Science.gov

Sample records for cross sectional results

  1. Top: Latest results from the Tevatron - Cross section and mass

    SciTech Connect

    M. Coca

    2003-09-02

    The Tevatron is presently the world's only source of top quark production. This presentation summarizes the latest Run II results on top physics obtained by the CDF and D0 collaborations, using data taken until mid-January 2003. The first cross section measurements at 1.96 TeV in dilepton and lepton+jets channels agree with the NLO (Next-to-Leading-Order) theoretical predictions. Two top mass measurements, one by CDF using Run II data and another by D0 using an improved technique anticipate the improvements to come in the near future.

  2. Precise top quark cross-section results at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, J.; ATLAS; CMS Collaborations

    2013-07-01

    The measurements of the inclusive tbar t cross section is presented for proton-proton collisions recorded at = 7 and 8 TeV by the ATLAS and the CMS experiments using the lepton+jets and the dilepton events. The most precise single measurement at 7 TeV is σtbar t = 161.9 ± 2.5(stat.)+5.1-5.0(syst.)±3.6(lumi.) pb, using a luminosity of 2.3 fb-1. The measurements from the two experiments are also combined to reach higher precision. With a luminosity of about 1 fb-1, the combined cross-section is σtbar t = 173.3±2.3(stat.)±9.8(syst.) pb. At = 8 TeV, σtbar t is measured in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels with the CMS detector and the corresponding combined measurement is σtbar t = 227 ± 3(stat.)±11(syst.)±10(lumi.) pb.

  3. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  4. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2016-12-01

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections 'non-optically' from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO2, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  5. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.

  6. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results.

    PubMed

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A; Dearden, David V

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Recent results on exclusive hadronic cross sections measurements at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has an intensive program studying hadronic cross sections in low-energy e+e‑ annihilations, accessible via initial-state radiation. Our measurements allow significant improvements in the precision of the predicted value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. These improvements are necessary for shedding light on the current 3 sigma difference between the predicted and the experimental values. We have published results on a number of processes with two to six hadrons in the final state, and other final state are currently under investigation. We report here on the most recent results obtained by analysing the entire BaBar dataset, including the , and other final states.

  8. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data

    PubMed Central

    Rydevik, Gustaf; Innocent, Giles T.; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran C. L.; Billinis, Charalambos; Barrow, Paul; Mertens, Peter P. C.; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to ‘hindcast’ (infer the historical trend of) an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time. PMID:27384712

  9. RSAP - A Code for Display of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2001-02-02

    RSAP is a computer code for display of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. RSAP, which runs on the Digital Unix Alpha platform, reads ORELA Data Files (ODF) created by SAMMY and uses graphics routines from the PLPLOT package. In addition, RSAP can read data and/or computed values from ASCII files with a format specified by the user. Plot output may be displayed in an X window, sent to a postscript file (rsap.ps), or sent to a color postscript file (rsap.psc). Thirteen plot types are supported, allowing the user to display cross section data, transmission data, errors, theory, Bayes fits, and residuals in various combinations. In this document the designations theory and Bayes refer to the initial and final theoretical cross sections, respectively, as evaluated by SAMMY. Special plot types include Bayes/Data, Theory--Data, and Bayes--Data. Output from two SAMMY runs may be compared by plotting the ratios Theory2/Theory1 and Bayes2/Bayes1 or by plotting the differences (Theory2-Theory1) and (Bayes2-Bayes1).

  10. Comparison of cross-sectional HIV incidence assay results from dried blood spots and plasma

    PubMed Central

    Schlusser, Katherine E.; Pilcher, Christopher; Kallas, Esper G.; Santos, Breno R.; Deeks, Steven G.; Facente, Shelley; Keating, Sheila M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Gary; Welte, Alex; Quinn, Thomas; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS. Methods The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity), Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA), and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity) using pre-determined cutoff values. 100 matched HIV-1 positive plasma and DBS samples, with known duration of infection, from the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays repository were tested. All assays were run in duplicate. To examine the degree of variability within and between results for each sample type, both categorical and continuous results were analyzed. Associations were assessed with Bland Altman, R2 values and Cohen’s kappa coefficient (ĸ). Results Intra-assay variability using the same sample type was similar for all assays (R2 0.96 to 1.00). The R2 values comparing DBS and plasma results for LAg-Avidity, BED-CEIA, and CDC-BioRad Avidity were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively. The concordance and ĸ values between DBS and plasma for all three assays were >87% and >0.64, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed significant differences between plasma and DBS samples. For all three assays, a higher number of samples were classified as recent infections using DBS samples. Conclusions DBS and plasma sample results were highly correlated. However, when compared to plasma, each assay performed somewhat differently in DBS at the lower and higher ends of the dynamic range. DBS samples were more likely to be classified as recently infected by all three assays, which may lead to overestimation of incidence in surveys using performance criteria derived for plasma samples. PMID:28231277

  11. Clinical Relevance of Sleep Duration: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis Using NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, M. Soledad; Stang, Paul; Blacketer, Clair; Kent, Justine M.; Wittenberg, Gayle M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of sleep duration, hours slept were compared by health status, presence of insomnia, and presence of depression, and the association of sleep duration with BMI and cardiovascular risk was quantified. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of subjects in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: A total of 22,281 adults were included, 37% slept ≤ 6 hours, 36% were obese, and 45% reported cardiovascular conditions. Mean sleep duration was 6.87 hours. Better health was associated with more hours of sleep. Subjects with poor health reported sleeping 46 min, (95% CI −56.85 to −35.67) less than subjects with excellent health. Individuals with depression (vs. not depressed) reported 40 min less sleep, (95% CI −47.14 to −32.85). Individuals with insomnia (vs. without insomnia) reported 39 min less sleep, (95% CI −56.24 to −22.45). Duration of sleep was inversely related to BMI; for every additional hour of sleep, there was a decrease of 0.18 kg/m2 in BMI, (95% CI −0.30 to −0.06). The odds of reporting cardiovascular problems were 6.0% lower for every hour of sleep (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91 to 0.97]). Compared with subjects who slept ≤ 6 h, subjects who slept more had lower odds of reporting cardiovascular problems, with the exception of subjects ≥ 55 years old who slept ≥ 9 hours. Conclusions: Long sleep duration is associated with better health. The fewer the hours of sleep, the greater the BMI and reported cardiovascular disease. A difference of 30 minutes of sleep is associated with substantive impact on clinical well-being. Citation: Cepeda MS, Stang P, Blacketer C, Kent JM, Wittenberg GM. Clinical relevance of sleep duration: results from a cross-sectional analysis using NHANES. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):813–819. PMID:26951419

  12. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  13. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703). Results 18.1% (799/4416) of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%), kidney disease (4.9%), cholesterol (4.5%), urinary tract infection (1.9%) and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%). A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6%) of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self-testers sought medical

  14. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes.

  15. Psychological distress and cancer pain: Results from a controlled cross-sectional survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wen-Hua; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Hui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the pain associated with cancer and its impact on pain management, anxiety, and depression in Chinese patients using a controlled cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty-six cancer outpatients were evaluated from January 2012 to June 2014; 64 reported pain and 62 did not. Patients with cancer eligible for this study were older than 18 years and able to effectively communicate with medical personnel. Patients were administered a questionnaire regarding their medical status. The information collected was used along with patient charts to complete a socio-demographic and clinical characteristic summary for each patient. Results showed that patients who reported pain had mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores of 46.38 for state anxiety and 44.64 for trait anxiety, as well as a mean BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) score of 19.17. The pain-free patient group had mean STAI scores of 40.73 for state anxiety and 42.87 for trait anxiety, and a mean BDI score of 15.35. In conclusion, patients who reported pain were more prone to anxiety and depression, with pain severity being a strong predictor of anxiety. Adequate pain assessment and adjustment proved necessary for pain management. PMID:28074915

  16. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes.

  17. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  18. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  19. New Results on CaH2 Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Serot, O.

    2005-05-24

    Calcium hydride (CaH2) is a compound of interest in the frame of a current research program on the transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. Since CaH2 is relatively stable in liquid sodium, it is one possible material that can be used for local moderation of the neutron spectrum in fast neutron reactors such as PHENIX. In order to describe the moderated region from Monte Carlo and/or deterministic calculations, thermal neutron scattering data are needed. In particular, an adequate treatment of the thermal inelastic scattering cross sections for bound hydrogen is requested. The present work aims at the determination of these data. The first step was the measurement of the phonon frequency spectrum, which was carried out on the three axis spectrometer of the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble (France). This phonon frequency spectrum has already been published and so only a brief description of this measurement will be given here. Then, from physical grounds, the acoustic mode has been weighted relative to the optical modes in order to treat Hydrogen atoms bound in CaH2. The S({alpha},{beta}) scattering laws have been generated for various temperatures using the NJOY code working in the incoherent approximation and the Gaussian approximation. The deduced incoherent elastic and incoherent inelastic cross sections are shown and discussed. These new thermal neutron scattering data will be proposed in the JEFF3.1 European library.

  20. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Elementary School Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Teacher Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Lauren N.; Chuang, Kai-wen; Champeau, Angelique; Allen, I. Elaine; Copp, Hillary L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract dysfunction in school-aged children is common and yet data are lacking on current teacher practice regarding bathroom use and daytime incontinence during classroom hours. We determined the prevalence of elementary school teachers who promote lower urinary tract health and identified predictors for and against such behavioral promotion. Materials and Methods We performed an electronic cross-sectional survey among self-identified teachers using targeted social media advertisement during a 1-week period in July 2014. The empirical survey tool consisted of 27 questions and collected data on 5 principal domains, including 1) teacher demographics, 2) rules and regulations on water intake and bathroom use during classroom hours, 3) characteristics of school bathrooms in terms of safety, supervision and suitability for use, 4) experience with and management of students with daytime incontinence and 5) training on the topic of lower urinary tract health. Predictors for promoting lower urinary tract health were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 4,166 teachers who completed the survey 88% indicated that they encourage students to hold urine. Despite strict bathroom protocols 81% of teachers allowed children unlimited access to water. Of the teachers 82% reported never having undergone any professional development on bathroom regulations for children. Overall only 24% of surveyed teachers met criteria for promoting lower urinary tract health. The odds of promoting lower urinary tract health decreased with ascending grade level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). Conversely it increased if teaching experience was greater than 5 years (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39–1.98) or professional development on the subject had been received (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18–1.70). Conclusions Of elementary school teachers 76% are not promoting lower urinary tract health in school-aged children. Professional development training on the topics of lower

  1. Searching for a relevant definition of sarcopenia: results from the cross-sectional EPIDOS study

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Charlotte; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Gentil, Catherine; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Beauchet, Olivier; Schott, Anne-Marie; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background The diversity of definitions proposed for sarcopenia has been rarely tested in the same population, and so far, their clinical utilities for predicting physical difficulties could not be clearly understood. Our objective is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia and the characteristics of sarcopenic community-dwelling older women according to the different definitions of sarcopenia currently proposed. We also assessed these definitions for their incremental predictive value over currently standard predictors for some self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength. Methods Cross-sectional analysis included data from 3025 non-disabled women aged 75 years or older without previous history of hip fracture from the inclusion visit of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study. A total body composition evaluation was available for 2725 women. Sarcopenia was defined using six different definitions of sarcopenia based on different muscle mass, gait speed, and grip strength cut-offs. Self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength were collected. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were built for each physical dysfunction, and the predictive capacity of sarcopenia (one model for each definition) was studied using the C-statistic, the net reclassification index, or adjusted R2. Results The estimated prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3–20.0%. Only 85 participants (3.1%) were identified having sarcopenia according to all definitions. All definitions were, to some degree, associated with self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength, but none improved the predictive ability of the self-reported difficulties in physical function. Conversely, all definitions accounted for a small but significant amount of explained variation for predicting knee extension strength. Conclusions Prevalence of sarcopenia varies widely depending on the definition adopted

  2. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers.

  3. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates.

  4. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  5. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials.

  6. Effect of cross-section interpolated bathymetry on 2D hydrodynamic results in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J.; Tonina, D.; Welcker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models have been used for many river research projects including flood analysis, aquatic habitat evaluation and sediment transport studies. River topography has a strong influence on flow patterns and a dominant effect on the resulting hydraulic conditions. Thus, it is important that adequate topographic data be collected so accurate DEMs can be developed in order to create 2D hydrodynamic models that correctly represent hydraulic conditions. Many techniques and methods have been used to acquire bathymetry data, from traditional survey methods, using sonar equipment combined with GPS and more recently the use of Experimental Advance Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). Multi-beam sonar and EAARL provide rapid collection of bathymetry data that can be used to create high resolution three dimensional surfaces. However, these systems do not work in all river conditions requiring other methods of data collection. One method that has been employed is to collect cross section data and interpolate a surface between the cross sections. This method is a valuable technique, because cross sections can be surveyed with traditional survey equipment for wadeable streams or with a variety of watercraft. In this study, we investigated the effect cross section spacing has on developing the streambed topography and flow properties for 2D modeling. To evaluate the resulting errors that can be expected, we compared 2D model results of two reaches of the Snake River (Idaho, USA) that had complete bathymetry, with 2D model results of the same river reaches, but were developed by interpolating bathymetry between transects. We chose reaches with simple and complex channel morphologies to test the variability of error that may be expected for natural channels that fall between these types. We evaluated the error created on sediment transport by size class and habitat quality for fish species. The preliminary results indicate that increasing the cross section

  7. The State of Addictions Education Programs: Results of a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory survey on collegiate addictions studies programs offered in the United States. Eighteen percent of these programs are at the graduate level, 13% at the bachelor's level, and 69% at the associate's level. Counseling courses by far were the most cited addiction studies offered at all academic levels with…

  8. Facebook use and chronotype: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Blachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Díaz-Morales, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Facebook has become the most popular social networking site round the world. In seeking an explanation for this phenomenon, individual differences in circadian functioning seem to be an interesting issue. The main aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between morningness/eveningness and Facebook use (intrusion and intensity). The participants were 663 Facebook users. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, Facebook Intensity Scale and the Composite Scale of Morningness were used. Our results indicate that chronotype is negatively related with Facebook usage. Eveningness people use Facebook intensively and their Facebook use is more intrusive. Moreover, eveningness in combination with young age predicted Facebook intensity.

  9. Posture and balance control in patients with acromegaly: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Silva, Débora Pedroza Guedes; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disease that presents with multiple systemic manifestations, including changes in body composition, joint abnormalities, muscular impairment and visual disturbances. This study aimed to assess posture and body balance in acromegalic patients and to establish the correlation between these measures. Twenty-eight acromegalic patients and a similar number of control subjects matched for sex, age, weight, height and body mass index underwent postural evaluation using the photogrammetry and measurement of balance using the stabilometry in two tasks: feet apart, eyes open and feet together, eyes closed. In comparison with the control group, the acromegalic group presented postural deviations in lateral views in the vertical alignment of the trunk (P=0.001 for the right side and P=0.021 for the left), the hip angle (P=0001 for the right side and P=0.016 for the left side) and horizontal alignment of the pelvis (P=0.017 for the right and P<0.001 for the left side). Compared with healthy subjects, the acromegalic patients presented displacement of the centre of pressure in both the anterior-posterior direction and the medial-lateral direction in both evaluated tasks. We observed significant correlations between balance measures and the following posture evaluation variables: distance between the lower limbs, horizontal alignment of the head and vertical alignment of the head. Our results suggest that posture and balance need to be evaluated for acromegalic patients in clinical practice, as there are significant postural imbalances and deviations in these patients.

  10. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  11. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  12. Converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms in hyperspherical partial wave theory at 6 eV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.

    2004-04-01

    Here we report a set of converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms obtained in the hyperspherical partial wave theory for equal energy sharing kinematics at 6 eV energy above threshold. The calculated cross section results are generally in excellent agreement with the absolute measured results of Doerner et al. [Phys. Rev. 57, 1074 (1998)].

  13. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  14. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  15. Updated Users' Guide for RSAP -- A Code for Display and Manipulation of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2003-07-29

    RSAP [1] is a computer code for display and manipulation of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY [2] is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. This users' guide provides documentation for the recently updated RSAP code (version 6). The code has been ported to the Linux platform, and several new features have been added, including the capability to read cross section data from ASCII pointwise ENDF files as well as double-precision PLT output from SAMMY. A number of bugs have been found and corrected, and the input formats have been improved. Input items are parsed so that items may be separated by spaces or commas.

  16. Results of total cross section measurements for 197Au in the neutron energy region from 4 to 108 keV at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Dupont, E.; Kopecky, S.; Massimi, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2013-11-01

    Transmission measurements have been performed to determine the total cross section for neutron-induced reactions with 197Au in the energy region from 4keV to 108keV. The experiments were carried out at a 50m measurement station of the time-of-flight facility GELINA using a 6Li glass scintillator. The average total cross section as a function of neutron energy was derived after correcting the observed average transmission for cross section fluctuations due to resonance structures. The results have been compared with literature data and with the total cross section resulting from a dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential. The neutron strength function for s -wave neutrons and an orbital-independent scattering radius, together with their covariance matrix, have been derived in the neutron energy region between 4keV and 108keV through a parameterization of the total cross section based on a nuclear reaction theory.

  17. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  18. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  19. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  20. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  1. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  2. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  3. What shape do UK trainees want their training to be? Results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Rashid, Mustafa; Smitham, Peter; Vesey, Alex; McGregor, Richard; Scheeres, Karl; Bailey, Jon; Sohaib, Syed Mohammed Afzal; Prior, Matthew; Frost, Jonathan; Al-Deeb, Walid; Kugathasan, Gana; Gokani, Vimal J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The British Government is acting on recommendations to overhaul postgraduate training to meet the needs of the changing population, to produce generalist doctors undergoing shorter broad-based training (Greenaway Review). Only 45 doctors in training were involved in the consultation process. This study aims to obtain a focused perspective on the proposed reforms by doctors in training from across specialities. Design Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting/participants Following validation, a 31-item electronic questionnaire was distributed via trainee organisations and Postgraduate Local Education and Training Board (LETB) mailing lists. Throughout the 10-week study period, the survey was publicised on several social media platforms. Results Of the 3603 demographically representative respondents, 69% knew about proposed changes. Of the respondents, 73% expressed a desire to specialise, with 54% keen to provide general emergency cover. A small proportion (12%) stated that current training pathway length is too long, although 86% felt that it is impossible to achieve independent practitioner-level proficiency in a shorter period of time than is currently required. Opinions regarding credentialing were mixed, but tended towards disagreement. The vast majority (97%) felt credentialing should not be funded by doctors in training. Respondents preferred longer placement lengths with increasing career progression. Doctors in training value early generalised training (65%), with suggestions for further improvement. Conclusions This is the first large-scale cross-specialty study regarding the Shape of Training Review. Although there are recommendations which trainees support, it is clear that one size does not fit all. Most trainees are keen to provide a specialist service on an emergency generalist background. Credentialing is a contentious issue; however, we believe removing aspects from curricula into post-Certificate of Completion of

  4. Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity-based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Results The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. Conclusions The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible implications for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events. PMID:23672785

  5. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  6. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Certification for Static and Dynamic RCS Measurement Facilities. Volume 2: DOD RCS Demonstration Program Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Electronics Engineers ISAR inverse synthetic aperature radar ISO International Standards Organization J/S jammer-skin Mil Spec military...for Doppler signatures, down-range profiles, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images, as well as whole-body RCS data. ADAMS is also used to...DOCUMENT 804-01 VOLUME II (REVISED AUGUST 2001) Signature Measurement Standards Group RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) CERTIFICATION

  7. Cross-sectional assessment of patient attitudes towards participation in clinical trials: does making results publicly available matter?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher W; Braz, Valerie A; McBride, Stephen M; Roberts, Brian W; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have shown that a majority of patients cite altruistic motives, such as contributing to generalisable medical knowledge, as factors motivating clinical trial participation. We sought to examine the impact of making trial results publicly available on patients' willingness to participate in clinical research. Design Cross-sectional analysis using a questionnaire developed by a panel with expertise in publication bias, informed consent and survey design. Setting A single urban, academic emergency department (ED) in the Northeastern USA. Participants 799 ED patients. Outcome Measures We assessed (1) participants' attitudes towards clinical trial participation, and (2) the impact of whether study results would eventually be made publicly available or not on willingness to participate in a trial. Results Of 799 patients surveyed, 36% (95% CI 32% to 39%) reported that they would generally like to participate in a trial, and another 50% (95% CI 47% to 54%) reported that they would consider participation depending on study details. For the majority of participants, the publication of trial results was either important (36%; 95% CI 33% to 40%) or very important (48%; 95% CI 44% to 51%). Most (63%; 95% CI 59% to 66%) reported they would be less likely to participate in a trial if investigators had not publicly released results from a prior study. Additionally, 85% (95% CI 82% to 87%) felt that it was important or very important to receive information about the publication track record of sponsors and investigators during the informed consent process. Conclusions The majority of patients in this sample would consider participation in a clinical trial. Patients value the public release of trial results, and believe that the informed consent process should address the possibility of non-publication. PMID:27884854

  8. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A.; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs. PMID:28134805

  9. Postpartum depression: identifying associations with bipolarity and personality traits. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Mączka, Grzegorz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-30

    The goals of this study have been to determine the prevalence of the bipolar spectrum features in the population of women with postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, as well as to analyze the personality differences between putative 'unipolar' and 'bipolar' PPD subjects. The sample enrolled into the cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women at 6-12 weeks postpartum. The authors used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; cut-off score: 13 pts.) for the assessment of the PPD symptoms, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ; cut-off scores: 7 or 8 pts.) for diagnosing the bipolar features, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for the assessment of personality traits. The EPDS-positive subjects were more likely to score positively on the MDQ, as compared to the EPDS-negative ones. The EPDS-positive subjects who also scored ≥8 pts. on the MDQ were characterized by higher index of neuroticism, as compared to those who scored positively on the EPDS only. The results suggest that the presence of PPD symptoms is related to significantly higher scores of bipolarity and neuroticism. The more robust trait of neuroticism might be a marker of the 'bipolar' PPD, as compared to the 'unipolar' form of the disorder.

  10. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  11. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  12. Delays in receiving obstetric care and poor maternal outcomes: results from a national multicentre cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of maternal deaths in low-and middle-income countries are preventable. Delay in obtaining access to appropriate health care is a fairly common problem which can be improved. The objective of this study was to explore the association between delay in providing obstetric health care and severe maternal morbidity/death. Methods This was a multicentre cross-sectional study, involving 27 referral obstetric facilities in all Brazilian regions between 2009 and 2010. All women admitted to the hospital with a pregnancy-related cause were screened, searching for potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC), maternal death (MD) and maternal near-miss (MNM) cases, according to the WHO criteria. Data on delays were collected by medical chart review and interview with the medical staff. The prevalence of the three different types of delays was estimated according to the level of care and outcome of the complication. For factors associated with any delay, the PR and 95%CI controlled for cluster design were estimated. Results A total of 82,144 live births were screened, with 9,555 PLTC, MNM or MD cases prospectively identified. Overall, any type of delay was observed in 53.8% of cases; delay related to user factors was observed in 10.2%, 34.6% of delays were related to health service accessibility and 25.7% were related to quality of medical care. The occurrence of any delay was associated with increasing severity of maternal outcome: 52% in PLTC, 68.4% in MNM and 84.1% in MD. Conclusions Although this was not a population-based study and the results could not be generalized, there was a very clear and significant association between frequency of delay and severity of outcome, suggesting that timely and proper management are related to survival. PMID:24886330

  13. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  14. Preliminary results of the cross-section measurement of e+e- → φ(1020)η process with the CMD-3 detector at VEPP-2000 collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. L.; Akhmetshin, R. R.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Gromov, E. M.; Ignatov, F. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kazanin, V. F.; Khazin, B. I.; Koop, I. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kozyrev, E. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Romanov, A. L.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Solodov, E. P.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-03-01

    We report preliminary results on the cross section of the process e+e- → φ(1020)η measured at 30 center-of-mass energy points in the range from 1.59 up to 2.0 GeV. Data analysis is based on the integrated luminosity of 22 pb-1 collected with the CMD-3 detector in 2011-2012. The obtained cross section agrees with the BaBar measurement and has better statistical accuracy.

  15. Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Xavier; Baron, Gabriel; Garelik, Daniel; Villes, Virginie; Dupré, Thierry; Leport, Catherine; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Ravaud, Philippe; Spire, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess prevalence of, and factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence in HIV patients. Design A one-day cross-sectional national survey. Methods 727 consecutive outpatients from a representative sample of 82 French units specialized in HIV-infected patient care were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, assessing smoking habits, dependence, cessation motivation, other substance abuse, socio-cultural characteristics, life with HIV and its treatment. Smoking prevalence and dependence were assessed and compared with a representative sample of the general French population; associated factors were determined. Results 593 (82%) patients completed the questionnaire, 12% were active or ex-intravenous drug users, 37% were homosexual men; 43% were active smokers (31% in the French population). Fifty-six percent of smokers were classified as moderately or highly dependent, 14% of smokers were highly motivated and free of other substance abuse and of depressive symptoms. Smoking was independently associated with male sex (OR=2.38; 95% CI: 0.99–1.11), BMI (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.14-1.03), smoking environment (OR=4.75; 95% CI: 3.02–7.49), excessive alcohol consumption (OR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.20–5.23), illicit drug use (OR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.41–4.19), HIV status disclosure to family (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.16–2.85) and experience of rejection due to disclosure (OR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.14–3.17). Disclosure and drug substitutes’ usage were associated with high tobacco dependence. Conclusions Tobacco smoking is frequent and associated with other substance use and HIV disclosure. The rate of smokers who would be good candidates for a standard tobacco cessation program appears very low. Tobacco reduction or cessation strategies should be adapted to this population. PMID:18572752

  16. Pediatric obesity and gallstone disease: results from a cross-sectional study of over 510,000 youth

    PubMed Central

    Koebnick, Corinna; Smith, Ning; Black, Mary Helen; Porter, Amy H.; Richie, Bradley A.; Hudson, Sharon; Gililland, Deborah; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Longstreth, George F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between childhood and adolescent obesity, the risk of gallstones and the potential effect modification by oral contraceptive use in girls. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, oral contraceptive use, and diagnosis of cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis were extracted from electronic medical records of 510,816 patients aged 10–19 years enrolled in an integrated health plan 2007–2009. Results We identified 766 patients with gallstones. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of gallstones for under/normal weight (=reference), overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity in boys were 1.00, 1.46 (0.94–2.27), 1.83 (1.17–2.85), and 3.10 (1.99–4.83) and in girls 1.00, 2.73 (95% CI 2.18–3.42), 5.75 (4.62–7.17), and 7.71 (6.13–9.71), respectively (P for interaction sex × weightclass <0.001). Among girls, oral contraceptive use was associated with higher odds for gallstones (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.66–2.40). Girls who used oral contraceptives were at higher odds for gallstones than their counterparts in the same weight class who did not use oral contraceptives (P for interaction weight class × oral contraceptive use = 0.023). Conclusions Due to the shift towards extreme childhood obesity, especially in minority children, pediatricians can expect to face increasing numbers of children and adolescents affected by gallstone disease. PMID:22314396

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis is Associated with Left Ventricular Concentric Remodeling: Results of a Population-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Elena; Davis, John M.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Roger, Véronique L.; Karon, Barry L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Therneau, Terry M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study left ventricular (LV) geometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have no heart failure (HF) versus subjects without either RA or HF, and to determine the impact of RA on LV remodeling. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted among adult (≥50 years) RA patients and age- and sex-matched non-RA subjects without a history of HF. All participants underwent a standard 2D/Doppler echocardiography. LV geometry was classified into four categories based on relative wall thickness and sex-specific cut-offs for LV mass index: concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, or normal geometry. Results The study included 200 RA patients and 600 matched non-RA subjects (mean age 65; 74% female in both cohorts). RA patients were significantly more likely to have abnormal LV geometry than non-RA subjects (odds ratio [OR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 2.00), adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Among those with abnormal LV geometry, RA patients had significantly increased odds of concentric LV remodeling (OR 4.73; 95% CI 2.85, 7.83). In linear regression analyses, LV mass index appeared to be lower in RA patients currently using corticosteroids (Beta +/− standard error: −0.082 +/− 0.027; p=0.002), adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Conclusion RA was strongly associated with abnormal LV remodeling, particularly, with concentric LV remodeling, among patients without HF. This association was significant beyond adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. RA disease related factors may promote changes in LV geometry. The biological mechanisms underlying LV remodeling warrant further investigation. PMID:23553738

  18. Factors Associated with Leishmania Asymptomatic Infection: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Highland Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4–15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. Conclusions/Significance A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection. PMID:23029576

  19. Factors influencing intact skin in women with incontinence using absorbent products: results of a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yoshie; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi; Konya, Chizuko; Sugama, Junko

    2010-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in elderly incontinent people. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and compare properties of intact skin on the buttocks and subumbilicus area in elderly people wearing absorbent products and to identify pad environment factors that affect skin properties. Study participants included 45 elderly (age range: 68 to 103 years) female residents of one nursing home who were incontinent of feces and urine (dual incontinence group--DIG, n = 35) or feces only (fecal incontinence group--FIG, n= 10). Skin pH and hydration were measured and factors believed to affect the perineal environment and contribute to the development of IAD were assessed. In both DIG and FIG, skin hydration levels and pH were higher in the coccygeal than in the subumbilical area. Skin hydration of the sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (P = 0.019) and skin pH on the coccygeal region and sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (coccygeal region, P = 0.013; sacral region, P = 0.023). Absorbent pad surface pH (P &0.01) and excessive sweating (P = 0.006) were significantly related to skin pH. Results show that properties of perineal skin in elderly women with incontinence are affected by occlusion with pads, increasing the risk of IAD. Studies comparing the effect of various types of pads and pad-change frequencies on skin properties are needed.

  20. Epidemic diffusion of OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Italy: results of the first cross-sectional countrywide survey.

    PubMed

    Principe, Luigi; Piazza, Aurora; Giani, Tommaso; Bracco, Silvia; Caltagirone, Maria Sofia; Arena, Fabio; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Tammaro, Federica; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pagani, Laura; Luzzaro, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is emerging worldwide as a public health problem in various settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CRAb isolates in Italy and to characterize their resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness. A countrywide cross-sectional survey was carried out at 25 centers in mid-2011. CRAb isolates were reported from all participating centers, with overall proportions of 45.7% and 22.2% among consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates of A. baumannii from inpatients (n = 508) and outpatients (n = 63), respectively. Most of them were resistant to multiple antibiotics, whereas all remained susceptible to colistin, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of ≤ 0.5 mg/liter. The genes coding for carbapenemase production were identified by PCR and sequencing. OXA-23 enzymes (found in all centers) were by far the most common carbapenemases (81.7%), followed by OXA-58 oxacillinases (4.5%), which were found in 7 of the 25 centers. In 6 cases, CRAb isolates carried both bla(OXA-23-like) and bla(OXA-58-like) genes. A repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR technique, multiplex PCRs for group identification, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine the genetic relationships among representative isolates (n = 55). Two different clonal lineages were identified, including a dominant clone of sequence type 2 (ST2) related to the international clone II (sequence group 1 [SG1], SG4, and SG5) and a clone of ST78 (SG6) previously described in Italy. Overall, our results demonstrate that OXA-23 enzymes have become the most prevalent carbapenemases and are now endemic in Italy. In addition, molecular typing profiles showed the presence of international and national clonal lineages in Italy.

  1. Elastic Differential Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin M.; Ford, William P.; Norbury, John W.; Vera, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A less than or equal to 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon- nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability.

  2. The OSMOSE program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides: Preliminary results in a PWR-UOx spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hudelot, J. P.; Antony, M.; Bernard, D.; Fougeras, P.

    2006-07-01

    The need for improved nuclear data for minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world - especially for studies relating to plutonium management, waste incineration, transmutation of waste, and Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 241}Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-BX However information on the minor actinides (i.e. {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 235}Cm, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 247}Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. In the OSMOSE program, the reactivity worth of samples containing separated actinides are measured in different neutron spectra using an oscillation technique with an overall expected accuracy better than 3%. Reactivity effects of less than 10 pcm (0.0001 or approximately 1.5 cents) are measured and compared with calibrations to determine the differential reactivity

  3. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  4. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J T; Rousing, T; Kudahl, A B; Hansted, H J; Pedersen, L J

    2016-04-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition score<2.5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. Herd identity was included as a random factor in all models. The nurse sows had a significantly higher risk of swollen bursae on legs (P=0.038) and udder wounds (P=0.001). No differences in risk of being thin or having shoulder lesions were found. Foster litters had significantly higher risk of being dirty (P=0.026) and getting carpal abrasions (P=0.024) than non-foster litters. There was a tendency for higher lameness in foster litters than in non-foster litters (P=0.052). The results show that nurse sows and their piglets to some extent experience more welfare problems than non-nurse sows with piglets at a similar age.

  5. Deprivation, clubs and drugs: results of a UK regional population-based cross-sectional study of weight management strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising levels of obesity in England, little is known about slimming club and weight loss drug (medication) use or users. In order to inform future commissioning, we report the prevalence of various weight management strategies and examine the associations between slimming club and medication use and age, gender, deprivation and body mass index. Methods A population based cross-sectional survey of 26,113 adults was conducted in South Yorkshire using a self-completed health questionnaire. Participants were asked whether they had ever used the following interventions to manage their weight: increasing exercise, healthy eating, controlling portion size, slimming club, over the counter weight loss medication, or meal replacements. Factors associated with slimming club and weight-loss medication use were explored using logistic regression. Results Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52–21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82). Conclusion A large proportion of individuals report having used weight management strategies. Slimming clubs and over-the-counter weight loss medication

  6. A cross-sectional multicenter study of osteogenesis imperfecta in North America - results from the linked clinical research centers.

    PubMed

    Patel, R M; Nagamani, S C S; Cuthbertson, D; Campeau, P M; Krischer, J P; Shapiro, J R; Steiner, R D; Smith, P A; Bober, M B; Byers, P H; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F; Lee, B H; Hart, T; Sutton, V R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n = 544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean lumbar spine area bone mineral density (LS aBMD) was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answering questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of 'phenotypic expansion' driven by next-generation sequencing.

  7. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  8. Association Between Falls and Brain Subvolumes: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Barden, John; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Chester, Victoria L; Szturm, Tony; Grenier, Sébastien; Léonard, Guillaume; Bherer, Louis; Annweiler, Cédric; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    Falls are a consequence of gait instability. Cortical and subcortical abnormalities have been associated with gait instability but not yet with falls. This study aims to compare the global and regional brain subvolumes between healthy older fallers and non-fallers. A total of 77 healthy older individuals (23 fallers and 54 non-fallers, 69.8 ± 3.5 years; 45.5 % female) were included in this study using a cross-sectional design. Based on an a priori hypothesis, the following brain subvolumes were quantified from three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI using FreeSurfer software: total white matter abnormalities, total white matter, total cortical and subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex volumes. Gait performances were also recorded. Age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, use of psychoactive drugs, far-distance visual acuity, lower-limb proprioception, depressive symptoms and cognitive scores (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery) were used as covariates. Fallers have more frequently depressive symptoms (P = 0.048), a lower far distance visual acuity (P = 0.026) and a higher coefficient of variation of stride time (P = 0.008) compared to non-fallers. There was a trend to greater subvolumes for the somatosensory cortex (P = 0.093) and the hippocampus (P = 0.060) in the falls group. Multiple logistic regressions showed that subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and the hippocampus (P < 0.042) were increased in fallers compared to non-fallers, even after adjustment for clinical and brain characteristics. The greater subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus reported in fallers compared to non-fallers suggests a possible brain compensatory mechanism involving spatial navigation and integration of sensory information.

  9. Epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in South Sudan: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, Fredrick M; Kapaga, Angolwisye M; Mbassa, Gabriel K; Mtui, Paul F; Wani, Rhombe J

    2012-09-03

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in five states of South Sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. The purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in South Sudan and their uses in future control strategies. A total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. The indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesian bigemina. Sero-conversion risks for T. parva and T. mutans were 27.3% and 31.3% respectively, whilst the risk was 57.6% and 52.8% for A. marginale and B. bigemina, respectively. Major tick species identified include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma variegatum, and Rhipicephalus evertsi. There was great variation (P ≤ 0.001) in the number of all these ticks, both between herds in a state and between calves in an individual herd. The low and intermediate sero-conversion risks observed in the study states suggest that immunisation against East Coast fever (ECF) is justified. Fortunately, three major genotypes that were identified by applying Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP) analysis on the p104 to the blood samples and T. parva Muguga, matched very well with T. parva Kiambu 5 and T. parva Muguga; therefore the Muguga cocktail can be used for the immunisation of cattle in South Sudan. However, prospective studies are required to develop optimal control measures for tick-borne diseases under different ecological and husbandry practices in South Sudan.

  10. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  11. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  12. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  13. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all < or =6 years. Crossbred cats outnumbered pedigree cats by a ratio of 3.3:1. The Burmese was the most common breed, followed by the Persian. The median age of pedigree cats (5.5 years) was significantly lower than for domestic crossbred cats (7.0 years). Most cats were housed both indoors and outdoors (72.6%), with 19.7% being restricted to indoors and/or 'pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet

  14. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  15. Total integral reactive cross sections for F + H2 yielding HF + H - Comparison of converged quantum, quasiclassical trajectory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Judson, Richard S.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Baer, Michael; Kouri, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports converged quantum total integral reactive cross sections for the reaction F + H2 yielding HF + H, for initial rotational states j sub i = 0 and 1, using a time-dependent method. The results are compared to classical results and to the experimental results of Neumark et al. (1985). Strong quantum effects are found in the threshold region for both initial states (i.e., in the dependence of the reaction on initial state for low energies). The classical results agree better with experiment than do the quantum results; this appears to be due to errors in the potential used.

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm: New results from data taken at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviani, M.; Meaze, M. H.; Colonna, N.; Praena, J.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Galanopoulos, S.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2012-03-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm was measured at n_TOF in a wide energy range and with high resolution. The energy dependence, measured in a single measurement from 30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy, has been determined with 5% accuracy relative to the 235U(n,f) cross section. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the absolute value, the data have been normalized at thermal energy to recent measurements performed at ILL and BR1. In the energy range of overlap, the results are in fair agreement with some previous measurements and confirm, on average, the evaluated cross section in the ENDF/B-VII.0 database, although sizable differences are observed for some important resonances below 20 eV. A similar behavior is observed relative to JENDL/AC-2008, a reactor-oriented database for actinides. The new results contribute to the overall improvement of the databases needed for the design of advanced reactor systems and may lead to refinements of fission models for the actinides.

  17. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  18. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  19. RESULTS FOR THE INTERMEDIATE-SPECTRUM ZEUS BENCHMARK OBTAINED WITH NEW 63,65Cu CROSS-SECTION EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    The four HEU, intermediate-spectrum, copper-reflected Zeus experiments have shown discrepant results between measurement and calculation for the last several major releases of the ENDF library. The four benchmarks show a trend in reported C/E values with increasing energy of average lethargy causing fission. Recently, ORNL has made improvements to the evaluations of three key isotopes involved in the benchmark cases in question. Namely, an updated evaluation for 235U and evaluations of 63,65Cu. This paper presents the benchmarking results of the four intermediate-spectrum Zeus cases using the three updated evaluations.

  20. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Mechanical and optical behavior of a tunable liquid lens using a variable cross section membrane: modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Bustamante, Mario C.; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Calixto, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    A lens containing a liquid medium and having at least one elastic membrane as one of its components is known as an elastic membrane lens (EML). The elastic membrane may have a constant or variable thickness. The optical properties of the EML change by modifying the profile of its elastic membrane(s). The EML formed of elastic constant thickness membrane(s) have been studied extensively. However, EML information using elastic membrane of variable thickness is limited. In this work, we present simulation results of the mechanical and optical behavior of two EML with variable thickness membranes (convex-plane membranes). The profile of its surfaces were modified by liquid medium volume increases. The model of the convex-plane membranes, as well as the simulation of its mechanical behavior, were performed using Solidworks® software; and surface's points of the deformed elastic lens were obtained. Experimental stress-strain data, obtained from a silicone rubber simple tensile test, according to ASTM D638 norm, were used in the simulation. Algebraic expressions, (Schwarzschild formula, up to four deformation coefficients, in a cylindrical coordinate system (r, z)), of the meridional profiles of the first and second surfaces of the deformed convex-plane membranes, were obtained using the results from Solidworks® and a program in the software Mathematica®. The optical performance of the EML was obtained by simulation using the software OSLO® and the algebraic expressions obtained in Mathematica®.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  3. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  4. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  5. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  6. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  7. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  8. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  9. Patient’s safety culture among Tunisian healthcare workers: results of a cross sectional study in university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cheikh, Asma Ben; Bouafia, Nabiha; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Ezzi, Olfa; Nouira, Amel; Njah, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare safety has become a public health priority in developed world. Development of safety culture care is fundamental pillar to any strategy for improving quality and safety care. The objective of this study is to measure level of patients’ safety culture among healthcare professionals at university hospital, center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Methods We conducted, in 2013, a descriptive study among all licensed physicians (n= 116) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 203) exercising at university hospital center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Measuring instrument used is a valid questionnaire containing ten safety care dimensions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results The response rates were 74.1% for physicians and 100% for paramedical staff. Overall score of different dimensions varies between 32.7% and 68.8%. Dimension having most developed score (68.8%) was perception of “Frequency and reporting adverse events”. Dimension with lowest score (32.7%) was “Management support for safety care”. Conclusion Our study has allowed us to conclude that all dimensions of patients’ safety culture need to be improved among our establishment’s professionals. Therefore, more efforts are necessary in order to develop a security culture based on confidence, learning, communication and team work and rejecting sanction, blame, criminalization and punitive reporting. PMID:28154654

  10. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries

    PubMed Central

    Chard, Anna N.; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia – external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia – and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships, and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from 7 countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (USA) were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia. PMID:26096688

  11. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p < .001) showed low body satisfaction (44.8%) and fewer girls (p < .001) had high body satisfaction (17.6%) compared to boys (28.5% and 29.0%, respectively). A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between BMI status and gender on body satisfaction F(2, 3243) = 4.10, p = .017, η2 = .003. In boys, body satisfaction was higher in normal weight and underweight in comparison to overweight individuals (p < .001). Underweight girls presented higher body satisfaction than those who were normal weight and overweight (p < .001). Our findings indicated that, in relation to gender, BMI status can be associated with different body satisfaction in adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  12. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women). Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption) and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test) using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age (<65, ≥65) or race (white, non-white). Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies. PMID:22908937

  13. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers: Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Knox, Sarah S.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    Policing is one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations and such stress can have deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in male and female police officers from two study populations, Buffalo, NY and Spokane, WA. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. MetSyn was defined using the 2005 AHA/NHBLI guidelines. Analysis of covariance was used to describe differences in number of MetSyn components across depressive symptom categories. The number of MetSyn components increased significantly across categories of CES-D for Spokane men only (p-trend = 0.003). For each 5-unit increase in CES-D score, odds increased by 47.6% for having hypertriglyceridemia, by 51.8% for having hypertension, and by 56.7% for having glucose intolerance. Exploring this association is important since both are predictors of future chronic health problems and the results could be helpful in developing future gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts among police officers. PMID:22315628

  14. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  15. Chronic pelvic pain, psychiatric disorders and early emotional traumas: Results of a cross sectional case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L; Carvalho, Ana Carolina F; Donadon, Mariana F; Moreno, André L; Polli-Neto, Omero

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and early emotional traumas between women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and healthy women. METHODS One hundred women in reproductive age, 50 of them had CPP (according to the criteria set by the International Association for Study of Pain), and 50 were considered healthy after the gynecological evaluation. The eligibility criteria were defined as follows: chronic or persistent pain perceived in the pelvis-related structures (digestive, urinary, genital, myofascial or neurological systems). Only women in reproductive age with acyclic pain for 6 mo, or more, were included in the present study. Menopause was the exclusion criterion. The participants were grouped according to age, school level and socio-economic status and were individually assessed through DSM-IV Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and Early Trauma Inventory Self-report - short form (ETISR-SF Brazilian version). Descriptive statistics, group comparison tests and multivariate logistics regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS The early emotional traumas are highly prevalent, but their prevalence did not differ between the two groups. The current Major Depressive Disorder was more prevalent in women with CPP. The CPP was associated with endometriosis in 48% of the women. There was no difference in the prevalence of disorders when endometriosis was taken into account (endometriosis vs other diseases: P > 0.29). The current Major Depressive Disorder and the Bipolar Disorder had greater occurrence likelihood in the group of women with CPP (ODDS = 5.25 and 9.0). CONCLUSION The data reinforce the link between mood disorders and CPP. The preview evidences about the association between CPP and early traumas tended not to be significant after a stronger methodological control was implemented. PMID:27679773

  16. Prevalence of disability in Manikganj district of Bangladesh: results from a large-scale cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a comprehensive survey on disability to determine the prevalence and distribution of cause-specific disability among residents of the Manikganj district in Bangladesh. Methods The survey was conducted in Manikganj, a typical district in Bangladesh, in 2009. Data were collected from 37 030 individuals of all ages. Samples were drawn from 8905 households from urban and rural areas proportionate to population size. Three sets of interviewer-administered questionnaires were used separately for age groups 0–1 years, 2–10 years and 11 years and above to collect data. For the age groups 0–1 years and 2–10 years, the parents or the head of the household were interviewed to obtain the responses. Impairments, activity limitations and restriction of participation were considered in defining disability consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Results Overall, age-standardised prevalence of disability per 1000 was 46.5 (95% CI 44.4 to 48.6). Prevalence was significantly higher among respondents living in rural areas (50.2; 95% CI 47.7 to 52.7) than in urban areas (31.0; 95% CI 27.0 to 35.0). Overall, female respondents had more disability (50.0; 95% CI 46.9 to 53.1) than male respondents (43.4; 95% CI 40.5 to 46.3). Educational deprivation was closely linked to higher prevalence of disability. Commonly reported prevalences (per 1000) for underlying causes of disability were 20.2 for illness, followed by 9.4 for congenital causes and 6.8 for injury, and these were consistent in males and females. Conclusions Disability is a common problem in this typical district of Bangladesh, which is largely generalisable. Interventions at community level with special attention to the socioeconomically deprived are warranted. PMID:27431897

  17. Therapeutic interventions employed by Greater Toronto Area chiropractors on pregnant patients: results of a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Tammy; Wells, Kayla; Benoit, Samantha; Yohanathan, Sahila; Capelletti, Lauren; Stuber, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to different biomechanical, nutritional, and hormonal considerations, it is possible that chiropractors may employ different therapeutic interventions and recommendations for pregnant patients than non-pregnant ones. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic interventions that chiropractors who are members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association in the Greater Toronto Area most commonly provide to pregnant patients. Methods: An introductory e-mail was sent in October 2011 to 755 members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association within the Greater Toronto Area five days prior to a 15 question survey being distributed via e-mail. Reminder e-mails were sent 13 days and 27 days later. Using descriptive statistics, demographic information was reported along with reported use of different treatments and recommendations for pregnant patients Results: A response rate of 23% was obtained. The majority of the respondents (90%) reported using the Diversified technique on pregnant patients, followed by soft tissue therapy (62%) and Activator (42%). The most common adjunctive therapy recommended to pregnant patients was referral to massage therapy (90%). Most of the respondents (92%) indicated that they prescribe stretching exercises to pregnant patients and recommend a multivitamin (84%) or folic acid (81%) to pregnant patients. Conclusion: In agreement with previous research on chiropractic technique usage on non-pregnant patients, the majority of respondents indicated treating pregnant patients with the Diversified technique, with other chiropractic techniques being utilized at varying rates on pregnant patients. Most respondents indicated prescribing exercise, and making adjunctive and nutritional recommendations frequently for their pregnant patients. PMID:23754858

  18. Physician attitudes toward palliative care for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fenstad, Eric R.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Durst, Louise A.; Frantz, Robert P.; McGoon, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, symptomatic, life-threatening illness; however, it is complex, with variable expression regarding impact on quality of life (QOL). This study investigated attitudes and comfort of physicians regarding palliative care (PC) for patients with PAH and explored potential barriers to PC in PAH. An internet-based, mixed-methods survey was distributed to Pulmonary Hypertension Clinicians and Researchers, a professional organization within the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Only responses from physicians involved in clinical care of patients with PAH were analyzed. Of 355 clinicians/researchers, 79 (22%) returned surveys, including 76 (21%) providers involved in clinical care. Responding physicians were mainly pulmonologists (67%), practiced in university/academic medical centers (89%), had been in practice a mean of 12 ± 7 years, cared for a median of 100 PAH patients per year, and reported a high level of confidence in managing PAH (87%), advanced PAH-specific pharmacologic interventions (95%), and end-of-life care (88%). Smaller proportions were comfortable managing pain (62%) and QOL issues (78%). Most physicians (91%) reported utilizing PC consultation at least once in the prior year, primarily in the setting of end-of-life/active dying (59%), hospice referral (46%), or symptomatic dyspnea/impaired QOL (40%). The most frequent reasons for not referring patients to PC included nonapproval by the patient/family (51%) and concern that PC is “giving up hope” (43%). PAH may result in symptoms that impair QOL despite optimal PAH therapy; however, PC awareness and utilization for PAH providers is low. Opportunities may exist to integrate PC into care for PAH patients. PMID:25621164

  19. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese MSM and Transgender Individuals: Results from a National Online Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peizhen; Tang, Songyuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Ye; Best, John; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D.; Tang, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Background Recreational drug use has increased considerably among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The phenomenon has the potentially to increase HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use among Chinese MSM, and 2) to explore the correlation between gay smartphone based sex-seeking applications (gay apps), HIV/STIs testing, group sex, commercial sex, sexual roles and poppers use among Chinese MSM. Methods MSM who were born biologically male, were at least 16 years of age and had engaged in anal sex with a man at least once were recruited through a nation-wide online survey in 2014. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, recreational drug use, HIV and other STIs testing history and gay app use were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine factors associated with recreational drug use among Chinese MSM. Results Among 1424 participating MSM, 1100 (77.3%) reported ever using recreational drugs in their lifetime. In the last 12 months, 303 (21.3%) used poppers, 34 (2.4%) used crystal meth and 15 (1.0%) used ecstasy. The mean age of respondents was 25.6±6.8 years, 72.9% identified as gay, 41.3% were students, and 83.8% had never been married. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that compared with non-popper users, popper users were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.15–1.96) and other STIs (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.26–2.17). In addition, popper users were more likely to engage in group sex (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI:1.80–3.86), commercial sex (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI:1.13–3.06) and used gay mobile apps to seek sexual partners (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI:1.58–2.80). Conclusion Chinese MSM has a high rate of recreational drug use, including poppers. Public health programs serving MSM may consider integrating intervention programs to decrease recreational drug use related harms. PMID:28107391

  20. Opinions on Kampo and reasons for using it – results from a cross-sectional survey in three Japanese clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) is often used in Japan, but very little data on its users are available. We investigated who uses Kampo, the reasons and opinions for its use. Methods Questionnaire survey in three Japanese outpatient clinics offering Kampo in different settings: Kampo only, Kampo and traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo and Western medicine. Before seeing the doctor, patients were asked about socio-demographic data, medical history, experience with Kampo, general health-related opinions and behaviours, opinions about Western medicine and Kampo, and reasons for Kampo utilization. Descriptive statistics and predictors for Kampo use were calculated. Results A total of 354 questionnaires were completed. Participants were 50.97 ± 15.60 (mean ± SD) years of age, 68% were female. Of all patients, 73% (n = 202) were using Kampo currently and 84% (297) had taken Kampo before. Questions on general health-related opinions and behaviour revealed a strong environmental awareness. The most frequent indications for earlier Kampo use were: common cold (36%), gastrointestinal complaints (30%), oversensitivity to cold (“Hi’e-sho”; 29%), stress/anxiety (21%), and shoulder stiffness (20%). Kampo users suffered more often from chronic illnesses (OR 2.88 [1.48-5.58]). Beliefs in underlying philosophy (Wu Xing (adjusted OR 3.08, [1.11-8.55]), Ying and Yang (OR 2.57 [1.15-5.73], a holistic way of seeing the patient (OR 2.17 [1.53-3.08]), and in Kampo efficacy (OR 2.62 [1.66-4.13]) were positively associated with Kampo use. So was, interestingly, conviction of the efficacy of Western medicine (OR 1.87 [1.28-2.74]). Half of the patients had a general preference for a combination of Kampo and Western treatment. Conclusions Most patients visiting a clinic that also provided Kampo had previous experience with Kampo. Usage was associated with beliefs in philosophical Kampo concepts and its efficacy. PMID:23680097

  1. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  2. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  3. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  4. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  5. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  6. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  7. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  8. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  9. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  10. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  11. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  12. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  13. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  14. Respiratory health associated with exposure to automobile exhaust. III. Results of a cross-sectional study in 1987, and repeated pulmonary function tests from 1987 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Nakai, S; Nitta, H; Maeda, K

    1999-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the association between exposure to automobile exhaust and respiratory health. We selected 3 zones from two geographically different areas in Tokyo on the basis of expected exposure levels: (1) within 20 m from the side of major roads with heavy traffic, (2) between 20 and 150 m from the side of the same road, and (3) a residential district of suburban Tokyo. The subjects of the study were female adults aged 30-59 y. A cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms and repeated pulmonary function testing were also performed in each zone. The results suggested that exposure to automobile exhaust may be associated with respiratory symptoms. Nevertheless, repeated pulmonary function testing did not reveal any consistent differences. Investigators should conduct additional follow-up studies to investigate the decline of pulmonary functions with age.

  15. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  16. The Cross-sectional relationship of hemoglobin levels and functional outcomes in women with self-reported osteoarthrits: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Assaf, Annlouise; Cryer, Byron L.; Lu, Bing; Sands, George; Rodriguez, Beatriz; LaCroix, Andrea; Lessin, Lawrence; Limacher, Marian C.; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Connelly, Stephanie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss is a recognized complication of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in patients with arthritis. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of patient reported outcomes of overall health, physical function, vitality and quality of life (QoL) to hemoglobin (hgb) levels in post menopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis to determine whether hgb levels as potential markers of chronic blood loss were associated with these functional outcomes. Method Post-menopausal women (N=64,850) with self-reported osteoarthritis (srOA) at baseline in the Women’s Health Initiative study, excluding participants with chronic or hemolytic diseases associated with anemia, had hgb levels measured and completed Short Form Health Surveys (SF-36). General linear models analysis adjusting for potential confounders was performed. Results A non-linear plateauing relationship between hgb levels and functional outcomes was found. Participants with srOA had statistically significantly worse overall health, physical function, and vitality, but not QoL, for each gram of hgb below 14 g/dL, compared to those with hgb 14 g/dL (p<0.001.) Participants with srOA taking NSAIDS had worse functional outcomes for each level of Hgb compared to those not reporting NSAIDS use. Conclusion In cross-sectional analyses of post-menopausal women with srOA, differences in hgb levels are related to differences in functional outcomes of overall health, physical function and vitality at clinically important levels. Prospective studies evaluating whether changes in hgb levels result in changes in functional outcomes in participants with OA are needed to confirm of our findings and before any changes in therapeutics based upon hemoglogin levels are considered in the care of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:21723591

  17. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  18. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  19. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  20. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  1. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  2. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  3. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  4. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  5. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  6. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Methods SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik. PMID:23730628

  7. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  8. HIV testing history and preferences for future tests among gay men, bisexual men and other MSM in England: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, T Charles; Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The British HIV Association's (BHIVA) testing guidelines recommend men who have sex with men (MSM) test annually or more frequently if ongoing risk is present. We identify which groups of MSM in England are less likely to have tested for HIV and their preferences for future tests by testing model, in order to inform health promotion programmes. Methods Data come from the Gay Men's Sex Survey 2014, a cross-sectional survey of MSM, aged 16 years or older and living in the UK. Only men who did not have diagnosed HIV and were living in England were included in this analysis. We used logistic regression models to understand how social determinants of health were associated with not testing for HIV in the past 12 months, and never having tested. We then cross-tabulated preferred testing location by demographic characteristics. Results Younger men, older men and men who were not gay identified were least likely to have tested for HIV. Higher educational attainment, migrancy, Black ethnicity and being at higher of risk were associated with greater levels of HIV testing. Men who were less likely to have tested for HIV preferred a wider range of options for future HIV testing. Conclusions If the BHIVA's HIV testing policy of 2008 was used to guide testing priorities among MSM focus would be on increasing the rate of annual testing among MSM at less risk of HIV (ie, younger men, older men and non-gay identified MSM). Instead the promotion of more frequent testing among the groups most at risk of infection should be prioritised in order to reduce the time between infection and diagnosis. PMID:27630068

  9. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  10. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  11. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  12. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  13. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  14. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  15. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  16. Barriers and facilitators to participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) activities: results from a cross-sectional survey of public-sector employees in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Michelle; Blizzard, Leigh; Sanderson, Kristy; Teale, Brook; Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Workplaces are promising settings for health promotion, yet employee participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) activities is often low or variable. This study explored facilitating factors and barriers associated with participation in WHP activities that formed part of a comprehensive WHP initiative run within the Tasmanian State Service (TSS) between 2009 and 2013.Methods: TSS employee (n=3228) completed surveys in 2013. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, employee-perceived availability of WHP activities, employee-reported participation in WHP activities, and facilitators and barriers to participation. Ordinal log-link regression was used in cross-sectional analyses.Results: Significant associations were found for all facilitating factors and participation. Respondents who felt their organisation placed a high priority on WHP, who believed that management supported participation or that the activities could improve their health were more likely to participate. Time- and health-related barriers were associated with participation in fewer activities. All associations were independent of age, sex, work schedule and employee-perceived availability of programs. Part-time and shift-work patterns, and location of activities were additionally identified barriers.Conclusion: Facilitating factors relating to implementation, peer and environmental support, were associated with participation in more types of activities, time- and health-related barriers were associated with less participation.So what?: Large and diverse organisations should ensure WHP efforts have manager support and adopt flexible approaches to maximise employee engagement.

  17. Identifying the symptom and functional domains in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Mozzani, Flavio; Draghessi, Antonella; Atzeni, Fabiola; Catellani, Rosita; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the usefulness of using an Internet survey of patients with fibromyalgia in order to obtain information concerning symptoms and functionality and identify clusters of clinical features that can distinguish patient subsets. Methods An Internet website has been used to collect data. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised version, self-administered Fibromyalgia Activity Score, and Self-Administered Pain Scale were used as questionnaires. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied to the data obtained in order to identify symptoms and functional-based subgroups. Results Three hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study (85.3% women). The highest scored items were those related to sleep quality, fatigue/energy, pain, stiffness, degree of tenderness, balance problems, and environmental sensitivity. A high proportion of patients reported pain in the neck (81.4%), upper back (70.1%), and lower back (83.2%). A three-cluster solution best fitted the data. The variables were significantly different (P<0.0001) among the three clusters: cluster 1 (117 patients) reflected the lowest average scores across all symptoms, cluster 3 (116 patients) the highest scores, and cluster 2 (120 patients) captured moderate symptom levels, with low depression and anxiety. Conclusion Three subgroups of fibromyalgia samples in a large cohort of patients have been identified by using an Internet survey. This approach could provide rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and may be used to identify optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27257392

  18. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  19. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  20. Involvement in treatment decisions: what do adults with asthma want and what do they get? Results of a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Caress, A; Beaver, K; Luker, K; Campbell, M; Woodcock, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current healthcare policy advocates patient participation in treatment decision making. However, in asthma there is little evidence regarding patients' views on such involvement. This study explored the preferred and perceived level of involvement in treatment decisions, rationales for role preference, perceived facilitators of/barriers to involvement, and the interrelationship of role preference and demographic variables in a sample of patients with asthma. Methods: A cross sectional survey was performed of 230 adults with clinician diagnosed asthma from 10 primary care sites and one specialist respiratory centre in north-west England. Preferred role in treatment decisions was assessed using the Control Preferences Scale. Results: Fifty five (23.9%) preferred an active role, 82 (35.7%) a collaborative role, and 93 (40.4%) a passive role; 19 (8.2%) perceived their role as active compared with 45 (19.6%) collaborative and 166 (72.2%) passive. Only 33.5% (n = 77) of respondents attained their most preferred role; 55.2% (n = 127) were less involved than they preferred. Patient related, professional related, and organisational factors, especially quality and duration of consultations, facilitated or hampered involvement. Role preferences were not strongly associated with demographic variables or asthma severity. Conclusions: This study in patients with asthma highlights the fact that there is a need for professional and patient education regarding partnership working, skilful communication, and innovative approaches to service delivery. PMID:15741435

  1. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  2. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  3. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  4. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  5. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  6. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  7. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  9. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. Design A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). Setting 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. Participants A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Results Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. Conclusions The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. PMID

  10. Do Health Care Providers Use Online Patient Ratings to Improve the Quality of Care? Results From an Online-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Physician-rating websites have become a popular tool to create more transparency about the quality of health care providers. So far, it remains unknown whether online-based rating websites have the potential to contribute to a better standard of care. Objective Our goal was to examine which health care providers use online rating websites and for what purposes, and whether health care providers use online patient ratings to improve patient care. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study by surveying 2360 physicians and other health care providers (September 2015). In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed multilevel logistic regression models to ascertain the effects of providers’ demographics as well as report card-related variables on the likelihood that providers implement measures to improve patient care. Results Overall, more than half of the responding providers surveyed (54.66%, 1290/2360) used online ratings to derive measures to improve patient care (implemented measures: mean 3.06, SD 2.29). Ophthalmologists (68%, 40/59) and gynecologists (65.4%, 123/188) were most likely to implement any measures. The most widely implemented quality measures were related to communication with patients (28.77%, 679/2360), the appointment scheduling process (23.60%, 557/2360), and office workflow (21.23%, 501/2360). Scaled-survey results had a greater impact on deriving measures than narrative comments. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed medical specialty, the frequency of report card use, and the appraisal of the trustworthiness of scaled-survey ratings to be significantly associated predictors for implementing measures to improve patient care because of online ratings. Conclusions Our results suggest that online ratings displayed on physician-rating websites have an impact on patient care. Despite the limitations of our study and unintended consequences of physician-rating websites, they still may have the potential to

  11. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  12. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  13. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  14. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Becker, ANL

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and to modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.

  15. Neodymium neutron cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Barry, D P; Trbovich, M J; Danon, Y; Block, R C; Slovacek, R E; Leinweber, G; Burke, J A; Drindak, N J

    2005-01-01

    Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m-long flight station with a 16-segment NaI(Tl) multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15 and 25 m flight stations with a 6Li glass scintillation detector. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by simultaneously fitting the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes lie within the energy range of 1.0-500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integral with this energy region and were compared to calculations obtained when using the resonance parameters from ENDF-B/VI. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 +/- 0.5 b that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the statistical uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters.

  16. Associations of Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics With Drinking: Cross-Sectional Results From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Allison B.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Borrell, Luisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Living in neighborhoods with a high density of alcohol outlets and socioeconomic disadvantage may increase residents’ alcohol use. Few researchers have studied these exposures in relation to multiple types of alcohol use, including beverage-specific consumption, and how individual demographic factors influence these relationships. Objective To examine the relationships of alcohol outlet density and neighborhood disadvantage with alcohol consumption, and to investigate differences in these associations by race/ethnicity and income. Methods Using cross-sectional data (N=5,873) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in 2002, we examine associations of residential alcohol outlet density and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with current, total weekly and heaviest daily alcohol use in gender specific regression models, as well as moderation by race/ethnicity and income. Results Drinking men living near high densities of alcohol outlets had 23–29% more weekly alcohol use than men in low density areas. Among women who drank, those living near a moderate density of alcohol outlets consumed approximately 40% less liquor each week than those in low density areas, but higher outlet densities were associated with more wine consumption (35–49%). Living in highly or moderately disadvantaged neighborhoods was associated with a lower probability of being a current drinker, but with higher rates of weekly beer consumption. Income moderated the relationship between neighborhood context and weekly alcohol use. Conclusions/Importance Neighborhood disadvantage and alcohol outlet density may influence alcohol use with effects varying by gender and income. Results from this research may help target interventions and policy to groups most at risk for greater weekly consumption. PMID:26579610

  17. Prevalence of severe esophagitis in Spain. Results of the PRESS study (Prevalence and Risk factors for Esophagitis in Spain: A cross-sectional study)

    PubMed Central

    Piqué, Núria; Ponce, Marta; Garrigues, Vicente; Rodrigo, Luis; Calvo, Félix; de Argila, Carlos Martín; Borda, Fernando; Naranjo, Antonio; Alcedo, Javier; José Soria, María; Rey, Enrique; Bujanda, Luis; Gisbert, Javier P; Suarez, David; Ponce, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Background *N.P. and M.P. contributed equally to this study.The current prevalence of esophagitis in southern Europe is unknown. In addition, the risk factors for reflux esophagitis are not fully understood. Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence and risk factors for esophagitis in Spain. Methods A prospective, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study (PRESS study) was conducted among 31 gastrointestinal endoscopy units throughout Spain. A total of 1361 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. Sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data were recorded. Results A total of 95% of patients were Caucasian and 52% were male (mean age: 53 ± 17 years). The most frequent symptoms prompting endoscopy were heartburn (40%), regurgitation (26%) and dysphagia (15%). Fifty-four percent of patients undergoing endoscopy were receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Esophagitis (mainly mild-moderate) was present in 154 (12.4%) patients. The severe form was recorded in only 11 (0.8%) patients. Multivariate analysis results indicated that the likelihood of esophagitis was higher in men (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.31–2.78), in patients with high GERD-Q scores (OR = 1.256, 95% CI = 1.176–1.343), weight increase (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 1.003–1.025) and high alcohol consumption (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.16–5.36). Conclusion Severe esophagitis is a rare finding in the Spanish population. Male gender, high GERD-Q score, weight increase and high alcohol consumption are main risk factors for its appearance. PMID:27087951

  18. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guo-Zhu; Gao, Ge; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Yu, Ming-Run; Zhou, Yun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior. The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing. The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior. To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions, three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire: (1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions, (2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions, and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions. Formulae for the point estimate, variance, and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model. Results: Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants, the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI: 21.2–22.2), and each had sex with about three (2.9, 95% CI: 2.4–3.4) male partners on average in the past month. The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI: 50.1–62.8%). In addition, condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI: 74.1–85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner. Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings. PMID:26904985

  19. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  20. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  1. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  2. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  3. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation.

  4. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  5. Use of illicit tobacco following introduction of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: results from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether following standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia, smokers were, as predicted by the tobacco industry, more likely to use illicit tobacco. Methods National cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted continuously from April 2012 (6 months before implementation of plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months after) using responses from current cigarette smokers (n=8679). Changes between pre-PP, the transition to PP and PP phase were examined using logistic regression models. Results Among those whose factory-made cigarettes were purchased in Australia, compared with pre-PP, there were no significant increases in the PP phase in use of: ‘cheap whites’ (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.56, p=0.134); international brands purchased for 20% or more below the recommended retail price (0.2%; OR=3.49, 95% CI 0.66 to 18.35, p=0.140); or packs purchased from informal sellers (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.47, p=0.124). The prevalence of any use of unbranded illicit tobacco remained at about 3% (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08, p=0.141). Conclusions While unable to quantify the total extent of use of illicit manufactured cigarettes, in this large national survey we found no evidence in Australia of increased use of two categories of manufactured cigarettes likely to be contraband, no increase in purchase from informal sellers and no increased use of unbranded illicit ‘chop-chop’ tobacco.

  6. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  7. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durando, P; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Results A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements ‘flu vaccine is safe’, ‘HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu’ and ‘HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year’. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. Discussion All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. Conclusions This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and

  8. Is a schizo-obsessive subtype associated with cognitive impairment? Results from a large cross-sectional study in patients with psychosis and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Julia H; Swets, Marije; Keeman, Soleil; Nieman, Dorien H; Meijer, Carin J

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether candidate cognitive endophenotypes may be used to validate a schizo-obsessive subtype. Using within-subject random effect regression analyses and cross-trait cross-relative analyses, we evaluated the association between obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) and cognitive performance in 984 patients with nonaffective psychosis (22.5% with OCSs), 973 unaffected siblings (7.7% with OCSs), 851 parents (4.2% with OCSs), and 573 controls (4.5% with OCSs). No significant within-subject associations between OCSs and cognitive functioning were found for patients and siblings. Severity of OCSs was associated with worse set-shifting ability in parents and worse processing speed in controls, but effect sizes were small (0.10 and 0.05 respectively). Cross-trait cross-relative analyses yielded no significant results. Contrary to our expectations, neither within-subject analyses nor cross-relative analyses yielded a clear association between OCSs and cognitive performance. Results do not support a schizo-obsessive subtype associated with cognitive impairment.

  9. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  10. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  11. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  12. The Association of Work Stress and Glycemic Status Is Partially Mediated by Autonomic Nervous System Function: Cross-Sectional Results from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Julian; Li, Jian; Mauss, Daniel; Hoffmann, Kristina; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E.; Thayer, Julian F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Work stress is associated with an increased risk of pre-diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and inflammation, as well as decreased autonomic nervous system function as measured, for example, via heart rate variability. We investigated the extent to which the association between work stress and glycemic status is mediated by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and/or inflammation. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS) with 9,937 participants were analyzed. The root mean squared successive differences (RMSSD) from long-term heart rate monitoring during work and night time periods was used to index vmHRV. Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were assessed to determine glycemic status. High sensitive C-reactive protein levels were observed as a measure of systemic inflammation and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance scale was used to evaluate work stress. Mediation models were adjusted for age, sex, and occupational status, and estimations were bootstrapped (5,000 replications). Results Effort-Reward-Imbalance was significantly negatively associated with RMSSD and both glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose during both work and night time periods. Effort-Reward-Imbalance was observed to have a significant direct effect on glycosylated hemoglobin and significant indirect effects, through RMSSD, on both glycemic measures during both time periods. Introducing C-reactive protein as a further mediator to the model did not alter the indirect effects observed. C-reactive protein, as an exclusive mediator, was observed to have smaller direct and indirect effects on the glycemic measures as compared to when Effort-Reward-Imbalance was included in the model. Conclusions Our results suggest that the association between work stress and glycemic status is partially mediated through vmHRV independent of systemic inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein. We conclude that work stress may be an additional

  13. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  14. Requirements and access needs of patients with chronic disease to their hospital electronic health record: results of a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    White, H; Gillgrass, L; Wood, A; Peckham, D G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patient's views on the functionality required for personalised access to the secondary care electronic health record (EHR) and their priorities for development. Design Quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional self-complete survey of patient views on required EHR functionality from a secondary care EHR, including a patient ranking of functionality. Setting Secondary care patients attending a regional cystic fibrosis unit in the north of England. Participants 201 adults (106 (52.7%) males), median age 29 years (range 17–58 years), entered and completed the study. Inclusion criteria are as follows: a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, aged 16 years and over, at the time of clinical stability. Outcome measures Quantitative responses within 4 themes; (1) value placed on aspects of the EHR; (2) access requirements to functions of the EHR; (3) views on information sent to the EHR and (4) patient feedback entered into the EHR. A ranked score for 15 functions of the EHR was obtained. Results Highest ratings (% reporting item as very important/important) were reported for access to clinical measures (lung function (94%), C reactive protein (84%), sputum microbiology (81%) and blood results (80%)), medication changes (82%) and lists (83%) and sending repeat prescription (83%) and treatment requests (80%), while sending symptom diaries was less so (62%). Email contact with clinicians was the most valuable communication element of the EHR (84% very important/important). Of 15 features of the EHR (1=most desirable to 15=least desirable), patients identified ‘clinical measures’ (2.62 (CI 2.07 to 3.06)), and ‘access to medication lists’ (4.91 (CI 4.47 to 5.44)), as highest priority for development and the ability to comment on errors/omissions (11.0 (CI 10.6 to 11.5)) or experience of care (11.8 (CI 11.4 to 12.2)) as lowest. Conclusions Patients want extensive personal access to their hospital EHR, placing high importance on the

  15. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country’s stage in the nutrition transition increased one’s odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one’s weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants’ lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin’s nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin’s nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants’ perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect

  16. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  17. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, José; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance

  18. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. Methods In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Results Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X2=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Conclusions Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug

  19. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  20. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  1. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  2. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  3. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    PubMed

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs.

  4. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers’ educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with

  5. Health-seeking behaviour in the city of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo: results from a cross-sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns about the occurrence of disease among household members generally initiate treatment-seeking actions. This study aims to identify the various treatment-seeking options of patients in Lubumbashi, analyze their health-seeking behaviour, identify determinants for the use of formal care, and analyze direct health care expenditure. Methods A cross-sectional survey of households in Lubumbashi was conducted in July 2010. Information was collected from a randomly selected sample of 251 households with at least one member who had been ill in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results Frequently used initial treatment-seeking options consist of self-medication based on modern medicines (54.6%), the use of first-line health services (23.1%) and hospitals (11.9%), with a perceived effectiveness of 51%, 83% and 91% respectively. If people go for a second option, then formal health care services are most often preferred. The majority (60%) of patients’ spontaneous itineraries reflect the expected functioning of a local health care system, with a patient flow characterised by the use of a first line health facility prior to the use of hospital-based services. Chronicity of the disease is the main determinant of seeking formal care. Analysis of care expenditure reveals that drugs are the only line of expenditure in the informal system and the main source of expenditure in the formal system; costs do not discriminate between first-line health services and hospitals, and the payment system is regressive since the poorest patients pay the same amounts as the richest. Conclusions This study points to the importance of self-medication as the first therapeutic option for the majority of patients in Lubumbashi, whatever the nature of the health problem. There is a lot of room to rationalise this practice. Although formal care is not common initial therapeutic option, it is the source of care most patients turn to, especially when they believe having a chronic

  6. Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic back pain among staff at special schools with multiple and severely handicapped children in Germany: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Germany, about 70,000 teachers and educational staff were teaching at more than 3,000 special schools during the school year 2010/2011. Nursing services like lifting pupils form a substantial part of the work content of the staff at special schools. Since nursing care often involves carrying and lifting pupils, there is a reason to assume an adverse effect on the musculoskeletal health of teachers and other professionals. With the present study we aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic back pain among employees at this type of school. Methods The cross-sectional survey was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 special schools focusing on motoric and/or holistic development of handicapped children in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany). Teachers and educational staff were interviewed using a questionnaire. We applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify influencing factors of chronic back pain. Results Altogether 395 persons (response rate: 59.7%) participated in our study. Respondents were mostly female (86.8%) with a mean age of 45 years. The prevalence of chronic back pain was 38.7%. More than 40% reported frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads (>20 kg). Age [adjusted OR = 1.03 (95%-CI 1.00-1.05) for 1-year increase in age], current smoking [adjusted OR = 2.31 (95%-CI 1.27-4.23)], depression/depressive mood [adjusted OR = 1.85 (95%-CI 1.12-3.06)], frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads [adjusted OR = 2.69 (95%-CI 1.53-4.75)], and frequent exposure to environmental impacts [adjusted OR = 2.18 (95%-CI 1.26-3.76)] were influencing factors of chronic back pain in the final multivariable regression model. Conclusions A large proportion of teachers and educational staff suffered from chronic back pain in our study, indicating a high need for treatment in this professional group. Increasing age, current smoking, a diagnosed depression/depressive mood, carrying and lifting

  7. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Huang, Feifei; Tang, Weiming; Guo, Yufang; Tang, Songyuan; Lei, Yang; Feng, Lei; Wang, Anni; Zhang, Liuyi; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-01-01

    Background Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure index (PPI), ankle-brachial index (ABI) etc.] among them. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments. Results In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001) and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003) with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002) with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001) and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005) were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001) was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005), female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005) and 5years’ duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039) were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without) abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013) higher odds of missing the

  8. Extracellular micronutrient levels and pro-/antioxidant status in trauma patients with wound healing disorders: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disorders in wound healing (DWH) are common in trauma patients, the reasons being not completely understood. Inadequate nutritional status may favor DWH, partly by means of oxidative stress. Reliable data, however, are lacking. This study should investigate the status of extracellular micronutrients in patients with DWH within routine setting. Methods Within a cross-sectional study, the plasma/serum status of several micronutrients (retinol, ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, selenium, and zinc) were determined in 44 trauma patients with DWH in addition to selected proteins (albumin, prealbumin, and C-reactive protein; CRP) and markers of pro-/antioxidant balance (antioxidant capacity, peroxides, and malondialdehyde). Values were compared to reference values to calculate the prevalence for biochemical deficiency. Correlations between CRP, albumin and prealbumin, and selected micronutrients were analyzed by Pearson’s test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Mean concentrations of ascorbic acid (23.1 ± 15.9 μmol/L), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (46.2±30.6 nmol/L), β-carotene (0.6 ± 0.4 μmol/L), selenium (0.79±0.19 μmol/L), and prealbumin (24.8 ± 8.2 mg/dL) were relatively low. Most patients showed levels of ascorbic acid (<28 μmol/L; 64%), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (<50 μmol/L; 59%), selenium (≤ 94 μmol/L; 71%) and β-carotene (<0.9 μmol/L; 86%) below the reference range. Albumin and prealbumin were in the lower normal range and CRP was mostly above the reference range. Plasma antioxidant capacity was decreased, whereas peroxides and malondialdehyde were increased compared to normal values. Inverse correlations were found between CRP and albumin (P < 0.05) and between CRP and prealbumin (P < 0.01). Retinol (P < 0.001), ascorbic acid (P < 0.01), zinc (P < 0.001), and selenium (P < 0.001) were negatively correlated with CRP. Conclusions Trauma

  9. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  10. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. Participants 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18–45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. Primary and secondary outcomes measures CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Results Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). Conclusions The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public

  11. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (<20 employees). The following determinants of exposure were found to ‘decrease’ dust concentration: manual assembling/packing; sanding with adequate exhaust ventilation; adequate exhaust ventilation; vacuum cleaning of machines and special cleaning staff. Conclusions: Despite a substantial

  12. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Syed, Reema; Tehseen, Sarah; Gowani, Saqib A; Waqar, Sana; Zubair, Amina; Yousaf, Wajeeha; Zubairi, Akbar J; Naqvi, Haider

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72) and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9%) and employed (50%). Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%), 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%), 'loneliness' (24.8%) and 'unemployment' (19.3%) as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5%) and Sociachanges (10.6) while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p < 0.05). While these variables plus 'religious inclination' and 'beliefs about cause' were significantly associated with the help seeking behavior of the participants. Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a

  13. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  14. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  15. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  16. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  17. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  18. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  19. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  20. Antinucleus-Nucleus Cross Sections Implemented in Geant4

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhinsky, V.; Apostolakis, J.; Galoyan, A.; Folger, G.; Grichine, V.M.; Ivanchenko, V.N.; Wright, D.H.; /SLAC

    2012-04-26

    Cross sections of antinucleus ({bar p}, {bar d}, {bar t}, {sup 3}{ovr He}, {sup 4}{ovr He}) interactions with nuclei in the energy range 100 MeV/c to 1000 GeV/c per antinucleon are calculated in the Glauber approximation which provides good description of all known {bar p}Across sections. The results were obtained using a new parameterization of the total and elastic {bar p}p cross sections. Simple parameterizations of the antinucleus-nucleus cross sections are proposed for use in estimating the efficiency of antinucleus detection and tracking in cosmic rays and accelerator experiments. These parameterizations are implemented in the Geant4 toolkit.

  1. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  2. Risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in hospital admissions: A cross-sectional, retrospective, case series analysis in valencia, spain

    PubMed Central

    Marco, José Luis; Amariles, Pedro; Boscá, Beatriz; Castelló, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background NSAIDs are a significant cause of drug-related hospital admissions and deaths. The therapeutic effects of NSAIDs have been associated with the risk for developing adverse events, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives The focus of this study was to identify the most common risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) resulting in hospital admissions. A secondary end point was the relationship between use of gastroprotective treatment and relevant risk factors to NSAID-induced UGIB in the selected population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective, case-series analysis of NSAID-induced UGIB resulting in hospital admission to the Requena General Hospital, Valencia, Spain, occurring from 1997 to 2005. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify UGIB admissions associated with NSAIDs. To estimate the probability of association between UGIB and the use of NSAIDs, the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability was used. Patients were categorized as high-risk to develop UGIB if they met ≥1 of the following risk criteria (relevant risk factors): aged ≥65 years (age risk factor); peptic ulcer disease or NSAID gastropathy occurring in the year before their hospital admission (history risk factor); and concomitant use of other NSAIDs, systemic corticoids, oral anticoagulants, or platelet aggregation inhibitors (concomitant medication risk factor). Patients were categorized as candidates to use gastroprotections if they met ≥1 of the relevant risk factors. Patients were categorized as users of gastroprotective treatment if they used proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, or misoprostol at hospital admission. Results This study comprised 209 cases of NSAID-induced UGIB (129 men, 80 women: mean [SD] age, 71.5 [13.8] years; 128 [61.2%] receiving acetyl salicylic acid [ASA], with 72 [34.4%] receiving low

  3. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  4. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  5. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  6. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  7. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  8. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  9. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  10. A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Logie, C H; Alaggia, R; Rwigema, M J

    2014-08-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence.

  11. Association between infant- and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

    2011-08-01

    Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among those who were at the upper ICFI tercile compared to those who were at the middle or lower ICFI tercile (-2.01 and -3.20 respectively). A significant correlation was found between the ICFI and the LAZ (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and r = 0.29, p = 0.01) in children aged 6-8-months and 12-23-months. Multivariable analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, also found a significant association between the ICFI and the LAZ (beta = 0.13, p = 0.03). The predictive capability of the proposed ICFI on nutritional status of children, especially length-for-age, needs to be further evaluated prospectively among healthy children in the community.

  12. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health: results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Björk, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated with three self-reported indicators of well-being: neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. Effect sizes were compared with objective (GIS-based) assessments of the same five qualities. Area-aggregated SGS was positively associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. The association with general health was mediated by physical activity and neighborhood satisfaction. Three perceived qualities had salutogenic potential: historical remains (culture), silence such that sounds of nature can be heard (serene) and species richness (lush). Spacious and wild were not appreciated. Some independent positive effects of the GIS-based index were noted, but could not be consistently attributed to specific qualities. Perceived qualities within green areas, not merely quantity, are related to aspects of well-being in suburban and rural areas.

  13. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  14. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  15. Clustering of geriatric deficits emerges to be an essential feature of ageing - results of a cross-sectional study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Piotrowicz; Agnieszka, Pac; Barbara, Skalska Anna; Jerzy, Chudek; Alicja, Klich-Rączka; Aleksandra, Szybalska; Jean-Pierre, Michel; Tomasz, Grodzicki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of old people suffer from various clinical conditions that affect health, functioning and quality of life. This research is a part of a cross-sectional, nationwide PolSenior Study that provides a comprehensive assessment of eight geriatric impairments and their co-occurrence in a representative sample (3471 participant aged 65-104 years, mean age 78.3 years) of the old adults living in the community in Poland. The participants were recruited randomly from all administrative regions of Poland by a three-stage, proportional, stratified-by-age group selection process. Eight geriatric conditions were assessed: falls, incontinences, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, vision and hearing impairments, malnutrition, and functional dependence. We showed that the most common deficits causing disability were vision and hearing impairments, and mood disorders, with more than two thirds of the participants presented at least one geriatric deficit. We showed that presence any of the analyzed conditions significantly increased the risk for co-occurrence of other examined weaknesses. The highest prevalence odds ratios were for functional dependence and, respectively: malnutrition (8.61, 95%CI: 4.70-15.80), incontinences (8.0, 95%CI:5.93-10.70), and cognitive impairment (7.22; 95%CI:5.91-8.83). We concluded that the majority of the old people living in the community present various clinical conditions that prompt disability. PMID:27794563

  16. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  17. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  18. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  19. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  20. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  1. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  2. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  3. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  4. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  5. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  6. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  7. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  8. Epidemiology of HPV infection and current status of cervical cancer prevention in Greece: final results of the LYSISTRATA cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Siamanta, Vagia; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Lampropoulos, Alexandros F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the overall prevalence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and distribution of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types in Greece and evaluate the participation of women in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between October 2005 and January 2011 in Greece; 5379 women filled out the study questionnaire anonymously. 5107 women underwent cervical HPV-DNA testing, either by Hybrid Capture 2, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, or by the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV test. Overall, 5.8% (295/5107) of women were positive for hrHPV infection. The most common hrHPV type was HPV-16 (24.8% among infected women; 1.4% overall), followed by HPV types 31, 35, 53, 18, 51, 56, 58, 52, 39, 66, 45, 33, 59, and 68. In respect to primary prevention of cervical cancer, acceptance of anti-HPV vaccination appeared to decrease over time (from 85-89.9% annually during 2005-2008 to 64.4-60.5% during 2009-2010, P<0.001). In respect to secondary prevention, only 30.3% of women had regular (annually for more than 5 years) Pap smears; regular gynecologic examinations, Papanicolaou testing, and knowledge of HPV were all associated with various demographic parameters (age, education, place of residence, occupation, and income). The prevalence of hrHPV infection in Greece is similar to that in other European countries; the most common type is HPV-16. The initially relatively high acceptance of HPV vaccination decreased after licensing of the vaccine. Demographic parameters appear to influence participation in cervical cancer screening.

  9. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  10. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  11. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  12. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  13. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  14. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  15. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  16. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  17. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  18. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  19. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  20. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT.

  1. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  2. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  3. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  4. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Gender Differences in Homicide of Neonates, Infants, and Children under 5 y in South Africa: Results from the Cross-Sectional 2009 National Child Homicide Study

    PubMed Central

    Abrahams, Naeemah; Mathews, Shanaaz; Martin, Lorna J.; Lombard, Carl; Nannan, Nadine; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Homicide of children is a global problem. The under-5-y age group is the second largest homicide age group after 15–19 y olds, but has received little research attention. Understanding age and gender patterns is important for assisting with developing prevention interventions. Here we present an age and gender analysis of homicides among children under 5 y in South Africa from a national study that included a focus on neonaticide and infanticide. Methods and Findings A retrospective national cross-sectional study was conducted using a random sample of 38 medico-legal laboratories operating in 2009 to identify homicides of children under 5 y. Child data were abstracted from the mortuary files and autopsy reports, and both child and perpetrator data data were collected from police interviews. We erred towards applying a conservative definition of homicide and excluded sudden infant death syndrome cases. We estimated that 454 (95% CI 366, 541) children under the age of 5 y were killed in South Africa in 2009. More than half (53.2%; 95% CI 46.7%, 59.5%) were neonates (0–28 d), and 74.4% (95% CI 69.3%, 78.9%) were infants (under 1 y), giving a neonaticide rate of 19.6 per 100,000 live births and an infanticide rate of 28.4 per 100,000 live births. The majority of the neonates died in the early neonatal period (0–6 d), and abandonment accounted for 84.9% (95% CI 81.5%, 87.8%) of all the neonates killed. Distinct age and gender patterns were found, with significantly fewer boy children killed in rural settings compared to urban settings (odds ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9; p = 0.015). Abuse-related killings and evidence of sexual assault were more common among older girls than in all other age and gender groups. Mothers were identified as the perpetrators in all of the neonaticides and were the most common perpetrators overall (71.0%; 95% CI 63.9%, 77.2%). Abandoned neonates were mainly term babies, with a mean gestational age of 38 wk. We did not have

  6. Determining the partial photoionization cross-sections of ethyl radicals.

    PubMed

    FitzPatrick, B L; Maienschein-Cline, M; Butler, L J; Lee, S-H; Lin, J J

    2007-12-13

    Using a crossed laser-molecular beam scattering apparatus, these experiments photodissociate ethyl chloride at 193 nm and detect the Cl and ethyl products, resolved by their center-of-mass recoil velocities, with vacuum ultraviolet photoionization. The data determine the relative partial cross-sections for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to form C2H5+, C2H4+, and C2H3+ at 12.1 and 13.8 eV. The data also determine the internal energy distribution of the ethyl radical prior to photoionization, so we can assess the internal energy dependence of the photoionization cross-sections. The results show that the C2H4++H and C2H3++H2 dissociative photoionization cross-sections strongly depend on the photoionization energy. Calibrating the ethyl radical partial photoionization cross-sections relative to the bandwidth-averaged photoionization cross-section of Cl atoms near 13.8 eV allows us to use these data in conjunction with literature estimates of the Cl atom photoionization cross-sections to put the present bandwidth-averaged cross-sections on an absolute scale. The resulting bandwidth-averaged cross-section for the photoionization of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ near 13.8 eV is 8+/-2 Mb. Comparison of our 12.1 eV data with high-resolution ethyl radical photoionization spectra allows us to roughly put the high-resolution spectrum on the same absolute scale. Thus, one obtains the photoionization cross-section of ethyl radicals to C2H5+ from threshold to 12.1 eV. The data show that the onset of the C2H4++H dissociative photoionization channel is above 12.1 eV; this result offers a simple way to determine whether the signal observed in photoionization experiments on complex mixtures is due to ethyl radicals. We discuss an application of the results for resolving the product branching in the O+allyl bimolecular reaction.

  7. Measured data used in the Watusi cross-section sets

    SciTech Connect

    Mustafa, M; Nethaway, D R

    1999-02-09

    In this document we list the experimental data that were used to make up the major cross- section sets that we use in the Watusi code to calculate the amount of detector activation in device tests. In order to use experimental data to make up a cross-section set, it is often necessary to extrapolate the cross sections down to either the threshold energy or to 0.01 keV, and to extrapolate up to 20 MeV. We then fit the data to a function so that we can get a smoothed set of interpolated values at up to 321 energy points. The combined data are then processed with the Hiroshima code into flux-weighted, group-averaged cross sections for use with the output from the different physics design codes. We typically use the standard 53 or 175 energy group structures. In a recent companion memo 1 we described the make up of all of the cross-section sets in detail, giving references to both the experimental data and the theoretical calculations that were used. The following sections have the experimental data, in the form of energy-cross section pairs, for the titanium, chromium, bromine, krypton, yttrium, zirconium, iodine, europium, lutetium, and bismuth sets. The other cross-section sets are not directly based on enough experimental data to warrant their listing here. Many of the reactions used in these sets are based on calculated cross sections. In making these calculations certain parameters are sometimes adjusted so that the calculated cross sections match experimental data. In some of these cases we have made a further normalization to give a closer agreement to selected experimental data, and such normalizations are noted in this document. In other cases no further normalization was made. In Table 1 we summarize the reactions for which we present the experimental data given in Tables 2-46. In Figs. 1-35 we show plots of the experimental data together with the actual excitation functions used in the cross-section sets. Some reactions in the current sets are based on

  8. Deformation styles and exhumation patterns in the Northern Iranian Plateau: New results from integrated balanced cross sections and low-temperature thermochronology (AHe and ZHe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balling, Philipp; Ballato, Paolo; Dunkl, István; Zeillinger, Gerold; Heidarzadeh, Ghasem; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-05-01

    The Iranian Plateau is situated in the collision zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates and forms a NW-SE elongated, 40- to 50-km-thick crustal block, delimited to the north by the Urmieh Dokhtar Volcanic Zone and to south by the High Zagros Mountains. The plateau is characterized by a series of basins and mountain ranges bounded by reverse and transpressive faults. These mountain ranges reflect a history of strong collisional deformation, with intensely faulted and folded Pre-Cambrian (basement) to Miocene (terrestrial sediments of the Upper Red Formation) rocks. Based on the structural evolution, high mean elevation of 2 km, and a crustal thickness of up to 56 km, the realm of the present-day plateau must have absorbed a significant fraction of past plate convergence between Eurasia and Arabia. However, according to seismic and GPS data active deformation is rather limited. In addition, the exact timing and style of deformation, the extent of crustal shortening and thickening on the northern Iranian Plateau during continental collision remain unclear. To address these issues we collected structural data and modeled deformation scenarios cross four mountain ranges that constitute the northern margin of the Iranian Plateau (NW Iran). The Tarom, Mah Neshan and Sultanije mountain ranges are NW-SE oriented, while the northernmost (Bozgosh) is E-W aligned. Due to the lack of subsurface data, several forward and backward models were generated with MOVE (Midland Valley, structural modelling software). The model with the simplest and most robust geological explanation of the field data was chosen. In addition, we combined our structural work with an apatite (U-Th)/He study (AHe) along two transects (Bozgosh, Mah Neshan) and Zircon (U-Th)/He data (ZHe) on higher exhumed locations. In the northern sector of the plateau late Cretaceous (or Paleocene?) rocks had been deposited unconformably onto older, deformed rocks. This suggests that the Arabia-Eurasia collision was

  9. Inclined Bodies of Various Cross Sections at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Leland H.

    1958-01-01

    To aid in assessing effects of cross-sectional shape on body aerodynamics, the forces and moments have been measured for bodies with circular, elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections at Mach numbers 1.98 and 3.88. Results for bodies with noncircular cross sections have been compared with results for bodies of revolution having the same axial distribution of cross-sectional area (and, thus, the same equivalent fineness ratio). Comparisons have been made for bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 20 deg and for Reynolds numbers, based on body length, of 4.0 x 10(exp 6) and 6.7 x 10(exp 6). The results of this investigation show that distinct aerodynamic advantages can be obtained by using bodies with noncircular cross sections. At certain angles of bank, bodies with elliptic, square, and triangular cross sections develop considerably greater lift and lift-drag ratios than equivalent bodies of revolution. For bodies with elliptic cross sections, lift and pitching-moment coefficients can be correlated with corresponding coefficients for equivalent circular bodies. It has been found that the ratios of lift and pitching-moment coefficients for an elliptic body to those for an equivalent circular body are practically constant with change in both angle of attack and Mach number. These lift and moment ratios are given very accurately by slender-body theory. As a result of this agreement, the method of NACA Rep. 1048 for computing forces and moments for bodies of revolution has been simply extended to bodies with elliptic cross sections. For the cases considered (elliptic bodies of fineness ratios 6 and 10 having cross-sectional axis ratios of 1.5 and 2), agreement of theory with experiment is very good. As a supplement to the force and moment results, visual studies of the flow over bodies have been made by use of the vapor-screen, sublimation, and white-lead techniques. Photographs from these studies are included in the report.

  10. Measurement of the 242Pu neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Henderson, R. A.; Bucher, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Baramsai, B.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Dance Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    Precision (n,f) and (n, γ) cross sections are important for the network calculations of the radiochemical diagnostic chain for the U.S. DOE's Stockpile Stewardship Program. 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is relevant to the network calculations of Pu and Am. Additionally, new reactor concepts have catalyzed considerable interest in the measurement of improved cross sections for neutron-induced reactions on key actinides. To date, little or no experimental data has been reported on 242Pu(n, γ) for incident neutron energy below 50 keV. A new measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) reaction was performed with the DANCE together with an improved PPAC for fission-fragment detection at LANSCE during FY14. The relative scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section spans four orders of magnitude for incident neutron energies from thermal to ~ 30 keV. The absolute scale of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section is set according to the measured 239Pu(n,f) resonance at 7.8 eV; the target was spiked with 239Pu for this measurement. The absolute 242Pu(n, γ) neutron capture cross section is ~ 30% higher than the cross section reported in ENDF for the 2.7 eV resonance. Latest results to be reported. Funded by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL) and DE-AC52-06NA25396 (LANL). U.S. DOE/NNSA Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development. Isotopes (ORNL).

  11. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections in Rb and Cs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddish, T. J.; Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; McConkey, J. W.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Stelbovics, A. T.; Bray, I.

    2006-05-01

    We present a new atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionisation cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom. The novel feature of this method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionisation cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the `trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionisation cross sections out of the Cs 6^2P3/2 excited state between 7 - 400 eV. New CCC, R-Matrix with Pseudo-States (RMPS), and Born approximation single ionisation cross sections (SICS) are also presented for both the ground and excited states of Cs and Rb, and compared with the available experimental data. The comparison of the results reveals the importance of the autoionisation and multiple ionisation contributions to the TICS. The autoionisation contribution appears to be substantial for ionisation out of the Cs 6^2P and Rb 5^2P excited states; ˜ 3-4 larger than the direct ionisation contribution predicted by CCC at ˜ 30-50 eV. This surprising result shows the importance of multi-electron processes in determining the ionisation cross sections of heavy alkali atoms.

  12. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  13. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  14. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  15. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  16. The total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, M.; Rhodes, N.; Soper, A. K.; Zoppi, M.

    1999-12-01

    We have measured, using the pulsed neutron source ISIS, the total neutron cross section of liquid para-hydrogen in the vicinity of the triple point. The experimental results compare only qualitatively with the results of the Young and Koppel theory. However, a much better agreement is found once modifications are included in the model which effectively take into account the intermolecular interactions.

  17. Experience With the SCALE Criticality Safety Cross Section Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    2000-08-21

    This report provides detailed information on the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries. Areas covered include the origins of the libraries, the data on which they are based, how they were generated, past experience and validations, and performance comparisons with measured critical experiments and numerical benchmarks. The performance of the SCALE criticality safety cross-section libraries on various types of fissile systems are examined in detail. Most of the performance areas are demonstrated by examining the performance of the libraries vs critical experiments to show general trends and weaknesses. In areas where directly applicable critical experiments do not exist, performance is examined based on the general knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of the cross sections. In this case, the experience in the use of the cross sections and comparisons with the results of other libraries on the same systems are relied on for establishing acceptability of application of a particular SCALE library to a particular fissile system. This report should aid in establishing when a SCALE cross-section library would be expected to perform acceptably and where there are known or suspected deficiencies that would cause the calculations to be less reliable. To determine the acceptability of a library for a particular application, the calculational bias of the library should be established by directly applicable critical experiments.

  18. Theoretical Formalism To Estimate the Positron Scattering Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suvam; Dutta, Sangita; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2016-07-21

    A theoretical formalism is introduced in this article to calculate the total cross sections for positron scattering. This method incorporates positron-target interaction in the spherical complex optical potential formalism. The study of positron collision has been quite subtle until now. However, recently, it has emerged as an interesting area due to its role in atomic and molecular structure physics, astrophysics, and medicine. With the present method, the total cross sections for simple atoms C, N, and O and their diatomic molecules C2, N2, and O2 are obtained and compared with existing data. The total cross section obtained in the present work gives a more consistent shape and magnitude than existing theories. The characteristic dip below 10 eV is identified due to the positronium formation. The deviation of the present cross section with measurements at energies below 10 eV is attributed to the neglect of forward angle-discrimination effects in experiments, the inefficiency of additivity rule for molecules, empirical treatment of positronium formation, and the neglect of annihilation reactions. In spite of these deficiencies, the present results show consistent behavior and reasonable agreement with previous data, wherever available. Besides, this is the first computational model to report positron scattering cross sections over the energy range from 1 to 5000 eV.

  19. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  20. Analytical continuous slowing down model for nuclear reaction cross-section measurements by exploitation of stopping for projectile energy scanning and results for 13C(3He,α)12C and 13C(3He,p)15N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, S.

    2017-03-01

    Ion beam analysis is a set of precise, calibration free and non-destructive methods for determining surface-near concentrations of potentially all elements and isotopes in a single measurement. For determination of concentrations the reaction cross-section of the projectile with the targets has to be known, in general at the primary beam energy and all energies below. To reduce the experimental effort of cross-section measurements a new method is presented here. The method is based on the projectile energy reduction when passing matter of thick targets. The continuous slowing down approximation is used to determine cross-sections from a thick target at projectile energies below the primary energy by backward calculation of the measured product spectra. Results for 12C(3He,p)14N below 4.5 MeV are in rough agreement with literature data and reproduce the measured spectra. New data for reactions of 3He with 13C are acquired using the new technique. The applied approximations and further applications are discussed.

  1. Pion Total Cross Section in Nucleon - Nucleon Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Total cross section parameterizations for neutral and charged pion production in nucleon - nucleon collisions are compared to experimental data over the projectile momentum range from threshold to 300 GeV. Both proton - proton and proton - neutron reactions are considered. Overall excellent agreement between parameterizations and experiment is found, except for notable disagreements near threshold. In addition, the hypothesis that the neutral pion production cross section can be obtained from the average charged pion cross section is checked. The theoretical formulas presented in the paper obey this hypothesis for projectile momenta below 500 GeV. The results presented provide a test of engineering tools used to calculate the pion component of space radiation.

  2. Cross-Sectional Transport Imaging in a Multijunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect

    Haegel, Nancy M.; Ke, Chi-Wen; Taha, Hesham; Guthrey, Harvey; Fetzer, C. M.; King, Richard

    2015-06-14

    Combining highly localized electron-beam excitation at a point with the spatial resolution capability of optical near-field imaging, we have imaged carrier transport in a cross-sectioned multijunction (GaInP/GaInAs/Ge) solar cell. We image energy transport associated with carrier diffusion throughout the full width of the middle (GaInAs) cell and luminescent coupling from point excitation in the top cell GaInP to the middle cell. Supporting cathodoluminescence and near-field photoluminescence measurements demonstrate excitation-dependent Fermi level splitting effects that influence cross-sectioned spectroscopy results as well as transport limitations on the spatial resolution of cross-sectional measurements.

  3. Cross section versus time delay and trapping probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Acosta, G. A.; Fernández-Marín, A. A.; Méndez-Bermúdez, J. A.; Poli, Charles

    2016-07-01

    We study the behavior of the s-wave partial cross section σ (k), the Wigner-Smith time delay τ (k), and the trapping probability P (k) as function of the wave number k. The s-wave central square well is used for concreteness, simplicity, and to elucidate the controversy whether it shows true resonances. It is shown that, except for very sharp structures, the resonance part of the cross section, the trapping probability, and the time delay, reach their local maxima at different values of k. We show numerically that τ (k) > 0 at its local maxima, occurring just before the resonant part of the cross section reaches its local maxima. These results are discussed in the light of the standard definition of resonance.

  4. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections III - light systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1999-09-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model [R.K. Tripathi, F.A. Cucinotta, J.W. Wilson, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 117 (1996) 347; R.K. Tripathi, J.W. Wilson, F.A. Cucinotta, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 129 (1997) 11] is extended for light systems ( A ⩽ 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is light particle and the other is medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium and heavy systems. As a result the extended model can reliably be used in all studies where there is a need for absorption cross sections.

  5. Reaction cross sections of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Y.; Hagino, K.; Sagawa, H.

    2012-10-01

    Using the Glauber theory, we calculate reaction cross sections for the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne. To this end, we assume that the 31Ne nucleus takes the 30Ne+n structure. To take into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus 30Ne, we employ the particle-rotor model (PRM). We compare the results to those in the adiabatic limit of PRM, that is, the Nilsson model, and show that the Nilsson model works reasonably well for the reaction cross sections of 31Ne. We also investigate the dependence of the reaction cross sections on the ground-state properties of 31Ne, such as the deformation parameter and the p-wave component in the ground-state wave function.

  6. Neutron Capture Cross Section Calculations with the Statistical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beard, Mary; Uberseder, Ethan; Wiescher, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Hauser-Feshbach (HF) cross sections are of enormous importance for a wide range of applications, from waste transmutation and nuclear technologies, to medical applications, and nuclear astrophysics. It is a well observed result that different nuclear input models sensitively affect HF cross section calculations. Less well-known however are the effects on calculations originating from model-specific implementation details (such as level density parameter, matching energy, backshift and giant dipole parameters), as well as effects from non-model aspects, such as experimental data truncation and transmission function energy binning. To investigate the effects or these various aspects, Maxwellian-averaged neutron capture cross sections have been calculated for approximately 340 nuclei. The relative effects of these model details will be discussed.

  7. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  8. The solar neutrino capture cross section for 81Br

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    1981-09-01

    The solar neutrino capture rate for the reaction 81Br + νe --> 81Kr + e- is calculated for the standard solar and weak interaction models. The results show that the capture cross section is dominated by the lowest Gamow-Teller transition to the metastable 1/2- (0.190 MeV) state in 81Kr. As the inverse electron capture rate for this transition has been measured recently, one can then argue that the cross section is well determined experimentally. Thus uncertainties in nuclear physics should not be an obstacle to the recently proposed 81Br radiochemical measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino flux. Present address.

  9. Uncertainty quantification in fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    DOE PAGES

    Tovesson, F.

    2015-01-09

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections have been measured for several isotopes of uranium and plutonium at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) over a wide range of incident neutron energies. The total uncertainties in these measurements are in the range 3–5% above 100 keV of incident neutron energy, which results from uncertainties in the target, neutron source, and detector system. The individual sources of uncertainties are assumed to be uncorrelated, however correlation in the cross section across neutron energy bins are considered. The quantification of the uncertainty contributions will be described here.

  10. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  11. Ozone absorption cross section measurements in the Wulf bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Stuart M.; Hupalo, Peter; Mauersberger, Konrad

    1993-01-01

    A tandem dual-beam spectrometer has been developed to determine ozone absorption cross sections for 13 selected wavelengths between 750 and 975 nm at room temperature. The increasingly pronounced structure in this region may interfere with atmospheric trace gas transitions that are useful for remote sensing and complicate the measurement of aerosols. Ozone concentrations were determined by absorption at the common HeNe laser transition near 632.8 nm using the absolute cross section reported previously. The overall accuracy of these room temperature measurements is generally better than 2 percent. A synoptic near-IR spectrum scaled to these measurements is employed for comparison with results of previous studies.

  12. Absolute Photoionization Cross Sections of Two Cyclic Ketones: Cyclopentanone & Cyclohexanone.

    PubMed

    Price, Chelsea; Fathi, Yasmin; Meloni, Giovanni

    2017-02-23

    Absolute photoionization cross sections for cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone, as well as partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are presented in this investigation. Experiments are performed via a multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometer utilizing VUV synchrotron radiation supplied by the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. These results allow the quantification of these species that is relevant to investigate the kinetics and combustion reactions of potential biofuels. The CBS-QB3 calculated values for the adiabatic ionization energies agree well with the experimental values and the identification of possible dissociative fragments is discussed for both systems.

  13. Iterative cross section sequence graph for handwritten character segmentation.

    PubMed

    Dawoud, Amer

    2007-08-01

    The iterative cross section sequence graph (ICSSG) is an algorithm for handwritten character segmentation. It expands the cross section sequence graph concept by applying it iteratively at equally spaced thresholds. The iterative thresholding reduces the effect of information loss associated with image binarization. ICSSG preserves the characters' skeletal structure by preventing the interference of pixels that causes flooding of adjacent characters' segments. Improving the structural quality of the characters' skeleton facilitates better feature extraction and classification, which improves the overall performance of optical character recognition (OCR). Experimental results showed significant improvements in OCR recognition rates compared to other well-established segmentation algorithms.

  14. Hadronic absorption cross sections of B{sub c}

    SciTech Connect

    Lodhi, M. A. K.; Akram, Faisal; Irfan, Shaheen

    2011-09-15

    The cross sections of B{sub c} absorption by {pi} mesons are calculated using a hadronic Lagrangian based on the SU(5) flavor symmetry. Calculated cross sections are found to be in the ranges 2-7 mb and 0.2-2 mb for the processes B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}DB and B{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{yields}D*B*, respectively, when the monopole form factor is included. These results could be useful in calculating the production rate of B{sub c} mesons in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  15. Light ray tracing through a leaf cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R.; Silva, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    A light ray, incident at about 5 deg to the normal, is geometrically plotted through the drawing of the cross section of a soybean leaf using Fresnel's equations and Snell's law. The optical mediums of the leaf considered for ray tracing are: air, cell sap, chloroplast, and cell wall. The ray is also drawn through the same leaf cross section with cell wall and air as the only optical mediums. The values of the reflection and transmission found from the ray tracing tests agree closely with the experimental results obtained using a Beckman Dk-2A Spectroreflector.

  16. Cross-sectional geometry of the dentary in bats.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Nicolay, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    Bats exhibit remarkable diversity in dietary habits, with species specializing on insects, fruit, nectar, vertebrates and blood. Studies of larger mammals have shown that structural differences in dentary cross-sectional properties exist among species with different diets. Unfortunately, few of these studies have considered the role of phylogeny in shaping these apparent form-function associations. Here we ask whether a relationship exists between diet and dentary structure in bats when phylogenetic history is factored into the analysis. To answer this question, we compared results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and traditional (nonphylogenetic) regression analyses of dentary cross-sectional shape in frugivorous, nectarivorous, and insectivorous bats (253 individuals representing 72 species). Cross-sectional moments of inertia of the dentary between M(1) and M(2) were computed from bone densitometry scans of skeletal specimens. Traditional regressions of cross-sectional parameters against dentary length detected significant departures from isometry among frugivores. In contrast, PGLS analyses indicated that cross-sectional variables for each dietary group scaled with isometry. Thus, the allometric patterns illuminated by traditional statistics are linked to the phylogenetic structure of the sample. Identical patterns of significant differences in slopes and intercepts between frugivores and nectarivores emerged from both traditional and PGLS analyses. As predicted, the cross-sectional shape of the dentary in frugivores is consistent with increased resistance to torsion and bending, while that of nectarivores suggested a less resistant dentary. Although traditional and PGLS analyses yielded some similar results, the phylogenetic structure of a sample can drive apparent patterns of scaling and should be considered in comparative functional analyses.

  17. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns<σ> ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns<σ> systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

  18. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  19. The Inclusive Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section Measured in NOMAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godley, Andrew; Wu, Qun; Mishra, Sanjib

    2007-04-01

    The inclusive charged current cross section of muon neutrino interactions is measured as a function of energy using the NOMAD data. The significance of this measurement is its precision below 30 GeV, a region not previously well covered and of importance to current and proposed neutrino experiments. The procedure and results of the measurement will be presented.

  20. Radar cross sections of standard and complex shape targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohel, M. S.

    1974-01-01

    The theoretical, analytical, and experimental results are described for radar cross sections (RCS) of different-shaped targets. Various techniques for predicting RCS are given, and RCS of finite standard targets are presented. Techniques used to predict the RCS of complex targets are made, and the RCS complex shapes are provided.

  1. e+e- → charm cross sections via ISR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhlova, Galina

    2010-06-01

    We discuss recent measurements of exclusive e+e- cross sections for charmed hadron final states near threshold performed by Belle and BABAR. The results are based on a study of events with initial-state-radiation photons in a large data sample collected with the Belle and BABAR detectors at the γ(4S) resonance and nearby continuum.

  2. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.; Giardina, G.; Eidelman, S.; Venanzoni, G.; Battaglieri, M.; Mandaglio, G.

    2015-06-02

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  3. SU-E-I-43: Photoelectric Cross Section Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, A; Nakagawa, K; Kotoku, J; Horikawa, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The importance of the precision in photoelectric cross-section value increases for recent developed technology such as dual energy computed tomography, in which some reconstruction algorithms require the energy dependence of the photo-absorption in each material composition of human being. In this study, we revisited the photoelectric cross-section calculation by self-consistent relativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) atomic model and compared with that widely distributed as “XCOM database” in National Institute of Standards and Technology, which was evaluated with localdensity approximation for electron-exchange (Fock)z potential. Methods: The photoelectric cross section can be calculated with the electron wave functions in initial atomic state (bound electron) and final continuum state (photoelectron). These electron states were constructed based on the selfconsistent HF calculation, where the repulsive Coulomb potential from the electron charge distribution (Hartree term) and the electron exchange potential with full electromagnetic interaction (Fock term) were included for the electron-electron interaction. The photoelectric cross sections were evaluated for He (Z=2), Be (Z=4), C (Z=6), O (Z=8), and Ne (Z=10) in energy range of 10keV to 1MeV. The Result was compared with XCOM database. Results: The difference of the photoelectric cross section between the present calculation and XCOM database was 8% at a maximum (in 10keV for Be). The agreement tends to be better as the atomic number increases. The contribution from each atomic shell has a considerable discrepancy with XCOM database except for K-shell. However, because the photoelectric cross section arising from K-shell is dominant, the net photoelectric cross section was almost insensitive to the different handling in Fock potential. Conclusion: The photoelectric cross-section program has been developed based on the fully self-consistent relativistic HF atomic model. Due to small effect on the Fock

  4. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  5. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  6. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  7. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-15

    The neutron capture cross section of {sup 241}Am for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665{+-}33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for E{sub n}<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. {gamma}{sub n} neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553{+-}7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  8. How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n = 208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n = 305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n = 156) and 11.6% (n = 323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n = 373) and 14.6% (n = 357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n = 279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n = 307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n = 201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n = 283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n = 1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n = 6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n

  9. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  10. Healthcare utilization and lost productivity due to infectious gastroenteritis, results from a national cross-sectional survey Australia 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Ford, L; Hall, G; Dobbins, T; Kirk, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the healthcare usage and loss of productivity due to gastroenteritis in Australia using the National Gastroenteritis Survey II. In 2008-2009, 7578 participants across Australia were surveyed about infectious gastroenteritis by telephone interview. A gastroenteritis case was defined as a person experiencing ⩾ 3 loose stools and/or ⩾ 2 vomits in a 24-h period, excluding cases with a non-infectious cause for their symptoms, such as pregnancy or consumption of alcohol. Lost productivity was considered any lost time from full- or part-time paid work due to having gastroenteritis or caring for someone with the illness. Interference with other daily activities was also examined along with predictors of healthcare-seeking practices using multivariable regression. Results were weighted to obtain nationally representative estimates using Stata v. 13·1. Of the 341 cases, 52 visited a doctor due to gastroenteritis, 126 reported taking at least one medication for their symptoms and 79 cases reported missing ⩾ 1 days' paid work due to gastroenteritis. Gastroenteritis results in a total of 13·1 million (95% confidence interval 6·7-19·5) days of missed paid work each year in Australia. The indirect costs of gastroenteritis are significant, particularly from lost productivity.

  11. [Monitoring of nursing service context factors: first descriptive results of a cross-sectional Swiss study prior the introduction of SwissDRG].

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht-Dolf, Michael; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Frei, Irena Anna; Müller, Marianne; Martin, Jacqueline S; Spirig, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    Hintergrund: Mit der Einführung der DRG-basierten Finanzierung erhalten Spitäler einen kleineren finanziellen Spielraum, was Prozessoptimierungen notwendig macht. Internationale Erfahrungen zeigen, dass solche Restrukturierungen Einfluss auf für die Pflege notwendige Kontextfaktoren haben können. Dadurch können auch Pflegequalität und Patientensicherheit beeinträchtigt werden. Ziel: Ziel der «DRG Begleitforschung Pflege» ist, ein Monitoringmodell samt dazugehörenden Instrumenten zur kontinuierlichen Überwachung des Einflusses der DRG-Finanzierung auf zentrale Pflegekontextfaktoren zu entwickeln. Methode: Die vorliegenden deskriptiven quantitativen Resultate wurden im Rahmen der in einem Mixed-Methods-Design durchgeführten Untersuchung mittels einer Online-Befragung erhoben, an der sich Pflegefachpersonen aus fünf Spitälern beteiligten. Ergebnisse: Die Resultate zeigen, dass die untersuchten Pflegekontextfaktoren «Komplexität der Pflege», «Arbeitsumgebungsqualität», «Führungsverhalten», «Moralischer Stress» und «Zufriedenheit mit der Arbeitsstelle» in allen Fachbereichen hinsichtlich der Arbeitsumgebung und Leistungserbringung der Pflege relevant sind. Es lassen sich Muster erkennen, die im Einklang mit der Literatur stehen, und die Hinweise auf die im Modell angenommenen Beziehungen zwischen diesen Kontextfaktoren geben. Schlussfolgerungen: Die Studie hat einerseits für die beteiligten Betriebe nützliche Daten geliefert, auf deren Basis sie Maßnahmen zur Sicherung der Qualität und Entwicklung der Pflege diskutieren können, andererseits konnten wichtige Informationen zur Weiterentwicklung des Modells und zu den eingesetzten Instrumenten gesammelt werden.

  12. Titanium and Zirconium Levels Are Associated with Changes in MicroRNAs Expression: Results from a Human Cross-Sectional Study on Obese Population

    PubMed Central

    Dioni, Laura; Angelici, Laura; Vigna, Luisella; Farronato, Giampietro; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Bollati, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study on 90 individuals we aimed at evaluating the microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile associated with personal levels of Titanium (Ti) and Zirconium (Zr) traced in hair samples. Ti and Zr materials are broadly used for dental implants but the biological reactions triggered by a long term presence of these materials in the oral cavity still need to be assessed. MiRNAs are mechanisms that need to be investigated as they play a fundamental role in the control of gene expression following external stimuli and contribute to a wide range of pathophysiological processes. Methods Using the TaqMan® Low-Density Array, we assessed the expression levels of 377 human miRNAs in peripheral blood of 90 subjects. Hair samples were analyzed for Ti and Zr content using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. We performed multivariable regression analysis to investigate the effects of Ti and Zr exposure on miRNA expression levels. We used the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software to explore the functional role of the investigated miRNAs and the related target genes. Results Seven miRNAs (miR-99b, miR-142-5p, miR-152, miR-193a-5p, miR-323-3p, miR-335, miR-494) resulted specifically associated with Zr levels. The functional target analysis showed that miRNAs are involved in mechanisms such as inflammation, skeletal and connective tissue disorders. Conclusions Our data suggest that Zr is more bioactive than Ti and show that miRNAs are relevant molecular mechanisms sensitive to Zr exposure. PMID:27611787

  13. Antepartum Depression and Anxiety Associated with Disability in African Women: Cross-Sectional Results from the CDS Study in Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Bindt, Carola; Appiah-Poku, John; Te Bonle, Marguerite; Schoppen, Stefanie; Feldt, Torsten; Barkmann, Claus; Koffi, Mathurin; Baum, Jana; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Tagbor, Harry; Guo, Nan; N'Goran, Eliezer; Ehrhardt, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders, particularly unipolar depressive disorders, rank among the top 5 with respect to the global burden of disease. As a major public health concern, antepartum depression and anxiety not only affects the individual woman, but also her offspring. Data on the prevalence of common mental disorders in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. We provide results from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. Methods We subsequently recruited and screened n = 1030 women in the third trimester of their pregnancy for depressed mood, general anxiety, and perceived disability using the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module (PHQ-9), the 7-item Anxiety Scale (GAD-7), and the World Health Organisation Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS 2.0, 12-item version). In addition to estimates of means and prevalence, a hierarchical linear regression model was calculated to determine the influence of antepartum depression and anxiety on disability. Results In Ghana, 26.6% of women showed substantially depressed mood. In Côte d'Ivoire, this figure was even higher (32.9%). Clear indications for a generalized anxiety disorder were observed in 11.4% and 17.4% of pregnant women, respectively. Comorbidity of both conditions was common, affecting about 7.7% of Ghanaian and 12.6% of Ivorian participants. Pregnant women in both countries reported a high degree of disability regarding everyday activity limitations and participation restrictions. Controlled for country and age, depression and anxiety accounted for 33% of variance in the disability score. Conclusions Antepartum depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in our sample and contributed substantially to perceived disability. These serious threats to health must be further investigated and more data are needed to comprehensively quantify the problem in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:23110236

  14. Utility of self-reported mental health measures for preventing unintentional injury: results from a cross-sectional study among French schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identify children at-risk of having mental health problems is of value to prevent injury. But the limited agreement between informants might jeopardize prevention initiatives. The aims of the present study were 1) to test the concordance between parents and children reports, and 2) to investigate their relationships with parental reports of children’ unintentional injuries. Methods In a population-based sample of 1258 children aged 6 to 11, the associations between child psychopathology (using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unintentional injuries in the past 12 months were examined in univariate and multivariate models. Results As compared to children, parents tended to overestimate behavior problems and hyperactivity/inattention, and underestimate emotional symptoms. Unintentional injury in the last 12-month period was reported in 184 out of 1258 children (14.6%) and multivariate analyses showed that the risk of injury was twice as high in children self-reporting hyperactivity/inattention as compared to others. However this association was not retrieved with the parent-reported instrument. Conclusion Our findings support evidence that child-reported measures of psychopathology might provide relevant information for screening and injury prevention purposes, even at a young age. It could be used routinely in combination with others validated tools. PMID:24397489

  15. Sexual Behavior, HIV Prevalence and Awareness Among Wives of Migrant Workers: Results from Cross-sectional Survey in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Ranjan, Alok; Bhatnagar, Tarun; Babu, Giridhara R.; Detels, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background: Migration has been linked to the spread of HIV epidemic from the urban areas of western India to the rural areas of north India. Objectives: This is the first population-based study among the wives of migrant workers of Muzaffarpur district in Bihar with objectives to describe their sexual behavior within marriage, estimate the prevalence of HIV, and to know their awareness regarding HIV/AIDS. Methods: A two-stage cluster survey was conducted by randomly selecting 25 eligible wives from each of the 34 selected villages. A total of 850 wives were interviewed and the blood samples were collected for HIV testing. To determine the factors associated with HIV/AIDS-awareness, we calculated adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: 34 (3%) of 850 wives reported condom use with their husband. HIV prevalence was 0.59% (95% CI: 0.19-1.37%) among the wives of migrant workers. Out of 850 wives, 132 (15.5%) had heard about HIV. Condoms use (OR = 3.21, 95% CI: 1.22-7.90) and premarital sex (OR=7.44, 95% CI: 1.6-33.67) were found significantly positively associated with HIV knowledge of wives. HIV awareness of the wives was significantly associated with age-group 15-24 years, literacy status, and possession of television and husbands’ literacy status. The knowledge about HIV among wives had significant positive impact on condoms use and premarital sex. HIV prevalence among the wives of migrant workers was higher than the prevalence among women in the general population. Education was found to be positively associated with awareness about HIV. Conclusions: Effective interventions are needed for increasing awareness of HIV among wives of migrant workers in Bihar. PMID:28331250

  16. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Physical Activity among the Adult Population of the Southern Cone of Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Methods CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35–74 years from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form (IPAQ). The questionnaire asked about frequency (days/week) and duration (minutes/day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in three different domains: work, leisure time and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels ≥ 600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes/week was considered sufficiently active (SA). Odds ratios for associations of SA status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results Almost sixty five percent (64.8%) of the participants reported ≥ 600 MET minutes/week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0 %), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%) and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Conclusions Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women –unemployed and homemakers– and of active

  17. How Combined Trip Purposes Are Associated with Transport Choice for Short Distance Trips. Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Scheepers, Eline; Slinger, Minke; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; Schuit, Jantine

    2014-01-01

    Background One way to increase physical activity is to stimulate a shift from car use to walking or cycling. In single-purpose trips, purpose was found to be an important predictor of transport choice. However, as far as known, no studies have been conducted to see how trips with combined purposes affect this decision. This study was designed to provide insight into associations between combined purposes and transport choice. Methods An online questionnaire (N = 3,663) was used to collect data concerning transport choice for four primary purposes: shopping, going to public natural spaces, sports, and commuting. Per combination of primary trip purpose and transport choice, participants were asked to give examples of secondary purposes that they combine with the primary purpose. Logistic regression analyses were used to model the odds of both cycling and walking versus car use. Results Primary trip purposes combined with commuting, shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care were more likely to be made by car than by cycling or walking. Combinations with visiting catering facilities, trips to social infrastructure facilities, recreational outings, trips to facilities for the provision of daily requirements or private contacts during the trip were more likely to be made by walking and/or cycling than by car. Conclusion Combined trip purposes were found to be associated with transport choice. When stimulating active transport focus should be on the combined-trip purposes which were more likely to be made by car, namely trips combined with commuting, other shopping, visiting private contacts or medical care. PMID:25474653

  18. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS) of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a) using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21) and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6) and (b) using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6). Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men). Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions) to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions). The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21) to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6) and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21) to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6). Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life. PMID:27069925

  19. Delay between Onset of Symptoms and Seeking Physician Intervention Increases Risk of Diabetic Foot Complications: Results of a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gavan, Norina A.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Vinik, Etta J.; Florea, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    We present a post hoc analysis of 17,530 questionnaires collected as part of the 2012 screening for neuropathy using Norfolk Quality of Life tool in patients with diabetes in Romania, to assess the impact on foot complications of time between the onset of symptoms of diabetes/its complications and the physician visit. Odds ratios (ORs) for self-reporting neuropathy increased from 1.16 (95% CI: 1.07–1.25) in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset to 2.27 in those who sought medical care >2 years after symptoms onset. The ORs for having a history of foot ulcers were 1.43 (95% CI: 1.26–1.63) in those who sought medical care in 1–6 months and increased to 3.08 (95% CI: 2.59–3.66) in those who sought medical care after >2 years from symptoms of diabetes/its complications onset. The highest ORs for a history of gangrene (2.49 [95% CI: 1.90–3.26]) and amputations (2.18 [95% CI: 1.60–2.97]) were observed in those who sought medical care after >2 years following symptoms onset. In conclusion, we showed that waiting for >1 month after symptoms onset dramatically increases the risk of diabetic foot complications. These results show the need for accessible educational programs on diabetes and its chronic complications and the need to avoid delays in reporting. PMID:28018920

  20. Experiences and meanings of integration of TCAM (Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical) providers in three Indian states: results from a cross-sectional, qualitative implementation research study

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, D; Narayan, V V; Josyula, L K; Porter, J D H; Sathyanarayana, T N; Sheikh, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Efforts to engage Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medical (TCAM) practitioners in the public health workforce have growing relevance for India's path to universal health coverage. We used an action-centred framework to understand how policy prescriptions related to integration were being implemented in three distinct Indian states. Setting Health departments and district-level primary care facilities in the states of Kerala, Meghalaya and Delhi. Participants In each state, two or three districts were chosen that represented a variation in accessibility and distribution across TCAM providers (eg, small or large proportions of local health practitioners, Homoeopaths, Ayurvedic and/or Unani practitioners). Per district, two blocks or geographical units were selected. TCAM and allopathic practitioners, administrators and representatives of the community at the district and state levels were chosen based on publicly available records from state and municipal authorities. A total of 196 interviews were carried out: 74 in Kerala, and 61 each in Delhi and Meghalaya. Primary and secondary outcome measures We sought to understand experiences and meanings associated with integration across stakeholders, as well as barriers and facilitators to implementing policies related to integration of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative (TCA) providers at the systems level. Results We found that individual and interpersonal attributes tended to facilitate integration, while system features and processes tended to hinder it. Collegiality, recognition of stature, as well as exercise of individual personal initiative among TCA practitioners and of personal experience of TCAM among allopaths enabled integration. The system, on the other hand, was characterised by the fragmentation of jurisdiction and facilities, intersystem isolation, lack of trust in and awareness of TCA systems, and inadequate infrastructure and resources for TCA service delivery. Conclusions

  1. Socioeconomic inequities in perceived health among patients with musculoskeletal disorders compared with other chronic disorders: results from a cross-sectional Dutch study

    PubMed Central

    Putrik, P; Ramiro, S; Chorus, A M; Keszei, A P; Boonen, A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the impact of socioeconomic factors on physical and mental health of patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSKDs) and compare it across patients with other disorders. Methods A representative sample of the Dutch population (n=8904) completed a survey on sociodemographics, physician-diagnosed (co-) morbidities, and physical (physical component summary, PCS) and mental (mental component summary, MCS) subscales of SF-12 (outcome variables). Regression models were computed first in the total group of patients with MSKDs, with education, age, gender, origin and place of residence as independent variables, and, second, in individuals expected to have paid work, adding a variable on social status. Models were repeated for five other subgroups of chronic disorders (cardiovascular (CVD), diabetes, cancer, mental and respiratory) and for healthy individuals. Results MSKDs confirmed by a physician were reported by 1766 (20%) participants (mean age 59 years, 38% male), 547 (6%) respondents reported to have diabetes, 1855 (21%) CVD, 270 (3%) cancer, 526 (6%) mental disorders, 679 (8%) respiratory disorders and 4525 (51%) did not report any disease. In patients with MSKDs, (primary school vs university education (−5.3 (PCS) and −3.3 (MCS)) and having a state subsidy vs paid work (−5.3 (PCS) and −4.7 (MCS)) were consistently associated with worse physical and mental health. Gender was only relevant for PCS (female vs male −2.1). Comparable differences in health by education and social status were observed in the other diseases, except for cancer. Conclusions Education and social status in MSKD have the same strong and independent association with health as in other chronic diseases. These health gradients are unfair and partly avoidable, and require consorted attention and action in and outside healthcare. PMID:26535136

  2. Impact of iron and steel industry and waste incinerators on human exposure to dioxins, PCBs, and heavy metals: results of a cross-sectional study in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2007-02-01

    We evaluated the impact of two iron and steel plants and two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) in Wallonia (Belgium) on the exposure of residents to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and heavy metals. In total, 142 volunteers living around these facilities were recruited and compared with 63 referents from a rural area with no industrial source of pollution. Information about smoking habits, dietary habits, anthropometric characteristics, residential history, and health status was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. The volunteers provided blood under fasting conditions in order to evaluate the body burden of dioxins (17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans [PCDD/Fs] congeners) and PCBs. Samples of blood and urine were also taken for the determination of cadmium, mercury, and lead. After adjustment for covariates, concentrations of cadmium, mercury, and lead in urine or blood were not increased in subjects living in the vicinity of MSWIs or sinter plants by comparison with referents. Residents around the sinter plants and the MSWI located in the industrial area had concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in serum similar to that of referents. By contrast, subjects living in the vicinity of the MSWI in the rural area showed significantly higher serum levels of dioxins (geometric mean, 38 vs. 24 pg TEQ/g fat) and coplanar PCBs (geometric mean, 10.8 vs. 7.0 pg TEQ/g fat). Although age-adjusted dioxin levels in referents did not vary with local animal fat consumption, concentrations of dioxins in subjects living around the incinerators correlated positively with their intake of local animal fat, with almost a doubling in subjects with the highest fat intake. These results indicate that dioxins and coplanar PCBs emitted by MSWIs can indeed accumulate in the body of residents who regularly consume animal products of local origin.

  3. Work stress and hair cortisol levels among workers in a Bangladeshi ready-made garment factory - Results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Steinisch, Maria; Yusuf, Rita; Li, Jian; Stalder, Tobias; Bosch, Jos A; Rahman, Omar; Strümpell, Christian; Ashraf, Hasan; Fischer, Joachim E; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    that job promotion may result in poorer mental well-being. Moreover, being promoted in the Bangladeshi RMG industry may represent a stressful experience: job promotions are rare in this setting and are associated with the need to meet exceptional job-related demands. Further research from ethnic and culturally diverse occupational settings is needed to test this hypothesis, to shed light on the reproducibility of our findings and to improve our understanding of the psychobiological implications of psychosocial working conditions across cultures and contexts.

  4. Revealing a cancer diagnosis to patients: attitudes of patients, families, friends, nurses, and physicians in Lebanon—results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, F.; Othman, A.; el Baba, G.; Kattan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis to patients is a major problem for physicians in Lebanon. Our survey aimed to identify the attitudes of patients, families and friends, nurses, and physicians regarding disclosure of a cancer diagnosis. Methods Study participants included 343 physicians, nurses, cancer patients, families, and friends from clinics in two major hospitals in Lebanon. All completed a 29-item questionnaire that assessed, by demographic group, the information provided about cancer, opinions about the disclosure of the diagnosis to cancer patients, perceived consequences to patients, and the roles of family, friends, and religion. Results Overall, 7.8% of the patients were convinced that cancer is incurable. Nearly 82% preferred to be informed about their diagnosis. Similarly, 83% of physicians were in favour of disclosing a cancer diagnosis to their patients. However, only 14% of the physicians said that they revealed the truth to the patients themselves, with only 9% doing so immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis. Disclosure of a cancer diagnosis was preferred before the start of the treatment by 59% of the patients and immediately after confirmation of the diagnosis by 72% of the physicians. Overall, 86% of physicians, 51% of nurses, and 69% of patients and their families believed that religion helped with the acceptance of a cancer diagnosis. A role for family in accepting the diagnosis was reported by 74% of the patients, 56% of the nurses, and 88% of the physicians. All participants considered that fear was the most difficult feeling (63%) experienced by cancer patients, followed by pain (29%), pity (8%), and death (1%), with no statistically significant difference between the answers given by the participant groups. Conclusions The social background in Lebanese society is the main obstacle to revealing the truth to cancer patients. Lebanese patients seem to prefer direct communication of the truth, but families take the opposite

  5. Determinants for participation in a public health insurance program among residents of urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The government of Kenya is making plans to implement a social health insurance program by transforming the National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) into a universal health coverage program. This paper examines the determinants associated with participation in the NHIF among residents of urban slums in Nairobi city. Methods The study used data from the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System in two slums in Nairobi city, where a total of about 60,000 individuals living in approximately 23,000 households are under surveillance. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to describe the characteristics of the sample and to identify factors associated with participation in the NHIF program. Results Only 10% of the respondents were participating in the NHIF program, while less than 1% (0.8%) had private insurance coverage. The majority of the respondents (89%) did not have any type of insurance coverage. Females were more likely to participate in the NHIF program (OR = 2.4; p < 0.001), while respondents who were formerly in a union (OR = 0.5; p < 0.05) and who were never in a union (OR = 0.6; p < 0.05) were less likely to have public insurance coverage. Respondents working in the formal employment sector (OR = 4.1; p < 0.001) were more likely to be enrolled in the NHIF program compared to those in the informal sector. Membership in microfinance institutions such as savings and credit cooperative organizations (SACCOs) and community-based savings and credit groups were important determinants of access to health insurance. Conclusions The proportion of slum residents without any type of insurance is high, which underscores the need for a social health insurance program to ensure equitable access to health care among the poor and vulnerable segments of the population. As the Kenyan government moves toward transforming the NHIF into a universal health program, it is important to harness the unique opportunities

  6. Cross sections for low-energy inelastic H + Na collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, A. K.; Barklem, P. S.; Dickinson, A. S.; Gadea, F. X.

    2010-03-15

    Full quantum-scattering calculations are reported for low-energy near-threshold inelastic collision cross sections for H+Na. The calculations include transitions between all levels up to and including the ionic state (ion-pair production) for collision energies from the threshold up to 10 eV. These results are important for astrophysical modeling of spectra in stellar atmospheres. Results for the 3s-3p excitation are carefully examined using three different quantum chemistry input data sets, and large differences are found near the threshold. The differences are found to be predominantly due to differences in the radial coupling rather than potentials and are also found not to relate to differences in couplings in a simple manner. In fact, of the three input couplings, the two that are most similar give the cross sections with the largest differences. The 3s-3p cross sections show orbiting resonances which have been seen in earlier studies, while Feshbach resonances associated with closed channels were also found to be present in the low-energy cross sections for some transitions.

  7. Extinction and backscatter cross sections of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, M. E.; Hahn, D. V.; Carr, A. K.; Limsui, D.; Carter, C. C.; Boggs, N. T.; Jackman, J.

    2008-04-01

    Aerosol backscatter and extinction cross-sections are required to model and evaluate the performance of both active and passive detection systems. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index refraction of the biological material from the UV to the LWIR. Using that result with particle size distribution and shape information as inputs to T-matrix or discrete dipole approximation (DDA) calculations yields the extinction cross-section and backscatter cross section as a function of wavelength. These are important inputs to the lidar equation. In a continuing effort to provide validated optical cross-sections, measurements have been made on a number of high purity biological species in the laboratory as well as measurements of material released at recent field tests. The resulting observed differences between laboratory and field measurements aid in distinguishing between intrinsic and extrinsic effects, which can affect the characteristic signatures of important biological aerosols. A variety of biological and test aerosols are examined, including Bacillus atrophaeus (BG), and Erwina, ovalbumin, silica and polystyrene.

  8. Experimental absolute cross section for photoionization of Xe^7+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Müller, A.; Esteves, D.; Habibi, M.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.

    2010-03-01

    Collision processes with highly charged xenon ions are of interest for UV-radiation generation in plasma discharges, for fusion research and for space craft propulsion. Here we report results for the photoionization of Xe^7+ ionsootnotetextS. Schippers et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (in print) which were measured at the photon-ion end station of ALS beamline 10.0.1. As compared with the only previous experimental studyootnotetextJ. M. Bizau et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 435 (2000) of this reaction, the present cross sections were obtained at higher energy resolution (50--80 meV vs. 200--500 meV) and on an absolute cross section scale. In the experimental photon energy range of 95--145 eV the cross section is dominated by resonances associated with 4d->5f excitation and subsequent autoionization. The most prominent feature in the measured spectrum is the 4d^9,s,f, resonance at 121.14±0.02 eV which reaches a peak cross section of 1.2 Gb at 50 meV photon energy spread. The experimental resonance strength of 160 Mb eV (corresponding to an absorption oscillator strength of 1.46) is in fair agreement with the theoretical result^2.

  9. Froissart bound on inelastic cross section without unknown constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, André; Roy, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    Assuming that axiomatic local field theory results hold for hadron scattering, André Martin and S. M. Roy recently obtained absolute bounds on the D wave below threshold for pion-pion scattering and thereby determined the scale of the logarithm in the Froissart bound on total cross sections in terms of pion mass only. Previously, Martin proved a rigorous upper bound on the inelastic cross-section σinel which is one-fourth of the corresponding upper bound on σtot, and Wu, Martin, Roy and Singh improved the bound by adding the constraint of a given σtot. Here we use unitarity and analyticity to determine, without any high-energy approximation, upper bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections in terms of low-energy data in the crossed channel. These are Froissart-type bounds without any unknown coefficient or unknown scale factors and can be tested experimentally. Alternatively, their asymptotic forms, together with the Martin-Roy absolute bounds on pion-pion D waves below threshold, yield absolute bounds on energy-averaged inelastic cross sections. For example, for π0π0 scattering, defining σinel=σtot-(σπ0π0→π0π0+σπ0π0→π+π-) , we show that for c.m. energy √{s }→∞, σ¯ inel(s ,∞)≡s ∫s∞d s'σinel(s')/s'2≤(π /4 )(mπ)-2[ln (s /s1)+(1 /2 )ln ln (s /s1)+1 ]2 where 1 /s1=34 π √{2 π }mπ-2 . This bound is asymptotically one-fourth of the corresponding Martin-Roy bound on the total cross section, and the scale factor s1 is one-fourth of the scale factor in the total cross section bound. The average over the interval (s,2s) of the inelastic π0π0 cross section has a bound of the same form with 1 /s1 replaced by 1 /s2=2 /s1.

  10. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Lu isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.

    2006-01-15

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 175}Lu and {sup 176}Lu have been measured in the energy range 3-225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam, and capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard using isotopically enriched as well as natural lutetium oxide samples. Overall uncertainties of {approx}1% could be achieved in the final cross section ratios to the gold standard, about a factor of 5 smaller than in previous works. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT = 8 and 100 keV. These values are systematically larger by {approx}7% than those reported in recent evaluations. These results are of crucial importance for the assessment of the s-process branchings at A 175/176.

  11. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of n-decane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Charles; Dejoseph, Charles; Garscadden, Alan

    2001-10-01

    The ionization and dissociation of hydrocarbon fuels with various plasma excitation schemes including pulsed high E/n discharges have been proposed to alleviate the problem of ignition in supersonic flow combustors and operations at high altitudes. The fuel which is also used for cooling, must not pyrolyse at operational temperatures. We have examined the electron ionization collision processes in n-decane using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry that permits measurements of the 24 ions with cross sections larger than 10-19cm2. These generally fall into two broad categories: those with five or more carbon atoms whose ionization cross sections rise rapidly and essentially saturate within twice the appearance potential and those with four carbon atoms and less whose cross sections rise more gradually and are only saturating at energies above 70 eV. The total ionization cross section is large, rising to 7x10-16cm2. Studies were made with deuterated samples to distinguish the potential mechanisms in fragment ion induced dissociation of the parent gas. The results are compared with similar data for octane.

  13. Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengqun; Gao Lei; Li Kuohu; Song Yueli; Zhang Fang; Kong Xiangzhong; Luo Junhua

    2009-11-15

    We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions {sup 122}Te(n,2n){sup 121}Te{sup g} and {sup 128}Te(n,2n){sup 127}Te{sup g}, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by {gamma} detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m+g} and {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reactions.

  14. Turbulent combustion flow through variable cross section channel

    SciTech Connect

    Rogov, B.V.; Sokolova, I.A.

    1999-07-01

    The object of this study is to develop a new evolutionary numerical method for solving direct task of Laval nozzle, which provides non-iterative calculations of chemical reacting turbulent flows with detailed kinetic chemistry. The numerical scheme of fourth order along the normal coordinate and second order along the streamwise one is derived for calculation of difference-differential equations of the second order and the first order. Marching method provides the possibility of computing field flow in subsonic section of nozzle and near an expansion. Critical mass consumption is calculated with controlled accuracy. After critical cross section of nozzle a combined marching method with global iterations over axial pressure (only) makes it possible to overcome ill posedness of mixed supersonic flow and calculate the whole flow field near and after critical cross section. Numerical results are demonstrated on turbulent burning hydrogen-oxygen flow through Laval nozzle with curvature of wall K{sub w} = 0.5.

  15. Total electron scattering cross sections. I - He, Ne, Ar, Xe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Imre, K.; Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The apparatus and experimental procedures used to obtain total electron scattering cross sections are described, and results are presented for He, Ne, Ar and Xe in the 4-300 eV incident energy range, together with statistical errors. The results are generally found to be in good agreement with previous data except at low impact energies. Serious discrepancies remain in Xe below 20 eV impact energy.

  16. Double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-fei, Yao; Zhang-jin, Chen

    1999-03-01

    The double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of helium at incident energies of 200 eV, 100 eV and 64.6 eV have been calculated in the BBK model. The present results are found to be in generally good agreement with the latest measurements of Röder et al. and the theoretical results of the convergent close-coupling method although some quantitative discrepancy remains.

  17. Total and partial photoneutron cross sections for Pb isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Daoutidis, I.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Okamoto, A.; Yamagata, T.; Kamata, M.; Itoh, O.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2012-07-01

    Using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ rays, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 206,207,208Pb near neutron threshold with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. Partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission with linearly polarized γ rays. The E1 strength dominates over the M1 strength in the neutron channel where E1 photoneutron cross sections show extra strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in 207,208Pb near the neutron threshold corresponding to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to an M1 cross section less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross section.

  18. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for 207,208Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goriely, S.; Iwamoto, C.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Using linearly-polarized laser-Compton scattering γ-rays, partial E1 and M1 photoneutron cross sections along with total cross sections were determined for 207,208Pb at four energies near neutron threshold by measuring anisotropies in photoneutron emission. Separately, total photoneutron cross sections were measured for 207,208Pb with a high-efficiency 4π neutron detector. The partial cross section measurement provides direct evidence for the presence of pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in 207,208Pb in the vicinity of neutron threshold. The strength of PDR amounts to 0.32%-0.42% of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. Several μN2 units of B(M1)↑ strength were observed in 207,208Pb just above neutron threshold, which correspond to M1 cross sections less than 10% of the total photoneutron cross sections.

  19. Projectile and Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Electromagnetic Dissociation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Adamczyk, Anne; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Differential cross sections for electromagnetic dissociation in nuclear collisions are calculated for the first time. In order to be useful for three - dimensional transport codes, these cross sections have been calculated in both the projectile and lab frames. The formulas for these cross sections are such that they can be immediately used in space radiation transport codes. Only a limited amount of data exists, but the comparison between theory and experiment is good.

  20. Left atrial vascularised thrombus diagnosed by transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Taams, M A; Gussenhoven, E J; Lancée, C T

    1987-01-01

    This report describes a patient with a Björk-Shiley mitral valve prosthesis in whom transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography revealed a large vascularised mass within the left atrial appendage with smoke-like opacification of blood flow in the left atrium. Transoesophageal cross sectional echocardiography gave a detailed image of the lesion which was unobtainable with precordial cross sectional echocardiography. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3426904

  1. Analytical formulation of the quantum electromagnetic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2016-05-01

    It has been found that the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) equation can be written in terms of the Fourier transform of the surface atom distribution of the object. This paper uses this form to provide an analytical formulation of the quantum radar cross section by deriving closed form expressions for various geometries. These expressions are compared to the classical radar cross section (RCS) expressions and the quantum advantages are discerned from the differences in the equations. Multiphoton illumination is also briefly discussed.

  2. Giant dipole resonance parameters with uncertainties from photonuclear cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plujko, V. A.; Capote, R.; Gorbachenko, O. M.

    2011-09-01

    Updated values and corresponding uncertainties of isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR or GDR) model parameters are presented that are obtained by the least-squares fitting of theoretical photoabsorption cross sections to experimental data. The theoretical photoabsorption cross section is taken as a sum of the components corresponding to excitation of the GDR and quasideuteron contribution to the experimental photoabsorption cross section. The present compilation covers experimental data as of January 2010.

  3. High E{sub T} jet cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flaugher, B.; CDF Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The inclusive jet cross section for {ital p}{ital {anti p}} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV as measured by the CDF collaboration will be presented. Preliminary CDF measurements of the {Sigma} E{sub T} cross section at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV and the central inclusive jet cross section at {radical}s = 0.630 TeV will also be shown.

  4. Total Electron Scattering Cross Sections for Simple Perfluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Okuda, Keisuke

    2003-05-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections for CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 have been measured in the energy range between 1.25 eV and 3000 eV using a compact linear transmission apparatus. Electrons scattered into a narrow forward angular range that should be counted in the scattered one were estimated utilizing measured quantities. The present results for CF4 agree well with available data at low and high energies, while some discrepancies were seen at intermediate energies. Measured results for C2F6 and C3F8 were shown at high energies for the first time. Upper bound of the elastic cross sections for these molecules were estimated at electron energies higher than 20 eV.

  5. Neutron Capture Cross Sections of 236U and 234U

    SciTech Connect

    Rundberg, R. S.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Haight, R. C.; Hunt, L. F.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Schwantes, J. M.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.

    2006-03-13

    Accurate neutron capture cross sections of the actinide elements at neutron energies up to 1 MeV are needed to better interpret archived nuclear test data, for post-detonation nuclear attribution, and the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. The Detector for Advance Neutron Capture Experiments, DANCE, has unique capabilities that allow the differentiation of capture gamma rays from fission gamma rays and background gamma rays from scattered neutrons captured by barium isotopes in the barium fluoride scintillators. The DANCE array has a high granularity, 160 scintillators, high efficiency, and nearly 4-{pi} solid angle. Through the use of cuts in cluster multiplicity and calorimetric energy the capture gamma-rays are differentiated from other sources of gamma rays. The preliminary results for the capture cross sections of 236U are in agreement with the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. The preliminary results for 234U lower are than ENDF/B-VI evaluation and are closer to older evaluations.

  6. Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, I. V. Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2015-12-15

    The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results.

  7. Measurements of Radiative Capture Cross Sections at Big Bang Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaomi; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Tanaka, Yutaro; Du, Hang; Ohnishi, Kousuke; Yagi, Shoichi; Sugihara, Takanobu; Hori, Taichi; Nakamura, Shoken; Yanagihara, Rikuto; Matsuta, Kensaku; Mihara, Mototsugu; Nishimura, Daiki; Iwakiri, Shuichi; Kambayashi, Shohei; Kunimatsu, Shota; Sakakibara, Hikaru; Yamaoka, Shintaro

    We measured d(p, γ )3He cross sections at ECM = 0.12, 0.19, 0.44, and 0.57 MeV. In this energy region, available experimental values are systematically smaller than the recent calculation, so that additional experiments are desired for understanding the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. The experiment was performed by bombarding proton beams to the D2 gas target with the 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. The experimental d(p, γ )3He cross sections of the present study are systematically larger than previous data. On the other hand, recent theoretical results by Marcucci et al. are in good agreement with present experimental results.

  8. Neutron capture cross section of {sup 102}Pd

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.L.; Krane, K.S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by {sup 102}Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the {gamma} rays emitted by 17.0-d {sup 103}Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be {sigma}=1.82{+-}0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23{+-}4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for {sup 108}Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the {sup 110}Pd cross sections.

  9. Thermal Neutron Capture Cross Section of {sup 22}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Belgya, T.; Uberseder, E.; Petrich, D.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2009-01-28

    The radiative thermal neutron capture cross section of the astrophysically important {sup 22}Ne nucleus has been measured at the guided cold neutron beam of the Budapest Research Reactor. High-pressure gas-bottles filled with mixtures of enriched {sup 22}Ne and CH{sub 4} were used. The cross section was determined by means of the comparator method, and an improved decay-scheme obtained in this work. The new value for the thermal neutron cross section is 52.7{+-}0.7 mb, 18% larger than the accepted value. The influence of the new cross section on the astrophysical reaction rate is under investigation.

  10. Neutron-capture Cross Sections from Indirect Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Escher, J E; Burke, J T; Dietrich, F S; Ressler, J J; Scielzo, N D; Thompson, I J

    2011-10-18

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions play an important role in models of astrophysical environments and simulations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Providing reliable cross section data remains a formidable task, and direct measurements have to be complemented by theoretical predictions and indirect methods. The surrogate nuclear reactions method provides an indirect approach for determining cross sections for reactions on unstable isotopes, which are difficult or impossible to measure otherwise. Current implementations of the method provide useful cross sections for (n,f) reactions, but need to be improved upon for applications to capture reactions.

  11. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Cross Section Measurements Using the ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, R. R.

    2000-08-25

    This is the final report for a research program which has been continuously supported by the AEC, ERDA, or USDOE since 1973. The neutron total and capture cross sections for n + {sup 88}Sr have been measured over the neutron energy range 100 eV to 1 MeV. The report briefly summaries our results and the importance of this work for nucleosynthesis and the optical model.

  12. Top Quark Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Shabalina, E.; /Chicago U.

    2006-05-01

    An overview of the preliminary results of the top quark pair production cross section measurements at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV carried out by the CDF and D0 collaborations is presented. The data samples used for the analyses are collected in the current Tevatron run and correspond to an integrated luminosity from 360 pb{sup -1} up to 760 pb{sup -1}.

  13. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1¯10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties.

  14. Catalyst shape engineering for anisotropic cross-sectioned nanowire growth

    PubMed Central

    Calahorra, Yonatan; Kelrich, Alexander; Cohen, Shimon; Ritter, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The ability to engineer material properties at the nanoscale is a crucial prerequisite for nanotechnology. Hereunder, we suggest and demonstrate a novel approach to realize non-hemispherically shaped nanowire catalysts, subsequently used to grow InP nanowires with a cross section anisotropy ratio of up to 1:1.8. Gold was deposited inside high aspect ratio nanotrenches in a 5 nm thick SiNx selective area mask; inside the growth chamber, upon heating to 455 °C, the thin gold stripes agglomerated, resulting in an ellipsoidal dome (hemiellipsoid). The initial shape of the catalyst was preserved during growth to realize asymmetrically cross-sectioned nanowires. Moreover, the crystalline nature of the nanowire side facets was found to depend on the nano-trench orientation atop the substrate, resulting in hexagonal or octagonal cross-sections when the nano-trenches are aligned or misaligned with the [1̄10] orientation atop a [111]B substrate. These results establish the role of catalyst shape as a unique tool to engineer nanowire growth, potentially allowing further control over its physical properties. PMID:28106088

  15. Fast-neutron scattering cross sections of elemental silver

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.

    1982-05-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of elemental silver are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 200 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160/sup 0/. Inelastically-scattered neutron groups are observed corresponding to the excitation of levels at; 328 +- 13, 419 +- 50, 748 +- 25, 908 +- 26, 1150 +- 38, 1286 +- 25, 1507 +- 20, 1623 +- 30, 1835 +- 20 and 1944 +- 26 keV. The experimental results are used to derive an optical-statistical model that provides a good description of the observed cross sections. The measured values are compared with corresponding quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  16. Shrink-wrapped isosurface from cross sectional images.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y K; Hahn, J K

    2007-12-01

    This paper addresses a new surface reconstruction scheme for approximating the isosurface from a set of tomographic cross sectional images. Differently from the novel Marching Cubes (MC) algorithm, our method does not extract the iso-density surface (isosurface) directly from the voxel data but calculates the iso-density point (isopoint) first. After building a coarse initial mesh approximating the ideal isosurface by the cell-boundary representation, it metamorphoses the mesh into the final isosurface by a relaxation scheme, called shrink-wrapping process. Compared with the MC algorithm, our method is robust and does not make any cracks on surface. Furthermore, since it is possible to utilize lots of additional isopoints during the surface reconstruction process by extending the adjacency definition, theoretically the resulting surface can be better in quality than the MC algorithm. According to experiments, it is proved to be very robust and efficient for isosurface reconstruction from cross sectional images.

  17. Carbon Fragmentation Cross Sections for Hadrontherapy and Space Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Napoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Nicolosi, D.; Pandola, L.; Raciti, G.; Romano, F.; Sardina, D.; Scuderi, V.; Tropea, S.; Bondì, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.

    2014-05-01

    Fragmentation reactions represent a serious complication in hadrontherapy and space radiation protection. In order to predict their effects, both reliable Monte Carlo codes and experimental data are needed. The shortage of precise measurements, especially of double differential cross sections, has triggered many dedicated experiments at relativistic energies. Aiming to explore the Fermi energy regime, as well, where different reaction mechanisms are involved, we measured the 12C fragmentation at 62 AMeV on a 12C and a 197Au target. A high granularity Si-CsI hodoscope allowed to identify the charge and the mass of detected fragments and measure their energy and emission angle. In this work we report the double differential cross sections for the production of different fragments as a function of the emission angle. Experimental results are compared with the GEANT-4 Monte Carlo predictions performed using two reaction models, the Quantum Molecular Dynamic and the Binary Light Ion Cascade.

  18. Evaluation of Neutron Resonance Cross Section Data at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Emiliani, F.; Guber, K.; Heyse, J.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Massimi, C.; Mondelaers, W.; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pronyaev, V.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Trkov, A.; Volev, K.; Zerovnik, G.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade, the EC-JRC-IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonance region with uncertainties better than 0.5 % and 2 %, respectively, can be produced together with evaluated data files for both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The methodology to produce full ENDF compatible files, including covariances, is illustrated by the production of resolved resonance parameter files for 241Am, Cd and W and an evaluation for 197Au in the unresolved resonance region.

  19. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  20. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  1. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  2. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  3. Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 3. Higgs Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemeyer, S; et al.

    2013-01-01

    This Report summarizes the results of the activities in 2012 and the first half of 2013 of the LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group. The main goal of the working group was to present the state of the art of Higgs Physics at the LHC, integrating all new results that have appeared in the last few years. This report follows the first working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 1. Inclusive Observables (CERN-2011-002) and the second working group report Handbook of LHC Higgs Cross Sections: 2. Differential Distributions (CERN-2012-002). After the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC in mid-2012 this report focuses on refined prediction of Standard Model (SM) Higgs phenomenology around the experimentally observed value of 125-126 GeV, refined predictions for heavy SM-like Higgs bosons as well as predictions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and first steps to go beyond these models. The other main focus is on the extraction of the characteristics and properties of the newly discovered particle such as couplings to SM particles, spin and CP-quantum numbers etc.

  4. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  5. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Carbon Monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Itikawa, Yukikazu

    2015-03-15

    Cross section data are collected and reviewed for electron collisions with carbon monoxide. Collision processes included are total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational, vibrational and electronic states, ionization, and dissociation. For each process, recommended values of the cross sections are presented, when possible. The literature has been surveyed through to the end of 2013.

  6. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  7. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  8. Benchmark Calculations of Electron-Impact Differential Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I.; Bostock, C. J.; Fursa, D. V.; Hines, C. W.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2011-05-11

    The calculation of electron-atom excitation and ionization cross section is considered in both the non-relativistic and relativistic scattering theory. We consider electron collisions with H, He, Cs, and Hg. Differential cross sections for elastic scattering and ionization are presented.

  9. Cross sections for scattering of electrons on BF_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radmilovic-Radjenovic, M.; Varambhia, H. N.; Vranic, M.; Tennyson, J.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2008-07-01

    We calculate cross sections for elastic scattering and electronic excitation of BF_3 molecules by low energy electrons. The R-Matrix code Quantemol-N has been used for calculations. The cross sections indicate the presence of a shape resonance of symmetry B_1 (A_2'' in D_3h) at around 4.5 eV.

  10. Ozone Cross-Section Measurement by Gas Phase Titration.

    PubMed

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Flores, Edgar; Wielgosz, Robert I

    2016-11-01

    Elevated values of ground-level ozone damage health, vegetation, and building materials and are the subject of air quality regulations. Levels are monitored by networks using mostly ultraviolet (UV) absorption instruments, with traceability to standard reference photometers, relying on the UV absorption of ozone at the 253.65 nm line of mercury. We have redetermined the ozone cross-section at this wavelength based on gas phase titration (GPT) measurements. This is a well-known chemical method using the reaction of ozone (O3) with nitrogen monoxide (NO) resulting in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and oxygen (O2). The BIPM GPT facility uses state-of-the-art flow measurement, chemiluminescence for NO concentration measurements, a cavity phase shift analyzer (CAPS) for NO2 measurements, and a UV ozone analyzer. The titration experiment is performed over the concentration range 100-500 nmol/mol, with NO and NO2 reactants/calibrants diluted down from standards with nominal mole fractions of 50 μmol/mol. Accurate measurements of NO, NO2, and O3 mole fractions allow the calculation of ozone absorption cross section values at 253.65 nm, and we report a value of 11.24 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.8% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen monoxide titration values and a value of 11.22 × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) with a relative expanded uncertainty of 1.4% (coverage factor k = 2) based on nitrogen dioxide titration values. The excellent agreement between these values and recently published absorption cross-section measurements directly on pure ozone provide strong evidence for revising the conventionally accepted value of ozone cross section at 253.65 nm.

  11. Measuring Neutron-Induced Reaction Cross Sections without Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, L. A.; Schiller, A.; Cooper, J. R.; Hoffman, R. D.; McMahan, M. A.; Fallon, P.; Macchiavelli, A. O.; Mitchell, G.; Tavukcu, E.; Guttormsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    Neutron-induced reactions on radioactive nuclei play a significant role in nuclear astrophysics and many other applied nuclear physics topics. However, the majority of these cross sections are impossible to measure due to the high-background of the targets and the low-intensity of neutron beams. We have explored the possibility of using charged-particle transfer reactions to form the same "pre-compound" nucleus as one formed in a neutron-induced reaction in order to measure the relative decay probabilities of the nucleus as a function of energy. Multiplying these decay probabilities by the neutron absorption cross section will then produce the equivalent neutron-induced reaction cross section. In this presentation I will explore the validity of this "surrogate reaction" technique by comparing results from the recent 157Gd(3He,axng)156-xGd experiment using STARS (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies) at GAMMASPHERE with reaction model calculations for the 155Gd(n,xng)156-xGd. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts number W-7405-ENG-48 (LLNL), AC03-76SF00098 (LBNL) and the Norwegian Research Council (Oslo).

  12. Upscattering Cross Sections for Ultra Cold Neutrons from Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, Susan J.; UCNτ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The scattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) to energies above the escape potential of a trap is called upscattering. Upscattering due to interaction with residual gases is a potential loss mechanism for UCNs stored in a trap that can impact the extracted neutron lifetime. We have developed a method for measuring the cross sections for UCN upscattering from gases stored in a small measurement cell. Upscattered neutrons are measured directly in a 3He ionization chamber and transmitted UCN strike a 10B-coated surface at the edges of the measurement cell. The transmitted UCNs are then counted with a HPGe gamma-ray detector that counts 478 keV γ-rays from the 10B(n , αγ) 7Li reaction. The analysis was guided by Monte Carlo descriptions of the LANL UCN source output. We will present cross sections measured for various noble and polyatomic gases, compare these results to calculated cross sections based on models of gas scattering kernels, and use these to estimate the impact of gas upscattering on the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  13. Partial ionisation cross-sections of 2-propanol and ethanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, J. R.; Jorand, F.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Pasquiers, S.

    2006-04-01

    Electron impact ionisation of 2-propanol and ethanal is studied using mass spectrometry. Cross-sections of the formation of molecular ions and ionic fragments are measured between 14 and 86 eV. Free energy changes are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For 2-propanol, two ions, identified as CH 3CHOH + (45 amu) and CH3CHCH3+ (43 amu), contribute more than 75% to the total cross-section over the whole range of electron energies and are produced by simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. Both processes occur spontaneously, leaving the molecular ion as a minority species. For ethanal, two ions, identified as HCO + (29 amu) and CH 3CO + (43 amu), and the molecular ion (44 amu) contribute more than 80% to the total cross-section. The ions of 29 and 43 amu result from a simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. These sprocesses are not spontaneous and the contribution of the molecular ion becomes predominant at 15 eV and is therefore significant over the whole range of ionisation energies.

  14. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  15. DPA Cross Section Library FermiDPA 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pronskikh, V. S.; Mokhov, N. V.

    2013-06-05

    DPA cross section library FermiDPA 1.0 based on the industry standard NRT model calculations is described. The library contains DPA cross sections for neutrons in the energy range 10$^{-5}$ eV 20 (150) MeV. Calculations used neutron-induced reaction cross sections from ENDFB-VII database of evaluated nuclear data. The NJOY99 nuclear data processing system's module HEATR was applied to calculate NRT model radiation damage cross sections. The FermiDPA 1.0 library is a database of 395 text files (for 395 known isotopes) with DPA cross sections. It is code-independent and can be implemented in any transport code.

  16. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  17. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  18. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-03-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  19. Manpower Planning Models. 2. Cross Sectional Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    to investigate various retirement policies. Concepts developed in section 9 are used, and an early retirement scheme is investigated as an...flows between the 15 classes of faculty. We call this CL.. Table II.7 gives the fractional flows after an early retirement scheme has been...one used before early retirement , a is the one used after early retirement , and a. is the case where all appointments are made into non-tenure

  20. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    Computational capability has been developed to adjust multi-group neutron cross-sections to improve the fidelity of boiling water reactor (BWR) modeling and simulation. The method involves propagating multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainties through BWR computational models to evaluate uncertainties in key core attributes such as core k-effective, nodal power distributions, thermal margins, and in-core detector readings. Uncertainty-based inverse theory methods are then employed to adjust multi-group cross-sections to minimize the disagreement between BWR modeling predictions and measured plant data. For this work, measured plant data were virtually simulated in the form of perturbed 3-D nodal power distributions with discrepancies with predictions of the same order of magnitude as expected from plant data. Using the simulated plant data, multi-group cross-section adjustment reduces the error in core k-effective to less than 0.2% and the RMS error in nodal power to 4% (i.e. the noise level of the in-core instrumentation). To ensure that the adapted BWR model predictions are robust, Tikhonov regularization is utilized to control the magnitude of the cross-section adjustment. In contrast to few-group cross-section adjustment, which was the focus of previous research on BWR adaptive simulation, multigroup cross-section adjustment allows for future fuel cycle design optimization to include the determination of optimal fresh fuel assembly designs using the adjusted multi-group cross-sections. The major focus of this work is to efficiently propagate multi-group neutron cross-section uncertainty through BWR lattice physics calculations. Basic neutron cross-section uncertainties are provided in the form of multi-group cross-section covariance matrices. For energy groups in the resolved resonance energy range, the cross-section uncertainties are computed using an infinitely-dilute approximation of the neutron flux. In order to accurately account for spatial and

  1. Normal waves in elastic bars of rectangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Krushynska, Anastasiia A; Meleshko, Viatcheslav V

    2011-03-01

    This paper addresses a theoretical study of guided normal waves in elastic isotropic bars of rectangular cross-section by an analytical superposition method. Dispersion properties of propagating and evanescent modes for four families are analyzed in detail at various geometric and physical parameters of the bar. A comparison of the obtained results with the well-known properties for waves in infinite plates and circular cylinders is provided. The complicated structure of dispersion spectra is explained. High-frequency limiting values for phase and group velocities of normal waves are established for the first time. Calculated data agree well with the available experimental results.

  2. Diffusion cross sections for potassium ? and ? levels in rare gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei-Moayyed, F.; Hickman, A. P.; Streater, A. D.

    1996-02-01

    We have used a light-induced drift (LID) experiment to determine ratios of cross sections for diffusion of potassium in the excited 0953-4075/29/3/011/img3, 0953-4075/29/3/011/img4 and the ground 0953-4075/29/3/011/img5 levels in five rare gases. The measured ratios are combined with the ground-state cross sections and statistically averaged excited cross sections, available from a previously reported light induced diffusive pulling experiment, to obtain the absolute cross sections for individual fine structure levels. We also report calculated cross sections based on available potential curves and a coupled-channel theory. Rough qualitative agreement is generally found between the absolute cross sections inferred from experiment and the theoretical values. The light-induced drift experiments, however, measure ratios of cross section differences that are highly sensitive to the potential curves. It is found that the available potential curves are not adequate for predicting these measured ratios.

  3. Electron impact ionization cross sections of beryllium-tungsten clusters*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukuba, Ivan; Kaiser, Alexander; Huber, Stefan E.; Urban, Jan; Probst, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We report calculated electron impact ionization cross sections (EICSs) of beryllium-tungsten clusters, BenW with n = 1,...,12, from the ionization threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The positions of the maxima of DM and BEB cross sections are mostly close to each other. The DM cross sections are more sensitive with respect to the cluster size. For the clusters smaller than Be4W they yield smaller cross sections than BEB and vice versa larger cross sections than BEB for clusters larger than Be6W. The maximum cross section values for the singlet-spin groundstate clusters range from 7.0 × 10-16 cm2 at 28 eV (BeW) to 54.2 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the DM cross sections and from 13.5 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (BeW) to 38.9 × 10-16 cm2 at 43 eV (Be12W) for the BEB cross sections. Differences of the EICSs in different isomers and between singlet and triplet states are also explored. Both the DM and BEB cross sections could be fitted perfectly to a simple expression used in modeling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic Cluster Collisions (7th International Symposium)", edited by Gerardo Delgado Barrio, Andrey Solov'Yov, Pablo Villarreal, Rita Prosmiti.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2015-60583-7

  4. Fission cross sections in the intermediate energy region

    SciTech Connect

    Lisowski, P.W.; Gavron, A.; Parker, W.E.; Ullmann, J.L.; Balestrini, S.J. ); Carlson, A.D.; Wasson, O.A. ); Hill, N.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Until recently there has been very little cross section data for neutron-induced fission in the intermediate energy region, primarily because no suitable neutron source has existed. At Los Alamos, the WNR target-4 facility provides a high-intensity source of neutrons nearly ideal for fission measurements extending from a fraction of a MeV to several hundred MeV. This paper summarizes the status of fission cross section data in the intermediate energy range (En > 30 MeV) and presents our fission cross section data for {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U compared to intranuclear cascade and statistical model predictions.

  5. Actinide neutron-induced fission cross section measurements at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik K; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications in a wide energy range from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. A parallel-plate ionization chamber are used to measure fission cross sections ratios relative to the {sup 235}U standard while incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239-242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. Obtained data are presented in comparison with ex isting evaluations and previous data.

  6. Doubly differential cross sections for galactic heavy-ion fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Norbury, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1987-01-01

    An abrasion-ablation T-matrix formulation is applied to the calculation of double differential-cross sections in projectile fragmentation of 2.1 GeV/nucleon O-16 on Be-9 and 86 MeV/nucleon C-12 on C-12 and Ag-108. An exponential parameterization of the ablation T-matrix is used and the total width of the intermediate states is taken as a parameter. Fitted values of the total width to experimental results are used to predict the lifetime of the ablation stage and indicate a decay time on the order of 10 to the -19th power sec.

  7. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  8. 28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. CROSS SECTION OF A RECTANGULAR COKE OVEN SHOWING THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE OVEN. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  9. 12. CLOSEUP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF SPILLWAY FIFTY FEET FROM LAKESHORE, SHOWING REMAINS OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS, LOOKING WEST - Three Bears Lake & Dams, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  10. Section B, general view of steel cross with new World ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Section B, general view of steel cross with new World Trade Center 7 in background, looking northwest. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York County, NY

  11. 8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF THE EASTERNMOST WALL SEGMENT THAT SHOWS THE TRENCHING AND 1960 PIPELINE CORRIDOR BETWEEN THE WALL SEGMENTS, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  12. Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 6 of 8" showing cross section of house, front elevation, fire finder stand, hip roof cap, and shiplap roof sheathing. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  13. Local Deplanation Of Double Reinforced Beam Cross Section Under Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltov, Anguel; Yanakieva, Ana

    2015-12-01

    Bending of beams, double reinforced by means of thin composite layers, is considered in the study. Approximate numerical solution is proposed, considering transitional boundary areas, where smooth quadratic transition of the elasticity modulus and deformations take place. Deplanation of the cross section is also accounted for in the areas. Their thickness is found equalizing the total stiffness of the cross section and the layer stiffness. Deplanation of the cross section of the transitional area is determined via the longitudinal deformation in the reinforcing layer, accounting for the equilibrium between the internal and the external moment, generated by the longitudinal stresses in the cross section. A numerical example is given as an illustration demonstrating model's plausibility. The model allows the design and the calculation of recycled concrete beams double reinforced by means of thin layers. The approach is in agreement with modern design of nearly zero energy buildings (NZEB).

  14. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF CROSS SECTION OF STRUCTURE, SHOWING EXTERIOR FACINGS LINED WITH RUBBLE BACKING AND EARTH INFILL, LOOKING EAST - Rock Wall, North side of Battle Creek Canyon, Shingletown, Shasta County, CA

  15. Theory in Evaluation of Actinide Fission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. Eric

    2005-05-24

    We discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections. We consider especially the target 235U as an example. We emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near-barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross section. We compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for 235U.

  16. Superstructure Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure Huey ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Superstructure - Main Bridge, Cross Sections, Cantilever Structure - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  17. 36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF ORIGINAL HORSE MESA DAM POWER PLANT, LOOKING NORTH. ONLY TWO OF THE THREE UNITS ARE VISIBLE - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. CROSS SECTIONAL VIEW OF HORSE MESA, SHOWING RIGHT SPILLWAY SUPERSTRUCTURE AND CONCRETE PLACEMENT LINES August 2, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. Radiative neutron capture cross sections on 176Lu at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, O.; Jandel, M.; Méot, V.; Bond, E. M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A. J.; Haight, R. C.; Keksis, A. L.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The cross section of the neutron capture reaction 176Lu(n ,γ ) has been measured for a wide incident neutron energy range with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be (1912 ±132 ) b for one of the Lu natural isotopes, 176Lu. The resonance part was measured and compared to the Mughabghab's atlas using the R -matrix code, sammy. At higher neutron energies the measured cross sections are compared to ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2, and BRC evaluated nuclear data. The Maxwellian averaged cross sections in a stellar plasma for thermal energies between 5 keV and 100 keV were extracted using these data.

  20. Automating the Modeling of the SEE Cross Section's Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that automates the application of the alpha law in any SEE analysis is presented. This automation is essential for the widespread acceptance of the sophisticated cross section angular dependence model.

  1. Nuclear Cross Sections for Space Radiation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, C. M.; Maung, K. M.; Ford, W. P.; Norbury, J. W.; Vera, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A = 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability for both non-relativistic and relativistic kinematics.

  2. On the interweaving of partial cross sections of different parity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devries, P. L.; George, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Partial cross sections of definite parity, calculated for electronic-rotational energy transfer in the F +H2 collision system, interweave with increasing total angular momentum J. An explanation, in terms of diabatic curve crossings induced by the centrifugal potential in the body-fixed coordinate system, predicts the interweaving to occur only in systems having half-integer J.

  3. Differential cross sections for positron-xenon elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Marler, J. P.; Surko, C. M.; McEachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    2006-06-15

    Absolute measurements of differential cross sections for the elastic scattering of positrons from xenon are made at 2, 5 and 8 eV using a trap-based beam and the technique of measuring scattering cross sections in a strong magnetic field. Calculations are carried out using the relativistic Dirac equations with a static plus polarization potential. Generally good absolute agreement is found between experiment and theory.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    that identifies the needs and characteristics of individuals in the Armys’ prime market , as well as their exposure to Army advertising . One way the Army...U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences N Research Report 1578 A Cross-Sectional Comparison I of Army Advertising ...62785A 791 2105 H01 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Army Advertising Attributes 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S

  5. Relativistic corrections in K-shell ionization cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, C.V.

    1984-03-01

    Relativistic effects on a modified version of Rutherford's scattering cross section are considered up to first-order in the Born approximation for relativistic velocities in the binary-encounter approximation (BEA). The predicted cross sections with protons as projectile are lower than the previous theoretical values at low energies and are seen to be in better agreement with measurements. An approximate relativistic correction factor which accounts for orbital electrons only is compared with exact Dirac corrections, within the BEA model.

  6. Enhancing the optical cross section of quantum antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfeng; Zhou, Ming; Ying, Lei; Chen, Xuewen; Yu, Zongfu

    2017-01-01

    The classical radio-frequency antenna theory indicates that large cross sections can be realized through directional radiation. In this paper, a similar principle is applied in quantum systems, in which quantum antennas, constructed by a cluster of quantum two-level systems, explore the collective excitation of two-level systems to realize large directivity. Both the optical cross section and the coherent time can be dramatically enhanced in free space, far exceeding the case of a single two-level system.

  7. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  8. Elastic and total cross sections for simple biomolecules in the intermediate energy range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Naghma, Rahla; Antony, Bobby

    2015-09-01

    The elastic and total cross sections for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-butanone and formamide are calculated using the spherical complex optical potential formalism in the intermediate energy range from 50 eV to 10 keV. These cross sections find application to various fields like radiation damage and biological sciences. The present results are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data and are found to give excellent agreement. The elastic cross sections reported for most of the targets in the present energy range are done for the first time. The energy dependence of the contribution of ionization and elastic cross section with respect to the total cross section and the correlation of total cross section with polarizability of the molecules are also studied.

  9. Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.

  10. Positronium beam production and scattering cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Dawn Elizabeth

    In this work, the efficiency for the production of a monoenergetic positronium beam via the charge-exchange reaction of a positron beam in a gaseous target has been determined for molecular hydrogen and molecular nitrogen. In the case of molecular nitrogen, it has been found that the energy range over which a useful intensity of collimated positronium may be produced can be extended to 250eV, 100eV higher than previously achieved. This should enable measurements of the total and partial positronium cross-sections at correspondingly higher energies, where target inelastic effects are expected to be significant A recent measurement of the integrated positronium formation cross-section for xenon found a larger yield of positronium atoms compared to the other noble gases. A shoulder was also seen 10eV above the peak and it was suggested that this might be due to the production of positronium in an excited state. These findings have provided an incentive to investigate the collimated positronium production efficiency from xenon, which has been found to be surprisingly low. The quantum state of the beam atoms has also been found to be dominantly ground state. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed Total cross-sections for positronium-gas scattering have been extracted from the measurements of the positronium beam production efficiency for both molecular nitrogen and xenon. These quantities have also been determined directly by measuring the intensity of the positronium beam transmitted through a gas cell via the Beer-Lambert Law. A good consistency is found between the values obtained using this method and those determined indirectly. Recently, measurements have been made of the absolute integrated cross-section for the fragmentation of positronium in collision with helium atoms, along with the longitudinal energy distributions of the residual positrons in the energy range -Ep/=13-33eV. Measurements of the latter indicate a peak close to half the residual

  11. Photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm.

    PubMed

    Jin, Bing; Chen, I-Cheng; Huang, Wen-Tsung; Lien, Chien-Yu; Guchhait, Nikhil; Lin, Jim J

    2010-04-15

    The photolysis rate of ClOOCl is crucial in the catalytic destruction of polar stratospheric ozone. In this work, we determined the photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm with a molecular beam and with mass-resolved detection. The photodissociation cross section is the product of the absorption cross section and the dissociation quantum yield. We formed an effusive molecular beam of ClOOCl at a nozzle temperature of 200 or 250 K and determined its photodissociation probability by measuring the decrease of the ClOOCl intensity upon laser irradiation. By comparing with a reference molecule (Cl(2)), of which the absorption cross section and dissociation quantum yield are well-known, we determined the absolute photodissociation cross section of ClOOCl at 330 nm to be (2.31 +/- 0.11) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 200 K and (2.47 +/- 0.12) x 10(-19) cm(2) at 250 K. Impurity interference has been a well-recognized problem in conventional spectroscopic studies of ClOOCl; our mass-resolved measurement directly overcomes such a problem. This measurement of the ClOOCl photolysis cross section at 330 nm is particularly useful in constraining its atmospheric photolysis rate, which in the polar stratosphere peaks near this wavelength.

  12. Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descouvemont, P.; Canto, L. F.; Hussein, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    We use a three-body continuum discretized coupled channel (CDCC) model to investigate Coulomb and nuclear effects in breakup and reaction cross sections. The breakup of the projectile is simulated by a finite number of square integrable wave functions. First we show that the scattering matrices can be split in a nuclear term and in a Coulomb term. This decomposition is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and requires the scattering wave functions. We present two different methods to separate both effects. Then, we apply this separation to breakup and reaction cross sections of 7Li+208Pb . For breakup, we investigate various aspects, such as the role of the α +t continuum, the angular-momentum distribution, and the balance between Coulomb and nuclear effects. We show that there is a large ambiguity in defining the Coulomb and nuclear breakup cross sections, since both techniques, although providing the same total breakup cross sections, strongly differ for the individual components. We suggest a third method which could be efficiently used to address convergence problems at large angular momentum. For reaction cross sections, interference effects are smaller, and the nuclear contribution is dominant above the Coulomb barrier. We also draw attention to different definitions of the reaction cross section which exist in the literature and which may induce small, but significant, differences in the numerical values.

  13. Krypton charge exchange cross sections for Hall effect thruster models

    SciTech Connect

    Hause, Michael L.; Prince, Benjamin D.; Bemish, Raymond J.

    2013-04-28

    Following discharge from a Hall effect thruster, charge exchange occurs between ions and un-ionized propellant atoms. The low-energy cations produced can disturb operation of onboard instrumentation or the thruster itself. Charge-exchange cross sections for both singly and doubly charged propellant atoms are required to model these interactions. While xenon is the most common propellant currently used in Hall effect thrusters, other propellants are being considered, in particular, krypton. We present here guided-ion beam measurements and comparisons to semiclassical calculations for Kr{sup +} + Kr and Kr{sup 2+} + Kr cross sections. The measurements of symmetric Kr{sup +} + Kr charge exchange are in good agreement with both the calculations including spin-orbit effects and previous measurements. For the symmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr reaction, we present cross section measurements for center-of-mass energies between 1 eV and 300 eV, which spans energies not previously examined experimentally. These cross section measurements compare well with a simple one-electron transfer model. Finally, cross sections for the asymmetric Kr{sup 2+} + Kr {yields} Kr{sup +} + Kr{sup +} reaction show an onset near 12 eV, reaching cross sections near constant value of 1.6 A{sup 2} with an exception near 70-80 eV.

  14. General Constraints on Cross Sections Deduced from Surrogate Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2003-08-14

    Cross sections that cannot be measured in the laboratory, e.g. because the target lifetime is too short, can be inferred indirectly from a different reaction forming the same compound system, but with a more accessible beam/target combination (the ''surrogate-reaction'' technique). The reactions share the same compound system and a common decay mechanism, but they involve different formation processes. Therefore, an implicit constraint is imposed on the inferred cross section deduced from the measured surrogate-reaction data, through the common decay mechanism. In this paper, the mathematical consequences of this implicit constraint are investigated. General formulas are derived from upper and lower bounds on the inferred cross section, estimated from surrogate data in a procedure which does not require any modeling of the common decay process. As an example, the formulas developed here are applied to the case of the {sup 235}U(n,f) cross section, deduced from {sup 234}U(t,pf) surrogate data. The calculated bounds are not very tight in this particular case. However, by introducing a few qualitative assumptions about the physics of the fission process, meaningful bounds on the deduced cross section are obtained. Upper and lower limits for the cross-section ratio of the (n,f) reaction on the {sup 235}U isomer at E{sub x} = 77 eV relative to the (n,f) reaction on the ground state are also calculated. The generalization of this technique to other surrogate reactions is discussed.

  15. Electron cross-sections and transport in liquids and biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Ronald; Casey, M.; Cocks, D.; Konvalov, D.; Brunger, M. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrovic, Z.; McEachran, R.; Buckman, S. J.; de Urquijo, J.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling of electron induced processes in plasma medicine and radiation damage is reliant on accurate self-consistent sets of cross-sections for electrons in tissue. These cross-sections (and associated transport theory) must accurately account not only the electron-biomolecule interactions but also for the soft-condensed nature of tissue. In this presentation, we report on recent swarm experiments for electrons in gaseous water and tetrahydrofuran using the pulsed-Townsend experiment, and the associated development of self-consistent cross-section sets that arise from them. We also report on the necessary modifications to gas-phase cross-sections required to accurately treat electron transport in liquids. These modifications involve the treatment of coherent scattering and screening of the electron interaction potential as well as the development of a new transport theory to accommodate these cross-sections. The accuracy of the ab-initio cross-sections is highlighted through comparison of theory and experiment for electrons in liquid argon and xenon.

  16. Status of the Neutron Cross-Section Standards Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Carlson, Allan D.; Vonach, Herbert

    2005-05-01

    A new evaluation of the neutron cross-section standards is now underway. This evaluation has been supported by the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC), the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and an International Atomic Energy Agency Coordinated Research Program (CRP). The CRP has had the dominant role in producing these evaluations. An important goal is to produce the standards needed for the upcoming new ENDF/B-VII library. Since most neutron cross-section measurements are made relative to neutron cross-section standards, the standards evaluation is of crucial importance. The standard reactions to be evaluated are: H(n,n), 3He(n,p), 6Li(n,t), 10B(n,α), 10B(n,α1γ), C(n,n), Au(n,γ), 235U(n,f), and 238U(n,f). These standards should receive international acceptance to ensure that all evaluation projects use the same set of standards. The last complete evaluation of the standards dates back almost 20 years. In the meantime quite a number of new and improved measurements have occurred for the cross-section standards. International efforts are presently underway to update the experimental database and to improve the evaluation process. Due to the need for high-energy standards, the energy range is being extended to 200 MeV for some of the cross-section standards.

  17. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  18. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  19. Systematics of isotopic production cross sections from interactions of relativistic 40Ca in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.-X.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Knott, C. N.; Lindstrom, P. J.; McMahon, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1997-09-01

    The isotopic production cross sections for 40Ca projectiles at 357, 565, and 763 MeV/nucleon interacting in a liquid hydrogen target have been measured by the Transport Collaboration at the LBL HISS facility. The systematics of these cross sections are studied, and the results indicate that nuclear structure effects are present in the isotope production process during the relativistic collisions. The newly measured cross sections are also compared with those predicted by semiempirical and parametric formulas, but the predictions do not fully describe the systematics such as the energy dependence. The consequences of the cross section systematics in galactic cosmic ray studies are also discussed.

  20. Absolute cross-section measurements for ionization of He Rydberg atoms in collisions with K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, F.; Renwick, S.; Martínez, H.; Morgan, T. J.

    1995-11-01

    Absolute cross sections for ionization of 1.5-10.0 keV/amu Rydberg helium atoms in principal quantum states 12<=n<=15 due to collisions with potassium have been measured. The data are compared with the free-electron cross section at equal velocity. Our results for the collisional ionization cross sections (σi) agree both in shape and absolute magnitude with the data available for the total electron-scattering cross sections (σe) and support recent theoretical models for ionization of Rydberg atoms with neutral perturbers.

  1. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6–17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. Methods In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Results It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Conclusion Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem. PMID:27227780

  2. BMI is a Better Indicator of Cardiac Risk Factors, as against Elevated Blood Pressure in Apparently Healthy Female Adolescents and Young Adult Students: Results From a Cross-Sectional Study in Tripura

    PubMed Central

    Debnath, Surajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measures are used as indicators of elevated blood pressure, but reported to have variable sensitivity among populations. This study was undertaken to identify the better indicator of Cardiac-risk factors by statistical comparison of BMI, Waist circumference, and Waist to Height (WtHr) ratio in apparently healthy adolescents and young adult female students of Tripura. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a resource limited setup on 210 apparently healthy female adolescents and young adult students in Tripura. Mean (±SD) of all parameters were compared (ANOVA) to recognize significant independent (anthropometric measures) and dependent factors (blood pressure indices and so on). Correlation (r) analysis was used to identify the better (p) indicator of blood pressure indices (dependent variable) and its impact was assessed by Multiple Regression analysis. Results: blood pressure indices are comparatively higher in obese and overweight participants with statistically significant (95.5% confidence) mean differences. Significant correlation with dependent factors is observed with BMI followed by WtHr and Waist Circumference. Impact of anthropometric measures with blood pressure Indices is most significant for BMI (P ≤ 0.020) followed by WtHr (P ≤ 0.500) and waist circumference (P ≤ 0.520). Conclusion: BMI is a superior indicator of blood pressure indices and can identify participants at risk even in apparently healthy adolescent and young adult females. PMID:27890980

  3. Buckling and vibration analysis of a simply supported column with a piecewise constant cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis and sample results for the lateral buckling and vibration of a compressively loaded column is presented whose cross section is piecewise constant along its length. The column is symmetric about its mid-span and consists of three sections, the center section having a stiffer cross section than the two identical end sections. Buckling and vibration characteristics of the column are determined from numerical solution of the exact eigenvalue problems. Parametric structural efficiency analyses are performed using a nondimensionalized set of governing equations to determine the optimum ratio between the lengths of the center section and the outer sections based on both buckling load and vibration frequency requirements. In these analyses, two relationships exist. One is between cross-sectional mass and the cross section, and the other is a high-efficiency scheme. The effect of axial load on vibration frequency is also examined and compared with that of a uniform column.

  4. Rosenbluth Separation of the π^{0} Electroproduction Cross Section.

    PubMed

    Defurne, M; Mazouz, M; Ahmed, Z; Albataineh, H; Allada, K; Aniol, K A; Bellini, V; Benali, M; Boeglin, W; Bertin, P; Brossard, M; Camsonne, A; Canan, M; Chandavar, S; Chen, C; Chen, J-P; de Jager, C W; de Leo, R; Desnault, C; Deur, A; El Fassi, L; Ent, R; Flay, D; Friend, M; Fuchey, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Giusa, A; Glamazdin, O; Golge, S; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D; Holmstrom, T; Horn, T; Huang, J; Huang, M; Huber, G M; Hyde, C E; Iqbal, S; Itard, F; Kang, Ho; Kang, Hy; Kelleher, A; Keppel, C; Koirala, S; Korover, I; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Long, E; Magne, M; Mammei, J; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A; Meddi, F; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Mihovilovic, M; Muangma, N; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nadel-Turonski, P; Nuruzzaman, N; Paremuzyan, R; Puckett, A; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Rakhman, A; Rashad, M N H; Riordan, S; Roche, J; Russo, G; Sabatié, F; Saenboonruang, K; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Selvy, L; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Solvignon, P; Sperduto, M L; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V; Sutera, C; Tobias, W A; Urciuoli, G M; Wang, D; Wojtsekhowski, B; Yao, H; Ye, Z; Zana, L; Zhan, X; Zhang, J; Zhao, B; Zhao, Z; Zheng, X; Zhu, P

    2016-12-23

    We present deeply virtual π^{0} electroproduction cross-section measurements at x_{B}=0.36 and three different Q^{2} values ranging from 1.5 to 2  GeV^{2}, obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σ_{LT}. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q^{2} regime.

  5. Total nucleon-nucleon cross sections in large Nc QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Thomas D.; Gelman, Boris A.

    2012-02-01

    We use contracted spin-flavor symmetry which emerges in the large Nc limit of QCD to obtain relations between proton-proton and proton-neutron total cross sections for both polarized and unpolarized scattering. The formalism used is valid in the semiclassical regime in which the relative momentum of the incident nucleons is much larger than the inverse size of the nucleon, provided that certain technical assumptions are met. The relations should be phenomenologically useful provided that Nc=3 is sufficiently large so that the large Nc results have at least semiquantitative predictive power. The relations are model independent in the sense that they depend on properties of large Nc QCD only and not on any particular model-dependent details of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We compare these model-independent results to the experimental data. We find the relation for spin-unpolarized scattering works well empirically. For the case of polarized scattering, the data are consistent with the relations, but the cross sections are too small to make sharp predictions.

  6. Rosenbluth Separation of the π0 Electroproduction Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defurne, M.; Mazouz, M.; Ahmed, Z.; Albataineh, H.; Allada, K.; Aniol, K. A.; Bellini, V.; Benali, M.; Boeglin, W.; Bertin, P.; Brossard, M.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Chandavar, S.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; de Jager, C. W.; de Leo, R.; Desnault, C.; Deur, A.; El Fassi, L.; Ent, R.; Flay, D.; Friend, M.; Fuchey, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gaskell, D.; Giusa, A.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D.; Holmstrom, T.; Horn, T.; Huang, J.; Huang, M.; Huber, G. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Iqbal, S.; Itard, F.; Kang, Ho.; Kang, Hy.; Kelleher, A.; Keppel, C.; Koirala, S.; Korover, I.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Long, E.; Magne, M.; Mammei, J.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Martí Jiménez-Argüello, A.; Meddi, F.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Mihovilovic, M.; Muangma, N.; Muñoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Nuruzzaman, N.; Paremuzyan, R.; Puckett, A.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Rakhman, A.; Rashad, M. N. H.; Riordan, S.; Roche, J.; Russo, G.; Sabatié, F.; Saenboonruang, K.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Selvy, L.; Shahinyan, A.; Sirca, S.; Solvignon, P.; Sperduto, M. L.; Subedi, R.; Sulkosky, V.; Sutera, C.; Tobias, W. A.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Yao, H.; Ye, Z.; Zana, L.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, B.; Zhao, Z.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, P.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We present deeply virtual π0 electroproduction cross-section measurements at xB=0.36 and three different Q2 values ranging from 1.5 to 2 GeV 2 , obtained from Jefferson Lab Hall A experiment E07-007. The Rosenbluth technique is used to separate the longitudinal and transverse responses. Results demonstrate that the cross section is dominated by its transverse component and, thus, is far from the asymptotic limit predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics. Nonetheless, an indication of a nonzero longitudinal contribution is provided by the measured interference term σL T. Results are compared with several models based on the leading-twist approach of generalized parton distributions (GPDs). In particular, a fair agreement is obtained with models in which the scattering amplitude includes convolution terms of chiral-odd (transversity) GPDs of the nucleon with the twist-3 pion distribution amplitude. This experiment, together with previous extensive unseparated measurements, provides strong support to the exciting idea that transversity GPDs can be accessed via neutral pion electroproduction in the high-Q2 regime.

  7. Complex Correlation Calculation of e(-) - H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e(-) - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with 2 projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S-1 phase shifts is 95 while for the S-3 it is 56, except for k = 0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k = 0.3 and 0.4 for S-1. The main aim of this approach is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T-matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

  8. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e-H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S phase shifts is 95 while for the S it is 56, except for k=0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are given. They are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of 0 greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k=0.3 and 0.4 for S. The main aim of this approach' is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

  9. Current distribution in ESD diodes; Cross section corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. C.; Gomer, R.

    1986-06-01

    The electron current distribution in diodes consisting of a rectangular crystal and an electron emitting filament parallel to and in front of it, used in several electron stimulated desorption (ESD) experiments has been determined by means of a dummy crystal constructed from uniformly transparent Lektromesh and a moveable, suitably constructed fine probe. It was found that for straight filaments the distribution was uniform along the narrow, but nearly triangular along the long dimension of the crystal. Calculated log signal versus time curves in ESD show considerable curvature, as often observed experimentally with such geometries. Filaments with a straight center, but coiled and shielded end sections provide uniform current distributions. When such filaments are used the curvature of the log signal versus time curves disappears for Kr desorption from W(110) but is still seen for oxygen desorption. The absolute fraction of filament current hitting the front surface of a crystal was also determined for various geometries by using a thin suppressor mesh in front of the dummy crystal. Cross sections for CO, O, and Kr ESD from W(110) were redetermined with a coiled end section filament. After correction for the fractions of current to the crystal and current non-uniformities previous results are in fairly reasonable agreement with the new values, except for the CO measurements of Leung, Vass, and Gomer, which are still high by a factor of 5. The new measurements permit a recalculation of excitation cross sections for neutral desorption. It is found that the latter are substantially smaller than corresponding gas phase values.

  10. 45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Cross Section through the Power House, from Construction Drawing 2042-F-23, entitled General Arrangement of Power Plant, Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Cross section of the Blacksmith Shop from Construction Drawing 2042-F-15, entitled Machine and Blacksmith Shop; Plan, Elevations, and Sections. (Original drawing, in the possession of Wyre Dick and Company, Livingston, New Jersey.) - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Engine Terminal, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  12. α scattering and α -induced reaction cross sections of 64Zn at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornelas, A.; Mohr, P.; Gyürky, Gy.; Elekes, Z.; Fülöp, Zs.; Halász, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Somorjai, E.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Galaviz, D.; Güray, R. T.; Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Yalçın, C.

    2016-11-01

    Background: α -nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of α -induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model. Uncertainties of these calculations are related to ambiguities in the adjustment of the potential parameters to experimental elastic scattering angular distributions and to the energy dependence of the effective α -nucleus potentials. Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section σreac of α -induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open nonelastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(α ,α )64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier, at 12.1 and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (α ,γ ) , (α ,n ) , and (α ,p ) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing nonelastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open nonelastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the consistency of the experimental data. At the higher energy of 16.1 MeV, the predicted significant contribution of compound-inelastic scattering to the total reaction cross section is confirmed experimentally. As a by-product it is found that most recent global α -nucleus potentials are able to describe the reaction cross sections for 64Zn around the Coulomb barrier. Conclusions: Total reaction cross sections of α -induced reactions can be well determined from elastic scattering angular distributions. The present study proves experimentally that the total cross section from elastic scattering is identical to the sum of nonelastic reaction cross sections. Thus, the statistical model can reliably be used to distribute the total reaction

  13. Measurements of neutron cross sections for chromium, yttrium and terbium at 134 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Shun; Okumura, Shintaro; Yashima, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Kazuhiko; Shima, Tatsushi; Takahashi, Naruto; Shinohara, Atsushi; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Caffee, Marc; Shibata, Seiichi; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu

    2014-09-01

    Neutron-induced reaction cross sections are essential to cosmochemists aiming to decipher the cosmic-ray irradiation history. These cross section data also serve as a comprehensive nuclear database for estimating residual radioactivities in accelerator facilities. Neutron cross sections in the energy range above 100 MeV have scarcely been measured experimentally; exceptions are for the target materials C, Cu, Pb, Bi. In many instances the neutron cross section is based on the corresponding proton cross section, the assumption being that above 100 MeV they are similar. In this work, we measured reaction cross sections of radionuclides produced through nuclear spallation reactions from Cr, Y and Tb induced by neutrons at 134 MeV. The irradiations were carried out using neutrons produced through Li-7 (p,n) reaction at N0 beam line in RCNP. To estimate quasi-monoenergetic neutron induced cross sections, the target stacks were irradiated on the two angles of 0 and 25 degrees for the axis of the primary proton beam. The results will be compared to the cross section data for the same target materials with 197, 287 and 386 MeV neutrons in our previous work. Neutron-induced reaction cross sections are essential to cosmochemists aiming to decipher the cosmic-ray irradiation history. These cross section data also serve as a comprehensive nuclear database for estimating residual radioactivities in accelerator facilities. Neutron cross sections in the energy range above 100 MeV have scarcely been measured experimentally; exceptions are for the target materials C, Cu, Pb, Bi. In many instances the neutron cross section is based on the corresponding proton cross section, the assumption being that above 100 MeV they are similar. In this work, we measured reaction cross sections of radionuclides produced through nuclear spallation reactions from Cr, Y and Tb induced by neutrons at 134 MeV. The irradiations were carried out using neutrons produced through Li-7 (p,n) reaction at N0

  14. Research on Fast-Doppler-Broadening of neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A Fast-Doppler-Broadening method is developed in this work to broaden Continuous Energy neutron cross-sections for Monte Carlo calculations. Gauss integration algorithm and parallel computing are implemented in this method, which is unprecedented in the history of cross section processing. Compared to the traditional code (NJOY, SIGMA1, etc.), the new Fast-Doppler-Broadening method shows a remarkable speedup with keeping accuracy. The purpose of using Gauss integration is to avoid complex derivation of traditional broadening formula and heavy load of computing complementary error function that slows down the Doppler broadening process. The OpenMP environment is utilized in parallel computing which can take full advantage of modern multi-processor computers. Combination of the two can reduce processing time of main actinides (such as {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U) to an order of magnitude of 1{approx}2 seconds. This new method is fast enough to be applied to Online Doppler broadening. It can be combined or coupled with Monte Carlo transport code to solve temperature dependent problems and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupled scheme which is a big challenge for the conventional NJOY-MCNP system. Examples are shown to determine the efficiency and relative errors compared with the NJOY results. A Godiva Benchmark is also used in order to test the ACE libraries produced by the new method. (authors)

  15. CCKT Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, Aaron K.; Schneider, B. I.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are in the process of carrying out calculations of e-H total cross sections using the 'complex-correlation Kohn-T' (CCKT) method. In a later paper, we described the methodology more completely, but confined calculations to the elastic scattering region, with definitive, precision results for S-wave phase shifts. Here we extend the calculations to the (low) continuum (1 much less than k(exp 2) much less than 3) using a Green's function formulation. This avoids having to solve integro-differential equations; rather we evaluate indefinite integrals involving appropriate Green's functions and the (complex) optical potential to find the scattering function u(r). From the asymptotic form of u(r) we extract a T(sub L) which is a complex number. From T(sub L), elastic sigma(sub L)(elastic) = 4pi(2L+1)((absolute value of T(sub L))(exp 2)), and total sigma (sub L)(total) = 4pi/k(2L+1)Im(T(sub L)) cross sections follow.

  16. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, Carolyn; Ilas, Germina

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  17. Deeply virtual Compton Scattering cross section measured with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Guegan, Baptistse

    2014-09-01

    The Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) provide a new description of nucleon structure in terms of its elementary constituents, the quarks and the gluons. Including and extending the information provided by the form factors and the parton distribution functions, they describe the correlation between the transverse position and the longitudinal momentum fraction of the partons in the nucleon. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS), the electroproduction of a real photon on a single quark in the nucleon eN --> e'N'g, is the exclusive process most directly interpretable in terms of GPDs. A dedicated experiment to study DVCS with the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab has been carried out using a 5.9-GeV polarized electron beam and an unpolarized hydrogen target, allowing us to collect DVCS events in the widest kinematic range ever explored in the valence region : 1.0 < Q2 < 4.6 GeV2, 0.1 < xB < 0.58 and 0.09 < -t < 2.0 GeV2. In this paper, we show preliminary results of unpolarized cross sections and of polarized cross section differences for the DVCS channel.

  18. Calculation of Cross Sections in Electron-Nuclear Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Sabin, John R.; Deumens, E.; Öhrn, Y.

    In this work, we present an overview of the study of total and differential cross section calculations within the electron-nuclear dynamics (END). END is a method to solve the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in a non-adiabatic approach to direct dynamics. The method takes advantage of a coherent state representation of the molecular wave function. A quantum-mechanical Lagrangian formulation is employed to approximate the Schrödinger equation, via the time-dependent variational principle, to a set of coupled first-order differential equations in time for the END. We obtain the final wave function for the system allowing the determination of collisional properties of interest, as for example, deflection functions, charge exchange probabilities and amplitudes, and differential cross sections. We discuss the use and selection of basis sets for both the electronic description of the colliding systems as well as for their importance in the description of electron capture. As quantum effects are important in many cases and lacking for classical nuclei, we discuss the Schiff methodology and its advantages over other traditional methods for including semiclassical corrections. Time-lapse rendering of the dynamics of the participating electrons and atomic nuclei provides for a detailed view of dynamical and reactive processes. Comparison to experimental and other theoretical results is provided where appropriate data are available.

  19. Measuring astrophysically relevant 36Cl production cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Tyler; Skulski, Michael; Ostdiek, Karen; Lu, Wenting; Clark, Adam; Nelson, Austin; Beard, Mary; Collon, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The short-lived radionuclide 36Cl (t1 / 2 = 0 . 301 Ma) is known to have existed in the Early Solar System (ESS), and evaluating its production sources can lead to better understanding of the processes taking place in ESS formation and their timescales. The X-wind model is used to explain 36Cl production via solar energetic particles from the young Sun, but is lacking empirical data for many relevant reactions. Bowers et al. (2013) measured the 33S(α,p)36Cl cross section at various energies in the range of 0.70-2.42 MeV/A, and found them to be systematically under predicted by Hauser-Feshbach statistical model codes TALYS and NON-SMOKER, highlighting the need for more empirical data for these cross sections. Recent results of the re-measurement of the 33S(α,p)36Cl reaction, providing greater coverage of the same energy range as Bowers et al., will be presented. Future plans for measurement of other 36Cl producing reactions will also be discussed.

  20. Loneliness Predicts Reduced Physical Activity: Cross-Sectional & Longitudinal Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cross-sectional and prospective associations between loneliness and physical activity, and to evaluate the roles of social control and emotion regulation as mediators of these associations. Design A population-based sample of 229 White, Black, and Hispanic men and women, age 50 to 68 years at study onset, were tested annually for each of 3 years. Main Outcome Measures Physical activity probability, and changes in physical activity probability over a 3-year period. Results Replicating and extending prior cross-sectional research, loneliness was associated with a significantly reduced odds of physical activity (OR = 0.65 per SD of loneliness) net of sociodemographic variables (age, gender, ethnicity, education, income), psychosocial variables (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, hostility, social support), and self-rated health. This association was mediated by hedonic emotion regulation, but not by social control as indexed by measures of social network size, marital status, contact with close ties, group membership, or religious group affiliation. Longitudinal analyses revealed that loneliness predicted diminished odds of physical activity in the next two years (OR = 0.61), and greater likelihood of transitioning from physical activity to inactivity (OR = 1.58). Conclusion Loneliness among middle and older age adults is an independent risk factor for physical inactivity and increases the likelihood that physical activity will be discontinued over time. PMID:19450042

  1. Effect of strongly coupled plasma on photoionization cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Madhusmita

    2014-01-15

    The effect of strongly coupled plasma on the ground state photoionization cross section is studied. In the non relativistic dipole approximation, cross section is evaluated from bound-free transition matrix element. The bound and free state wave functions are obtained by solving the radial Schrodinger equation with appropriate plasma potential. We have used ion sphere potential (ISP) to incorporate the plasma effects in atomic structure calculation. This potential includes the effect of static plasma screening on nuclear charge as well as the effect of confinement due to the neighbouring ions. With ISP, the radial equation is solved using Shooting method approach for hydrogen like ions (Li{sup +2}, C{sup +5}, Al{sup +12}) and lithium like ions (C{sup +3}, O{sup +5}). The effect of strong screening and confinement is manifested as confinement resonances near the ionization threshold for both kinds of ions. The confinement resonances are very much dependent on the edge of the confining potential and die out as the plasma density is increased. Plasma effect also results in appearance of Cooper minimum in lithium like ions, which was not present in case of free lithium like ions. With increasing density the position of Cooper minimum shifts towards higher photoelectron energy. The same behaviour is also true for weakly coupled plasma where plasma effect is modelled by Debye-Huckel potential.

  2. Absolute electron-impact total ionization cross sections of chlorofluoromethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Roberto; Sierra, Borja; Redondo, Carolina; Rayo, María N. Sánchez; Castaño, Fernando

    2004-12-01

    An experimental study is reported on the electron-impact total ionization cross sections (TICSs) of CCl4, CCl3F, CCl2F2, and CClF3 molecules. The kinetic energy of the colliding electrons was in the 10-85 eV range. TICSs were obtained as the sum of the partial ionization cross sections of all fragment ions, measured and identified in a linear double focusing time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The resulting TICS profiles—as a function of the electron-impact energy—have been compared both with those computed by ab initio and (semi)empirical methods and with the available experimental data. The computational methods used include the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) modified to include atoms with principal quantum numbers n⩾3, the Deutsch and Märk (DM) formalism, and the modified additivity rule (MAR). It is concluded that both modified BEB and DM methods fit the experimental TICS for (CF4), CClF3, CCl2F2, CCl3F, and CCl4 to a high accuracy, in contrast with the poor accord of the MAR method. A discussion on the factors influencing the discrepancies of the fittings is presented.

  3. Study on cross section of high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguri, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao

    2007-01-01

    It is in particular of importance for HTS coils to secure a larger central magnetic field and/or a large stored energy with shorter length of HTS tapes. The critical current of an HTS tape depends on both the flux density and the flux angle against tapes. From this point, the performance improvement of HTS coils is taken into account with an analytical model. The minimum volume coil derived from the Fabry Factor constant curve is taken concerning the original coil shape, which is often employed in low temperature superconducting coils. The coil critical current was analyzed in consideration of the anisotropic properties of the tape. The electric field of HTS tapes in the coil was calculated at the coil critical current and the high electric field portion were cut out. The optimal coil cross section is obtained by iterating this calculation process. As a result, the critical current and the stored energy density of the coil were improved. The stored energy density increased about 17% and the central magnetic field was almost kept constant regardless of 19% reduction of HTS tapes, as compared with the original coil with the rectangular cross section.

  4. Calculation of Electron Affinity and Partial Cross Sections of Hf^-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lin; Beck, Donald

    2008-05-01

    We have calculated for the first time the electron affinity (EA) of Hf^-, using the relativistic configuration interaction method. Our calculations show Hf^- has only one bound state 5d^26s^26p J=5/2, which is a 6p attachment to the ground state of Hf I. By combining our valence stage result with the separate estimate for the modest core-valence contribution, the EA of Hf^- is about 0.114 eV. So far there have been only two experimental results [1,2] for the EA of Hf^-, but both gave only the limits. Our result falls within both of the limits. We also calculate the partial cross sections for photodetachment to the lower lying neutral thresholds. [1] M-J. Nadeau et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123, 521 (1997) [2] Vernon T. Davis et al, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 241, 118 (2005)

  5. Harm reduction measures and injecting inside prison versus mandatory drugs testing: results of a cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey. The European Commission Network on HIV Infection and Hepatitis in Prison.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, A. G.; Gore, S. M.; Hutchinson, S. J.; Lewis, S. C.; Cameron, S.; Burns, S.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (a) To determine both the frequency of injecting inside prison and use of sterilising tablets to clean needles in the previous four weeks; (b) to assess the efficiency of random mandatory drugs testing at detecting prisoners who inject heroin inside prison; (c) to determine the percentage of prisoners who had been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. DESIGN: Cross sectional willing anonymous salivary HIV surveillance linked to a self completion risk factor questionnaire. SETTING: Lowmoss prison, Glasgow, and Aberdeen prison on 11 and 30 October 1996. SUBJECTS: 293 (94%) of all 312 inmates at Lowmoss and 146 (93%) of all 157 at Aberdeen, resulting in 286 and 143 valid questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of injecting inside prison in the previous four weeks by injector inmates who had been in prison for at least four weeks. RESULTS: 116 (41%) Lowmoss and 53 (37%) Aberdeen prisoners had a history of injecting drug use but only 4% of inmates (17/395; 95% confidence interval 2% to 6%) had ever been offered vaccination against hepatitis B. 42 Lowmoss prisoners (estimated 207 injections and 258 uses of sterilising tablets) and 31 Aberdeen prisoners (229 injections, 221 uses) had injected inside prison in the previous four weeks. The prisons together held 112 injector inmates who had been in prison for more than four weeks, of whom 57 (51%; 42% to 60%) had injected in prison in the past four weeks; their estimated mean number of injections was 6.0 (SD 5.7). Prisoners injecting heroin six times in four weeks will test positive in random mandatory drugs testing on at most 18 days out of 28. CONCLUSIONS: Sterilising tablets and hepatitis B vaccination should be offered to all prisoners. Random mandatory drugs testing seriously underestimates injector inmates' harm reduction needs. PMID:9233321

  6. Cross sections for ultra-low-energy electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, M.; Shigemura, K.; Hosaka, K.; Odagiri, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2016-12-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe at very low electron energies obtained using the technique employing the threshold-photoelectron source are presented. Comparison of the measured cross section for noble gas atoms with those of theoretical results are made.

  7. Integral cross sections for π-p interaction in the 3,3 resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Paul, M.; Schechter, M.; Altman, A.; Jennings, B. K.; Wagner, G. J.; Fazel, N.; Johnson, R. R.; Suen, N.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1993-03-01

    Total cross sections for the π-p single charge exchange and 20° “partial-total” cross sections have been measured between 126 and 202 MeV pion energy. The former are about 4% below similar results of Bugg et al. and (5-10)% below predictions made with currently accepted phase shifts. The latter agree quite well with calculations.

  8. Creation of problem-dependent Doppler-broadened cross sections in the KENO Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Shane W. D.; Celik, Cihangir; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Leal, Luiz C.

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we introduce a quick method for improving the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations by generating one- and two-dimensional cross sections at a user-defined temperature before performing transport calculations. A finite difference method is used to Doppler-broaden cross sections to the desired temperature, and unit-base interpolation is done to generate the probability distributions for double differential two-dimensional thermal moderator cross sections at any arbitrarily user-defined temperature. The accuracy of these methods is tested using a variety of contrived problems. In addition, various benchmarks at elevated temperatures are modeled, and results are compared with benchmark results. Lastly, the problem-dependent cross sections are observed to produce eigenvalue estimates that are closer to the benchmark results than those without the problem-dependent cross sections.

  9. Creation of problem-dependent Doppler-broadened cross sections in the KENO Monte Carlo code

    DOE PAGES

    Hart, Shane W. D.; Celik, Cihangir; Maldonado, G. Ivan; ...

    2015-11-06

    In this paper, we introduce a quick method for improving the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations by generating one- and two-dimensional cross sections at a user-defined temperature before performing transport calculations. A finite difference method is used to Doppler-broaden cross sections to the desired temperature, and unit-base interpolation is done to generate the probability distributions for double differential two-dimensional thermal moderator cross sections at any arbitrarily user-defined temperature. The accuracy of these methods is tested using a variety of contrived problems. In addition, various benchmarks at elevated temperatures are modeled, and results are compared with benchmark results. Lastly, the problem-dependentmore » cross sections are observed to produce eigenvalue estimates that are closer to the benchmark results than those without the problem-dependent cross sections.« less

  10. Electromagnetic Dissociation Cross Sections using Weisskopf-Ewing Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Norbury, John W.

    2011-01-01

    It is important that accurate estimates of crew exposure to radiation are obtained for future long-term space missions. Presently, several space radiation transport codes exist to predict the radiation environment, all of which take as input particle interaction cross sections that describe the nuclear interactions between the particles and the shielding material. The space radiation transport code HZETRN uses the nuclear fragmentation model NUCFRG2 to calculate Electromagnetic Dissociation (EMD) cross sections. Currently, NUCFRG2 employs energy independent branching ratios to calculate these cross sections. Using Weisskopf-Ewing (WE) theory to calculate branching ratios, however, is more advantageous than the method currently employed in NUCFRG2. The WE theory can calculate not only neutron and proton emission, as in the energy independent branching ratio formalism used in NUCFRG2, but also deuteron, triton, helion, and alpha particle emission. These particles can contribute significantly to total exposure estimates. In this work, photonuclear cross sections are calculated using WE theory and the energy independent branching ratios used in NUCFRG2 and then compared to experimental data. It is found that the WE theory gives comparable, but mainly better agreement with data than the energy independent branching ratio. Furthermore, EMD cross sections for single neutron, proton, and alpha particle removal are calculated using WE theory and an energy independent branching ratio used in NUCFRG2 and compared to experimental data.

  11. Improved empirical parameterization for projectile fragmentation cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.

    2017-03-01

    A new empirical parametrization is developed for calculating the fragment cross sections in projectile fragmentation reactions at high energies (>100 MeV/nucleon). The new parametrization, FRACS, consists of two main parts, i.e., the mass yield and the isobaric distribution, on the basis of previous parametrizations. The formalism for the mass yield is improved to describe the target and the projectile energy dependences observed in measured fragmentation cross sections. The parametrization of the isobaric distribution is also modified to reproduce recent experimental data. Furthermore, an additional term is proposed and first implemented in the FRACS parametrization to account for the evident odd-even staggering effect observed in many experimental cross sections. Comparisons with extensive cross sections measured in various fragmentation reactions reveal that FRACS is in much better agreement with experimental data and can reproduce measured cross sections in most cases within a factor of 1.84, which is a much smaller rms deviation as compared to that of the recent parametrization EPAX3.

  12. Measurement of Neutrino Induced Quasi-Elastic Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae

    2006-04-01

    The measurement of the weak mixing angle is the goal, using the data collected in the NOMAD experiment at CERN. Studying the neutrino induced Quasi-Elastic (QE) scattering, in which neutrino hits neutron and results in a muon and a proton, would enhance our understanding of the `higher-twist effect' -- an effect that parameterizes the weak mixing angle. Toward this, I developed a likelihood probability density function that enabled me to eliminate a significant portion of the background, resonance and deep inelastic scattering events. As the Monte Carlo (MC) is only reliable to a precision not better than 15 -- 20 percent, I developed several techniques to make sure that MC and DATA agreed around 5 percent. The axial mass and QE cross section can then be calculated. Techniques and the preliminary results relevant to the calculation will be presented.

  13. Characterization of radar cross section of carbon fiber composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Elliot J.; Lenzing, Erik H.; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon fiber composite (CFC) materials have been used for many structural applications for decades. Their electromagnetic properties are also of great interest and are being quantified by recent research. This research explores shielding effectiveness, antenna design, conductivity, reflection, and absorption properties. The work in this paper specifically characterizes the radar cross section (RCS) of CFC structures. Various CFC planar samples were created using a wet layup method and vacuum bagging techniques. These samples were then placed in an anechoic chamber and their RCS values were measured at normal incidence. These measured values were compared to those of aluminum samples made into the same shape as the CFC samples. All of the measurements were made over 7 - 12 GHz frequency range. The RCS of the CFC samples show some interesting results. The fiber direction in the CFC samples had great influence on the RCS. Theories and reasoning for the results are presented and discussed.

  14. Active calibration target for bistatic radar cross-section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pienaar, M.; Odendaal, J. W.; Joubert, J.; Cilliers, J. E.; Smit, J. C.

    2016-05-01

    Either passive calibration targets are expensive and complex to manufacture or their bistatic radar cross section (RCS) levels are significantly lower than the monostatic RCS levels of targets such as spheres, dihedral, and trihedral corner reflectors. In this paper the performance of an active calibration target with relative high bistatic RCS values is illustrated as a reference target for bistatic RCS measurements. The reference target is simple to manufacture, operates over a wide frequency range, and can be configured to calibrate all four polarizations (VV, HH, HV, and VH). Bistatic RCS measurements of canonical targets, performed in a controlled environment, are calibrated with the reference target and the results are compared to simulated results using FEKO.

  15. Damage accumulation in closed cross-section, laminated, composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    . Space structures typically have closed cross-sections, absent of free edges. As a result, composite material characterization data generated using finite width flat specimens does not accurately reflect the performance of the composite materials used in a closed cross-section structural configuration. Several investigators have recognized the need to develop characterization techniques for composite materials in closed cross-sectioned structures. In these investigations test methods were developed and cylindrical specimens were evaluated. The behavior of the cylindrical specimens were observed to depart from behavior typical of flat coupons. However, no attempts were made to identify and monitor the progression of damage in these cylindrical specimens during loading. The identification and monitoring of damage is fundamental to the characterization of composite materials in closed cross-section configurations. In the study reported here, a closed cross-sectioned test method was developed to monitor damage progression in 2 in. diameter cylindrical specimens and 1.5 in. finite width flat coupons subjected to quasi-static, tensile loading conditions. Damage in these specimen configurations was monitored using pulse echo ultrasonic, acoustic emission, and X-ray techniques.

  16. PROBLEM DEPENDENT DOPPLER BROADENING OF CONTINUOUS ENERGY CROSS SECTIONS IN THE KENO MONTE CARLO COMPUTER CODE

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, S. W. D.; Maldonado, G. Ivan; Celik, Cihangir; Leal, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    For many Monte Carlo codes cross sections are generally only created at a set of predetermined temperatures. This causes an increase in error as one moves further and further away from these temperatures in the Monte Carlo model. This paper discusses recent progress in the Scale Monte Carlo module KENO to create problem dependent, Doppler broadened, cross sections. Currently only broadening the 1D cross sections and probability tables is addressed. The approach uses a finite difference method to calculate the temperature dependent cross-sections for the 1D data, and a simple linear-logarithmic interpolation in the square root of temperature for the probability tables. Work is also ongoing to address broadening theS (alpha , beta) tables. With the current approach the temperature dependent cross sections are Doppler broadened before transport starts, and, for all but a few isotopes, the impact on cross section loading is negligible. Results can be compared with those obtained by using multigroup libraries, as KENO currently does interpolation on the multigroup cross sections to determine temperature dependent cross-sections. Current results compare favorably with these expected results.

  17. Serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate in British male omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans: results from a cross-sectional analysis of the EPIC-Oxford cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gilsing, Anne MJ; Crowe, Francesca L; Lloyd-Wright, Zouë; Sanders, Thomas AB; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Key, Timothy J

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives Vegans and to a lesser extent vegetarians have low average circulating concentrations of vitamin B12; however, the relation between factors such as age or time on these diets and vitamin B12 concentrations is not clear. The objectives were to investigate differences in serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations between omnivores, vegetarians and vegans and to ascertain whether vitamin B12 concentrations differed by age and time on the diet. Subjects/Methods A cross-sectional analysis involving 689 men (226 omnivores, 231 vegetarians and 232 vegans) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort. Results Mean serum vitamin B12 was highest among omnivores (281, 95% CI: 270-292 pmol/l), intermediate in vegetarians (182, 95% CI: 175-189 pmol/l), and lowest in vegans (122, 95% CI: 117-127 pmol/l). Fifty-two percent of vegans, 7% of vegetarians and one omnivore were classified as vitamin B12 deficient (defined as serum vitamin B12 < 118 pmol/l). There was no significant association between age or duration of adherence to a vegetarian or a vegan diet and serum vitamin B12. In contrast, folate concentrations were highest among vegans, intermediate in vegetarians, and lowest in omnivores, but only two men (both omnivores) were categorised as folate deficient (defined as serum folate < 6.3 nmol/l). Conclusion Vegans have lower vitamin B12 concentrations, but higher folate concentrations, than vegetarians and omnivores. Half of the vegans were categorised as vitamin B12 deficient and would be expected to have a higher risk of developing clinical symptoms related to vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:20648045

  18. Associations between pedagogues attitudes, praxis and policy in relation to physical activity of children in kindergarten--results from a cross sectional study of health behaviour amongst Danish pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports on associations between physical activity, pedagogue's attitudes towards promoting physical activity and the physical activity policies (PAP) in kindergarten. The paper deals with data on physical activity of 3-6 year olds in kindergarten which originates from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2006 among all Danish kindergartens. A questionnaire of 48 questions based on pedagogues assessment regarding the health related polcies and praxis in kindergarten and the attitudes of pedagogues was mailed (n = 4200) to all institutions in the country. In total, 1149 kindergartens and 693 integrated institutions returned the survey. The results show a relation between pedagogue's attitudes towards promoting children's physical activity and the number of children having moderately intense physical activity for at least one hour a day. The study also shows a positive association between policies and pedagogue's attitudes towards promoting children's physical activity and the number of days that pedagogues initiated games that made the children physically active. The study suggests that the social and organizational environment in the kindergarten is an important determinant for the level of physical activity among children. This means that the individual norms and attitudes of pedagogues along with the collective intentions and values expressed in written and adopted organizational policies (a Physical Activity Policy--PAP) are important aspects to be worked upon if kindergarten should play an active role in the promotion of healthy lifestyle among kindergarten aged children. Strong municipal and institutional leadership as well as educational interventions in the curricula of pedagogues could be important ways to bring about such change.

  19. EGAF: Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-ray Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Abusaleem, K.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Choi, H. D.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Renne, P. R.; Révay, Zs.; Rogers, A. M.; Rossbach, M.; Siem, S.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; van Bibber, K.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) is the result of a 2000-2007 IAEA Coordinated Research Project to develop a database of thermal, prompt γ-ray cross sections, σγ, for all elemental and selected radioactive targets. No previous database of this kind had existed. EGAF was originally based on measurements using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Reactor on all elemental targets from Z=1-82, 90 and 92, except for He and Pm. The EGAF σγ data were published in the Database of Prompt Gamma Rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis [1]. An international collaboration has formed to continue the EGAF measurements with isotopically enriched targets, derive total radiative thermal neutron cross sections, σ0, extend the σγ data from thermal to 20 MeV neutrons, compile a completed activation data file, improve sections of the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) with more complete and up to date level and γ-ray data, evaluate statistical γ-ray data from reaction studies, and determine recommended neutron separations energies, Sn, for atomic mass evaluations. A new guided neutron beam facility has become available at the Garching (Munich) FRM II Reactor, and high energy neutron experimental facilities are being developed by a Berkeley area collaboration where 5-33 MeV neutron beams are available at the LBNL 88” cyclotron, 2.5 and 14 MeV beams at the University of California, Berkeley neutron generator laboratory, and high flux, 10 nṡcmṡ-2 s-1, neutron pulses available from the LLNL National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  20. Calculation of total electron excitation cross-sections and partial electron ionization cross-sections for the elements. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Computer programs were used to calculate the total electron excitation cross-section for atoms and the partial ionization cross-section. The approximations to the scattering amplitude used are as follows: (1) Born, Bethe, and Modified Bethe for non-exchange excitation; (2) Ochkur for exchange excitation; and (3) Coulomb-Born of non-exchange ionization. The amplitudes are related to the differential cross-sections which are integrated to give the total excitation (or partial ionization) cross-section for the collision. The atomic wave functions used are Hartree-Fock-Slater functions for bound states and the coulomb wave function for the continuum. The programs are presented and the results are examined.

  1. Interactions of relativistic neon to nickel projectiles in hydrogen, elemental production cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knott, C. N.; Albergo, S.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Crawford, H. J.; Cronqvist, M.; Engelage, J.; Ferrando, P.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Jones, F. C.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Mitchell, J. W.; Potenza, R.; Romanski, J.; Russo, G. V.; Soutoul, A.; Testard, O.; Tull, C. E.; Tuvé, C.; Waddington, C. J.; Webber, W. R.; Wefel, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports the elemental production cross sections for 17 projectile-energy combinations with energies between 338 and 894 MeV/nucleon interacting in a liquid hydrogen target. These results were obtained from two runs at the LBL Bevalac using projectiles ranging from 22Ne to 58Ni. Cross sections were measured for all fragment elements with charges greater than or equal to half the charge of the projectile. The results show that, over the energy and ion range investigated, the general decrease in cross section with decreasing fragment charge is strongly modified by the isospin of the projectile ion. Significant additional modifications of the cross sections due to the internal structure of the nucleus have also been seen. These include both pairing and shell effects. Differences in the cross sections due to the differing energies of the projectile are also considerable.

  2. Neutron-induced fission-cross-section measurements and calculations of selected transplutonic isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Browne, J.C.

    1982-08-27

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of /sup 242m/Am and /sup 245/Cm have been measured over an energy range of 10/sup -4/ eV to approx. 20 MeV in a series of experiments at three facilities during the past several years. The combined results of these measurements, in which only sub-milligram quantities of enriched isotopes were used, yield cross sections with uncertainties of approximately 5% below 10 MeV relative to the /sup 235/U standard cross section used to normalize the data. We summarize the resonance analysis of the /sup 242m/Am(n,f) cross section in the eV region. Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations of the detailed fission cross sections of /sup 235/U and /sup 245/Cm have been carried out over the energy region from 0.1 to 5 MeV and these results are compared with our experimental data.

  3. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  4. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  5. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  6. Pion photoproduction cross section at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoegren, Johan

    2015-02-27

    The Real Compton Scattering experiment was performed in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. It was designed to measure, for Compton scattering and π0-photoproduction, the differential cross section over a range of kinematic points and the polarisation transfer to the proton at a single kinematic point. The full range of the experiment in Mandelstam variables t and s was 1.6-6.46 GeV2 and 4.82-10.92 GeV2 respectively with beam energies of 2-6 GeV. The motivation for the experiment is to test the cross section and polarisation transfer predictions of perturbative QCD versus that of predictions from Generalised Parton Distribution models. This thesis will give an overview of the pertinent theory, experimental setup in Hall A and the extracting of the π0-photoproduction cross section.

  7. New Resonance Parameter Evaluation of Cl Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    2005-05-24

    Better measurements and evaluations are needed for many elements where the existing evaluations or the underlying nuclear cross-section data are not sufficiently accurate for reliable calculation of criticality safety margins. Deficiencies in the existing ENDF/B-VI data evaluation for Cl led to our resonance parameter evaluation of Cl neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Our evaluation takes advantage of recent high-resolution capture and transmission measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as well as older total cross-section measurements at Karlsruhe (KFK) to extend the resolved resonance energy range to 1.2 MeV with much more accurate representation of the data than previous evaluations.

  8. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  9. Absorption Cross-Sections of Sodium Diatomic Molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Zeng-Shevan

    1985-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of sodium dimers were studied using a heat pipe over operating in the non-heat-pipe mode. Three wavelength regions were observed. They are in the red, the green-blue, and the near ultraviolet regions. The absorption cross section depends on the wavelength of the incident light. Representative peak values for the v"=0 progression in the red and green-blue regions are 2.59 A sup 2 (average value) and 11.77 A sup 2 (T sub ave=624 K). The value for the C greater than X transitions is several tenths A sup 2. The cross sections were measured from absorption spectra taken as a function of temperature.

  10. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  11. 63Ni (n ,γ ) cross sections measured with DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Göbel, K.; Heftrich, T.; Jandel, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Kivel, N.; Korschinek, G.; Krtička, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Ostermöller, J.; Plag, R.; Reifarth, R.; Schumann, D.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wallner, A.

    2015-10-01

    The neutron capture cross section of the s -process branch nucleus 63Ni affects the abundances of other nuclei in its region, especially 63Cu and 64Zn. In order to determine the energy-dependent neutron capture cross section in the astrophysical energy region, an experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed using the calorimetric 4 π BaF2 array DANCE. The (n ,γ ) cross section of 63Ni has been determined relative to the well-known 197Au standard with uncertainties below 15%. Various 63Ni resonances have been identified based on the Q value. Furthermore, the s -process sensitivity of the new values was analyzed with the new network calculation tool NETZ.

  12. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  13. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugohara, R. T.; Homem, M. G. P.; Iga, I.; de Souza, G. L. C.; Machado, L. E.; Ferraz, J. R.; dos Santos, A. S.; Brescansin, L. M.; Lucchese, R. R.; Lee, M. T.

    2013-08-01

    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e--DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using the relative flow technique. Theoretically, elastic differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections, as well as the grand-total and total absorption cross sections for electron collision with DME are calculated in the 1-1000 eV energy range. A single-center-expansion technique combined with the Padé approximant method is used in our calculations. A comparison between the present experimental and theoretical data shows very good agreement. Moreover, comparison with theoretical and experimental data for e--ethanol (an isomer of DME) scattering shows interesting isomeric effects.

  14. Requirements engineering for cross-sectional information chain models

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, U; Cruel, E; Gök, M; Garthaus, M; Zimansky, M; Remmers, H; Rienhoff, O

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wealth of literature on requirements engineering, little is known about engineering very generic, innovative and emerging requirements, such as those for cross-sectional information chains. The IKM health project aims at building information chain reference models for the care of patients with chronic wounds, cancer-related pain and back pain. Our question therefore was how to appropriately capture information and process requirements that are both generally applicable and practically useful. To this end, we started with recommendations from clinical guidelines and put them up for discussion in Delphi surveys and expert interviews. Despite the heterogeneity we encountered in all three methods, it was possible to obtain requirements suitable for building reference models. We evaluated three modelling languages and then chose to write the models in UML (class and activity diagrams). On the basis of the current project results, the pros and cons of our approach are discussed. PMID:24199080

  15. Stellar (n, gamma) cross sections of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Marganiec, J.; Domingo Pardo, C.; Kaeppeler, F.

    2010-03-01

    The present measurements were performed by means of the activation technique. Neutrons were produced at the Karlsruhe Van de Graaff accelerator via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction. For proton energies just above threshold, one obtains a neutron spectrum similar to a Maxwellian distribution for kT = 25 keV. This quasi-stellar neutron spectrum allowed us to measure the Maxwellian averaged cross sections directly. The experimental results of {sup 174,176}Yb, {sup 184,186}W, {sup 190,192}Os, {sup 196,198}Pt, and {sup 202}Hg were extrapolated from kT = 25 keV to lower and higher temperatures.

  16. Final Report - Nucelar Astrophysics & Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, Robert F.

    2005-02-01

    This enduring research program of 28 years has taken advantage of the excellent research facility of ORELA at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The fruitful collaborations include a number of scientists from ORNL and some from LASL. This program which has ranged from nuclear structure determinations to astrophysical applications has resulted in the identification and/or the refinement of the nuclear properties of more than 5,000 nuclear energy levels or compound energy states. The nuclei range from 30Si to 250Cf, the probes range from thermal to 50 MeV neutrons, and the studies range from capture gamma ray spectra to total and differential scattering and absorption cross sections.

  17. Antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement-annihilation cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, D.L. Jr.

    1986-08-22

    For antiproton energies of several eV or less, annihilation in matter occurs through atomic rearrangement processes in which the antiproton becomes bound to a nucleus prior to annihilation. Existing calculations of the antiproton-hydrogen atom rearrangement cross section are semiclassical and employ the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. They also employ various arguments in regard to the behavior of the system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down at small antiproton-proton separations. These arguments indicate that rearrangement is essentially irreversible. In the present study, a detailed investigation was made of the antiproton-hydrogen atom system when the Born-Oppenheimer approximation breaks down. The results of this study indicate that the previous arguments were approximately correct, but that there is a significant probability for rearrangement reversing prior to annihilation. This probability is estimated to be about 20%. 8 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Fast calculation method of complex space targets' optical cross section.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Li, Yingchun; Guo, Huichao

    2013-06-10

    This paper utilizes the optical cross section (OCS) to characterize the optical scattering characteristics of a space target under the conditions of Sun lighting. We derive the mathematical expression of OCS according to the radiometric theory, and put forward a fast visualization calculation method of complex space targets' OCS based on an OpenGL and 3D model. Through the OCS simulation of Lambert bodies (cylinder and sphere), the computational accuracy and speed of the algorithm were verified. By using this method, the relative error for OCS will not exceed 0.1%, and it only takes 0.05 s to complete a complex calculation. Additionally, we calculated the OCS of three actual satellites with bidirectional reflectance distribution function model parameters in visible bands, and results indicate that it is easy to distinguish the three targets by comparing their OCS curves. This work is helpful for the identification and classification of unresolved space target based on photometric characteristics.

  19. Radar cross-section estimation of SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Ian; White, Richard G.; Oliver, Christopher J.; Cook, Rod

    1995-11-01

    We present an algorithm that is able to smooth out the speckle from many SAR images and which does not suffer from the drawbacks of multilooking. The algorithm is able to preserve the detail and resolution of the original image while producing a smooth, real-valued output. In many cases the quality of the smoothed image is sufficiently high that it may be used with standard optical post-processing algorithms. We use a global optimization method (simulated annealing) and single point gamma statistics to find the MAP solution for the radar cross- section. However, this method may also be regarded as an ideal adaptive filter that is both computationally efficient and highly parallelizable. Results are presented for airborne, ERS-1 and multi-temporal SAR images.

  20. Level density parameters from excitation cross sections of isomeric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skakun, E. A.; Batij, V. G.

    1992-03-01

    Cross section ratios were measured for the production of the isomeric pairs99m,gRh,101m,gRh,102m,gRh,104m,gRh and108m,gIn in the (p,n)-reaction,107m,gIn and109m,gIn in the ( p, γ)-reaction over the energy range up to 9 MeV, and116m,gSb and118m,gSb in the (α, n)-reaction up to 24 MeV. The experimental results for these nuclei as well as for other isometric pairs excited in the ( p, n)-reaction were analysed in the frame of the statistical model for extracting the level density parameter values in the vicinity of closed nucleon shells. The level density parameter behaviour is discussed in the range of nuclear mass numbers under study.

  1. Charge Influence on Mini Black Hole's Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraça, R. S.; Malheiro, M.

    In this work we study the electric charge effect on the cross section production of charged mini black holes (MBH) in accelerators. We analyze the charged MBH solution using the fat brane approximation in the context of the ADD model. The maximum charge-mass ratio condition for the existence of a horizon radius is discussed. We show that the electric charge causes a decrease in this radius and, consequently, in the cross section. This reduction is negligible for protons and light-ions but can be important for heavy-ions.

  2. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  3. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  4. Cross section expansion for direct neutron radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Baye, D.

    2004-07-01

    Cross sections for neutron radiative capture multiplied by the relative velocity can be expressed as a Taylor expansion in powers of the relative energy. The coefficients of this expansion are expressed in the potential model as integrals involving solutions of the radial Schroedinger equation and of its inhomogeneous energy derivatives calculated at zero energy. Similarities and differences with charged-particle capture are emphasized. The {sup 12}C(n,{gamma}){sup 13}C capture reaction is treated as an example. The coefficients of the Taylor expansion lead to simple parametrizations of the experimental partial cross sections for neutron capture to each {sup 13}C bound state.

  5. Total cross section of electron scattering by fluorocarbon molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Ushiroda, S.; Kondo, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A compact linear electron transmission apparatus was used for the measurement of the total electron scattering cross section at 4-500 eV. Total cross sections of chlorofluorocarbon (CCl2F2), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (CHClF2), perfluoropropane (C3F8), perfluoro-n-pentane (C5F12), perfluoro-n-hexane (C6F14) and perfluoro-n-octane (C8F18) were obtained experimentally and compared with the values obtained from a theoretical calculation and semi-empirical model calculation.

  6. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1995-02-05

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos we have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. We give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  7. Measurements of (n,{gamma}) cross sections with small samples

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Kaeppeler, F.

    1994-09-01

    Neutron capture cross section data for certain isotopes of very small natural abundance are crucial for a better understanding of the s- and p-processes of nucleosynthesis. Also, recent work has shown that many previous (n,{gamma}) measurements need to be extended to lower neutron energies and that the accuracy of some previous data need to be improved. At Los Alamos the authors have developed a system for measuring (n,{gamma}) cross sections on samples as small as 1 mg. They give examples of measurements made with this apparatus and discuss the nuclear astrophysics motivation for these and future measurements.

  8. Differential Cross Sections for Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Ryan B.; Dick, Frank; Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2009-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering is investigated within the framework of the one pion exchange model in an attempt to model nucleon-nucleon interactions spanning the large range of energies important to cosmic ray shielding. A quantum field theoretic calculation is used to compute both differential and total cross sections. A scalar theory is then presented and compared to the one pion exchange model. The theoretical cross sections are compared to proton-proton scattering data to determine the validity of the models.

  9. Neutron capture cross section standards for BNL 325, Fourth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    This report evaluates the experimental data and recommends values for the thermal neutron cross sections and resonance integrals for the neutron capture reactions: /sup 55/Mn(n,..gamma..), /sup 59/Co(n,..gamma..) and /sup 197/Au(n,..gamma..). The failure of lithium and boron as standards due to the natural variation of the absorption cross sections of these elements is discussed. The Westcott convention, which describes the neutron spectrum as a thermal Maxwellian distribution with an epithermal component, is also discussed.

  10. Fast Neutron Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections in THORIUM-232.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarcia, Christopher Albert

    results were compared with (i) theoretical calculations that included both compound-nucleus and direct-interaction mechanisms, (ii) the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF-B/V) and (iii) previous (n,n') and (n,n'(gamma)) cross section measurements. Where applicable, estimates of electric monopole (EO) transition strengths were determined from these comparisons.

  11. Propagation of sound waves in tubes of noncircular cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    Plane-acoustic-wave propagation in small tubes with a cross section in the shape of a flattened oval is described. Theoretical descriptions of a plane wave propagating in a tube with circular cross section and between a pair of infinite parallel plates, including viscous and thermal damping, are expressed in similar form. For a wide range of useful duct sizes, the propagation constant (whose real and imaginary parts are the amplitude attenuation rate and the wave number, respectively) is very nearly the same function of frequency for both cases if the radius of the circular tube is the same as the distance between the parallel plates. This suggests that either a circular-cross-section model or a flat-plate model can be used to calculate wave propagation in flat-oval tubing, or any other shape tubing, if its size is expressed in terms of an equivalent radius, given by g = 2 x (cross-sectional area)/(length of perimeter). Measurements of the frequency response of two sections of flat-oval tubing agree with calculations based on this idea. Flat-plate formulas are derived, the use of transmission-line matrices for calculations of plane waves in compound systems of ducts is described, and examples of computer programs written to carry out the calculations are shown.

  12. SCWR Once-Through Calculations for Transmutation and Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    ganda, francesco

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this report to document the calculation of (1) the isotopic evolution and of (2) the 1-group cross sections as a function of burnup of the reference Super Critical Water Reactor (SCWR), in a format suitable for the Fuel Cycle Option Campaign Transmutation Data Library. The reference SCWR design was chosen to be that described in [McDonald, 2005]. Super Critical Water Reactors (SCWR) are intended to operate with super-critical water (i.e. H2O at a pressure above 22 MPa and a temperature above 373oC) as a cooling – and possibly also moderating – fluid. The main mission of the SCWR is to generate lower cost electricity, as compared to current standard Light Water Reactors (LWR). Because of the high operating pressure and temperature, SCWR feature a substantially higher thermal conversion efficiency than standard LWR – i.e. about 45% versus 33%, mostly due to an increase in the exit water temperature from ~300oC to ~500oC – potentially resulting in a lower cost of generated electricity. The coolant remains single phase throughout the reactor and the energy conversion system, thus eliminating the need for pressurizers, steam generators, steam separators and dryers, further potentially reducing the reactor construction capital cost. The SCWR concept presented here is based on existing LWR technology and on a large number of existing fossil-fired supercritical boilers. However, it was concluded in [McDonald, 2005], that: “Based on the results of this study, it appears that the reference SCWR design is not feasible.” This conclusion appears based on the strong sensitivity of the design to small deviations in nominal conditions leading to small effects having a potentially large impact on the peak cladding temperature of some fuel rods. “This was considered a major feasibility issue for the SCWR” [McDonald, 2005]. After a description of the reference SCWR design, the Keno V 3-D single assembly model used for this analysis, as well as the

  13. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  14. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  15. Radial Eigenmodes for a Toroidal Waveguide with Rectangular Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2012-07-01

    In applying mode expansion to solve the CSR impedance for a section of toroidal vacuum chamber with rectangular cross section, we identify the eigenvalue problem for the radial eigenmodes which is different from that for cylindrical structures. In this paper, we present the general expressions of the radial eigenmodes, and discuss the properties of the eigenvalues on the basis of the Sturm-Liouville theory.

  16. 42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. H-1 TO H-10 INCL., GRINDING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (NashVille, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  17. 35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. 34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION B, BUILDINGS NO. E-1 TO E-10 INCL., WASHING, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  19. 29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION AND PLAN LAYOUT OF PART I, SECTION 8, BUILDINGS NO. D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT B AS OF 4-24-44.' From the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  20. 30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF PART III, SECTION 1, EQUIPMENT LAYOUT, BUILDINGS D-1 TO D-10 INCL., NITRATION, MANUFACTURING AREA, PLANT 'B'.' From U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Industrial Facilities Inventory, Holston Ordnance Works, Kingsport, Tennessee. Plant B, Parts II, III. (Nashville, TN: Office of the District Engineer, 1944). - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  1. The total, elastic and inelastic scattering fast neutron cross sections of natural chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, P.T.; Smith, J.F.; Whalen, A.B.

    1982-12-01

    The present experimental results comprise a comprehensive intermediate resolution neutron total and scattering cross-section data base for elemental chromium over the energy range from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV. Nonetheless, due to the fluctuating nature of the cross sections involved, the definition of energy-averaged cross sections is uncertain. The consequences of these energy-dependent fluctuations and attendant complications influence the data analysis and interpretation. All finite sample total crosssection measurements result in effective cross sections that have to be corrected to yield the true energyaveraged cross sections. This was accomplished by concurrent multiple sample thickness measurements the results of which were then linearly extrapolated to the zero thickness cross section. It was noted that the resulting sample thickness correction showed marked local fluctuations necessitating an energy by energy treatment. Furthermore, the cross sections, even after averaging over wide energy intervals, retained undulations that complicated comparisons with model calculations. Quantitative comparisons of the present elastic and inelastic scattering results with those obtained at isolated energies by other authors were difficult, if not deceptive, due to persistent fluctuations.

  2. Role of Cross Sectional Imaging in Isolated Chest Wall Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Shantiranjan; Sharma, Barun K.; Prakash, Arjun; Dhingani, Dhabal D.; Bora, Karobi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Isolated chest wall tuberculosis though a rare entity, the incidence of it has been on rise among immunocompromised population making it an important challenging diagnosis for the physicians. Its clinical presentation may resemble pyogenic chest wall abscess or chest wall soft tissue tumour. Sometimes it is difficult to detect clinically or on plain radiograph. Aim The present study was conducted with an aim to evaluate the common sites and varying appearances of isolated chest wall tuberculosis. Materials and Methods A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in Assam Medical College and Hospital, a tertiary care centre in North East India. The study group comprise of 21 patients (n=15 male and n=6 females) with isolated chest wall tuberculosis without associated pulmonary or spinal involvement who were subjected to Computed Tomography/Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CT/MRI) of the thorax following initial Ultrasonogram (USG) evaluation of the local site. Pathological correlation was done from imaging guided sampling of the aspirate or surgery. Results Variable sites of involvement were seen in the chest wall in our patients (n=21), with chest wall abscess formation being the most common presentation and rib being the most common bony site affected in the thoracic cage. Bony sclerosis was noted in 11 patients (52.4%), periosteal reaction in 10 patients (47.6%) and sequestration in five patients (23.8%). CT/MRI not only localized the exact site and extent of the abscesses which facilitated guided aspirations, but also helped in detecting typical bony lesions thereby, differentiating from pyogenic osteomyelitis besides ruling out associated pulmonary or pleural involvement in such patients. Conclusion Cross-sectional imaging plays an important role by giving a wholesome picture of both soft tissue and bony pathology. It is important to have adequate understanding of the radiologic manifestations of the chest wall involvement and

  3. Optical properties and cross-sections of biological aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrush, E.; Brown, D. M.; Salciccioli, N.; Gomes, J.; Brown, A.; Siegrist, K.; Thomas, M. E.; Boggs, N. T.; Carter, C. C.

    2010-04-01

    There is an urgent need to develop standoff sensing of biological agents in aerosolized clouds. In support of the Joint Biological Standoff Detection System (JBSDS) program, lidar systems have been a dominant technology and have shown significant capability in field tests conducted in the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). The release of biological agents in the open air is forbidden. Therefore, indirect methods must be developed to determine agent cross-sections in order to validate sensor against biological agents. A method has been developed that begins with laboratory measurements of thin films and liquid suspensions of biological material to obtain the complex index of refraction from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long wave infrared (LWIR). Using that result and the aerosols' particle size distribution as inputs to Mie calculations yields the backscatter and extinction cross-sections as a function of wavelength. Recent efforts to model field measurements from the UV to the IR have been successful. Measurements with aerodynamic and geometric particle sizers show evidence of particle clustering. Backscatter simulations of these aerosols show these clustered particles dominate the aerosol backscatter and depolarization signals. In addition, these large particles create spectral signatures in the backscatter signal due to material absorption. Spectral signatures from the UV to the IR have been observed in simulations of field releases. This method has been demonstrated for a variety of biological simulant materials such as Ovalbumin (OV), Erwinia (EH), Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) and male specific bacteriophage (MS2). These spectral signatures may offer new methods for biological discrimination for both stand-off sensing and point detection systems.

  4. Prevalence of Atrial Fibrillation and Antithrombotic Therapy in Hemodialysis Patients: Cross-Sectional Results of the Vienna InVestigation of AtriaL Fibrillation and Thromboembolism in Patients on HemoDIalysis (VIVALDI)

    PubMed Central

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Posch, Florian; Antlanger, Marlies; Kovarik, Josef; Klauser-Braun, Renate; Kletzmayr, Josef; Schmaldienst, Sabine; Auinger, Martin; Zuntner, Günther; Lorenz, Matthias; Grilz, Ella; Stampfel, Gerald; Steiner, Stefan; Pabinger, Ingrid; Säemann, Marcus; Ay, Cihan

    2017-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) adds significant risk of stroke and thromboembolism in patients on hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AF in a population-based cohort of HD patients and practice patterns of antithrombotic therapy for stroke prevention in AF. Methods The Vienna InVestigation of AtriaL fibrillation and thromboembolism in patients on hemodialysis (VIVALDI), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study, investigates the prevalence of AF and the risk of thromboembolic events in HD patients in Vienna, Austria. We analyzed cross-sectional data of 626 patients (63.4% men, median age 66 years, approx. 73% of HD patients in Vienna), who provided informed consent. A structured interview with each patient was performed, recent and archived ECGs were viewed and medical histories were verified with electronic records. Results The overall prevalence of AF was 26.5% (166 patients, 71.1% men, median age 72 years) of which 57.8% had paroxysmal AF, 3.0% persistent AF, 32.5% permanent AF, and 6.6% of patients had newly diagnosed AF. The median CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 4 [25th-75th percentile 3–5]. In multivariable analysis, AF was independently associated with age (odds ratio: 1.05 per year increase, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.07), male sex (1.7, 1.1–2.6), history of venous thromboembolism (2.0, 1.1–3.6), congestive heart failure (1.7, 1.1–2.5), history of or active cancer (1.5, 1.0–2.4) and time on HD (1.08 per year on HD, 1.03–1.13). Antithrombotic treatment was applied in 84.4% of AF patients (anticoagulant agents in 29.5%, antiplatelet agents in 33.7%, and both in 21.1%). In AF patients, vitamin-K-antagonists were used more often than low-molecular-weight heparins (30.1% and 19.9%). Conclusions The prevalence of AF is high amongst HD patients and is associated with age, sex, and distinct comorbidities. Practice patterns of antithrombotic treatment indicate a lack of consensus for stroke prevention

  5. Programme coverage, condom use and STI treatment among FSWs in a large-scale HIV prevention programme: results from cross-sectional surveys in 22 districts in southern India

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Abhishek; Goswami, Prabuddhagopal; Kallam, Srinivasan; Adhikary, Rajatashuvra; Mainkar, Mandar K; Ramesh, Banadakoppa M; Morineau, Guy; George, Bitra; Paranjape, Ramesh S

    2010-01-01

    Objective This paper evaluates Avahan programme's coverage of female sex workers (FSWs), focus on high-risk FSWs and intermediate outcomes. Methods First round of cross-sectional survey data, Integrated Behavioral and Biological Assessments (IBBA), conducted in 22 districts, were aggregated into district categories: Solo, where Avahan was the sole service provider covering all FSWs and Major or Minor where Avahan was not the sole provider, but intended coverage was >50% or ≤ 50% of FSWs respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to compare exposure by district categories, vulnerability factors and intermediate outcomes associated with exposure. Results Reported exposure, evaluated on basis of having received any of three core services, was higher in Solo (75%) compared with Minor (66%) districts. Logistic regression showed that FSWs in solo districts were more likely to be exposed (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.5; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.86) compared with FSWs in Minor districts. Multivariate analysis in Solo districts revealed that FSW with ≥15 clients in the past week had a higher chance of being exposed to core services (AOR=1.56; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.35). Exposure to the three services in Solo Avahan districts was significantly associated with correct knowledge on condom use (AOR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.78), consistent condom use with occasional clients (AOR=3.17; 95% CI 2.17 to 4.63) and regular clients (AOR=2.47; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.28) and STI treatment-seeking behaviour (AOR=3.00; 95% CI 1.94 to 4.65). Conclusions Higher coverage of FSWs was achieved in districts where Avahan was the only intervention compared with districts having multiple and longstanding non-Avahan programmes. Exposure in Solo districts was associated with intermediate outcomes; this need to be further evaluated in comparison with non Avahan areas and substantiated through data from next IBBA. PMID:20167734

  6. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  7. Development of a clinical scoring system for assessment of immunosuppression in patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection without access to CD4 cell testing – results from a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Skogmar, Sten; Balcha, Taye T.; Jemal, Zelalem H.; Björk, Jonas; Deressa, Wakgari; Schön, Thomas; Björkman, Per

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis (TB). The timing of ART during the course of anti-TB treatment is based on CD4 cell counts. Access to CD4 cell testing is not universally available; this constitutes an obstacle for the provision of ART in low-income countries. Objective To determine clinical variables associated with HIV co-infection in TB patients and to identify correlations between clinical variables and CD4 cell strata in HIV/TB co-infected subjects, with the aim of developing a clinical scoring system for the assessment of immunosuppression. Design Cross-sectional study of adults with TB (with and without HIV co-infection) recruited in Ethiopian outpatient clinics. Clinical variables potentially associated with immunosuppression were recorded using a structured questionnaire, and they were correlated to CD4 cell strata used to determine timing of ART initiation. Variables found to be significant in multivariate analysis were used to construct a scoring system. Results Among 1,116 participants, the following findings were significantly more frequent in 307 HIV-positive patients compared to 809 HIV-negative subjects: diarrhea, odynophagia, conjunctival pallor, herpes zoster, oral candidiasis, skin rash, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) <20 cm. Among HIV-positive patients, conjunctival pallor, MUAC <20 cm, dyspnea, oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), oral candidiasis, and gingivitis were significantly associated with <350 CD4 cells/mm3. A scoring system based on these variables had a negative predictive value of 87% for excluding subjects with CD4 cell counts <100 cells/mm3; however, the positive predictive value for identifying such individuals was low (47%). Conclusions Clinical variables correlate with CD4 cell strata in HIV-positive patients with TB. The clinical scoring system had adequate negative predictive value for excluding severe immunosuppression. Clinical scoring systems

  8. Prevalence and Trends of HIV, Syphilis, and HCV in Migrant and Resident Men Who Have Sex with Men in Shandong, China: Results from a Serial Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jun; Gu, Xu; Tao, Xiaorun; Qian, Yaosheng; Babu, Giridhara R.; Wang, Guoyong; Liao, Meizhen; Han, Larry; Kang, Dianmin; Tang, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Background Migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) have a higher predisposition for HIV transmission. We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence and trends of HIV, Syphilis, and HCV between migrant and resident MSM in Shandong, China. Methods A serial cross-sectional study was conducted in eight cities in Shandong, China from 2010 to 2014. The surveys collected information on demographics, HIV-related knowledge, and HIV-related behaviors including the serologic status of HIV, syphilis, and HCV. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine differences between migrant and resident MSM. Results The overall prevalence of HIV among the 15,705 MSM (14120 were resident, 1580 were migrant and 5 were missing) was 2.6%, with an increase of 1.0% in 2010 to 4.4% in 2014. Prevalence of HIV was higher among migrant MSMs (5.5%) compared to resident MSMs (2.3%). Compared to residents, migrants also had higher prevalence of syphilis (7.5% vs 4.9%) and HCV (1.1% vs 0.6%). We found that there was an increase in the proportion of migrant MSM engaging in anal sex [adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.41 in migrants vs 1.12 in residents], condom use during last anal sex (AOR = 1.14 in residents, P for trend = 0.32), consistent condom use (AOR = 1.04 residents, P for trend = 0.11) and drug use (AOR = 1.51 in migrants and 1.29 among residents). Except in the year 2011, receiving some health services in last year was significant for people who were HIV-positive compared to negative. (P for trend <0.05). Conclusions Prevalence of HIV increased in resident as well as migrant MSMs. The migrant MSMs had higher STIs compared to resident MSMs and therefore, should be targeted for effective interventions aimed at reducing their risk behaviors. Deeper understanding of the role of migration in health issues is required for combating the persistently high and gradually increasing HIV burden in MSM in China. PMID:28103295

  9. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Dos Santos, G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    In support of the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program established in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range from 0.36 eV to several hundred keV have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Also total and capture cross sections of Al, Cl, and K in the energy range from about 100 eV to several hundred keV have been measured or are under way. The goal is to derive accurate cross section representations for the materials involved in criticality calculations of fuel storage, transportation, etc., configurations. Additional high-resolution measurements of the total cross sections of {sup 233}U below a few keV neutron energy are being planned for 1998, as well as for the other involved material. Evaluated data files in ENDF-6 format will be processed into formats for use in criticality analysis and utilized in benchmark data testing. Finally the data will be submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B.

  10. Electron-silane scattering cross section for plasma assisted processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2017-03-01

    Silane is an important molecule with numerous applications to natural and technological plasmas. In such environments, where plasma assisted processes are vital, electron induced reactions play a major role in its chemistry. In view of this, electron induced scattering of molecules such as silane finds significance. This article reports a comprehensive study of electron impact cross sections for silane over a wide energy range. In particular, the emphasis is given in providing a complete dataset for various electron scattering events possible with silane. Such dataset is the need for the plasma modeling community. Moreover, literature survey shows that the cross section database for silane is fragmentary. To fill this void, we have computed the differential elastic, total, rotational excitation, and momentum transfer cross sections. Two formalisms that are reliable in their energy domain are employed to accomplish the task: the R-matrix method through QUANTEMOL-N at low incident energies and the spherical complex optical potential formalism at intermediate to high energies. Interestingly, the comparison of the present cross section exhibits a good concurrence with the previous data, wherever available.

  11. Skin Diseases: Cross-section of human skin

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Cross-section of human skin Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Logical Images, Inc. I n the areas of skin health and skin diseases, the NIH's National Institute ...

  12. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  13. RZ calculations for self shielded multigroup cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Sanchez, R.; Zmijarevic, I.; Stankovski, Z.

    2006-07-01

    A collision probability method has been implemented for RZ geometries. The method accounts for white albedo, specular and translation boundary condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the geometry and for a white albedo condition on the outer radial surface. We have applied the RZ CP method to the calculation of multigroup self shielded cross sections for Gadolinia absorbers in BWRs. (authors)

  14. Pion Charge Exchange Cross Section on Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; LArIAT (FNAL T-1034) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations allows charge parity violation to be probed in the neutrino sector. Detectors with high calorimetric energy resolution and high spatial resolution will provide precise measurements of neutrino oscillations. By measuring small π+/- cross sections for individual interaction channels, specifically charge exchange, we will make a measurement in the first of its kind on liquid Argon and demonstrate the physics capabilities of a relatively new detector technology: the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC). This analysis will report on the thin slab cross section measurement technique and the Monte Carlo cross section measurements in the energy range of 0.2 - 1.0 GeV. This analysis is the first iteration in classifying charge exchange events from a sample of incident pions, and it aims to identify events in which a π0 was produced without any charged pions leaving the interaction vertex. We will also report on the methodology and efficiency of this algorithm in identifying particles and their interactions in liquid argon. This analysis will inform a future measurement of the π+/- charge exchange cross section on liquid argon. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1359364.

  15. Theory in evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross sections.

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss the possibilities and limitations of the use of theory as a tool in the evaluation of actinide fission and capture cross-sections. They consider especially the target {sup 235}U as an example. They emphasize the roles of intermediate structure in the fission cross-section and of level width fluctuations in both intermediate structure and fine structure, noting that these lead to a breakdown of Hauser-Feshbach theory at sub-barrier and near barrier energies. At higher energies (where fluctuation-averaged Hauser-Feshbach theory is applicable) semi-quantitative and intuitive representations of transition state spectra and barrier level density functions have to be tested against experimental data wherever these are available. Adjustment of the fission cross-section against inelastic scattering to the much better known levels of the residual nucleus should then lead to a fairly sound estimate of the capture cross-section. They compare such estimates with evaluated and experimental data for {sup 235}U.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  17. 11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photograph of a line drawing. 'CROSS SECTION OF GAS PRODUCER.' From George R. Cooper (Wilputte Corporation). 'Operating Overview of a Producer Gas Plant (12 Machines) at Kingsport, Tennessee.' Presented at the Fifth Annual International Conference on Coal Gasification, Liquefaction and Conversion to Electricity. University of Pittsburgh, August 2, 1978. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Producer Gas Plant, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  18. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  19. Applications of cross sections for electron-molecule collision processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cartwright, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    The role of electron-molecule collision cross sections is discussed for the study of the ionospheric and auroral processes in planetary atmospheres and of discharge-pumped lasers. These two areas emphasize the importance of further theoretical and experimental studies concerning electron-impact processes. 13 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs. (WRF)

  20. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.