion on adolescents’ OHRQoL. Increased severity of malocclusion is associated with higher adverse impact on OHRQoL. PMID:28125143

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Quality of Life among Subjects with Epilepsy Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, K; Basavanna, P.L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epilepsy is a chronic disorder associated with profound physical and psychological consequences leading to impaired quality of life (QoL). Evaluation of the QoL among epileptics would throw light on various factors that impair or affect the QoL in such a population. Aim To study the QoL among epileptic patients attending outpatient departments of a tertiary care hospital and to identify various factors that affect the QoL in such a population. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational questionnaire based study, including patients with epilepsy, who were on antiepileptic drugs, on follow-up for minimum one year, aged more than 18years, both sexes and who were seizure free in the previous 24hours. The World Health Organisation Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire was administered to those included in the study. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and statistical tests like t-test for independent variables and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the QoL scores. Results Of the 98 subjects 61.2% were males, majority were educated upto high school level and most of them were employed in unskilled labour. The mean total QOL score was 53.9 (15.8). There was a significant lower mean total QOL score among people with low educational status and poor seizure control. Conclusion Epilepsy is a syndrome associated with chronic drug use and regular long term follow-ups to hospitals. These treatment and disease associated problems affects the QOL of the subjects significantly in various squares of life. We found that a lower education and having seizure in the recent past affected the QOL scores. PMID:28208904

  15. Fatigue and quality of life in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Vika, Margrethe Elin

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To examine the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers and, for these cancers, to assess fatigue in relation to distress, health-related quality of life, demography and treatment characteristics. Background Advances in treatment of cancer have improved the likelihood of survival. Consequently, there are a growing number of patients who become survivors after cancer and who face side effects even years after treatment. One of the most frequently reported side effects across all types and stages of the disease is cancer-related fatigue. Design A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and twenty women treated for gynaecological cancers who were participants in an intervention study were included. Fatigue, psychological distress, health-related QoL and demographics were assessed by questionnaires. Disease and treatment characteristics were extracted from medical records. Results Cancer-related fatigue was reported in 53% of the women treated for gynaecological cancers, with a higher proportion in the group of cervical cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Younger participants reported fatigue more frequently than older participants. When adjusting for age, the type of cancer a woman experiences was shown to have little impact on her risk of experiencing fatigue. The participants with fatigue reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than participants without fatigue. There was a relationship between fatigue and quality of life as measured by SF-36 domains. Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of screening for fatigue, patient education and symptom management. This should be included in a standard procedure during treatment and follow-up. Both somatic and psychological aspects of fatigue should be emphasised. Relevance to clinical practice The findings imply the need for health personnel to have focus on fatigue during the entire cancer trajectory of women

  16. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Sedláčková, Zuzana; Hruby, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Borderline personality disorder (BPD) significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Sheehan Anxiety Scale. Results BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%), social phobia (20.7%), generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%), adjustment disorder (22.8%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%); 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general) was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21) and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities). The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales) negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains. Conclusion Patients suffering from BPD and comorbid anxiety disorders have a lower level of QoL compared to healthy controls in all measured domains. Negative correlations of the Q-LES-Q domains with clinical scales (Dissociative Experiences Scale, BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Sheehan Anxiety Scale, Clinical Global Impression, and SDS) are noticeable. PMID:27536074

  17. Professional medical writing support and the quality of randomised controlled trial reporting: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gattrell, William T; Hopewell, Sally; Young, Kate; Farrow, Paul; White, Richard; Winchester, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Authors may choose to work with professional medical writers when writing up their research for publication. We examined the relationship between medical writing support and the quality and timeliness of reporting of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design Cross-sectional study. Study sample Primary reports of RCTs published in BioMed Central journals from 2000 to 16 July 2014, subdivided into those with medical writing support (n=110) and those without medical writing support (n=123). Main outcome measures Proportion of items that were completely reported from a predefined subset of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist (12 items known to be commonly poorly reported), overall acceptance time (from manuscript submission to editorial acceptance) and quality of written English as assessed by peer reviewers. The effect of funding source and publication year was examined. Results The number of articles that completely reported at least 50% of the CONSORT items assessed was higher for those with declared medical writing support (39.1% (43/110 articles); 95% CI 29.9% to 48.9%) than for those without (21.1% (26/123 articles); 95% CI 14.3% to 29.4%). Articles with declared medical writing support were more likely than articles without such support to have acceptable written English (81.1% (43/53 articles); 95% CI 67.6% to 90.1% vs 47.9% (23/48 articles); 95% CI 33.5% to 62.7%). The median time of overall acceptance was longer for articles with declared medical writing support than for those without (167 days (IQR 114.5–231 days) vs 136 days (IQR 77–193 days)). Conclusions In this sample of open-access journals, declared professional medical writing support was associated with more complete reporting of clinical trial results and higher quality of written English. Medical writing support may play an important role in raising the quality of clinical trial reporting. PMID:26899254

  18. Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colver, Allan; Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Ehlinger, Virginie; Thyen, Ute; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4

  19. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  20. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Li, Yu-Feng; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong; and others

    2011-02-15

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) {mu}g/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  1. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  2. A cross sectional assessment of health related quality of life among patients with Hepatitis-B in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study by adopting European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) for the assessment of HRQoL was conducted. All registered HB patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta, Pakistan were approached for study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. HRQoL was scored using values adapted from the United Kingdom general population survey. EQ-5D scale scores were compared with Mann–Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Standard multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HRQoL. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0. Results Three hundred and ninety HB patients were enrolled in the study. Majority of the participants (n = 126, 32.3%) were categorized in the age group of 18-27 years (36.07 ± 9.23). HRQoL was measured as poor in the current study patients (0.3498 ± 0.31785). The multivariate analysis revealed a significant model (F10, 380 = 40.04, P < 0.001, adjusted r2 = 0.401). Educational level (β = 0.399, p = 0.025) emerged as a positive predictor of HRQoL. Age, gender, occupation, income and locality were not predictive of better quality of life in HB patients. Conclusions Hepatitis B has an adverse affect on patients’ well-being and over all HRQoL. The study findings implicate the need of health promotion among HB patients. Improving the educational status and imparting disease related information for the local population can results in better control and management of HB. PMID:22866752

  3. High impact of sleeping problems on quality of life in transgender individuals: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Matthias K.; Liedl, Anita; Fuss, Johannes; Nieder, Timo; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K.; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Studies in the general population suggest that determinants of QoL are often sex-dependent. Sex-dependent analyses of QoL in transgender populations have not been performed so far. Aim To identify sex-specific and potentially modifiable determinants of QoL in transgender patients Methods In this cross-sectional multicentre study including 82 transwomen (TW) and 72 transmen (TM) at different treatment stages, we investigated potential determinants for QoL focusing on the impact of mood (BDI, STAI-X), sleep quality (PSQI), chronic pain (GPQ), body image (FBeK) and social support (SSS). Main outcome measure Health-related quality of life measured with the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Results The age-adjusted SF-36 total score and its subscales did not significantly differ between TM and TW. Using a multivariate regression analysis approach, we identified common but also sex-dependent determinants for QoL (Adjusted R2 = 0.228; 0.650 respectively). Accounting for general characteristics such as age, BMI and treatment status, sleep quality according to the PSQI was an independent and strong determinant of QoL in both sexes (β = -0.451, p = 0.003 TM; β = -0.320; p = 0.0029 TW). Chronic pain was a significant independent predictor of QoL in TM (β = -0.298; p = 0.042) but not in TW. In contrast, anxiety (β = -0.451; p< 0.001) being unemployed (β = -0.206; p = 0.020) and insecurity about the own appearance (FBeK) (β = -0.261; p = 0.01) were independent predictors of QoL in TW. The rate of those reporting high sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥5) was high with 79.2% in TW and 81.2% in TM. Accordingly, age-adjusted QoL was also significantly lower in those reporting poor sleep in both sexes. Conclusions Sleep strongly affected QoL in both genders, while other factors, like pain and body image, seem to be gender specific in transgender individuals. PMID:28199359

  4. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. Objectives: The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. Materials and Methods: This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. Results: “Management and empowerment of human resources’’ (weight = 0.465) and “requirements and facilities” (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. Conclusion: The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country’s hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative

  5. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Saeed ur Rashid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Bashir, Sajid; Hashmi, Furqan; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001). Conclusion: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible. PMID:26957872

  6. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors in Chinese Unemployed People: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Yao, Lutian; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    With the global economic crisis and industrial restructuring, the unemployed are suffering from job loss-related stress and loss of income, which is believed to impair their mental and physical health, while coping and self-efficacy could combat the adverse effects of unemployment on health. Thus, this study aims to describe quality of life (QOL) among unemployed Chinese people and explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted by convenience sampling, composed of 1825 unemployed people, from January 2011 to September 2011. Questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the abbreviated version of the Cope Inventory (Brief COPE) and self-efficacy scales were used to collect information from unemployed people in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors of QOL. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations among coping, self-efficacy, and QOL. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL in Chinese unemployed people. Coping had significant effects on both physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), while self-efficacy played the mediating role in the association between Coping and QOL. Unemployed Chinese people’s mental QOL was disrupted more seriously than their physical QOL. An increase in coping could improve QOL by promoting better management of issues brought about by unemployment. In addition, self-efficacy has the ability to reduce the impact of unemployment on QOL, through the mediating path of coping on QOL. This study highlights the need of coping skills training and self-efficacy enhancement for better management of unemployment in order to improve QOL and well-being. PMID:27509514

  7. Lifestyle and health-related quality of life: A cross-sectional study among civil servants in China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been increasingly acknowledged as a valid and appropriate indicator of public health and chronic morbidity. However, limited research was conducted among Chinese civil servants owing to the different lifestyle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the HRQoL among Chinese civil servants and to identify factors might be associated with their HRQoL. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate HRQoL of 15,000 civil servants in China using stratified random sampling methods. Independent-Samples t-Test, one-way ANOVA, and multiple stepwise regression were used to analyse the influencing factors and the HRQoL of the civil servants. Results A univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences among physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and TS between lifestyle factors, such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions showed that there were significant differences among TS between lifestyle factors, such as breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, operating computers, sedentariness, work time, and drinking (P < 0.05). Conclusion In this study, using Short Form 36 items (SF-36), we assessed the association of HRQoL with lifestyle factors, including smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness in China. The performance of the questionnaire in the large-scale survey is satisfactory and provides a large picture of the HRQoL status in Chinese civil servants. Our results indicate that lifestyle factors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, having breakfast, sleep time, physical exercise, work time, operating computers, and sedentariness affect the HRQoL of civil servants in China. PMID:22559315

  8. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  9. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness’ severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Methods Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Results Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. Conclusions The

  10. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces

  11. Neurologic morbidity and quality of life in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Raja B.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Ledet, Davonna S.; Morris, E. Brannon; Pui, Ching-Hon; Howard, Scott C.; Krull, Kevin R.; Hinds, Pamela S.; Crom, Debbie; Browne, Emily; Zhu, Liang; Rai, Shesh; Srivastava, Deokumar; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is treated with potentially neurotoxic drugs and neurologic complications in long-term survivors are inadequately studied. This study investigated neurologic morbidity and its effect on quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood ALL. Methods Prospective, single institution, cross-sectional, institutional review board-approved study of long-term ALL survivors. Participants were recruited from institutional clinics. Participants answered an investigator-administered questionnaire followed by evaluation by a neurologist. Quality of life (QOL) was also assessed. Results Of the 162 participants recruited over a 3-year period, 83.3 % reported at least one neurologic symptom of interest, 16.7 % had single symptom, 11.1 % had two symptoms, and 55.6 % had three or more symptoms. Symptoms were mild and disability was low in the majority of participants with neurologic symptoms. Median age at ALL diagnosis was 3.9 years (0.4–18.6), median age at study enrollment was 15.7 years (6.9–28.9), and median time from completion of ALL therapy was 7.4 years (1.9–20.3). On multivariable analyses, female sex correlated with presence of dizziness, urinary incontinence, constipation, and neuropathy; use of≥10 doses of triple intrathecal chemotherapy correlated with uri-nary incontinence, back pain, and neuropathy; cranial radiation with ataxia; history of ALL relapse with fatigue; and CNS leukemia at diagnosis with seizures. Decline in mental QOL was associated with migraine and tension type headaches, while physical QOL was impaired by presence of dizziness and falls. Overall, good QOL and physical function was maintained by a majority of participants. Conclusions Neurologic symptoms were present in 83 % long-term ALL survivors. Symptoms related morbidity and QOL impairment is low in majority of survivors. Female sex, ≥10 doses of intrathecal chemotherapy, and history of ALL relapse predispose to impaired QOL

  12. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  13. Characteristics Associated with Quality of Life in Long-Term Care Residents with Dementia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Maartje S.; Caljouw, Monique A.A.; Pieper, Marjoleine J.C.; van der Steen, Jenny T.; Achterberg, Wilco P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine which characteristics are associated with quality of life (QOL) in residents with moderate to very severe dementia in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of a cluster randomized controlled study in 12 Dutch LTCFs that enrolled 288 residents, with moderate to severe dementia assessed with the Reisberg Global Deterioration Scale (Reisberg GDS) and QOL with the QUALIDEM. Characteristics that were hypothesized to be associated with the six domains of QOL (applicable to very severe dementia) included demographic variables, activities of daily living (Katz ADL), cognitive performance (Cognitive Performance Scale; CPS), pain (Pain Assessment Checklist for Seniors with Limited Ability to Communicate; PACSLAC-D), neuropsychiatric symptoms (Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home Version; NPI-NH) and comorbidities. Results Multivariate logistic regression modelling showed associations with age in the domain Social isolation [odds ratio, OR, 0.95 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.91-0.99)], ADL level in the domain Positive affect [OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.95)] and the domain Social relations [OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.81-0.93)], severity of dementia in the domain Social relations [OR 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.62)] and in the domain Social isolation [OR 2.10 (95% CI 1.17-3.78)], psychiatric disorders in the domain Positive affect [OR 0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.87)] and pulmonary diseases in the domain Negative affect [OR 0.14 (95% CI 0.03-0.61)] of the QUALIDEM. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were independently associated with all six domains of the QUALIDEM [OR 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.96) to OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99)]. Pain was associated with the domains Care relationship [OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.84-1.00)] and Negative affect [OR 0.92 (95% CI 0.85-1.00)]. Conclusion QOL in dementia is independently associated with age, ADL, dementia severity, pain, psychiatric disorders, pulmonary diseases and neuropsychiatric symptoms. It is possible

  14. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  15. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  16. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  17. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  18. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  19. Contributing influences of work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants in long-term care facilities: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Punnett, Laura; McEnany, Geoffry Phillips; Gore, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The effect of shift work on nurses' sleep is well-studied, but there are other challenging aspects of health care work that might also affect the sleep of direct caregivers. This study examined the influence of the long-term care work environment on sleep quantity and quality of nursing assistants. A cross-sectional survey collected data from 650 nursing assistants in 15 long-term care facilities; 46% reported short sleep duration and 23% reported poor sleep quality. A simple additive index of the number of beneficial work features (up to 7) was constructed for analysis with Poisson regression. With each unit increase of beneficial work features, nursing assistants were 7% less likely to report short sleep duration and 17% less likely to report poor sleep quality. These results suggest that effective workplace interventions should address a variety of work stressors, not only work schedule arrangements, in order to improve nursing assistants' sleep health.

  20. Frailty and quality of life: a cross-sectional study of Brazilian patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic kidney disease (CKD) induces frailty and worsens quality of life (QOL), even in the early stages of the disease and in young patients. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the relationship between frailty and QOL in CKD patients. Thus, we investigated this relationship in a sample of CKD patients. Methods A cross-observational study was conducted, in which 61 CKD patients receiving pre-dialysis treatment were assessed. All participants completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). We used valid and reliable methods to classify subjects as frail or non-frail according to Johansen’s et al. (2007) criteria. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and chi-square tests were used to compare the groups. In addition, Spearman’s correlation analysis was conducted to measure associations between identified variables and frailty. We also performed simple linear regression using the SF-36 physical and mental composite scores. Results Almost half of the sample (42.6%) exhibited evidence of frailty. The groups differed significantly in terms of age, gender, and all SF-36 domains, excluding Social Functioning and Role Emotional. Frailty was significantly associated with all SF-36 domains, again excluding Social Functioning and Role Emotional. Regression analysis revealed no significant between-group differences in composite physical and mental health scores generated by the SF-36 (p > 0.05). Conclusion Frail and non-frail CKD patients differed significantly in seven of the eight SF-36 domains. The frail group displayed diminished physical and mental functioning when their SF-36 scores were divided by their physical and mental composite scores. Frailty was correlated with QOL domains, with the exception of the social domain. There is a need for interventions targeting the characteristics of frailty, to provide better treatment and optimize overall QOL. PMID:24580960

  1. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  2. Association of Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality and Shift-Work Schedule in Relation to Hypertension Prevalence in Chinese Adult Males: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Ding, Rongjing; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicated that measurement of sleep only by duration and quality may be biased. This study aimed to investigate the interactive association of self-reported sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males. Methods: A total of 4519 Chinese adult males (≥18 years) were enrolled into the cross-sectional survey. Sleep attributes were measured from the responses to the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relevant questions in a structured questionnaire survey. The association of sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, considering the interaction between them or not. Results: Taking the potential interaction of the three aspects of sleep into consideration, only short sleep duration combined with poor sleep quality was found to be related to hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males (odds ratio (OR): 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31–2.31), which could be modified by occasional and frequent shift-work schedule (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05–1.95; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40–2.79). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adult males unless poor sleep quality exists, which could be further modified by shift-work schedule. Assessment of sleep by measuring sleep duration only was not sufficient when exploring the association of sleep with hypertension. PMID:28230809

  3. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health: results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Björk, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated with three self-reported indicators of well-being: neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. Effect sizes were compared with objective (GIS-based) assessments of the same five qualities. Area-aggregated SGS was positively associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. The association with general health was mediated by physical activity and neighborhood satisfaction. Three perceived qualities had salutogenic potential: historical remains (culture), silence such that sounds of nature can be heard (serene) and species richness (lush). Spacious and wild were not appreciated. Some independent positive effects of the GIS-based index were noted, but could not be consistently attributed to specific qualities. Perceived qualities within green areas, not merely quantity, are related to aspects of well-being in suburban and rural areas.

  4. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  6. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  7. Quality of recording of diabetes in the UK: how does the GP's method of coding clinical data affect incidence estimates? Cross-sectional study using the CPRD database

    PubMed Central

    Tate, A Rosemary; Dungey, Sheena; Glew, Simon; Beloff, Natalia; Williams, Rachael; Williams, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of coding quality on estimates of the incidence of diabetes in the UK between 1995 and 2014. Design A cross-sectional analysis examining diabetes coding from 1995 to 2014 and how the choice of codes (diagnosis codes vs codes which suggest diagnosis) and quality of coding affect estimated incidence. Setting Routine primary care data from 684 practices contributing to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (data contributed from Vision (INPS) practices). Main outcome measure Incidence rates of diabetes and how they are affected by (1) GP coding and (2) excluding ‘poor’ quality practices with at least 10% incident patients inaccurately coded between 2004 and 2014. Results Incidence rates and accuracy of coding varied widely between practices and the trends differed according to selected category of code. If diagnosis codes were used, the incidence of type 2 increased sharply until 2004 (when the UK Quality Outcomes Framework was introduced), and then flattened off, until 2009, after which they decreased. If non-diagnosis codes were included, the numbers continued to increase until 2012. Although coding quality improved over time, 15% of the 666 practices that contributed data between 2004 and 2014 were labelled ‘poor’ quality. When these practices were dropped from the analyses, the downward trend in the incidence of type 2 after 2009 became less marked and incidence rates were higher. Conclusions In contrast to some previous reports, diabetes incidence (based on diagnostic codes) appears not to have increased since 2004 in the UK. Choice of codes can make a significant difference to incidence estimates, as can quality of recording. Codes and data quality should be checked when assessing incidence rates using GP data. PMID:28122831

  8. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Inner Mongolia Medical University students: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan

    2016-10-30

    Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle.

  9. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  10. Exposure–Response Relationship Between Aircraft Noise and Sleep Quality: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Chai, Sang Kug; Lee, Keou Won; Park, Jae-Beom; Min, Kyoung-Bok; Kil, Hyun Gwon; Lee, Chan; Lee, Kyung Jong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to aircraft noise has been shown to have adverse health effects, causing annoyance and affecting the health-related quality of life, sleep, and mental states of those exposed to it. This study aimed to determine sleep quality in participants residing near an airfield and to evaluate the relationship between the levels of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Methods Neighboring regions of a military airfield were divided into three groups: a high exposure group, a low exposure group, and a control group. A total of 1082 participants (aged 30–79 years) completed a comprehensive self-administered questionnaire requesting information about demographics, medical history, lifestyle, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results Of the 1082 participants, 1005 qualified for this study. The prevalence of sleep disturbance was 45.5% in the control group, 71.8% in the low exposure group, and 77.1% in the high exposure group (p for trend < 0.001). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we determined the exposure–response relationship between the degree of aircraft noise and sleep quality. Of the participants with a normal mental status, the prevalence of sleep disturbance was 2.61-fold higher in the low exposure group and 3.52-fold higher in the high exposure group than in the control group. Conclusion The relationship between aircraft noise and health should be further evaluated through a large-scale follow-up study. PMID:24955321

  11. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  12. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  13. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  14. Assessment of primary health care received by the elderly and health related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population aging leads to increased burden of chronic diseases and demand in public health. This study aimed to assess whether the score of Primary Health Care (PHC) is associated with a) the model of care - Family Health Strategy (FHS) vs. traditional care model (the Basic Health Units; BHU); b) morbid conditions such as - hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental disorders, chronic pain, obesity and central obesity; c) quality of life in elderly individuals who received care in those units. Methods A survey was conducted among the elderly between August 2010 and August 2011, in Ilheus, Bahia. We interviewed elderly patients - 60 years or older - who consulted at BHU or FHS units in that day or participated in a group activity, and those who were visited at home by the staff of PHC, selected through a random sample. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, services’ attainment of primary care attributes, health problems and quality of life were investigated. The Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) was used to assess quality of life and PCATool to generate PHC scores. In addition, weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Trained research assistants, under supervision performed the data collection. Results A total of 511 elderly individuals were identified, two declined to participate, resulting in 509 individuals interviewed. The health care provided by the FHS has higher attainment of PHC attributes, in comparison to the BHU, resulting in lower prevalence of score below six. Except for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, other chronic problems were not independently associated with low scores in PHC. It was observed an independent and positive association between PHC score and the mental component of quality of life and an inverse association with the physical component. Conclusions This study showed higher PHC attributes attainment in units with FHS, regardless of the health problem. The degree of orientation to PHC increased the

  15. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. The interaction between erectile dysfunction complaints and depression in men: a cross-sectional study about sleep, hormones and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Soterio-Pires, J H; Hirotsu, C; Kim, L J; Bittencourt, L; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2017-03-01

    Depression (DEP) is one of the main disabling diseases and is considered a contributor factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Both of these conditions may be associated with hormonal changes and sleep disturbances. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between ED complaints and depression symptoms on sleep parameters, hormone levels and quality of life in men. This was a cross-sectional study of 468 men aged 20-80 years. The participants were classified according to the presence of ED and/or DEP in groups of healthy individuals, ED, DEP and DEP with ED (DEP-ED). All participants completed questionnaires about sleep, clinical history and quality of life, and underwent polysomnography with blood collection the following morning. ED participants showed higher frequency of insomnia symptoms (65.5%), whereas DEP group had more complaints of difficulty in falling asleep and early morning awakening. In the polysomnography, all groups showed similar parameters. No differences were found in cortisol and total testosterone levels; however, free testosterone levels and the physiological domain of quality of life were lower in DEP-ED group. ED and DEP, as independent factors, negatively affected subjective sleep parameters. The interaction between these factors led to a low quality of life and was related to a decrease in free testosterone levels.

  17. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  18. The challenges of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Layani, Géraldine; Fleet, Richard; Dallaire, Renée; Tounkara, Fatoumata K.; Poitras, Julien; Archambault, Patrick; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Ouimet, Mathieu; Gauthier, Josée; Dupuis, Gilles; Tanguay, Alain; Lévesque, Jean-Frédéric; Simard-Racine, Geneviève; Haggerty, Jeannie; Légaré, France

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based indicators of quality of care have been developed to improve care and performance in Canadian emergency departments. The feasibility of measuring these indicators has been assessed mainly in urban and academic emergency departments. We sought to assess the feasibility of measuring quality-of-care indicators in rural emergency departments in Quebec. Methods: We previously identified rural emergency departments in Quebec that offered medical coverage with hospital beds 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and were located in rural areas or small towns as defined by Statistics Canada. A standardized protocol was sent to each emergency department to collect data on 27 validated quality-of-care indicators in 8 categories: duration of stay, patient safety, pain management, pediatrics, cardiology, respiratory care, stroke and sepsis/infection. Data were collected by local professional medical archivists between June and December 2013. Results: Fifteen (58%) of the 26 emergency departments invited to participate completed data collection. The ability to measure the 27 quality-of-care indicators with the use of databases varied across departments. Centres 2, 5, 6 and 13 used databases for at least 21 of the indicators (78%-92%), whereas centres 3, 8, 9, 11, 12 and 15 used databases for 5 (18%) or fewer of the indicators. On average, the centres were able to measure only 41% of the indicators using heterogeneous databases and manual extraction. The 15 centres collected data from 15 different databases or combinations of databases. The average data collection time for each quality-of-care indicator varied from 5 to 88.5 minutes. The median data collection time was 15 minutes or less for most indicators. Interpretation: Quality-of-care indicators were not easily captured with the use of existing databases in rural emergency departments in Quebec. Further work is warranted to improve standardized measurement of these indicators in rural emergency departments

  19. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality.

  20. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Joselene Martinelli; Moura-Grec, Patrícia Garcia de; Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues de; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Groppo, Francisco Carlos; Ceneviva, Reginaldo; Sales-Peres, Sílvia Helena de Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher's Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects.

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal correlations between disease progression and different health-related quality of life domains in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    De Groot, Imelda J M; Post, Marcel W M; van Heuveln, Tineke; Van den Berg, Leonard H; Lindeman, Eline

    2007-12-01

    In ALS it would be expected that quality of life (QoL) would be decreased. However, studies to date show diverging results. Our study focuses on how ALS affects QoL on the different domains of the SF-36 cross-sectionally and during progression. The method used was a prospective cohort study, with assessments at baseline, at six months, and at one year. Patients were included with possible, probable or definite ALS according to the revised El Escorial criteria and were between 30 and 70 years of age. ALS functional rating scale was used to establish disease status, SF-36 as QoL scale. At baseline 73 completed ALSFRS forms were available and 62 completed SF-36 forms. The ALSFRS showed disease progression. SF-36 scores showed lower QoL scores of persons with ALS compared to the general population both in cross-sectional and longitudinal aspects in the domains of Physical Functioning, Role Physical, and Social Functioning, but similar compared with the general population in the Mental Health and Role Emotional domains. This study shows deteriorating physical health but stable mental health, thereby illustrating the diverging correlations between ALS severity and HRQoL. The diverging pattern of physical and mental health suggests a frame-shift in the experience of HRQoL.

  2. Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Methods Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ. Conclusion In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606 PMID:20214820

  3. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  4. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  5. Nutritional status and body composition in patients with peripheral arterial disease: A cross-sectional examination of disease severity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brostow, Diana P; Hirsch, Alan T; Pereira, Mark A; Bliss, Robin L; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and body weight recommendations for cardiovascular diseases are well established, yet there are no equivalent guidelines for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This cross-sectional study measured the prevalence of cardiovascular-related nutritional and body composition risk factors in sixty PAD patients and their association with PAD severity. A diet that exceeds daily recommended intake of fat and that falls short of recommended intakes of fiber, folate, and vitamin D was associated with increased leg pain and walking difficulty. Increased body fat and waist circumference were associated with diminished walking ability and poorer psychosocial quality of life. Future prospective investigations are merited to inform both PAD clinical care and disease management guidelines.

  6. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Quality of Life Between Physically Active and Underactive Older Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Samara; Krägeloh, Chris; Shepherd, Daniel; Ryan, Clare; Masters, Jonathan; Osborne, Sue; MacLeod, Rod D; Gray, Marion; Keogh, Justin W

    2016-10-01

    Men with prostate cancer experience many side effects and symptoms that may be improved by a physically active lifestyle. It was hypothesized that older men with prostate cancer who were physically active would report significantly higher levels of quality of life (QOL) as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD. Of the 348 prostate cancer survivors who were invited to participate in the present postal survey, 137 men returned the questionnaires. Those who were physically active had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) scores and higher social participation than those insufficiently active. These findings offer some support for the benefits of physical activity (PA) within the prostate cancer population in managing the adverse side effects of their treatments on aspects of their QOL. Future research should more closely examine what types of PA best promote improvements in varying aspects of QOL and psychological well-being for prostate cancer survivors.

  7. Reporting quality of conference abstracts on randomised controlled trials in gerontology and geriatrics: a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Mann, Eva; Meyer, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Without transparent reporting of how a randomised controlled trial was designed and conducted and of the methods used, its internal validity cannot be assessed by the reader. A congress abstract is often the only source providing information about a trial. In January 2008, an extended CONSORT statement on abstract reporting was published. Its impact has yet to be evaluated. Using a slightly modified CONSORT checklist comprising 17 items, we thus investigated the reporting quality of randomised controlled trials published in the book of abstracts presented at the World Congress of Geriatrics and Gerontology in Paris in July 2009. A total of n=4,416 abstracts was screened for inclusion; n=129 met the inclusion criteria. The overall quality of the abstracts was remarkably poor. The primary outcome was mentioned in 34/129 abstracts (26%), none of the abstracts reported on the procedure of random allocation of participants or clusters, 21/129 abstracts (16%) reported some kind of blinding, and the attrition rate was mentioned in only 12/129 abstracts (9%). The majority of abstracts fulfilled two items: description of intended intervention for each group (102/129; 79%) and general interpretation of results (107/129; 83%). Trial status was reported in all abstracts. Both journal editors and committees organising congresses are requested to define the use of the CONSORT statement as a prerequisite in their guidelines for authors and to instruct reviewers to conduct compliance checks. Medical associations should finally endorse the indispensability of the CONSORT statement and publish it in their journals. Otherwise the intended benefits cannot be fully generated.

  8. Quality of life and functional vision in children treated for cataract-a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tailor, V K; Abou-Rayyah, Y; Brookes, J; Khaw, P T; Papadopoulos, M; Adams, G G W; Bunce, C; Dahlmann-Noor, A

    2017-01-27

    PurposeChildren with cataract and their families face intensive medical and surgical management, with numerous hospital attendances, topical medications, and surgical procedures, as well as uncertainty about the child's future visual ability, education, and independence. Little is known about the impact on functional visual ability, vision-, and health-related quality of life (VR-, HR-QoL).Patients and methodsSeventy two children aged 2-16 years (mean 8.45, SD 4.1) treated for developmental or secondary cataract and their parents/carers completed three validated instruments measuring functional visual ability, VR-, and HR-QoL: the Cardiff Visual Ability Questionnaire for Children (CVAQC), Impact of Vision Impairment for Children (IVI-C), and PedsQL V 4.0.ResultsAll scores are markedly reduced: median (interquartile range (IQR)) CVAQC score -1.42 (-2.28 to -0.03), mean (SD) IVI-C score 65.67 (16.91), median (IQR) PedsQL family impact score 75 (56.94-88.19), parent report 71.74 (51.98-88.5), self-report 76.09 (61.96-89.13). Psychosocial PedsQL subscores are lower than physical subscores. Parent-completed tools (PedsQL family and parent report) state greater impact on HR-QoL than tools completed by children/young people, particularly in teenagers. Older children/young people have higher functional visual ability scores than younger children.ConclusionsCataract has a marked a long-term impact on functional visual ability and quality of life of children and young people, with HR-QoL affected to degrees reported in children with severe congenital cardiac defects or liver transplants.Eye advance online publication, 27 January 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2016.323.

  9. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  10. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total). No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42). Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women. PMID:26446326

  11. Psychological distress as predictor of quality of life in men experiencing infertility: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infertility is associated with impairment in human life. The quality of life (QOL) construct allows measuring the impact of health conditions in a broader way. The study aimed to explore the impact of the psychological distress on QOL's dimensions in men experiencing infertility. Methods 162 men were completed a socio-demographic form, SF-36, WHOQOL-BREF, Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory. Hierarchical regressions included demographic and clinic variables, and subsequently depression and anxiety were added. Results and Discussion Model 1 was not accurate in predicting QOL. R2 values ranged from 0.029 (Social Functioning) to 0.149 (Mental Health). Eight domains were not associated with any of the predictors. In the second model, a R2increase was observed in all domains. R2 of QOL scores ranged from .209 (Role Physical) to .406 (Social Functioning). The intensity of the depression was a significant predictor for all outcomes. The load of depression was higher than the ones of the socio-demographic and clinical variables. Anxiety levels have also presented the same effect, but with less intensity. Conclusion Subthreshold depression and anxiety were major predictors of QOL in men experiencing infertility. Health professionals need to include assessment of psychological symptomatology to plan more efficient interventions to infertile patients. PMID:20459694

  12. Determinants of health-related quality of life in anti-MAG neuropathy: a cross-sectional multicentre European study.

    PubMed

    Delmont, Emilien; Hiew, Fu Liong; Cassereau, Julien; Aubé-Nathier, Anne-Catherine; Grapperon, Aude-Marie; Attarian, Shahram; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2017-03-01

    Our objective was to assess determinants of quality of life (QoL) in anti-myelin associated glycoprotein antibody (MAG) neuropathy. The SF-36 questionnaire was assessed in 55 patients, from Marseille, Angers (France) and Birmingham (UK). Routine clinical evaluations included Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score, inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score, inflammatory Rasch-built overall disability score (I-RODS), ataxia score, Jamar grip dynamometry, timed 10-m walk, neuropathic pain symptom inventory (NPSI) score, and fatigue severity score (FSS). Physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of the SF36 questionnaire were significantly lower than in reported normal subjects of both countries (p < 0.001). All SF-36 domains correlated with I-RODS, except MCS for which significance was, however, approached (p = 0.056). PCS correlated with MRC sum score, ataxia score, timed 10-m walk, tremor, Jamar grip dynamometry, NPSI pain score, FSS and level of social support. MCS correlated exclusively with FSS and level of social support. In multivariate regression, PCS was associated independently with I-RODS (p < 0.001) and NPSI pain score (p = 0.011), whereas MCS was associated independently with FSS (p = 0.022). QoL is accurately predicted in anti-MAG neuropathy by the I-RODS and FSS, lending support to their use in clinical and research settings. Effective measures to improve QoL should include tremor and neuropathic pain treatment, fatigue management, and improved social support.

  13. Effect of low income on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Ou, Fengrong; Gao, Shuang; Gao, Qian; Hu, Liwen; Liu, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Following the dramatic socioeconomic transition since the 1980s in China, some people became unemployed and experienced a significant drop in income. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of low income on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among the population in northeast China. A total of 5100 individuals in northeast China were randomly sampled and investigated using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) from November 2005 to October 2006. According to the monthly per capita income level, the population was divided into different groups for analysis. Multiple linear regressions showed that low income, older age, disease, and unemployment were the important factors that could lead to worse HRQOL. Covariance analysis showed that there were significant differences in HRQOL scores among the subgroups of the low-income population. When the income level increased, HRQOL scores improved. This study could provide valuable information for planning integrated economic and public health policies to improve the health of people living in poverty.

  14. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  15. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  16. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  17. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  18. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  20. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  1. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  2. Pelvic floor muscle activity, quality of life, and sexual function in peri- and recently postmenopausal women with and without dyspareunia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schvartzman, Renata; Bertotto, Adriane; Schvartzman, Luiza; Wender, Maria Celeste Osório

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic floor alterations during menopausal years, resulting from aging and hormonal decline, may lead to several forms of sexual dysfunction. Dyspareunia-pain during sexual intercourse-is among the most frequent. Nevertheless, few studies so far have evaluated pelvic floor muscle function in postmenopausal women with dyspareunia. The authors thus carried out a cross-sectional study to assess myoelectric activity in pelvic floor muscles in peri- and postmenopausal women with and without dyspareunia receiving routine care at an outpatient clinic. In addition, sexual function (using the Female Sexual Function Index) and quality of life (using the Cervantes Scale) were assessed. Fifty-one peri- and postmenopausal women between 45 to 60 years of age (M = 52.1, SD = 4.9) were evaluated, 27 with and 24 without dyspareunia. There were no statistically significant differences in resting muscle activity, maximal voluntary contraction, and sustained contraction between women with and without dyspareunia. There were statistically significant between-group differences on the Cervantes Scale (p =.009) and in all Female Sexual Function Index domains except desire and satisfaction (arousal, p =.019; lubrication, p =.030; orgasm, p =.032; pain, p <.001; desire, p =.061; satisfaction, p =.081), indicating that women with dyspareunia experience worse quality of life and less satisfactory sexual function as compared with women without dyspareunia.

  3. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL.

  4. Co Relation between PUFA Index and Oral Health Related Quality of Life of a Rural Population in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prathibha, B.; Reddy, P. Parthasarthi; Monica, M.; Samba, Amit; Rajesh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A new measuring system called PUFA index had been identified to quantify the consequences of untreated dental caries. The co relation between PUFA index and oral health related quality of life has not been documented so far in India and thereby the need for this study Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: Sample size of 212 subjects, who are the residents of a town in Rangareddy district were included to be a part of this study. The subjects were interviewed for the OHIP score and the clinical examination done to record the PUFA scores. Results: The main objective of this study was to find out if there was any correlation between the OHIP scores and the study subjects and using the Pearson’ s co relation coefficient, there was a significant correlation between the OHIP and the PUFA scores.(Pearson’ s correlation= 0.31) Conclusion: The mean OHIP and PUFA scores of the study subjects were 2.21 and 0.40 respectively. There is a positive correlation between the OHIP score and the PUFA score among the study population i.e. with the PUFA scores increasing, it has a detrimental effect on the oral health related quality of life of the individual. PMID:25738084

  5. Depression and anxiety disorders in chronic hemodialysis patients and their quality of life: A cross-sectional study about 106 cases in the northeast of morocco.

    PubMed

    El Filali, Abdelilah; Bentata, Yassamine; Ada, Naima; Oneib, Bouchra

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) has a severe impact on the life of HD patients. The aim of this work was to assess the prevalence of depression and anxiety disorders, suicidal ideation, and the quality of life among HD patients. Associated factors were also studied. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 103 HD patients treated at the HD Center of Al Farabi Hospital of Oujda during a period of six months in 2015. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) were used for the assessment. Major depressive episode (MDE) was found in 34% of our patients, whereas anxiety disorder was observed in 25.2%. Suicidal ideation was found in 16.5% and 1.9% of our patients planned their suicide. The EQ-5D index was 0.41 ± 0.36 and the EQ-Visual Analog Scale score was 45.73 ± 14. Multivariate analysis showed that MDEs were associated with three factors: marital status, pain, and anxiety disorder. There was also an association between anxiety disorder and age and EQ-Visual Analog Scale score. Suicidal ideation was associated with marital status and anxiety disorders. Together, these results underline the importance of the collaboration between nephrologists and psychiatrists for a better care of HD patients.

  6. Association between objectively measured sleep quality and obesity in community-dwelling adults aged 80 years or older: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miji

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objective measures of sleep quality and obesity in older community-dwelling people. This cross-sectional study included 189 community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 yr (83.4 ± 2.5 yr [age range, 80-95 yr]). Participants wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on their non-dominant wrist 24 hr per day for 7 consecutive nights. Sleep parameters measured included total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) during the night. Associations between sleep parameters and obesity were investigated by using multivariate logistic regression analysis. In multivariate models, those with sleep efficiency lower than 85% had a 2.85-fold increased odds of obesity, compared with those with sleep efficiency of 85% or higher. Similarly, those with WASO of ≥ 60 min (compared with < 60 min) had a 3.13-fold increased odds of obesity. However, there were no significant associations between total sleep time or self-reported napping duration and obesity. We found that poor sleep quality was an independent risk factor for obesity in community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 80 yr, even after controlling for potential confounding factors, including daily physical activity.

  7. Comparison of self-stigma and quality of life in patients with depressive disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Marackova, Marketa; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Aleš; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Background The views of one’s self-stigma and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia and depressive disorders are significant subjective notions, both being proven to affect patient’s functioning in life. The objective of this study was to investigate the QoL and self-stigma in connection with demographic factors and compare the two groups of patients in terms of those variables. Methods In a cross-sectional study, the outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and depressive disorders completed the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, and a demographic questionnaire during a routine psychiatric control. Furthermore, both patients and their psychiatrists evaluated the severity of the disorder by Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale. Results The QoL of patients with depressive disorders or schizophrenia spectrum disorders did not significantly differ between the two groups. In both groups, unemployment was perceived to be a significant factor decreasing the QoL. Self-stigma was detected to be higher in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders than in patients with depressive disorders. A strong correlation was found between the two scales, meaning that those with higher levels of self-stigmatization were less prone to see their life as fulfilling and joyful. Conclusion This study shows that the degree of the internalized stigma can be an important aspect linked to the QoL irrespective of the diagnostic category. PMID:27920539

  8. Expression and ambivalence over expression of negative emotion: cross-sectional associations with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Michael, Yvonne L; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Perrin, Nancy; Bowen, Deborah; Cochrane, Barbara B; Brzyski, Robert; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    Inhibition of emotional expression has been associated with the incidence and progression of breast cancer and other chronic illnesses. The important health-related factor, however, may be ambivalence about the expression of emotions rather than repression itself. This cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 159,557 participants in the Women's Health Initiative examined the influence of expression of negative emotion and ambivalence about expression of emotion on psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-form 36 (SF-36). Overall, observed correlations were modest but in the expected direction; that is, greater ambivalence about negative emotional expression was associated with worse general health and poorer psychosocial risk profile. Ambivalence about expressing negative emotion was more highly correlated with psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life than emotional expression. In general, our analysis supports prior studies suggesting that ambivalence may be more important to consider in studies of health-related outcomes than expression.

  9. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  10. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  11. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  12. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AL-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassan, Asim; Alrasheedy, Alian A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life profile among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Centre at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) scale was used for the assessment of health-related quality of life. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Inferential statistics were applied to evaluate associations between study variables. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was used for data analysis; p <0.05 was set as the level of statistical significance. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were categorised into the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. Forty-four (58.7%) were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and 40 (53.3%) had a university level of education. A moderate level of health-related quality of life (0.70 ± 0.22) was measured in the study cohort. Gender was significantly associated with health-related quality of life scores (p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs 0.74 ± 0.20). There were no statistically significant associations between health-related quality of life scores and age groups, duration of diabetes, marital status, educational level and type of treatment. Conclusion: This study has highlighted that Saudi diabetes patients have low levels of health-related quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to consider this when planning holistic patient treatment approaches. PMID:26770806

  13. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman’s rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  14. Dietary quality in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Ireland; a cross-sectional case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of dietary quality indices (DQIs) have been developed to assess the quality of dietary intake. Analysis of the intake of individual nutrients does not reflect the complexity of dietary behaviours and their association with health and disease. The aim of this study was to determine the dietary quality of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a variety of validated DQIs. Methods In this cross-sectional analysis of 111 Caucasian adults, 65 cases with T2DM were recruited from the Diabetes Day Care Services of St. Columcille’s and St. Vincent’s Hospitals, Dublin, Ireland. Forty-six controls did not have T2DM and were recruited from the general population. Data from 3-day estimated diet diaries were used to calculate 4 DQIs. Results Participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score for consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern compared to the control group, measured using the Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) and the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (Range 0–9) (mean ± SD) (3.4 ± 1.3 vs 4.8 ± 1.8, P < 0.001 and 3.3 ± 1.5 vs 4.2 ± 1.8, P = 0.02 respectively). Participants with T2DM also had lower dietary quality than the control population as assessed by the Healthy Diet Indicator (Range 0–9) (T2DM; 2.6 ± 2.3, control; 3.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.001). No differences between the two groups were found when dietary quality was assessed using the Alternate Healthy Eating Index. Micronutrient intake was assessed using the Micronutrient Adequacy Score (Range 0–8) and participants with T2DM had a significantly lower score than the control group (T2DM; 1.6 ± 1.4, control; 2.3 ± 1.4, P = 0.009). When individual nutrient intakes were assessed, no significant differences were observed in macronutrient intake. Conclusion Overall, these findings demonstrate that T2DM was associated with a lower score when dietary quality was assessed using a number of validated indices

  15. Factors Influencing Quality of Life and Predictors of Low Quality of Life Scores in Patients on Treatment for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adeyeye, Olufunke O.; Coker, Ayodele; Kuyinu, Yetunde; Bamisile, Raymond T.; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Onadeko, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    There is paucity of information on the quality of life of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Nigeria. This study assessed the factors influencing their quality of life and the independent predictors of low quality of life scores. Two hundred and sixty consecutive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital were evaluated for health related quality of life using the World Health Organization Quality of life instrument (WHOQoL-BREF). Sociodemographic characteristics of the patients were related to the various domains of quality of life and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent predictors of low quality of life scores in the patients. The mean age of the patients was 36.7±12 years. Sex, age and marital status of patients were found to influence quality of life scores. The independent predictors of low quality of life scores were low monthly income, duration of the illness, concomitant illnesses, unemployment, advancing age and male gender. Several socio demographic and economic factors influenced the quality of life of patients with tuberculosis and are predictive of poor scores. It is important to consider these factors when treating patients with tuberculosis to optimise outcome of care. PMID:28299129

  16. Methodological quality of meta-analyses on treatments for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study using the AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Robin ST; Wu, Xinyin; Yuan, Jinqiu; Liu, Siya; Lai, Xin; Wong, Samuel YS; Chung, Vincent CH

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meta-analysis (MA) of randomised trials is considered to be one of the best approaches for summarising high-quality evidence on the efficacy and safety of treatments. However, methodological flaws in MAs can reduce the validity of conclusions, subsequently impairing the quality of decision making. Aims: To assess the methodological quality of MAs on COPD treatments. Methods: A cross-sectional study on MAs of COPD trials. MAs published during 2000–2013 were sampled from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effect. Methodological quality was assessed using the validated AMSTAR (Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews) tool. Results: Seventy-nine MAs were sampled. Only 18% considered the scientific quality of primary studies when formulating conclusions and 49% used appropriate meta-analytic methods to combine findings. The problems were particularly acute among MAs on pharmacological treatments. In 48% of MAs the authors did not report conflict of interest. Fifty-eight percent reported harmful effects of treatment. Publication bias was not assessed in 65% of MAs, and only 10% had searched non-English databases. Conclusions: The methodological quality of the included MAs was disappointing. Consideration of scientific quality when formulating conclusions should be made explicit. Future MAs should improve on reporting conflict of interest and harm, assessment of publication bias, prevention of language bias and use of appropriate meta-analytic methods. PMID:25569783

  17. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  18. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  19. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  20. Cross-sectional observational assessment of quality of newborn care immediately after birth in health facilities across six sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    de Graft-Johnson, Joseph; Vesel, Linda; Rosen, Heather E; Rawlins, Barbara; Abwao, Stella; Mazia, Goldy; Bozsa, Robert; Mwebesa, Winifrede; Khadka, Neena; Kamunya, Rosemary; Getachew, Ashebir; Tibaijuka, Gaudiosa; Rakotovao, Jean Pierre; Tekleberhan, Alemnesh

    2017-01-01

    Objective To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. Design Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. Setting Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. Participants Health workers in 643 facilities. 1016 health workers were interviewed, and 2377 babies were observed in the facilities surveyed. Main outcome measures Indicators of quality of newborn care included (1) provision of immediate essential newborn care: thermal care, hygienic cord care, and early and exclusive initiation of breast feeding; (2) actual and simulated resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn infants; and (3) knowledge of health workers on essential newborn care, including resuscitation. Results Sterile or clean cord cutting instruments, suction devices, and tables or firm surfaces for resuscitation were commonly available. 80% of newborns were immediately dried after birth and received clean cord care in most of the studied facilities. In all countries assessed, major deficiencies exist for essential newborn care supplies and equipment, as well as for health worker knowledge and performance of key routine newborn care practices, particularly for immediate skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation. Of newborns who did not cry at birth, 89% either recovered on their own or through active steps taken by the provider through resuscitation with initial stimulation and/or ventilation. 11% of newborns died. Assessment of simulated resuscitation using a NeoNatalie anatomic model showed that less than a third of providers were able to demonstrate ventilation skills correctly. Conclusions The findings shared in this paper call attention to the critical need to improve health facility readiness to provide quality newborn care services and to ensure that service providers have

  1. Health-related quality of life and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually experienced female inner-city students: a community-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Eleanor; Kerry, Sarah R; Nightingale, Claire; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare health-related quality of life (EQ-5D) in women with and without undiagnosed Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We analysed data from 2401 multi-ethnic sexually active female students aged 16–27 years who were recruited to a randomised controlled trial of chlamydia screening – the prevention of pelvic infection trial in 2004–2006. At recruitment, all participants were asked to provide self-taken vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing and to complete a sexual health questionnaire including quality of life (EQ-5D). Most women (69%) had an EQ-5D of one representing ‘perfect health’ in the five dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression. We therefore compared the proportion of women with an EQ-5D score < 1 implying ‘less than perfect health’ in women with and without chlamydia infection, and women with symptomatic chlamydia versus the remainder. The proportion of women with EQ-5D score < 1 was similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia: 34% (47/138) versus 31% (697/2263; RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.41). However, more women with symptomatic chlamydia had EQ-5D score < 1 than the remainder: 45% (25/55) versus 31% (714/2319; RR 1.47, CI 1.10 to 1.98). In this community-based study, EQ-5D scores were similar in women with and without undiagnosed chlamydia. However, a higher proportion of women with symptomatic chlamydia infection had ‘less than perfect health’. Undiagnosed chlamydia infection may not have a major short-term effect on health-related quality of life, but EQ-5D may not be the best tool to measure it in this group. PMID:27154958

  2. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  3. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  4. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  5. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  6. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  7. Do GPs know their patients with cancer? Assessing the quality of cancer registration in Dutch primary care: a cross-sectional validation study

    PubMed Central

    Sollie, Annet; Roskam, Jessika; Sijmons, Rolf H; Numans, Mattijs E; Helsper, Charles W

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the quality of cancer registry in primary care. Design and setting A cross-sectional validation study using linked data from primary care electronic health records (EHRs) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR). Population 290 000 patients, registered with 120 general practitioners (GPs), from 50 practice centres in the Utrecht area, the Netherlands, in January 2013. Intervention Linking the EHRs of all patients in the Julius General Practitioners’ Network database at an individual patient level to the full NCR (∼1.7 million tumours between 1989 and 2011), to determine the proportion of matching cancer diagnoses. Full-text EHR extraction and manual analysis for non-matching diagnoses. Main outcome measures Proportions of matching and non-matching breast, lung, colorectal and prostate cancer diagnoses between 2007 and 2011, stratified by age category, cancer type and EHR system. Differences in year of diagnosis between the EHR and the NCR. Reasons for non-matching diagnoses. Results In the Primary Care EHR, 60.6% of cancer cases were registered and coded in accordance with the NCR. Of the EHR diagnoses, 48.9% were potentially false positive (not registered in the NCR). Results differed between EHR systems but not between age categories or cancer types. The year of diagnosis corresponded in 80.6% of matching coded diagnoses. Adding full-text EHR analysis improved results substantially. A national disease registry (the NCR) proved incomplete. Conclusions Even though GPs do know their patients with cancer, only 60.6% are coded in concordance with the NCR. Reusers of coded EHR data should be aware that 40% of cases can be missed, and almost half can be false positive. The type of EHR system influences registration quality. If full-text manual EHR analysis is used, only 10% of cases will be missed and 20% of cases found will be wrong. EHR data should only be reused with care. PMID:27633642

  8. Worse quality of life in young and recently diagnosed breast cancer survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Mikael; Dar, Huma; Brandberg, Yvonne; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila

    2016-12-01

    Literature focusing on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by cancer site among women only is scarce. This study examines HRQoL of breast cancer (BC) survivors compared with female survivors of other cancers, and to understand which subgroups of BC survivors were particularly at risk of reduced HRQoL. We placed emphasis on young (<50 years) and recently diagnosed (≤5 years) survivors, where the deficits in HRQoL were most pronounced. The cross-sectional study consisted of 2,224 BC survivors, 8,504 non-cancer controls and 2,205 other cancer survivors in the Karma study. We examined HRQoL differences using linear regression analyses in the whole cohort and in a subset of young and recently diagnosed BC survivors (n = 242) and female survivors of other cancers (n = 140) with comparable ages at diagnosis (43.6 vs 43.6, p = 0.917) and time since diagnosis (2.3 vs 2.8 years, p < 0.001). HRQoL was assessed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. While only cognitive functioning was significantly compromised in BC survivors compared with survivors of other cancers when women of all ages were included, young BC survivors reported significantly lower HRQoL on multiple functional scales (global quality of life, emotional, role, social and cognitive functioning) and experienced more fatigue and insomnia. BC survivors with any prior medical history of mental disorders reported poorer HRQoL than those without such a history. We also observed a close-knit relationship between tumor and treatment characteristics. BC survivors perform poorly in HRQoL in comparison with female survivors of other cancers. Our results emphasize the importance of age- and gender-appropriate comparison groups.

  9. Do Health Care Providers Use Online Patient Ratings to Improve the Quality of Care? Results From an Online-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Physician-rating websites have become a popular tool to create more transparency about the quality of health care providers. So far, it remains unknown whether online-based rating websites have the potential to contribute to a better standard of care. Objective Our goal was to examine which health care providers use online rating websites and for what purposes, and whether health care providers use online patient ratings to improve patient care. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study by surveying 2360 physicians and other health care providers (September 2015). In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed multilevel logistic regression models to ascertain the effects of providers’ demographics as well as report card-related variables on the likelihood that providers implement measures to improve patient care. Results Overall, more than half of the responding providers surveyed (54.66%, 1290/2360) used online ratings to derive measures to improve patient care (implemented measures: mean 3.06, SD 2.29). Ophthalmologists (68%, 40/59) and gynecologists (65.4%, 123/188) were most likely to implement any measures. The most widely implemented quality measures were related to communication with patients (28.77%, 679/2360), the appointment scheduling process (23.60%, 557/2360), and office workflow (21.23%, 501/2360). Scaled-survey results had a greater impact on deriving measures than narrative comments. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed medical specialty, the frequency of report card use, and the appraisal of the trustworthiness of scaled-survey ratings to be significantly associated predictors for implementing measures to improve patient care because of online ratings. Conclusions Our results suggest that online ratings displayed on physician-rating websites have an impact on patient care. Despite the limitations of our study and unintended consequences of physician-rating websites, they still may have the potential to

  10. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  11. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  12. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  14. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  15. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  16. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  17. Patient safety, satisfaction, and quality of hospital care: cross sectional surveys of nurses and patients in 12 countries in Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sermeus, Walter; Van den Heede, Koen; Sloane, Douglas M; Busse, Reinhard; McKee, Martin; Bruyneel, Luk; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Griffiths, Peter; Moreno-Casbas, Maria Teresa; Tishelman, Carol; Scott, Anne; Brzostek, Tomasz; Kinnunen, Juha; Schwendimann, Rene; Heinen, Maud; Zikos, Dimitris; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Smith, Herbert L; Kutney-Lee, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether hospitals with a good organisation of care (such as improved nurse staffing and work environments) can affect patient care and nurse workforce stability in European countries. Design Cross sectional surveys of patients and nurses. Setting Nurses were surveyed in general acute care hospitals (488 in 12 European countries; 617 in the United States); patients were surveyed in 210 European hospitals and 430 US hospitals. Participants 33 659 nurses and 11 318 patients in Europe; 27 509 nurses and more than 120 000 patients in the US. Main outcome measures Nurse outcomes (hospital staffing, work environments, burnout, dissatisfaction, intention to leave job in the next year, patient safety, quality of care), patient outcomes (satisfaction overall and with nursing care, willingness to recommend hospitals). Results The percentage of nurses reporting poor or fair quality of patient care varied substantially by country (from 11% (Ireland) to 47% (Greece)), as did rates for nurses who gave their hospital a poor or failing safety grade (4% (Switzerland) to 18% (Poland)). We found high rates of nurse burnout (10% (Netherlands) to 78% (Greece)), job dissatisfaction (11% (Netherlands) to 56% (Greece)), and intention to leave (14% (US) to 49% (Finland, Greece)). Patients’ high ratings of their hospitals also varied considerably (35% (Spain) to 61% (Finland, Ireland)), as did rates of patients willing to recommend their hospital (53% (Greece) to 78% (Switzerland)). Improved work environments and reduced ratios of patients to nurses were associated with increased care quality and patient satisfaction. In European hospitals, after adjusting for hospital and nurse characteristics, nurses with better work environments were half as likely to report poor or fair care quality (adjusted odds ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.61) and give their hospitals poor or failing grades on patient safety (0.50, 0.44 to 0.56). Each additional

  18. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  19. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Becker, ANL

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and to modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.

  20. Non-adherence to self-care practices & medication and health related quality of life among patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to lifestyle modification among diabetic patients develops the short-term risks and the long-term complications as well as declines the quality of life. This study aimed to find out the association between non-adherence to self-care practices, medication and health related quality of life (HR-QoL) among type 2 diabetic patients. Methods At least 1 year diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (N = 500), age>25 years were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital. Patients’ self-care practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires using an analytical cross-sectional design. HRQoL was assessed by an adapted and validated Bangla version of the EQ-5D (EuroQol Group, 2009) questionnaire which has five domains- mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression and two levels on each dimension. EQ-5D responses were further translated into single summery EQ-5D index using UK TTO value set. Patients’ were considered as non-adhered to self-care practices according to the guidelines of Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess the association between non-adherence towards self-care practices and HRQoL. Results Among the study patients, 50.2% were females and mean ± SD age was 54.2 (±11.2) years. Non-adherence rate were assessed for: blood glucose monitoring (37%), diet (44.8%), foot care (43.2%), exercise (33.2%) and smoking (37.2%). About 50.4% patients had problem in mobility, 28.2% in self-care, 47.6% in usual activities, 72.8% in pain/discomfort and 73.6% in anxiety/depression. On chi-squared test, significant association was found between non adherence to foot care and problem with mobility, self-care and usual activities (p < 0.05). Significant association was also found between non-adherence to exercise and poor mobility, self- care, usual activities, pain and anxiety (p

  1. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  2. Collaborative Patient-Centered Quality Improvement: A Cross-Sectional Survey Comparing the Types and Numbers of Quality Initiatives Selected by Patients and Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Fradgley, Elizabeth A; Paul, Christine L; Bryant, Jamie; Collins, Nicolas; Ackland, Stephen P; Bellamy, Douglas; Levi, Christopher R

    2016-12-01

    Identification of patients' and health professionals' quality improvement preferences is an essential first step in collaborative improvement models. This includes experience-based codesign (EBCD), where service change is strategically introduced following stakeholder consultation. This study compared the number and types of improvement initiatives selected by outpatients and health professionals. Using electronic surveys designed to inform EBCD studies, 541 outpatients (71.1% consent) and 124 professionals (47.1% response) selected up to 23 general initiatives. On average, outpatients selected 2.4 (median = 1, interquartile range = 1-3) initiatives and professionals selected 10.7 (median = 10; interquartile range = 6-15) initiatives. Outpatients demonstrated a strong preference for improvements to clinic organization, such as appointment scheduling and clinic contact. Outpatients selected relatively fewer initiatives potentially reducing the complexity of service change and resources required to address preferences. Comparatively, professionals indicated a greater degree of change is needed and selected initiatives related to communication with patients and other professionals, including coordinating multidisciplinary care. Improvements to information provision were commonly selected by both groups and offered a strategic opportunity to address patients' and professionals' preferences. By quantifying the ways in which preferences differed, this study emphasizes the need for collaborative approaches to health service change and may be used to initiate an informed discussion on patients' and professionals' quality improvement preferences in tertiary care.

  3. Health Related Quality of Life and Its Socio-Demographic Determinants among Iranian Elderly People: a Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hajian-Tilaki, Karimollah; Heidari, Behzad; Hajian-Tilaki, Arefeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In the stage of demographic transition, the rate of elderly is increasing and their health condition is a matter of concern. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the health related quality of life (QoL) and the associated socio-demographic determinants among Iranian elderly people. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a representative samples of 750 elderly people whom community dwelling in urban area of Babol, in the north of Iran. In a household survey, the demographic data were collected and the health related QoL was assessed with a validated standard short form questionnaire (SF-36). The multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the demographic characteristics in predicting QoL using SPSS ver 13. Results: The overall mean (SD) scores of QoL was 62.4(17.2) for men and 51.2 (17.9) for women. The mean scores of QoL in all dimensions in men had significantly higher than women. The adjusted regression coefficient of gender, age, educational level, being couple were significant on overall scores of QoL. Aging is inversely associated while male gender and education at high school or higher and being couple are positively associated in prediction of overall scores of QoL. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the health related QoL is rather poor in old people particular in women, elderly with low education level and being single. Therefore, healthcare policy makers should consider an urgent health interventional program among elderly people at present stage of demographic transition with emphasis on high risk demographic profiles. PMID:28299296

  4. Factors Associated with Health-Related Quality of Life among Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Asirvatham A.; Al Saeed, Abdulghani; Alzaid, Aus A.; Al Sabaan, Fahad S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with high mortality, morbidity, poor general health, and loss of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The objective of the study was to assess the factors associated with HRQOL among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods This was a cross sectional study conducted among 283 T2DM patients during June 2011 and September 2012 at a major tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The respondents were purposively and conveniently selected according to their availability during their routine visit to the outpatient clinics and they were interviewed using the Arabic version of the Short-Form 36-item survey (SF-36) to assess the HRQOL. Results The mean age of the participants was 56.4±13.2 years. Around 63% (178) were males and 37% (105) were females. Glycosylated hemoglobin level was found to be significantly higher among female and HRQOL was higher among male. Respondents who were more than 50 years old had poor HRQOL than less than 50 years age group. Poor economic status, reported diabetic complications and longer duration of diabetes were significantly associated with poor HRQOL. The respondents treated with combination of therapies (oral medication plus insulin) indicated better HRQOL than patients with insulin therapy alone. Multivariate analysis indicated that gender, economic status (except subscale energy), and complications of DM (except subscale energy) as independent risk factor for HRQOL. Conclusion Gender, economic status, and complication of DM were independent risk factors for majority of the subscales of HRQOL. PMID:25003076

  5. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Project to Assess Undergraduate Nursing Students' Clinical Exposure to Patients With Wounds in an Introductory Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Keves-Foster, Mary Kathryn; Ashare, JoAnn; Zugcic, Mary; Albdour, Maha; Albdour, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    Because nurses frequently participate in decisions related to wound care, learning about wounds and their care during undergraduate education is critical. A cross-sectional, descriptive, quality improvement project was conducted in an introductory baccalaureate nursing course to identify: 1) the types of patients with wounds assigned to beginning students, 2) patient wound care procedures and dressings, and 3) student level of participation in wound care. Data were collected from the weekly notes recorded about students' (N = 49) patient care experiences in 3 acute care hospitals for 9 clinical days during 1 semester. Data were recorded on a paper-and-pencil form by instructors at the end of the clinical day and included type of wound, wound irrigation, dressing, technique of care, and student's participation. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the frequency and distribution of the wound characteristics and care assessed. Of the 284 patients assigned to students, 75 (26.4%) had a wound. The most common wound was a surgical incision (49, 65%) and was closed (36, 73.5%). Twenty-six (26) patients had a pressure ulcer, most commonly Stage II. The most common dressing was dry gauze (29). Damp gauze was used on 18 wounds. Wound irrigation was recorded for 24 wound protocols and performed with a bulb syringe or by pouring the solution from a container. Generally, nonsterile wound care was performed. Twenty-five (25) students performed wound care with the instructor, 16 watched the care performed by another clinician, and 10 participated with another nurse in the wound care. For 22 patients, the wound care was neither observed nor performed because either it was not time for the dressing to be changed or it was only to be changed by a medical team. From these data, it was concluded beginning nursing students had some, but limited, clinical experience with patients with wounds. Students' wound care experiences need further examination, especially across multiple

  6. Chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Feddern, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Laurberg, Søren

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment and its impact on quality of life (QoL). This is a population-based cross-sectional study of chronic pain and QoL in patients treated for rectal cancer from 2001 to 2007. A modified version of the Brief Descriptive Danish Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire were mailed to 1713 Danish patients. Informative answers were obtained from 1369 patients (80%). A total of 426 patients (31%) reported chronic pain in the pelvic area or lower extremities, 173 (41%) of whom had daily pain. Pain in other parts of the body was associated with the presence of pain in the pelvic region (odds ratio [OR] 4.81 [3.63-6.38], P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an association with chronic pain in female patients (OR 1.91 [1.51-2.43], P < 0.001) and in those who received radio(chemo)therapy (OR 1.31 [1.01-1.7], P = 0.041) or underwent abdominoperineal excision (OR 1.71 [1.19-2.44], P = 0.003), total mesorectal excision (OR 1.39 [1.01-1.90], P = 0.041), and Hartmann procedure (OR 1.72 [1.04-2.84], P = 0.33) compared with partial mesorectal excision. Ordinal regression analysis showed a strong association between all QoL subgroups and pelvic pain. Chronic pain in the pelvic region or lower extremities after rectal cancer treatment is a common but largely neglected problem that is associated with female gender, type of surgery, radio(chemo)therapy, and young age, all of which impact the patient's QoL.

  7. Malocclusion, dental aesthetic self-perception and quality of life in a 18 to 21 year-old population: a cross section study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aesthetic alterations in the face can be self-perceived and can affect quality of life. For young people, physical attractiveness is an important factor affecting social relationships. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion, identify the most common types and test its association with oral aesthetic self-perception in 18 to 21 year-old population of male young adults. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 138 Brazilian Army soldiers. Data collection included socio demographic profile, malocclusion status through the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and oral aesthetic self-perception as indicated by the Oral Aesthetic Subjective Impact Scale (OASIS). The chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for homogeneity of proportions. The stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test for the relationship between the poorer oral aesthetic self-perception and parental and soldier’s education, per capita income, history of caries in all teeth and only on anterior teeth, dental trauma, previous orthodontic treatment and malocclusion. Results The prevalence of malocclusion was 45.6%. Incisor teeth crowding and misalignment of lower incisors were the most common types of malocclusions. A statistically significant and independent association between malocclusion and poorer oral aesthetic self-perception in the multivariate analysis was observed. Subjects with severe malocclusion conditions showed 88% higher prevalence [prevalence ratio =1.88 (95% CI, 1.30 – 2.72); p = 0.001] of poorer aesthetic self-perception comparing to those with minor malocclusion. Conclusions A high prevalence of malocclusion was observed. The young adults presenting severe malocclusion had a higher and independent prevalence of poorer oral aesthetic self-perception. PMID:23295063

  8. Current analgesic use predicts low emotional quality of life in youth: A cross-sectional survey among university students in Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Ahongshangbam, Shurmala; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Occurrence of chronic physical pain is increasingly identified among youth, and medically unsupervised analgesic use is a possible risk factor for opioid dependence and other mental diseases in later life. Therefore, the present study was carried out in young student population in Sikkim, India, to explore predictors (including current chronic pain and current analgesic use) of low QoL in youth to identify a subset of population vulnerable to substance use and mental diseases in later life. Methods: The study was conducted in a health university setting in Sikkim, North East India. In this cross-sectional study, 156 participants were enrolled with almost equal number of males and females. Generic instruments for demographics and current analgesic use and SF - 36, for assessment of quality of life (QoL), were used. QoL was measured in general, physical and emotional domains. Presence of chronic physical pain during past four weeks was captured using SF - 36. Results: Almost two-third participants reported presence of current physical pain (69%, n=108); and (14%, n=22) reported current analgesic use for pain. In logistic regression model controlled for age, ethnicity, gender and residence, higher body mass index (BMI) (β=-0.16, P=0.02) and current analgesic use (β=1.6, P=0.006) predicted low QoL in emotional domain (less accomplishment due to emotional problem). Current analgesic use also predicted low QoL in another measure of emotional domain (depressed β=2.0, P=0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: This study identified a subset of participants in their youth with low QoL in emotional domain predicted by current analgesic use and possible overweight problem. Low QoL in more than one emotional domain also identifies possibility of later psychiatric impairment. However, chronic pain did not emerge as a significant predictor of low QoL in emotional domain. PMID:23852302

  9. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  10. Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms. Results An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP. Conclusion OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of

  11. Endorsement of PRISMA statement and quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in nursing journals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Wilson W S; Lo, Kenneth K H; Khalechelvam, Parames

    2017-01-01

    Objective Systematic reviews (SRs) often poorly report key information, thereby diminishing their usefulness. Previous studies evaluated published SRs and determined that they failed to meet explicit criteria or characteristics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was recommended as a reporting guideline for SR and meta-analysis (MA), but previous studies showed that adherence to the statement was not high for SRs published in different medical fields. Thus, the aims of this study are twofold: (1) to investigate the number of nursing journals that have required or recommended the use of the PRISMA statement for reporting SR, and (2) to examine the adherence of SRs and/or meta-analyses to the PRISMA statement published in nursing journals. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods Nursing journals listed in the ISI journal citation report were divided into 2 groups based on the recommendation of PRISMA statement in their ‘Instruction for Authors’. SRs and meta-analyses published in 2014 were searched in 3 databases. 37 SRs and meta-analyses were randomly selected in each group. The adherence of each item to the PRISMA was examined and summarised using descriptive statistics. The quality of the SRs was assessed by Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews. The differences between the 2 groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results Out of 107 nursing journals, 30 (28.0%) recommended or required authors to follow the PRISMA statement when they submit SRs or meta-analyses. The median rates of adherence to the PRISMA statement for reviews published in journals with and without PRISMA endorsement were 64.9% (IQR: 17.6–92.3%) and 73.0% (IQR: 59.5–94.6%), respectively. No significant difference was observed in any of the items between the 2 groups. Conclusions The median adherence of SRs and meta-analyses in nursing journals to PRISMA is low at 64.9% and 73.0%, respectively

  12. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  13. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  14. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  15. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  16. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  17. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  18. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  19. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  20. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  1. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  3. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  4. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  5. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  6. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  7. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; Yan, Cunling; Lin, Yuanlong; Wang, Fuxiang; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Background China is undergoing a rapid growth in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic involving men who have sex with men (MSM). Reports about their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are scarce. This study aimed to assess the HRQOL and factors influencing HIV-positive MSM in a city in the northeast of China. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Harbin city (Heilongjiang, China). HIV-positive MSM (n=125) were interviewed using the WHOQOL-HIV-BRIEF scale, the Berger HIV Stigma Scale, and other HIV-related questionnaires from June to August 2013. Results Among the 6 dimensions of the HRQOL, HIV-related stigma was negatively associated with psychological (r=−0.316, P=0.0003) and spirituality domains (r=−0.324, P=0.0002). Physician support was positively associated with independence domain (r=0.393, P<0.0001). Hostile mentality was associated with psychological (r=0.479, P<0.0001) and spirituality domains (r=0.431, P<0.0001). Adverse effects of HAART were significantly correlated with physical (r=−0.542, P<0.0001) and psychological (r=−0.554, P<0.0001) domains. Multiple logistic regression showed that stigma (odds ratio (OR)=1.251, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.088–1.439, P=0.002) and adverse effects of HAART (OR=1.117, 95%CI: 1.069–1.167, P<0.0001) were independent risk factors for low HRQOL. Physician support (OR=0.961, 95%CI: 0.941–0.982, P=0.0002) and CD4+ counts >350 (OR=0.033, 95%CI: 0.005–0.208, P=0.001) were independent protective factors in MSM receiving HAART. Hostile mentality (OR=0.936, 95%CI: 0.906–0.967, P<0.0001) was an independent protective factor of HRQOL in MSM not receiving HAART. Conclusions Psychological factors such as HIV-related stigma, hostile mentality, and physician support have a significant effect on HRQOL in MSM. These findings suggest specific psychological interventions to improve HRQOL in HIV-positive MSM in China. PMID:27522466

  9. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  10. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  11. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  12. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  13. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  14. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  15. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  16. Health-related quality-of-life of coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora, India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Chattopadhyay, Chaitali; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives During the last decade, coal-based sponge iron plants, a highly polluted industry, have grown rapidly in Barjora, India. Understanding their workers’ perception of health is essential in people-centered healthcare. The aim of the study was to assess their health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), and to determine factors that independently predict their HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Coal-based sponge iron plants in Barjora, India. Participants 258 coal-based sponge iron plant workers. Primary outcome measure HRQoL was measured using the EuroQol-5D-5L. Results The response rate was 100%. Participants with problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were 23.3%, 5.1%, 10.9%, 39.5% and 45.5%, respectively. 36.8% of participants reported health state 11111 (no problem in any EQ-5D dimension). The mean visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was 69.8 (18.5 SD). The odds of mobility problems decreased with age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99, p=0.016), were lower in participants with presence/history of any respiratory disease (0.27, 0.13 to 0.55, p<0.001), scheduled caste/scheduled tribe/other backward class workers (0.44, 0.22 to 0.89, p=0.021), manual workers (0.40, 0.16 to 0.99, p=0.047) and non-smokers (2.63, 1.27 to 5.46, p=0.009). The odds of pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were lower in participants with any respiratory disease (0.44, 0.24 to 0.79, p=0.006; and 0.52, 0.29 to 0.92, p=0.026, respectively). The EQ-VAS was worse in manual participants (coefficient −6.91, 95% CI −12.40 to −1.41, p=0.014), with any respiratory disease (−8.13, −13.12 to −3.13, p=0.002), alcohol drinkers (−4.81, −9.47 to −0.15, p=0.043), literates (7.70, 0.97 to 14.43, p=0.025) and Hindus (13.41, 2.62 to 24.20, p=0.015). Conclusions Many coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora have problems in their HRQoL, and the predictors of different aspects of HRQoL were identified. The study findings could

  17. Impact of oral health conditions on the quality of life of preschool children and their families: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries, traumatic dental injury (TDI) and malocclusion are common oral health conditions among preschool children and can have both physical and psychosocial consequences. Thus, it is important to measure the impact these on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of oral health conditions on the OHRQoL of preschool children and their families. Methods A preschool-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 preschool children in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered the Brazilian Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale and a questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data as well as the parent’s/caregiver’s perceptions regarding their child’s health. Clinical exams were performed by three researchers who had undergone a calibration process for the diagnosis of dental caries, TDI and malocclusion (K = 0.83-0.85). Hierarchical Poisson regression was employed to determine the strength of associations between oral health conditions and OHRQoL (α = 5%). The multivariate model was run on three levels obeying a hierarchical approach from distal to proximal determinants: 1) socio-demographic data; 2) perceptions of health; and 3) oral health conditions. Results The prevalence of impact from oral health conditions on OHRQoL was 32.1% among the children and 26.2% among the families. The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the children: birth order of child (PR = 1.430; 95% CI: 1.045-1.958), parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 1.732; 95% CI: 1.399-2.145), cavitated lesions (PR = 2.596; 95% CI: 1.982-3.400) and TDI (PR = 1.413; 95% CI: 1.161-1.718). The following variables were significantly associated with a impact on OHRQoL among the families: parent’s/caregiver’s perception of child’s oral health as poor (PR = 2.116; 95% CI

  18. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  19. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  20. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  1. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  2. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  3. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  4. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  5. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  6. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  7. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  8. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  9. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  10. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  11. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  12. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of disability through QOCS and personal attitude towards disability among PWPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,853 PWPD in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected on participants’ QoL, QOCS, personal attitude towards disability and severity of disability. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of the other variables on QoL. Results Even with a mild disability (mean score:1.72), relatively low levels of QoL (mean score: 2.65- 3.22) and QOCS (mean score: 2.95 to 3.28), as well as unfavorable personal attitude towards disability (mean score: 2.75 to 3.36) were identified among PWPD. According to SEM, we found that the influence of severity of physical disability on QoL is not only exerted directly, but is also indirectly through QOCS and their personal attitudes towards disability, with QOCS playing a more important mediating role than PWPD’s attitudes towards their own disability. Conclusions Unfavorable health status was identified among PWPD in China. Focusing on improvement of assistance and care services has the potential to substantially improve PWPD’s QoL. Further research should focus on understanding the needs and their current state of health care of PWPD in China thus being able to develop better interventions for them. PMID:24559096

  13. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  14. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  15. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The role of individual characteristics and physical frailty on health related quality of life (HRQOL): a cross sectional study of Italian community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Mulasso, Anna; Roppolo, Mattia; Rabaglietti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between individual characteristics and HRQOL, and to identify which components of physical frailty measured according to Fried's criteria provided a better explanation of HRQOL. Two hundred and fifty-nine older adults (age 74±6 years; 69% were women) living in Piemonte Region were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic and medical characteristics were captured by self-reported questionnaires. Physical frailty was assessed using the five criteria of Fried: shrinking, weakness, poor endurance and energy, slowness, and low physical activity level. HRQOL was measured with the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), using both the mental (MCS) and the Physical Component Summary (PCS). Among individual characteristics, gender was the best predictor for SF-36, the MCS, and the PCS, with values of R(2) of 12.7%, 12.1%, and 8.8%, respectively. Among the five Fried's criteria, poor endurance and energy had the largest effect on HRQOL with values of ΔR(2) of 13.9% for SF-36, 13.4% for the MCS, and 9.4% for the PCS. Results highlighted the role of the individual characteristics and the single weight of the five components of physical frailty on HRQOL. This knowledge may give new insights about the relations between individual functioning and self-rated health, allowing the development of individualized and more effective preventive interventions for a healthy aging.

  17. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  19. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  20. A cross-sectional study to assess the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals: a baseline assessment for quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Elsous, Aymen; Rashidian, Arash; Aljeesh, Yousef; Radwan, Mahmoud; AbuZaydeh, Hatem

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To measure and establish a baseline assessment of the patient safety culture in the Palestinian hospitals. Design A cross-sectional descriptive study using the Arabic version of the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (Short Form 2006). Participants A total of 339 nurses and physicians returned the questionnaire out of 370 achieving a response rate of 91.6%. Setting Four public general hospitals in the Gaza Strip, Palestine. Methods Nurses and physicians were randomly selected using a proportionate random sampling. Data analysis performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 20, and p value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. Main outcomes measures Current status of patient safety culture among healthcare providers and percentage of positive attitudes. Results Male to female ratio was 2.16:1, and mean age was 36.5 ± 9.4 years. The mean score of Arabic Safety Attitude Questionnaire across the six dimensions on 100-point scale ranged between 68.5 for Job Satisfaction and 48.5 for Working Condition. The percentage of respondents holding a positive attitude was 34.5% for Teamwork Climate, 28.4% for Safety Climate, 40.7% for Stress Recognition, 48.8% for Job Satisfaction, 11.3% for Working Conditions and 42.8% for Perception of Management. Healthcare workers holding positive attitudes had better collaboration with co-workers than those without positive attitudes. Conclusion Findings are useful to formulate a policy on patient safety culture and targeted a specific safety culture dimension to improve the safety of patients and improve the clinical outcomes within healthcare organisations. PMID:27928510

  1. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  2. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  3. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  4. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  5. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  6. Does Future Diabetes Risk Impair Current Quality of Life? A Cross-Sectional Study of Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, Saku; Cederberg, Henna; Roine, Risto; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saramies, Jouko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Present study examines the relationship between the estimated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We quantify the association between Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and HRQoL, and examine the potential use of FINDRISC as tool to evaluate HRQoL indirectly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 707 Finnish people without a diagnosis of T2D between the ages of 51 and 75 years. The risk of developing T2D was assessed using the validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0–26 points), and quality of life was measured using two preference-based HRQoL instruments (15D and SF-6D) and one health profile instrument (SF-36). Effects of the individual FINDRISC items and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as co-morbidities, on HRQoL were studied using multivariable Tobit regression models. Results Low HRQoL was significantly and directly associated with the estimated risk of developing T2D. An approximate 4–5 point change in FINDRISC score was observed to be associated with clinically noticeable changes in the preference-based instrument HRQoL index scores. The association between HRQoL and the risk of developing T2D was also observed for most dimensions of HRQoL in all applied HRQoL instruments. Overall, old age, lack of physical activity, obesity, and history of high blood glucose were the FINDRISC factors most prominently associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions The findings may help the health care professionals to substantiate the possible improvement in glucose metabolism and HRQoL potentially achieved by lifestyle changes, and better convince people at high risk of T2D to take action towards healthier lifestyle habits. FINDRISC may also provide an accurate proxy for HRQoL, and thus by estimating the risk of T2D with the FINDRISC, information about patients’ HRQoL may also be obtained indirectly, when it is not feasible to use HRQoL instruments. PMID:26840374

  7. Prospectively measured 10-year changes in health-related quality of life and comparison with cross-sectional estimates in a population-based cohort of adult women and men

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Claudie; Joseph, Lawrence; Zhou, Wei; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Towheed, Tanveer; Anastassiades, Tassos; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hanley, David A.; Papadimitropoulos, Emmanuel A.; Kirkland, Susan; Kaiser, Stephanie M.; Josse, Robert G.; Goltzman, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively assess changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over 10 years, by age and sex, and to compare measured within-person change to estimates of change based on cross-sectional data. Methods Participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study completed the 36-item short form (SF-36) in 1995/1997 and 2005/2007. Mean within-person changes for domain and summary components were calculated for men and women separately, stratified by 10-year age groups. Projected changes based on published age- and sex-stratified cross-sectional data were also calculated. Mean differences between the two methods were then estimated, along with the 95 % credible intervals of the differences. Results Data were available for 5,569/9,423 (59.1 %) of the original cohort. Prospectively collected 10-year changes suggested that the four physically oriented domains declined in all but the youngest group of men and women, with declines in the elderly men exceeding 25 points. The four mentally oriented domains tended to improve over time, only showing substantial declines in vitality and role emotional in older women, and all four domains in older men. Cross-sectional estimates identified a similar pattern of change but with a smaller magnitude, particularly in men. Correspondence between the two methods was generally high. Conclusions Changes in HRQOL may be minimal over much of the life span, but physically oriented HRQOL can decline substantially after middle age. Although clinically relevant declines were more evident in prospectively collected data, differences in 10-year age increments of cross-sectional data may be a reasonable proxy for longitudinal changes, at least in those under 65 years of age. Results provide additional insight into the natural progression of HRQOL in the general population. PMID:24925754

  8. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  9. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  10. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  11. Shrink-wrapped isosurface from cross sectional images.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Hahn, J K

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses a new surface reconstruction scheme for approximating the isosurface from a set of tomographic cross sectional images. Differently from the novel Marching Cubes (MC) algorithm, our method does not extract the iso-density surface (isosurface) directly from the voxel data but calculates the iso-density point (isopoint) first. After building a coarse initial mesh approximating the ideal isosurface by the cell-boundary representation, it metamorphoses the mesh into the final isosurface by a relaxation scheme, called shrink-wrapping process. Compared with the MC algorithm, our method is robust and does not make any cracks on surface. Furthermore, since it is possible to utilize lots of additional isopoints during the surface reconstruction process by extending the adjacency definition, theoretically the resulting surface can be better in quality than the MC algorithm. According to experiments, it is proved to be very robust and efficient for isosurface reconstruction from cross sectional images.

  12. Evaluation of Neutron Resonance Cross Section Data at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Emiliani, F.; Guber, K.; Heyse, J.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Massimi, C.; Mondelaers, W.; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pronyaev, V.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Trkov, A.; Volev, K.; Zerovnik, G.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade, the EC-JRC-IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonance region with uncertainties better than 0.5 % and 2 %, respectively, can be produced together with evaluated data files for both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The methodology to produce full ENDF compatible files, including covariances, is illustrated by the production of resolved resonance parameter files for 241Am, Cd and W and an evaluation for 197Au in the unresolved resonance region.

  13. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  14. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  15. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  16. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  17. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  18. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  20. Relationship between national mental health expenditure and quality of care in longer-term psychiatric and social care facilities in Europe: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Taylor Salisbury, Tatiana; Killaspy, Helen; King, Michael

    2017-03-16

    BackgroundIt is not known whether increased mental health expenditure is associated with better outcomes.AimsTo estimate the association between national mental health expenditure and (a) quality of longer-term mental healthcare, (b) service users' ratings of that care in eight European countries.MethodNational mental health expenditure (per cent of health budget spent on mental health) was calculated from international sources. Multilevel models were developed to assess associations with quality of care and service user experiences of care using ratings of 171 facility managers and 1429 service users.ResultsSignificant positive associations were found between mental health spend and (a) six of seven quality of care domains; and (b) service user autonomy and experiences of care.ConclusionsGreater national mental health expenditure was associated with higher quality of care and better service user experience.

  1. The effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, I-Hung; Wu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Hueih-Shing; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Wang, Hsu-Hsiang; Chuang, Heng-Chang; Tam, Yuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nocturia has been proven to have a negative impact on the quality of life and sleep quality in general elderly population. However, there are limited studies on the quantitative effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction, specifically in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and methods During March 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, a total of 728 patients who visited our urology department due to voiding dysfunction and experienced nocturia at least once per night were enrolled. Three questionnaires were administered to them after obtaining their written consents. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire were applied to evaluate their sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and voiding problems, respectively. Statistical analysis of the impact of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction was performed. Results The mean age of patients was 61 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7. The mean nocturia number was 3.03. The IPSS, PSQI, and ESS scores were 17.56, 8.35, and 8.22, respectively. The nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated to ESS score (daytime dysfunction) and PSQI total score (sleep quality) in overall group. Among subgroups divided by age and sex, there was a significant correlation between nocturia number and daytime dysfunction in male patients or patients younger than 65 years. Conclusion In patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated with poor sleep quality. Nocturia plays an important role in patients younger than 65 years in daytime dysfunction. PMID:27418814

  2. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  3. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  4. Private ownership of primary care providers associated with patient perceived quality of care: A comparative cross-sectional survey in three big Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaolin; Yin, Jia; Wong, Samuel Y S; Griffiths, Sian M; Zou, Guanyang; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-01-01

    Ownership of primary care providers varies in different cities in China. Shanghai represented the full public ownership model of primary providers; Shenzhen had public-owned but private-operated providers; and Hong Kong represented the full private ownership. The study aims to assess the association of primary care ownership and patient perceived quality of care in 3 Chinese megacities.We conducted multistage stratified random surveys in 2013 in the 3 cities. Quality scores of primary care were measured using the validated primary care assessment tools. Multivariate linear regression models were used to compare quality scores after controlling potential confounders of patient demographic, socioeconomic, and healthcare utilization factors.Overall, 797 primary care users in Shanghai, 802 in Shenzhen, and 1325 in Hong Kong participated in the study. The mean total quality scores were reported the highest in Shanghai (28.39), followed by Shenzhen (25.82) and then Hong Kong (25.21) (P < 0.001). Shanghai participants reported the highest scores for 1st contact accessibility, coordination of information, comprehensiveness of service availability, and culture competence, while Hong Kong participants reported the lowest for these domains (P < 0.001). Hong Kong participants from rich households reported higher total scores than those from poor households (P < 0.05); however, this was not found in Shanghai and Shenzhen.The study suggests that private primary care ownership may be associated with lower quality and less equitable care distribution. In China, it suggests that it may be beneficial to promote public-owned and nonprofit providers. Promoting privatization in primary care may be at the cost of quality and equity of primary care.

  5. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  6. Government employees' perception of urban air pollution and willingness to pay for improved quality: a cross-sectional survey study in Nanchang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Wu, Yanyan; Hu, Yongxin; Liu, Denglai; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-11-01

    To improve the public's awareness of urban air pollution and promote establishment of more efficient policy toward urban air pollution, we investigated the government employees' perceptions of current urban air pollution and their willingness to pay (WTP) taxes for improved quality in Nanchang, China. Stratified cluster sampling strategy was used to distribute 629 questionnaires, and 608 were completed anonymously, yielding a 96.7 % response rate. Descriptive statistics frequencies and proportions were used to summarize the sample characteristics, and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of perception of urban air quality and WTP versus demographic variables. We found low awareness of urban air pollution (34.5 %) as well as low WTP (44.9 %), especially among the middle aged people (age 30-39 and age 40-49). Our study shows that female employees have better awareness of urban air pollution but much less willingness to pay for air quality improvement. Majority of the government employees showed their support to the government for more effective policies toward environmental protection, indicating more enhanced public education and environmental protection campaigns to improve the public's awareness of air pollution and work with every citizen to improve air quality. This study also obtained baseline information useful to the local regional and even national government in developing nations in their attempt to control urban air pollution in future.

  7. The effect of parity on pelvic floor muscle strength and quality of life in women with urinary incontinence: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Özdemır, Özlem Çınar; Bakar, Yesim; Özengın, Nuriye; Duran, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activity after vaginal birth, and the effect of parity on PFM strength and quality of life (QoL) in women with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Patients (n=241) who gave birth vaginally and experienced urinary incontinence were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of women having 1–3 children, group 2 consisted of women having 4–6 children, and group 3 consisted of women having more than 6 children. All patients underwent detailed examination of the PFM. The Turkish version of the self-administered Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QoL) questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects of stress urinary incontinence on participants’ QoL. [Results] Comparison of PFM strengths showed a significant intergroup difference. Group 1 showed significantly higher PFM strength scores than those of groups 2 and 3. I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. As number of deliveries increased, quality of life decreased. Comparison of PFM strengths and I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. [Conclusion] Increasing the awareness of PFM training in women will reduce potential postpartum incontinence due to a weak PFM strength; and will increase quality of life. PMID:26311939

  8. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity.

  9. Ozone Cross-Section Measurement by Gas Phase Titration.

    PubMed

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Flores, Edgar; Wielgosz, Robert I

    2016-11-01

    Elevated values of ground-level ozone damage health, vegetation, and building materials and are the subject of air quality regulations. Levels are monitored by networks using mostly ultraviolet (UV) absorption instruments, with traceability to standard reference photometers, relying on the UV absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have redetermined the ozone cross-section at this wavelength based on gas phase titration (GPT) measurements. This is a well-known chemical method using the reaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen monoxide (NO) resulting in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen (O2). The BIPM GPT facility uses state-of-the-art flow measurement, chemiluminescence for NO concentration measurements, a cavity phase shift analyzer (CAPS) for NO2 measurements, and a UV ozone analyzer. The titration experiment is performed over the concentration range 100-500 nmol/mol, with NO and NO2 reactants/calibrants diluted down from standards with nominal mole fractions of 50 μmol/mol. Accurate measurements of NO, NO2, and O3 mole fractions allow the calculation of ozone absorption cross section values at 253.65 nm, and we report a value of 11.24 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.8% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen monoxide titration values and a value of 11.22 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.4% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen dioxide titration values. The excellent agreement between these values and recently published absorption cross-section measurements directly on pure ozone provide strong evidence for revising the conventionally accepted value of ozone cross section at 253.65 nm.

  10. Patient satisfaction and perceived quality of care: evidence from a cross-sectional national exit survey of HIV and non-HIV service users in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Emily; Masiye, Felix; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction among HIV and non-HIV patients in Zambia. Setting Patient exit survey conducted at 104 primary, secondary and tertiary health clinics across 16 Zambian districts. Participants 2789 exiting patients. Primary independent variables Five dimensions of perceived quality of care (health personnel practice and conduct, adequacy of resources and services, healthcare delivery, accessibility of care, and cost of care). Secondary independent variables Respondent, visit-related, and facility characteristics. Primary outcome measure Patient satisfaction measured on a 1–10 scale. Methods Indices of perceived quality of care were modelled using principal component analysis. Statistical associations between perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction were examined using random-effect ordered logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, visit and facility characteristics. Results Average satisfaction was 6.9 on a 10-point scale for non-HIV services and 7.3 for HIV services. Favourable perceptions of health personnel conduct were associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction for non-HIV (OR=3.53, 95% CI 2.34 to 5.33) and HIV (OR=11.00, 95% CI 3.97 to 30.51) visits. Better perceptions of resources and services were also associated with higher odds of satisfaction for both non-HIV (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.55) and HIV (OR=4.68, 95% CI 1.81 to 12.10) visits. Two additional dimensions of perceived quality of care—healthcare delivery and accessibility of care—were positively associated with higher satisfaction for non-HIV patients. The odds of overall satisfaction were lower in rural facilities for non-HIV patients (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99) and HIV patients (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.41). For non-HIV patients, the odds of satisfaction were greater in hospitals compared with health centres/posts (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.48) and lower at

  11. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS) of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a) using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21) and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6) and (b) using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6). Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men). Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions) to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions). The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21) to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6) and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21) to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6). Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life. PMID:27069925

  12. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  13. Associations of participation in community assets with health-related quality of life and healthcare usage: a cross-sectional study of older people in the community

    PubMed Central

    Munford, Luke A; Sidaway, Mark; Blakemore, Amy; Sutton, Matt; Bower, Pete

    2017-01-01

    Background Community assets are promoted as a way to improve quality of life and reduce healthcare usage. However, the quantitative impact of participation in community assets on these outcomes is not known. Methods We examined the association between participation in community assets and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EuroQol-5D-5L) and healthcare usage in 3686 individuals aged ≥65 years. We estimated the unadjusted differences in EuroQol-5D-5L scores and healthcare usage between participants and non-participants in community assets and then used multivariate regression to examine scores adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term health conditions. We derived the net benefits of participation using a range of threshold values for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results 50% of individuals reported participation in community assets. Their EuroQol-5D-5L scores were 0.094 (95% CI 0.077 to 0.111) points higher than non-participants. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics reduced this differential to 0.081 (95% CI 0.064 to 0.098). Further controlling for limiting long-term conditions reduced this effect to 0.039 (95% CI 0.025 to 0.052). Once we adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term conditions, the reductions in healthcare usage and costs associated with community asset participation were not statistically significant. Based on a threshold value of £20 000 per QALY, the net benefits of participation in community assets were £763 (95% CI £478 to £1048) per participant per year. Conclusions Participation in community assets is associated with substantially higher HRQoL but is not associated with lower healthcare costs. The social value of developing community assets is potentially substantial. PMID:28183807

  14. Comparison of the effects of PMDD and pre-menstrual syndrome on mood disorders and quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Balık, Gülşah; Hocaoğlu, Çiçek; Kağıtcı, Mehmet; Güvenda Güven, Emine Seda

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared psychiatric symptoms, quality of life and disability in patients with pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Forty-nine women with PMDD were compared with 43 women with PMS. All participants were asked to complete a socio-demographic data collection form, a Brief Disability Questionnaire, a medical study short form-36 (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) forms. The patients with PMDD had higher HAD-A and HAD-D scores than the patients in PMS group (p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were found on brief disability between two groups (p > 0.05), but both groups had medium level of brief disability. The PMDD group had a lower SF-36 scoring than the PMS group in every compared parameters (p < 0.01). PMS and PMDD may lead to brief disability, and PMDD may cause loss of quality of life and psychological problems. The evaluation of patients with PMS and PMDD pre-menstrual disorders should be more detailed.

  15. A cross sectional survey on health-related quality of life of elementary school students using the Korean version of the EQ-5D-Y

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Kyu; Jo, Min-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective The Korean version of the EQ-5D-Y was launched in 2015 by the EuroQol group. Currently, there is no HRQOL data obtained by using the EQ-5D-Y in Korea. This study aimed to measure health-related quality of life of Korean elementary school students using the EQ-5D-Y. Methods Elementary school students were recruited from 11 primary schools in Gyungbuk, South Korea. The EQ-5D-Y was self-administered in the sample population. Demographic characteristics were collected from the subjects’ parents or guardians. The percentage of respondents reporting problems and VAS scores were calculated. Feasibility of the EQ-5D-Y was assessed by analysing the proportion of missing responses. The percentage of reported problems on the dimensions and VAS score between groups were compared by demographic factors. Results A total of 2,494 questionnaires were collected. There were 24 (0.96%) missing responses on the EQ-5D-Y and 187 (7.5%) missing VAS score responses. The proportion of reported problems ranged from 2.3% on the mobility dimension to 9.8% on the “having pain or discomfort” dimension. There was no significant difference in the proportion of problems by age group in male participants. However, in females, the older group reported significantly more problems on the “having pain or discomfort” and “feeling worried, sad, or unhappy” dimensions compared to the younger group. Students living with parents with the lowest educational level reported significantly more problems on the “looking after myself” and “doing usual activities” dimensions than did those living with parents with higher levels of education. Discussion This study showed the distribution of health-related quality of life and explored the feasibility of the EQ-5D-Y for measuring health-related quality of life in Korean elementary school students. Further studies are required to examine other psychometric properties of the Korean EQ-5D-Y. PMID:28344908

  16. Gender-Disparities in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: More Than a Quality of Care Issue. A Cross-Sectional Observational Study from the AMD Annals Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated gender-differences in quality of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care. Starting from electronic medical records of 300 centers, 5 process indicators, 3 favorable and 6 unfavorable intermediate outcomes, 6 treatment intensity/appropriateness measures and an overall quality score were measured. The likelihood of women vs. men (reference class) to be monitored, to reach outcomes, or to be treated has been investigated through multilevel logistic regression analyses; results are expressed as Odd Ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs). The inter-center variability in the achievement of the unfavorable outcomes was also investigated. Overall, 28,802 subjects were analyzed (45.5% women). Women and men had similar age (44.5±16.0 vs. 45.0±17.0 years) and diabetes duration (18.3±13.0 vs. 18.8±13.0 years). No between-gender differences were found in process indicators. As for intermediate outcomes, women showed 33% higher likelihood of having HbA1c ≥8.0% (OR = 1.33; 95%CI: 1.25–1.43), 29% lower risk of blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg (OR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.65–0.77) and 27% lower risk of micro/macroalbuminuria (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.65–0.81) than men, while BMI, LDL-c and GFR did not significantly differ; treatment intensity/appropriateness was not systematically different between genders; overall quality score was similar in men and women. Consistently across centers a larger proportion of women than men had HbA1c ≥8.0%, while a smaller proportion had BP ≥140/90 mmHg. No gender-disparities were found in process measures and improvements are required in both genders. The systematic worse metabolic control in women and worse blood pressure in men suggest that pathophysiologic differences rather than the care provided might explain these differences. PMID:27695110

  17. Quality of care in patients with atrial fibrillation in primary care: a cross-sectional study comparing clinical and claims data

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Rebekka; Chenot, Jean-François; Angelow, Aniela

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia with increased risk of thromboembolic stroke. Oral anticoagulation (OAC) reduces stroke risk by up to 68%. The aim of our study was to evaluate quality of care in patients with AF in a primary health care setting with a focus on physician guideline adherence for OAC prescription and heart rate- and rhythm management. In a second step we aimed to compare OAC rates based on primary care data with rates based on claims data. Methods: We included all GP practices in the region Vorpommern-Greifswald, Germany, which were willing to participate (N=29/182, response rate 16%). Claims data was derived from the regional association of statutory health insurance physicians. Patients with a documented AF diagnosis (ICD-10-GM-Code ICD I48.-) from 07/2011–06/2012 were identified using electronic medical records (EMR) and claims data. Stroke and bleeding risk were calculated using the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores. We calculated crude treatment rates for OAC, rate and rhythm control medications and adjusted OAC treatment rates based on practice and claims data. Adjusted rates were calculated including the CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores and individual factors affecting guideline based treatment. Results: We identified 927 patients based on EMR and 1,247 patients based on claims data. The crude total OAC treatment rate was 69% based on EMR and 61% based on claims data. The adjusted OAC treatment rates were 90% for patients based on EMR and 63% based on claims data. 82% of the AF patients received a treatment for rate control and 12% a treatment for rhythm control. The most common reasons for non-prescription of OAC were an increased risk of falling, dementia and increased bleeding risk. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high rate of AF patients receive a drug therapy according to guidelines. There is a large difference between crude and adjusted OAC treatment rates. This is due to individual

  18. Quality of prescribing of antipsychotic medication for people with intellectual disability under the care of UK mental health services: a cross-sectional audit of clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Carol; Bhatti, Sumera; Purandare, Kiran; Roy, Ashok; Barnes, TRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and quality of antipsychotic prescribing for people with intellectual disability (ID). Design A clinical audit of prescribing practice in the context of a quality improvement programme. Practice standards for audit were derived from relevant, evidence-based guidelines, including NICE. Data were mainly collected from the clinical records, but to determine the clinical rationale for using antipsychotic medication in individual cases, prescribers could also be directly questioned. Settings 54 mental health services in the UK, which were predominantly NHS Trusts. Participants Information on prescribing was collected for 5654 people with ID. Results Almost two-thirds (64%) of the total sample was prescribed antipsychotic medication, of whom almost half (49%) had a schizophrenia spectrum or affective disorder diagnosis, while a further third (36%) exhibited behaviours recognised by NICE as potentially legitimate targets for such treatment such as violence, aggression or self-injury. With respect to screening for potential side effects within the past year, 41% had a documented measure of body weight (range across participating services 18–100%), 32% blood pressure (0–100%) and 37% blood glucose and blood lipids (0–100%). Conclusions These data from mental health services across the UK suggest that antipsychotic medications are not widely used outside of licensed and/or evidence-based indications in people with ID. However, screening for side effects in those patients on continuing antipsychotic medication was inconsistent across the participating services and the possibility that a small number of these services failed to meet basic standards of care cannot be excluded. PMID:27920085

  19. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  20. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  1. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  2. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  3. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  4. Evaluating housing quality, health and safety using an Internet-based data collection and response system: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Typically housing and health surveys are not integrated together and therefore are not representative of population health or national housing stocks. In addition, the existing channels for distributing information about housing and health issues to the general public are limited. The aim of this study was to develop a data collection and response system that would allow us to assess the Finnish housing stock from the points of view of quality, health and safety, and also to provide a tool to distribute information about important housing health and safety issues. Methods The data collection and response system was tested with a sample of 3000 adults (one per household), who were randomly selected from the Finnish Population Register Centre. Spatial information about the exact location of the residences (i.e. coordinates) was included in the database inquiry. People could participate either by completing and returning a paper questionnaire or by completing the same questionnaire via the Internet. The respondents did not receive any compensation for their time in completing the questionnaire. Results This article describes the data collection and response system and presents the main results of the population-based testing of the system. A total of 1312 people (response rate 44%) answered the questionnaire, though only 80 answered via the Internet. A third of the respondents had indicated they wanted feedback. Albeit a majority (>90%) of the respondents reported being satisfied or quite satisfied with their residence, there were a number of prevalent housing issues identified that can be related to health and safety. Conclusions The collected database can be used to evaluate the quality of the housing stock in terms of occupant health and safety, and to model its association with occupant health and well-being. However, it must be noted that all the health outcomes gathered in this study are self-reported. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate whether

  5. Evaluation of the Health-related Quality of Life of Children in Schistosoma haematobium-endemic Communities in Kenya: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Terer, Carolyn C.; Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Magtanong, Ruth V.; Muhoho, Ng'ethe; Mungai, Peter L.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.; Mutuku, Francis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis remains a global public health challenge, with 93% of the ∼237 million infections occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. Though rarely fatal, its recurring nature makes it a lifetime disorder with significant chronic health burdens. Much of its negative health impact is due to non-specific conditions such as anemia, undernutrition, pain, exercise intolerance, poor school performance, and decreased work capacity. This makes it difficult to estimate the disease burden specific to schistosomiasis using the standard DALY metric. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, we used Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), a modular instrument available for ages 2–18 years, to assess health-related quality of life (HrQoL) among children living in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area in coastal Kenya. The PedsQL questionnaires were administered by interview to children aged 5–18 years (and their parents) in five villages spread across three districts. HrQoL (total score) was significantly lower in villages with high prevalence of S. haematobium (−4.0%, p<0.001) and among the lower socioeconomic quartiles (−2.0%, p<0.05). A greater effect was seen in the psychosocial scales as compared to the physical function scale. In moderate prevalence villages, detection of any parasite eggs in the urine was associated with a significant 2.1% (p<0.05) reduction in total score. The PedsQL reliabilities were generally high (Cronbach alphas ≥0.70), floor effects were acceptable, and identification of children from low socioeconomic standing was valid. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that exposure to urogenital schistosomiasis is associated with a 2–4% reduction in HrQoL. Further research is warranted to determine the reproducibility and responsiveness properties of QoL testing in relation to schistosomiasis. We anticipate that a case definition based on more sensitive parasitological diagnosis among younger children will better define the

  6. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  7. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  8. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  9. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  10. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  11. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  12. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaona; Chen, Gang; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS) scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS) scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF) domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP)). After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers’ physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors. PMID:27916919

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life and Associated Factors of Frontline Railway Workers: A Cross-Sectional Survey in the Ankang Area, Shaanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Chen, Gang; Xu, Feng; Zhou, Kaina; Zhuang, Guihua

    2016-11-30

    After validation of the widely used health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generic measure, the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), we investigated the HRQOL and associated factors of frontline railway workers in China. Ground workers, conductors, and train drivers were selected from Ankang Precinct by using a stratified cluster sampling technique. A total of 784 frontline railway workers participated in the survey. The reliability and validity of SF-36v2 was satisfactory. The physical component summary (PCS) scores of three subgroups attained the average range for the USA general population, whereas the mental component summary (MCS) scores were well below the range. Most domains scored below the norm, except for the physical functioning (PF) domain. Among three subgroups, train drivers reported significantly lower scores on MCS and six health domains (excluding PF and bodily pain (BP)). After controlled confounders, conductors had significantly higher PCS and MCS scores than ground workers. There is heterogeneity on risk factors among three subgroups, but having long or irregular working schedules was negatively associated with HRQOL in all subgroups. SF-36v2 is a reliable and valid HRQOL measurement in railway workers in China. The frontline railway workers' physical health was comparative to American norms, whilst mental health was relatively worse. Long or irregular working schedules were the most important factors.

  15. Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Špalj, Stjepan; Perić, Davorka; Mlacović Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plančak, Darije

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N = 54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N = 205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N = 143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P = 0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P < 0.050) but accounted for low variability. None of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL. PMID:23100208

  16. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  17. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  18. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  19. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  20. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  1. Health-related quality of life and mental health in the medium-term aftermath of the Prestige oil spill in Galiza (Spain): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, José Miguel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; García-Mendizábal, Maria José; Lope, Virginia; Aragonés, Nuria; Forjaz, Maria João; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Pollán, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2002 the oil-tanker Prestige sank off the Galician coast. This study analyzes the effect of this accident on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental health in the affected population. Methods Using random sampling stratified by age and sex, 2700 residents were selected from 7 coastal and 7 inland Galician towns. Two exposure criteria were considered: a) residential exposure, i.e., coast versus interior; and b) individual exposure-unaffected, slightly affected, or seriously affected-according to degree of personal affectation. SF-36, GHQ-28, HADS and GADS questionnaires were used to assess HRQoL and mental health. Association of exposure with suboptimal scores was summarized using adjusted odds ratios (OR) obtained from logistic regression. Results For residential exposure, the SF-36 showed coastal residents as having a lower likelihood of registering suboptimal HRQoL values in physical functioning (OR:0.69; 95%CI:0.54–0.89) and bodily pain (OR:0.74; 95%CI:0.62–0.91), and a higher frequency of suboptimal scores in mental health (OR:1.28; 95%CI:1.02–1.58). None of the dimensions of the other questionnaires displayed statistically significant differences. For individual exposure, no substantial differences were observed, though the SF-36 physical functioning dimension rose (showed better scores) with level of exposure (91.51 unaffected, 93.86 slightly affected, 95.28 seriously affected, p < 0.001). Conclusion Almost one and a half years after the accident, worse HRQoL and mental health levels were not in evidence among subjects exposed to the oil-spill. Nevertheless, some of the scales suggest the possibility of slight impact on the mental health of residents in the affected areas. PMID:17875207

  2. Associations between general self-efficacy and health-related quality of life among 12-13-year-old school children: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Haraldstad, Kristin; Helseth, Sølvi; Sørum, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background While research on school children's health has mainly focused on risk factors and illness, few studies have examined aspects of health promotion. Thus, this study focuses on health promotional factors including general self-efficacy (GSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). GSE refers to a global confidence in coping ability across a wide range of demanding situations, and is related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between GSE and HRQOL, and associations between HRQOL and socio-demographic characteristics. Knowledge of these associations in healthy school children is currently lacking. Methods During 2006 and 2007, 279 school children in the seventh grade across eastern Norway completed a survey assessing their GSE and HRQOL. The children were from schools that had been randomly selected using cluster sampling. T-tests were computed to compare mean subscale values between HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Single and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore associations among GSE, HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Results Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between increasing degrees of GSE and increasing degrees of HRQOL. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, boys scored higher than girls on self-esteem. School children from single-parent families had lower scores on HRQOL than those from two-parent families, and children who had relocated within the last five years had lower scores on HRQOL than those who had not relocated. Conclusion The strong relationship between GSE and HRQOL indicates that GSE might be a resource for increasing the HRQOL for school children. PMID:19772673

  3. Illness and determinants of health-related quality of life in a cross-sectional sample of schoolchildren in different weight categories

    PubMed Central

    Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Schreiber, Anja; Kobel, Susanne; Wartha, Olivia; Kesztyüs, Tibor; Kilian, Reinhold; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study associations between health-related quality of life (HRQoL), frequency of illness, and weight in primary school children in southern Germany. Methods: Data from baseline measurements of the outcome evaluation of a teacher based health promotion programme (“Join the Healthy Boat”) were analysed. Parents provided information about their children’s HRQoL (KINDLR, EQ5D-Y Visual Analogue Scale). The number of visits to a physician, children’s days of absence because of sickness, and parental days of absence from work due to their children’s illness during the last year of school/kindergarten were queried. Children’s weight status was determined by body mass index (BMI), central obesity by waist to height ratio (WHtR ≥0.5). Results: From 1,888 children (7.1±0.6 years), 7.8% were underweight, 82% had normal weight, 5.7% were overweight and 4.4% obese. 8.4% of all children were centrally obese. Bivariate analysis showed no significant differences for parental absence and visits to a physician in weight groups classified by BMI, but obese children had more sick days than non-obese. Centrally obese children differed significantly from the rest in the number of sick days and visits to a physician, but not in the frequency of parental absence. In regression analyses, central obesity correlated significantly with EQ5D-Y VAS, KINDLR total score and the subscales of “psyche”, “family” and “friends”. BMI weight groups showed no significant associations. Conclusions: Central obesity but not BMI derived overweight and obesity is associated with HRQoL and visits to a physician in primary school children. Future studies should include WHtR. Preventive measures for children should focus on a reduction of or slowed increase in waist circumference. PMID:24574940

  4. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  5. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  6. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  7. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  8. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoblit, S.; Cho, Y.-S.; Herman, M.; Mattoon, C. M.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Obložinský, P.; Pigni, M. T.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10 eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also 23Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at ORNL, modified by us by adding MF33 covariances to account for systematic uncertainties. In the fast neutron region we resorted to three methods. The most sophisticated was EMPIRE-KALMAN method which combines experimental data from EXFOR library with nuclear reaction modeling and least-squares fitting. The two other methods used simplified estimates, either based on the propagation of nuclear reaction model parameter uncertainties or on a dispersion analysis of central cross section values in recent evaluated data files. All covariances were subject to quality assurance procedures adopted recently by CSEWG. In addition, tools were developed to allow inspection of processed covariances and computed integral quantities, and for comparing these values to data from the Atlas and the astrophysics database KADoNiS.

  9. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  10. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  11. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  12. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  13. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  14. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  15. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  16. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  17. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  18. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  19. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  20. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  1. Antinucleus-Nucleus Cross Sections Implemented in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Galoyan, A.; Folger, G.; Grichine, V.M.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    Cross sections of antinucleus ({bar p}, {bar d}, {bar t}, {sup 3}{ovr He}, {sup 4}{ovr He}) interactions with nuclei in the energy range 100 MeV/c to 1000 GeV/c per antinucleon are calculated in the Glauber approximation which provides good description of all known {bar p}Across sections. The results were obtained using a new parameterization of the total and elastic {bar p}p cross sections. Simple parameterizations of the antinucleus-nucleus cross sections are proposed for use in estimating the efficiency of antinucleus detection and tracking in cosmic rays and accelerator experiments. These parameterizations are implemented in the Geant4 toolkit.

  2. Manpower Planning Models. 2. Cross Sectional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    to investigate various retirement policies. Concepts developed in section 9 are used, and an early retirement scheme is investigated as an...flows between the 15 classes of faculty. We call this CL.. Table II.7 gives the fractional flows after an early retirement scheme has been...one used before early retirement , a is the one used after early retirement , and a. is the case where all appointments are made into non-tenure

  3. Radar cross-section estimation of SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Ian; White, Richard G.; Oliver, Christopher J.; Cook, Rod

    1995-11-01

    We present an algorithm that is able to smooth out the speckle from many SAR images and which does not suffer from the drawbacks of multilooking. The algorithm is able to preserve the detail and resolution of the original image while producing a smooth, real-valued output. In many cases the quality of the smoothed image is sufficiently high that it may be used with standard optical post-processing algorithms. We use a global optimization method (simulated annealing) and single point gamma statistics to find the MAP solution for the radar cross- section. However, this method may also be regarded as an ideal adaptive filter that is both computationally efficient and highly parallelizable. Results are presented for airborne, ERS-1 and multi-temporal SAR images.

  4. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  5. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  6. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  7. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  8. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  9. Disease Severity, Quality of Life, and Psychiatric Morbidity in Patients With Psoriasis With Reference to Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Clinical Variables: A Prospective, Cross-Sectional Study From Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Abdul Rahman; Bokhari, Syed Muhammad Azam; Rasheed, Tariq; Shahzad, Atif; Hanif, Muhammad; Qadeer, Faisal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, chronic disease with a genetic background that involves skin, nails, and joints. The incidence of psoriasis varies from 2.0% to 4.0% depending on the geographical location, ethnic background, and environmental conditions. Recent research has proved that psoriasis is a systemic inflammatory disease with extensive systemic implications. Objectives of the study were to explore the severity of psoriasis, dermatology-related quality of life, and psychiatric health of the patients with reference to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical characteristics. Method: Consecutive patients with psoriasis (ICD-10 criteria) from skin outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan, between November 1, 2012, and December 31, 2012, were assessed in this prospective cross-sectional study. The final sample includes 87 patients who were evaluated for severity of psoriasis (Psoriasis Area Severity Index [PASI]), dermatology-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI]), and psychiatric morbidity (12-item General Health Questionnaire [GHQ-12]) and were assessed on 23 sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical variables. Results: Of the 23 variables, the PASI was significantly associated with education and habit of drinking alcohol (P < .05), the DLQI was significantly associated with disturbed eating (P < .05), and the GHQ-12 score was significantly associated with hair disease (P < .05), current income (P < .05), and disturbed eating and sleeping (P < .01). The PASI, DLQI, and GHQ-12 were not usually affected by sociodemographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors, except for some variables such as education of the patient, alcohol intake, eating and sleeping disturbance, and income status. A statistically significant correlation (P < .01) was found between all 3 scores (ie, PASI, DLQI, and GHQ-12). The correlation coefficients of the PASI with the DLQI and GHQ-12 are 0.345 and 0.460, respectively, and

  10. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  11. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  12. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  13. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  14. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  15. Section B, general view of steel cross with new World ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B, general view of steel cross with new World Trade Center 7 in background, looking northwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  16. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  17. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  18. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  19. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  20. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  1. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  2. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  3. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  5. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  6. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  7. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  10. Automating the Modeling of the SEE Cross Section's Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that automates the application of the alpha law in any SEE analysis is presented. This automation is essential for the widespread acceptance of the sophisticated cross section angular dependence model.

  11. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  12. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  13. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  14. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  15. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  16. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  17. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  18. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  19. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  20. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  1. Physical activity and screen-based media use: cross-sectional associations with health-related quality of life and the role of body satisfaction in a representative sample of German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Finne, Emily; Bucksch, Jens; Lampert, Thomas; Kolip, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although it is widely accepted that physical activity (PA) positively, and screen-based media use (SBM) negatively, affects well-being, there is a lack of studies relating PA and SBM to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents. We examined these associations in German adolescents for different HRQoL subdomains and explored the role of body satisfaction as a possible mediator. Methods: The 11-17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (2003-2006) was analysed (N = 6813; 51.3% male). Cross-sectional associations of self-reported PA frequency and amount of daily SBM with HRQoL subscale scores (according to KINDL-R) were examined by hierarchical linear regression models, adjusting for the clustering of the sample and for a variety of possible confounders. The size and significance of indirect effects via body (dis)satisfaction (BDS) were examined by mediation analyses. Results: Higher PA frequency was significantly associated with higher HRQoL on nearly all subscales and dose-response-relationships were observable. Variations were greatest in terms of social well-being in boys (effect size d = 0.59) and physical well-being in girls (d = 0.43). Higher SBM was related to lower HRQoL on all subscales in girls and on some subscales in boys, with the largest effects for school functioning in both genders (d = 0.31 and 0.37, respectively). The mediated effects for PA and SBM were significant in both genders, but the sizes and the proportions of total effects mediated by body satisfaction were rather small. Conclusions: Higher PA frequency was associated with higher self-reported HRQoL, and higher SBM was associated with lower self-reported HRQoL in both genders, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. The results support the assumption of independent health impacts of both behaviours, although no causal relationship can be confirmed with these cross-sectional data. Mechanisms other than body satisfaction must

  2. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  3. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  4. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  5. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  6. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  7. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  8. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  9. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  12. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  13. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  14. A nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey of health-related quality of life in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms in Denmark (MPNhealthSurvey): survey design and characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents

    PubMed Central

    Brochmann, Nana; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Christensen, Anne Illemann; Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Juel, Knud; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Department of Hematology, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark, and the National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, created the first nationwide, population-based, and the most comprehensive cross-sectional health-related quality of life (HRQoL) survey of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In Denmark, all MPN patients are treated in public hospitals and treatments received are free of charge for these patients. Therefore, MPN patients receive the best available treatment to the extent of its suitability for them and if they wish to receive the treatment. The aims of this article are to describe the survey design and the characteristics of respondents and nonrespondents. Material and methods Individuals with MPN diagnoses registered in the Danish National Patient Register (NPR) were invited to participate. The registers of the Danish Civil Registration System and Statistics Denmark provided information regarding demographics. The survey contained 120 questions: validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires and additional questions addressing lifestyle. Results A total of 4,704 individuals were registered with MPN diagnoses in the NPR of whom 4,236 were eligible for participation and 2,613 (62%) responded. Overall, the respondents covered the broad spectrum of MPN patients, but patients 70–79 years old, living with someone, of a Danish/Western ethnicity, and with a higher level of education exhibited the highest response rate. Conclusion A nationwide, population-based, and comprehensive HRQoL survey of MPN patients in Denmark was undertaken (MPNhealthSurvey). We believe that the respondents broadly represent the MPN population in Denmark. However, the differences between respondents and nonrespondents have to be taken into consideration when examining PROs from the respondents. The results of the investigation of the respondents’ HRQoL in this survey will follow in future articles. PMID:28280390

  15. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  16. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  17. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  18. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  19. Improved empirical parameterization for projectile fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.

    2017-03-01

    A new empirical parametrization is developed for calculating the fragment cross sections in projectile fragmentation reactions at high energies (>100 MeV/nucleon). The new parametrization, FRACS, consists of two main parts, i.e., the mass yield and the isobaric distribution, on the basis of previous parametrizations. The formalism for the mass yield is improved to describe the target and the projectile energy dependences observed in measured fragmentation cross sections. The parametrization of the isobaric distribution is also modified to reproduce recent experimental data. Furthermore, an additional term is proposed and first implemented in the FRACS parametrization to account for the evident odd-even staggering effect observed in many experimental cross sections. Comparisons with extensive cross sections measured in various fragmentation reactions reveal that FRACS is in much better agreement with experimental data and can reproduce measured cross sections in most cases within a factor of 1.84, which is a much smaller rms deviation as compared to that of the recent parametrization EPAX3.

  20. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  1. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  2. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  3. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

  4. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  5. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  6. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections III - light systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-09-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model [R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 117 (1996) 347; R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 129 (1997) 11] is extended for light systems ( A ⩽ 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is light particle and the other is medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium and heavy systems. As a result the extended model can reliably be used in all studies where there is a need for absorption cross sections.

  7. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  8. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  9. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  10. New Resonance Parameter Evaluation of Cl Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    2005-05-24

    Better measurements and evaluations are needed for many elements where the existing evaluations or the underlying nuclear cross-section data are not sufficiently accurate for reliable calculation of criticality safety margins. Deficiencies in the existing ENDF/B-VI data evaluation for Cl led to our resonance parameter evaluation of Cl neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Our evaluation takes advantage of recent high-resolution capture and transmission measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as well as older total cross-section measurements at Karlsruhe (KFK) to extend the resolved resonance energy range to 1.2 MeV with much more accurate representation of the data than previous evaluations.

  11. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  12. Absorption Cross-Sections of Sodium Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  13. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  14. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  15. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  16. Neutron Capture Cross Section Calculations with the Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Mary; Uberseder, Ethan; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Hauser-Feshbach (HF) cross sections are of enormous importance for a wide range of applications, from waste transmutation and nuclear technologies, to medical applications, and nuclear astrophysics. It is a well observed result that different nuclear input models sensitively affect HF cross section calculations. Less well-known however are the effects on calculations originating from model-specific implementation details (such as level density parameter, matching energy, backshift and giant dipole parameters), as well as effects from non-model aspects, such as experimental data truncation and transmission function energy binning. To investigate the effects or these various aspects, Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections have been calculated for approximately 340 nuclei. The relative effects of these model details will be discussed.

  17. Cross-sectional geometry of the dentary in bats.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Nicolay, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    Bats exhibit remarkable diversity in dietary habits, with species specializing on insects, fruit, nectar, vertebrates and blood. Studies of larger mammals have shown that structural differences in dentary cross-sectional properties exist among species with different diets. Unfortunately, few of these studies have considered the role of phylogeny in shaping these apparent form-function associations. Here we ask whether a relationship exists between diet and dentary structure in bats when phylogenetic history is factored into the analysis. To answer this question, we compared results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and traditional (nonphylogenetic) regression analyses of dentary cross-sectional shape in frugivorous, nectarivorous, and insectivorous bats (253 individuals representing 72 species). Cross-sectional moments of inertia of the dentary between M(1) and M(2) were computed from bone densitometry scans of skeletal specimens. Traditional regressions of cross-sectional parameters against dentary length detected significant departures from isometry among frugivores. In contrast, PGLS analyses indicated that cross-sectional variables for each dietary group scaled with isometry. Thus, the allometric patterns illuminated by traditional statistics are linked to the phylogenetic structure of the sample. Identical patterns of significant differences in slopes and intercepts between frugivores and nectarivores emerged from both traditional and PGLS analyses. As predicted, the cross-sectional shape of the dentary in frugivores is consistent with increased resistance to torsion and bending, while that of nectarivores suggested a less resistant dentary. Although traditional and PGLS analyses yielded some similar results, the phylogenetic structure of a sample can drive apparent patterns of scaling and should be considered in comparative functional analyses.

  18. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns<σ> ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns<σ> systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

  19. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugohara, R. T.; Homem, M. G. P.; Iga, I.; de Souza, G. L. C.; Machado, L. E.; Ferraz, J. R.; dos Santos, A. S.; Brescansin, L. M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Lee, M. T.

    2013-08-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e--DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using the relative flow technique. Theoretically, elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections, as well as the grand-total and total absorption cross sections for electron collision with DME are calculated in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A single-center-expansion technique combined with the Padé approximant method is used in our calculations. A comparison between the present experimental and theoretical data shows very good agreement. Moreover, comparison with theoretical and experimental data for e--ethanol (an isomer of DME) scattering shows interesting isomeric effects.

  20. The solar neutrino capture cross section for 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    1981-09-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate for the reaction 81Br + νe --> 81Kr + e- is calculated for the standard solar and weak interaction models. The results show that the capture cross section is dominated by the lowest Gamow-Teller transition to the metastable 1/2- (0.190 MeV) state in 81Kr. As the inverse electron capture rate for this transition has been measured recently, one can then argue that the cross section is well determined experimentally. Thus uncertainties in nuclear physics should not be an obstacle to the recently proposed 81Br radiochemical measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux. Present address.

  1. Charge Influence on Mini Black Hole's Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraça, R. S.; Malheiro, M.

    In this work we study the electric charge effect on the cross section production of charged mini black holes (MBH) in accelerators. We analyze the charged MBH solution using the fat brane approximation in the context of the ADD model. The maximum charge-mass ratio condition for the existence of a horizon radius is discussed. We show that the electric charge causes a decrease in this radius and, consequently, in the cross section. This reduction is negligible for protons and light-ions but can be important for heavy-ions.

  2. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    DOE PAGES

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  3. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  4. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  5. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  6. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  7. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  8. Cross section expansion for direct neutron radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.

    2004-07-01

    Cross sections for neutron radiative capture multiplied by the relative velocity can be expressed as a Taylor expansion in powers of the relative energy. The coefficients of this expansion are expressed in the potential model as integrals involving solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation and of its inhomogeneous energy derivatives calculated at zero energy. Similarities and differences with charged-particle capture are emphasized. The {sup 12}C(n,{gamma}){sup 13}C capture reaction is treated as an example. The coefficients of the Taylor expansion lead to simple parametrizations of the experimental partial cross sections for neutron capture to each {sup 13}C bound state.

  9. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  10. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1995-02-05

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos we have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. We give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  11. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1994-09-01

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos the authors have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. They give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  12. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  13. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  14. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  15. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  16. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  17. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  18. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  19. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  20. 42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (NashVille, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  1. 35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  2. 34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION B, BUILDINGS NO. E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  3. 29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  4. 30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Dos Santos, G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    In support of the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program established in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range from 0.36 eV to several hundred keV have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Also total and capture cross sections of Al, Cl, and K in the energy range from about 100 eV to several hundred keV have been measured or are under way. The goal is to derive accurate cross section representations for the materials involved in criticality calculations of fuel storage, transportation, etc., configurations. Additional high-resolution measurements of the total cross sections of {sup 233}U below a few keV neutron energy are being planned for 1998, as well as for the other involved material. Evaluated data files in ENDF-6 format will be processed into formats for use in criticality analysis and utilized in benchmark data testing. Finally the data will be submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B.

  6. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  7. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  8. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  9. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

    2006-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 175}Lu and {sup 176}Lu have been measured in the energy range 3-225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of {approx}1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by {approx}7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A 175/176.

  11. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  12. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Charles; Dejoseph, Charles; Garscadden, Alan

    2001-10-01

    The ionization and dissociation of hydrocarbon fuels with various plasma excitation schemes including pulsed high E/n discharges have been proposed to alleviate the problem of ignition in supersonic flow combustors and operations at high altitudes. The fuel which is also used for cooling, must not pyrolyse at operational temperatures. We have examined the electron ionization collision processes in n-decane using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry that permits measurements of the 24 ions with cross sections larger than 10-19cm2. These generally fall into two broad categories: those with five or more carbon atoms whose ionization cross sections rise rapidly and essentially saturate within twice the appearance potential and those with four carbon atoms and less whose cross sections rise more gradually and are only saturating at energies above 70 eV. The total ionization cross section is large, rising to 7x10-16cm2. Studies were made with deuterated samples to distinguish the potential mechanisms in fragment ion induced dissociation of the parent gas. The results are compared with similar data for octane.

  13. Pion Charge Exchange Cross Section on Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; LArIAT (FNAL T-1034) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations allows charge parity violation to be probed in the neutrino sector. Detectors with high calorimetric energy resolution and high spatial resolution will provide precise measurements of neutrino oscillations. By measuring small π+/- cross sections for individual interaction channels, specifically charge exchange, we will make a measurement in the first of its kind on liquid Argon and demonstrate the physics capabilities of a relatively new detector technology: the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC). This analysis will report on the thin slab cross section measurement technique and the Monte Carlo cross section measurements in the energy range of 0.2 - 1.0 GeV. This analysis is the first iteration in classifying charge exchange events from a sample of incident pions, and it aims to identify events in which a π0 was produced without any charged pions leaving the interaction vertex. We will also report on the methodology and efficiency of this algorithm in identifying particles and their interactions in liquid argon. This analysis will inform a future measurement of the π+/- charge exchange cross section on liquid argon. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1359364.

  14. The Inclusive Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section Measured in NOMAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godley, Andrew; Wu, Qun; Mishra, Sanjib

    2007-04-01

    The inclusive charged current cross section of muon neutrino interactions is measured as a function of energy using the NOMAD data. The significance of this measurement is its precision below 30 GeV, a region not previously well covered and of importance to current and proposed neutrino experiments. The procedure and results of the measurement will be presented.

  15. Radar cross sections of standard and complex shape targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohel, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical, analytical, and experimental results are described for radar cross sections (RCS) of different-shaped targets. Various techniques for predicting RCS are given, and RCS of finite standard targets are presented. Techniques used to predict the RCS of complex targets are made, and the RCS complex shapes are provided.

  16. e+e- → charm cross sections via ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhlova, Galina

    2010-06-01

    We discuss recent measurements of exclusive e+e- cross sections for charmed hadron final states near threshold performed by Belle and BABAR. The results are based on a study of events with initial-state-radiation photons in a large data sample collected with the Belle and BABAR detectors at the γ(4S) resonance and nearby continuum.

  17. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  18. Theory in evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections.

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross-sections. They consider especially the target {sup 235}U as an example. They emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross-section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross-section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross-section. They compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for {sup 235}U.

  19. Cross sections for low-energy inelastic H + Na collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. K.; Barklem, P. S.; Dickinson, A. S.; Gadea, F. X.

    2010-03-15

    Full quantum-scattering calculations are reported for low-energy near-threshold inelastic collision cross sections for H+Na. The calculations include transitions between all levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production) for collision energies from the threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. Results for the 3s-3p excitation are carefully examined using three different quantum chemistry input data sets, and large differences are found near the threshold. The differences are found to be predominantly due to differences in the radial coupling rather than potentials and are also found not to relate to differences in couplings in a simple manner. In fact, of the three input couplings, the two that are most similar give the cross sections with the largest differences. The 3s-3p cross sections show orbiting resonances which have been seen in earlier studies, while Feshbach resonances associated with closed channels were also found to be present in the low-energy cross sections for some transitions.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  1. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  2. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  3. Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengqun; Gao Lei; Li Kuohu; Song Yueli; Zhang Fang; Kong Xiangzhong; Luo Junhua

    2009-11-15

    We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions {sup 122}Te(n,2n){sup 121}Te{sup g} and {sup 128}Te(n,2n){sup 127}Te{sup g}, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by {gamma} detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m+g} and {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reactions.

  4. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  5. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.

  6. 18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Cross section of Mormon Flat Dam completed. Structure on parapet contains the operating mechanisms for the penstock gates. Power house is not yet under construction. Photographer unknown, 1926. Source: Salt River Project. - Mormon Flat Dam, On Salt River, Eastern Maricopa County, east of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  7. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  8. Experimental absolute cross section for photoionization of Xe^7+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2010-03-01

    Collision processes with highly charged xenon ions are of interest for UV-radiation generation in plasma discharges, for fusion research and for space craft propulsion. Here we report results for the photoionization of Xe^7+ ionsootnotetextS. Schippers et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (in print) which were measured at the photon-ion end station of ALS beamline 10.0.1. As compared with the only previous experimental studyootnotetextJ. M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000) of this reaction, the present cross sections were obtained at higher energy resolution (50--80 meV vs. 200--500 meV) and on an absolute cross section scale. In the experimental photon energy range of 95--145 eV the cross section is dominated by resonances associated with 4d->5f excitation and subsequent autoionization. The most prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the 4d^9,s,f, resonance at 121.14±0.02 eV which reaches a peak cross section of 1.2 Gb at 50 meV photon energy spread. The experimental resonance strength of 160 Mb eV (corresponding to an absorption oscillator strength of 1.46) is in fair agreement with the theoretical result^2.

  9. Evaluation of the neutron cross sections for Pu-240

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, L.W.; Arthur, E.D.

    1987-04-01

    The present evaluation is proposed to supersede the ENDF/B-V, Revision 2 file for /sup 240/Pu. In this work, resonance parameters, cross sections, energy distributions, and angular distributions have been modified. These changes are outlined in detail and appropriate references included. 37 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Cross section of newly completed concrete channel and trestle supported steel flume, 1919. Courtesy of the Mandeville Department of Special Collections, Central Library, University of California, San Diego. - Lake Hodges Flume, Along San Dieguito River between Lake Hodges & San Dieguito Reservoir, Rancho Santa Fe, San Diego County, CA

  11. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  12. The health-related quality of life among pre-diabetics and its association with body mass index and physical activity in a semi-urban community in Malaysia- a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with pre-diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Measurements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among pre-diabetics enable the health care providers to understand their overall health status and planning of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes. Therefore we aimed to determine the HRQOL and physical activity level; and its association with Body Mass Index (BMI) among pre-diabetics. Methods This was a cross sectional study carried out in two primary care clinics in a semi-urban locality of Ampangan, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires assessing the demographic characteristics, medical history, lifestyle and physical activity. The Short Form 36-items health survey was used to measure HRQOL among the pre-diabetics. Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS version 19. Results A total of 268 eligible pre-diabetics participated in this study. The prevalence of normal weight, overweight and obesity were 7.1%, 21.6% and 71.3% respectively. Their mean (SD) age was 52.5 (8.3) years and 64.2% were females. Among the obese pre-diabetics, 42.2% had both IFG and IGT, 47.0% had isolated IFG and 10.8% had isolated IGT, 36.2% had combination of hypertension, dyslipidemia and musculoskeletal diseases. More than 53.4% of the obese pre-diabetics had family history of diabetes, 15.7% were smokers and 60.8% were physically inactive with mean PA of < 600 MET-minutes/week. After adjusted for co-variants, Physical Component Summary (PCS) was significantly associated with BMI categories [F (2,262) = 11.73, p < 0.001] where pre-diabetics with normal weight and overweight had significantly higher PCS than those obese; normal vs obese [Mdiff = 9.84, p = 0.006, 95% CIdiff = 2.28, 17.40] and between overweight vs obese [Mdiff = 8.14, p < 0.001, 95% CIdiff = 3.46, 12.80]. Conclusion Pre-diabetics who were of normal weight reported higher HRQOL compared to those

  13. Effect of investigation intensity and treatment differences on prostate cancer survivor's physical symptoms, psychological well-being and health-related quality of life: a two country cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gavin, Anna T; Donnelly, David; Donnelly, Conan; Drummond, Frances J; Morgan, Eileen; Gormley, Gerard J; Sharp, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate effects on men's health and well-being of higher prostate cancer (PCa) investigation and treatment levels in similar populations. Participants PCa survivors in Ireland where the Republic of Ireland (RoI) has a 50% higher PCa incidence than Northern Ireland (NI). Method A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was sent to PCa survivors 2–18 years post-treatment, seeking information about current physical effects of treatment, health-related quality of life (HRQoL; EORTC QLQ-C30; EQ-5D-5L) and psychological well-being (21 question version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, DASS-21). Outcomes in RoI and NI survivors were compared, stratifying into ‘late disease’ (stage III/IV and any Gleason grade (GG) at diagnosis) and ‘early disease’ (stage I/II and GG 2–7). Responses were weighted by age, jurisdiction and time since diagnosis. Between-country differences were investigated using multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results 3348 men responded (RoI n=2567; NI n=781; reflecting population sizes, response rate 54%). RoI responders were younger; less often had comorbidities (45% vs 38%); were more likely to present asymptomatically (66%; 41%) or with early disease (56%; 35%); and less often currently used androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; 2%; 28%). Current prevalence of incontinence (16%) and impotence (56% early disease, 67% late disease) did not differ between RoI and NI. In early disease, only current bowel problems (RoI 12%; NI 21%) differed significantly in multivariate analysis. In late disease, NI men reported significantly higher levels of gynaecomastia (23% vs 9%) and hot flashes(41% vs 19%), but when ADT users were analysed separately, differences disappeared. For HRQoL, in multivariate analysis, only pain (early disease: RoI 11.1, NI 19.4) and financial difficulties (late disease: RoI 10.4, NI 7.9) differed significantly between countries. There were no significant between-country differences in DASS-21 or

  14. Assessment and comparison of clinical dental status and its impact on oral health-related quality of life among rural and urban adults of Udaipur, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sanadhya, Sudhanshu; Aapaliya, Pankaj; Jain, Sorabh; Sharma, Nidhi; Choudhary, Garima; Dobaria, Nirali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dental diseases negatively influence people's oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and thus their perceived need for dental care. QoL is increasingly acknowledged as a valid, appropriate and significant indicator of service need and intervention outcomes in contemporary public health research and practice. Objectives: (1) To assess the psychometric properties of oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14) scale among rural and urban OHIP of Udaipur population. (2) To assess and compare clinical dental status (dental caries, periodontal disease and prosthetic status) and its impacts on OHRQoL rural and urban population of Udaipur. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among rural (600) and urban (600) population of Udaipur that have age ranges between 20 and 79 years, chosen from outpatient department of Pacific Dental College and Hospital. The OHIP-14 was tested for validity and reliability. Chi-square, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was found to be 0.85 among the rural population and 0.89 among the urban population. Prevalence of periodontal disease (community periodontal index and loss of attachment) was found greater among the rural population than the urban population. Urban population showed significantly greater proportion of subjects with prosthesis (including partial, fixed and total) as compared to the rural population. Among study population, OHIP-14 was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) associated with age, gender, presence of decayed teeth (DT), missing teeth (MT), and location. Significantly greater odds ratio (OR) (OHIP-14) were revealed among males (OR = 1.35, P = 0.02), urban residents (OR = 1.13, P = 0.002), those < 45 years of age (OR = 1.23, P = 0.01), those without DT (OR = 1.48, P = 0.002) and without MT (OR = 1.08, P = 0.03). Conclusion: The rural and urban study

  15. Thermal neutron capture cross sections of the potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Krtička, M.; Révay, Zs.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Belgya, T.

    2013-02-01

    Precise thermal neutron capture γ-ray cross sections σγ for 39,40,41K were measured on a natural potassium target with the guided neutron beam at the Budapest Reactor. The cross sections were internally standardized using a stoichiometric KCl target with well-known 35Cl(n,γ) γ-ray cross sections [Révay and Molnár, Radiochimica ActaRAACAP0033-823010.1524/ract.91.6.361.20027 91, 361 (2003); Molnár, Révay, and Belgya, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. BNIMBEU0168-583X10.1016/S0168-583X(03)01529-5 213, 32 (2004)]. These data were combined with γ-ray intensities from von Egidy [von Egidy, Daniel, Hungerford, Schmidt, Lieb, Krusche, Kerr, Barreau, Borner, Brissot , J. Phys. G. Nucl. Phys.JPHGBM0305-461610.1088/0305-4616/10/2/013 10, 221 (1984)] and Krusche [Krusche, Lieb, Ziegler, Daniel, von Egidy, Rascher, Barreau, Borner, and Warner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(84)90506-2 417, 231 (1984); Krusche, Winter, Lieb, Hungerford, Schmidt, von Egidy, Scheerer, Kerr, and Borner, Nucl. Phys. ANUPABL0375-947410.1016/0375-9474(85)90429-4 439, 219 (1985)] to generate nearly complete capture γ-ray level schemes. Total radiative neutron cross sections were deduced from the total γ-ray cross section feeding the ground state, σ0=Σσγ(GS) after correction for unobserved statistical γ-ray feeding from levels near the neutron capture energy. The corrections were performed with Monte Carlo simulations of the potassium thermal neutron capture decay schemes using the computer code dicebox where the simulated populations of low-lying levels are normalized to the measured cross section depopulating those levels. Comparisons of the simulated and experimental level feeding intensities have led to proposed new spins and parities for selected levels in the potassium isotopes where direct reactions are not a significant contribution. We determined the total radiative neutron cross sections σ0(39K)=2.28±0.04 b, σ0(40K)=90±7 b, and σ0(41K)=1.62±0.03 b from the

  16. Measurement of the Amm242 neutron-induced reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Wimer, N.; Chyzh, A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Dance Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    The neutron-induced reaction cross sections of Amm242 were measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. A new neutron-capture cross section was determined, and the absolute scale was set according to a concurrent measurement of the well-known Amm242(n ,f ) cross section. The (n ,γ ) cross section was measured from thermal energy to an incident energy of 1 eV at which point the data quality was limited by the reaction yield in the laboratory. Our new Amm242 fission cross section was normalized to ENDF/B-VII.1 to set the absolute scale, and it agreed well with the (n ,f ) cross section reported by Browne et al. (1984) from thermal energy to 1 keV. The average absolute capture-to-fission ratio was determined from thermal energy to En=0.1 eV, and it was found to be 26(4)% as opposed to the ratio of 19 % from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.

  17. Measurement of the Am242m neutron-induced reaction cross sections

    DOE PAGES

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; ...

    2017-02-17

    The neutron-induced reaction cross sections of 242mAm were measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center using the Detector for Advanced Neutron-Capture Experiments array along with a compact parallel-plate avalanche counter for fission-fragment detection. A new neutron-capture cross section was determined, and the absolute scale was set according to a concurrent measurement of the well-known 242mAm(n,f) cross section. The (n,γ) cross section was measured from thermal energy to an incident energy of 1 eV at which point the data quality was limited by the reaction yield in the laboratory. Our new 242mAm fission cross section was normalized to ENDF/B-VII.1 tomore » set the absolute scale, and it agreed well with the (n,f) cross section from thermal energy to 1 keV. Lastly, the average absolute capture-to-fission ratio was determined from thermal energy to En = 0.1 eV, and it was found to be 26(4)% as opposed to the ratio of 19% from the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation.« less

  18. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  19. Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

    1999-07-01

    The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

  20. Tearing instability in a tokamak with a noncircular cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenin, V. V.; Skovoroda, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Using a straight-column model to describe tokamak plasma with a noncircular cross section, it is shown how to (i) find the boundary of tearing instability from the condition of existence of a magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibrium different from that of a straight cylinder by solving a two-dimensional linear boundary-value problem with a second-order equation with respect to the flux coordinate and (ii) find the spatial structure of the tearing mode and the corresponding effective Δ' when there is only one resonance magnetic surface in the plasma for a given axial wavenumber by solving some kind of a boundary-value problem for the perturbation. The proposed approach is illustrated by numerical calculations for the case of an elliptical cross section as an example.

  1. Intermanifold similarities in partial photoionization cross sections of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Tobias; Liu, Chien-Nan; Rost, Jan-Michael

    2002-04-01

    Using the eigenchannel R-matrix method we calculate partial photoionization cross sections from the ground state of the helium atom for incident photon energies up to the N=9 manifold. The wide energy range covered by our calculations permits a thorough investigation of general patterns in the cross sections which were first discussed by Menzel and coworkers [Phys. Rev. A 54, 2080 (1996)]. The existence of these patterns can easily be understood in terms of propensity rules for autoionization. As the photon energy is increased the regular patterns are locally interrupted by perturber states until they fade out indicating the progressive breakdown of the propensity rules and the underlying approximate quantum numbers. We demonstrate that the destructive influence of isolated perturbers can be compensated with an energy-dependent quantum defect.

  2. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  3. Accurate Development of Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Hawari, Ayman; Dunn, Michael

    2014-06-10

    The objective of this project is to develop a holistic (fundamental and accurate) approach for generating thermal neutron scattering cross section libraries for a collection of important enutron moderators and reflectors. The primary components of this approach are the physcial accuracy and completeness of the generated data libraries. Consequently, for the first time, thermal neutron scattering cross section data libraries will be generated that are based on accurate theoretical models, that are carefully benchmarked against experimental and computational data, and that contain complete covariance information that can be used in propagating the data uncertainties through the various components of the nuclear design and execution process. To achieve this objective, computational and experimental investigations will be performed on a carefully selected subset of materials that play a key role in all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  4. Ion induced fragmentation cross-sections of DNA constituents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, Benedikt; Arndt, Alexander; Bennett, Daniel; Wang, Mingjie; Rabus, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Proton collision with chemical analogs for the base, the sugar and the phosphor residue of the DNA, namely pyrimidine, tetrahydrofuran and trimethyl phosphate, respectively, has been investigated. The impact energies ranged from 300 keV up to 16 MeV. For the first time, relative fragmentation cross-sections for proton impact are reported for tetrahydrofuran and trimethyl phosphate; previously reported cross sections for pyrimidine are extended for energies beyond 2500 keV. Ionization of tetrahydrofuran leads to a ring break in about 80% of all events, trimethyl phosphate predominantly fragments by bond cleavage to one of the three methyl-groups and for pyrimidine the parent ion has the highest abundance. Such comparison supports earlier findings that the sugar is the weak spot for strand breaks.

  5. Calculation of the cross section for top quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.; Contopanagos, H.

    1996-06-21

    The authors summarize calculations of the cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders within the context of perturbative quantum chromodynamics, including resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation to all orders in the strong coupling strength. In their approach they resume the universal leading-logarithm contributions, and they restrict the calculation to the region of phase space that is demonstrably perturbative. They compare the approach with other methods. They present predictions of the physical cross section as a function of the top quark mass in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 and 2.0 TeV, and they discuss estimated uncertainties.

  6. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  7. Total Electron Scattering Cross Sections for Simple Perfluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Keisuke

    2003-05-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections for CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 have been measured in the energy range between 1.25 eV and 3000 eV using a compact linear transmission apparatus. Electrons scattered into a narrow forward angular range that should be counted in the scattered one were estimated utilizing measured quantities. The present results for CF4 agree well with available data at low and high energies, while some discrepancies were seen at intermediate energies. Measured results for C2F6 and C3F8 were shown at high energies for the first time. Upper bound of the elastic cross sections for these molecules were estimated at electron energies higher than 20 eV.

  8. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-03-13

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-{pi} solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  9. Differential cross sections for muonic atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczak, Andrzej

    2006-10-15

    The differential cross sections for low-energy muonic hydrogen atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules are directly expressed by the corresponding amplitudes for muonic atom scattering from hydrogen-isotope nuclei. The energy and angular dependence of these three-body amplitudes is thus taken naturally into account in scattering from molecules, without involving any pseudopotentials. Effects of the internal motion of nuclei inside the target molecules are included for every initial rotational-vibrational state. These effects are very significant as the considered three-body amplitudes often vary strongly within the energy interval < or approx. 0.1 eV. The differential cross sections, calculated using the presented method, have been successfully used for planning and interpreting many experiments in low-energy muon physics. Studies of {mu}{sup -} nuclear capture in p{mu} and the measurement of the Lamb shift in p{mu} atoms created in H{sub 2} gaseous targets are recent examples.

  10. Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, I. V. Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2015-12-15

    The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results.

  11. Cross-Section Measurements with the Radioactive Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyer, M A; Moody, K J; Wild, J F; Patin, J B; Shaughnessy, D A; Stoyer, N J; Harris, L J

    2002-11-19

    RIA will produce beams of exotic nuclei of unprecedented luminosity. Preliminary studies of the feasibility of measuring cross-sections of interest to the science based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program will be presented, and several experimental techniques will be discussed. Cross-section modeling attempts for the A = 95 mass region will be shown. In addition, several radioactive isotopes could be collected for target production or medical isotope purposes while the main in-beam experiments are running. The inclusion of a broad range mass analyzer (BRAMA) capability at RIA will enable more effective utilization of the facility, enabling the performance of multiple experiments at the same time. This option will be briefly discussed.

  12. Measurements of Radiative Capture Cross Sections at Big Bang Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tanaka, Yutaro; Du, Hang; Ohnishi, Kousuke; Yagi, Shoichi; Sugihara, Takanobu; Hori, Taichi; Nakamura, Shoken; Yanagihara, Rikuto; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu; Nishimura, Daiki; Iwakiri, Shuichi; Kambayashi, Shohei; Kunimatsu, Shota; Sakakibara, Hikaru; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    We measured d(p, γ )3He cross sections at ECM = 0.12, 0.19, 0.44, and 0.57 MeV. In this energy region, available experimental values are systematically smaller than the recent calculation, so that additional experiments are desired for understanding the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The experiment was performed by bombarding proton beams to the D2 gas target with the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. The experimental d(p, γ )3He cross sections of the present study are systematically larger than previous data. On the other hand, recent theoretical results by Marcucci et al. are in good agreement with present experimental results.

  13. New Fission Cross Section Measurements using a Time Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Michael

    2008-03-01

    A group of six universities (ACU, California Polytechnic, Colorado School of Mines, Georgia Institute of Technology, Ohio, and Oregon State) and three national laboratories (Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Idaho) have undertaken the task of building a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) to measure the fission cross sections needed for the next generation of nuclear reactors. The fission TPC concept will be presented, and why we think we can improve on 50 years of fission study.

  14. Inclusive jet cross-section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Norniella, Olga; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2007-05-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  15. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R. R.

    2000-08-25

    This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + {sup 88}Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model.

  16. Cross-section data for selected Puerto Rico streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colon-Dieppa, Eloy; Gonzalez, Ralph

    1978-01-01

    The data presented are for delineating the inundation which could be expected by floods of selected magnitudes in Puerto Rico. These cross section data can be used in Flood Insurance Administration studies and in other studies related to the planning, development, and management of flood plains. The data were collected by the Caribbean District of the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Total electron scattering cross sections. I - He, Ne, Ar, Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Imre, K.; Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The apparatus and experimental procedures used to obtain total electron scattering cross sections are described, and results are presented for He, Ne, Ar and Xe in the 4-300 eV incident energy range, together with statistical errors. The results are generally found to be in good agreement with previous data except at low impact energies. Serious discrepancies remain in Xe below 20 eV impact energy.

  18. Workshop on a Cross Section of Archean Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D. (Editor); Card, K. D. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Various topics relevant to crustal genesis, especially the relationship between Archean low - and high-grade terrains, were discussed. The central Superior Province of the Canadian Shield was studied. Here a 120 km-wide transition from subgreenschist facies rocks of the Michipicoten greenstone belt to granulite facies rocks of the Kapuskasing structural zone represents an oblique cross section through some 20 km of crust, uplifted along a northwest-dipping thrust fault.

  19. Humeral cross-sectional shape in suspensory primates and sloths.

    PubMed

    Patel, Biren A; Ruff, Christopher B; Simons, Erin L R; Organ, Jason M

    2013-04-01

    Studies on the cross-sectional geometry of long bones in African apes have documented that shape ratios derived from second moments of area about principle axes (e.g., Imax /Imin ) are often correlated with habitual locomotor behaviors. For example, humeral cross-sections tend to appear more circular in more arboreal and forelimb suspensory chimpanzees compared with terrestrial quadrupedal gorillas. These data support the hypothesis that cross-sections that are more circular in shape are adapted for multidirectional loading regimes and bending moments encountered when using acrobatic locomotor behaviors. Whether a more circular humerus reflects greater use of forelimb suspension in other primates and nonprimate mammals is unknown. In this study, cross-sections at or near midshaft of the humerus were obtained from anthropoid primates that differ in their use of forelimb suspension, as well as from two genera of suspensory sloths. Imax /Imin ratios were compared within and between groups, and correlations were made with behavioral data. In broad comparisons, observed differences in morphology follow predicted patterns. Humeri of suspensory sloths are circular. Humeri of the more suspensory hominoids tend to be more circular than those of quadrupedal taxa. Humeri of the suspensory atelines are similar to hominoids, while those of Cebus are more like nonsuspensory cercopithecoids. There is, however, considerable overlap between taxa and within finer comparisons variation between species are not in the predicted direction. Thus, although Imax /Imin ratios of the humerus are informative for characterizing generalized locomotor modes (i.e., forelimb suspensory vs. quadrupedal), additional structural information is needed for more fine-grained assessments of locomotion.

  20. 13. Photocopy of drawing dated January 20, 1958, CROSS SECTION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of drawing dated January 20, 1958, CROSS SECTION, REHABILITATION OF PIERSHED AT FOOT OF 29TH ST. city of New York Department of Marine and Aviation, Contract 3049, Drawing 3. (On file, City of New York Department of Ports and Trade). - South Brooklyn Freight Terminal, 29th Street Pier, Opposite end of Twenty-ninth Street on upper New York Bay, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  1. Theoretical cross sections of tantalum on neutron induced reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddik, Tarik

    2016-11-01

    Neutron-induced cross-sections for the stable isotope 181Ta, in the energy region up to 20 MeV have been calculated. Statistical model calculations, based on the Hauser-Feshbach formalism, have been carried out using the TALYS-1.0 and were compared with available experimental data in the literature and with ENDF/B-VII, T = 300 K; JENDL-3.3, T = 300 K and JEFF-3.1, T = 300 K evaluated libraries.

  2. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  3. Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Differential collision cross-sections of O on N2 and other gases were measured to understand vehicle-environmental contamination effects in orbit. The following subject areas are also covered: groundbased scientific observations of rocket releases during NICARE-1; data compression study for the UVI; science priorities for UV imaging in the mid-1990's; and assessment of optimizations possible in UV imaging systems.

  4. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  5. Classification of Wood Pulp Fibre Cross-Sectional Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Asuka; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    This work presents a comparison of two statistical approaches for automatic classification of fibre shapes, i.e. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and Mahalanobis Discriminant Analysis (MLDA). The discriminant analyses were applied to identify and classify several fibre cross-sectional shapes, including e.g. intact, collapsed, touching and fibrillated fibres. The discriminant analyses perform differently, giving clear indications of their suitability for classifying a given group of fibre elements. Compared to CDA, MLDA was more reliable and relatively stable.

  6. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Simulation for Wind Turbines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    research, some basic scattering characteristics of wind turbines are discussed. Several computational methods of RCS prediction are examined, citing...a wind turbine and assess its effect on the performance of radar and communication systems. In this research, some basic scattering characteristics ... characteristics of wind turbines. The radar cross section (RCS) is a parameter that is used to estimate the effect of a wind turbine on a system’s

  7. Top quark pair production cross section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Cortiana, Giorgio; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.

    2008-04-01

    Top quark pair production cross section has been measured at the Tevatron by CDF and D0 collaborations using different channels and methods, in order to test standard model predictions, and to search for new physics hints affecting the t{bar t} production mechanism or decay. Measurements are carried out with an integrated luminosity of 1.0 to 2.0 fb{sup -1}, and are found to be consistent with standard model expectations.

  8. Double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-fei, Yao; Zhang-jin, Chen

    1999-03-01

    The double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium at incident energies of 200 eV, 100 eV and 64.6 eV have been calculated in the BBK model. The present results are found to be in generally good agreement with the latest measurements of Röder et al. and the theoretical results of the convergent close-coupling method although some quantitative discrepancy remains.

  9. Neutron-induced Cross Section Measurements of Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guber, K.; Kopecky, S.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Siegler, P.

    2014-05-01

    To support the US Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, neutron-induced cross section experiments were performed at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator of the Institute for Reference Material and Measurements of the Joint Research Centers, European Union. Neutron capture and transmission measurements were carried out using a metallic calcium sample. The measured data will be used for a new calcium evaluation, which will be submitted with covariances to the ENDF/B nuclear data library.

  10. W and Z cross sections at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    T. Dorigo

    2003-07-01

    The CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron have used p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV to measure the cross section of W and Z boson production using several leptonic final states. An indirect measurement of the total W width has been extracted, and the lepton charge asymmetry in Drell-Yan production has been studied up to invariant masses of 600 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  11. Hydraulic geometry of river cross sections; theory of minimum variance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Garnett P.

    1978-01-01

    This study deals with the rates at which mean velocity, mean depth, and water-surface width increase with water discharge at a cross section on an alluvial stream. Such relations often follow power laws, the exponents in which are called hydraulic exponents. The Langbein (1964) minimum-variance theory is examined in regard to its validity and its ability to predict observed hydraulic exponents. The variables used with the theory were velocity, depth, width, bed shear stress, friction factor, slope (energy gradient), and stream power. Slope is often constant, in which case only velocity, depth, width, shear and friction factor need be considered. The theory was tested against a wide range of field data from various geographic areas of the United States. The original theory was intended to produce only the average hydraulic exponents for a group of cross sections in a similar type of geologic or hydraulic environment. The theory does predict these average exponents with a reasonable degree of accuracy. An attempt to forecast the exponents at any selected cross section was moderately successful. Empirical equations are more accurate than the minimum variance, Gauckler-Manning, or Chezy methods. Predictions of the exponent of width are most reliable, the exponent of depth fair, and the exponent of mean velocity poor. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-23

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0.46(22)fm2, with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμn → μ-p)|Ev=1GeV = 10.1(0.9)×10-39cm2. The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. Furthermore, these techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  13. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1¯10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties.

  14. Origami tubes with reconfigurable polygonal cross-sections

    PubMed Central

    Filipov, E. T.; Paulino, G. H.; Tachi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Thin sheets can be assembled into origami tubes to create a variety of deployable, reconfigurable and mechanistically unique three-dimensional structures. We introduce and explore origami tubes with polygonal, translational symmetric cross-sections that can reconfigure into numerous geometries. The tubular structures satisfy the mathematical definitions for flat and rigid foldability, meaning that they can fully unfold from a flattened state with deformations occurring only at the fold lines. The tubes do not need to be straight and can be constructed to follow a non-linear curved line when deployed. The cross-section and kinematics of the tubular structures can be reprogrammed by changing the direction of folding at some folds. We discuss the variety of tubular structures that can be conceived and we show limitations that govern the geometric design. We quantify the global stiffness of the origami tubes through eigenvalue and structural analyses and highlight the mechanical characteristics of these systems. The two-scale nature of this work indicates that, from a local viewpoint, the cross-sections of the polygonal tubes are reconfigurable while, from a global viewpoint, deployable tubes of desired shapes are achieved. This class of tubes has potential applications ranging from pipes and micro-robotics to deployable architecture in buildings. PMID:26997894

  15. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  16. Origami tubes with reconfigurable polygonal cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Filipov, E T; Paulino, G H; Tachi, T

    2016-01-01

    Thin sheets can be assembled into origami tubes to create a variety of deployable, reconfigurable and mechanistically unique three-dimensional structures. We introduce and explore origami tubes with polygonal, translational symmetric cross-sections that can reconfigure into numerous geometries. The tubular structures satisfy the mathematical definitions for flat and rigid foldability, meaning that they can fully unfold from a flattened state with deformations occurring only at the fold lines. The tubes do not need to be straight and can be constructed to follow a non-linear curved line when deployed. The cross-section and kinematics of the tubular structures can be reprogrammed by changing the direction of folding at some folds. We discuss the variety of tubular structures that can be conceived and we show limitations that govern the geometric design. We quantify the global stiffness of the origami tubes through eigenvalue and structural analyses and highlight the mechanical characteristics of these systems. The two-scale nature of this work indicates that, from a local viewpoint, the cross-sections of the polygonal tubes are reconfigurable while, from a global viewpoint, deployable tubes of desired shapes are achieved. This class of tubes has potential applications ranging from pipes and micro-robotics to deployable architecture in buildings.

  17. Three Dimensional Cross-Sectional Properties From Bone Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone in a single scan plane. Using three non-coplanar scans, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area Moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each cross-section along the length of the scan. Various 5 aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of mass distribution. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the included angle of the 3 scans, and Imin/Imax ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within 3.1% and principal angles were within 1 deg. of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 deg. and 90 deg. at the higher X-ray photon energy. Low standard deviations in error also 10 indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 deg. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (Imin/Imax) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  18. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2=0.46 (22 ) fm2 , with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ (νμn →μ-p )|Eν=1GeV=10.1 (0.9 )×10-39 cm2 . The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. These techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  19. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Richard; Meyer, Aaron; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2) , which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0 . 46(22) fm2 , with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμ n ->μ- p) |Eν = 1GeV = 10 . 1(0 . 9) ×10-39cm2 . The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. These techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  20. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    PubMed Central

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1̄10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties. PMID:28106088

  1. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; ...

    2016-06-23

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0.46(22)fm2, with a much larger uncertainty than determined inmore » the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμn → μ-p)|Ev=1GeV = 10.1(0.9)×10-39cm2. The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. Furthermore, these techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.« less

  2. Measuring Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Sections without Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Hoffman, R. D.; McMahan, M. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Mitchell, G.; Tavukcu, E.; Guttormsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on radioactive nuclei play a significant role in nuclear astrophysics and many other applied nuclear physics topics. However, the majority of these cross sections are impossible to measure due to the high-background of the targets and the low-intensity of neutron beams. We have explored the possibility of using charged-particle transfer reactions to form the same "pre-compound" nucleus as one formed in a neutron-induced reaction in order to measure the relative decay probabilities of the nucleus as a function of energy. Multiplying these decay probabilities by the neutron absorption cross section will then produce the equivalent neutron-induced reaction cross section. In this presentation I will explore the validity of this "surrogate reaction" technique by comparing results from the recent 157Gd(3He,axng)156-xGd experiment using STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) at GAMMASPHERE with reaction model calculations for the 155Gd(n,xng)156-xGd. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  3. Upscattering Cross Sections for Ultra Cold Neutrons from Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, Susan J.; UCNτ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The scattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) to energies above the escape potential of a trap is called upscattering. Upscattering due to interaction with residual gases is a potential loss mechanism for UCNs stored in a trap that can impact the extracted neutron lifetime. We have developed a method for measuring the cross sections for UCN upscattering from gases stored in a small measurement cell. Upscattered neutrons are measured directly in a 3He ionization chamber and transmitted UCN strike a 10B-coated surface at the edges of the measurement cell. The transmitted UCNs are then counted with a HPGe gamma-ray detector that counts 478 keV γ-rays from the 10B(n , αγ) 7Li reaction. The analysis was guided by Monte Carlo descriptions of the LANL UCN source output. We will present cross sections measured for various noble and polyatomic gases, compare these results to calculated cross sections based on models of gas scattering kernels, and use these to estimate the impact of gas upscattering on the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  4. Partial ionisation cross-sections of 2-propanol and ethanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, J. R.; Jorand, F.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Pasquiers, S.

    2006-04-01

    Electron impact ionisation of 2-propanol and ethanal is studied using mass spectrometry. Cross-sections of the formation of molecular ions and ionic fragments are measured between 14 and 86 eV. Free energy changes are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For 2-propanol, two ions, identified as CH 3CHOH + (45 amu) and CH3CHCH3+ (43 amu), contribute more than 75% to the total cross-section over the whole range of electron energies and are produced by simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. Both processes occur spontaneously, leaving the molecular ion as a minority species. For ethanal, two ions, identified as HCO + (29 amu) and CH 3CO + (43 amu), and the molecular ion (44 amu) contribute more than 80% to the total cross-section. The ions of 29 and 43 amu result from a simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. These sprocesses are not spontaneous and the contribution of the molecular ion becomes predominant at 15 eV and is therefore significant over the whole range of ionisation energies.

  5. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S; et al.

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

  6. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  7. Modal characteristics in a single-nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Kyo; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Qian, Fang; Ee, Ho-Seok; No, You-Shin; Leet, Yong-Hee

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the modal characteristics of a single-GaN nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section surrounded by air or located on a silicon dioxide substrate have been analyzed. Two transverse resonant modes, transverse electric-like and transverse magnetic-like modes, are dominantly excited for nanowire cavities that have a small cross-sectional size of <300 nm and length of 10 microm. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation method, quality factors, confinement factors, single-mode conditions, and far-field emission patterns are investigated for a nanowire cavity as a function of one length of the triangular cross section. The results of these simulations provide information that will be vital for the design and development of efficient nanowire lasers and light sources in ultracompact nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  8. Determination of the pi0 gamma cross-section

    SciTech Connect

    Govi, G.; Lombardo, M.; Marchetto, F.; /INFN, Turin /Turin U.

    1992-06-01

    In this memo the authors address the following questions: how the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma} cross section, which is measured in E760, compares to the expected leakage from the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} final states; is it possible to affirm that a substantial fraction of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma} events are due to continuum production? Naively, the expected continuum {pi}{sup 0}{gamma} cross section can be estimated using the Vector Meson Dominance Model (VDM). In that framework, a photon is coupled to a neutral vector meson V by G{sub {gamma}V}. Then {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}} = {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{rho}} x G{sub {gamma}{rho}}{sup 2} with G{sub {gamma}{rho}}{sup 2} = 1./160 {divided_by} 1./380 [1]. At E{sub CM} = 2.611 GeV, {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{rho}} = (70 {+-} 30){mu}b [2] which gives {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}} = 184 {divided_by} 438 nb. To predict the cross section within a limited acceptance they assume that the angular production of {pi}{sup 0}{gamma} is similar to the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup 0}{rho} ones. To estimate the fraction of events with |cos{theta}*| < 0.5, being {theta}* the center of mass production angle, they do use the total {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} cross section {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}} = (6.6 {+-} 3.5){mu}b at 2.975 GeV [3]. {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} = 0.5 x {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}}, while for |cos{theta}*| < 0.5 E760 measures {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}} {approx_equal} 180. nb at the above center of mass energy and |cos{theta}*| < 0.5. They obtain that the fraction of {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} events with |cos{theta}*| < 0.5 is 5.4 x 10{sup -2}. Finally, multiplying the expected total cross section and the above fraction, they obtain {sigma}{sub {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}} = (10. {divided_by} 23.8) nb with |cos{theta}*| < 0.5. This prediction gives a value which is far from being negligible and certainly measurable in the experiment.

  9. Towards a prediction of fission cross sections on the basis of microscopic nuclear inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Goriely, S.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.; Sin, M.; Capote, R.

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a sound description of some of the basic nuclear ingredients required in the calculation of fission cross sections has been obtained. These concern in particular fission barriers within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points within the combinatorial model. Both ingredients are determined coherently, the nuclear level densities being estimated on the basis of the single-particle scheme and pairing strength of the same mean field model that was used to determine the fission saddle points. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the quality of such inputs in the calculation of fission cross sections. Although the barrier height can still not be predicted with an accuracy better than about 700 keV, the use of the full HFB fission path and the corresponding WKB calculation of the probability to penetrate the fission barrier clearly provides a better way to estimate fission cross section in comparison with highly parametrized phenomenological models, when no experimental data is available. It is shown that a satisfactory estimate of the fission cross section for nonenergy applications can be achieved with a global renormalization of the barrier height and the microscopic nuclear level densities at the fission saddle points. Good agreement with experimental data can be obtained if both the fission barrier heights and level densities are independently renormalized. The resulting barrier heights required to reproduce experimental cross sections are found to be smaller by a few hundred keV with respect to previous analyses.

  10. Measuring and modeling the backscattering cross section of a leaf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senior, T. B. A.; Sarabandi, K.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves are a significant feature of any vegetation canopy, and for remote sensing purposes it is important to develop an effective model for predicting the scattering from a leaf. From measurements of the X band backscattering cross section of a coleus leaf in varying stages of dryness, it is shown that a uniform resistive sheet constitutes such a model for a planar leaf. The scattering is determined by the (complex) resistivity which is, in turn, entirely specified by the gravimetric moisture content of the leaf. Using an available asymptotic expression for the scattering from a rectangular resistive plate which includes, as a special case, a metallic plate whose resistivity is zero, the computed backscattering cross sections for both principal polarizations are found to be in excellent agreement with data measured for rectangular sections of leaves with different moisture contents. If the resistivity is sufficiently large, the asymptotic expressions do not differ significantly from the physical optics ones, and for naturally shaped leaves as well as rectangular sections, the physical optics approximation in conjunction with the resistive sheet model faithfully reproduces the dominant feataures of the scattering patterns under all moisture conditions.

  11. Fusion, reaction, and breakup cross sections of {sup 9}Be on a light mass target

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, G.V.; Capurro, O.A.; Pacheco, A.J.; Testoni, J.E.; Ramirez, M.; Arazi, A.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Padron, I.; Anjos, R.M.; Lubian, J.; Crema, E.

    2005-02-01

    The total fusion cross section for the {sup 9}Be+{sup 27}Al system has been measured at energies close and above the Coulomb barrier. Reaction cross sections for this system were derived from elastic scattering data, and the breakup-plus-transfer-channel cross sections were estimated from the difference between these data and measured cross-section fusion.

  12. From ZZ to ZH : How Low Can These Cross Sections Go or Everybody, Let's Cross Section Limbo!

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, Emanuel Alexandre

    2009-08-01

    We report on two searches performed at the D0 detector at the Fermi National Laboratory. The first is a search for Z di-boson production with a theoretical cross section of 1.4 pb. The search was performed on 2.6 fb-1 of data and contributed to the first observation of ZZ production at a hadron collider. The second is a search for a low mass Standard Model Higgs in 4.2 fb-1 of data. The Higgs boson is produced in association with a Z boson where the Higgs decays hadronically and the Z decays to two leptons. The ZZ search was performed in both the di-electron and di-muon channels. For the ZH search, we will focus on the muonic decays where we expanded the traditional coverage by considering events in which one of the two muons fails the selection requirement, and is instead reconstructed as an isolated track. We consider Higgs masses between 100 and 150 GeV, with theoretical cross sections ranging from 0.17 to 0.042 pb, and set upper limits on the ZH production cross-section at 95% confidence level.

  13. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  14. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  15. Reducing cross-sectional data using a genetic algorithm method and effects on cross-section geometry and steady-flow profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of reduced cross-sectional data points on steady-flow profiles were also determined. Thirty-five cross sections of the original steady-flow model of the Kootenai River were used. These two methods were tested for all cross sections with each cross section resolution reduced to 10, 20 and 30 data points, that is, six tests were completed for each of the thirty-five cross sections. Generally, differences from the original water-surface elevation were smaller as the number of data points in reduced cross sections increased, but this was not always the case, especially in the braided reach. Differences were smaller for reduced cross sections developed by the genetic algorithm method than the standard algorithm method.

  16. 3He Spin-Dependent Cross Sections and Sum Rules

    SciTech Connect

    Slifer, Karl; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Auerbach, Leonard; Averett, Todd; Berthot, J.; Bertin, Pierre; Bertozzi, William; Black, Tim; Brash, Edward; Brown, D.; Burtin, Etienne; Calarco, John; Cates, Gordon; Chai, Zhengwei; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Ciofi, Claudio; Cisbani, Evaristo; De Jager, Cornelis; Deur, Alexandre; DiSalvo, R.; Dieterich, Sonja; Djawotho, Pibero; Finn, John; Fissum, Kevin; Fonvieille, Helene; Frullani, Salvatore; Gao, Haiyan; Gao, Juncai; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasparian, Ashot; Gilad, Shalev; Gilman, Ronald; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Glashausser, Charles; Glockle, W.; Golak, J.; Goldberg, Emma; Gomez, Javier; Gorbenko, Viktor; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hersman, F.; Holmes, Richard; Huber, Garth; Hughes, Emlyn; Humensky, Thomas; Incerti, Sebastien; Iodice, Mauro; Jensen, S.; Jiang, Xiaodong; Jones, C.; Jones, G.; Jones, Mark; Jutier, Christophe; Kamada, H.; Ketikyan, Armen; Kominis, Ioannis; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kramer, Kevin; Kumar, Krishna; Kumbartzki, Gerfried; Kuss, Michael; Lakuriqi, Enkeleida; Laveissiere, Geraud; LeRose, John; Liang, Meihua; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lolos, George; Malov, Sergey; Marroncle, Jacques; McCormick, Kathy; McKeown, Robert; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mitchell, Joseph; Nogga, Andreas; Pace, Emanuele; Papandreou, Zisis; Pavlin, Tina; Petratos, Gerassimos; Pripstein, David; Prout, David; Ransome, Ronald; Roblin, Yves; Rowntree, David; Rvachev, Marat; Sabatie, Franck; Saha, Arunava; Salme, Giovanni; SCOPETTA, S.; Skibinski, R.; Souder, Paul; Saito, Teijiro; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Takahashi, Kazunori; Todor, Luminita; Tsubota, Hiroaki; Ueno, Hiroaki; Urciuoli, Guido; van der Meer, Rob; Vernin, Pascal; Voskanyan, Hakob; Witala, Henryk; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Xiong, Feng; Xu, Wang; Yang, Jae-Choon; Zhang, Bin; Zolnierczuk, Piotr

    2008-07-01

    We present a measurement of the spin-dependent cross sections for the \\vec{^3He}(\\vec{e},e')X} reaction in the quasielastic and resonance regions at four-momentum transfer 0.1 < Q^2< 0.9 GeV^2. The spin-structure functions have been extracted and used to evaluate the nuclear Burkhardt--Cottingham and extended GDH sum rules for the first time. Impulse approximation and exact three-body Faddeev calculations are also compared to the data in the quasielastic region.

  17. Normal waves in elastic bars of rectangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Krushynska, Anastasiia A; Meleshko, Viatcheslav V

    2011-03-01

    This paper addresses a theoretical study of guided normal waves in elastic isotropic bars of rectangular cross-section by an analytical superposition method. Dispersion properties of propagating and evanescent modes for four families are analyzed in detail at various geometric and physical parameters of the bar. A comparison of the obtained results with the well-known properties for waves in infinite plates and circular cylinders is provided. The complicated structure of dispersion spectra is explained. High-frequency limiting values for phase and group velocities of normal waves are established for the first time. Calculated data agree well with the available experimental results.

  18. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  19. Positronium beam production and scattering cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Dawn Elizabeth

    In this work, the efficiency for the production of a monoenergetic positronium beam via the charge-exchange reaction of a positron beam in a gaseous target has been determined for molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen. In the case of molecular nitrogen, it has been found that the energy range over which a useful intensity of collimated positronium may be produced can be extended to 250eV, 100eV higher than previously achieved. This should enable measurements of the total and partial positronium cross-sections at correspondingly higher energies, where target inelastic effects are expected to be significant A recent measurement of the integrated positronium formation cross-section for xenon found a larger yield of positronium atoms compared to the other noble gases. A shoulder was also seen 10eV above the peak and it was suggested that this might be due to the production of positronium in an excited state. These findings have provided an incentive to investigate the collimated positronium production efficiency from xenon, which has been found to be surprisingly low. The quantum state of the beam atoms has also been found to be dominantly ground state. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed Total cross-sections for positronium-gas scattering have been extracted from the measurements of the positronium beam production efficiency for both molecular nitrogen and xenon. These quantities have also been determined directly by measuring the intensity of the positronium beam transmitted through a gas cell via the Beer-Lambert Law. A good consistency is found between the values obtained using this method and those determined indirectly. Recently, measurements have been made of the absolute integrated cross-section for the fragmentation of positronium in collision with helium atoms, along with the longitudinal energy distributions of the residual positrons in the energy range -Ep/=13-33eV. Measurements of the latter indicate a peak close to half the residual

  20. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sjue, Sky K.

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.