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Sample records for cross sectional results

  1. Top: Latest results from the Tevatron - Cross section and mass

    SciTech Connect

    M. Coca

    2003-09-02

    The Tevatron is presently the world's only source of top quark production. This presentation summarizes the latest Run II results on top physics obtained by the CDF and D0 collaborations, using data taken until mid-January 2003. The first cross section measurements at 1.96 TeV in dilepton and lepton+jets channels agree with the NLO (Next-to-Leading-Order) theoretical predictions. Two top mass measurements, one by CDF using Run II data and another by D0 using an improved technique anticipate the improvements to come in the near future.

  2. Precise top quark cross-section results at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, J.; ATLAS; CMS Collaborations

    2013-07-01

    The measurements of the inclusive tbar t cross section is presented for proton-proton collisions recorded at = 7 and 8 TeV by the ATLAS and the CMS experiments using the lepton+jets and the dilepton events. The most precise single measurement at 7 TeV is σtbar t = 161.9 ± 2.5(stat.)+5.1-5.0(syst.)±3.6(lumi.) pb, using a luminosity of 2.3 fb-1. The measurements from the two experiments are also combined to reach higher precision. With a luminosity of about 1 fb-1, the combined cross-section is σtbar t = 173.3±2.3(stat.)±9.8(syst.) pb. At = 8 TeV, σtbar t is measured in the lepton+jets and dilepton channels with the CMS detector and the corresponding combined measurement is σtbar t = 227 ± 3(stat.)±11(syst.)±10(lumi.) pb.

  3. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  4. Hatha yoga and vascular function: results from cross-sectional and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Tarumi, Takashi; Dhindsa, Mandeep S; Nualnim, Nantinee; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hatha yoga on arterial elasticity and endothelial function. First, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine whether yoga practitioners would demonstrate greater arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation than their sedentary peers. Second, an intervention study involving 13 sedentary middle-aged and older adults (51 ± 7 years) was performed to determine whether 12 weeks of hatha yoga would elicit increases in arterial compliance and endothelial function. In the cross-sectional study involving a total of 34 subjects, there were no group differences in body fatness, blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, carotid artery compliance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Hemoglobin A1c was lower in yoga practitioners than in sedentary adults (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c decreased after the intervention (P < 0.05) while carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD did not change. The results of both cross-sectional and interventional studies indicate that regular practice of hatha yoga is not associated with improvements in vascular functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Partial dissociative emission cross sections and product state distributions of the resulting photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picconi, David; Grebenshchikov, Sergy Yu.

    2016-12-01

    This paper relates the partial cross section of a continuous optical emission into a given scattering channel of the lower electronic state to the photofragment population. This allows one to infer partial emission cross sections 'non-optically' from product state distributions; in computations, explicit construction of exact scattering states is therefore avoided. Applications to the emission spectra of NaI, CO2, and pyrrole are given. It is also demonstrated that a similar relationship holds between partial cross sections of dissociative photoionization and distributions of ionic fragments over final product channels.

  6. Collision Cross Sections for 20 Protonated Amino Acids: Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance and Ion Mobility Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anupriya; Jones, Chad A.; Dearden, David V.

    2016-08-01

    We report relative dephasing cross sections for the 20 biogenic protonated amino acids measured using the cross sectional areas by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (CRAFTI) technique at 1.9 keV in the laboratory reference frame, as well as momentum transfer cross sections for the same ions computed from Boltzmann-weighted structures determined using molecular mechanics. Cross sections generally increase with increasing molecular weight. Cross sections for aliphatic and aromatic protonated amino acids are larger than the average trend, suggesting these side chains do not fold efficiently. Sulfur-containing protonated amino acids have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting the mass of the S atom. Protonated amino acids that can internally hydrogen-bond have smaller than average cross sections, reflecting more extensive folding. The CRAFTI measurements correlate well with results from drift ion mobility (IMS) and traveling wave ion mobility (TWIMS) spectrometric measurements; CRAFTI results correlate with IMS values approximately as well as IMS and TWIMS values from independent measurements correlate with each other. Both CRAFTI and IMS results correlate well with the computed momentum transfer cross sections, suggesting both techniques provide accurate molecular structural information. Absolute values obtained using the various methods differ significantly; in the case of CRAFTI, this may be due to errors in measurements of collision gas pressure, measurement of excitation voltage, and/or dependence of cross sections on kinetic energy.

  7. Recent results on exclusive hadronic cross sections measurements at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The BaBar Collaboration has an intensive program studying hadronic cross sections in low-energy e+e- annihilations, accessible via initial-state radiation. Our measurements allow significant improvements in the precision of the predicted value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment. These improvements are necessary for shedding light on the current 3 sigma difference between the predicted and the experimental values. We have published results on a number of processes with two to six hadrons in the final state, and other final state are currently under investigation. We report here on the most recent results obtained by analysing the entire BaBar dataset, including the , and other final states.

  8. Using Combined Diagnostic Test Results to Hindcast Trends of Infection from Cross-Sectional Data

    PubMed Central

    Rydevik, Gustaf; Innocent, Giles T.; Marion, Glenn; White, Piran C. L.; Billinis, Charalambos; Barrow, Paul; Mertens, Peter P. C.; Gavier-Widén, Dolores; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Infectious disease surveillance is key to limiting the consequences from infectious pathogens and maintaining animal and public health. Following the detection of a disease outbreak, a response in proportion to the severity of the outbreak is required. It is thus critical to obtain accurate information concerning the origin of the outbreak and its forward trajectory. However, there is often a lack of situational awareness that may lead to over- or under-reaction. There is a widening range of tests available for detecting pathogens, with typically different temporal characteristics, e.g. in terms of when peak test response occurs relative to time of exposure. We have developed a statistical framework that combines response level data from multiple diagnostic tests and is able to ‘hindcast’ (infer the historical trend of) an infectious disease epidemic. Assuming diagnostic test data from a cross-sectional sample of individuals infected with a pathogen during an outbreak, we use a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to estimate time of exposure, and the overall epidemic trend in the population prior to the time of sampling. We evaluate the performance of this statistical framework on simulated data from epidemic trend curves and show that we can recover the parameter values of those trends. We also apply the framework to epidemic trend curves taken from two historical outbreaks: a bluetongue outbreak in cattle, and a whooping cough outbreak in humans. Together, these results show that hindcasting can estimate the time since infection for individuals and provide accurate estimates of epidemic trends, and can be used to distinguish whether an outbreak is increasing or past its peak. We conclude that if temporal characteristics of diagnostics are known, it is possible to recover epidemic trends of both human and animal pathogens from cross-sectional data collected at a single point in time. PMID:27384712

  9. RSAP - A Code for Display of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2001-02-02

    RSAP is a computer code for display of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. RSAP, which runs on the Digital Unix Alpha platform, reads ORELA Data Files (ODF) created by SAMMY and uses graphics routines from the PLPLOT package. In addition, RSAP can read data and/or computed values from ASCII files with a format specified by the user. Plot output may be displayed in an X window, sent to a postscript file (rsap.ps), or sent to a color postscript file (rsap.psc). Thirteen plot types are supported, allowing the user to display cross section data, transmission data, errors, theory, Bayes fits, and residuals in various combinations. In this document the designations theory and Bayes refer to the initial and final theoretical cross sections, respectively, as evaluated by SAMMY. Special plot types include Bayes/Data, Theory--Data, and Bayes--Data. Output from two SAMMY runs may be compared by plotting the ratios Theory2/Theory1 and Bayes2/Bayes1 or by plotting the differences (Theory2-Theory1) and (Bayes2-Bayes1).

  10. Comparison of cross-sectional HIV incidence assay results from dried blood spots and plasma

    PubMed Central

    Schlusser, Katherine E.; Pilcher, Christopher; Kallas, Esper G.; Santos, Breno R.; Deeks, Steven G.; Facente, Shelley; Keating, Sheila M.; Busch, Michael P.; Murphy, Gary; Welte, Alex; Quinn, Thomas; Eshleman, Susan H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS. Methods The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity), Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA), and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity) using pre-determined cutoff values. 100 matched HIV-1 positive plasma and DBS samples, with known duration of infection, from the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays repository were tested. All assays were run in duplicate. To examine the degree of variability within and between results for each sample type, both categorical and continuous results were analyzed. Associations were assessed with Bland Altman, R2 values and Cohen’s kappa coefficient (ĸ). Results Intra-assay variability using the same sample type was similar for all assays (R2 0.96 to 1.00). The R2 values comparing DBS and plasma results for LAg-Avidity, BED-CEIA, and CDC-BioRad Avidity were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively. The concordance and ĸ values between DBS and plasma for all three assays were >87% and >0.64, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed significant differences between plasma and DBS samples. For all three assays, a higher number of samples were classified as recent infections using DBS samples. Conclusions DBS and plasma sample results were highly correlated. However, when compared to plasma, each assay performed somewhat differently in DBS at the lower and higher ends of the dynamic range. DBS samples were more likely to be classified as recently infected by all three assays, which may lead to overestimation of incidence in surveys using performance criteria derived for plasma samples. PMID:28231277

  11. Clinical Relevance of Sleep Duration: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis Using NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, M. Soledad; Stang, Paul; Blacketer, Clair; Kent, Justine M.; Wittenberg, Gayle M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of sleep duration, hours slept were compared by health status, presence of insomnia, and presence of depression, and the association of sleep duration with BMI and cardiovascular risk was quantified. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of subjects in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: A total of 22,281 adults were included, 37% slept ≤ 6 hours, 36% were obese, and 45% reported cardiovascular conditions. Mean sleep duration was 6.87 hours. Better health was associated with more hours of sleep. Subjects with poor health reported sleeping 46 min, (95% CI −56.85 to −35.67) less than subjects with excellent health. Individuals with depression (vs. not depressed) reported 40 min less sleep, (95% CI −47.14 to −32.85). Individuals with insomnia (vs. without insomnia) reported 39 min less sleep, (95% CI −56.24 to −22.45). Duration of sleep was inversely related to BMI; for every additional hour of sleep, there was a decrease of 0.18 kg/m2 in BMI, (95% CI −0.30 to −0.06). The odds of reporting cardiovascular problems were 6.0% lower for every hour of sleep (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91 to 0.97]). Compared with subjects who slept ≤ 6 h, subjects who slept more had lower odds of reporting cardiovascular problems, with the exception of subjects ≥ 55 years old who slept ≥ 9 hours. Conclusions: Long sleep duration is associated with better health. The fewer the hours of sleep, the greater the BMI and reported cardiovascular disease. A difference of 30 minutes of sleep is associated with substantive impact on clinical well-being. Citation: Cepeda MS, Stang P, Blacketer C, Kent JM, Wittenberg GM. Clinical relevance of sleep duration: results from a cross-sectional analysis using NHANES. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):813–819. PMID:26951419

  12. Microcredit participation and women's health: results from a cross-sectional study in Peru.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Rita; Fernald, Lia C H

    2015-08-05

    Social and economic conditions are powerful determinants of women's health status. Microcredit, which involves the provision of small loans to low-income women in the hopes of improving their living conditions, is an increasingly popular intervention to improve women's socioeconomic status. Studies examining the health effects of microcredit programs have had mixed results. We conduct a cross-sectional study among female clients of a non-profit microcredit program in Peru (N = 1,593). The predictor variable is length of microcredit participation. We conduct bivariate and multivariate linear regressions to examine the associations between length of microcredit participation and a variety of measures of women's health. We control for participants' sociodemographic characteristics. We find that longer participation is associated with decreased depressive symptoms, increased social support, and increased perceived control, but these differences are attenuated with the inclusion of covariates. We find no association between length of participation and contraception use, cancer screening, or self-reported days sick. These results demonstrate a positive association between length of microcredit participation and measures of women's psychological health, but not physical health. These findings contribute to the discussion on the potential of microcredit programs to address the socioeconomic determinants of health, and suggest that addressing socioeconomic status may be a key way to improve women's health worldwide.

  13. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization’s practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. Results: The mean score of hospitals’ social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals’ ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. Conclusion: It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals’ social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff’s working environment. PMID:26340391

  14. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703). Results 18.1% (799/4416) of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%), kidney disease (4.9%), cholesterol (4.5%), urinary tract infection (1.9%) and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%). A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6%) of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self-testers sought medical

  15. Measurement of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by neutrons near thermal point (preliminary results)

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo; vich, S.N.; Andreev, M.F.; Bol`shakov, Y.M.

    1995-10-01

    Measurements have been carried out of {sup 238}Np fission cross-section by thermal neutrons. The isotope {sup 238}Np was built up through the reaction {sup 238}U(p,n) on an electrostatic accelerator. Extraction and cleaning of the sample were done by ion-exchange chromatography. Fast neutrons were generated on the electrostatic accelerator through the reaction {sup 9}Be(d,n); a polyethylene block was used to slow down neutrons. Registration of fission fragments was performed with dielectric track detectors. Suggesting that the behavior of {sup 238}Np and {sup 238}U. Westscott`s factors are indentical the fission cross-section of {sup 238}Np was obtained: {sigma}{sub fo}=2110 {plus_minus} 75 barn.

  16. Atopic dermatitis is not associated with actinic keratosis: cross-sectional results from the Rotterdam study.

    PubMed

    Hajdarbegovic, E; Blom, H; Verkouteren, J A C; Hofman, A; Hollestein, L M; Nijsten, T

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal barrier impairment and an altered immune system in atopic dermatitis (AD) may predispose to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. To study the association between AD and actinic keratosis (AK) in a population-based cross-sectional study. AD was defined by modified criteria of the U.K. working party's diagnostic criteria. AKs were diagnosed by physicians during a full-body skin examination, and keratinocyte cancers were identified via linkage to the national pathology database. The results were analysed in adjusted multivariable and multinomial models. A lower proportion of subjects with AD had AKs than those without AD: 16% vs. 24%, P = 0·002; unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·42-0·83; adjusted OR 0·74, 95% CI 0·51-1·05; fully adjusted OR 0·69, 95% CI 0·47-1·07. In a multinomial model patients with AD were less likely to have ≥ 10 AKs (adjusted OR 0·28, 95% CI 0·09-0·90). No effect of AD on basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma was found: adjusted OR 0·71, 95% CI 0·41-1·24 and adjusted OR 1·54, 95% CI 0·66-3·62, respectively. AD in community-dwelling patients is not associated with AK. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Social responsibility of the hospitals in Isfahan city, Iran: Results from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sajadi, Haniye Sadat

    2015-02-12

    Changes in modern societies develop the perception that the external environment is essential in organization's practices, especially in the way they deal with aspects such as human rights, community needs, market demands and environmental interests. These issues are usually under the umbrella of the concept of social responsibility. Given the importance of this concept in the context of health care delivery, suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was employed to collect data from a sample of 946 hospital staff of Isfahan city. Data was obtained by structured and valid self-administrated questionnaire and analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics using SPSS. The mean score of hospitals' social responsibility was 3.0 compared with the justified range from 1.0 to 5.0. Results showed that there was a significant relationship between social responsibility score and hospitals' ownership (public or private). Also, there was no significant relationship between social responsibility and type of hospital specialty. It is recommended that hospital managers develop and apply appropriate policies and strategies to improve their hospitals' social responsibility level, especially through concentrating on their staff's working environment. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. Psychological distress and cancer pain: Results from a controlled cross-sectional survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Mei; Xiao, Wen-Hua; Yang, Ping; Zhao, Hui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the pain associated with cancer and its impact on pain management, anxiety, and depression in Chinese patients using a controlled cross-sectional study. One hundred and twenty-six cancer outpatients were evaluated from January 2012 to June 2014; 64 reported pain and 62 did not. Patients with cancer eligible for this study were older than 18 years and able to effectively communicate with medical personnel. Patients were administered a questionnaire regarding their medical status. The information collected was used along with patient charts to complete a socio-demographic and clinical characteristic summary for each patient. Results showed that patients who reported pain had mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores of 46.38 for state anxiety and 44.64 for trait anxiety, as well as a mean BDI (Beck Depression Inventory) score of 19.17. The pain-free patient group had mean STAI scores of 40.73 for state anxiety and 42.87 for trait anxiety, and a mean BDI score of 15.35. In conclusion, patients who reported pain were more prone to anxiety and depression, with pain severity being a strong predictor of anxiety. Adequate pain assessment and adjustment proved necessary for pain management. PMID:28074915

  20. Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results in European countries: an ESCMID cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Pulcini, Céline; Tebano, Gianpiero; Mutters, Nico T; Tacconelli, Evelina; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Jarlier, Vincent

    2017-02-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is one possible laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship intervention. The primary aim of this study was to identify where and how selective reporting of AST results is implemented in Europe both in inpatient and in outpatient settings. An ESCMID cross-sectional, self-administered, internet-based survey was conducted among all EUCIC (European Committee on Infection Control) or EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) national representatives in Europe and Israel. Of 38 countries, 36 chose to participate in the survey. Selective reporting of AST results was implemented in 11/36 countries (31%), was partially implemented in 4/36 (11%) and was limited to local initiatives or was not adopted in 21/36 (58%). It was endorsed as standard of care by health authorities in only three countries. The organisation of selective reporting was everywhere discretionally managed by each laboratory, with a pronounced intra- and inter-country variability. The most frequent application was in uncomplicated community-acquired infections, particularly urinary tract and skin and soft-tissue infections. The list of reported antibiotics ranged from a few first-line options, to longer reports where only last-resort antibiotics were hidden. Several barriers to implementation were reported, mainly lack of guidelines, poor system support, insufficient resources, and lack of professionals' capability. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results is poorly implemented in Europe and is applied with a huge heterogeneity of practices. Development of an international framework, based on existing initiatives and identified barriers, could favour its dissemination as one important element of antibiotic stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  1. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  2. General practitioners' attitudes towards research in primary care: qualitative results of a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosemann, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background Research in General Practice requires the participation of General practitioners (GPs). In Germany there is little tradition of research in this field, and GPs are not used to be participants in research. Little is known about German GPs attitudes towards research. Therefore the aim of our study was to assess the willingness of German General Practitioners to participate in primary care research and their attitude towards research in general practice. The results should enable a more successful approach to GPs in further studies. Methods Cross sectional study using semi-structured interviews with a random sample of 76 General Practitioners who participate in the teaching of medical students at the University of Heidelberg. Results Despite little experience, over 85 % of GPs appreciated research in their field. Important reasons for scepticism about research were the gap between theoretical research and practical work of GPs and the domination of research by specialists. Main barriers for participation are clinical workload, administrative overload and the newly introduced Disease Management Programs. The highest motivation for GPs to participate in research emanates from the will to substantiate their quality of care with solid research data. Conclusions Financial incentives and personal support e.g. with study nurses are certainly necessary to establish a research culture and to overcome main barriers against participation. The most successful approach to motivate GPs to participate is to convince them that research documents their quality of care. This data may reflect the facts on which the financial resources are provided in the future health care system. PMID:15613246

  3. Nurses’ perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M.; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses’ survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Results: Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Conclusion: Nurses are highly aware of adherence

  4. Anti-SSA/Ro52 autoantibodies in scleroderma: results of an observational, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Montalvá, A; Fernández-Luque, A; Simeón, C P; Fonollosa-Plà, V; Marín, A; Guillén, A; Vilardell, M

    2014-01-01

    To date, the diagnostic utility of anti-SSA/Ro52 autoantibodies in scleroderma and the association of them with certain clinical manifestations, particularly inflammatory myositis, are still controversial. This paper aims to assess the correlation between the presence of anti-SSA/Ro52 antibodies and the demographic, clinical and prognosis characteristics of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). This is a retrospective, cross-sectional and observational study in patients with SSc. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were recorded. Presence of anti-SSA/Ro52, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, snRNP/Sm, anti-centromere, anti-Scl-70 and anti-PM-Scl were analysed by immunoblot, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) by indirect immunofluorescence. Statistical analysis was performed with PASW Statics 18 software. A total of 132 consecutive patients with analysis of anti-SSA/Ro52 antibodies were selected from a Spanish cohort of 408 patients with SSc, 87.1% of them being women. About half of patients had the limited form (51.5%), followed by diffused form (18.9%), sclerosis sine scleroderma (22.7%), and pre-scleroderma (6.8%). Prevalence of anti-SSA/Ro52 was 35.6%. No association between anti-SSA/Ro52 and clinical manifestations was found, while detection of anti-SSA/Ro52 was significantly associated with the presence of anti-Ro. The results of our study show that anti-SSA/Ro52 antibodies are often found in SSc patients. No clinical manifestations, including inflammatory myopathy, were related with anti-SSA/Ro antibodies.

  5. Nurses' perceptions of medication adherence in schizophrenia: results of the ADHES cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Robin; Alptekin, Koksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Olivares, José Manuel; Papageorgiou, Georgios; Roca, Miguel; Thomas, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger; Schreiner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Poor adherence to antipsychotic treatment is a widespread problem within schizophrenia therapy with serious consequences including increased risks of relapse and rehospitalization. Mounting evidence supports the key roles that nurses play in monitoring patient progress and facilitating long-term treatment adherence. The Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) nurses' survey was designed to assess the opinions of nurses on the causes and management of partial/nonadherence to antipsychotic medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 4120 nurses from Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Nurses perceived 54% of patients seen in the preceding month to be partially/nonadherent to treatment. Most nurses (90%) reported some level of experience with administration of long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics, with 24% of nurses administering >10 injections per month. The majority (85%) of nurses surveyed believed that improving adherence would improve patient outcomes. Nearly half (49%) reported that most of their patients depend on a family member or other nonprofessional carer to remind them to take their medication as prescribed. A similar proportion of nurses (43%) reported that most of their patients relied on a professional to remind them to take medication. Most nurses (92%) felt that ensuring continuous medication with LAI antipsychotics would yield long-term benefits for patients, but their opinion was that over a third of patients were unaware of LAI antipsychotic treatments. In a series of forced options, the strategy used most often by respondents (89%) to promote medication adherence was to build trusting relationships with patients while listening to and interpreting their needs and concerns. Respondents also rated this as the most effective strategy that they used (48%). Nurses are highly aware of adherence issues faced by their patients; further patient

  6. Binge drinking and blood pressure: cross-sectional results of the HAPIEE study.

    PubMed

    Pajak, Andrzej; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Nikitin, Yuri; Marmot, Michael; Bobak, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether binge drinking pattern influences blood pressure independently from drinking volume or whether it modifies the effect of volume of drinking. We used cross-sectional data from population samples of 7559 men and 7471 women aged 45-69 years in 2002-05, not on antihypertensive medication, from Russia, Poland and Czech Republic. Annual alcohol intake, drinking frequency and binge drinking (≥ 100 g in men and ≥ 60 g in women in one session at least once a month) were estimated from graduated frequency questionnaire. Blood pressure was analysed as continuous variables (systolic and diastolic pressure) and a binary outcome (≥ 140/90 mm Hg). In men, annual alcohol intake and drinking frequency were strongly associated with blood pressure. The odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking in men was 1.62 (95% CI 1.45-1.82) after controlling for age, country, body mass index, education and smoking; additional adjustment for annual alcohol intake reduced it to 1.20 (1.03-1.39). In women, the fully adjusted odds ratio of high blood pressure for binge drinking was 1.31 (1.05-1.63). Binge drinking did not modify the effect of annual alcohol intake. Consuming alcohol as wine, beer or spirits had similar effects. The results suggest that the independent long-term effect of binge drinking was modest, that binge drinking did not modify the effect of alcohol intake, and that different alcoholic beverages had similar effects on blood pressure.

  7. Health literacy among different age groups in Germany: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Berens, Eva-Maria; Vogt, Dominique; Messer, Melanie; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Schaeffer, Doris

    2016-11-09

    Health literacy is of increasing importance in public health research. It is a necessary pre-condition for the involvement in decisions about health and health care and related to health outcomes. Knowledge about limited health literacy in different age groups is crucial to better target public health interventions for subgroups of the population. However, little is known about health literacy in Germany. The study therefore assesses the prevalence of limited health literacy and associated factors among different age groups. The Health Literacy Survey Germany is a cross-sectional study with 2,000 participants aged 15 years or older in private households. Perceived health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using the HLS-EU-Q-47 questionnaire. Descriptive analyses, chi-square tests and odds ratios were performed stratified for different age groups. The population affected by limited perceived health literacy increases by age. Of the respondents aged 15-29 years, 47.3 % had limited perceived health literacy and 47.2 % of those aged 30-45 years, whereas 55.2 % of the respondents aged 46-64 years and 66.4 % aged 65 years and older showed limited perceived health literacy. In all age groups, limited perceived health literacy was associated with limited functional health literacy, low social status, and a high frequency of doctor visits. The results suggest a need to further investigate perceived health literacy in all phases of the life-course. Particular attention should be devoted to persons with lower social status, limited functional health literacy and/or a high number of doctor visits in all age groups.

  8. New Results on CaH2 Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Serot, O.

    2005-05-24

    Calcium hydride (CaH2) is a compound of interest in the frame of a current research program on the transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. Since CaH2 is relatively stable in liquid sodium, it is one possible material that can be used for local moderation of the neutron spectrum in fast neutron reactors such as PHENIX. In order to describe the moderated region from Monte Carlo and/or deterministic calculations, thermal neutron scattering data are needed. In particular, an adequate treatment of the thermal inelastic scattering cross sections for bound hydrogen is requested. The present work aims at the determination of these data. The first step was the measurement of the phonon frequency spectrum, which was carried out on the three axis spectrometer of the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble (France). This phonon frequency spectrum has already been published and so only a brief description of this measurement will be given here. Then, from physical grounds, the acoustic mode has been weighted relative to the optical modes in order to treat Hydrogen atoms bound in CaH2. The S({alpha},{beta}) scattering laws have been generated for various temperatures using the NJOY code working in the incoherent approximation and the Gaussian approximation. The deduced incoherent elastic and incoherent inelastic cross sections are shown and discussed. These new thermal neutron scattering data will be proposed in the JEFF3.1 European library.

  9. Association Between Diabetes-related Knowledge and Medication Adherence: Results From Cross-sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Saeed Ur Rashid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Bashir, Sajid; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-11-01

    Context • Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide. To have optimal glycemic control, T2DM patients must have sufficient diabetes-related knowledge and must adhere positively and closely to a prescribed regimen. Medication adherence is a key determinant of therapeutic success in patients with T2DM. However, adherence to medications among T2DM patients varies widely, with estimates ranging from 36%-94%. Objective • The purpose of the study was to assess the level of and the association between diabetes-related knowledge and medication adherence among T2DM patients in Pakistan. Design • The research team conducted a cross-sectional survey. Setting • The study was carried out at the outpatient clinic of a public-sector teaching hospital in Sargodha, Pakistan. Participants • Participants were 392 diabetic patients of the hospital. Outcome Measures • In addition to the collection of data on the demographic and disease-related characteristics of the participants, the Urdu versions of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-U) and the Michigan Diabetes Knowledge Test (MDKT-U) were used to assess medication adherence and diabetes-related knowledge, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the demographic and disease characteristics, whereas a Spearman rank correlation was used to measure the association between medication adherence and diabetes-related knowledge. Results • The mean age of the participants was 50.77 ± 9.671 y, with males being the dominant gender (n = 222, 56.6%). The mean duration of diabetes was 5.58 ± 4.09 y. Of the 392 patients, 245 (62.5%) had an average knowledge of diabetes. Furthermore, 282 (71.9%) were categorized as showing poor adherence. A significant but weak positive correlation between diabetes-related knowledge and medication adherence was found for the study (r = 0.036, P < .05). Conclusions • Although diabetes-related knowledge among the patients was average, the

  10. Neutron cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This handbook displays curves of neutron cross sections in the energy range of 0.01 eV to 200 MeV (and associated information) as a function of incident neutron energy. Tables include reference to all data. Information on isomeric state production is also included. This book represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, the third edition of which was published in 1976.

  11. Ethnic differences in the association between depression and chronic pain: cross sectional results from UK Biobank.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Barbara I; Smith, Daniel J; Cullen, Breda; Mackay, Daniel; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Jana; Lyall, Donald M; Fawns-Ritchie, Chloe; McIntosh, Andrew M; Deary, Ian J; Pell, Jill P; Mair, Frances S

    2015-10-06

    Comorbid chronic pain and depression is a challenging dyad of conditions to manage in primary care and reporting has shown to vary by ethnic group. Whether the relationship between depression and chronic pain varies by ethnicity is unclear. This study aims to explore chronic pain and depression reporting across ethnic groups and examine whether this association differs, independently of potential confounding factors. Cross-sectional study of UK Biobank participants with complete data on chronic pain and probable lifetime history of depression, who reported their ethnic group as White, Asian/Asian British or Black/Black British. Chronic pain classification: present if participants had ≥ 1 site of body pain (up to seven sites or "pain all over the body" could be selected) that lasted ≥ 3 months; extent of chronic pain categories: 0, 1, 2-3, 4-7 sites or pain all over the body. Probable depression classification: an algorithm of low mood, anhedonia and help-seeking behaviour. Relationship between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain assessed using logistic/multinomial regression models (odds ratio (OR); relative risk ratio (RRR), 95 % confidence intervals), adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and morbidity factors; and a final adjustment for current depressive symptoms. The number of participants eligible for inclusion was 144,139: 35,703 (94 %) White, 4539 (3 %) Asian, and 3897 (3 %) Black. Chronic pain was less (40.5 %, 45.8 %, 45.0 %, respectively) and depression more (22.1 %, 12.9 %, 13.8 %, respectively) commonly reported in White participants than Asian and Black participants. Statistically significant associations between depression and presence/extent of chronic pain persisted following adjustment for potential confounding variables; this relationship was strongest for Black participants (presence of chronic pain: OR 1.86 (1.52, 2.27); RRR 1 site 1.49 (1.16, 1.91), 2-3 sites 1.98 (1.53, 2.56), 4-7 sites 3.23 (2.09, 4.99), pain all

  12. Searching for a relevant definition of sarcopenia: results from the cross-sectional EPIDOS study

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Charlotte; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Gentil, Catherine; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Beauchet, Olivier; Schott, Anne-Marie; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background The diversity of definitions proposed for sarcopenia has been rarely tested in the same population, and so far, their clinical utilities for predicting physical difficulties could not be clearly understood. Our objective is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia and the characteristics of sarcopenic community-dwelling older women according to the different definitions of sarcopenia currently proposed. We also assessed these definitions for their incremental predictive value over currently standard predictors for some self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength. Methods Cross-sectional analysis included data from 3025 non-disabled women aged 75 years or older without previous history of hip fracture from the inclusion visit of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study. A total body composition evaluation was available for 2725 women. Sarcopenia was defined using six different definitions of sarcopenia based on different muscle mass, gait speed, and grip strength cut-offs. Self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength were collected. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were built for each physical dysfunction, and the predictive capacity of sarcopenia (one model for each definition) was studied using the C-statistic, the net reclassification index, or adjusted R2. Results The estimated prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3–20.0%. Only 85 participants (3.1%) were identified having sarcopenia according to all definitions. All definitions were, to some degree, associated with self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength, but none improved the predictive ability of the self-reported difficulties in physical function. Conversely, all definitions accounted for a small but significant amount of explained variation for predicting knee extension strength. Conclusions Prevalence of sarcopenia varies widely depending on the definition adopted

  13. Self correction of refractive error among young people in rural China: results of cross sectional investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzhi; Zhang, Riping; He, Mingguang; Liang, Wanling; Li, Xiaofeng; She, Lingbing; Yang, Yunli; MacKenzie, Graeme; Silver, Joshua D; Ellwein, Leon; Moore, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare outcomes between adjustable spectacles and conventional methods for refraction in young people. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Rural southern China. Participants 648 young people aged 12-18 (mean 14.9 (SD 0.98)), with uncorrected visual acuity ≤6/12 in either eye. Interventions All participants underwent self refraction without cycloplegia (paralysis of near focusing ability with topical eye drops), automated refraction without cycloplegia, and subjective refraction by an ophthalmologist with cycloplegia. Main outcome measures Uncorrected and corrected vision, improvement of vision (lines on a chart), and refractive error. Results Among the participants, 59% (384) were girls, 44% (288) wore spectacles, and 61% (393/648) had 2.00 dioptres or more of myopia in the right eye. All completed self refraction. The proportion with visual acuity ≥6/7.5 in the better eye was 5.2% (95% confidence interval 3.6% to 6.9%) for uncorrected vision, 30.2% (25.7% to 34.8%) for currently worn spectacles, 96.9% (95.5% to 98.3%) for self refraction, 98.4% (97.4% to 99.5%) for automated refraction, and 99.1% (98.3% to 99.9%) for subjective refraction (P=0.033 for self refraction v automated refraction, P=0.001 for self refraction v subjective refraction). Improvements over uncorrected vision in the better eye with self refraction and subjective refraction were within one line on the eye chart in 98% of participants. In logistic regression models, failure to achieve maximum recorded visual acuity of 6/7.5 in right eyes with self refraction was associated with greater absolute value of myopia/hyperopia (P<0.001), greater astigmatism (P=0.001), and not having previously worn spectacles (P=0.002), but not age or sex. Significant inaccuracies in power (≥1.00 dioptre) were less common in right eyes with self refraction than with automated refraction (5% v 11%, P<0.001). Conclusions Though visual acuity was slightly worse with self refraction than automated or

  14. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Elementary School Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Teacher Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Lauren N.; Chuang, Kai-wen; Champeau, Angelique; Allen, I. Elaine; Copp, Hillary L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lower urinary tract dysfunction in school-aged children is common and yet data are lacking on current teacher practice regarding bathroom use and daytime incontinence during classroom hours. We determined the prevalence of elementary school teachers who promote lower urinary tract health and identified predictors for and against such behavioral promotion. Materials and Methods We performed an electronic cross-sectional survey among self-identified teachers using targeted social media advertisement during a 1-week period in July 2014. The empirical survey tool consisted of 27 questions and collected data on 5 principal domains, including 1) teacher demographics, 2) rules and regulations on water intake and bathroom use during classroom hours, 3) characteristics of school bathrooms in terms of safety, supervision and suitability for use, 4) experience with and management of students with daytime incontinence and 5) training on the topic of lower urinary tract health. Predictors for promoting lower urinary tract health were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Results Of the 4,166 teachers who completed the survey 88% indicated that they encourage students to hold urine. Despite strict bathroom protocols 81% of teachers allowed children unlimited access to water. Of the teachers 82% reported never having undergone any professional development on bathroom regulations for children. Overall only 24% of surveyed teachers met criteria for promoting lower urinary tract health. The odds of promoting lower urinary tract health decreased with ascending grade level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76–0.84). Conversely it increased if teaching experience was greater than 5 years (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39–1.98) or professional development on the subject had been received (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18–1.70). Conclusions Of elementary school teachers 76% are not promoting lower urinary tract health in school-aged children. Professional development training on the topics of lower

  15. Industry-wide medical surveillance of California flavor manufacturing workers: Cross-sectional results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Thomas J; Materna, Barbara L; Prudhomme, Janice C; Fedan, Kathleen B; Enright, Paul L; Sahakian, Nancy M; Windham, Gayle C; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    Two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans in flavor manufacturing workers prompted California health and labor agencies to initiate industry-wide surveillance. Companies' physicians submitted cross-sectional questionnaire and spirometry data for 467 workers in 16 workplaces. We compared prevalence ratios of respiratory symptoms, diagnoses, and abnormal spirometry to a general population sample. We calculated odds ratios for risk factors for spirometric obstructive abnormality. Flavoring workers were 2.7 times more likely than the general population to have severe airways obstruction. Risk factors identified for 18 cases with obstruction from six companies included younger age, Hispanic ethnicity, liquid and powder production work, greater company diacetyl usage, and having a coworker with obstruction. Severity of obstruction was related to tenure. At least 12 workers had probable occupational fixed airways obstruction. The flavoring industry risk of severe lung disease justifies lowering flavoring exposures and medical screening for secondary prevention until worker safety is demonstrated. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Schizophrenia through the carers' eyes: results of a European cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Svettini, A; Johnson, B; Magro, C; Saunders, J; Jones, K; Silk, S; Hargarter, L; Schreiner, A

    2015-09-01

    adherence to medication. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional survey of 138 carers across 16 European countries. Interpretation of results was based on a descriptive comparison of responses. Carers recognized the importance of medication to help patients get better (76%) and improve their quality of life (76%) and relationships (74%). Sixty-seven per cent believed medication damages general health. Sixty-five per cent reported that treatment adherence was a burden for patients. Thirty-eight per cent indicated that it was a daily struggle to get patients to take their medication. Fifty per cent perceived that medication administered every few weeks rather than daily was quite/very important. Ninety-three per cent agreed on the importance of family support to boost adherence, with education and information deemed important for families and patients. Carers rely less on the patient themselves when assessing adherence than psychiatrists. The burden faced by carers and patients in taking medication provides an opportunity for healthcare professionals to provide support in a multidisciplinary 'team' involving psychiatrists, nurses and carers. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Attitudes toward organ donation among waitlisted transplant patients: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Merola, Jonathan; Pei, Kevin Y; Rodriguez-Davalos, Manuel I; Gan, Geliang; Deng, Yanhong; Mulligan, David C; Davis, Kimberly A

    2016-11-01

    Organ shortage remains a major barrier to transplantation. While many efforts have focused on educating the general population regarding donation, few studies have examined knowledge regarding donation and donor registration rates among waitlisted candidates. We aimed to determine waitlisted patients' willingness to donate, elucidate attitudes surrounding organ allocation, and identify barriers to donation. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to assess demographics, knowledge regarding organ donation, and attitudes regarding the allocation process. Responses from 225 of 579 (39%) waitlisted patients were collected. Seventy-one respondents (32%) were registered donors, while 64 patients (28%) noted no interest in participating in donation. A total of 19% of respondents felt their medical treatment would change by being a donor, while 86 patients (38%) felt their condition precluded them from donation. Forty patients (18%) felt they should be prioritized on the waitlist if they agreed to donate. A minority of patients (28%) reported discussion of organ donation with their physician. Waitlisted candidates constitute a population of willing, although often unregistered, organ donors. Moreover, many endorse misconceptions regarding the allocation process and their donation eligibility. In a population for which transplantation is not always possible, education is needed regarding organ donation among waitlisted patients, as this may enhance donation rates.

  18. The distribution of physicians workforce in Louisiana: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Oetjen, Reid; Campbell, Claudia; Webber, Larry; Diana, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    For the past two decades, Louisiana's population health rankings as reported by the United Health Foundation have been among the lowest in the nation. In addition, the 2009 Commonwealth State Scorecards Report ranked the Louisiana health system performance, in terms of health outcomes, among the poorest in the nation. One reason for this disparity could be attributed to shortages of physicians and other healthcare resources in the state. These shortages were exacerbated by the damage from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 to hospitals and physicians' practices in New Orleans and throughout the state. This descriptive cross-sectional study focused on the geographical dimension of access and on one of its critical determinants: the availability of physicians. The objective behind this study was to offer a better understanding of the determinants of geographical imbalances in the distribution of physicians in the state of Louisiana. This study is part one of a three-part series that examines the association between total physician supply, primary care, and specialty care supply on mortality amenable to healthcare (MAHC).

  19. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  20. Professional satisfaction of family physicians in Pakistan--results of a cross-sectional postal survey.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Hiba; Shah, Nasir; Anwer, Fahad; Akhtar, Hina; Abro, Mairaj Anwar; Khan, Asma

    2014-04-01

    To assess the level of professional satisfaction amongst family physicians of Pakistan and to identify the factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. The study was part of a larger national survey for "Status of PostgraduateTraining and Continuing Medical Education of Family Physicians in Pakistan" which was a cross-sectional, postal survey of family physicians conducted over 10 months between November 2009 and September 2010. The main outcome variables were professional satisfaction, as well as reasons for professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with professional dissatisfaction. Of the total 1200 survey forms distributed, 288 (24%) were received back. The mean age of the participants was 37 +/- 9 years with a range between 26 and 72 years. Of the total, 226 (78.5%) were males. Overall, 213 (74%) family physicians were satisfied with their profession. The factors significantly associated with professional dissatisfaction included the participants opinion that they were not respected by the public (OR: 11.6, C.I: 1.9-71.5); as well as regretting being a doctor (OR:62.9, C.I: 8.4-469.8). Most of the family physicians had professional satisfaction, but a minority had regrets about being a doctor and were dissatisfied over how their profession affected their family life. Further research may be needed to study work-life balance amongst family physicians of Pakistan.

  1. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials.

  2. Microcredit participation and child health: results from a cross-sectional study in Peru.

    PubMed

    Moseson, H; Hamad, R; Fernald, L

    2014-12-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major consequence of poverty worldwide. Microcredit programmes-which offer small loans, financial literacy and social support to low-income individuals-are increasingly promoted as a way to improve the health of clients and their families. This study evaluates the hypothesis that longer participation in a microcredit programme is associated with improvements in the health of children of microcredit clients. Cross-sectional data were collected in February 2007 from 511 clients of a microcredit organisation in Peru and 596 of their children under 5 years of age. The primary predictor variable was length of participation in the microcredit programme. Outcome variables included height, weight, anaemia, household food security and parent-reported indicators of child health. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions assessed the association between the number of loan cycles and child health outcomes. Pathways through which microcredit may have influenced health outcomes were also explored via mediation analyses. Longer participation in microcredit was associated with greater household food security and reduced likelihood of childhood anaemia. No significant associations were observed between microcredit participation and incidence of childhood illnesses or anthropometric indicators. Increased consumption of red meat may mediate the association between the number of loan cycles and food security, but not the association with anaemia. The effects of microcredit on the health of clients' children are understudied. Exploratory findings from this analysis suggest that microcredit may positively influence child health, and that diet may play a causal role. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Clinical features of depression in Asia: results of a large prospective, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Hong, Jin Pyo; Tian-Mei, Si; Hatim, Ahmad; Liu, Chia-Yih; Udomratn, Pichet; Bae, Jae Nam; Fang, Yiru; Chua, Hong Choon; Liu, Shen-Ing; George, Tom; Bautista, Dianne; Chan, Edwin; Rush, A John

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical features of depression in Asian patients. It was a cross-sectional, observational study of depression in China, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. Participants were drug-free outpatients with depressed mood and/or anhedonia. Symptoms and clinical features were assessed using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Symptoms Checklist 90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Other measures included the Medical Outcome Survey 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Sheehan Disability Scale, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). A total of 547 outpatients with major depressive disorder were included in the analyses. Among the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale symptoms, "reported sadness" and "reduced sleep" had the highest severity, with means (SDs) of 3.4 (1.2) and 3.4 (1.6), respectively. Apart from the SCL-90-R depression and anxiety domains, the SCL-90-R obsession-compulsion syndrome had the highest domain score, with a mean (SD) of 1.9 (0.9). Among eight domains, the mean (SD) SF-36 pain subscale score of 58.4 (27.7) was only second to that for the SF-36 physical function. In comparison to other disability domains, the Sheehan Disability Scale work/school had the highest subscale score, with a mean (SD) of 6.5 (2.9). The mean (SD) MSPSS "family" subscale score of 4.7 (1.7) was higher than the MSPSS "friends" and "significant others" subscale scores. This study suggests that pain has a minimal impact on the quality of life in Asian patients with depression. Noteworthy issues in this population may include insomnia, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, working/school disability, and family support. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Infertility as a proxy of general male health: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Capogrosso, Paolo; Boeri, Luca; Serino, Alessandro; Colicchia, Michele; Ippolito, Silvia; Scano, Roberta; Papaleo, Enrico; Damiano, Rocco; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, and clinical and seminal impact of comorbidities in white European men presenting for couple infertility. Cross-sectional study. Academic reproductive medicine outpatient clinic. Cohort of 2,100 consecutive infertile men (noninterracial infertile couples). Obtaining complete demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 2,100 consecutive infertile men with health-significant comorbidities scored via the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI; categorized 0 vs. 1 vs. ≥2) and semen analysis values assessed based on 2010 World Health Organization reference criteria. Assessment of the rate of comorbidities by means of CCI scores and possible associations between CCI, semen and hormonal parameters. Descriptive statistics and regression models tested the associations among semen parameters, clinical characteristics, and CCI. When assessing general comorbidity prevalence, CCI 0, CCI 1, and CCI ≥2 was found in 1,921 (91.5%), 102 (4.9%), and 77 (3.6%) patients, respectively. Patient age and follicle-stimulating hormone levels increased as the general health status decreased. Conversely, the total testosterone levels and sperm concentration decreased as CCI scores increased. A higher rate of oligozoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia was observed in patients with CCI ≥1. No differences were observed among the considered comorbidity groups in terms of testicular volume or further hormonal or seminal parameters. Both continuously coded and categorized sperm concentrations were independent predictors of CCI ≥1. Patients with sperm concentration <45.6 million/mL (most informative cutoff value) had a 2.74-fold increased risk of having a CCI ≥1. Decreased general health status appears to be associated with impaired male reproductive health, including lower sperm concentration, lower total testosterone levels, and higher follicle-stimulating hormone values. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Effect of cross-section interpolated bathymetry on 2D hydrodynamic results in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J.; Tonina, D.; Welcker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models have been used for many river research projects including flood analysis, aquatic habitat evaluation and sediment transport studies. River topography has a strong influence on flow patterns and a dominant effect on the resulting hydraulic conditions. Thus, it is important that adequate topographic data be collected so accurate DEMs can be developed in order to create 2D hydrodynamic models that correctly represent hydraulic conditions. Many techniques and methods have been used to acquire bathymetry data, from traditional survey methods, using sonar equipment combined with GPS and more recently the use of Experimental Advance Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). Multi-beam sonar and EAARL provide rapid collection of bathymetry data that can be used to create high resolution three dimensional surfaces. However, these systems do not work in all river conditions requiring other methods of data collection. One method that has been employed is to collect cross section data and interpolate a surface between the cross sections. This method is a valuable technique, because cross sections can be surveyed with traditional survey equipment for wadeable streams or with a variety of watercraft. In this study, we investigated the effect cross section spacing has on developing the streambed topography and flow properties for 2D modeling. To evaluate the resulting errors that can be expected, we compared 2D model results of two reaches of the Snake River (Idaho, USA) that had complete bathymetry, with 2D model results of the same river reaches, but were developed by interpolating bathymetry between transects. We chose reaches with simple and complex channel morphologies to test the variability of error that may be expected for natural channels that fall between these types. We evaluated the error created on sediment transport by size class and habitat quality for fish species. The preliminary results indicate that increasing the cross section

  6. Compliance with mandatory reporting of clinical trial results on ClinicalTrials.gov: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Prayle, Andrew P; Hurley, Matthew N; Smyth, Alan R

    2012-01-03

    To examine compliance with mandatory reporting of summary clinical trial results (within one year of completion of trial) on ClinicalTrials.gov for studies that fall under the recent Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act (FDAAA) legislation. Registry based study of clinical trial summaries. ClinicalTrials.gov, searched on 19 January 2011, with cross referencing with Drugs@FDA to determine for which trials mandatory reporting was required within one year. Selection criteria Studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov with US sites which completed between 1 January and 31 December 2009. Proportion of trials for which results had been reported. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry contained 83,579 entries for interventional trials, of which 5642 were completed within the timescale of interest. We identified trials as falling within the mandatory reporting rules if they were covered by the FDAAA (trials of a drug, device, or biological agent, which have at least one US site, and are of phase II or later) and if they investigated a drug that already had approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Of these, 163/738 (22%) had reported results within one year of completion of the trial compared with 76/727 (10%) trials that were not subject to mandatory reporting (95% confidence interval for the difference in proportions 7.8% to 15.5%; χ(2) test, P = 2.6 × 10(-9)). Later phase trials were more likely to report results (P = 4.4 × 10(-11)), as were industry funded trials (P = 2.2 × 10(-16)). Most trials subject to mandatory reporting did not report results within a year of completion.

  7. Searching for a relevant definition of sarcopenia: results from the cross-sectional EPIDOS study.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Charlotte; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Gentil, Catherine; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Beauchet, Olivier; Schott, Anne-Marie; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of definitions proposed for sarcopenia has been rarely tested in the same population, and so far, their clinical utilities for predicting physical difficulties could not be clearly understood. Our objective is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia and the characteristics of sarcopenic community-dwelling older women according to the different definitions of sarcopenia currently proposed. We also assessed these definitions for their incremental predictive value over currently standard predictors for some self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength. Cross-sectional analysis included data from 3025 non-disabled women aged 75 years or older without previous history of hip fracture from the inclusion visit of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study. A total body composition evaluation was available for 2725 women. Sarcopenia was defined using six different definitions of sarcopenia based on different muscle mass, gait speed, and grip strength cut-offs. Self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength were collected. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were built for each physical dysfunction, and the predictive capacity of sarcopenia (one model for each definition) was studied using the C-statistic, the net reclassification index, or adjusted R(2). The estimated prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3-20.0%. Only 85 participants (3.1%) were identified having sarcopenia according to all definitions. All definitions were, to some degree, associated with self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength, but none improved the predictive ability of the self-reported difficulties in physical function. Conversely, all definitions accounted for a small but significant amount of explained variation for predicting knee extension strength. Prevalence of sarcopenia varies widely depending on the definition adopted. Based on this research, the current

  8. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Elementary School Children: Results of a Cross-Sectional Teacher Survey.

    PubMed

    Ko, Lauren N; Chuang, Kai-wen; Champeau, Angelique; Allen, I Elaine; Copp, Hillary L

    2016-04-01

    Lower urinary tract dysfunction in school-aged children is common and yet data are lacking on current teacher practice regarding bathroom use and daytime incontinence during classroom hours. We determined the prevalence of elementary school teachers who promote lower urinary tract health and identified predictors for and against such behavioral promotion. We performed an electronic cross-sectional survey among self-identified teachers using targeted social media advertisement during a 1-week period in July 2014. The empirical survey tool consisted of 27 questions and collected data on 5 principal domains, including 1) teacher demographics, 2) rules and regulations on water intake and bathroom use during classroom hours, 3) characteristics of school bathrooms in terms of safety, supervision and suitability for use, 4) experience with and management of students with daytime incontinence and 5) training on the topic of lower urinary tract health. Predictors for promoting lower urinary tract health were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Of the 4,166 teachers who completed the survey 88% indicated that they encourage students to hold urine. Despite strict bathroom protocols 81% of teachers allowed children unlimited access to water. Of the teachers 82% reported never having undergone any professional development on bathroom regulations for children. Overall only 24% of surveyed teachers met criteria for promoting lower urinary tract health. The odds of promoting lower urinary tract health decreased with ascending grade level (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.84). Conversely it increased if teaching experience was greater than 5 years (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.39-1.98) or professional development on the subject had been received (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18-1.70). Of elementary school teachers 76% are not promoting lower urinary tract health in school-aged children. Professional development training on the topics of lower urinary tract dysfunction and/or lower urinary tract

  9. Fluid Therapy Management in Hospitalized Patients: Results From a Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Brugnolli, Anna; Canzan, Federica; Bevilacqua, Anita; Marognolli, Oliva; Verlato, Giuseppe; Vincenzi, Silvia; Ambrosi, Elisa

    2017-02-01

    Intravenous (IV) fluid therapy is widely used in hospitalized patients. It has been internationally studied in surgical patients, but little attention to date has been dedicated to medical patients within the Italian context. The aims of the present study were to describe the prevalence of fluid therapy and associated factors among Italian patients admitted to medical and surgical units, describe the methods used to manage fluid therapy, and analyze the monitoring of patients by clinical staff. In this cross-sectional study of 7 hospitals in northern Italy, data on individual and monitoring variables were collected, and their associations with in-hospital fluid therapy were analyzed by using logistic regression analysis. Patients aged ≥18 years who were admitted to medical and surgical units were included. Patients who received at least 500 mL of continuous fluids were included in the fluid therapy group. In total, 785 (median age, 72 years; women, 52%) patients were included in the study, and 293 (37.3%) received fluid therapy. Maintenance was the most frequent reason for prescribing IV fluid therapy (59%). The mean (SD) volume delivered was 1177 (624) mL/d, and the highest volume was infused for replacement therapy (1660 [931] mL/d). The mean volume infused was 19.55 (13) mL/kg/d. The most commonly used fluid solutions were 0.9% sodium chloride (65.7%) and balanced crystalloid without glucose (32.9%). The proportion of patients assessed for urine output (52.6% vs 36.8%; P < 0.001), serum electrolyte concentrations (74.4% vs 65.0%; P = 0.005), and renal function (70.0% vs 58.7%; P = 0.002) was significantly higher in patients who did receive fluid therapy versus those who did not. In contrast, the use of weight and fluid assessments was not significantly different between the 2 groups (P = 0.216 and 0.256, respectively). Patients admitted for gastrointestinal disorders (odds ratio [OR], 3.5 [95% CI, 1.8-7.05) and for fluid/electrolyte imbalances (OR, 3.35 [95

  10. Tien Shan experimental results on the inelastic proton-air cross section at 0.5 - 5 PeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, N.

    2013-02-01

    The analysis of experimental data from the Tien Shan complex array on extensive air showers originated from 0.5-5 PeV primary cosmic rays is presented. Conclusions are made on the rise of the inelastic proton-air cross section with energy on the base of comparisons with different interaction models. The analysis showed that the rise conforms to (7-9) % per one order of energy from 0.2 TeV (accelerator experiments with fixed targets) to 5 PeV (cosmic rays). These data correspond better to the new QGSJET-II-04 version of the interaction model based on the recent LHC results. This model predicts the slower rise of the cross-section than previous versions of QGSJET-II models.

  11. Quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco

    2010-06-01

    The radar cross section σC is an objective measure of the "radar visibility" of an object. As such, σC is an important concept for the correct characterization of the operational performance of radar systems. Furthermore, σC is equally essential for the design and development of stealth weapon systems and platforms. Recent years have seen the theoretical development of quantum radars, that is, radars that operate with a small number of photons. In this regime, the radar-target interaction is described through photon-atom scattering processes governed by the laws of quantum electrodynamics. As such, it is theoretically inconsistent to use the same σC to characterize the performance of a quantum radar. In this paper we define a quantum radar cross section σQ based on quantum electrodynamics and interferometric considerations. We discuss the theoretical challenges of defining σQ, as well as computer simulations of σC and σQ for simple targets.

  12. The State of Addictions Education Programs: Results of a National Cross-Sectional Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of an exploratory survey on collegiate addictions studies programs offered in the United States. Eighteen percent of these programs are at the graduate level, 13% at the bachelor's level, and 69% at the associate's level. Counseling courses by far were the most cited addiction studies offered at all academic levels with…

  13. Facebook use and chronotype: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Blachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Díaz-Morales, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Facebook has become the most popular social networking site round the world. In seeking an explanation for this phenomenon, individual differences in circadian functioning seem to be an interesting issue. The main aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between morningness/eveningness and Facebook use (intrusion and intensity). The participants were 663 Facebook users. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, Facebook Intensity Scale and the Composite Scale of Morningness were used. Our results indicate that chronotype is negatively related with Facebook usage. Eveningness people use Facebook intensively and their Facebook use is more intrusive. Moreover, eveningness in combination with young age predicted Facebook intensity.

  14. First result of the cross sectional measurement of 3He-3He solar reaction in OCEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itahashi, T.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Takahisa, K.; Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Toki, H.; Nagai, Y.; Komori, M.; Ohsumi, H.

    2001-04-01

    The first result in OCEAN measurement of the fusion reactions 3He(3He,2p)α at the energy of 40 to 50 keV by means of a low-energy, high current accelerator are reported. The accelerator in this facility can produce an intense beam of 3He1+ and 3He2+ ions of more than 1mA. A detection efficiency for proposed detector assembly of ΔE-E counter telescope is simulated with GEANT program and it expects a detection efficiency about 10% for the two proton coincidence for 3He+3He-->2p+α reaction. The accuracy of Monte Carlo program was checked by D(3He,p)α reaction by replacing the target gas to deuterium. .

  15. Critical care capacity in Canada: results of a national cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Robert A; Abdelmalik, Philip; Wood, Gordon; Foster, Denise; Gibney, Noel; Bandrauk, Natalie; Turgeon, Alexis F; Lamontagne, François; Kumar, Anand; Zarychanski, Ryan; Green, Rob; Bagshaw, Sean M; Stelfox, Henry T; Foster, Ryan; Dodek, Peter; Shaw, Susan; Granton, John; Lawless, Bernard; Hill, Andrea; Rose, Louise; Adhikari, Neill K; Scales, Damon C; Cook, Deborah J; Marshall, John C; Martin, Claudio; Jouvet, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Intensive Care Units (ICUs) provide life-supporting treatment; however, resources are limited, so demand may exceed supply in the event of pandemics, environmental disasters, or in the context of an aging population. We hypothesized that comprehensive national data on ICU resources would permit a better understanding of regional differences in system capacity. After the 2009-2010 Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the Canadian Critical Care Trials Group surveyed all acute care hospitals in Canada to assess ICU capacity. Using a structured survey tool administered to physicians, respiratory therapists and nurses, we determined the number of ICU beds, ventilators, and the ability to provide specialized support for respiratory failure. We identified 286 hospitals with 3170 ICU beds and 4982 mechanical ventilators for critically ill patients. Twenty-two hospitals had an ICU that routinely cared for children; 15 had dedicated pediatric ICUs. Per 100,000 population, there was substantial variability in provincial capacity, with a mean of 0.9 hospitals with ICUs (provincial range 0.4-2.8), 10 ICU beds capable of providing mechanical ventilation (provincial range 6-19), and 15 invasive mechanical ventilators (provincial range 10-24). There was only moderate correlation between ventilation capacity and population size (coefficient of determination (R(2)) = 0.771). ICU resources vary widely across Canadian provinces, and during times of increased demand, may result in geographic differences in the ability to care for critically ill patients. These results highlight the need to evolve inter-jurisdictional resource sharing during periods of substantial increase in demand, and provide background data for the development of appropriate critical care capacity benchmarks.

  16. Posture and balance control in patients with acromegaly: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Agnaldo José; da Silva, Débora Pedroza Guedes; Kasuki, Leandro; Gadelha, Mônica Roberto; Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Guimarães, Fernando Silva

    2014-01-01

    Acromegaly is a chronic debilitating disease that presents with multiple systemic manifestations, including changes in body composition, joint abnormalities, muscular impairment and visual disturbances. This study aimed to assess posture and body balance in acromegalic patients and to establish the correlation between these measures. Twenty-eight acromegalic patients and a similar number of control subjects matched for sex, age, weight, height and body mass index underwent postural evaluation using the photogrammetry and measurement of balance using the stabilometry in two tasks: feet apart, eyes open and feet together, eyes closed. In comparison with the control group, the acromegalic group presented postural deviations in lateral views in the vertical alignment of the trunk (P=0.001 for the right side and P=0.021 for the left), the hip angle (P=0001 for the right side and P=0.016 for the left side) and horizontal alignment of the pelvis (P=0.017 for the right and P<0.001 for the left side). Compared with healthy subjects, the acromegalic patients presented displacement of the centre of pressure in both the anterior-posterior direction and the medial-lateral direction in both evaluated tasks. We observed significant correlations between balance measures and the following posture evaluation variables: distance between the lower limbs, horizontal alignment of the head and vertical alignment of the head. Our results suggest that posture and balance need to be evaluated for acromegalic patients in clinical practice, as there are significant postural imbalances and deviations in these patients.

  17. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  18. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  19. Converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms in hyperspherical partial wave theory at 6 eV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.

    2004-04-01

    Here we report a set of converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms obtained in the hyperspherical partial wave theory for equal energy sharing kinematics at 6 eV energy above threshold. The calculated cross section results are generally in excellent agreement with the absolute measured results of Doerner et al. [Phys. Rev. 57, 1074 (1998)].

  20. Difference between interaction cross sections and reaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohama, Akihisa; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro

    2008-12-15

    We study the validity of the substitution of interaction cross sections for total reaction cross sections for a nucleus incident on a target nucleus at relativistic energies. We show that, for incident stable nuclei, the predicted difference between interaction and total reaction cross sections is large enough to probe the nuclear structure, particularly in a mass region of less than around 40. For analyses of the difference, we construct ''pseudo data'' for the reaction cross sections because empirical data are very limited at high energies. The construction of the pseudo data is based on our assumption that empirically unknown total reaction cross sections are precisely predicted by the phenomenological black-sphere model of nuclei that we developed recently. The comparison with the empirical interaction cross sections suggests a significant difference between the reaction and interaction cross sections for stable projectiles on a carbon target, which is of the order of 0-100 mb.

  1. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  2. Interpretation of Results of Studies Evaluating an Intervention Highlighted in Google Health News: A Cross-Sectional Study of News

    PubMed Central

    Haneef, Romana; Lazarus, Clement; Ravaud, Philippe; Yavchitz, Amélie; Boutron, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass media through the Internet is a powerful means of disseminating medical research. We aimed to determine whether and how the interpretation of research results is misrepresented by the use of “spin” in the health section of Google News. Spin was defined as specific way of reporting, from whatever motive (intentional or unintentional), to emphasize that the beneficial effect of the intervention is greater than that shown by the results. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of news highlighted in the health section of US, UK and Canada editions of Google News between July 2013 and January 2014. We searched for news items for 3 days a week (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) during 6 months and selected a sample of 130 news items reporting a scientific article evaluating the effect of an intervention on human health. Results In total, 78% of the news did not provide a full reference or electronic link to the scientific article. We found at least one spin in 114 (88%) news items and 18 different types of spin in news. These spin were mainly related to misleading reporting (59%) such as not reporting adverse events that were reported in the scientific article (25%), misleading interpretation (69%) such as claiming a causal effect despite non-randomized study design (49%) and overgeneralization/misleading extrapolation (41%) of the results such as extrapolating a beneficial effect from an animal study to humans (21%). We also identified some new types of spin such as highlighting a single patient experience for the success of a new treatment instead of focusing on the group results. Conclusions Interpretation of research results was frequently misrepresented in the health section of Google News. However, we do not know whether these spin were from the scientific articles themselves or added in the news. PMID:26473725

  3. Final results of bar nue — e scattering cross-section measurements and constraints on new physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Muhammed; Bilmis, Secluk; Wong, Henry T.; Texono Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The bar nue - e elastic scattering cross-section was measured with a CsI(Tl) scintillating crystal detector array with a total mass of 187 kg at the Kuo-Sheng Nuclear Power Station. The detectors were exposed to a reactor bar nue flux of 6.4 × 1012 cm-2s-1 originated from a core with 2.9 GW thermal power. Using 29882/7369 kg-days of Reactor ON/OFF data, the Standard Model (SM) of electroweak interaction was probed at the 4-momentum transfer range of Q2 ~ 3 × 10-6 GeV2. A cross-section ratio of Rexpt = [1.08±0.21 (stat)±0.16 (sys)] × RSM was measured. Constraints on the electroweak parameters (gV,gA) were placed, corresponding to a weak mixing angle measurement of sin2θw = 0.251 ±0.031 (stat) ±0.024 (sys). Destructive interference in the SM bar nue-e processes was verified. Bounds on neutrino anomalous electromagnetic properties (neutrino magnetic moment and neutrino charge radius), as well as non-standard neutrino interactions were placed. We summarize the experimental details and results, and discuss projected sensitivities with realistic and feasible hardware upgrades.

  4. Interpretation of Results of Studies Evaluating an Intervention Highlighted in Google Health News: A Cross-Sectional Study of News.

    PubMed

    Haneef, Romana; Lazarus, Clement; Ravaud, Philippe; Yavchitz, Amélie; Boutron, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Mass media through the Internet is a powerful means of disseminating medical research. We aimed to determine whether and how the interpretation of research results is misrepresented by the use of "spin" in the health section of Google News. Spin was defined as specific way of reporting, from whatever motive (intentional or unintentional), to emphasize that the beneficial effect of the intervention is greater than that shown by the results. We conducted a cross-sectional study of news highlighted in the health section of US, UK and Canada editions of Google News between July 2013 and January 2014. We searched for news items for 3 days a week (i.e., Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) during 6 months and selected a sample of 130 news items reporting a scientific article evaluating the effect of an intervention on human health. In total, 78% of the news did not provide a full reference or electronic link to the scientific article. We found at least one spin in 114 (88%) news items and 18 different types of spin in news. These spin were mainly related to misleading reporting (59%) such as not reporting adverse events that were reported in the scientific article (25%), misleading interpretation (69%) such as claiming a causal effect despite non-randomized study design (49%) and overgeneralization/misleading extrapolation (41%) of the results such as extrapolating a beneficial effect from an animal study to humans (21%). We also identified some new types of spin such as highlighting a single patient experience for the success of a new treatment instead of focusing on the group results. Interpretation of research results was frequently misrepresented in the health section of Google News. However, we do not know whether these spin were from the scientific articles themselves or added in the news.

  5. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  6. Updated Users' Guide for RSAP -- A Code for Display and Manipulation of Neutron Cross Section Data and SAMMY Fit Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.

    2003-07-29

    RSAP [1] is a computer code for display and manipulation of neutron cross section data and selected SAMMY output. SAMMY [2] is a multilevel R-matrix code for fitting neutron time-of-flight cross-section data using Bayes' method. This users' guide provides documentation for the recently updated RSAP code (version 6). The code has been ported to the Linux platform, and several new features have been added, including the capability to read cross section data from ASCII pointwise ENDF files as well as double-precision PLT output from SAMMY. A number of bugs have been found and corrected, and the input formats have been improved. Input items are parsed so that items may be separated by spaces or commas.

  7. Results of total cross section measurements for 197Au in the neutron energy region from 4 to 108 keV at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakov, I.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Dupont, E.; Kopecky, S.; Massimi, C.; Schillebeeckx, P.

    2013-11-01

    Transmission measurements have been performed to determine the total cross section for neutron-induced reactions with 197Au in the energy region from 4keV to 108keV. The experiments were carried out at a 50m measurement station of the time-of-flight facility GELINA using a 6Li glass scintillator. The average total cross section as a function of neutron energy was derived after correcting the observed average transmission for cross section fluctuations due to resonance structures. The results have been compared with literature data and with the total cross section resulting from a dispersive coupled-channel optical model potential. The neutron strength function for s -wave neutrons and an orbital-independent scattering radius, together with their covariance matrix, have been derived in the neutron energy region between 4keV and 108keV through a parameterization of the total cross section based on a nuclear reaction theory.

  8. Association between organic food consumption and metabolic syndrome: cross-sectional results from the NutriNet-Santé study.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Lelong, Hélène; Adriouch, Solia; Julia, Chantal; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Touvier, Mathilde; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2017-08-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a multicomponent condition, is a cardiovascular disease predictor. Although exposure to agricultural pesticides has been suggested as a potential contributor to the rising rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other features of metabolic disorders, no studies have focused on the association between consumption of organic food (produced without synthetic pesticides) and MetS. We aimed to investigate the cross-sectional association between organic food consumption and MetS in French adults to determine whether it would be worth conducting further studies, particularly large prospective and randomised trials. A total of 8174 participants from the NutriNet-Santé study who attended a clinical visit and completed an organic food frequency questionnaire were included in this cross-sectional analysis. We evaluated the association between the proportion of organic food in the diet (overall and by food group) and MetS using Poisson regression models while adjusting for potential confounders. Higher organic food consumption was negatively associated with the prevalence of MetS: adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61, 0.78) when comparing the third tertile of proportion of organic food in the diet with the first one (p value <0.0001). Higher consumption of organic plant-based foods was also related to a lower probability of having MetS. In addition, when stratifying by lifestyle factors (nutritional quality of the diet, smoking status, and physical activity), a significant negative association was detected in each subgroup (p values <0.05), except among smokers. Our results showed that a higher organic food consumption was associated with a lower probability of having MetS. Additional prospective studies and randomised trials are required to ascertain the relationship between organic food consumption and metabolic disorders.

  9. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  10. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  11. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  13. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  14. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  15. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  16. The role of cognitive schemata in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan; Szymczak, Wiesław

    2011-03-01

    There are two theories (by Horowitz and by Foa) which attempt at explaining the process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development by information dissonance. The purpose of the present study was to verify these theories via cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The study based on a cross-sectional design was performed on a representative group of Polish firefighters. The study using a longitudinal protocol was conducted among police officers. The level of PTSD was assessed using the Questionnaire for PTSD Measurement (K-PTSD). The sense of coherence (SOC) was measured with the Polish adaptation of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire by A. Antonovsky. In the cross-sectional study, the correlation coefficients between K-PTSD and SOC were -0.35 (p < 0.001) in the group of firefighters and -0.47 (p < 0.001) in that of police officers. In the longitudinal study, the relationship between SOC and PTSD symptoms appeared to be curvilinear and had the U-letter shape. Therefore, we used ANOVA for statistical analysis. Unfortunately, the F(2.31) = 1.900 and p > 0.05 indicated that the tendency we observed was not statistically significant. We would like to propose two possible explanations for the difference in the relationships between SOC and PTSD symptoms obtained in the studies employing the cross-sectional and the longitudinal protocols.

  17. Radar Cross Section Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-30

    Radar 54 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of Chirp Radar 56 18. Range and Cross Range Image of Target Dror.’ŕ Vehicle 57 19. Incoherent rms...the measured range resolution, 4.9 in, closely agrees with the theoretical performance for this weighting. The measured range sidelobe performance...Interval 4.89in. 2% kHz 300 kHz 310 kHz (b) Expanded Scale + 5 ft from Target Figure 17. Measured Range Sidelobe Performance of

  18. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  19. What shape do UK trainees want their training to be? Results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Harries, Rhiannon L; Rashid, Mustafa; Smitham, Peter; Vesey, Alex; McGregor, Richard; Scheeres, Karl; Bailey, Jon; Sohaib, Syed Mohammed Afzal; Prior, Matthew; Frost, Jonathan; Al-Deeb, Walid; Kugathasan, Gana; Gokani, Vimal J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The British Government is acting on recommendations to overhaul postgraduate training to meet the needs of the changing population, to produce generalist doctors undergoing shorter broad-based training (Greenaway Review). Only 45 doctors in training were involved in the consultation process. This study aims to obtain a focused perspective on the proposed reforms by doctors in training from across specialities. Design Prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. Setting/participants Following validation, a 31-item electronic questionnaire was distributed via trainee organisations and Postgraduate Local Education and Training Board (LETB) mailing lists. Throughout the 10-week study period, the survey was publicised on several social media platforms. Results Of the 3603 demographically representative respondents, 69% knew about proposed changes. Of the respondents, 73% expressed a desire to specialise, with 54% keen to provide general emergency cover. A small proportion (12%) stated that current training pathway length is too long, although 86% felt that it is impossible to achieve independent practitioner-level proficiency in a shorter period of time than is currently required. Opinions regarding credentialing were mixed, but tended towards disagreement. The vast majority (97%) felt credentialing should not be funded by doctors in training. Respondents preferred longer placement lengths with increasing career progression. Doctors in training value early generalised training (65%), with suggestions for further improvement. Conclusions This is the first large-scale cross-specialty study regarding the Shape of Training Review. Although there are recommendations which trainees support, it is clear that one size does not fit all. Most trainees are keen to provide a specialist service on an emergency generalist background. Credentialing is a contentious issue; however, we believe removing aspects from curricula into post-Certificate of Completion of

  20. Determinants of inadequate parental sun protection behaviour in their children--results of a cross-sectional study in Germany.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Swaantje; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-03-01

    Unprotected sun exposure especially during childhood is a risk factor for skin cancer. A combined use of sun protection measures is recommended to protect children. However, the prevalence and determinants for combined use have been scarcely studied in children. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of parental sun protection behaviour. A cross-sectional survey was performed in five regions in Bavaria (Germany) during school entrance health examination (2010/2011). Parents of 4579 children (47% female, aged 5-6 years) completed a self-administered questionnaire (response 61%). Most children were regularly protected with single measures (shade (69%), clothes (80%), hat (83%), sunscreen (89%), sunglasses (20%)). However, regarding regular and combined use, >50% of children were inadequately protected. Larger family size, lower household equivalent income, darker skin and sunburn history were associated with inadequate use of different sun protection measures. The less frequent use of one sun protection measure was associated with less frequent use of the others. Child's sex, migration background, parental education and sun exposure showed inconsistent results regarding the different sun protection outcomes. Based on our results a regular, combined and correct use of multiple sun protection for children should be promoted independent of sociodemographic characteristics. Priority of shade, clothes and hat before sunscreen should be clarified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan (n = 1200). The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) was applied to investigate exposure to trauma events. Disability was measured using the Washington Group Short Measurement Set on Disability, which is an activity-based scale derived from the WHO’s International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health. Results The estimated prevalence of disability (with severe difficulty) was 3.6% and 13.4% for disability with moderate difficulties. No gender differences were found in disability prevalence. Almost all participants reported exposure to at least one war-related traumatic event. The result of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that, for both men and women, exposure to traumatic events, older age and living in a polygamous marriage increased the likelihood of having a disability. Conclusions The finding of association between traumatic experience and disability underlines the precariousness of the human rights situation for individuals with disability in low-income countries. It also has possible implications for the construction of disability services and for the provision of health services to individuals exposed to traumatic events. PMID:23672785

  2. Cross-sectional assessment of patient attitudes towards participation in clinical trials: does making results publicly available matter?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher W; Braz, Valerie A; McBride, Stephen M; Roberts, Brian W; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have shown that a majority of patients cite altruistic motives, such as contributing to generalisable medical knowledge, as factors motivating clinical trial participation. We sought to examine the impact of making trial results publicly available on patients' willingness to participate in clinical research. Design Cross-sectional analysis using a questionnaire developed by a panel with expertise in publication bias, informed consent and survey design. Setting A single urban, academic emergency department (ED) in the Northeastern USA. Participants 799 ED patients. Outcome Measures We assessed (1) participants' attitudes towards clinical trial participation, and (2) the impact of whether study results would eventually be made publicly available or not on willingness to participate in a trial. Results Of 799 patients surveyed, 36% (95% CI 32% to 39%) reported that they would generally like to participate in a trial, and another 50% (95% CI 47% to 54%) reported that they would consider participation depending on study details. For the majority of participants, the publication of trial results was either important (36%; 95% CI 33% to 40%) or very important (48%; 95% CI 44% to 51%). Most (63%; 95% CI 59% to 66%) reported they would be less likely to participate in a trial if investigators had not publicly released results from a prior study. Additionally, 85% (95% CI 82% to 87%) felt that it was important or very important to receive information about the publication track record of sponsors and investigators during the informed consent process. Conclusions The majority of patients in this sample would consider participation in a clinical trial. Patients value the public release of trial results, and believe that the informed consent process should address the possibility of non-publication. PMID:27884854

  3. Radar Cross Section (RCS) Certification for Static and Dynamic RCS Measurement Facilities. Volume 2: DOD RCS Demonstration Program Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Electronics Engineers ISAR inverse synthetic aperature radar ISO International Standards Organization J/S jammer-skin Mil Spec military...for Doppler signatures, down-range profiles, inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) images, as well as whole-body RCS data. ADAMS is also used to...DOCUMENT 804-01 VOLUME II (REVISED AUGUST 2001) Signature Measurement Standards Group RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS) CERTIFICATION

  4. Reference intervals of bone turnover markers in healthy premenopausal women: results from a cross-sectional European study.

    PubMed

    Eastell, Richard; Garnero, Patrick; Audebert, Christine; Cahall, David L

    2012-05-01

    Robust validated reference intervals for bone turnover markers (BTMs) are required to assess fracture risk and effectiveness of therapy. However, there are currently limited reference intervals for BTMs in premenopausal women, especially comparing manual and automated assays. This study determined the BTM reference intervals using automated and manual assays, compared the results obtained from two different assays, and evaluated the factors that may affect BTM levels. This was a cross-sectional registry study in 194 healthy, premenopausal, European Caucasian women aged 35 to 39years from France (n=98) and Denmark (n=96). Two independent specialized laboratories, one in France (Synarc) and the other in Denmark (Nordic Bioscience), analyzed blood and urine samples from each woman for BTM levels. The type of assay used in this study significantly affected the reference intervals obtained for serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (sCTX) and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (uNTX/Cr; both P<0.001), but not for serum procollagen type I amino-terminal propeptide (PINP; P=0.28). The Serum Crosslaps® ELISA; Microtitre-plate based ELISA; Metra BAP EIA; and UniQ® PINP RIA assays yielded higher BTM reference values. The reference intervals for the BTMs, as measured with Serum β-Crosslaps, Elecsys® 2010 Systems; VITROS® ECI System; Ostase®, Access® Immunoassay System; and Total PINP, Elecsys® 2010 Systems assays, were 0.111-0.791ng/mL for sCTX, 12.3-59.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 5.8-17.5ng/mL for bone alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and 17.3-83.4ng/mL for PINP, respectively. When measured with Serum Crosslaps® ELISA, Microtitre-plate based ELISA, Metra BAP EIA, and UniQ® PINP RIA, the reference intervals were 0.177-0.862ng/mL for sCTX, 22.6-95.7nmol BCE/mmol creatinine for uNTX/Cr, 14.8-38.8U/L for bone ALP, and 19.5-75.2ng/mL for PINP, respectively. The clinical interpretation of the BTMs of a subject

  5. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A.; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors—including genetics, personality, and environment—affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers’ scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers’ activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers’ dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals’ needs. PMID:28134805

  6. Work stress is associated with diabetes and prediabetes: cross-sectional results from the MIPH Industrial Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Jarczok, Marc N; Loerbroks, Adrian; Schöllgen, Ina; Siegrist, Johannes; Bosch, Jos A; Wilson, Mark G; Mauss, Daniel; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes is rapidly rising globally, and the relation of psychosocial stress in workplace to diabetes and prediabetes is not well investigated. The aim of the study was to examine the association of work stress with diabetes and prediabetes in a sample of German industrial workers. In this cross-sectional survey of an occupational cohort (n = 2,674, 77 % male), work stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire. Diabetic status, i.e., diabetes and prediabetes, were diagnosed by glycated hemoglobin A1c criterion or fasting plasma glucose criterion supplemented by self-reports. The overall prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were 3.5 and 42.2 %, respectively. Using ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding factors, high ERI at work was associated with diabetes-related ordinal variable (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95 % confidence interval [95 % CI], 1.02-1.58) and prediabetes-related ordinal variable (OR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.01-1.58) in men, whereas the associations in women were somewhat less pronounced and did not reach statistical significance. The findings indicate that work stress in terms of ERI is associated with diabetes and prediabetes in German industrial male workers. If supported by prospective evidence, results point to a new approach towards primary prevention of diabetes.

  7. Adhesions and pain in women with first diagnosis of endometriosis: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Parazzini, Fabio; Mais, Valerio; Cipriani, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between pain and presence, site, and type of adhesions in women with endometriosis. This was a multicenter, observational cross-sectional study. Eligible for the study were women with endometriosis and pelvic pain, consecutively observed during the study period at the collaborating centers. A total of 574 women entered the study. Adhesions were observed in 81.9% of cases (470 women). The frequency was lower in women with endometriosis at stage I-II (65%) and higher in women with stage III-IV (88%); this difference was statistically significant (p < .01). The frequency of adhesions was lower in women with ovarian endometriosis (74%) and higher in those with ovarian and peritoneal endometriosis (87%) or other sites (96%) (p < .01). The presence of adhesions was associated with higher mean visual analog scale (VAS) scores and median multidimensional scale ratings in women with ovarian disease and with stage I-II disease. Women with ovarian adhesions reported higher VAS and multidimensional scale scores (p < .05) than women with peritoneal adhesions or adhesions in other sites. The results of this study suggest that there is no overall association between the presence of adhesions and the degree of pain in women with endometriosis. The data suggests that there may be an association between adhesions and pain in women with ovarian and Type I-II endometriosis. However, these associations were no longer significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Further research is indicated to test these associations.

  8. Postpartum depression: identifying associations with bipolarity and personality traits. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional study in Poland.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Dominika; Jaeschke, Rafał; Siwek, Marcin; Mączka, Grzegorz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Rybakowski, Janusz

    2014-01-30

    The goals of this study have been to determine the prevalence of the bipolar spectrum features in the population of women with postpartum depression (PPD) symptoms, as well as to analyze the personality differences between putative 'unipolar' and 'bipolar' PPD subjects. The sample enrolled into the cross-sectional study consisted of 344 women at 6-12 weeks postpartum. The authors used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; cut-off score: 13 pts.) for the assessment of the PPD symptoms, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ; cut-off scores: 7 or 8 pts.) for diagnosing the bipolar features, and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for the assessment of personality traits. The EPDS-positive subjects were more likely to score positively on the MDQ, as compared to the EPDS-negative ones. The EPDS-positive subjects who also scored ≥8 pts. on the MDQ were characterized by higher index of neuroticism, as compared to those who scored positively on the EPDS only. The results suggest that the presence of PPD symptoms is related to significantly higher scores of bipolarity and neuroticism. The more robust trait of neuroticism might be a marker of the 'bipolar' PPD, as compared to the 'unipolar' form of the disorder.

  9. Smoking Status and the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Conducted in Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Krzysztof; Basinska, Małgorzata A; Ratajska, Anna; Lewandowska, Katarzyna; Luszkiewicz, Dorota; Sieminska, Alicja

    2017-01-27

    Tobacco smoking is the single most important modifiable factor in increased morbidity and premature mortality. Numerous factors-including genetics, personality, and environment-affect the development and persistence of tobacco addiction, and knowledge regarding these factors could improve smoking cessation rates. This study compared personality traits between never, former, and current smokers, using the Five-Factor Model of Personality in a country with a turbulent smoking reduction process.: In this cross-sectional study, 909 Polish adults completed the Revised Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory. Our results showed that current smokers' scores for extraversion, one of the five global dimensions of personality, were higher relative to never smokers. Neuroticism, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness did not differ significantly according to smoking status. Facet analysis, which described each dimension in detail, showed that current smokers' activity and excitement seeking (facets of extraversion) scores were higher relative to those of never and former smokers. In turn, current smokers' dutifulness and deliberation (facets of conscientiousness) scores were lower than those found in former and never smokers. Never smokers scored the highest in self-consciousness (a facet of neuroticism) and compliance (a component of agreeableness). The study conducted among Polish individuals showed variation in personality traits according to their smoking status; however, this variation differed from that reported in countries in which efforts to reduce smoking had begun earlier relative to Poland. Knowledge regarding personality traits could be useful in designing smoking prevention and cessation programs tailored to individuals' needs.

  10. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  11. Preliminary results of the cross-section measurement of e+e- → φ(1020)η process with the CMD-3 detector at VEPP-2000 collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, V. L.; Akhmetshin, R. R.; Amirkhanov, A. N.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Banzarov, V. S.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bragin, A. V.; Eidelman, S. I.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Erofeev, A. L.; Fedotovich, G. V.; Gayazov, S. E.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Grigoriev, D. N.; Gromov, E. M.; Ignatov, F. V.; Karpov, S. V.; Kazanin, V. F.; Khazin, B. I.; Koop, I. A.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kozyrev, E. A.; Krokovny, P. P.; Kuzmenko, A. E.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Lukin, P. A.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Okhapkin, V. S.; Pestov, Yu. N.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Popov, A. S.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Romanov, A. L.; Ruban, A. A.; Ryskulov, N. M.; Ryzhenenkov, A. E.; Shebalin, V. E.; Shemyakin, D. N.; Shwartz, B. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Sibidanov, A. L.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shatunov, P. Yu.; Solodov, E. P.; Titov, V. M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Vorobiov, A. I.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2016-03-01

    We report preliminary results on the cross section of the process e+e- → φ(1020)η measured at 30 center-of-mass energy points in the range from 1.59 up to 2.0 GeV. Data analysis is based on the integrated luminosity of 22 pb-1 collected with the CMD-3 detector in 2011-2012. The obtained cross section agrees with the BaBar measurement and has better statistical accuracy.

  12. Good Clinical Teachers Likely to be Specialist Role Models: Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2010-01-01

    Context Medical educational reform includes enhancing role modelling of clinical teachers. This requires faculty being aware of their role model status and performance. We developed the System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) to generate individualized feedback on previously defined teaching qualities and role model status for faculty in (non) academic hospitals. Objectives (i) To examine whether teaching qualities of faculty were associated with their being seen as a specialist role model by residents, and (ii) to investigate whether those associations differed across residency years and specialties. Methods & Materials Cross-sectional questionnaire survey amongst 549 Residents of 36 teaching programs in 15 hospitals in the Netherlands. The main outcome measure was faculty being seen as specialist role models by residents. Statistical analyses included (i) Pearson's correlation coefficients and (ii) multivariable logistic generalized estimating equations to assess the (adjusted) associations between each of five teaching qualities and ‘being seen as a role model’. Results 407 residents completed a total of 4123 evaluations of 662 faculty. All teaching qualities were positively correlated with ‘being seen as a role model’ with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.49 for ‘evaluation of residents’ to 0.64 for ‘learning climate’ (P<0.001). Faculty most likely to be seen as good role models were those rated highly on ‘feedback’ (odds ratio 2.91, 95% CI: 2.41–3.51), ‘a professional attitude towards residents’ (OR 2.70, 95% CI: 2.34–3.10) and ‘creating a positive learning climate’ (OR 2.45, 95% CI: 1.97–3.04). Results did not seem to vary much across residency years. The relative strength of associations between teaching qualities and being seen as a role model were more distinct when comparing specialties. Conclusions Good clinical educators are more likely to be seen as specialist role models for most residents. PMID

  13. Delays in receiving obstetric care and poor maternal outcomes: results from a national multicentre cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of maternal deaths in low-and middle-income countries are preventable. Delay in obtaining access to appropriate health care is a fairly common problem which can be improved. The objective of this study was to explore the association between delay in providing obstetric health care and severe maternal morbidity/death. Methods This was a multicentre cross-sectional study, involving 27 referral obstetric facilities in all Brazilian regions between 2009 and 2010. All women admitted to the hospital with a pregnancy-related cause were screened, searching for potentially life-threatening conditions (PLTC), maternal death (MD) and maternal near-miss (MNM) cases, according to the WHO criteria. Data on delays were collected by medical chart review and interview with the medical staff. The prevalence of the three different types of delays was estimated according to the level of care and outcome of the complication. For factors associated with any delay, the PR and 95%CI controlled for cluster design were estimated. Results A total of 82,144 live births were screened, with 9,555 PLTC, MNM or MD cases prospectively identified. Overall, any type of delay was observed in 53.8% of cases; delay related to user factors was observed in 10.2%, 34.6% of delays were related to health service accessibility and 25.7% were related to quality of medical care. The occurrence of any delay was associated with increasing severity of maternal outcome: 52% in PLTC, 68.4% in MNM and 84.1% in MD. Conclusions Although this was not a population-based study and the results could not be generalized, there was a very clear and significant association between frequency of delay and severity of outcome, suggesting that timely and proper management are related to survival. PMID:24886330

  14. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  15. Epidemic diffusion of OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in Italy: results of the first cross-sectional countrywide survey.

    PubMed

    Principe, Luigi; Piazza, Aurora; Giani, Tommaso; Bracco, Silvia; Caltagirone, Maria Sofia; Arena, Fabio; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Tammaro, Federica; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Pagani, Laura; Luzzaro, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) is emerging worldwide as a public health problem in various settings. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CRAb isolates in Italy and to characterize their resistance mechanisms and genetic relatedness. A countrywide cross-sectional survey was carried out at 25 centers in mid-2011. CRAb isolates were reported from all participating centers, with overall proportions of 45.7% and 22.2% among consecutive nonreplicate clinical isolates of A. baumannii from inpatients (n = 508) and outpatients (n = 63), respectively. Most of them were resistant to multiple antibiotics, whereas all remained susceptible to colistin, with MIC50 and MIC90 values of ≤ 0.5 mg/liter. The genes coding for carbapenemase production were identified by PCR and sequencing. OXA-23 enzymes (found in all centers) were by far the most common carbapenemases (81.7%), followed by OXA-58 oxacillinases (4.5%), which were found in 7 of the 25 centers. In 6 cases, CRAb isolates carried both bla(OXA-23-like) and bla(OXA-58-like) genes. A repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR technique, multiplex PCRs for group identification, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used to determine the genetic relationships among representative isolates (n = 55). Two different clonal lineages were identified, including a dominant clone of sequence type 2 (ST2) related to the international clone II (sequence group 1 [SG1], SG4, and SG5) and a clone of ST78 (SG6) previously described in Italy. Overall, our results demonstrate that OXA-23 enzymes have become the most prevalent carbapenemases and are now endemic in Italy. In addition, molecular typing profiles showed the presence of international and national clonal lineages in Italy.

  16. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect of dietary intake of macronutrient: results from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hari, Asmae; Rostom, Samira; Hassani, Asmae; El Badri, Dalal; Bouaadi, Ilham; Barakat, Amina; Chkirat, Bouchra; Elkari, Khalid; Amine, Bouchra; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods A cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering out patient with JIA. The characteristics of patients were collected. The nutritional status was assessed by a food questionnaire including data of food intake during 7 consecutive days using 24-hour dietary recall. Food intake was quantified using the software Bilnut (Bilnut version 2.01, 1991). Dietary intake of macronutrients was expressed as percentage contribution to total energy. Body composition was evaluated with DXA total-body measurements (bone mineral content BMC expressed in g, lean body mass LBM and fat mass FM expressed in kg). Results 33 patients were included. The mean age was 10.4 ± 4.3 years. The median disease duration was 2 (1-4.5) years. The median of LBM, FM and BMC were 19 kg (13.82-33.14), 5 kg (3.38-9.14) and 1044.90 g (630.40-1808.90) respectively. We found a positive correlation between LBM and dietary intake of carbohydrate (r= 0.4; p = 0.03). There were no significant association between LBM and intake of lipids, or protein. Moreover, no association was found between FM, BMC and intake of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that there is a positive correlation between carbohydrates intake and LBM; however, dietary intake does not influence FM and BMC. Prospective studies with larger numbers of patients appear to be needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26161167

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis is Associated with Left Ventricular Concentric Remodeling: Results of a Population-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Myasoedova, Elena; Davis, John M.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Roger, Véronique L.; Karon, Barry L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Therneau, Terry M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study left ventricular (LV) geometry in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who have no heart failure (HF) versus subjects without either RA or HF, and to determine the impact of RA on LV remodeling. Methods A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted among adult (≥50 years) RA patients and age- and sex-matched non-RA subjects without a history of HF. All participants underwent a standard 2D/Doppler echocardiography. LV geometry was classified into four categories based on relative wall thickness and sex-specific cut-offs for LV mass index: concentric remodeling, concentric hypertrophy, eccentric hypertrophy, or normal geometry. Results The study included 200 RA patients and 600 matched non-RA subjects (mean age 65; 74% female in both cohorts). RA patients were significantly more likely to have abnormal LV geometry than non-RA subjects (odds ratio [OR] 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 2.00), adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Among those with abnormal LV geometry, RA patients had significantly increased odds of concentric LV remodeling (OR 4.73; 95% CI 2.85, 7.83). In linear regression analyses, LV mass index appeared to be lower in RA patients currently using corticosteroids (Beta +/− standard error: −0.082 +/− 0.027; p=0.002), adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Conclusion RA was strongly associated with abnormal LV remodeling, particularly, with concentric LV remodeling, among patients without HF. This association was significant beyond adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. RA disease related factors may promote changes in LV geometry. The biological mechanisms underlying LV remodeling warrant further investigation. PMID:23553738

  18. Older people, the natural environment and common mental disorders: cross-sectional results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the hypothesis that higher exposure to natural environments in local areas is associated with a lower odds of depression and anxiety in later life. Design A cross-sectional study based on the year-10 interview of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), a population-based study of ageing in the UK. Postcodes of the CFAS participants were mapped onto small geographic units, lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs) and linked to environmental data from government databases. The natural environment was characterised as the percentage of green space and private gardens in each LSOA based on the UK Generalised Land Use 2001 Dataset. Participants 2424 people aged 74 and over in the CFAS year-10 follow-up interview (2001) from 4 English centres (Cambridgeshire, Nottingham, Newcastle and Oxford). Main outcome measures Depression and anxiety; clinical and subthreshold cases were identified using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) package and its associated diagnostic algorithm: the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Results Compared with the lowest quartile, living in the highest quartile of neighbourhood natural environment provision was associated with a reduced odds of subthreshold depression (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95), anxiety symptoms (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83) and their co-occurrence (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84) after adjusting for individual-level factors. Controlling for area deprivation attenuated the strength of associations for subthreshold depression by 20% but not for anxiety symptoms or for co-occurrence of the conditions. Conclusions A high exposure to natural environments (green space and gardens) in communities was associated with fewer mental disorders among older people. Increasing provision of green environments in local areas could be a potential population-level intervention to improve mental health among older people. PMID:26377504

  19. The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Lund, Karl E; Scheffels, Janne; McNeill, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Swedish studies have shown that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. We examined whether this result is also found in Norway.   Seven cross-sectional data sets collected during the period 2003-08. Norway. A total of 10, 441 ever (current or former) smokers. Quit ratios for smoking were compared for people with different histories of snus use. Motive for snus use was examined among combination users (snus and cigarettes). Smoking status was examined among snus users. Compared to smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in six of seven data sets, significantly higher for former snus users in two of five data sets and significantly lower for occasional snus users in six of seven data sets. Of combination users who used snus daily, 55.3% [confidence interval (CI) 44.7-65.9] reported that their motive for using snus was to quit smoking totally. This motive was reported significantly less often by combination users who used snus occasionally (35.7%, CI 27.3-44.2). Former smokers made up the largest proportion of daily snus users in six of seven data sets. In the remaining data set, that included only the age group 16-20 years, people who had never smoked made up the largest segment of snus users. Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. In Scandinavia, snus may play a role in quitting smoking but other explanations, such as greater motivation to stop in snus users, cannot be ruled out. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. The association between use of snus and quit rates for smoking: results from seven Norwegian cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Karl E; Scheffels, Janne; McNeill, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Aim Swedish studies have shown that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. We examined whether this result is also found in Norway. Design Seven cross-sectional data sets collected during the period 2003–08. Setting Norway. Participants A total of 10 441 ever (current or former) smokers Measurements Quit ratios for smoking were compared for people with different histories of snus use. Motive for snus use was examined among combination users (snus and cigarettes). Smoking status was examined among snus users. Findings Compared to smokers with no experience of using snus, the quit ratio for smoking was significantly higher for daily snus users in six of seven data sets, significantly higher for former snus users in two of five data sets and significantly lower for occasional snus users in six of seven data sets. Of combination users who used snus daily, 55.3% [confidence interval (CI) 44.7–65.9] reported that their motive for using snus was to quit smoking totally. This motive was reported significantly less often by combination users who used snus occasionally (35.7%, CI 27.3–44.2). Former smokers made up the largest proportion of daily snus users in six of seven data sets. In the remaining data set, that included only the age group 16–20 years, people who had never smoked made up the largest segment of snus users. Conclusions Consistent with Swedish studies, Norwegian data shows that experience of using snus is associated with an increased probability of being a former smoker. In Scandinavia, snus may play a role in quitting smoking but other explanations, such as greater motivation to stop in snus users, cannot be ruled out. PMID:20883459

  1. Exclusive breastfeeding and its effect on growth of Malawian infants: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchenbecker, J; Jordan, I; Reinbott, A; Herrmann, J; Jeremias, T; Kennedy, G; Muehlhoff, E; Mtimuni, B; Krawinkel, M B

    2015-01-01

    Background: For the optimal nutrition of children under 2 years of age, it is considered important that they be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months before being given complementary food. Aims and Objectives: A cross-sectional nutritional baseline survey was undertaken in 2011 in the Kasungu and Mzimba Districts of Malawi to assess the nutritional status of children under 2 years of age and its determinants in order to prepare a nutrition education intervention programme. The intention of this study was to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0–<6 months with regard to food intake. Methods: Interviews were conducted on randomly selected families with children under 2 years; anthropometric measurements were obtained from mothers and their children. Only infants between 0 and <6 months were selected for analysis (n  =  196). An ANCOVA test was performed on age of the infant with mothers’ height and weight as covariates. Results: Prevalence of stunting (infants’ length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) <−2SD) was 39%, wasting (WLZ <−2SD) 2%, and underweight (WAZ <−2SD) 13%. Of the infants under 6 months, 43% were exclusively breastfed. Predominant breastfeeding and mixed breastfeeding were less common (21% and 36%, respectively). The ANCOVA confirmed the association between exclusive breastfeeding and LAZ and WAZ: exclusively breastfed infants had a higher mean (SE) LAZ (−1·13, 0·12) and WAZ (−0·41, 0·13) than infants not being exclusively breastfed (−1·59, 0·11, and −0·97, 0·11, respectively). There was no overall significant association between breastfeeding practice and WLZ. Conclusion: Exclusive breastfeeding of infants under 6 months is associated with higher mean LAZ and WAZ. Promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in low-income countries is important in preventing growth retardation. PMID:25005815

  2. Pediatric obesity and gallstone disease: results from a cross-sectional study of over 510,000 youth

    PubMed Central

    Koebnick, Corinna; Smith, Ning; Black, Mary Helen; Porter, Amy H.; Richie, Bradley A.; Hudson, Sharon; Gililland, Deborah; Jacobsen, Steven J.; Longstreth, George F

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between childhood and adolescent obesity, the risk of gallstones and the potential effect modification by oral contraceptive use in girls. Methods For this population-based cross-sectional study, measured weight and height, oral contraceptive use, and diagnosis of cholelithiasis or choledocholithiasis were extracted from electronic medical records of 510,816 patients aged 10–19 years enrolled in an integrated health plan 2007–2009. Results We identified 766 patients with gallstones. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of gallstones for under/normal weight (=reference), overweight, moderate obesity, and extreme obesity in boys were 1.00, 1.46 (0.94–2.27), 1.83 (1.17–2.85), and 3.10 (1.99–4.83) and in girls 1.00, 2.73 (95% CI 2.18–3.42), 5.75 (4.62–7.17), and 7.71 (6.13–9.71), respectively (P for interaction sex × weightclass <0.001). Among girls, oral contraceptive use was associated with higher odds for gallstones (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.66–2.40). Girls who used oral contraceptives were at higher odds for gallstones than their counterparts in the same weight class who did not use oral contraceptives (P for interaction weight class × oral contraceptive use = 0.023). Conclusions Due to the shift towards extreme childhood obesity, especially in minority children, pediatricians can expect to face increasing numbers of children and adolescents affected by gallstone disease. PMID:22314396

  3. Factors associated with Leishmania asymptomatic infection: results from a cross-sectional survey in highland northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4-15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection.

  4. Factors Associated with Leishmania Asymptomatic Infection: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Highland Northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Custodio, Estefanía; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Sordo, Luis; Cruz, Israel; Moreno, Javier; Nieto, Javier; Chicharro, Carmen; Aseffa, Abraham; Abraham, Zelalem; Hailu, Tsegaye; Cañavate, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background In northern Ethiopia the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis is steadily rising posing an increasing public health concern. In order to develop effective control strategies on the transmission of the disease it is important to generate knowledge on the epidemiological determinants of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey on children 4–15 years of age using a multi staged stratified cluster sampling on high incidence sub-districts of Amhara regional state, Ethiopia. The survey included a socio-demographic, health and dietary questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. We performed rK39-ICT and DAT serological tests in order to detect anti-Leishmania antibodies and carried out Leishmanin Skin Test (LST) using L.major antigen. Logistic regression models were used. Of the 565 children surveyed 56 children were positive to infection (9.9%). The individual variables that showed a positive association with infection were increasing age, being male and sleeping outside [adjusted odds ratios (95% CI): 1.15 (1.03, 1.29), 2.56 (1.19, 5.48) and 2.21 (1.03, 4.71) respectively] and in relation to the household: past history of VL in the family, living in a straw roofed house and if the family owned sheep [adjusted OR (95% CI): 2.92 (1.25, 6.81), 2.71 (1.21, 6.07) and 4.16 (1.41, 12.31) respectively]. Conclusions/Significance A behavioural pattern like sleeping outside is determinant in the transmission of the infection in this area. Protective measures should be implemented against this identified risk activity. Results also suggest a geographical clustering and a household focalization of the infection. The behaviour of the vector in the area needs to be clarified in order to establish the role of domestic animals and house materials in the transmission of the infection. PMID:23029576

  5. Living with HIV, antiretroviral treatment experience and tobacco smoking: results from a multisite cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Xavier; Baron, Gabriel; Garelik, Daniel; Villes, Virginie; Dupré, Thierry; Leport, Catherine; Lert, France; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Ravaud, Philippe; Spire, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess prevalence of, and factors associated with tobacco smoking and dependence in HIV patients. Design A one-day cross-sectional national survey. Methods 727 consecutive outpatients from a representative sample of 82 French units specialized in HIV-infected patient care were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire, assessing smoking habits, dependence, cessation motivation, other substance abuse, socio-cultural characteristics, life with HIV and its treatment. Smoking prevalence and dependence were assessed and compared with a representative sample of the general French population; associated factors were determined. Results 593 (82%) patients completed the questionnaire, 12% were active or ex-intravenous drug users, 37% were homosexual men; 43% were active smokers (31% in the French population). Fifty-six percent of smokers were classified as moderately or highly dependent, 14% of smokers were highly motivated and free of other substance abuse and of depressive symptoms. Smoking was independently associated with male sex (OR=2.38; 95% CI: 0.99–1.11), BMI (OR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.14-1.03), smoking environment (OR=4.75; 95% CI: 3.02–7.49), excessive alcohol consumption (OR=2.50; 95% CI: 1.20–5.23), illicit drug use (OR=2.43; 95% CI: 1.41–4.19), HIV status disclosure to family (OR=1.81; 95% CI: 1.16–2.85) and experience of rejection due to disclosure (OR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.14–3.17). Disclosure and drug substitutes’ usage were associated with high tobacco dependence. Conclusions Tobacco smoking is frequent and associated with other substance use and HIV disclosure. The rate of smokers who would be good candidates for a standard tobacco cessation program appears very low. Tobacco reduction or cessation strategies should be adapted to this population. PMID:18572752

  6. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  7. Factors influencing intact skin in women with incontinence using absorbent products: results of a cross-sectional, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Shigeta, Yoshie; Nakagami, Gojiro; Sanada, Hiromi; Konya, Chizuko; Sugama, Junko

    2010-12-01

    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is a common problem in elderly incontinent people. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to examine and compare properties of intact skin on the buttocks and subumbilicus area in elderly people wearing absorbent products and to identify pad environment factors that affect skin properties. Study participants included 45 elderly (age range: 68 to 103 years) female residents of one nursing home who were incontinent of feces and urine (dual incontinence group--DIG, n = 35) or feces only (fecal incontinence group--FIG, n= 10). Skin pH and hydration were measured and factors believed to affect the perineal environment and contribute to the development of IAD were assessed. In both DIG and FIG, skin hydration levels and pH were higher in the coccygeal than in the subumbilical area. Skin hydration of the sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (P = 0.019) and skin pH on the coccygeal region and sacral region in the DIG was significantly higher than in the FIG (coccygeal region, P = 0.013; sacral region, P = 0.023). Absorbent pad surface pH (P &0.01) and excessive sweating (P = 0.006) were significantly related to skin pH. Results show that properties of perineal skin in elderly women with incontinence are affected by occlusion with pads, increasing the risk of IAD. Studies comparing the effect of various types of pads and pad-change frequencies on skin properties are needed.

  8. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  9. Elastic Differential Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werneth, Charles M.; Maung, Khin M.; Ford, William P.; Norbury, John W.; Vera, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The eikonal, partial wave (PW) Lippmann-Schwinger, and three-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger (LS3D) methods are compared for nuclear reactions that are relevant for space radiation applications. Numerical convergence of the eikonal method is readily achieved when exact formulas of the optical potential are used for light nuclei (A less than or equal to 16) and the momentum-space optical potential is used for heavier nuclei. The PW solution method is known to be numerically unstable for systems that require a large number of partial waves, and, as a result, the LS3D method is employed. The effect of relativistic kinematics is studied with the PW and LS3D methods and is compared to eikonal results. It is recommended that the LS3D method be used for high energy nucleon- nucleus reactions and nucleus-nucleus reactions at all energies because of its rapid numerical convergence and stability.

  10. Detection, Management Approach of Depression and Antidepressant Utilization in Adult Patients: Results of a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Newale, Sanket; Bachani, Deepak S

    2016-10-01

    The study was conducted to understand the demographics, prevalence of co-morbid conditions and treatment modalities of depression. A cross-sectional, nationwide observational study was conducted to understand the management pattern of depression in India. Depression was majorly diagnosed with DSM-IV TR criteria. The data of 2276 Indian patients across 18 states were collected through 135 mental health professionals. The study population was predominantly from urban (81.2%) area. The prevalence of uneducated and employed patients in the study was 7.2% and 54.6% respectively. The main co-morbidities observed were diabetes, hypertension, anxiety and insomnia. Overall, escitalopram monotherapy was used in 67.2% patients. Escitalopram was found to be the preferred antidepressant in patients with co-morbid conditions including hypertension and diabetes. Counseling was the most common non-pharmacological therapy practiced. This large cross sectional study in real life settings demonstrates high prevalence of depression among employed and educated adult Indian patients. Hypertension and diabetes are the two most common co-morbidites in patients with depression. Escitalopram is commonly used and preferred antidepressant in all studied age groups and even in co-morbid depression.

  11. Reporting characteristics of non-primary publications of results of randomized trials: a cross-sectional review.

    PubMed

    Hopewell, Sally; Collins, Gary S; Hirst, Allison; Kirtley, Shona; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Gerry, Stephen; Altman, Douglas G

    2013-07-31

    For a randomized trial, the primary publication is usually the one which reports the results of the primary outcome and provides consolidated data from all study centers. Other aspects of a randomized trial's findings (that is, non-primary results) are often reported in subsequent publications. We carried out a cross-sectional review of the characteristics and type of information reported in non-primary reports (n = 69) of randomized trials (indexed in PubMed core clinical journals in 2009) and whether they report pre-specified or exploratory analyses. We also compared consistency of information in non-primary publications with that reported in the primary publication. The majority (n = 56; 81%) of non-primary publications were large, multicenter trials, published in specialty journals. Most reported subgroup analyses (n = 27; 39%), analyzing a specific subgroup of patients from the randomized trial, or reported on secondary outcomes (n = 29; 42%); 19% (n = 13) reported extended follow-up. Less than half reported details of trial registration (n = 30; 43%) or the trial protocol (n = 27; 39%) and in 41% (n = 28) it was unclear from reading the abstract that the report was not the primary publication for the trial. Non-primary publications often analyzed and reported multiple different outcomes (16% reported >20 outcomes) and in 10% (n = 7) it was unclear how many outcomes had actually been assessed; in 42% (n = 29) it was unclear whether the analyses reported were pre-specified or exploratory. Only 39% (n = 27) of non-primary publications described the primary outcome of the randomized trial, 6% (n = 4) reported its numerical results and 9% (n = 6) details of how participants were randomized. Non-primary publications often lack important information about the randomized trial and the type of analyses conducted and whether these were pre-specified or exploratory to enable readers to accurately identify and assess the validity and reliably of the study findings. We

  12. The OSMOSE program for the qualification of integral cross sections of actinides: Preliminary results in a PWR-UOx spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Hudelot, J. P.; Antony, M.; Bernard, D.; Fougeras, P.

    2006-07-01

    The need for improved nuclear data for minor actinides has been stressed by various organizations throughout the world - especially for studies relating to plutonium management, waste incineration, transmutation of waste, and Pu burning in future nuclear concepts. Several international programs have indicated a strong desire to obtain accurate integral reaction rate data for improving the major and minor actinides cross sections. Data on major actinides (i.e. {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Pu, {sup 242}Pu and {sup 241}Am) are reasonably well-known and available in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (JEFF, JENDL, ENDF-BX However information on the minor actinides (i.e. {sup 232}Th, {sup 233}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242}Am, {sup 243}Am, {sup 243}Cm, {sup 235}Cm, {sup 244}Cm, {sup 245}Cm, {sup 246}Cm and {sup 247}Cm) is less well-known and considered to be relatively poor in some cases, having to rely on model and extrapolation of few data points. In this framework, the ambitious OSMOSE program between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EDF) and the U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) has been undertaken with the aim of measuring the integral absorption rate parameters of actinides in the MINERVE experimental facility located at the CEA Cadarache Research Center. The OSMOSE Program (Oscillation in Minerve of isotopes in 'Eupraxic' Spectra) includes a complete analytical program associated with the experimental measurement program and aims at understanding and resolving potential discrepancies between calculated and measured values. In the OSMOSE program, the reactivity worth of samples containing separated actinides are measured in different neutron spectra using an oscillation technique with an overall expected accuracy better than 3%. Reactivity effects of less than 10 pcm (0.0001 or approximately 1.5 cents) are measured and compared with calibrations to determine the differential reactivity

  13. Influence of internal migration on reproductive health in Myanmar: results from a recent cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sudhinaraset, May; Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Aung, Tin

    2016-03-09

    Maternal and reproductive health remains a significant public health issue in Myanmar. Little data exists on women's health issues, including social and demographic influences. While past studies have demonstrated rural/urban health disparities, an increasingly important population resulting from urban growth in Myanmar is the internal migrant population, individuals moving within the country for better job or educational opportunities. Past studies suggest that women make up more than half of internal migrants, yet there is a dearth of information on this new wave of migration, particularly on women's reproductive health issues. The objective of this study is to assess the influence of women's migration in Myanmar on reproductive health outcomes, including delivering in a facility, using a skilled birth attendant, and using a modern method of family planning. Data from a cross-sectional household survey using multistage cluster sampling design conducted between September to October 2014 was used to assess the accessibility and the use of maternal and child health products and services. A total of 1800 currently married women of reproductive age, including 348 from urban and 1452 from rural areas, were recruited to complete surveys. A set of multivariable regressions was performed to assess reproductive health outcomes and predictors. Across health indicators, female migrants had better health outcomes compared to non-migrants. Controlling for demographic characteristics, migrants were 1.60 times more likely to use a modern form of family planning compared to non-migrants (p < 0.01) and use antenatal care during pregnancy (p < 0.05). While not statistically significant, migrants were 1.29 times more likely to deliver with a skilled attendant and 1.08 times more likely to deliver in a facility. This study found that female migrants in Myanmar reported better health outcomes compared to non-migrant women in regards to family planning and maternal health

  14. Is mercury in Tibetan Medicine toxic? Clinical, neurocognitive and biochemical results of an initial cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sallon, Sarah; Dory, Yahav; Barghouthy, Yazeed; Tamdin, Tsewang; Sangmo, Rigzin; Tashi, Jamyang; Yangdon, Sonam; Yeshi, Tenzin; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Rotenberg, Michal; Cohen, Elinor; Harlavan, Yehudit; Sharabi, Galit; Bdolah-Abram, Tali

    2017-02-01

    Mercury an important therapeutic substance in Tibetan Medicine undergoes complex "detoxification" prior to inclusion in multi-ingredient formulas. In an initial cross-sectional study, patients taking Tibetan Medicine for various conditions were evaluated for mercury toxicity. Two groups were identified: Group 1, patients taking " Tsothel" the most important detoxified mercury preparation and Group 2, patients taking other mercury preparations or mercury free Tibetan Medicine. Atomic fluorescence spectrometry of Tibetan Medicine showed mercury consumption 130 µg/kg/day (Group 1) and 30 µg/kg/day (Group 2) ( P ≤ 0.001), levels above EPA (RfDs) suggested threshold (0.3 µg/kg /day) for oral chronic exposure. Mean duration of Tibetan Medicine treatment was 9 ± 17 months (range 3-116) (Group 1) and 5 ± 1.96 months (range 1-114) (Group 2) (NS) with cumulative days of mercury containing Tibetan Medicine, 764 days ± 1214 (range 135-7330) vs. 103 days ± 111 (range 0-426), respectively ( P ≤ 0.001). Comparison of treatment groups with healthy referents (Group 3) not taking Tibetan Medicine showed no significant differences in prevalence of 23 non-specific symptoms of mercury toxicity, abnormal neurological, cardiovascular and dental findings and no correlation with mercury exposure variables; consumption, cumulative treatment days, blood/ urine Hg. Liver and renal function tests in treatment groups were not significantly increased compared to referents, with mean urine Beta2 Microglobulin within the normal range and not significantly associated with Hg exposure variables after correcting for confounding variables. Neurocognitive testing showed no significant intergroup differences for Wechsler Memory Scale, Grooved Pegboard, Visual Retention, but Group1 scores were better for Mini-Mental, Brief Word Learning, Verbal Fluency after correcting for confounding variables. These results suggest mercury containing Tibetan Medicine does not

  15. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, J T; Rousing, T; Kudahl, A B; Hansted, H J; Pedersen, L J

    2016-04-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition score<2.5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. Herd identity was included as a random factor in all models. The nurse sows had a significantly higher risk of swollen bursae on legs (P=0.038) and udder wounds (P=0.001). No differences in risk of being thin or having shoulder lesions were found. Foster litters had significantly higher risk of being dirty (P=0.026) and getting carpal abrasions (P=0.024) than non-foster litters. There was a tendency for higher lameness in foster litters than in non-foster litters (P=0.052). The results show that nurse sows and their piglets to some extent experience more welfare problems than non-nurse sows with piglets at a similar age.

  16. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. Methods We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders’ effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Results Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=−5.4; CI −10 to –1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Conclusion Risk factors for school absence included girl’s attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management

  17. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  18. Deprivation, clubs and drugs: results of a UK regional population-based cross-sectional study of weight management strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite rising levels of obesity in England, little is known about slimming club and weight loss drug (medication) use or users. In order to inform future commissioning, we report the prevalence of various weight management strategies and examine the associations between slimming club and medication use and age, gender, deprivation and body mass index. Methods A population based cross-sectional survey of 26,113 adults was conducted in South Yorkshire using a self-completed health questionnaire. Participants were asked whether they had ever used the following interventions to manage their weight: increasing exercise, healthy eating, controlling portion size, slimming club, over the counter weight loss medication, or meal replacements. Factors associated with slimming club and weight-loss medication use were explored using logistic regression. Results Over half of the sample was either overweight (36.6%) or obese (19.6%). Obesity was more common in the most deprived areas compared to the least deprived (26.3% vs. 12.0%). Healthy eating (49.0%), controlling portion size (43.4%), and increasing exercise (43.0%) were the most commonly reported weight management strategies. Less common strategies were attending a slimming club (17.2%), meal replacements (3.4%) and weight-loss medication (3.2%). Adjusting for BMI, age, deprivation and long standing health conditions, women were significantly more likely to report ever using a slimming club (adjusted OR = 18.63, 95% CI = 16.52–21.00) and more likely to report ever using over the counter weight-loss medications (AOR = 3.73, 95% CI = 3.10-4.48), while respondents from the most deprived areas were less likely to report using slimming clubs (AOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.53-0.68), and more likely to reporting using weight loss medications (AOR =1.38, 95% CI = 1.05-1.82). Conclusion A large proportion of individuals report having used weight management strategies. Slimming clubs and over-the-counter weight loss medication

  19. New results of measurement of cross sections for electron-positron annihilation to hadrons with the SND detector at VEPP-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulchenko, V. M.; Achasov, M. N.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Berkaev, D. E.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Botov, A. A.; Vasiljev, A. V.; Golubev, V. B.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Kardapoltsev, L. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Koop, I. A.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kupich, A. S.; Lysenko, A. P.; Martin, K. A.; Obrazovsky, A. E.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Rogovsky, Yu. A.; Romanov, A. L.; Senchenko, A. I.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Surin, I. K.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shtol, D. A.

    2015-06-01

    A survey of preliminary results of experiments with the SND detector at the VEPP-2000 e + e - collider in the energy range of = 1000-2000 MeV MeV is presented. The cross sections for the processes e + e - → π0π0 γ, e + e - → π + π - π 0 π 0, e + e - → π + π - π 0, e + e - → π + π - η, and e + e - → were measured. The measured cross sections agree with the results of earlier measurements but have a higher precision. The cross section for the process e + e - → ηγ in the energy range extending from 1.4 to 2 GeV was measured for the first time. The ratio G E / G M for the neutron was measured for the first time in the timelike region.

  20. Psoriatic patients have an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome: results of a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Moro, Francesca; De Simone, Clara; Morciano, Andrea; Tropea, Anna; Sagnella, Francesca; Palla, Carola; Scarinci, Elisa; Teti, Angela; Caldarola, Giacomo; D'Agostino, Magda; Mancuso, Salvatore; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2013-03-01

    To define the prevalence and the features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in patients with psoriasis. To our knowledge, the association between PCOS and psoriasis has not been explored in previous studies. Psoriasis is linked with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which are features often associated with PCOS. A cross-sectional analysis was performed between January 2010 and April 2012. Unit of human reproductive pathophysiology, Catholic University Hospital. We prospectively analyzed 51 patients with psoriasis and 102 healthy age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls. None. The prevalence and characteristics of PCOS women of reproductive age with chronic plaque psoriasis. The prevalence of PCOS was greater in patients with psoriasis than in matched control subjects (47.05% and 11.76%, respectively; odds ratio, 6.66; 95% confidence interval 2.95-15.07). Among the women with psoriasis, the prevalence of Psoriasis Area and Severity Index ≥10 was higher in patients with PCOS than in subjects without PCOS (odds ratio, 3.5; 95% confidence interval 1.04-11.72). The prevalence of PCOS in women with psoriasis is remarkably greater than in age- and BMI-matched control women. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [School teachers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors towards road safety: results from a multicenter cross-sectional study in Italy].

    PubMed

    Miccoli, S; Giraldi, G; Boccia, A; La Torre, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of secondary school teachers towards traffic safety behaviors. The study is concerning data coming from a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaires filled in by school teachers of Lazio and Campania regions. 262 teachers entered into the study. Among the scooter holders, 69.2% did use helmet; 95.8% of people who drives car uses seatbelts. The scooter and bicycle helmet is considered useful for 99.6% and 57.4% of participants. The accident rate depends on the means of transportation used: 10.8% and 19% for bicycle and scooter riders, respectively, and 44.6%for the car drivers. Regarding injuries using a bicycle, teachers with less than 40 years are less involved in accidents compared to the over 40 years (OR = 0.19; p = 0.05), as well as teachers who are married (OR = 0.16; p = 0.03) compared to the other group (single/widowed/divorced). Car accidents involve less frequently women (OR = 0.60; p = 0.05) compared to males. Road accidents prevention is part of the health priorities indicated in the National Health Plan, the National Prevention Plan and Regional Prevention Plans. School teachers' can play an important role in students' education on road safety, and there is the need to improve knowledge and behaviors in this field.

  2. High rate of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals: Results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Milenović, Miodrag; Matejić, Bojana; Vasić, Vladimir; Frost, Elizabeth; Petrović, Nataša; Simić, Dušica

    2016-03-01

    Decisions by anaesthesiologists directly impact the treatment, safety, recovery and quality of life of patients. Physical or mental collapse due to overwork or stress (burnout) in anaesthesiologists may, therefore, be expected to negatively affect patients, departments, healthcare facilities and families. To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade public teaching hospitals. A cross-sectional survey. Anaesthesiologists in 10 Belgrade teaching hospitals. Burnout was assessed using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey. The response rate was 76.2% (205/272) with the majority of respondents women (70.7%). The prevalence of total burnout among anaesthesiologists in Belgrade teaching hospitals was 6.34%. Measured level of burnout as assessed by high emotional exhaustion, high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment was 52.7, 12.2 and 28.8%, respectively. More than a quarter of the studied population responded in each category with symptoms of moderate burnout. We detected that sex, additional academic education, marital status and working conditions were risk factors for emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Ageing increased the likelihood of burnout by 21.3% with each additional year. Shorter professional experience and increased educational accomplishment increased the risk of total burnout by 272%. Burnout rates in Belgrade teaching hospitals among anaesthesiologists are higher than in foreign hospitals. Emotional and/or physical breakdowns can have serious effects when these individuals care for patients in extremely stressed situations that may occur perioperatively. Causes for burnout should be examined more closely and means implemented to reverse this process.

  3. Identifying the psychological determinants of handwashing: Results from two cross-sectional questionnaire studies in Haiti and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Contzen, Nadja; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Diarrheal disease kills around 760,000 infants every year. Many of these deaths could have been prevented by handwashing with soap. However, the whole range of psychological factors encouraging handwashing is not yet identified and handwashing campaigns are often limited to awareness-raising and education. The purpose of this article was to identify the psychological determinants of handwashing in Haiti (study 1) and Ethiopia (study 2). Data were collected cross-sectionally by administering face-to-face interviews with the primary caregiver in a participating household (NHaiti = 811; NEthiopia = 463). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed on self-reported handwashing. In both countries, risk factors-meaning awareness and health knowledge-accounted for only 11%-19% of variance in handwashing and were not consistently associated with handwashing. The inclusion of additional factor-groups, namely attitude, norm, ability, and self-regulation factors, led to significant increases in explained variance (P ≤ .01), accounting for 25%-44% of additionally explained variance. The attitude factor disgust, the norm factor, the ability factors motivational self-efficacy and perceived impediments, and the self-regulation factors coping planning and commitment emerged as especially relevant. Handwashing campaigns should focus especially on attitudes and norms and not only on risk. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders: cross-sectional results from the Brazilian Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Benseñor, Isabela M; Nunes, Maria Angélica; Sander Diniz, Maria de Fátima; Santos, Itamar S; Brunoni, André R; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2015-01-12

    To evaluate the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and psychiatric disorders using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. The study included 12 437 participants from the ELSA-Brasil with normal thyroid function (92·8%), 193 (1·4%) with subclinical hyperthyroidism and 784 (5·8%) with subclinical hypothyroidism, totalling 13 414 participants (50·6% of women). The mental health diagnoses of participants were assessed by trained raters using the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised (CIS-R) and grouped according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10). Thyroid dysfunction was assessed using TSH and FT4 as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Logistic models were presented using psychiatric disorders as the dependent variable and subclinical thyroid disorders as the independent variable. All logistic models were corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni correction. After multivariate adjustment for possible confounders, we found a direct association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and panic disorder odds ratio [OR], 2·55; 95% confidence Interval (95% CI), 1·09-5·94; and an inverse association between subclinical hypothyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 0·75; 95% CI, 0·59-0·96). However, both lost significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Subclinical hyperthyroidism was positively associated with panic disorder and negatively associated with anxiety disorder, although not significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and child behaviour - results from a cross-sectional study among preschool children in Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Twardella, D; Bolte, G; Fromme, H; Wildner, M; von Kries, R

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the association of postnatal exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on childhood behavioural problems after taking maternal smoking during pregnancy into account. In a cross-sectional survey of preschool children in Bavaria, exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke in the child's home was assessed via a parent questionnaire. The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was applied to assess child's behaviour. The association with secondhand tobacco smoke exposure was assessed for 'probable' outcomes of the problem subscales and of prosocial behaviour. Among 5494 children (48% female), the SDQ indicated behavioural problems in up to 11%. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, low birth weight and maternal smoking before and during pregnancy, a dose-response relationship with exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was observed regarding hyperactivity/inattention (odds ratio compared to 'none' was 1.35 for 'low/medium' and 2.39 for 'high' exposure, 95% confidence intervals 1.02-1.78 and 1.62-3.53, respectively) as well as for conduct problems (OR 1.68 (1.37-2.06) and 1.93 (1.39-2.68)). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at home appears to be associated with an increased risk of behavioural problems among preschool children. Prevention of behavioural problems may be a further reason to target secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in children.

  6. A Cross-sectional Multicenter Study of Osteogenesis Imperfecta in North America – Results from the Linked Clinical Research Centers

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak M; Nagamani, Sandesh CS; Cuthbertson, David; Campeau, Philippe M; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Shapiro, Jay R; Steiner, Robert D; Smith, Peter A; Bober, Michael B; Byers, Peter H; Pepin, Melanie; Durigova, Michaela; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank; Lee, Brendan H; Smith, Tracy; Sutton, V. Reid

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n=544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean LS aBMD was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answer questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of “phenotypic expansion” driven by next-generation sequencing. PMID:24754836

  7. A cross-sectional multicenter study of osteogenesis imperfecta in North America - results from the linked clinical research centers.

    PubMed

    Patel, R M; Nagamani, S C S; Cuthbertson, D; Campeau, P M; Krischer, J P; Shapiro, J R; Steiner, R D; Smith, P A; Bober, M B; Byers, P H; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, F H; Rauch, F; Lee, B H; Hart, T; Sutton, V R

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is the most common skeletal dysplasia that predisposes to recurrent fractures and bone deformities. In spite of significant advances in understanding the genetic basis of OI, there have been no large-scale natural history studies. To better understand the natural history and improve the care of patients, a network of Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC) was established. Subjects with OI were enrolled in a longitudinal study, and in this report, we present cross-sectional data on the largest cohort of OI subjects (n = 544). OI type III subjects had higher prevalence of dentinogenesis imperfecta, severe scoliosis, and long bone deformities as compared to those with OI types I and IV. Whereas the mean lumbar spine area bone mineral density (LS aBMD) was low across all OI subtypes, those with more severe forms had lower bone mass. Molecular testing may help predict the subtype in type I collagen-related OI. Analysis of such well-collected and unbiased data in OI can not only help answering questions that are relevant to patient care but also foster hypothesis-driven research, especially in the context of 'phenotypic expansion' driven by next-generation sequencing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  9. Ultrahigh-energy photonuclear cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, R.; Sarcevic, I.; Burrows, A. ); Durand, L.; Pi, H. )

    1990-07-01

    We present results of calculations of the total inelastic photon-air cross sections at ultrahigh energies (up to 10{sup 8} GeV in the laboratory) of relevance to on-going cosmic-ray experiments. The calculations take into account the high-energy QCD structure of the photon and are performed for a variety of photon and proton structure functions. The total inelastic photon-air cross section is obtained from the photon-proton jet cross section via an eikonalization procedure using a QCD-based diffractive model. The results are discussed in the context of the apparent excess muon content of air showers associated with point sources.

  10. Impaired sleep and allostatic load: cross-sectional results from the Danish Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank.

    PubMed

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis; Jennum, Poul; Hansen, Ase Marie; Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load (AL), which is a measure of systemic wear and tear of multiple body systems, as well as with individual risk markers within the cardiac, metabolic, anthropometric, and immune system. A cross-sectional population-based study of 5226 men and women from the Danish Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL, the combination of short and disturbed sleep was associated with higher AL (0.19; 0.08, 0.30) and high-risk levels of immune system markers. Our study suggests small but significant differences in the distribution of allostatic load, a pre-clinical indicator of disease risk and premature death, for people with impaired relative to normal sleep. Impaired sleep may be a risk factor for developing disease and be a risk marker for underlying illness or sleep disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between health behaviors and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents: results from the cross-sectional MoMo-study.

    PubMed

    Peterhans, Eliane; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adolescent and familial health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness in German adolescent boys and girls. This study is based on a large nationwide cross-sectional study and its substudy on physical activity and fitness of children and adolescents ("Motorik-Modul"). For 1,328 adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age, data on cardiorespiratory fitness (Physical working capacity 170, PWC(170)) and familial and adolescent health behavioral factors were collected. Health behavior was assessed using psychometric questionnaires (socioeconomic status, pubertal stage, daily physical activity, sports-club time, parental physical activity habits, etc.). A hierarchical multiple regression model was used to quantify the association between relative PWC(170) values and health behavior. The relationship between adolescents' health behavioral factors and cardiorespiratory fitness was stronger than the relationship between age, social status, familial health behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Familial health behavioral factors explained 4.1% and 2.1% of variance in cardiorespiratory fitness in girls and boys, respectively. Adolescents' health behavioral factors explained 15.2% of variance in girls and 25.7% of variance in boys. For both girls (β = .273) and boys (β = .400), being normal weight had the greatest effect on relative PWC(170) values. The difference in explained variance in cardiorespiratory fitness by familial and adolescents' health behavioral factors between girls and boys indicates that different predictors for cardiorespiratory fitness are important for girls and boys. Hence, sex specific research and interventions aimed at improving familial and adolescent health behavior may be important. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of Nutritional Deficiencies in Hair Loss among Indian Participants: Results of a Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Dinesh; Premalatha, V; Imtiyaz, D B

    2017-01-01

    Nutritional deficiencies are known to be associated with hair loss; however, the exact prevalence is not known. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional deficiencies in participants with hair loss. In this cross-sectional study, 100 enrolled participants were divided into telogen effluvium (TE), male-pattern hair loss (MPHL), and female-pattern hair loss (FPHL) based on the type of hair loss. All participants underwent laboratory estimation for micronutrients and amino acid levels. Participants with hair loss showed varied amino acid and micronutrient deficiencies across all types of hair loss. Nutritional status did not vary much between the types of hair loss. Among the essential amino acids, histidine deficiency was seen in >90% of participants with androgenic alopecia and 77.78% of participants with TE while leucine deficiency was seen 98.15% of participants with TE and 100% with FPHL. Valine deficiency was also very common across alopecia subtypes. Among the nonessential amino acids, alanine deficiency was observed in 91.67% FPHL, 91.18% MPHL, and 90.74% TE. Cysteine deficiency was present in 55.58% and 50% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. A relatively higher proportion of participants with TE had iron deficiency compared to androgenic alopecia (P = 0.069). Zinc deficiency was seen in 11.76% of participants with MPHL while copper deficiency was seen in 29.41% and 31.48% of participants with MPHL and TE, respectively. Nutritional deficiency is a common problem in participants with hair loss irrespective of the type of alopecia. The findings of our study suggest need for identification and correction of nutritional deficiencies in patients with hair loss.

  13. Regular family breakfast was associated with children's overweight and parental education: Results from the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vik, Frøydis N; Te Velde, Saskia J; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Manios, Yannis; Kovacs, Eva; Jan, Natasa; Moreno, Luis A; Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess (i) the prevalence of having regular family breakfast, lunch, dinner (i.e. 5-7days/week together with their family) among 10-12year olds in Europe, (ii) the association between family meals and child weight status, and (iii) potential differences in having family meals according to country of residence, gender, ethnicity and parental levels of education. 7716 children (mean age: 11.5±0.7years, 52% girls) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland) participated in a cross-sectional school-based survey in 2010. Data on family meals were self-reported by the parents and children's height and weight were objectively measured to determine overweight status. Binary regression analyses assessed the associations of having regular family meals (adjusted for potential confounders) with children's overweight/obesity and to assess potential differences in having family meals according to gender, ethnicity and parental education, in the total sample and for each country respectively. The prevalence of regular family meals was 35%, 37% and 76% for breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. Having regular family breakfast, but not lunch or dinner, was inversely associated with overweight (OR=0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.91)). Children of higher educated parents were more likely to have regular family breakfast (1.63 (95% CI 1.42-1.86)) and less likely to have regular family lunch (0.72 (95% CI 0.63-0.82)) compared to children of lower educated parents. This study showed that having regular family breakfast - but not other family meals- was inversely associated with children's weight status. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association between maternal dental periapical infections and pregnancy outcomes: results from a cross-sectional study in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Alho, Lotta; Dewey, Kathryn G; Cheung, Yin Bun; Deitchler, Megan; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Klein, Nigel J; Ashorn, Per

    2015-11-01

    Maternal infections are associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth (PTB). Dental infections are common in low-income settings, but their contribution to adverse pregnancy outcomes is unknown. We studied the epidemiology of dental periapical infections among pregnant women and their association to foetal growth restriction and the duration of pregnancy in a rural sub-Saharan African population. This was a cross-sectional study on the association between maternal dental periapical infections and birth outcomes, in Malawi, Africa. We assessed oral health clinically and radiologically among recently delivered women with known duration of pregnancy and measured birthweight (BW), length and head circumference of their infants. Of 1024 analysed participants, 23.5% had periapical infections. Mean duration of pregnancy was 39.4 weeks, BW 2979 g and length 49.7 cm. Women with periapical infection had mean (95% CI) pregnancy duration 0.4 weeks (0.1-0.8) shorter and delivered infants with 79 g (13-145) lower BW and 0.5 cm (0.2-0.9) shorter neonatal length than women without periapical infection. The incidence of PTB was 10.0% among women with periapical infection and 7.3% among those without (adjusted difference 3.5%, 95% CI -1.1-8.1%). Corresponding prevalences for stunting were 20.9% and 14.2% (adjusted difference 9.0%, 95% CI 2.7%-15.2%). The population-attributable risk fraction attributable to periapical infection was 9.7% for PTB and 12.8% for stunting. Periapical infection was associated with shorter pregnancy duration and IUGR in the study area; interventions addressing this risk factor may improve birth outcomes in low-income settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Disclosure of sexual orientation to health professionals in China: results from an online cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weiming; Mao, Jessica; Tang, Songyuan; Liu, Chuncheng; Mollan, Katie; Cao, Bolin; Wong, Terrence; Zhang, Ye; Hudgens, Michael; Qin, Yilu; Han, Larry; Ma, Baoli; Yang, Bin; Ma, Wei; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-02-06

    Many men who have sex with men (MSM) in China are "in the closet." The low rate of disclosure may impact sexual behaviours, testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and diseases transmission. This study examines factors associated with overall sexual orientation disclosure and disclosure to healthcare professionals. A nationwide cross-sectional online survey was conducted from September 2014 to October 2014 in China. Participants completed questions covering socio-demographic information, sexual behaviours, HIV/STI testing history, and self-reported HIV status. We defined healthcare professional disclosure as disclosing to a doctor or other medical provider. A total of 1819 men started the survey and 1424 (78.3%) completed it. Among the 1424 participants, 62.2% (886/1424) reported overall disclosure, and 16.3% (232/1424) disclosed to healthcare professionals. In multivariate analyses, the odds of sexual orientation disclosure were 56% higher among MSM who used smartphone-based, sex-seeking applications [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-2.95], but were lower among MSM reporting sex while drunk or recreational drug use. The odds of disclosure to a healthcare professional were greater among MSM who had ever tested for HIV or STIs (aOR = 3.36, 95% CI: 2.50-4.51 for HIV, and aOR = 4.92, 95% CI: 3.47-6.96 for STIs, respectively) or self-reported as living with HIV (aOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.93-2.72). Over 80% of MSM had not disclosed their sexual orientation to health professionals. This low level of disclosure likely represents a major obstacle to serving the unique needs of MSM in clinical settings. Further research and interventions to facilitate MSM sexual orientation disclosure, especially to health professionals, are urgently needed.

  16. Association Between Falls and Brain Subvolumes: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Barden, John; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Chester, Victoria L; Szturm, Tony; Grenier, Sébastien; Léonard, Guillaume; Bherer, Louis; Annweiler, Cédric; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    Falls are a consequence of gait instability. Cortical and subcortical abnormalities have been associated with gait instability but not yet with falls. This study aims to compare the global and regional brain subvolumes between healthy older fallers and non-fallers. A total of 77 healthy older individuals (23 fallers and 54 non-fallers, 69.8 ± 3.5 years; 45.5 % female) were included in this study using a cross-sectional design. Based on an a priori hypothesis, the following brain subvolumes were quantified from three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI using FreeSurfer software: total white matter abnormalities, total white matter, total cortical and subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex volumes. Gait performances were also recorded. Age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, use of psychoactive drugs, far-distance visual acuity, lower-limb proprioception, depressive symptoms and cognitive scores (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery) were used as covariates. Fallers have more frequently depressive symptoms (P = 0.048), a lower far distance visual acuity (P = 0.026) and a higher coefficient of variation of stride time (P = 0.008) compared to non-fallers. There was a trend to greater subvolumes for the somatosensory cortex (P = 0.093) and the hippocampus (P = 0.060) in the falls group. Multiple logistic regressions showed that subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and the hippocampus (P < 0.042) were increased in fallers compared to non-fallers, even after adjustment for clinical and brain characteristics. The greater subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus reported in fallers compared to non-fallers suggests a possible brain compensatory mechanism involving spatial navigation and integration of sensory information.

  17. Epidemiological perspectives of ticks and tick-borne diseases in South Sudan: cross-sectional survey results.

    PubMed

    Kivaria, Fredrick M; Kapaga, Angolwisye M; Mbassa, Gabriel K; Mtui, Paul F; Wani, Rhombe J

    2012-09-03

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between September and October 2010 in five states of South Sudan that were selected on the basis of the perceived risk of tick-borne diseases. The purpose was to investigate epidemiological parameters of tick-borne diseases in South Sudan and their uses in future control strategies. A total of 805 calves were assessed by clinical, microscopic and serological examination and tick counts. The indirect Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies to Theileria parva, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale and Babesian bigemina. Sero-conversion risks for T. parva and T. mutans were 27.3% and 31.3% respectively, whilst the risk was 57.6% and 52.8% for A. marginale and B. bigemina, respectively. Major tick species identified include Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus microplus, Amblyomma variegatum, and Rhipicephalus evertsi. There was great variation (P ≤ 0.001) in the number of all these ticks, both between herds in a state and between calves in an individual herd. The low and intermediate sero-conversion risks observed in the study states suggest that immunisation against East Coast fever (ECF) is justified. Fortunately, three major genotypes that were identified by applying Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP) analysis on the p104 to the blood samples and T. parva Muguga, matched very well with T. parva Kiambu 5 and T. parva Muguga; therefore the Muguga cocktail can be used for the immunisation of cattle in South Sudan. However, prospective studies are required to develop optimal control measures for tick-borne diseases under different ecological and husbandry practices in South Sudan.

  18. High precision neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olacel, A.; Belloni, F.; Borcea, C.; Boromiza, M.; Dessagne, Ph.; Henning, G.; Kerveno, M.; Negret, A.; Nyman, M.; Pirovano, E.; Plompen, A.

    2017-06-01

    High precision neutron inelastic scattering cross section data are very important for the development of the new generation of nuclear reactors (Gen IV). Our experiments, performed using the GELINA neutron source and the GAINS spectrometer of the European Commission Joint Research Center, Geel, produce highly reliable and precise cross section data. We will present the details of the setup and the data analysis technique allowing production of such unique results, and we will show examples of two experimental results.

  19. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  20. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  1. Older people, the natural environment and common mental disorders: cross-sectional results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A Matthew; Jones, Andy; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2015-09-16

    To explore the hypothesis that higher exposure to natural environments in local areas is associated with a lower odds of depression and anxiety in later life. A cross-sectional study based on the year-10 interview of the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS), a population-based study of ageing in the UK. Postcodes of the CFAS participants were mapped onto small geographic units, lower-layer super output areas (LSOAs) and linked to environmental data from government databases. The natural environment was characterised as the percentage of green space and private gardens in each LSOA based on the UK Generalised Land Use 2001 Dataset. 2424 people aged 74 and over in the CFAS year-10 follow-up interview (2001) from 4 English centres (Cambridgeshire, Nottingham, Newcastle and Oxford). Depression and anxiety; clinical and subthreshold cases were identified using the Geriatric Mental State Examination (GMS) package and its associated diagnostic algorithm: the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy. Compared with the lowest quartile, living in the highest quartile of neighbourhood natural environment provision was associated with a reduced odds of subthreshold depression (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.95), anxiety symptoms (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.83) and their co-occurrence (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.84) after adjusting for individual-level factors. Controlling for area deprivation attenuated the strength of associations for subthreshold depression by 20% but not for anxiety symptoms or for co-occurrence of the conditions. A high exposure to natural environments (green space and gardens) in communities was associated with fewer mental disorders among older people. Increasing provision of green environments in local areas could be a potential population-level intervention to improve mental health among older people. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  2. Satisfaction with botulinum toxin treatment in post-stroke spasticity: results from two cross-sectional surveys (patients and physicians).

    PubMed

    Bensmail, Djamel; Hanschmann, Angelika; Wissel, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    To characterize patient and physician satisfaction with current standard-of-care botulinum toxin treatment regimens for symptom control in patients with post-stroke spasticity using structured interviews with patients and physicians. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Canada, France, Germany, and the US. The patient survey included patients with post-stroke spasticity who had undergone at least two botulinum toxin A injection cycles. Information on patients' current and prior botulinum toxin treatment cycles and quality of life was collected. The physician survey included physicians treating post-stroke spasticity with botulinum toxins and collected information regarding physician satisfaction with botulinum toxin treatment for post-stroke spasticity. Of 79 participating patients with post-stroke spasticity, 61 (77%) received treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA, 15 (19%) with abobotulinumtoxinA, and three (4%) with incobotulinumtoxinA. Overall, 40.5% of patients were very satisfied, 48.1% were somewhat satisfied, and 11.4% were not at all satisfied with botulinum toxin treatment. Patient satisfaction was lowest just before injection and highest at the time of peak effect. The mean injection interval was 13.7 (SD = 3.5) weeks; however, 43.4% of patients expressed a preference for intervals of ≤ 10 weeks. Most of the 105 participating physicians' were moderately (57.7%) or very (36.5%) satisfied with botulinum toxin treatment. However, physicians estimated that 16.2% of their patients with post-stroke spasticity could benefit from shorter injection intervals, and that 24.6% of patients could benefit from higher doses than those permitted by current country directives. Patients' responses were based on subjective recollections and physicians' responses were based on general impressions. These surveys indicate that patients' and physicians' satisfaction with botulinum toxin therapy for post-stroke spasticity is overall very good. However, patients

  3. Menstrual hygiene management among Bangladeshi adolescent schoolgirls and risk factors affecting school absence: results from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mahbub-Ul; Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Islam, Khairul; Opel, Aftab; Shoab, Abul K; Ghosh, Probir K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Mahon, Therese; Unicomb, Leanne

    2017-07-09

    Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche. We sampled 700 schools from 50 urban and 50 rural clusters using a probability proportional to size technique. We interviewed 2332 schoolgirls and conducted spot checks in each school for menstrual hygiene facilities. To assess factors associated with reported school absence, we estimated adjusted prevalence difference (APD) for controlling confounders' effect using generalised estimating equations to account for school-level clustering. Among schoolgirls who reached menarche, 41% (931) reported missing school, an average of 2.8 missed days per menstrual cycle. Students who felt uncomfortable at school during menstruation (99% vs 32%; APD=58%; CI 54 to 63) and who believed menstrual problems interfere with school performance (64% vs 30%; APD=27; CI 20 to 33) were more likely to miss school during menstruation than those who did not. School absence during menstruation was less common among girls attending schools with unlocked toilet for girls (35% vs 43%; APD=-5.4; CI -10 to -1.6). School absence was more common among girls who were forbidden from any activities during menstruation (41% vs 33%; APD=9.1; CI 3.3 to 14). Risk factors for school absence included girl's attitude, misconceptions about menstruation, insufficient and inadequate facilities at school, and family restriction. Enabling girls to manage menstruation at school by providing knowledge and management methods prior to menarche, privacy and a

  4. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  5. Oral Health and nutritional status in nursing home residents-results of an explorative cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ziebolz, Dirk; Werner, Christine; Schmalz, Gerhard; Nitschke, Ina; Haak, Rainer; Mausberg, Rainer F; Chenot, Jean-François

    2017-01-31

    This study was performed to assess oral and nutritional status of nursing home residents in a region of Lower Saxony, Germany. The aim was to show potential associations between oral status (dentate or edentulous), further anamnestic factors (dementia, age, smoking) and the risk for malnutrition in this population. In this observational cross-sectional pilot study of residents from four nursing homes Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Body-Mass-Index (BMI), dental status (DMF-T) and periodontal situation (PSR(®)/PSI) were recorded. Associations of recorded factors with oral health and nutritional status were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Eighty-seven residents participated in the study (mean age: 84.1 years; female: 72%, demented: 47%). Average BMI was 26.2 kg/m(2); according MNA 52% were at risk for malnutrition. 48% of the residents were edentulous, and the average DMF-T of dentulous was 25.0 (3.7) (D-T: 2.0 [3.1], M-T: 15.0 [8.3], F-T: 8.0 [7.4]); PSR(®)/PSI 3 and 4 (need for periodontal treatment) showed 79% of residents. In univariate analysis dementia (OR 2.5 CI95 1.1-5.6) but not being edentulous (OR 2.0 CI95 0.8-5.8) were associated with being at risk for malnutrition. Dementia remained associated in multivariate analysis adjusting for age and sex, (OR 3.1 CI95 1.2-8.2) and additionally being edentulous (OR 2.8 CI95 1.1-7.3) became associated significantly. Furthermore, nursing home residents with dementia had more remaining teeth (OR 2.5 CI95 1.1-5.9). Dementia was a stronger predictor for risk of malnutrition in nursing home residents than being edentulous. Further studies to elucidate the possible role of oral health as cofactor for malnutrition in dementia are needed.

  6. Breast cancer literacy among higher secondary students: results from a cross-sectional study in Western Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Parash Mani; Thapa, Kiran; Dhakal, Sarmila; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Deuja, Rashmi; Acharya, Pawan; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2016-02-18

    Being the most common cancer among women worldwide, it is vital to be well-aware of breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and curability. However, few studies have reported breast cancer literacy in students using a validated instrument. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of grades 11 and 12 from eleven higher secondary schools, one selected randomly from each ilaka of Parbat district. Questionnaire with modified Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test was self-administered to 516 students. Knowledge score was categorized into two categories: 'good knowledge' and 'poor knowledge' taking median score as the cut-off. Chi-square test was used to determine difference in knowledge by socio-demographic factors, including gender. Only 4.8% of the students responded correctly to at least half of the items, and 1.4% did not respond correctly to any of the items on risk factors and curability. Physical exercise was identified as a protective factor of breast cancer by 62.4% of the students. Presence of noncancerous breast lumps (56.6%) and being overweight (36.4%) were recognized as the risk factors. Knowledge of lumpectomy and radiation therapy for treatment of breast cancer was reported by 42.8% of students, while only 39.0% were aware of the availability of treatment therapies other than mastectomy. Males were significantly better informed than females (χ(2) = 4.02, p = 0.045). Pain in the breast (23.3 %), change in the shape of the breast (20.0%) and discharge of pus (14.1%) were the three most commonly recognized symptoms. Nearly one in two (47.1%) students indicated that the school curriculum inadequately informed them on breast cancer. Our study demonstrates poor knowledge on breast cancer risk factors, symptoms and curability among higher secondary school students in Western Nepal. Still, several myths regarding breast cancer persist. Half of the students had the perception that school curriculum inadequately informed them on breast cancer

  7. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  8. Dijet cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZEUS Collaboration; Breitweg, J.; et al.

    Dijet cross sections are presented using photoproduction data obtained with the ZEUS detector during 1994. These measurements represent an extension of previous results, as the higher statistics allow cross sections to be measured at higher jet transverse energy ( ETjet). Jets are identified in the hadronic final state using three different algorithms, and the cross sections compared to complete next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Agreement with these calculations is seen for the pseudorapidity dependence of the direct photon events with ETjet > 6 GeV and of the resolved photon events with ETjet > 11 GeV. Calculated cross sections for resolved photon processes with 6 GeV < ETjet < 11 GeV lie below the data.

  9. Seroprevalence of Bordetella pertussis antibodies in adults in Hungary: results of an epidemiological cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Torzsa, Péter; Devadiga, Raghavendra; Tafalla, Monica

    2017-04-04

    Pertussis (whooping cough) is well known to be underreported, particularly among adults, who can act as an infectious reservoir, potentially putting susceptible newborns at risk of serious illness. The purpose of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of pertussis in adults in Hungary. This epidemiological, cross-sectional study was conducted in adults in five general practitioners' practices in Hungary. Serum anti-pertussis toxin immunoglobulin G (anti-PT IgG) antibody levels were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Sera were classified following manufacturer's instructions as: strongly indicative of current/recent infection (≥1.5 optical density [OD] units); indicative of current/recent infection (≥1.0 OD units); seropositive (>0.3 OD units); or seronegative (≤0.3 OD units). Logistic regression was performed to describe the associations between seroprevalence and various characteristics. Between 24(th) April 2014 and 24(th) April 2015, 1999 adults (60.6% female; mean age 47.4 ± 17.7 years) were included in the analysis. A total of 14.8% were seropositive for anti-PT IgG, 1.1% had a level indicative of current/recent infection, and 0.1% had a level strongly indicative of current/recent infection. Logistic regression showed significant relationships between increased rates of seropositivity and: age ≥60 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-2.80; p = .0002) or 18-29 years (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.13-2.46; p = .0094) vs. 45-59 years; former smoker (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.08-1.97; p = .014) or current smoker (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.01-1.89; p = .045) vs. never smoker; and male (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.01-1.68; p = .041) vs. female. Also, between increased rates of probable current/recent infection and current smoker (OR, 7.50; 95% CI, 2.32-24.31; p = .0008) or former smoker (OR, 4.07; 95% CI, 1.21-13.64; p = .023) vs. never smoker. Approximately 85% of the adults studied were seronegative and therefore

  10. Demographics and husbandry of pet cats living in Sydney, Australia: results of cross-sectional survey of pet ownership.

    PubMed

    Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M; Norris, Jacqueline M; White, Joanna D; Dhand, Nanveet K; Hamilton, Samuel A; Malik, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Our aim was to collect baseline data on the age, gender, breed, reproductive status and husbandry (housing, diet, vaccination, veterinary attention) of pet cats living in Sydney. Accordingly, a cross-sectional survey of 2768 households was conducted using a postal questionnaire. The 2006 Sydney residential phone book was used as the sampling frame. Non-responders were re-mailed the questionnaire on two further occasions, 2 and 4 weeks after the first posting. Completed questionnaires were received from 884 households. No pets were kept by 387 (43.8%) respondents. Dogs and cats were owned by 295 (33.4%) and 198 (22.5%) of households, respectively, with 7.8% of households having both cat(s) and dog(s). Fish and birds were the next most popular pets. Of the 198 cat-owning households, 54.0% kept only cat(s), while 46.5% kept cats with other pets. The distribution of cat ownership across Sydney was non-uniform. Each cat-owning household kept 1.3 cats on average, with the majority keeping one (75.8% households) or two (18.7%). For the 260 cats, the mean age was 7.1 years, the median 6 years, with a range of 3 months to 22 years. There were significantly more female (143; 55%) than male cats (117; 45%). Only seven cats (2.7%) were sexually entire, and these were all < or =6 years. Crossbred cats outnumbered pedigree cats by a ratio of 3.3:1. The Burmese was the most common breed, followed by the Persian. The median age of pedigree cats (5.5 years) was significantly lower than for domestic crossbred cats (7.0 years). Most cats were housed both indoors and outdoors (72.6%), with 19.7% being restricted to indoors and/or 'pet park enclosures'. Pedigree cats were significantly more likely than crossbreds to be housed indoors. Most owners fed their cats a combination of commercial dry and canned food (38.1%), although fresh meat was popular also and either fed alone (1.6%) or in combination with dry food (14.4%), tinned food (1.6%) or canned and dry food (25.8%). A diet

  11. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemsitry in the region of Thulium, Lutetium, and Tantalum I. Results of Built in Spherical Symmetry in a Deformed Region

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, R. D.

    2013-09-06

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from Terbium (Z = 65) to Rhenium (Z = 75). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Tm, Lu, and Ta including reactions on isomeric targets.

  12. Total integral reactive cross sections for F + H2 yielding HF + H - Comparison of converged quantum, quasiclassical trajectory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Judson, Richard S.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Baer, Michael; Kouri, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports converged quantum total integral reactive cross sections for the reaction F + H2 yielding HF + H, for initial rotational states j sub i = 0 and 1, using a time-dependent method. The results are compared to classical results and to the experimental results of Neumark et al. (1985). Strong quantum effects are found in the threshold region for both initial states (i.e., in the dependence of the reaction on initial state for low energies). The classical results agree better with experiment than do the quantum results; this appears to be due to errors in the potential used.

  13. Total integral reactive cross sections for F + H2 yielding HF + H - Comparison of converged quantum, quasiclassical trajectory and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Judson, Richard S.; Jaffe, Richard L.; Baer, Michael; Kouri, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports converged quantum total integral reactive cross sections for the reaction F + H2 yielding HF + H, for initial rotational states j sub i = 0 and 1, using a time-dependent method. The results are compared to classical results and to the experimental results of Neumark et al. (1985). Strong quantum effects are found in the threshold region for both initial states (i.e., in the dependence of the reaction on initial state for low energies). The classical results agree better with experiment than do the quantum results; this appears to be due to errors in the potential used.

  14. Charm hadroproduction cross-section up to 100 TeV from measurements of the cosmic-ray muon angular distribution Results of the Mount Blanc experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellina, A.; Dettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Vernetto, S.; Bilokon, H.

    1985-02-01

    Accurate calculations of the angular distributions of underground conventional and prompt muons have been performed. The dependence of the angular enhancement functions on the primary spectrum, cross-sections, inclusive distributions, K/pi ratio and survival probability have been studied and found to be negligible. The results have been used to interpret the data from the Mont Blanc experiment in the depth range 4200-5800 hg/sq cm. Since the measurements extend over a limited angular range (lesser than 60 deg) the ratio between the flux of prompt to conventional muons of higher energy (greater than 1 TeV) is obtained with large associated statistical errors. In order to obtain the charm production cross-section in the energy region 50-100 TeV, accurate measurements over a very large angular range (greater than 70 deg) at depths higher than 5000 hg/sq cm are required.

  15. Measurement of the 240Pu(n,f) cross-section at the CERN n_TOF facility: First results from experimental area II (EAR-2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamatopoulos, A.; Tsinganis, A.; Colonna, N.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Plompen, A.; Heyse, J.; Žugec, P.; Barbagallo, M.; Calviani, M.; Berthoumieux, E.; Chiaveri, E.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Belloni, F.; Billowes, J.; Boccone, V.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cerutti, F.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Deo, K.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frost, R. J. W.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Licata, M.; Meo, S. Lo; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Palomo-Pinto, F. R.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.

    2017-09-01

    The accurate knowledge of the neutron-induced fission cross-sections of actinides and other isotopes involved in the nuclear fuel cycle is essential for the design of advanced nuclear systems, such as Generation-IV nuclear reactors. Such experimental data can also provide the necessary feedback for the adjustment of nuclear model parameters used in the evaluation process, resulting in the further development of nuclear fission models. In the present work, the 240Pu(n,f) cross-section was measured at CERN's n_TOF facility relative to the well-known 235U(n,f) cross section, over a wide range of neutron energies, from meV to almost MeV, using the time-of-flight technique and a set-up based on Micromegas detectors. This measurement was the first experiment to be performed at n_TOF's new experimental area (EAR-2), which offers a significantly higher neutron flux compared to the already existing experimental area (EAR-1). Preliminary results as well as the experimental procedure, including a description of the facility and the data handling and analysis, are presented.

  16. Neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm: New results from data taken at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calviani, M.; Meaze, M. H.; Colonna, N.; Praena, J.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Alvarez, H.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Barbagallo, M.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Galanopoulos, S.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Sarmento, R.; Savvidis, I.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2012-03-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm was measured at n_TOF in a wide energy range and with high resolution. The energy dependence, measured in a single measurement from 30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy, has been determined with 5% accuracy relative to the 235U(n,f) cross section. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the absolute value, the data have been normalized at thermal energy to recent measurements performed at ILL and BR1. In the energy range of overlap, the results are in fair agreement with some previous measurements and confirm, on average, the evaluated cross section in the ENDF/B-VII.0 database, although sizable differences are observed for some important resonances below 20 eV. A similar behavior is observed relative to JENDL/AC-2008, a reactor-oriented database for actinides. The new results contribute to the overall improvement of the databases needed for the design of advanced reactor systems and may lead to refinements of fission models for the actinides.

  17. [Comparability of studies of epidemiological research on aging : Results from the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) and three representative Hamburg cross-sectional studies of healthy aging].

    PubMed

    Dapp, Ulrike; Dirksen-Fischer, Martin; Rieger-Ndakorerwa, Gudrun; Fertmann, Regina; Stender, Klaus-Peter; Golgert, Stefan; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Minder, Christoph E

    2016-05-01

    Participants of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) were recruited from patients 60 years and older from general practitioner's offices in Hamburg. This is different from the usual methods of drawing representative samples. The research question addressed the comparability of LUCAS results with those from cross-sectional surveys with participants randomly chosen from a population list. Therefore, the LUCAS data collected in four waves during the first 12 years were compared with data (age, gender) from the Hamburg Statistics Office (HSO), and selected characteristics (socio-demography, health, mobility) from three representative cross-sectional surveys in older Hamburg citizens. First, HSO data compiled in population pyramids for older men and women were compared with equivalent pyramids based on the LUCAS data at recruitment (2000/01) and in waves 2 to 4. Second, characteristics worded identically in the cross-sectional surveys and the simultaneous LUCAS waves were compared. The LUCAS population pyramids were in good accordance at all time points with those of the general older population in Hamburg (except ages 60-64 in men in 2000). Good comparability was also found for health related characteristics from the three representative studies and simultaneous LUCAS waves (e. g. need of nursing care in 2012: LUCAS 7.1 %; Hamburg 7.4 %). Information on health in old age generated periodically in the LUCAS cohort was largely comparable with that from representative cross-sectional studies and statistics registries. Older people are frequently under-represented in epidemiological studies. Therefore, the LUCAS data may provide useful information for Hamburg and similar metropolitan areas in Germany.

  18. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  19. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  20. RESULTS FOR THE INTERMEDIATE-SPECTRUM ZEUS BENCHMARK OBTAINED WITH NEW 63,65Cu CROSS-SECTION EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sobes, Vladimir; Leal, Luiz C

    2014-01-01

    The four HEU, intermediate-spectrum, copper-reflected Zeus experiments have shown discrepant results between measurement and calculation for the last several major releases of the ENDF library. The four benchmarks show a trend in reported C/E values with increasing energy of average lethargy causing fission. Recently, ORNL has made improvements to the evaluations of three key isotopes involved in the benchmark cases in question. Namely, an updated evaluation for 235U and evaluations of 63,65Cu. This paper presents the benchmarking results of the four intermediate-spectrum Zeus cases using the three updated evaluations.

  1. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  2. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  3. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  4. Cross section for 246Cm subbarrier fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, A. A.; Bergman, A. A.; Berlev, A. I.; Koptelov, E. A.; Samylin, B. F.; Trufanov, A. M.; Fursov, B. I.; Shorin, V. S.

    2010-10-01

    The cross section for 246Cm fission induced by neutrons of energy in the range 0.1 eV-20 keV was measured by the neutron lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS-100) of the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow). The parameters of the resonance area and of the fission width were evaluated for several low-lying s-wave neutron resonances. The parameters of the intermediate structure in the cross section for the subbarrier fusion of 246Cm nuclei were found. The results obtained in this way were compared with available experimental data and with recommended evaluated data.

  5. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  6. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  7. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  8. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dietary Patterns and Obesity among Chinese Adults: Results from a Household-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Zhang, Ronghua; Xia, Shichang; Huang, Lichun; Meng, Jia; Fang, Yueqiang; Ding, Gangqiang

    2017-05-05

    The key dietary pattern other than dietary factors influencing obesity has been reported by several large epidemiological studies. This study was carried out between 2010 and 2012 including 1613 adult residents in Zhejiang Province. Dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis based on 24-h dietary recall. Associations with dietary patterns and obesity were examined and adjusted for age and gender by logistic regression. Five dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis with their eigenvalues greater than 1: 'cereal, animal, and plant food', 'high protein food', 'plant food', 'poultry', and 'beverage'. After adjustment for age and gender, the 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' pattern was associated with obesity (OR = 2.924, 3.257; 95% CI = 1.147-7.463, 1.372-7.692). In conclusion, 'cereal, animal, and plant food' and 'beverage' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity. 'Cereal, animal, and plant food' dietary patterns may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased protein and fat intake; while a 'beverage' dietary pattern may be associated with increased risk of obesity resulting from increased total energy intake by increased carbohydrate intake. The findings are valuable in targeting future nutrition education.

  10. Mechanical and optical behavior of a tunable liquid lens using a variable cross section membrane: modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Bustamante, Mario C.; Rosete-Aguilar, Martha; Calixto, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    A lens containing a liquid medium and having at least one elastic membrane as one of its components is known as an elastic membrane lens (EML). The elastic membrane may have a constant or variable thickness. The optical properties of the EML change by modifying the profile of its elastic membrane(s). The EML formed of elastic constant thickness membrane(s) have been studied extensively. However, EML information using elastic membrane of variable thickness is limited. In this work, we present simulation results of the mechanical and optical behavior of two EML with variable thickness membranes (convex-plane membranes). The profile of its surfaces were modified by liquid medium volume increases. The model of the convex-plane membranes, as well as the simulation of its mechanical behavior, were performed using Solidworks® software; and surface's points of the deformed elastic lens were obtained. Experimental stress-strain data, obtained from a silicone rubber simple tensile test, according to ASTM D638 norm, were used in the simulation. Algebraic expressions, (Schwarzschild formula, up to four deformation coefficients, in a cylindrical coordinate system (r, z)), of the meridional profiles of the first and second surfaces of the deformed convex-plane membranes, were obtained using the results from Solidworks® and a program in the software Mathematica®. The optical performance of the EML was obtained by simulation using the software OSLO® and the algebraic expressions obtained in Mathematica®.

  11. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  12. Screening results of anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Quek, K F; Hokama, T; Yogi, C

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to highlight the baseline characteristics of the results of a screening test for anaemia among infants in a village in Okinawa, Japan. The groups were classified into two; infants with and without anaemia. A total of 201 infants were screened at 3-4 months, 9-10 months and 18 months. The study showed that gestational age and BMI were predictive of anaemia at 3-4 months of age. At 9-10 months, types of feeding and weight ratio were the only factors that were found to be significantly predictive of anaemia. However, no factor was found to be predictive of anaemia at 18 months. Anaemia cases were found to occur at 3-4 months and 9-10 months. Most of the anaemia cases have successfully undergone treatment.

  13. Is Underweight Associated with more Positive Body Image? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescent Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Kantanista, Adam; Król-Zielińska, Magdalena; Borowiec, Joanna; Osiński, Wiesław

    2017-02-09

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between body image and prevalence of underweight, normal weight, and overweight in adolescents. The study included 1702 girls and 1547 boys, aged 14-16 years, who completed questionnaire assessing body satisfaction. The participants' BMI status: underweight, normal weight or overweight was determined on the basis of BMI cut-off values. Results revealed that more girls (p < .001) showed low body satisfaction (44.8%) and fewer girls (p < .001) had high body satisfaction (17.6%) compared to boys (28.5% and 29.0%, respectively). A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between BMI status and gender on body satisfaction F(2, 3243) = 4.10, p = .017, η2 = .003. In boys, body satisfaction was higher in normal weight and underweight in comparison to overweight individuals (p < .001). Underweight girls presented higher body satisfaction than those who were normal weight and overweight (p < .001). Our findings indicated that, in relation to gender, BMI status can be associated with different body satisfaction in adolescents. This should be taken into consideration when designing programs aimed at obesity and disordered eating prevention and body image improvement. Due to the fact that underweight girls and boys have high body satisfaction, this can lead to behaviors that maintain low body weight in adolescents and in turn this may have negative health consequences.

  14. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Metabolic Syndrome in Police Officers: Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Knox, Sarah S.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Violanti, John M.; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2012-01-01

    Policing is one of the most dangerous and stressful occupations and such stress can have deleterious effects on health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) in male and female police officers from two study populations, Buffalo, NY and Spokane, WA. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. MetSyn was defined using the 2005 AHA/NHBLI guidelines. Analysis of covariance was used to describe differences in number of MetSyn components across depressive symptom categories. The number of MetSyn components increased significantly across categories of CES-D for Spokane men only (p-trend = 0.003). For each 5-unit increase in CES-D score, odds increased by 47.6% for having hypertriglyceridemia, by 51.8% for having hypertension, and by 56.7% for having glucose intolerance. Exploring this association is important since both are predictors of future chronic health problems and the results could be helpful in developing future gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts among police officers. PMID:22315628

  15. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women). Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption) and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test) using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age (<65, ≥65) or race (white, non-white). Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies. PMID:22908937

  16. Metabolic aging and predicted longevity: results of a cross-sectional study in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Bathalon, Gaston P; Meydani, Simin N; Leka, Lynette S; Lipman, Ruth; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Roberts, Susan B

    2002-12-01

    The extent to which general characteristics of metabolic aging contribute to differences in life span among individuals remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of age-related physiological and metabolic variables with predicted longevity in postmenopausal women. Subjects were 33 healthy women aged 55-65 years. Total and resting energy expenditure, body temperature, immune function as assessed by a delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH), lipid profile, and reported dietary intake were measured. There were no significant associations between longevity, energy expenditure, body temperature, lipid profile, or dietary intake. However, there was a significant association of predicted longevity with DTH (partial r=0.44, p=0.023). These results suggest that immune function may predict familial differences in longevity, while energy expenditure, body temperature, lipid profile, and dietary intake are unrelated. Although the small sample size may have limited the ability to detect metabolic effects on longevity in this study, the general approach may be broadly applicable to examinations of metabolic aging in humans.

  17. Relationship between eating behaviors and physical activity among primary and secondary school students: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-09-01

    With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school children (N = 8612) and by secondary school youth (N = 5250) during a break in the schedule. The rates of response were 79% and 83%, respectively. Inferential and descriptive analyses were performed. The results indicate significant differences between the eating behaviors of young people who engage in 60 minutes of daily PA and those who are sedentary. The physically active children were generally more likely to eat fruit, vegetables, and whole-grain products and to have breakfast (p < .05 among high-school students). The lack of self-confidence (55%) and not enjoying PA (46%) stood out as the greatest obstacles facing adolescents trying to lose weight. There should be particular actions targeting students in the last half of primary school aimed at developing individual accountability and autonomy with respect to healthy eating and PA. These actions should also consider sex differences and those who have more sedentary lifestyles. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  18. Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Dorner, T E; Stronegger, W J; Hoffmann, K; Stein, K Viktoria; Niederkrotenthaler, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures. The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006-07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models. Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity. Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

  19. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries

    PubMed Central

    Chard, Anna N.; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia – external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia – and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships, and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from 7 countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the United Kingdom (UK), and the United States (USA) were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia. PMID:26096688

  20. Patient’s safety culture among Tunisian healthcare workers: results of a cross sectional study in university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cheikh, Asma Ben; Bouafia, Nabiha; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Ezzi, Olfa; Nouira, Amel; Njah, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Healthcare safety has become a public health priority in developed world. Development of safety culture care is fundamental pillar to any strategy for improving quality and safety care. The objective of this study is to measure level of patients’ safety culture among healthcare professionals at university hospital, center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Methods We conducted, in 2013, a descriptive study among all licensed physicians (n= 116) and a representative sample of paramedical staff (n= 203) exercising at university hospital center Farhat Hached Sousse (Tunisia). Measuring instrument used is a valid questionnaire containing ten safety care dimensions. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results The response rates were 74.1% for physicians and 100% for paramedical staff. Overall score of different dimensions varies between 32.7% and 68.8%. Dimension having most developed score (68.8%) was perception of “Frequency and reporting adverse events”. Dimension with lowest score (32.7%) was “Management support for safety care”. Conclusion Our study has allowed us to conclude that all dimensions of patients’ safety culture need to be improved among our establishment’s professionals. Therefore, more efforts are necessary in order to develop a security culture based on confidence, learning, communication and team work and rejecting sanction, blame, criminalization and punitive reporting. PMID:28154654

  1. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    PubMed

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  2. Physician attitudes toward palliative care for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fenstad, Eric R.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Sloan, Jeff A.; Novotny, Paul J.; Durst, Louise A.; Frantz, Robert P.; McGoon, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic, symptomatic, life-threatening illness; however, it is complex, with variable expression regarding impact on quality of life (QOL). This study investigated attitudes and comfort of physicians regarding palliative care (PC) for patients with PAH and explored potential barriers to PC in PAH. An internet-based, mixed-methods survey was distributed to Pulmonary Hypertension Clinicians and Researchers, a professional organization within the Pulmonary Hypertension Association. Only responses from physicians involved in clinical care of patients with PAH were analyzed. Of 355 clinicians/researchers, 79 (22%) returned surveys, including 76 (21%) providers involved in clinical care. Responding physicians were mainly pulmonologists (67%), practiced in university/academic medical centers (89%), had been in practice a mean of 12 ± 7 years, cared for a median of 100 PAH patients per year, and reported a high level of confidence in managing PAH (87%), advanced PAH-specific pharmacologic interventions (95%), and end-of-life care (88%). Smaller proportions were comfortable managing pain (62%) and QOL issues (78%). Most physicians (91%) reported utilizing PC consultation at least once in the prior year, primarily in the setting of end-of-life/active dying (59%), hospice referral (46%), or symptomatic dyspnea/impaired QOL (40%). The most frequent reasons for not referring patients to PC included nonapproval by the patient/family (51%) and concern that PC is “giving up hope” (43%). PAH may result in symptoms that impair QOL despite optimal PAH therapy; however, PC awareness and utilization for PAH providers is low. Opportunities may exist to integrate PC into care for PAH patients. PMID:25621164

  3. A cross-sectional investigation of fatigue in advanced renal cell carcinoma treatment: results from the FAMOUS study.

    PubMed

    P J, Goebell; A, Münch; L, Müller; H J, Hurtz; M, Koska; S, Busies; N, Marschner

    2014-04-01

    With an increasing choice of new treatment options, the management of side effects to maintain a chosen treatment if likely to be effective on the tumor remains important. The perception of side effects however varies between the physician and the patient, leading to possible wrong assumptions on tolerability that result in dose modifications, which may ultimately affect effectiveness. The aim was to assess fatigue in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) by comparing the evaluation of the physician to the one provided by their respective patient. In addition, we aimed to assess possible influences of fatigue on parameters of quality of life. Patients receiving systemic treatment for advanced RCC and their physicians were questioned independently regarding incidence and severity of fatigue and its effect on quality of life. Both physicians and patients completed 98 matching questionnaires. Patients were treated with sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab combined with interferon alpha, temsirolimus, everolimus, or interferon alpha alone. Incidence and severity of fatigue was differently assessed by patients and physicians, with fatigue being more severe when reported by the patient. The severity of fatigue increased with progressing treatment lines. Quality of life was significantly lower in patients experiencing fatigue compared with patients without fatigue. Emotional, functional, and physical well-being were all affected by fatigue, the latter being the most affected subscale. Social well-being was least affected. Fatigue is a complex and cumulative condition of patients treated for advanced RCC, and it considerably affects patient's quality of life. As many of its underlying causes may be treated, the divergent perception of occurrence and severity of fatigue should be integrated in treatment concepts. The active role of the patient in helping to manage ailments through assessment should be implemented when optimizing treatment of RCC.

  4. Identifying risk factors for household burdens of road traffic fatalities: regression results from a cross-sectional survey in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lanying

    2016-11-29

    Road traffic fatalities (RTF) are among the top ten causes of deaths in the world. The risk factors for RTF fatal victims have been extensively characterized, but studies of household burden of RTF have been very few in number. Accordingly, this article investigates post-crash impacts on RTF victims' family members, including the adverse impacts of lost income, occupational disruption, unfavorable family dynamics, and residential relocation. Survey data from 1291 RTF family members interviewed in Taiwan in 2012 provide the evidence of impact used in this article. Twelve variables related to the family member's socio-demographic background were used to predict the scope of the adverse impact of a fatal crash in regression models developed for this analysis. RTF victims' spouses with relatively low personal incomes and strong dependence upon the crash victims were found to be most likely to experience a marked decrease in post- crash quality of life. RTF victims' family members who lived with few other adult cohabitants and had more juvenile dependents and were emotionally dependent on the victims were found to be quite likely to experience post- crash setbacks in occupational stability. RTF victims' family members who were emotionally dependent on the victims were found to be more likely to experience major family life disruptions. The younger the RTF victims' family members, and the more years since the crash, the higher the likelihood of residential relocation taking place. The results noted help identify those RTF victims' families that will most likely be adversely affected by the crash. The true societal costs of RTF crashes should include the adversities suffered by the fatal crash victims' families. Social welfare policies, mental health support, and timely supplemental resources should be made available to those surviving families most at risk of major life disruptions.

  5. Therapeutic interventions employed by Greater Toronto Area chiropractors on pregnant patients: results of a cross-sectional online survey

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Tammy; Wells, Kayla; Benoit, Samantha; Yohanathan, Sahila; Capelletti, Lauren; Stuber, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Due to different biomechanical, nutritional, and hormonal considerations, it is possible that chiropractors may employ different therapeutic interventions and recommendations for pregnant patients than non-pregnant ones. The objective of this study was to determine the therapeutic interventions that chiropractors who are members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association in the Greater Toronto Area most commonly provide to pregnant patients. Methods: An introductory e-mail was sent in October 2011 to 755 members of the Ontario Chiropractic Association within the Greater Toronto Area five days prior to a 15 question survey being distributed via e-mail. Reminder e-mails were sent 13 days and 27 days later. Using descriptive statistics, demographic information was reported along with reported use of different treatments and recommendations for pregnant patients Results: A response rate of 23% was obtained. The majority of the respondents (90%) reported using the Diversified technique on pregnant patients, followed by soft tissue therapy (62%) and Activator (42%). The most common adjunctive therapy recommended to pregnant patients was referral to massage therapy (90%). Most of the respondents (92%) indicated that they prescribe stretching exercises to pregnant patients and recommend a multivitamin (84%) or folic acid (81%) to pregnant patients. Conclusion: In agreement with previous research on chiropractic technique usage on non-pregnant patients, the majority of respondents indicated treating pregnant patients with the Diversified technique, with other chiropractic techniques being utilized at varying rates on pregnant patients. Most respondents indicated prescribing exercise, and making adjunctive and nutritional recommendations frequently for their pregnant patients. PMID:23754858

  6. Handling missing Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) values: Results from a cross-sectional long-term-care study.

    PubMed

    Godin, Judith; Keefe, Janice; Andrew, Melissa K

    2017-04-01

    Missing values are commonly encountered on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), particularly when administered to frail older people. This presents challenges for MMSE scoring in research settings. We sought to describe missingness in MMSEs administered in long-term-care facilities (LTCF) and to compare and contrast approaches to dealing with missing items. As part of the Care and Construction project in Nova Scotia, Canada, LTCF residents completed an MMSE. Different methods of dealing with missing values (e.g., use of raw scores, raw scores/number of items attempted, scale-level multiple imputation [MI], and blended approaches) are compared to item-level MI. The MMSE was administered to 320 residents living in 23 LTCF. The sample was predominately female (73%), and 38% of participants were aged >85 years. At least one item was missing from 122 (38.2%) of the MMSEs. Data were not Missing Completely at Random (MCAR), χ(2) (1110) = 1,351, p < 0.001. Using raw scores for those missing <6 items in combination with scale-level MI resulted in the regression coefficients and standard errors closest to item-level MI. Patterns of missing items often suggest systematic problems, such as trouble with manual dexterity, literacy, or visual impairment. While these observations may be relatively easy to take into account in clinical settings, non-random missingness presents challenges for research and must be considered in statistical analyses. We present suggestions for dealing with missing MMSE data based on the extent of missingness and the goal of analyses. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of disability in Manikganj district of Bangladesh: results from a large-scale cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Mashreky, Saidur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a comprehensive survey on disability to determine the prevalence and distribution of cause-specific disability among residents of the Manikganj district in Bangladesh. Methods The survey was conducted in Manikganj, a typical district in Bangladesh, in 2009. Data were collected from 37 030 individuals of all ages. Samples were drawn from 8905 households from urban and rural areas proportionate to population size. Three sets of interviewer-administered questionnaires were used separately for age groups 0–1 years, 2–10 years and 11 years and above to collect data. For the age groups 0–1 years and 2–10 years, the parents or the head of the household were interviewed to obtain the responses. Impairments, activity limitations and restriction of participation were considered in defining disability consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework. Results Overall, age-standardised prevalence of disability per 1000 was 46.5 (95% CI 44.4 to 48.6). Prevalence was significantly higher among respondents living in rural areas (50.2; 95% CI 47.7 to 52.7) than in urban areas (31.0; 95% CI 27.0 to 35.0). Overall, female respondents had more disability (50.0; 95% CI 46.9 to 53.1) than male respondents (43.4; 95% CI 40.5 to 46.3). Educational deprivation was closely linked to higher prevalence of disability. Commonly reported prevalences (per 1000) for underlying causes of disability were 20.2 for illness, followed by 9.4 for congenital causes and 6.8 for injury, and these were consistent in males and females. Conclusions Disability is a common problem in this typical district of Bangladesh, which is largely generalisable. Interventions at community level with special attention to the socioeconomically deprived are warranted. PMID:27431897

  8. Chronic pelvic pain, psychiatric disorders and early emotional traumas: Results of a cross sectional case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia L; Carvalho, Ana Carolina F; Donadon, Mariana F; Moreno, André L; Polli-Neto, Omero

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and early emotional traumas between women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) and healthy women. METHODS One hundred women in reproductive age, 50 of them had CPP (according to the criteria set by the International Association for Study of Pain), and 50 were considered healthy after the gynecological evaluation. The eligibility criteria were defined as follows: chronic or persistent pain perceived in the pelvis-related structures (digestive, urinary, genital, myofascial or neurological systems). Only women in reproductive age with acyclic pain for 6 mo, or more, were included in the present study. Menopause was the exclusion criterion. The participants were grouped according to age, school level and socio-economic status and were individually assessed through DSM-IV Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I) and Early Trauma Inventory Self-report - short form (ETISR-SF Brazilian version). Descriptive statistics, group comparison tests and multivariate logistics regression were used in the data analysis. RESULTS The early emotional traumas are highly prevalent, but their prevalence did not differ between the two groups. The current Major Depressive Disorder was more prevalent in women with CPP. The CPP was associated with endometriosis in 48% of the women. There was no difference in the prevalence of disorders when endometriosis was taken into account (endometriosis vs other diseases: P > 0.29). The current Major Depressive Disorder and the Bipolar Disorder had greater occurrence likelihood in the group of women with CPP (ODDS = 5.25 and 9.0). CONCLUSION The data reinforce the link between mood disorders and CPP. The preview evidences about the association between CPP and early traumas tended not to be significant after a stronger methodological control was implemented. PMID:27679773

  9. Recreational Drug Use among Chinese MSM and Transgender Individuals: Results from a National Online Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Peizhen; Tang, Songyuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Ye; Best, John; Tangthanasup, Thitikarn May; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D.; Tang, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Background Recreational drug use has increased considerably among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). The phenomenon has the potentially to increase HIV transmission among Chinese MSM. The aims of this study were: 1) to investigate the prevalence of recreational drug use among Chinese MSM, and 2) to explore the correlation between gay smartphone based sex-seeking applications (gay apps), HIV/STIs testing, group sex, commercial sex, sexual roles and poppers use among Chinese MSM. Methods MSM who were born biologically male, were at least 16 years of age and had engaged in anal sex with a man at least once were recruited through a nation-wide online survey in 2014. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, recreational drug use, HIV and other STIs testing history and gay app use were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to determine factors associated with recreational drug use among Chinese MSM. Results Among 1424 participating MSM, 1100 (77.3%) reported ever using recreational drugs in their lifetime. In the last 12 months, 303 (21.3%) used poppers, 34 (2.4%) used crystal meth and 15 (1.0%) used ecstasy. The mean age of respondents was 25.6±6.8 years, 72.9% identified as gay, 41.3% were students, and 83.8% had never been married. Multiple logistic regression models revealed that compared with non-popper users, popper users were more likely to have been tested for HIV (adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.15–1.96) and other STIs (aOR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.26–2.17). In addition, popper users were more likely to engage in group sex (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI:1.80–3.86), commercial sex (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI:1.13–3.06) and used gay mobile apps to seek sexual partners (aOR = 2.10, 95% CI:1.58–2.80). Conclusion Chinese MSM has a high rate of recreational drug use, including poppers. Public health programs serving MSM may consider integrating intervention programs to decrease recreational drug use related harms. PMID:28107391

  10. Opinions on Kampo and reasons for using it – results from a cross-sectional survey in three Japanese clinics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional Japanese Medicine (Kampo) is often used in Japan, but very little data on its users are available. We investigated who uses Kampo, the reasons and opinions for its use. Methods Questionnaire survey in three Japanese outpatient clinics offering Kampo in different settings: Kampo only, Kampo and traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo and Western medicine. Before seeing the doctor, patients were asked about socio-demographic data, medical history, experience with Kampo, general health-related opinions and behaviours, opinions about Western medicine and Kampo, and reasons for Kampo utilization. Descriptive statistics and predictors for Kampo use were calculated. Results A total of 354 questionnaires were completed. Participants were 50.97 ± 15.60 (mean ± SD) years of age, 68% were female. Of all patients, 73% (n = 202) were using Kampo currently and 84% (297) had taken Kampo before. Questions on general health-related opinions and behaviour revealed a strong environmental awareness. The most frequent indications for earlier Kampo use were: common cold (36%), gastrointestinal complaints (30%), oversensitivity to cold (“Hi’e-sho”; 29%), stress/anxiety (21%), and shoulder stiffness (20%). Kampo users suffered more often from chronic illnesses (OR 2.88 [1.48-5.58]). Beliefs in underlying philosophy (Wu Xing (adjusted OR 3.08, [1.11-8.55]), Ying and Yang (OR 2.57 [1.15-5.73], a holistic way of seeing the patient (OR 2.17 [1.53-3.08]), and in Kampo efficacy (OR 2.62 [1.66-4.13]) were positively associated with Kampo use. So was, interestingly, conviction of the efficacy of Western medicine (OR 1.87 [1.28-2.74]). Half of the patients had a general preference for a combination of Kampo and Western treatment. Conclusions Most patients visiting a clinic that also provided Kampo had previous experience with Kampo. Usage was associated with beliefs in philosophical Kampo concepts and its efficacy. PMID:23680097

  11. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Ashley L; Lei, Esther L; Ketende, Sosthenes C; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70-7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11-30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09-7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15-0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  12. Correlates of condom use among female sex workers in The Gambia: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Esther L.; Ketende, Sosthenes C.; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Mason, Krystal; Ceesay, Nuha; Diouf, Daouda; Drame, Fatou Maria; Loum, Jaegan; Papworth, Erin; Baral, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined correlates of condom use among 248 female sex workers (FSW) in The Gambia. Methods. Between July and August 2011, FSW in The Gambia who were older than 16 years of age, the age of consent in The Gambia, were recruited for the study using venue-based sampling and snowball sampling, beginning with seeds who were established clients with the Network of AIDS Services Organizations. To be eligible, FSW must have reported selling sex for money, favors, or goods in the past 12 months. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine associations and the relative odds of the independent variables with condom use. Four different condom use dependent variables were used: consistent condom use in the past six months during vaginal or anal sex with all clients and partners; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with new clients; consistent condom use in the past month during vaginal sex with nonpaying partners (including boyfriends, husbands, or casual sexual partners); and condom use at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Results. Many FSW (67.34%, n = 167) reported it was not at all difficult to negotiate condom use with clients in all applicable situations, and these FSW were more likely to report consistent condom use with all clients and partners in the past 6 months (aOR 3.47, 95% CI [1.70–7.07]) compared to those perceiving any difficulty in condom negotiation. In addition, FSW were more likely to report using condoms in the past month with new clients (aOR 8.04, 95% CI [2.11–30.65]) and in the past month with nonpaying partners (aOR 2.93, 95% CI [1.09–7.89]) if they had been tested for HIV in the past year. Women who bought all their condoms were less likely than those who received all of their condoms for free (aOR 0.38, 95% CI [0.15–0.97]) to have used a condom at last vaginal or anal sex with a nonpaying partner. Conclusions. HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI

  13. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  14. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  15. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  16. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  18. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  19. No further increase in the parent reported prevalence of allergies in Bavarian preschool children: Results from three cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, Alisa; Herr, Caroline; Hendrowarsito, Lana; Meyer, Nicole; Nennstiel-Ratzel, Uta; von Mutius, Erika; Bolte, Gabriele; Colon, Diana; Kolb, Stefanie

    2016-07-01

    After three decades of an increase in the prevalence of asthma and allergies, new findings show a plateau in the prevalence of industrialized nations. The objective of this study was to determine whether there was a change in the parent reported prevalence of asthma and allergies among Bavarian preschool children since 2004. A parent questionnaire was administered as part of the Bavarian school entrance examination in three cross-sectional studies from 2004/2005, 2006/2007 and 2012/2013. The questionnaire included items on allergy testing history, identified allergens, symptoms (e.g. wheezing, itchy eyes, rash), medically diagnosed asthma, hay fever and atopic dermatitis. Logistic regression was performed to observe time patterns and adjust for risk factors. Data were available for 6350 (2004/2005), 6483 (2006/2007) and 5052 (2012/2013) individuals. Symptoms and diseases were more frequent in boys, except for allergies which affect the skin. From 2004 to 2012 the parent reported prevalence of asthma (2.6% to 2.8%), hay fever (4.7% to 4.0%) and atopic dermatitis (12.4% to 11.1%) either remained quite stable or decreased not significantly. Results from these three cross-sectional surveys of parent reports suggest that the parent reported prevalences of asthma and allergies are quite stable with small fluctuations since 2004 for Bavarian preschool children. Future research is needed to determine if this trend will continue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The Elusive p-air cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, M. M.

    2006-09-01

    For the $\\pbar p$ and $pp$ systems, we have used all of the extensive data of the Particle Data Group[K. Hagiwara {\\em et al.} (Particle Data Group), Phys. Rev. D 66, 010001 (2002).]. We then subject these data to a screening process, the ``Sieve'' algorithm[M. M. Block, physics/0506010.], in order to eliminate ``outliers'' that can skew a $\\chi^2$ fit. With the ``Sieve'' algorithm, a robust fit using a Lorentzian distribution is first made to all of the data to sieve out abnormally high $\\delchi$, the individual i$^{\\rm th}$ point's contribution to the total $\\chi^2$. The $\\chi^2$ fits are then made to the sieved data. We demonstrate that we cleanly discriminate between asymptotic $\\ln s$ and $\\ln^2s$ behavior of total hadronic cross sections when we require that these amplitudes {\\em also} describe, on average, low energy data dominated by resonances. We simultaneously fit real analytic amplitudes to the ``sieved'' high energy measurements of $\\bar p p$ and $pp$ total cross sections and $\\rho$-values for $\\sqrt s\\ge 6$ GeV, while requiring that their asymptotic fits smoothly join the the $\\sigma_{\\bar p p}$ and $\\sigma_{pp}$ total cross sections at $\\sqrt s=$4.0 GeV--again {\\em both} in magnitude and slope. Our results strongly favor a high energy $\\ln^2s$ fit, basically excluding a $\\ln s$ fit. Finally, we make a screened Glauber fit for the p-air cross section, using as input our precisely-determined $pp$ cross sections at cosmic ray energies.

  1. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  2. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  3. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  4. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  5. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  6. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  7. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  8. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  9. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  10. Respiratory health associated with exposure to automobile exhaust. III. Results of a cross-sectional study in 1987, and repeated pulmonary function tests from 1987 to 1990.

    PubMed

    Nakai, S; Nitta, H; Maeda, K

    1999-01-01

    We conducted an epidemiological study to investigate the association between exposure to automobile exhaust and respiratory health. We selected 3 zones from two geographically different areas in Tokyo on the basis of expected exposure levels: (1) within 20 m from the side of major roads with heavy traffic, (2) between 20 and 150 m from the side of the same road, and (3) a residential district of suburban Tokyo. The subjects of the study were female adults aged 30-59 y. A cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms and repeated pulmonary function testing were also performed in each zone. The results suggested that exposure to automobile exhaust may be associated with respiratory symptoms. Nevertheless, repeated pulmonary function testing did not reveal any consistent differences. Investigators should conduct additional follow-up studies to investigate the decline of pulmonary functions with age.

  11. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  12. /sup 26/Al(n,p)/sup 26/Mg reaction: Comparison between the Hauser-Feshbach formula and the exact random-matrix result for the cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, J.; Zirnbauer, M.R.; Langanke, K.

    1986-06-01

    We have calculated the /sup 26/Al(n,p)/sup 26/Mg reaction rate using an exact expression for the compound-nucleus cross section derived recently by Verbaarschot et al. This reaction is astrophysically important, and it happens to fall in a kinematic regime where the exact expression is expected to yield large deviations from the standard Hauser-Feshbach formula. We find that the exact statistical cross section is 20% lower at energies greater than 300 keV, and drops to 40% lower at 0 energy but still does not describe the available data. These deviations are quite similar to those predicted by the formula of Tepel et al.

  13. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  14. The Cross-sectional relationship of hemoglobin levels and functional outcomes in women with self-reported osteoarthrits: Results from the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Charles B.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Assaf, Annlouise; Cryer, Byron L.; Lu, Bing; Sands, George; Rodriguez, Beatriz; LaCroix, Andrea; Lessin, Lawrence; Limacher, Marian C.; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Connelly, Stephanie; Chen, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Gastrointestinal (GI) blood loss is a recognized complication of the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) in patients with arthritis. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of patient reported outcomes of overall health, physical function, vitality and quality of life (QoL) to hemoglobin (hgb) levels in post menopausal women with self-reported osteoarthritis to determine whether hgb levels as potential markers of chronic blood loss were associated with these functional outcomes. Method Post-menopausal women (N=64,850) with self-reported osteoarthritis (srOA) at baseline in the Women’s Health Initiative study, excluding participants with chronic or hemolytic diseases associated with anemia, had hgb levels measured and completed Short Form Health Surveys (SF-36). General linear models analysis adjusting for potential confounders was performed. Results A non-linear plateauing relationship between hgb levels and functional outcomes was found. Participants with srOA had statistically significantly worse overall health, physical function, and vitality, but not QoL, for each gram of hgb below 14 g/dL, compared to those with hgb 14 g/dL (p<0.001.) Participants with srOA taking NSAIDS had worse functional outcomes for each level of Hgb compared to those not reporting NSAIDS use. Conclusion In cross-sectional analyses of post-menopausal women with srOA, differences in hgb levels are related to differences in functional outcomes of overall health, physical function and vitality at clinically important levels. Prospective studies evaluating whether changes in hgb levels result in changes in functional outcomes in participants with OA are needed to confirm of our findings and before any changes in therapeutics based upon hemoglogin levels are considered in the care of patients with osteoarthritis. PMID:21723591

  15. Barriers to HIV and sexual and reproductive health care for female sex workers in Tete, Mozambique: results from a cross-sectional survey and focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Lafort, Yves; Lessitala, Faustino; Candrinho, Balthazar; Greener, Letitia; Greener, Ross; Beksinska, Mags; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2016-07-20

    In the context of an operational research project in Tete, Mozambique, use of, and barriers to, HIV and sexual and reproductive health (HIV/SRH) commodities and services for female sex workers (FSWs) were assessed as part of a baseline situational analysis. In a cross-sectional survey 311 FSWs were recruited using respondent driven sampling and interviewed face-to-face, and three focus group discussions were held with respectively 6 full-time Mozambican, 7 occasional Mozambican and 9 full-time Zimbabwean FSWs, to investigate use of, and barriers to, HIV/SRH care. The cross-sectional survey showed that 71 % of FSWs used non-barrier contraception, 78 % sought care for their last sexually transmitted infection episode, 51 % of HIV-negative FSWs was tested for HIV in the last 6 months, 83 % of HIV-positive FSWs were in HIV care, 55 % sought help at a health facility for their last unwanted pregnancy and 48 % after sexual assault, and none was ever screened for cervical cancer. Local public health facilities were by far the most common place where care was sought, followed by an NGO-operated clinic targeting FSWs, and places outside the Tete area. In the focus group discussions, FSWs expressed dissatisfaction with the public health services, as a result of being asked for bribes, being badly attended by some care providers, stigmatisation and breaches of confidentiality. The service most lacking was said to be termination of unwanted pregnancies. The use of most HIV and SRH services is insufficient in this FSW population. The public health sector is the main provider, but access is hampered by several barriers. The reach of a FSW-specific NGO clinic is limited. Access to, and use of, HIV and SRH services should be improved by reducing barriers at public health facilities, broadening the range of services and expanding the reach of the targeted NGO clinic.

  16. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  17. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  18. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  19. Active-beam cross-sectional modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Ortega-Morales, Miguel

    2000-06-01

    A finite-element based analysis for modeling active composite beams with embedded anisotropic actuation is presented. It is derived from three-dimensional electroelasticity, where the original problem is reduced via the variational asymptotic method. The resulting cross-sectional analysis takes into consideration passive and active anisotropic and nonhomogeneous materials, and represents general (thin-walled, thick-walled, solid) cross-sectional geometries. The formulation requires neither the costly use of 3-D finite element discretization nor the loss of accuracy inherent to any simplified representation of the cross section. The developed formulation is numerically implemented in VABS-A, and several numerical and experimental tests cases are used to support validation of the proposed theory. Also, the effect of the presence of a core in originally hallow configurations is presented and counter-intuitive conclusions are discussed. The generality of the method and accuracy of the results increase confidence at the design stage that the active beam structure will perform as expected and, consequently, should lower costs from experimental tests and further adjustments.

  20. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  1. Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Section; Half Longitudinal Section Showing Middle Wall Reinforced with Arch; Part Long Section Showing Inside of External Side Wall; East Entrance; Part Side South External; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Floor; Part Reflected Plan of Soffite of Roof - Blenheim Covered Bridge, Spanning Schoharie River, North Blenheim, Schoharie County, NY

  2. Emmision cross section of OI (135.6nm) at 100 eV resulting from electron-inpact dissociative excitation of O-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noren, C.; Kanik, I.; Ajello, J.; McCartney, P.; Makarov, O.; McClintock, W.; Drake, V.

    2001-01-01

    In this Letter, we report for the first time, the ratio of the O I (135.6 nm)/O I (130.4 nm) absolute emission cross sections from electron-impact dissociative excitation of O-2 at 100 eV using facilities located at the University of Colorado, Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP).

  3. [Influence and correlation of attitude, availability and institutional support to research implementation in nursing practice – results from an exploratory, cross-sectional quantitative study].

    PubMed

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The concrete application of research findings in nursing practice is a multidimensional process. In Austria, there are currently no results available that explain the impact of and association with the implementation of research in hospitals. The aim of the study was to investigate influences and relationships of individual attitudes towards research utilization, availability of research results and institutional support of nurses in Austrian hospitals with respect to research application. In a non-experimental quantitative cross-sectional design a multi-centre study (n = 10) was performed in 2011. The sample comprises 178 certified nurses who were interviewed with a survey questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis shows that a positive attitude towards research use (β = 0.388, p < 0.001), the availability of processed research results (β = 0.470, p < 0.001), and an adequate institutional support (β = 0.142, p < 0.050) has a significant influence on the application of research results. The path analysis proves that course attendance in evidence-based nursing has a strong positive influence towards research application (β = 0.464; p < 0.001). Health institutions are, according to legal instructions, called on to make use of the positive attitude and supply supporting measures in order to introduce research results into the daily nursing practice.

  4. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  5. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  6. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  7. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  8. Dioxin-like compounds are not associated with bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women from Nunavik (Canada): results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Paunescu, Alexandra-Cristina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone strength in Inuit people appears lower than that of non-Aboriginals. Inuit are exposed to persistent organic pollutants including dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) through their traditional diet that comprises predatory fish and marine mammal fat. Results from experimental and population studies suggest that some DLCs can alter bone metabolism and increase bone fragility. Objective This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to examine the relationship between the stiffness index (SI) and plasma concentrations of total DLCs or specific dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in Inuit women of Nunavik (Northern Quebec, Canada). Methods SI was determined by ultrasonography at the right calcaneus of 194 Inuit women aged 35–72 years who participated to Qanuippitaa? How Are We? Nunavik Inuit Health Survey in 2004. Plasma total DLC levels were quantified by measuring the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts in a cell-based reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of DL-PCBs nos. 105, 118, 156, 157, 167 and 189 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analyses to investigate relations between total DLCs or specific DL-PCBs and SI, taking into consideration several potential confounders. Results Neither total plasma DLCs nor specific DL-PCBs were associated with SI after adjustment for several confounders and covariates. Conclusion Our results do not support a relation between exposure to DLCs and bone strength measured by ultrasonography in Inuit women of Nunavik. PMID:23730628

  9. Cross section dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, S; Marfatia, D; McKay, D W; Seckel, D

    2006-10-20

    We examine the dependence of event rates at neutrino telescopes on the neutrino-nucleon cross section for neutrinos with energy above 1 PeV, and contrast the results with those for cosmic ray experiments. Scaling of the standard model cross sections leaves the rate of upward events essentially unchanged. Details, such as detector depth and cross section inelasticity, can influence rates. Numerical estimates of upward shower, muon, and tau event rates in the IceCube detector confirm these results.

  10. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  11. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  12. HIV testing history and preferences for future tests among gay men, bisexual men and other MSM in England: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Witzel, T Charles; Melendez-Torres, G J; Hickson, Ford; Weatherburn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The British HIV Association's (BHIVA) testing guidelines recommend men who have sex with men (MSM) test annually or more frequently if ongoing risk is present. We identify which groups of MSM in England are less likely to have tested for HIV and their preferences for future tests by testing model, in order to inform health promotion programmes. Methods Data come from the Gay Men's Sex Survey 2014, a cross-sectional survey of MSM, aged 16 years or older and living in the UK. Only men who did not have diagnosed HIV and were living in England were included in this analysis. We used logistic regression models to understand how social determinants of health were associated with not testing for HIV in the past 12 months, and never having tested. We then cross-tabulated preferred testing location by demographic characteristics. Results Younger men, older men and men who were not gay identified were least likely to have tested for HIV. Higher educational attainment, migrancy, Black ethnicity and being at higher of risk were associated with greater levels of HIV testing. Men who were less likely to have tested for HIV preferred a wider range of options for future HIV testing. Conclusions If the BHIVA's HIV testing policy of 2008 was used to guide testing priorities among MSM focus would be on increasing the rate of annual testing among MSM at less risk of HIV (ie, younger men, older men and non-gay identified MSM). Instead the promotion of more frequent testing among the groups most at risk of infection should be prioritised in order to reduce the time between infection and diagnosis. PMID:27630068

  13. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  14. Coupled multigroup cross sections for hydrogen interactions in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wienke, B. R.; Morel, J. E.; Cayton, T. E.; Howell, R. B.

    1985-10-01

    Using analytical fits to the experimental cross sections for H 3 H 2, and H 2+ interactions in plasmas, developed by Gryzinski, Riviere, Jones, and Freeman, we obtain coupled multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients for hydrogen transport applications. Multigroup cross sections and rate coefficients, for specified energy group boundaries, plasma particle and temperature profiles, and cylindrical plasma confinement radius, are generated against a spatially dependent, local Maxwellian scattering background. Cross sections are formatted for direct use in production multigroup S n, Monte Carlo, or specific transport applications. Ten coupled hydrogen reactions are included and resulting cross sections for ionization, scattering, and production can be coupled or decoupled. Reactions treated include H, H 2 ionization by electrons and protons, H, H 2 charge exchange, and H 2, H 2+ dissociative mechanisms. We detail the formalism used to compute effective cross sections and rates and give practicle results for two fusion reactors.

  15. New measurement of the 242Pu(n,γ) cross section at n_TOF-EAR1 for MOX fuels: Preliminary results in the RRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Quesada, J. M.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Göbel, K.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Kalamara, A.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S. J.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mazzone, A.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Radeck, D.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N. V.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2017-09-01

    The spent fuel of current nuclear reactors contains fissile plutonium isotopes that can be combined with 238U to make mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. In this way the Pu from spent fuel is used in a new reactor cycle, contributing to the long-term sustainability of nuclear energy. The use of MOX fuels in thermal and fast reactors requires accurate capture and fission cross sections. For the particular case of 242Pu, the previous neutron capture cross section measurements were made in the 70's, providing an uncertainty of about 35% in the keV region. In this context, the Nuclear Energy Agency recommends in its "High Priority Request List" and its report WPEC-26 that the capture cross section of 242Pu should be measured with an accuracy of at least 7-12% in the neutron energy range between 500 eV and 500 keV. This work presents a brief description of the measurement performed at n_TOF-EAR1, the data reduction process and the first ToF capture measurement on this isotope in the last 40 years, providing preliminary individual resonance parameters beyond the current energy limits in the evaluations, as well as a preliminary set of average resonance parameters.

  16. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  17. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  18. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  19. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  20. [Anxiety and depressive symptoms and exposition towards violence in the general older population (between 60 and 84 years) in Germany - results from a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Csöff, R-M; Brähler, E; Lindert, J

    2014-06-01

    Depression and anxiety are important public health challenges in the general older population in Germany. Exposition towards violence/abuse in old age has been widely neglected as a risk factor for anxiety and depression among the older population. The ABUEL study (“Abuse of the Elderly in Europe”) is a cross-sectional study of people between 60 and 84 years living in Stuttgart. Anxiety and depression are assessed with the “Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale” (HADS). We assessed 1) socio-demographic variables and 2) exposition towards violence in the past 12 months as independent variables. The results indicate that violence exposition in the past 12 months is a risk factor for anxiety (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.32–3.84) and depression (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.27–4.04) among the elderly population in Germany. Anxiety is associated with female gender (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.62–6.25). Anxiety and depression are associated with times of unemployment in the life course. Our data suggest that exposure to violence in old age should be assessed to allow targeted prevention and intervention programmes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older people. results of a cross-sectional study conducted in a Belgian town

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This article aims at describing, in a Belgian town, the frequency of the fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among non-institutionalised people aged 65 years and over, and at identifying persons affected by these two issues. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Fontaine l'Evêque (Belgium) in 2006, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results The participants could fill in the questionnaire on their own or with the help of a third party if needed. The latter were not taken into account in this article. Analyses covered 419 questionnaires. Fear of falling and activity restriction were reported by, respectively, 59.1% and 33.2% of participants. They were more frequent among fallers but also affected non-fallers. In logistic regression analyses: gender, the fact of living alone and the number of falls were significantly associated with fear of falling; gender, age and the number of falls were significantly associated with activity restriction. Conclusions Our study, despite various limitations, shows the importance of fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among older people, among fallers as well as among non-fallers. It also provides information, though limited, concerning persons affected by these two issues in Belgium, and in other contexts as well. Given the ageing of our populations, it is important to take these problems into account when caring for older people. PMID:22958732

  2. Involvement in treatment decisions: what do adults with asthma want and what do they get? Results of a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Caress, A; Beaver, K; Luker, K; Campbell, M; Woodcock, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Current healthcare policy advocates patient participation in treatment decision making. However, in asthma there is little evidence regarding patients' views on such involvement. This study explored the preferred and perceived level of involvement in treatment decisions, rationales for role preference, perceived facilitators of/barriers to involvement, and the interrelationship of role preference and demographic variables in a sample of patients with asthma. Methods: A cross sectional survey was performed of 230 adults with clinician diagnosed asthma from 10 primary care sites and one specialist respiratory centre in north-west England. Preferred role in treatment decisions was assessed using the Control Preferences Scale. Results: Fifty five (23.9%) preferred an active role, 82 (35.7%) a collaborative role, and 93 (40.4%) a passive role; 19 (8.2%) perceived their role as active compared with 45 (19.6%) collaborative and 166 (72.2%) passive. Only 33.5% (n = 77) of respondents attained their most preferred role; 55.2% (n = 127) were less involved than they preferred. Patient related, professional related, and organisational factors, especially quality and duration of consultations, facilitated or hampered involvement. Role preferences were not strongly associated with demographic variables or asthma severity. Conclusions: This study in patients with asthma highlights the fact that there is a need for professional and patient education regarding partnership working, skilful communication, and innovative approaches to service delivery. PMID:15741435

  3. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0‐1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92–3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender. PMID:28321254

  4. Identifying the symptom and functional domains in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Mozzani, Flavio; Draghessi, Antonella; Atzeni, Fabiola; Catellani, Rosita; Ciapetti, Alessandro; Di Carlo, Marco; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the usefulness of using an Internet survey of patients with fibromyalgia in order to obtain information concerning symptoms and functionality and identify clusters of clinical features that can distinguish patient subsets. Methods An Internet website has been used to collect data. Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire Revised version, self-administered Fibromyalgia Activity Score, and Self-Administered Pain Scale were used as questionnaires. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was applied to the data obtained in order to identify symptoms and functional-based subgroups. Results Three hundred and fifty-three patients completed the study (85.3% women). The highest scored items were those related to sleep quality, fatigue/energy, pain, stiffness, degree of tenderness, balance problems, and environmental sensitivity. A high proportion of patients reported pain in the neck (81.4%), upper back (70.1%), and lower back (83.2%). A three-cluster solution best fitted the data. The variables were significantly different (P<0.0001) among the three clusters: cluster 1 (117 patients) reflected the lowest average scores across all symptoms, cluster 3 (116 patients) the highest scores, and cluster 2 (120 patients) captured moderate symptom levels, with low depression and anxiety. Conclusion Three subgroups of fibromyalgia samples in a large cohort of patients have been identified by using an Internet survey. This approach could provide rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and may be used to identify optimal treatment strategies. PMID:27257392

  5. Barriers and facilitators to participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) activities: results from a cross-sectional survey of public-sector employees in Tasmania, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Michelle; Blizzard, Leigh; Sanderson, Kristy; Teale, Brook; Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison

    2017-01-19

    Issue addressed: Workplaces are promising settings for health promotion, yet employee participation in workplace health promotion (WHP) activities is often low or variable. This study explored facilitating factors and barriers associated with participation in WHP activities that formed part of a comprehensive WHP initiative run within the Tasmanian State Service (TSS) between 2009 and 2013.Methods: TSS employee (n=3228) completed surveys in 2013. Data included sociodemographic characteristics, employee-perceived availability of WHP activities, employee-reported participation in WHP activities, and facilitators and barriers to participation. Ordinal log-link regression was used in cross-sectional analyses.Results: Significant associations were found for all facilitating factors and participation. Respondents who felt their organisation placed a high priority on WHP, who believed that management supported participation or that the activities could improve their health were more likely to participate. Time- and health-related barriers were associated with participation in fewer activities. All associations were independent of age, sex, work schedule and employee-perceived availability of programs. Part-time and shift-work patterns, and location of activities were additionally identified barriers.Conclusion: Facilitating factors relating to implementation, peer and environmental support, were associated with participation in more types of activities, time- and health-related barriers were associated with less participation.So what?: Large and diverse organisations should ensure WHP efforts have manager support and adopt flexible approaches to maximise employee engagement.

  6. Consumption of buprenorphine and other drugs among heroin addicts under ambulatory treatment: results from cross-sectional studies in 1988 and 1990.

    PubMed

    San, L; Torrens, M; Castillo, C; Porta, M; de la Torre, R

    1993-10-01

    We assessed the prevalence of consumption of buprenorphine and other drugs among heroin addicts under ambulatory treatment in two cross-sectional studies conducted in 1988 (188 subjects) and in 1990 (197 subjects). Patients were enrolled in one of three different programmes: methadone maintenance programme (MMP), antagonist maintenance programme (AMP) and drug-free programme (DFP). Information given by participants was compared with results of urine screening for drugs. Urine samples were tested using enzyme immunoassay for the detection of heroin, cocaine, dextropropoxyphene, cannabis and benzodiazepines, and radioimmunoassay for buprenorphine. Sixty-six percent of patients in 1988 and 71% of patients in 1990 reported having consumed buprenorphine at some time during their history of drug dependence (period prevalence) and 5.9% and 6.1%, respectively, tested positive to the drug (point prevalence). In over 70% of these patients consumption was by the intravenous route. Consumption of cannabis, cocaine and benzodiazepines was also very high in the study population. Overall, patients in the DFP group consumed the largest number of the drugs tested, while those in the AMP group consumed the smallest number. Abuse of buprenorphine could be more widespread than previously reported.

  7. Does Good Aerobic Capacity Attenuate the Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Risk Factors? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Latino Population.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Giovanna; Acevedo, Mónica; Orellana, Lorena; Bustamante, María José; Kramer, Verónica; Adasme, Marcela; Baraona, Fernando; Chamorro, Gastón; Jalil, Jorge; Navarrete, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background. High aerobic capacity is associated with low cardiovascular (CV) risk. The aim of this study was to determine the CV RF burden in subjects with aerobic capacity ≥10 METs and compare it with those having <10 METs. Methods. Cross-sectional study in 2646 subjects (mean age 48 ± 12 years). Demographics, medical history, physical activity, cardiovascular RFs, fasting lipids and blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Aerobic capacity was determined by exercise stress test. The ACC/AHA 2013 pooled cohort equation was used to calculate CV risk. Logistic models were built to determine the probability of having ≥2 RFs versus 0-1 RF, by age and sex, according to aerobic capacity. Results. 15% of subjects had aerobic capacity < 10 METs. The ACC/AHA scores were 15% in men and 6% in women with <10 METs and 5% and 2%, respectively, in those with ≥10 METs. The probability of having ≥2 RFs increased with age in both groups; however, it was significantly higher in subjects with <10 METs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.54; 95% CI: 1.92-3.35). Conclusions. Aerobic capacity ≥ 10 METs is associated with a better CV RF profile and lower CV risk score in all age groups, regardless of gender.

  8. Measured microwave scattering cross sections of three meteorite specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    Three meteorite specimens were used in a microwave scattering experiment to determine the scattering cross sections of stony meteorites and iron meteorites in the frequency range from 10 to 14 GHz. The results indicate that the stony meteorites have a microwave scattering cross section that is 30 to 50 percent of their projected optical cross section. Measurements of the iron meteorite scattering were inconclusive because of specimen surface irregularities.

  9. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  10. Flow in tubes of non-circular cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quadir, Raushan Ara

    Laminar, viscous, incompressible flow in tubes of noncircular cross sections is investigated. The specific aims of the investigation are (1) to look at the problems of both developing flow and fully developed flow, (2) to consider noncircular cross sections in a more systematic manner than has been done in the past, and (3) to develop a relatively simple finite element technique for producing accurate numerical solutions of flow in tubes of fairly arbitrary cross sections. Fully developed flow in tubes is governed by a Poisson type equation for the mainstream velocity. Both analytical and numerical solutions are considered. The cross sections studied include elliptic and rectangular cross sections of different aspect ratios, some triangular cross sections, and a series of crescent-shaped cross sections. The physical characteristics of the flow are examined in a systematic manner in order to determine how these characteristics are affected by certain geometrical features of the cross section. Solutions fall into three basic categories depending on the shape of the cross section. In the first category, which includes circular and elliptic cross sections, solutions are possible in closed form. In the second, including rectangular and some triangular cross sections, solutions are in the form of infinite series. In the third, including cross sections of more complicated or irregular shapes, only numerical solutions are possible. Results of calculations of velocity profiles, flow rate, pumping power, and friction factor are presented in a way which can be useful for engineering applications. In numerical studies of both developing and fully developed flow finite element techniques are used. Results are obtained for tubes of rectangular and elliptic cross sections of different aspect ratios, for tubes of crescent-shaped cross sections, and a tube whose cross section is an oval of Cassini. For fully developed flow, results are compared with the corresponding exact

  11. Crosstalk in rectangular cross-section heterogeneous multicore fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Olga N.; Astapovich, Maxim S.; Semjonov, Sergey L.

    2016-09-01

    Using neighboring cores with different mode propagation constants (indexes) is a well-known way to reduce crosstalk in multicore fiber (MCF). However, in actual field-deployed fiber, random bends can cause a reduction in the difference between the mode indexes of neighboring cores, which consequently increases crosstalk. The level of crosstalk induced by bending in both rectangular cross-section and circular cross-section heterogeneous MCF with cores arranged in a line was investigated. The experimental results obtained indicate that in contrast to circular cross-section MCF, no bending-induced crosstalk occurs in rectangular cross-section MCF wound on the mandrel without special control of cross-section orientation. Thus, to eliminate undesirable bending-induced crosstalk in heterogeneous MCF a rectangular cross-section should be employed.

  12. Color dipole cross section and inelastic structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yu Seon; Kim, C. S.; Luu, Minh Vu; Reno, Mary Hall

    2014-11-01

    Instead of starting from a theoretically motivated form of the color dipole cross section in the dipole picture of deep inelastic scattering, we start with a parametrization of the deep inelastic structure function for electromagnetic scattering with protons, and then extract the color dipole cross section. Using the parametrizations of F 2(ξ = x or W 2 , Q 2) by Donnachie-Landshoff and Block et al., we find the dipole cross section from an approximate form of the presumed dipole cross section convoluted with the perturbative photon wave function for virtual photon splitting into a color dipole with massless quarks. The color dipole cross section determined this way reproduces the original structure function within about 10% for 0 .1 GeV2 ≤ Q 2 ≤10 GeV2. We discuss the dipole cross section at large and small dipole sizes and compare our results with other parametrizations.

  13. Obesity-related behaviours and BMI in five urban regions across Europe: sampling design and results from the SPOTLIGHT cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Lakerveld, Jeroen; Ben Rebah, Maher; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Charreire, Hélène; Compernolle, Sofie; Glonti, Ketevan; Bardos, Helga; Rutter, Harry; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the design, methods and first results of a survey on obesity-related behaviours and body mass index (BMI) in adults living in neighbourhoods from five urban regions across Europe. Design A cross-sectional observational study in the framework of an European Union-funded project on obesogenic environments (SPOTLIGHT). Setting 60 urban neighbourhoods (12 per country) were randomly selected in large urban zones in Belgium, France, Hungary, the Netherlands and the UK, based on high or low values for median household income (socioeconomic status, SES) and residential area density. Participants A total of 6037 adults (mean age 52 years, 56% female) participated in the online survey. Outcome measures Self-reported physical activity, sedentary behaviours, dietary habits and BMI. Other measures included general health; barriers and motivations for a healthy lifestyle, perceived social and physical environmental characteristics; the availability of transport modes and their use to specific destinations; self-defined neighbourhood boundaries and items related to residential selection. Results Across five countries, residents from low-SES neighbourhoods ate less fruit and vegetables, drank more sugary drinks and had a consistently higher BMI. SES differences in sedentary behaviours were observed in France, with residents from higher SES neighbourhoods reporting to sit more. Residents from low-density neighbourhoods were less physically active than those from high-density neighbourhoods; during leisure time and (most pronounced) for transport (except for Belgium). BMI differences by residential density were inconsistent across all countries. Conclusions The SPOTLIGHT survey provides an original approach for investigating relations between environmental characteristics, obesity-related behaviours and obesity in Europe. First descriptive results indicate considerable differences in health behaviours and BMI between countries and neighbourhood types. PMID

  14. Do Health Care Providers Use Online Patient Ratings to Improve the Quality of Care? Results From an Online-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Physician-rating websites have become a popular tool to create more transparency about the quality of health care providers. So far, it remains unknown whether online-based rating websites have the potential to contribute to a better standard of care. Objective Our goal was to examine which health care providers use online rating websites and for what purposes, and whether health care providers use online patient ratings to improve patient care. Methods We conducted an online-based cross-sectional study by surveying 2360 physicians and other health care providers (September 2015). In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed multilevel logistic regression models to ascertain the effects of providers’ demographics as well as report card-related variables on the likelihood that providers implement measures to improve patient care. Results Overall, more than half of the responding providers surveyed (54.66%, 1290/2360) used online ratings to derive measures to improve patient care (implemented measures: mean 3.06, SD 2.29). Ophthalmologists (68%, 40/59) and gynecologists (65.4%, 123/188) were most likely to implement any measures. The most widely implemented quality measures were related to communication with patients (28.77%, 679/2360), the appointment scheduling process (23.60%, 557/2360), and office workflow (21.23%, 501/2360). Scaled-survey results had a greater impact on deriving measures than narrative comments. Multilevel logistic regression models revealed medical specialty, the frequency of report card use, and the appraisal of the trustworthiness of scaled-survey ratings to be significantly associated predictors for implementing measures to improve patient care because of online ratings. Conclusions Our results suggest that online ratings displayed on physician-rating websites have an impact on patient care. Despite the limitations of our study and unintended consequences of physician-rating websites, they still may have the potential to

  15. [What are the Prerequisites for a Successful Cooperation between Nursing Homes and Physicians? - Results of a Mixed-methods Cross-Sectional Study in Bavarian Nursing Homes].

    PubMed

    Karsch-Völk, M; Lüssenheide, J; Linde, K; Schmid, E; Schneider, A

    2016-11-01

    Aim: This mixed-methods cross-sectional study examined the cooperation between nursing home staff and physicians in Bavarian nursing homes in order to understand which organisational and communication measures are resulting in satisfying teamwork among professional groups in nursing homes. Methods: In 3 interview rounds nursing home staff, general practitioners, medical specialists, dentists, nursing home residents, and relatives in 52 nursing homes were interviewed using a questionnaire that was enhanced after every round. Additionally, focus group interviews have been performed in 2 nursing homes. Results: 443 persons involved in patient care, 50 residents and 47 relatives participated in the structured interviews. 22 persons attended the focus group interviews. 65% of the nursing homes required regular visits of general practitioners and 36% or, respectively, 27% required regular or on demand visits of specialists. 47% of the nursing home staff that was asked about this issue stated that it would make their work easier if only a small number of physicians were in charge of their institution. Measures for improvement of medical care in nursing homes most frequently suggested by interview partners responsible for patient care were: better communication (9%), better remuneration of physicians' nursing home visits (7%, nurses and physicians) and less bureaucracy and regular physicians' visits (5% in each question). Conclusion: Because of the composition of our study sample it cannot be assumed that the results are representative for all Bavarian nursing homes. Confidence in one another, low number of persons in charge, binding agreements and regular physicians' nursing home visits are essential for a successful cooperation between providing physicians and nursing home staff. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  18. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  19. Capture cross sections on unstable nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable nuclei near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.

  20. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  1. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  2. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  3. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  4. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  5. Capture cross sections from (p,d) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escher, J. E.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Ota, S.; Scielzo, N. D.

    2017-09-01

    Cross sections for compound-nuclear reactions involving unstable targets are important for many applications, but can often not be measured directly. Several indirect methods have been proposed to determine neutron capture cross sections for unstable isotopes. We consider an approach that aims at constraining statistical calculations of capture cross sections with data obtained from light-ion transfer reactions such as (p,d). We discuss the theoretical descriptions that have to be developed in order to extract meaningful cross section constraints from such data and show some benchmark results.

  6. Inclusive Cross Section Production of J/ψ in LEP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osati, T.; Abubakri, B.

    2017-02-01

    Cross section production is one of the observable quantities in the hadronic systems. Inclusive cross section production J/ψ may be calculated through the use of the fragmentation c → J/ψ. In this paper we calculate the inclusive cross section production J/ψ about the pole of Z 0 in the e + e ‑ annihilation, through the lowest order regim of perturbative of QCD ananlyticaly. The obtained results arrive an excellent agreement with the exprimental data to produce the inclusive cross section production c → J/ψ.

  7. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Guo-Zhu; Gao, Ge; Ruan, Yu-Hua; Yu, Ming-Run; Zhou, Yun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is spreading rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. Anonymous questionnaires or direct interviews have been frequently used to study their behavior. The aim of the study was to describe the behavioral risk profile of the MSM in Beijing using the randomized response techniques (RRTs). Methods: A cross-sectional survey of sexual behavior among a sample of MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing. The survey was carried out with an anonymous questionnaire containing sensitive questions on sexual behavior. To obtain the honest responses to the sensitive questions, three distinctive RRTs were used in the questionnaire: (1) Additive randomized response model for quantitative questions, (2) randomized response model for multiple choice questions, and (3) Simmons randomized response model for binomial questions. Formulae for the point estimate, variance, and confidence interval (CI) were provided for each specific model. Results: Using RRTs in a sample of 659 participants, the mean age at first homosexual encounter was estimated to be 21.7 years (95% CI: 21.2–22.2), and each had sex with about three (2.9, 95% CI: 2.4–3.4) male partners on average in the past month. The estimated rate for consistent condom use was 56.4% (95% CI: 50.1–62.8%). In addition, condom was estimated to be used among 80.0% (95% CI: 74.1–85.9%) of the population during last anal sex with a male partner. Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings. PMID:26904985

  8. Prevalence of severe esophagitis in Spain. Results of the PRESS study (Prevalence and Risk factors for Esophagitis in Spain: A cross-sectional study)

    PubMed Central

    Piqué, Núria; Ponce, Marta; Garrigues, Vicente; Rodrigo, Luis; Calvo, Félix; de Argila, Carlos Martín; Borda, Fernando; Naranjo, Antonio; Alcedo, Javier; José Soria, María; Rey, Enrique; Bujanda, Luis; Gisbert, Javier P; Suarez, David; Ponce, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Background *N.P. and M.P. contributed equally to this study.The current prevalence of esophagitis in southern Europe is unknown. In addition, the risk factors for reflux esophagitis are not fully understood. Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence and risk factors for esophagitis in Spain. Methods A prospective, observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study (PRESS study) was conducted among 31 gastrointestinal endoscopy units throughout Spain. A total of 1361 patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. Sociodemographic, clinical and treatment data were recorded. Results A total of 95% of patients were Caucasian and 52% were male (mean age: 53 ± 17 years). The most frequent symptoms prompting endoscopy were heartburn (40%), regurgitation (26%) and dysphagia (15%). Fifty-four percent of patients undergoing endoscopy were receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. Esophagitis (mainly mild-moderate) was present in 154 (12.4%) patients. The severe form was recorded in only 11 (0.8%) patients. Multivariate analysis results indicated that the likelihood of esophagitis was higher in men (OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.31–2.78), in patients with high GERD-Q scores (OR = 1.256, 95% CI = 1.176–1.343), weight increase (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 1.003–1.025) and high alcohol consumption (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.16–5.36). Conclusion Severe esophagitis is a rare finding in the Spanish population. Male gender, high GERD-Q score, weight increase and high alcohol consumption are main risk factors for its appearance. PMID:27087951

  9. Associations of Alcohol Availability and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Characteristics With Drinking: Cross-Sectional Results From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Allison B.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Borrell, Luisa N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Living in neighborhoods with a high density of alcohol outlets and socioeconomic disadvantage may increase residents’ alcohol use. Few researchers have studied these exposures in relation to multiple types of alcohol use, including beverage-specific consumption, and how individual demographic factors influence these relationships. Objective To examine the relationships of alcohol outlet density and neighborhood disadvantage with alcohol consumption, and to investigate differences in these associations by race/ethnicity and income. Methods Using cross-sectional data (N=5,873) from the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis in 2002, we examine associations of residential alcohol outlet density and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage with current, total weekly and heaviest daily alcohol use in gender specific regression models, as well as moderation by race/ethnicity and income. Results Drinking men living near high densities of alcohol outlets had 23–29% more weekly alcohol use than men in low density areas. Among women who drank, those living near a moderate density of alcohol outlets consumed approximately 40% less liquor each week than those in low density areas, but higher outlet densities were associated with more wine consumption (35–49%). Living in highly or moderately disadvantaged neighborhoods was associated with a lower probability of being a current drinker, but with higher rates of weekly beer consumption. Income moderated the relationship between neighborhood context and weekly alcohol use. Conclusions/Importance Neighborhood disadvantage and alcohol outlet density may influence alcohol use with effects varying by gender and income. Results from this research may help target interventions and policy to groups most at risk for greater weekly consumption. PMID:26579610

  10. Impact of socioeconomic and risk factors on cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in Australia: comparison of results from longitudinal and cross-sectional designs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjing; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2016-01-01

    Objective Existing large-scale studies do not take into account comorbidity or control for selection and endogeneity biases. This study addresses these shortcomings. Participants We use information on individuals aged between 35 and 70 years from a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in Australia between 2001 and 2013. Participants were approached annually, and updates on their characteristics, including health status, were ascertained through self-reporting. Method We develop three different analytical designs. The first model is a cross-sectional analysis against which our improved models are compared. In the second model, we follow the same approach but control for prior health conditions. The last preferred model additionally adjusts for characteristics and risk profile of respondents prior to onset of conditions. It also allows for comorbidity and controls for selection bias. Results Once comorbidity and changes over time in the participant's characteristics are controlled for, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and physical activity exhibit a stronger impact than in the models without these controls. A unit increase in BMI increases the risk of developing a cardiovascular disease (CVD) condition within 2 years by 1.3 percentage points (β=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.16) and regular alcohol intake increases the risk of CVD by 3.0 percentage points (β=0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.39). Both factors lose significance without proper control for endogenous behavioural change. We also note that frequent physical activity reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 0.9 percentage point (β=−0.40, 95% CI −0.72 to −0.07). Conclusions Our result shows a greater importance of certain lifestyle and risk factors than was previously suggested. PMID:27053269

  11. Eating behaviour and its association with social living conditions and weight status among adolescent girls: results of the cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bau, Anne-Madeleine; Krull, Sarah; Ernert, Andrea; Babitsch, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    To capture a more holistic picture of eating behaviour by investigating the impact of the social living conditions and weight status of parents and daughters on food consumption frequency, the context of meals and daily portion sizes. Cross-sectional Berlin School Children's Cohort study. A total of sixty-nine schools in Berlin (3 400 000 inhabitants, eastern Germany) participated in the present study. A total of 1519 girls aged 11-14 years were selected. Bi- and multivariate analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, migration background, socio-economic status (SES), parental education, family situation and the weight status of parents and daughters on three different eating behaviour scores according to nutritional recommendations. For the three dependent eating behaviour variables, different patterns of influencing factors emerged. Multivariate regression (model 1) revealed that low and middle SES, two-parent migration background and older age were significant risk factors. Meal context was also significantly influenced by living with a single parent. Similar results were obtained for the daily portion size scores and maternal overweight status was the most influential. Model 2 succeeded in showing that, within the composite variable of family SES, mothers' level of education was the dominant component. SES as a whole, and especially the component of mothers' level of education and two-parent migration background, was the strongest risk factor for an unfavourable eating pattern among adolescent girls. The results clearly indicated preventive potential. Using three different measures of eating behaviour simultaneously provided an in-depth understanding of general patterns and potential risk factors.

  12. Total cross sections for neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-02-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed models, there are relatively few comparisons of predictions with experiment. The total cross sections for neutron scattering from 16O and 40Ca are calculated as a function of energy from 50 to 700 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first-order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although these results are aleady in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator is essential to correctly predict the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region between 100 and 200 MeV, where off-shell tρ calculations for both 16O and 40Ca overpredict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values. Above 300 MeV these corrections are very small and depending on the employed nuclear mean field tend to compensate for the underprediction of the off-shell tρ results.

  13. Neodymium neutron cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Barry, D P; Trbovich, M J; Danon, Y; Block, R C; Slovacek, R E; Leinweber, G; Burke, J A; Drindak, N J

    2005-01-01

    Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m-long flight station with a 16-segment NaI(Tl) multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15 and 25 m flight stations with a 6Li glass scintillation detector. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by simultaneously fitting the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes lie within the energy range of 1.0-500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integral with this energy region and were compared to calculations obtained when using the resonance parameters from ENDF-B/VI. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 +/- 0.5 b that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the statistical uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters.

  14. Undergraduate teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism at medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Stephen T; Cladi, Lorenzo; Morris, Paul; Forde, Donall

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if individual undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and the Republic of Ireland provide any teaching to medical students about biological weapons, bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation, if they perceive them to be relevant issues and if they figure them in their future plans. Design A cross-sectional study utilising an internet-based questionnaire sent to key figures responsible for leading on the planning and delivery of undergraduate medical teaching at all schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland. Setting All identified undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland between August 2012 and December 2012. Outcome measures Numerical data and free text feedback about relevant aspects of undergraduate teaching. Results Of the 38 medical schools approached, 34 (28 in UK, 6 in Ireland) completed the questionnaire (89.47%). 4 (all in UK) chose not to complete it. 6/34 (17.65%) included some specific teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism. 7/34 (20.59%) had staff with bioterrorism expertise (mainly in microbiological and syndromic aspects). 4/34 (11.76%) had plans to introduce some specific teaching on bioterrorism. Free text responses revealed that some felt that because key bodies (eg, UK's General Medical Council) did not request teaching on bioterrorism, then it should not be included, while others regarded this field of study as a postgraduate subject and not appropriate for undergraduates, or argued that the curriculum was too congested already. 4/34 (11.76%) included some specific teaching on chemical weapons, and 3/34 (8.82%) on weaponised radiation. Conclusions This study provides evidence that at the present time there is little teaching at the undergraduate level in the UK and Ireland on the subjects of biological weapons and bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation and signals that this situation is unlikely to change unless there were to be high-level policy guidance. PMID

  15. Factors Associated with Dog Rabies Vaccination in Bohol, Philippines: Results of a Cross-Sectional Cluster Survey Conducted Following the Island-Wide Rabies Elimination Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, S.; Lapiz, S. M.; Miranda, M. E.; Murray, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination two years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization’s Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven percent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human to dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12 – 23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3 – 11 months (95% CI 1.8 – 12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9 – 4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. PMID:23280122

  16. Australian adult smokers’ responses to plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings 1 year after implementation: results from a national cross-sectional tracking survey

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, Melanie; Coomber, Kerri; Zacher, Meghan; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Scollo, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette smokers during pre-plain packaging (April–September 2012, pre-PP) with n=759 surveyed in the transition period (October–November 2012) and n=4240 during the first year of implementation (December 2012–November 2013, PP year 1), using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From pre-PP to PP year 1, more smokers disliked their pack (p<0.001), perceived lower pack appeal (p<0.001), lower cigarette quality (p<0.001), lower satisfaction (p<0.001) and lower value (p<0.001) and disagreed brands differed in prestige (p=0.003). There was no change in perceived differences in taste of different brands. More smokers noticed GHWs (p<0.001), attributed much motivation to quit to GHWs (p<0.001), avoided specific GHWs when purchasing (p<0.001), and covered packs (p<0.001), with no change in perceived exaggeration of harms. PP year 1 saw an increased proportion believing that brands do not differ in harmfulness (p=0.004), but no change in the belief that variants do not differ in strength or the perceived harmfulness of cigarettes compared with a year ago. Interactions signified greater change for four outcomes assessing aspects of appeal among young adults and two appeal outcomes among mid-aged adults. Conclusions The specific objectives of plain packaging were achieved and generally sustained among adult smokers up to 12 months after implementation. PMID:28407606

  17. Mobile Technology and Social Media in the Clinical Practice of Young Radiation Oncologists: Results of a Comprehensive Nationwide Cross-sectional Study

    SciTech Connect

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; and others

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. Methods and Materials: We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. Results: In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Conclusions: Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital.

  18. Determinants of first and second trimester induced abortion - results from a cross-sectional study taken place 7 years after abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bonnen, Kristine Ivalu; Tuijje, Dereje Negussie; Rasch, Vibeke

    2014-12-19

    In 2005 Ethiopia took the important step to protect women's reproductive health by liberalizing the abortion law. As a result women were given access to safe pregnancy termination in first and second trimester. This study aims to describe socio-economic characteristics and contraceptive experience among women seeking abortion in Jimma, Ethiopia and to describe determinants of second trimester abortion. A cross-sectional study conducted October 2011 - April 2012 in Jimma Town, Ethiopia among women having safely induced abortion and women having unsafely induced abortion. In all 808 safe abortion cases and 21 unsafe abortion cases were included in the study. Of the 829 abortions, 729 were first trimester and 100 were second trimester abortions. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to determine risk factors associated with second trimester abortion. The associations are presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidential intervals. Age stratified analyses of contraceptive experience among women with first and second trimester abortions are also presented. Socio-economic characteristics associated with increased ORs of second trimester abortion were: age < 19 years, being single, widowed or divorced, attending school, being unemployment, being nullipara or para 3+, and having low education. The contraceptive prevalence rate varied across age groups and was particularly low among young girls and young women experiencing second trimester abortion where only 15% and 19% stated they had ever used contraception. Young age, poor education and the prospect of single parenthood were associated with second trimester abortion. Young girls and young women were using contraception comparatively less often than older women. To ensure women full right to control their fertility in the setting studied, modern contraception should be made available, accessible and affordable for all women, regardless of age.

  19. Influence of gender, working field and psychosocial factors on the vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff: results of an Austrian cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Schadenhofer, Petra; Kundi, Michael; Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Stummer, Harald; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2017-08-14

    According to the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA), hospitals represent a work environment with high job strain. Prolonged perceived occupational stress may result in symptoms of burnout, such as emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalisation (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Understanding which factors may reduce vulnerability for burnout is an important requirement for well-targeted occupational stress prevention in mental hospital staff. To identify the influence of gender, age, working field, family structure, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job on occupational stress perception. In a cross-sectional design, 491 employees (311 female, 180 male) of an Austrian mental health centre participated in the study. The extent of perceived occupational stress was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) with the scales for emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Participants were divided according to their working field in those working with/without patients. Prevalence of emotional exhaustion was higher in women working with patients compared to men working with patients (25% vs. 18%, p = 0.003). Age above 45 years was significantly associated with decreased vulnerability for burnout in men (EE p = 0.040, DP p = 0.010, PA p = 0.007), but not in women. A lower level of education had a significant impact on depersonalisation in both sexes (p = 0.001 for men, p = 0.048 for women). Length of stay on job showed a significant influence on emotional exhaustion. No significant relationship was found between family structure and vulnerability for burnout. Gender had a differential effect on perceived occupational stress indicating a need for gender-tailored preventive strategies. Age, working field, education, voluntarily occupational training during holidays and length of stay on job affect vulnerability for burnout in mental hospital staff.

  20. Occupational status as a determinant of mental health inequities in French young people: is fairness needed? Results of a cross-sectional multicentre observational survey.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, Marie; Labbe-Lobertreau, Emilie; Sass, Catherine; Berger, Dominique; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-08-08

    Employment conditions are associated with health inequities. In 2013, French young people had the highest unemployment rate and among those who worked as salaried workers most of them had temporary job. The purpose of the study was to assess mental health state of French young people through the prism of their occupational status and to measure whether occupational status is a determinant of health inequities. A cross-sectional multicentre observational survey was performed in June and July 2010 in 115 French Local Social Centres and 74 Health Examination Centres, who were available to participate. The survey was based on an anonymous self-administrated questionnaire delivered by social workers or healthcare professionals to young people age from 16 to 25 years old. The questionnaire was composed of 54 items. Several health outcomes were measured: self-perceived health, mental health, addictions and to be victim of violence. The association of occupational status and mental health was assessed by adjusting results on age and gender and by introducing other explanatory variables such as social deprivation. A total of 4282 young people completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 83%, 1866 men and 2378 women, sex-ratio 0.79. French young people having a non-working occupational status or a non-permanent working status were more exposed to poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, addictions and violence. To be at school particularly secondary school was a protective factor for addiction. Occupational status of French young people was a determinant of mental health inequities. Young people not at work and not studying reported greater vulnerability and should be targeted therefore by appropriate and specific social and medical services.

  1. Postpartum anxiety and adjustment disorders in parents of infants with very low birth weight: Cross-sectional results from a controlled multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Helle, Nadine; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; von der Wense, Axel; Nestoriuc, Yvonne; Bindt, Carola

    2016-04-01

    Both preterm delivery and survival rates of very low birth weight (VLBW: <1500 g) infants are increasing. To date, the focus on studies about postpartum mental health after preterm birth has been on depression and on women. There is a paucity of research regarding prevalence, risks, and predictors of postpartum anxiety in parents after VLBW birth. Parents with VLBW infants and parents with term infants were recruited into the longitudinal HaFEn-study at the three largest centers of perinatal care in Hamburg, Germany. State anxiety was assessed with the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory and anxiety and adjustment disorders with a clinical interview one month postpartum. Psychiatric lifetime diagnoses, social support, trait anxiety, stress during birth, socioeconomic status, risks during pregnancy, and mode of delivery were also evaluated. To examine predictors of postpartum state anxiety in both parents simultaneously a multiple random coefficient model was used. 230 mothers and 173 fathers were included. The risk for minor/major anxiety symptoms and adjustment disorders was higher in parents with VLBW infants compared to the term group. The risk for anxiety disorders was not higher in parents with VLBW infants. The most important predictors for postpartum state anxiety were high trait anxiety, the birth of a VLBW infant, high stress during birth, and low social support. Data reported here are cross-sectional. Thus, temporal relationships cannot be established. Our results emphasize the importance of early screening for postpartum anxiety in both parents with VLBW infants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Do triglycerides explain the U-shaped relation between alcohol and diabetes risk? Results from a cross-sectional survey of alcohol and plasma glucose.

    PubMed

    Scragg, Robert; Metcalf, Patricia

    2004-11-01

    The association between alcohol and blood glucose levels, and whether it is modified by other variables, was examined in a cross-sectional survey of 5518 staff aged 40-65 years at worksites in Auckland and Tokoroa, New Zealand. Diabetes was determined by oral glucose-tolerance tests using 1999 WHO criteria. Usual alcohol intake in the previous 3 months, measured by food frequency questionnaire, was related positively with fasting triglycerides and high-density-lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and unrelated with fasting glucose, but had an approximate U-shaped relationship with 2-h glucose, which varied from an adjusted mean (S.E.) of 5.62 (0.08) mmol/l in non-drinkers, down to 5.34 (0.08) mmol/l in light alcohol drinkers (alcohol <5 g per day), and back up to 5.52 (0.09) mmol/l in heavy drinkers (> or =20 g per day). Adjusting further for triglycerides increased the mean difference in 2-h glucose for all drinking categories compared with non-drinkers, particularly for heavy drinkers (> or =20 g per day), from -0.22 (S.E. = 0.10) to -0.37 (0.10) mmol/l. The confounding effect of triglycerides suggests alcohol may affect the diabetes risk by a mechanism related to the triglyceride metabolism, which in heavy drinkers may counteract the protective effect of improved insulin sensitivity, resulting in the U-shaped relationship between alcohol and diabetes described in previous studies.

  3. Discrepancy between prevalence and perceived effectiveness of treatment methods in myofascial pain syndrome: Results of a cross-sectional, nationwide survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain is a common dysfunction with a lifetime prevalence affecting up to 85% of the general population. Current guidelines for the management of myofascial pain are not available. In this study we investigated how physicians on the basis of prescription behaviour evaluate the effectiveness of treatment options in their management of myofascial pain. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, nationwide survey with a standardized questionnaire among 332 physicians (79.8% male, 25.6% female, 47.5 ± 9.6 years) experienced in treating patients with myofascial pain. Recruitment of physicians took place at three German meetings of pain therapists, rheumatologists and orthopaedists, respectively. Physicians estimated the prevalence of myofascial pain amongst patients in their practices, stated what treatments they used routinely and then rated the perceived treatment effectiveness on a six-point scale (with 1 being excellent). Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results The estimated overall prevalence of active myofascial trigger points is 46.1 ± 27.4%. Frequently prescribed treatments are analgesics, mainly metamizol/paracetamol (91.6%), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs/coxibs (87.0%) or weak opioids (81.8%), and physical therapies, mainly manual therapy (81.1%), TENS (72.9%) or acupuncture (60.2%). Overall effectiveness ratings for analgesics (2.9 ± 0.7) and physical therapies were moderate (2.5 ± 0.8). Effectiveness ratings of the various treatment options between specialities were widely variant. 54.3% of all physicians characterized the available treatment options as insufficient. Conclusions Myofascial pain was estimated a prevalent condition. Despite a variety of commonly prescribed treatments, the moderate effectiveness ratings and the frequent characterizations of the available treatments as insufficient suggest an urgent need for clinical research to establish evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of myofascial

  4. Age-Related Changes of Plasma Bile Acid Concentrations in Healthy Adults—Results from the Cross-Sectional KarMeN Study

    PubMed Central

    Frommherz, Lara; Bub, Achim; Hummel, Eva; Rist, Manuela J.; Roth, Alexander; Watzl, Bernhard; Kulling, Sabine E.

    2016-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) play an important role in lipid metabolism. They facilitate intestinal lipid absorption, and BA synthesis is the main catabolic pathway for cholesterol. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of age, sex, diet (fat intake) and parameters of lipid metabolism (triglycerides, LDL, HDL, body fat content) with fasting plasma BA concentration of healthy individuals. Fasting plasma samples from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the concentrations of 14 BA using an LC-MS stable isotope dilution assay. Triglycerides, LDL and HDL were analyzed by standard clinical chemistry methods and body fat content was measured with a DXA instrument. The dietary fat intake of the 24 h period prior to the sampling was assessed on the basis of a 24 h recall. Subsequent statistical data processing was done by means of a median regression model. Results revealed large inter-individual variations. Overall, higher median plasma concentrations of BA were observed in men than in women. Quantile regression showed significant interactions of selected BA with age and sex, affecting primarily chenodeoxycholic acid and its conjugates. No associations were found for LDL and the amount of fat intake (based on the percentage of energy intake from dietary fat as well as total fat intake). Additional associations regarding body fat content, HDL and triglycerides were found for some secondary BA plasma concentrations. We conclude that age and sex are associated with the fasting plasma concentrations. Those associations are significant and need to be considered in studies investigating the role of BA in the human metabolism. PMID:27092559

  5. Use of illicit tobacco following introduction of standardised packaging of tobacco products in Australia: results from a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Zacher, Meghan; Coomber, Kerri; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether following standardisation of tobacco packaging in Australia, smokers were, as predicted by the tobacco industry, more likely to use illicit tobacco. Methods National cross-sectional telephone surveys conducted continuously from April 2012 (6 months before implementation of plain packaging (PP)) to March 2014 (15 months after) using responses from current cigarette smokers (n=8679). Changes between pre-PP, the transition to PP and PP phase were examined using logistic regression models. Results Among those whose factory-made cigarettes were purchased in Australia, compared with pre-PP, there were no significant increases in the PP phase in use of: ‘cheap whites’ (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.56, p=0.134); international brands purchased for 20% or more below the recommended retail price (0.2%; OR=3.49, 95% CI 0.66 to 18.35, p=0.140); or packs purchased from informal sellers (<0.1%; OR=0.24, 95% CI 0.04 to 1.47, p=0.124). The prevalence of any use of unbranded illicit tobacco remained at about 3% (adjusted OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.08, p=0.141). Conclusions While unable to quantify the total extent of use of illicit manufactured cigarettes, in this large national survey we found no evidence in Australia of increased use of two categories of manufactured cigarettes likely to be contraband, no increase in purchase from informal sellers and no increased use of unbranded illicit ‘chop-chop’ tobacco.

  6. Association between household food access insecurity and nutritional status indicators among children aged <5 years in Nepal: results from a national, cross-sectional household survey.

    PubMed

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Ramakrishnareddy, N; Subramaniam, Mayoori

    2015-11-01

    To examine the association between household food insecurity score and Z-scores of childhood nutritional status indicators. Population-based, cross-sectional survey, Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. A nationally representative sample of 11 085 households selected by a two-stage, stratified cluster sampling design to interview eligible men and women. Children (n 2591) aged 0-60 months in a sub-sample of households selected for men's interview. Prevalence of moderate and severe household food insecurity was 23·2% and 19·0%, respectively, for children aged 0-60 months. Weighted prevalence rates for stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) <-2), wasting (weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <-2) and underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) <-2) were 41·6% (95% CI 38·9, 44·3%), 11·5% (95% CI 9·8, 13·2%) and 30·1% (95% CI 27·5, 32·8%), respectively. Prevalences of stunting, severe stunting (HAZ<-3) and underweight by level of household food insecurity were statistically significant (P<0·001). By multiple linear regression analyses and after adjustment for sociodemographic, child and environmental factors, household food access insecurity score was associated with HAZ (β=-0·02, P=0·01) and WAZ (β=-0·01, P=0·01) but was not associated with WHZ and BMI-for-age Z-score. A 10-point increase in household food access insecurity score was associated with a decrease in HAZ of 0·2 (95% CI 0·05, 0·39) and decrease in WAZ of 0·1 (95% CI 0·03, 0·27). Our results from a nationally representative sample confirm the previously reported association of household food insecurity with stunting and underweight. Community nutrition interventions may use household food insecurity scales for identifying those households where children may be at risk of growth faltering.

  7. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS)

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Pascual, Thomas N. B.; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V.; Mahmarian, John J.; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E.; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V. Peter C.; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H.; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J.; Underwood, S. Richard; Rehani, Madan M.; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing ‘best practices’ worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. Methods and results We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March–April 2013. Eight ‘best practices’ relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more ‘best practices’ had lower EDs. Conclusion Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. PMID:25898845

  8. Prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis among homeless people in the Paris region: results from two randomized cross-sectional surveys (HYTPEAC study).

    PubMed

    Arnaud, A; Chosidow, O; Détrez, M-A; Bitar, D; Huber, F; Foulet, F; Le Strat, Y; Vandentorren, S

    2016-01-01

    Dermatological infections constitute the most common health problem in the homeless population. To estimate the prevalences of scabies and pediculosis corporis and to identify associated factors in the homeless population. Two randomized cross-sectional surveys were performed, one on the homeless population sleeping in public places in Paris, and the other on the homeless population in various shelters in the Ile-de-France administrative region. Overall 341 and 667 people, respectively, were interviewed about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle and hygiene practices, and were examined by a nurse. In individuals sleeping in public places the prevalence of scabies was estimated at 6·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·5-12·5] and for pediculosis corporis at 5·4% (95% CI 1·7-9·1). For those sleeping in shelters these values were 0·4% (95% CI 0·1-1·8) and 0·15% (95% CI 0·0-9·7), respectively (P < 0·01 in both cases). In public places, after multivariate analysis, being a woman, citing squats among the three main types of accommodation and not possessing a sleeping bag were significantly associated with diagnosis of scabies. Likewise, begging, a history of pubic lice, and not taking showers in municipal baths were associated with pediculosis corporis in public places. Firstly, this study highlights the real existence of two distinct subpopulations having different sociodemographic characteristics, with specific lifestyles and practices, and with different prevalences of ectoparasitism. Secondly, the results of the multivariate analyses will help the implementation of specific actions targeting the group of people who sleep in public places. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  9. Severe maternal morbidity and maternal near miss in the extremes of reproductive age: results from a national cross- sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and near miss (NM) cases among adolescent girls and women over 35 years of age in the Brazilian Network for Surveillance of Severe Maternal Morbidity, using a set of standard criteria, compared to pregnant women aged 20 to 34 years. Methods A cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 27 referral obstetric units in Brazil. All pregnant women admitted to these centers during a one-year period of prospective surveillance were screened to identify cases of maternal death (MD), NM and other SMM. Indicators of maternal morbidity and mortality were evaluated for the three age groups. Sociodemographic, clinical and obstetric characteristics, gestational and perinatal outcomes, main causes of morbidity and delays in care were also compared. Two multiple analysis models were performed, to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratio for identified factors that were independently associated with the occurrence of severe maternal outcome (SMO = MNM + MD). Results Among SMM and MD cases identified, the proportion of adolescent girls and older women were 17% each. The risk of MNM or death was 25% higher among older women. Maternal near miss ratio and maternal mortality ratios increased with age, but these ratios were also higher among adolescents aged 10 to 14, although the absolute numbers were low. On multivariate analysis, younger age was not identified as an independent risk factor for SMO, while this was true for older age (PR 1.25; 1.07-1.45). Conclusions SMO was high among women below 14 years of age and increased with age in Brazilian pregnant women. PMID:24555831

  10. Self-administered versus interview-based questionnaires among patients with intermittent claudication: Do they give different results? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Francisco; Lobos, José María; March, José Ramón; Carrasco, Eduardo; Barros, Marcello Barbosa; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical investigations use generic and/or specific questionnaires to obtain information about participants and patients. There is disagreement about whether the administration method can affect the results. The aim here was to determine whether, among patients with intermittent claudication (IC), there are differences in the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) scores with regard to: 1) the questionnaire administration method (self-administration versus face-to-face interview); and 2) the type of interviewer (vascular surgeon, VS, versus general practitioner, GP). Cross-sectional observational multicenter epidemiological study carried out within the Spanish National Health Service. 1,641 evaluable patients with IC firstly completed the WIQ and EQ-5D questionnaires and then were interviewed by their doctor on the same day. Pearson correlations and Chi-square tests were used. There was a strong correlation (r > 0.800; P < 0.001) between the two methods of administering the WIQ and EQ-5D questionnaires, and between the VS and GP groups. Likewise, there was a high level of concordance (P > 0.05) between the different dimensions of the WIQ-distance and EQ-5D (self-administration versus face-to-face) in the VS and GP groups. There was no difference between the different methods of administering the WIQ and EQ-5D questionnaires, among the patients with IC. Similarly, the two types of interviewers (VS or GP) were equally valid. Therefore, it seems unnecessary to expend effort to administer these questionnaires by interview, in studies on IC.

  11. Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C status are associated with leptin concentrations and obesity in Mexican women: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among Mexican women is high and it could be related to micronutrient status. We evaluated in a cross-sectional study the associations of zinc and vitamins A, C and E concentrations with BMI, central adiposity, body fat and leptin concentration. Methods Women aged 37 ± 7.5 years (n = 580) from 6 rural communities in Mexico were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumference. A fasting blood sample was taken for the analysis of glucose, lipid profile, leptin, zinc, and vitamins A, C and E. Body composition was determined by DEXA (Hologic Mod Explorer). Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36% (BMI > 25 Kg/m2) and 44% (BMI > 30 Kg/m2), respectively. Prevalence of zinc and vitamins C and E deficiencies were similar in obese, overweight and normal weight women. No vitamin A deficiency was found. Vitamin C was negatively associated with BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and leptin concentrations (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with leptin (p < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, % body fat and waist circumference, high leptin concentrations were associated with lower zinc and lower vitamin C concentrations in women with obesity (p < 0.05) and higher vitamin A concentrations in women without obesity (p < 0.01). Vitamin E status was not associated with any markers of obesity. Conclusion Zinc and vitamins A and C are associated with obesity, adiposity and leptin concentration in women from rural Mexico, and may play an important role in fat deposition. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed. PMID:22703731

  12. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and physical fitness in school-aged Bulang children in southwest China: results from a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections have been associated with reduced physical fitness, but available evidence is limited. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the feasibility of measuring children's physical fitness and to relate it to STH infections. Our study was carried out among school-aged children of the Bulang ethnic group in rural southwest People's Republic of China (P.R. China). Standardized, quality-controlled methods were employed to determine STH infections (Kato-Katz technique), haemoglobin levels, anthropometry (body weight and height) and physical fitness (20-m shuttle run test). Results A compliance of 87% suggested good acceptance of the methods used. Among 69 children with complete data records, infection prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm were 81%, 44% and 6%, respectively. The maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized within 1 min during exhaustive exercise (VO2 max estimate) of T. trichiura-infected children was 1.94 ml kg-1 min-1 lower than that of their non-infected counterparts (P = 0.005). Until exhaustion, T. trichiura-infected children had completed 6.14 20-m laps less (P = 0.004). Additionally, the mean VO2 max estimate of stunted children was lowered by 1.63 ml kg-1 min-1 (P = 0.002) and they completed 5.32 20-m laps less (P = 0.001) compared to children of normal stature. No significant association between stunting and infection with any STH species could be established. Conclusions Implementation of physical fitness tests in rural, resource-constraint settings is feasible. The physical fitness of children who are stunted or infected with STHs, particularly T. trichiura, is significantly impaired. We have launched a larger study and will determine the dynamics of school-aged children's physical fitness over a 7-month period after administration of anthelminthic drugs. PMID:22424138

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and risk of diabetes and obesity on healthy adults: Results from a cross-sectional study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Luzardo, Octavio P; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Camacho, María; González-Antuña, Ana; Boada, Luis D

    2017-12-31

    Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been reported to be relevant in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain), especially that of organochlorine pesticides. On the other hand, the population of this archipelago presents a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and it has been recently reported that environmental chemical contamination could play a role in the development of this disease. We performed a cross-sectional study in a representative sample from this archipelago to evaluate whether serum levels of selected POPs could be considered as risk factors for diabetes in this population. Serum levels of 30 POPs were determined in 429 adults (9.3% with T2D). We found that serum levels of p,p'-DDE (DDE), PCB-153 and PCB-118 were significantly higher among subjects having diabetes than in non-diabetic subjects (p=0.001, p=0.046, and p<0.0001, respectively). We observed a positive correlation between serum p,p'-DDE and glucose levels. Serum p,p'-DDE was identified as a risk factor for diabetes in univariate analysis in the whole series, and it remained as an independent risk factor for diabetes in subjects with serum glucose <126mg/dL (multivariate analysis, Exp(B)=1.283, CI 95% (1.023-1.611), p=0.031). Those normoglycemic subjects that are most exposed to p,p'-DDE (95th percentile: serum p,p'-DDE>5μg/L) seem to be those people at higher risk. Our results showed that p,p'-DDE levels were significantly higher among subjects having diabetes. These findings should be considered by public health Authorities to implement measures devoted to minimize human exposure to pollutants that could be harmful to the population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyrotrophin levels and coronary artery calcification: Cross-sectional results of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    PubMed

    Peixoto de Miranda, Érique José F; Bittencourt, Márcio Sommer; Staniak, Henrique Lane; Pereira, Alexandre C; Foppa, Murilo; Santos, Itamar S; Lotufo, Paulo A; Benseñor, Isabela M

    2017-06-13

    There is little information about the association between thyrotrophin (TSH) levels and coronary artery calcification (CAC). Our aim was to analyse the association between TSH quintiles and subclinical atherosclerosis measured by CAC, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional study. We excluded individuals using medications that affect thyroid function and who self-reported cardiovascular disease. We included euthyroid subjects and individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo) and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper). Logistic regression models evaluated CAC >100 Agatston units as the dependent variable, and increasing quintiles of TSH as the independent variable, adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Our sample included 3836 subjects, mean age 49 years (interquartile range 44-56); 1999 (52.1%) were female, 3551 (92.6%) were euthyroid, 239 (6.2%) had SCHypo and 46 (1.2%) had SCHyper. The frequency of women, White people and never smokers as well as body mass index and insulin resistance increased according to quintiles. The 1st quintile for TSH (0-0.99 mIU/L) was associated with CAC >100, using the 3rd quintile (1.39-1.85 mIU/L) as reference (adjusted OR=1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.35, P=.027), but no association was shown for the 5th quintile (2.68-35.5 mIU/L) compared to the 3rd. Restricting the analysis to euthyroid subjects did not change the results. For women, but not for men, we observed a U-shaped curve with 1st and 5th TSH quintiles associated with CAC>100. Low and low-normal (1st quintile) TSH levels were associated with CAC>100 Agatston units in a sample with subclinical thyroid disorders and euthyroid subjects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of socioeconomic and risk factors on cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes in Australia: comparison of results from longitudinal and cross-sectional designs.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjing; Kinfu, Yohannes

    2016-04-06

    Existing large-scale studies do not take into account comorbidity or control for selection and endogeneity biases. This study addresses these shortcomings. We use information on individuals aged between 35 and 70 years from a nationally representative longitudinal survey conducted in Australia between 2001 and 2013. Participants were approached annually, and updates on their characteristics, including health status, were ascertained through self-reporting. We develop three different analytical designs. The first model is a cross-sectional analysis against which our improved models are compared. In the second model, we follow the same approach but control for prior health conditions. The last preferred model additionally adjusts for characteristics and risk profile of respondents prior to onset of conditions. It also allows for comorbidity and controls for selection bias. Once comorbidity and changes over time in the participant's characteristics are controlled for, body mass index (BMI), alcohol consumption and physical activity exhibit a stronger impact than in the models without these controls. A unit increase in BMI increases the risk of developing a cardiovascular disease (CVD) condition within 2 years by 1.3 percentage points (β=0.11, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.16) and regular alcohol intake increases the risk of CVD by 3.0 percentage points (β=0.24, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.39). Both factors lose significance without proper control for endogenous behavioural change. We also note that frequent physical activity reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 0.9 percentage point (β=-0.40, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.07). Our result shows a greater importance of certain lifestyle and risk factors than was previously suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durando, P; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Results A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements ‘flu vaccine is safe’, ‘HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu’ and ‘HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year’. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. Discussion All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. Conclusions This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and

  17. Availability and price of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in the public and private health sectors in 2011: results from 10 nationally representative cross-sectional retail surveys.

    PubMed

    Poyer, Stephen; Shewchuk, Tanya; Tougher, Sarah; Ye, Yazoume; Mann, Andrea G; Willey, Barbara A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Taylor, Mark; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Mberu, Blessing; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Juma, Elizabeth; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Diap, Graciela; Bruxvoort, Katia; Ansong, Daniel; Hanson, Kara; Arnold, Fred; Goodman, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    To describe the state of the public and private malaria diagnostics market shortly after WHO updated its guidelines for testing all suspected malaria cases prior to treatment. Ten nationally representative cross-sectional cluster surveys were conducted in 2011 among public and private health facilities, community health workers and retail outlets (pharmacies and drug shops) in nine countries (Tanzania mainland and Zanzibar surveyed separately). Eligible outlets had antimalarials in stock on the day of interview or had stocked antimalarials in the past 3 months. Three thousand four hundred and thirty-nine rapid diagnostic test (RDT) products from 39 manufacturers were audited among 12,197 outlets interviewed. Availability was typically highest in public health facilities, although availability in these facilities varied greatly across countries, from 15% in Nigeria to >90% in Madagascar and Cambodia. Private for-profit sector availability was 46% in Cambodia, 20% in Zambia, but low in other countries. Median retail prices for RDTs in the private for-profit sector ranged from $0.00 in Madagascar to $3.13 in Zambia. The reported number of RDTs used in the 7 days before the survey in public health facilities ranged from 3 (Benin) to 50 (Zambia). Eighteen months after WHO updated its case management guidelines, RDT availability remained poor in the private sector in sub-Saharan Africa. Given the ongoing importance of the private sector as a source of fever treatment, the goal of universal diagnosis will not be achievable under current circumstances. These results constitute national baselines against which progress in scaling-up diagnostic tests can be assessed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  19. 46 CFR 64.25 - Cross section.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross section. 64.25 Section 64.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING...) Circular; or (b) Other than circular and stress analyzed experimentally by the method contained in UG-101...

  20. Is a schizo-obsessive subtype associated with cognitive impairment? Results from a large cross-sectional study in patients with psychosis and their unaffected relatives.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Julia H; Swets, Marije; Keeman, Soleil; Nieman, Dorien H; Meijer, Carin J

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether candidate cognitive endophenotypes may be used to validate a schizo-obsessive subtype. Using within-subject random effect regression analyses and cross-trait cross-relative analyses, we evaluated the association between obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) and cognitive performance in 984 patients with nonaffective psychosis (22.5% with OCSs), 973 unaffected siblings (7.7% with OCSs), 851 parents (4.2% with OCSs), and 573 controls (4.5% with OCSs). No significant within-subject associations between OCSs and cognitive functioning were found for patients and siblings. Severity of OCSs was associated with worse set-shifting ability in parents and worse processing speed in controls, but effect sizes were small (0.10 and 0.05 respectively). Cross-trait cross-relative analyses yielded no significant results. Contrary to our expectations, neither within-subject analyses nor cross-relative analyses yielded a clear association between OCSs and cognitive performance. Results do not support a schizo-obsessive subtype associated with cognitive impairment.

  1. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  2. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  3. The Association of Work Stress and Glycemic Status Is Partially Mediated by Autonomic Nervous System Function: Cross-Sectional Results from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Julian; Li, Jian; Mauss, Daniel; Hoffmann, Kristina; Schmidt, Burkhard; Fischer, Joachim E.; Thayer, Julian F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Work stress is associated with an increased risk of pre-diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and inflammation, as well as decreased autonomic nervous system function as measured, for example, via heart rate variability. We investigated the extent to which the association between work stress and glycemic status is mediated by vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) and/or inflammation. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Mannheim Industrial Cohort Study (MICS) with 9,937 participants were analyzed. The root mean squared successive differences (RMSSD) from long-term heart rate monitoring during work and night time periods was used to index vmHRV. Fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were assessed to determine glycemic status. High sensitive C-reactive protein levels were observed as a measure of systemic inflammation and the Effort-Reward-Imbalance scale was used to evaluate work stress. Mediation models were adjusted for age, sex, and occupational status, and estimations were bootstrapped (5,000 replications). Results Effort-Reward-Imbalance was significantly negatively associated with RMSSD and both glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose during both work and night time periods. Effort-Reward-Imbalance was observed to have a significant direct effect on glycosylated hemoglobin and significant indirect effects, through RMSSD, on both glycemic measures during both time periods. Introducing C-reactive protein as a further mediator to the model did not alter the indirect effects observed. C-reactive protein, as an exclusive mediator, was observed to have smaller direct and indirect effects on the glycemic measures as compared to when Effort-Reward-Imbalance was included in the model. Conclusions Our results suggest that the association between work stress and glycemic status is partially mediated through vmHRV independent of systemic inflammation as measured by C-reactive protein. We conclude that work stress may be an additional

  4. Inequalities in out-of-pocket payments for health care services among elderly Germans – results of a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In order to limit rising publicly-financed health expenditure, out-of-pocket payments for health care services (OOPP) have been raised in many industrialized countries. However, higher health-related OOPP may burden social subgroups unequally. In Germany, inequalities in OOPP have rarely been analyzed. The aim of this study was to examine OOPP of the German elderly population in the different sectors of the health care system. Socio-economic and morbidity-related determinants of inequalities in OOPP were analyzed. Methods This cross-sectional analysis used data of N = 3,124 subjects aged 57 to 84 years from a population-based prospective cohort study (ESTHER study) collected in the Saarland, Germany, from 2008 to 2010. Subjects passed a geriatric assessment, including a questionnaire for health care utilization and OOPP covering a period of three months in the following sectors: inpatient care, outpatient physician and non-physician services, medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, dental prostheses and nursing care. Determinants of OOPP were analyzed by a two-part model. The financial burden of OOPP for certain social subgroups (measured by the OOPP-income-ratio) was investigated by a generalized linear model for the binomial family. Results Mean OOPP during three months amounted to €119, with 34% for medical supplies, 22% for dental prostheses, 21% for pharmaceuticals, 17% for outpatient physician and non-physician services, 5% for inpatient care and 1% for nursing care. The two-part model showed a significant positive association between income (square root equivalence scale) and total OOPP. Increasing morbidity was associated with significantly higher total OOPP, and in particular with higher OOPP for pharmaceuticals. Total OOPP amounted to about 3% of disposable income. The generalized linear model for the binomial family showed a significantly lower financial burden for the wealthiest quintile as compared to the poorest one. Conclusions This is

  5. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flintoft, I. D.; Robinson, M. P.; Melia, G. C. R.; Marvin, A. C.; Dawson, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m2 for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human exposure

  6. Average absorption cross-section of the human body measured at 1-12 GHz in a reverberant chamber: results of a human volunteer study.

    PubMed

    Flintoft, I D; Robinson, M P; Melia, G C R; Marvin, A C; Dawson, J F

    2014-07-07

    The electromagnetic absorption cross-section (ACS) averaged over polarization and angle-of-incidence of 60 ungrounded adult subjects was measured at microwave frequencies of 1-12 GHz in a reverberation chamber. Average ACS is important in non-ionizing dosimetry and exposure studies, and is closely related to the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (WBSAR). The average ACS was measured with a statistical uncertainty of less than 3% and high frequency resolution for individuals with a range of body shapes and sizes allowing the statistical distribution of WBSAR over a real population with individual internal and external morphologies to be determined. The average ACS of all subjects was found to vary from 0.15 to 0.4 m(2); for an individual subject it falls with frequency over 1-6 GHz, and then rises slowly over the 6-12 GHz range in which few other studies have been conducted. Average ACS and WBSAR are then used as a surrogate for worst-case ACS/WBSAR, in order to study their variability across a real population compared to literature results from simulations using numerical phantoms with a limited range of anatomies. Correlations with body morphological parameters such as height, mass and waist circumference have been investigated: the strongest correlation is with body surface area (BSA) at all frequencies above 1 GHz, however direct proportionality to BSA is not established until above 5 GHz. When the average ACS is normalized to the BSA, the resulting absorption efficiency shows a negative correlation with the estimated thickness of subcutaneous body fat. Surrogate models and statistical analysis of the measurement data are presented and compared to similar models from the literature. The overall dispersion of measured average WBSAR of the sample of the UK population studied is consistent with the dispersion of simulated worst-case WBSAR across multiple numerical phantom families. The statistical results obtained allow the calibration of human

  7. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008–2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses] promoted hygiene in Germany during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The intervention aimed to encourage people to protect themselves against respiratory infections by simple means of hygiene behaviour. Quantitative research was carried out to outline changes in hygiene perception of the population over time, and to find out whether the potential hygiene perception changes were consistent to the federal campaign about hygiene or not. Methods To determine changes in the hygiene perception of the population, two cross-sectional telephone surveys were held, each one with n = 2006 participants. The initial survey was carried out before the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in calendar week 49–51 in 2008 and the second in week 48 in 2009 directly after the peak of the pandemic in Germany. The questionnaire contained indicators about perceived hand hygiene efficacy, preference for coughing into the sleeve, propensity for presenteeism while showing symptoms of a cold and acceptance of hygiene masks. Results The proportion of people who perceive the efficacy of hand washing as “very good” increased significantly from 50.9% in 2008 to 61.1% in 2009. The proportion of people who perceive coughing into the sleeve as the best way to cough increased even more dramatically from 4.8% in 2008 to 38.3% in 2009. In contrast the propensity for presenteeism decreased significantly: The proportion of people who state that they always report to work while they show symptoms of a cold decreased from 50.8% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009. Acceptance of hygiene masks has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2009. Conclusions The results revealed changes in hygiene perception during influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany. The changes we found are in accordance with the hygiene recommendations given by the federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses]. Results can constitute a practical benchmark for future research

  8. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  9. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  10. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  11. Television viewing and its association with overweight in Colombian children: results from the 2005 National Nutrition Survey: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Luis F; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Samper, Belen; Moreno, José; Jacoby, Enrique; Lucumi, Diego I; Matsudo, Sandra; Borda, Catalina

    2007-01-01

    Background There has been an ongoing discussion about the relationship between time spent watching television and childhood obesity. This debate has special relevance in the Latin American region were the globalization process has increased the availability of screen-based entertainment at home. The aim of this study is to examine the association between television viewing and weight status in Colombian children. Methods This cross sectional investigation included children aged 5 to12 yrs from the National Nutrition Survey in Colombia (ENSIN 2005). Weight and height were measured in 11,137 children in order to calculate body mass index. Overweight was defined by international standards. Time spent viewing television was determined for these children through parental reports. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for different subgroups and adjusted for potential confounders in order to study the association between television viewing and weight status in this population. Results Among the surveyed children, 41.5% viewed television less than two hours/day; 36.8% between two and 3.9 hours/day and 21.7% four or more hours/day. The prevalence of overweight (obesity inclusive) in this population was 11.1%. Children who were classified as excessive television viewers (between two and 3.9 hours/day or 4 or more hours/day) were more likely to be overweight (OR: 1.44 95% CI: 1.41–1.47 and OR: 1.32 95% CI: 1.30–1.34, respectively) than children who reported to watch television less than 2 hours/day. Stratified analyses by age, gender and urbanization levels showed similar results. Conclusion Television viewing was positively associated with the presence of overweight in Colombian children. A positive association between urbanization level and television viewing was detected. Considering that the majority of Colombian children lives in densely populated cities and appear to engage in excessive television viewing these findings are of public health relevance

  12. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11–17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11–17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. Results ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of “Friends” and “School” subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Conclusions Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were

  13. Association of breakfast intake with obesity, dietary and physical activity behavior among urban school-aged adolescents in Delhi, India: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In developed countries, regular breakfast consumption is inversely associated with excess weight and directly associated with better dietary and improved physical activity behaviors. Our objective was to describe the frequency of breakfast consumption among school-going adolescents in Delhi and evaluate its association with overweight and obesity as well as other dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Methods Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Eight schools (Private and Government) of Delhi in the year 2006. Participants: 1814 students from 8th and 10th grades; response rate was 87.2%; 55% were 8th graders, 60% were boys and 52% attended Private schools. Main outcome measures: Body mass index, self-reported breakfast consumption, diet and physical activity related behaviors, and psychosocial factors. Data analysis: Mixed effects regression models were employed, adjusting for age, gender, grade level and school type (SES). Results Significantly more Government school (lower SES) students consumed breakfast daily as compared to Private school (higher SES) students (73.8% vs. 66.3%; p<0.01). More 8th graders consumed breakfast daily vs.10th graders (72.3% vs. 67.0%; p<0.05). A dose–response relationship was observed such that overall prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents who consumed breakfast daily (14.6%) was significantly lower vs. those who only sometimes (15.2%) or never (22.9%) consumed breakfast (p<0.05 for trend). This relationship was statistically significant for boys (15.4 % vs. 16.5% vs. 26.0; p<0.05 for trend) but not for girls. Intake of dairy products, fruits and vegetables was 5.5 (95% CI 2.4-12.5), 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.5) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.3-3.5) times higher among those who consumed breakfast daily vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Breakfast consumption was associated with greater physical activity vs. those who never consumed breakfast. Positive values and beliefs about healthy eating; body image

  14. Confidence in the future, health-related behaviour and psychological distress: results from a web-based cross-sectional study of 101 257 Finns

    PubMed Central

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Härkänen, Tommi; Pankakoski, Maiju; Langinvainio, Heimo; Mattila, Antti S; Saarelma, Osmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Mustonen, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of socioeconomic status and psychological stress to potential associations between confidence in the future and a wide range of health-related behaviours. Design Web-based cross-sectional study including an ‘Electronic Health Check’ at the Finnish Happiness-Flourishing Study website linked to a TV programme on happiness and depression. Setting The Finnish population with access to the internet. Participants 101 257 Finns aged 18 and above (21 365 men; 79 892 women). Participants who were under the age of 18 and who did not provide information about their gender were excluded. Primary outcome measures As planned, we assessed smoking, weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking, daily intake of fruits and vegetables and regular exercise. Results Compared with participants with low confidence in the future, those with high confidence were less likely to be daily smokers (men OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.65; women 0.57, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.61) and binge drinkers (men 0.57; 0.52 to 0.63; women 0.54; 0.50 to 0.57). Participants with high confidence in the future were more likely to exercise regularly (men OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.55 to 3.13; women 2.57, 95% CI 2.44 to 2.71) and consume vegetables (men OR 2.48, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.74; women 2.13, 95% CI 2.03 to 2.24) and fruits (men OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.35; women 1.83, 95% CI 1.74 to 1.93) daily. Adjustment for current psychological distress and satisfaction for income attenuated the results. Conclusions Having confidence in the future is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, as assessed by a healthy diet, physical exercise and substance abuse. Health-related interventions may benefit from tailoring interventions according to the target population's level of confidence in the future as well as their level of psychological distress. PMID:23794550

  15. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos’ cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin’s stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants’ BMI category and self-perception of weight. Methods Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country’s stage in the nutrition transition increased one’s odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one’s weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants’ lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin’s nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin’s nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants’ perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect

  16. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. Methods In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Results Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X2=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Conclusions Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug

  17. Requirements and access needs of patients with chronic disease to their hospital electronic health record: results of a cross-sectional questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    White, H; Gillgrass, L; Wood, A; Peckham, D G

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify patient's views on the functionality required for personalised access to the secondary care electronic health record (EHR) and their priorities for development. Design Quantitative analysis of a cross-sectional self-complete survey of patient views on required EHR functionality from a secondary care EHR, including a patient ranking of functionality. Setting Secondary care patients attending a regional cystic fibrosis unit in the north of England. Participants 201 adults (106 (52.7%) males), median age 29 years (range 17–58 years), entered and completed the study. Inclusion criteria are as follows: a confirmed diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, aged 16 years and over, at the time of clinical stability. Outcome measures Quantitative responses within 4 themes; (1) value placed on aspects of the EHR; (2) access requirements to functions of the EHR; (3) views on information sent to the EHR and (4) patient feedback entered into the EHR. A ranked score for 15 functions of the EHR was obtained. Results Highest ratings (% reporting item as very important/important) were reported for access to clinical measures (lung function (94%), C reactive protein (84%), sputum microbiology (81%) and blood results (80%)), medication changes (82%) and lists (83%) and sending repeat prescription (83%) and treatment requests (80%), while sending symptom diaries was less so (62%). Email contact with clinicians was the most valuable communication element of the EHR (84% very important/important). Of 15 features of the EHR (1=most desirable to 15=least desirable), patients identified ‘clinical measures’ (2.62 (CI 2.07 to 3.06)), and ‘access to medication lists’ (4.91 (CI 4.47 to 5.44)), as highest priority for development and the ability to comment on errors/omissions (11.0 (CI 10.6 to 11.5)) or experience of care (11.8 (CI 11.4 to 12.2)) as lowest. Conclusions Patients want extensive personal access to their hospital EHR, placing high importance on the

  18. Hygiene perception changes during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany: incorporating the results of two cross-sectional telephone surveys 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Meilicke, Gerald; Riedmann, Klaus; Biederbick, Walter; Müller, Ute; Wierer, Traugott; Bartels, Cornelius

    2013-10-16

    The federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses] promoted hygiene in Germany during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in 2009. The intervention aimed to encourage people to protect themselves against respiratory infections by simple means of hygiene behaviour. Quantitative research was carried out to outline changes in hygiene perception of the population over time, and to find out whether the potential hygiene perception changes were consistent to the federal campaign about hygiene or not. To determine changes in the hygiene perception of the population, two cross-sectional telephone surveys were held, each one with n = 2006 participants. The initial survey was carried out before the influenza A H1N1 pandemic in calendar week 49-51 in 2008 and the second in week 48 in 2009 directly after the peak of the pandemic in Germany. The questionnaire contained indicators about perceived hand hygiene efficacy, preference for coughing into the sleeve, propensity for presenteeism while showing symptoms of a cold and acceptance of hygiene masks. The proportion of people who perceive the efficacy of hand washing as "very good" increased significantly from 50.9% in 2008 to 61.1% in 2009. The proportion of people who perceive coughing into the sleeve as the best way to cough increased even more dramatically from 4.8% in 2008 to 38.3% in 2009. In contrast the propensity for presenteeism decreased significantly: The proportion of people who state that they always report to work while they show symptoms of a cold decreased from 50.8% in 2008 to 40.9% in 2009. Acceptance of hygiene masks has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2009. The results revealed changes in hygiene perception during influenza A H1N1 pandemic in Germany. The changes we found are in accordance with the hygiene recommendations given by the federal campaign Wir gegen Viren [Us against viruses]. Results can constitute a practical benchmark for future research about hygiene perception and hygiene promotion

  19. Analytical approximations for X-ray cross sections 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Frank; Lighthill, Ruth

    1988-08-01

    This report updates our previous work that provided analytical approximations to cross sections for both photoelectric absorption of photons by atoms and incoherent scattering of photons by atoms. This representation is convenient for use in programmable calculators and in computer programs to evaluate these cross sections numerically. The results apply to atoms of atomic numbers between 1 and 100 and for photon energies greater than or equal to 10 eV. The photoelectric cross sections are again approximated by four-term polynomials in reciprocal powers of the photon energy. There are now more fitting intervals, however, than were used previously. The incoherent-scattering cross sections are based on the Klein-Nishina relation, but use simpler approximate equations for efficient computer evaluation. We describe the averaging scheme for applying these atomic results to any composite material. The fitting coefficients are included in tables, and the cross sections are shown graphically.

  20. Electron induced inelastic and ionization cross section for plasma modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Pankaj; Mahato, Dibyendu; Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The present paper reports electron impact total inelastic and ionization cross section for silicon, germanium, and tin tetrahalides at energies varying from ionization threshold of the target to 5000 eV. These cross section data over a wide energy domain are very essential to understand the physico-chemical processes involved in various environments such as plasma modeling, semiconductor etching, atmospheric sciences, biological sciences, and radiation physics. However, the cross section data on the above mentioned molecules are scarce. In the present article, we report the computation of total inelastic cross section using spherical complex optical potential formalism and the estimation of ionization cross section through a semi-empirical method. The present ionization cross section result obtained for SiCl4 shows excellent agreement with previous measurements, while other molecules have not yet been investigated experimentally. Present results show more consistent behaviour than previous theoretical estimates. Besides cross sections, we have also studied the correlation of maximum ionization cross section with the square root of the ratio of polarizability to ionization potential for the molecules with known polarizabilities. A linear relation is observed between these quantities. This correlation is used to obtain approximate polarizability volumes for SiBr4, SiI4, GeCl4, GeBr4, and GeI4 molecules.

  1. Absorption cross sections of stratospheric molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Two classes of molecular species must be considered in a calculation of photochemical rates in the stratosphere. The first class consists of molecular oxygen and ozone, while the second class contains the remainder of the minor constituents. If accurate values of the transmitted fluxes are required at large optical depths, the cross sections for molecular oxygen and ozone must be known to within a few per cent at least. On the other hand, the photochemical rates for the minor species are given simply by the relevant cross sections. A review of published cross sections is presented, giving attention to molecular oxygen, ozone, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, ammonia, water vapor, hydrogen peroxide, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur dioxide.

  2. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  3. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  4. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  5. Improving activation cross section data with TALYS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzysiuk, Nataliia; Koning, Arjan

    2017-09-01

    Needs for accurate (n,x) activation cross sections for fusion technology have been considered with reference to the current status of the TENDL library. The current work is focused on improving activation cross section data for nuclear reactions relevant mainly for fusion and astrophysical needs. The fits have been performed with the TALYS-1.8 code by means of nuclear model parameter variation, mostly for the optical model and level densities, followed by comparison to recent experimental data taken from EXFOR and other evaluated nuclear databases. The updated cross section data are going to be adopted into the new version of TENDL. The improvements have been performed both for differential as well as integral data sets.

  6. Factors associated with dog rabies vaccination in Bhol, Philippines: results of a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted following the island-wide rabies elimination campaign.

    PubMed

    Davlin, S; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K

    2013-11-01

    The Philippines has a long history of rabies control efforts in their dog populations; however, long-term success of such programmes and the goal of rabies elimination have not yet been realized. The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Program was developed as an innovative approach to canine rabies control in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess canine rabies vaccination coverage in the owned-dog population in Bohol and to describe factors associated with rabies vaccination 2 years after implementation of the programme. We utilized a cross-sectional cluster survey based on the World Health Organization's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage survey technique. We sampled 460 households and collected data on 539 dogs residing within these households. Seventy-seven per cent of surveyed households reported owning at least one dog. The human-to-dog ratio was approximately 4 : 1, and the mean number of dogs owned per household was 1.6. Based on this ratio, we calculated an owned-dog population of almost 300 000. Overall, 71% of dogs were reported as having been vaccinated for rabies at some time in their lives; however, only 64% of dogs were reported as having been recently vaccinated. Dogs in our study were young (median age = 24 months). The odds of vaccination increased with increasing age. Dogs aged 12-23 months had 4.6 times the odds of vaccination compared to dogs aged 3-11 months (95% CI 1.8-12.0; P = 0.002). Confinement of the dog both day and night was also associated with increased odds of vaccination (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 0.9-4.9; P = 0.07), and this result approached statistical significance. While the programme is on track to meet its goal of 80% vaccination coverage, educational efforts should focus on the need to confine dogs and vaccinate young dogs. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Determinants of Wood Dust Exposure in the Danish Furniture Industry—Results from Two Cross-Sectional Studies 6 Years Apart

    PubMed Central

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Jacobsen, Gitte; Erlandsen, Mogens; Mikkelsen, Anders B.; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This paper investigates determinants of wood dust exposure and trends in dust level in the furniture industry of Viborg County, Denmark, using data from two cross-sectional studies 6 years apart. Methods: During the winter 1997/1998, 54 factories were visited (hereafter study 1). In the winter 2003/2004, 27 factories were revisited, and personal dust measurements were repeated. In addition, 14 new factories were included (hereafter study 2). A total of 2303 woodworkers participated in study 1, and 2358 measurements from 1702 workers were available. From study 2, 1581 woodworkers participated and 1355 measurements from 1044 workers were available. Information on occupational variables describing potential determinants of exposures like work task, exhaust ventilation, enclosure and cleaning procedures were collected. A total of 2627 measurements and 1907 persons were included in the final mixed model in order to explore determinants of exposure and trends in dust level. Results: The overall inhalable wood dust concentration (geometric means (geometric standard deviation)) has decreased from 0.95 mg/m3 (2.05) in study 1 to 0.60 mg/m3 (1.63) in study 2, representing a 7% annual decrease in dust concentration, which was confirmed in the mixed model. From study 1 to study 2 there has been a change towards less manual work and more efficient cleaning methods, but on the contrary also more inadequate exhaust ventilation systems. The following determinants were found to ‘increase’ dust concentration: sanding; use of compressed air; use of full-automatic machines; manual work; cleaning of work pieces with compressed air; kitchen producing factories and small factories (<20 employees). The following determinants of exposure were found to ‘decrease’ dust concentration: manual assembling/packing; sanding with adequate exhaust ventilation; adequate exhaust ventilation; vacuum cleaning of machines and special cleaning staff. Conclusions: Despite a substantial

  8. Association of common mental disorder symptoms with health and healthcare factors among women in rural western India: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Nisha; Byatt, Nancy; Prabhakaran, Anusha; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Vankar, Jagdish; O'Keefe, Eileen; Allison, Jeroan; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Information about common mental disorders (CMD) is needed to guide policy and clinical interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. This study's purpose was to characterise the association of CMD symptoms with 3 inter-related health and healthcare factors among women from rural western India based on a representative, cross-sectional survey. Setting Surveys were conducted in the waiting area of various outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital and in 16 rural villages in the Anand district of Gujarat, India. Participants 700 Gujarati-speaking women between the ages of 18–45 years who resided in the Anand district of Gujarat, India, were recruited in a quasi-randomised manner. Primary and secondary outcomes measures CMD symptoms, ascertained using WHO's Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20), were associated with self-reported (1) number of healthcare visits in the prior year; (2) health status and (3) portion of yearly income expended on healthcare. Results Data from 658 participants were used in this analysis; 19 surveys were excluded due to incompleteness, 18 surveys were excluded because the participants were visiting hospitalised patients and 5 surveys were classified as outliers. Overall, 155 (22·8%) participants screened positive for CMD symptoms (SRQ-20 score ≥8) with most (81.9%) not previously diagnosed despite contact with healthcare provider in the prior year. On adjusted analyses, screening positive for CMD symptoms was associated with worse category in self-reported health status (cumulative OR=9.39; 95% CI 5·97 to 14·76), higher portion of household income expended on healthcare (cumulative OR=2·31; 95% CL 1·52 to 3.52) and increased healthcare visits in the prior year (incidence rate ratio=1·24; 95% CI 1·07 to 1·44). Conclusions The high prevalence of potential CMD among women in rural India that is unrecognised and associated with adverse health and financial indicators highlights the individual and public

  9. Prevalence and influencing factors of chronic back pain among staff at special schools with multiple and severely handicapped children in Germany: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Germany, about 70,000 teachers and educational staff were teaching at more than 3,000 special schools during the school year 2010/2011. Nursing services like lifting pupils form a substantial part of the work content of the staff at special schools. Since nursing care often involves carrying and lifting pupils, there is a reason to assume an adverse effect on the musculoskeletal health of teachers and other professionals. With the present study we aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors of chronic back pain among employees at this type of school. Methods The cross-sectional survey was carried out between August 2010 and August 2012 at 13 special schools focusing on motoric and/or holistic development of handicapped children in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany). Teachers and educational staff were interviewed using a questionnaire. We applied multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify influencing factors of chronic back pain. Results Altogether 395 persons (response rate: 59.7%) participated in our study. Respondents were mostly female (86.8%) with a mean age of 45 years. The prevalence of chronic back pain was 38.7%. More than 40% reported frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads (>20 kg). Age [adjusted OR = 1.03 (95%-CI 1.00-1.05) for 1-year increase in age], current smoking [adjusted OR = 2.31 (95%-CI 1.27-4.23)], depression/depressive mood [adjusted OR = 1.85 (95%-CI 1.12-3.06)], frequently carrying and lifting heavy loads [adjusted OR = 2.69 (95%-CI 1.53-4.75)], and frequent exposure to environmental impacts [adjusted OR = 2.18 (95%-CI 1.26-3.76)] were influencing factors of chronic back pain in the final multivariable regression model. Conclusions A large proportion of teachers and educational staff suffered from chronic back pain in our study, indicating a high need for treatment in this professional group. Increasing age, current smoking, a diagnosed depression/depressive mood, carrying and lifting

  10. Women are considerably more exposed to intimate partner violence than men in Rwanda: results from a population-based, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is an important, yet often neglected public health issue. The existence of gender norms imbalance expressed by men’s and women’s attitudes in relation to power and decision-making in intimate relationships may influence the magnitude of IPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and potential risk factors of physical, sexual and psychological IPV in young men and women in Rwanda. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study included a representative sample of men and women from the Southern Province of Rwanda. Face-to-face interviews were performed using the World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire for violence exposure to estimate past year and earlier in life IPV occurrence. Risk factor patterns were analyzed by use of bi- and multivariate logistic regression. Results Women were, to a considerably higher extent, exposed to physical, sexual and psychological IPV than men. Of the women, 18.8% (n = 78) reported physical abuse in the past year, compared to 4.3% (n = 18) of men. The corresponding figures for women and men for sexual abuse were 17.4% (n = 71) and 1.5% (n = 6), respectively, and for psychological abuse, the corresponding figures were 21.4% (n = 92) and 7.3% (n = 32). Findings illustrate that violence against women was recurrent, as the highest frequency (>3 times) dominated in women for the various acts of all forms of violence. Identified risk factors for women’s exposure to physical violence were being low educated, having poor social support, being poor and having many children. For men exposed to physical violence, no statistically significant risk factor was identified. Conclusions In this setting, IPV exposure was more common in women than men in the Southern Province of Rwanda. Promotion of gender equality at the individual level is needed to make a positive difference in a relatively short term perspective. Men’s lower

  11. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  12. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice − Results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Background: The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates’ choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g. work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. Method: A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. Results: The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r=-.5; p<.01). However, if the IGP had an influence on speciality choice, it was correlated with a new perception of general practice (r=.36; p<.01). This new perception was associated with a positive influence of the medical teacher during the IGP. Conclusion: The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The

  13. Confidence in the future, health-related behaviour and psychological distress: results from a web-based cross-sectional study of 101 257 Finns.

    PubMed

    Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Härkänen, Tommi; Pankakoski, Maiju; Langinvainio, Heimo; Mattila, Antti S; Saarelma, Osmo; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Mustonen, Pekka

    2013-06-20

    To investigate the role of socioeconomic status and psychological stress to potential associations between confidence in the future and a wide range of health-related behaviours. Web-based cross-sectional study including an 'Electronic Health Check' at the Finnish Happiness-Flourishing Study website linked to a TV programme on happiness and depression. The Finnish population with access to the internet. 101 257 Finns aged 18 and above (21 365 men; 79 892 women). Participants who were under the age of 18 and who did not provide information about their gender were excluded. As planned, we assessed smoking, weekly alcohol consumption and binge drinking, daily intake of fruits and vegetables and regular exercise. Compared with participants with low confidence in the future, those with high confidence were less likely to be daily smokers (men OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.65; women 0.57, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.61) and binge drinkers (men 0.57; 0.52 to 0.63; women 0.54; 0.50 to 0.57). Participants with high confidence in the future were more likely to exercise regularly (men OR 2.82, 95% CI 2.55 to 3.13; women 2.57, 95% CI 2.44 to 2.71) and consume vegetables (men OR 2.48, 95% CI 2.25 to 2.74; women 2.13, 95% CI 2.03 to 2.24) and fruits (men OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.86 to 2.35; women 1.83, 95% CI 1.74 to 1.93) daily. Adjustment for current psychological distress and satisfaction for income attenuated the results. Having confidence in the future is strongly associated with a healthy lifestyle, as assessed by a healthy diet, physical exercise and substance abuse. Health-related interventions may benefit from tailoring interventions according to the target population's level of confidence in the future as well as their level of psychological distress.

  14. [Polarity of the freely formulated MMST sentence and state of health of people with dementia : Results of a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Sniatecki, Stefan; Meyer, Gabriele; Renom-Guiteras, Anna; Dichter, Martin N; Mayer, Herbert; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    The mini-mental status examination (MMSE) includes a task in which participants are asked to write a sentence of their own choice. The emotional tone of the sentence may be related to the emotions of the writer; therefore, it was investigated whether the emotional tone of the sentence in the MMSE written by people with dementia was associated with health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms. A secondary analysis was carried out based on the cross-sectional data of 107 people with dementia included in the "7th framework EU project RightTimePlaceCare". Two raters assessed the emotional tone of the sentence based on a standardized procedure as positive, neutral or negative. The association between the emotional tone of the sentence, health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms was investigated. Health-related quality of life was assessed by the quality of life in Alzheimer's disease questionnaire and depressive symptoms by the Cornell scale for depression in dementia questionnaire. The sentences were rated as either positive or neutral in both cases with 42 % and 16 % were judged to have a negative emotional tone. The variance analysis by ANOVA indicated significant differences between the three groups of sentences regarding health-related quality of life of the writer (p = 0.04). The results of the Scheffé test confirmed a significant difference between sentences with a positive and negative tone and the health-related quality of life where people who wrote a sentence with a negative tone showed a lower health-related quality of life (p = 0.043). No significant association was revealed regarding depressive symptoms (p = 0.97). It remains to be investigated in future studies whether the emotional tone is a reliable indicator of health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms of people with dementia, so that the written MMSE sentence can be used for diagnostic purposes.

  15. Health-related quality of life, depression, and self-esteem in adolescents with leprosy-affected parents: results of a cross-sectional study in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nobuko; Poudel, Krishna C; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-10

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that has an impact on the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of sufferers as well as their children. To date, no study has investigated the effects of parental leprosy on the well-being of adolescent children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Lalitpur and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents (n = 102; aged 11-17 years) and those with parents unaffected by leprosy (n = 115; 11-17 years) were investigated. Self-reported data from adolescents were collected using the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDLR) questionnaire to assess HRQOL, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare scores between the two groups. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to explore the determinants of HRQOL for adolescents with leprosy-affected parents. ANCOVA revealed that the KINDLR and RSES scores were significantly lower among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents compared with unaffected parents. However, the scores of "Friends" and "School" subscales of KINDLR were similar between the two groups. The CES-D score was significantly higher among adolescents with leprosy-affected parents than for adolescents with unaffected parents. The KINDLR scores for adolescents with both parents affected (n = 41) were significantly lower than the scores for those with one parent affected (n = 61). Multiple regression analysis revealed that adolescents with leprosy-affected parents who had higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to have lower KINDLR scores. A similar result was seen for adolescents where both parents had leprosy. Adolescents with leprosy-affected parents had higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower levels of self-esteem, and lower HRQOL compared with adolescents whose parents were unaffected by leprosy. Thus, mental health support

  16. Marital status and cardiovascular risk in French and Swedish automotive industry workers--cross sectional results from the Renault-Volvo Coeur study.

    PubMed

    Kumlin, L; Latscha, G; Orth-Gomér, K; Dimberg, L; Lanoiselée, C; Simon, A; Eriksson, B

    2001-04-01

    To compare the coronary risk profiles in a sample of the French and Swedish automotive industry employees who were married/cohabitant, divorced or single (never married). A cross-sectional study comparison from biological and questionnaire data between the French and Swedish samples. Occupational health departments at Renault (employees from the north-west of France) and Volvo (employees from the south-west of Sweden). Two random samples of males aged between 45 and 50 years were examined in 1993, from Renault 1000, and from Volvo 1000. Biological data including cholesterol, blood pressure as well as the Framingham risk index. Self reported information regarding marital status, smoking, exercise, alcohol habits, and work stress assessed by the Karasek method, private social support indices, and type A behaviour according to the Bortner scale. More employees were married/cohabitant and fewer divorced or single at Renault. Apart from waist/hip ratio being marginally lower in Swedish single men, compared with married and divorced, no significant difference in biological cardiac risk factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure or Framingham risk index) was seen between the subgroups from any of the two countries. Compared with married/cohabitant men, it was shown that in men living alone smoking was more prevalent at Renault and Volvo. These men also showed less type A behaviour, a lower work control and a lower work support and fewer close friends. Alcohol consumption was reported in smaller amounts for Volvo employees living alone compared with married or divorced employees. Married/cohabitant and divorced staff showed similar values regarding all measured variables when compared within each country. Employees living alone in both France (Renault) and Sweden (Volvo) automotive companies seem to have increased nontraditional cardiac risk factors pertaining to life style and social network compared with married or divorced men. These results, in combination with the

  17. Health-seeking behaviour in the city of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo: results from a cross-sectional household survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns about the occurrence of disease among household members generally initiate treatment-seeking actions. This study aims to identify the various treatment-seeking options of patients in Lubumbashi, analyze their health-seeking behaviour, identify determinants for the use of formal care, and analyze direct health care expenditure. Methods A cross-sectional survey of households in Lubumbashi was conducted in July 2010. Information was collected from a randomly selected sample of 251 households with at least one member who had been ill in the 2 weeks preceding the survey. Results Frequently used initial treatment-seeking options consist of self-medication based on modern medicines (54.6%), the use of first-line health services (23.1%) and hospitals (11.9%), with a perceived effectiveness of 51%, 83% and 91% respectively. If people go for a second option, then formal health care services are most often preferred. The majority (60%) of patients’ spontaneous itineraries reflect the expected functioning of a local health care system, with a patient flow characterised by the use of a first line health facility prior to the use of hospital-based services. Chronicity of the disease is the main determinant of seeking formal care. Analysis of care expenditure reveals that drugs are the only line of expenditure in the informal system and the main source of expenditure in the formal system; costs do not discriminate between first-line health services and hospitals, and the payment system is regressive since the poorest patients pay the same amounts as the richest. Conclusions This study points to the importance of self-medication as the first therapeutic option for the majority of patients in Lubumbashi, whatever the nature of the health problem. There is a lot of room to rationalise this practice. Although formal care is not common initial therapeutic option, it is the source of care most patients turn to, especially when they believe having a chronic

  18. Which chronic diseases and disease combinations are specific to multimorbidity in the elderly? Results of a claims data based cross-sectional study in Germany.

    PubMed

    van den Bussche, Hendrik; Koller, Daniela; Kolonko, Tina; Hansen, Heike; Wegscheider, Karl; Glaeske, Gerd; von Leitner, Eike-Christin; Schäfer, Ingmar; Schön, Gerhard

    2011-02-14

    Growing interest in multimorbidity is observable in industrialized countries. For Germany, the increasing attention still goes still hand in hand with a small number of studies on multimorbidity. The authors report the first results of a cross-sectional study on a large sample of policy holders (n = 123,224) of a statutory health insurance company operating nationwide. This is the first comprehensive study addressing multimorbidity on the basis of German claims data. The main research question was to find out which chronic diseases and disease combinations are specific to multimorbidity in the elderly. The study is based on the claims data of all insured policy holders aged 65 and older (n = 123,224). Adjustment for age and gender was performed for the German population in 2004. A person was defined as multimorbid if she/he had at least 3 diagnoses out of a list of 46 chronic conditions in three or more quarters within the one-year observation period. Prevalences and risk-ratios were calculated for the multimorbid and non-multimorbid samples in order to identify diagnoses more specific to multimorbidity and to detect excess prevalences of multimorbidity patterns. 62% of the sample was multimorbid. Women in general and patients receiving statutory nursing care due to disability are overrepresented in the multimorbid sample. Out of the possible 15,180 combinations of three chronic conditions, 15,024 (99%) were found in the database. Regardless of this wide variety of combinations, the most prevalent individual chronic conditions do also dominate the combinations: Triads of the six most prevalent individual chronic conditions (hypertension, lipid metabolism disorders, chronic low back pain, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and chronic ischemic heart disease) span the disease spectrum of 42% of the multimorbid sample. Gender differences were minor. Observed-to-expected ratios were highest when purine/pyrimidine metabolism disorders/gout and osteoarthritis were part of

  19. Factors associated with consistent condom use and STIs among foreign female entertainment workers: results from a cross-sectional survey in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Wong, Mee Lian; Cheung, Olive N Y; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Tai, Bee Choo; Chan, Roy

    2017-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence of consistent condom use and laboratory-confirmed STIs among foreign female entertainment workers (FEWs) who engaged in paid or casual sex in Singapore and the factors associated with these characteristics. A cross-sectional survey, using time-location sampling, was conducted on 220 FEWs (115 Vietnamese and 105 Thai) in 2015. For multivariable analysis, we used a mixed-effects Poisson regression model with backward stepwise approach to account for clustering by venue and to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) of factors associated with consistent condom use and STI positivity, respectively. Consistent condom use with paid or casual partners in the past month was 39.6% and 36.2% for vaginal and oral sex, respectively. The prevalence of STI (cervical chlamydia, cervical gonorrhoea or pharyngeal gonorrhoea) positivity was 13.6%. In multivariable analysis, consistent condom use for both vaginal and oral sex increased with high self-perceived risk of getting STI/HIV (vaginal: aPR 2.09; 95% CI 1.26 to 3.46; oral: aPR 2.41; 95% CI 1.23 to 4.69) and condom negotiation (vaginal: aPR 3.74; 95% CI 2.07 to 6.75; oral: aPR 2.81; 95% CI 1.51 to 5.26). STI positivity decreased with consistent condom use for vaginal sex (aPR 0.22; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.75) and increased with number of sexual partners (aPR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.92). In addition to advocating for policy decisions to provide a safer work environment, behavioural interventions on condom negotiation skills and condom use and biomedical interventions on STI/HIV testing and treatment interventions are needed among the FEWs in Singapore. NCT02780986; pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  1. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers’ educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with

  2. Extracellular micronutrient levels and pro-/antioxidant status in trauma patients with wound healing disorders: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disorders in wound healing (DWH) are common in trauma patients, the reasons being not completely understood. Inadequate nutritional status may favor DWH, partly by means of oxidative stress. Reliable data, however, are lacking. This study should investigate the status of extracellular micronutrients in patients with DWH within routine setting. Methods Within a cross-sectional study, the plasma/serum status of several micronutrients (retinol, ascorbic acid, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, selenium, and zinc) were determined in 44 trauma patients with DWH in addition to selected proteins (albumin, prealbumin, and C-reactive protein; CRP) and markers of pro-/antioxidant balance (antioxidant capacity, peroxides, and malondialdehyde). Values were compared to reference values to calculate the prevalence for biochemical deficiency. Correlations between CRP, albumin and prealbumin, and selected micronutrients were analyzed by Pearson’s test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Mean concentrations of ascorbic acid (23.1 ± 15.9 μmol/L), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (46.2±30.6 nmol/L), β-carotene (0.6 ± 0.4 μmol/L), selenium (0.79±0.19 μmol/L), and prealbumin (24.8 ± 8.2 mg/dL) were relatively low. Most patients showed levels of ascorbic acid (<28 μmol/L; 64%), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (<50 μmol/L; 59%), selenium (≤ 94 μmol/L; 71%) and β-carotene (<0.9 μmol/L; 86%) below the reference range. Albumin and prealbumin were in the lower normal range and CRP was mostly above the reference range. Plasma antioxidant capacity was decreased, whereas peroxides and malondialdehyde were increased compared to normal values. Inverse correlations were found between CRP and albumin (P < 0.05) and between CRP and prealbumin (P < 0.01). Retinol (P < 0.001), ascorbic acid (P < 0.01), zinc (P < 0.001), and selenium (P < 0.001) were negatively correlated with CRP. Conclusions Trauma

  3. Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    in children is associated with poorer educational outcomes. While recognizing that these are cross-sectional data, we suggest that 1) health-related and sociodemographic factors should be a focus point of intervention, and 2) a socio-structural approach including Coordinated School Health intervention is crucial to reducing childhood obesity and improving educational outcomes in this population. PMID:26222699

  4. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  5. In wealthier countries, patients perceive worse impact of the disease although they have lower objectively assessed disease activity: results from the cross-sectional COMORA study.

    PubMed

    Putrik, Polina; Ramiro, Sofia; Hifinger, Monika; Keszei, Andras P; Hmamouchi, Ihsane; Dougados, Maxime; Gossec, Laure; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-04-01

    To investigate patterns in patient-reported and physician-reported disease outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from countries with different level of socioeconomic development. Data from a cross-sectional multinational study (COMOrbidities in RA) were used. Contribution of socioeconomic welfare (gross domestic product (GDP); low vs high) of country of residence to physician-reported (tender joint count, swollen joint count (SJC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate, disease activity score based on 28 joints assessment (DAS28)-3v based on these three components and physician global assessment) and patient-reported (modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ), patient global assessment and fatigue) disease outcomes was explored in linear regressions, adjusting for relevant confounders. In total, 3920 patients with RA from 17 countries (30 to 411 patients per country) were included, with mean age of 56 years (SD13) and 82% women. Mean SJC varied between 6.7 (Morocco) and 0.9 (The Netherlands), mean mHAQ ranged between 0.7 (Taiwan) and 1.5 (The Netherlands). Venezuela had the lowest (1.7) and the Netherlands the highest score on fatigue (5.0). In fully adjusted models, lower GDP was associated with worse physician-reported outcomes (1.85 and 2.84 more swollen and tender joints, respectively, and 1.0 point higher DAS28-3v), but only slightly worse performance-based patient-reported outcome (0.15 higher mHAQ), and with better evaluation-based patient-reported outcomes (0.43 and 0.97 points lower on patient global assessment and fatigue, respectively). In patients with RA, important differences in physician-reported and patient-reported outcomes across countries were seen, with overall a paradox of worse physician-reported outcomes but better patient-reported outcomes in low-income countries, while results indicate that these outcomes in multinational studies should be interpreted with caution. Research on explanatory factors of this paradox should

  6. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Huang, Feifei; Tang, Weiming; Guo, Yufang; Tang, Songyuan; Lei, Yang; Feng, Lei; Wang, Anni; Zhang, Liuyi; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-01-01

    Background Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure index (PPI), ankle-brachial index (ABI) etc.] among them. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments. Results In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001) and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003) with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002) with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001) and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005) were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001) was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005), female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005) and 5years’ duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039) were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without) abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013) higher odds of missing the

  7. The association between nutrition transition score and measures of obesity: results from a cross-sectional study among Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Airín D; Juon, Hee-soon; Levine, David M; Lyford-Pike, Victoria; Peters, Sadie

    2014-07-07

    Studies suggest that US Latinos have a higher prevalence of obesity than White Americans. However, obesity may differ by pre-immigration factors and Latinos' cultural representations of ideal body image. This paper explores whether country of origin's stage in the nutrition transition is related to Latino immigrants' BMI category and self-perception of weight. Primary data originated from a cross-sectional questionnaire of Latina/o immigrants in Baltimore in 2011. A convenience sample of self-identified Latinos, ≥18 years old, living in Baltimore was recruited from a community-based organization. Data for each country represented in the sample were obtained from the WHO Demographic and Health Surveys and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization. Each country was scored for its stage in the nutrition transition using a six-point scoring system. Descriptive statistics were conducted to characterize the sample. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the outcome variables and the predictors. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine whether a country's stage in the nutrition transition increased one's odds of having an obese BMI score (≥30 kg/cm2) and perceiving one's weight as overweight, while controlling for socio-demographic variables. The sample (n = 149) consisted of immigrants from 12 Latin American countries. Participants lived in the US for x=10.24 years. About 40% of the sample had BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (obese). The longer Latina immigrants' lived in the US, the less likely their country of origin's nutrition transition score would increase their odds of having a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (OR = 0.97 p < 0.04). The higher the country of origin's nutrition transition score, the more likely BMI influenced Latino immigrants' perception of their weight as above normal (OR = 1.06, p < 0.04). The effect of the nutrition transition score had a stronger effect on females than males. These results suggest

  8. Depression prevalence and primary care among vulnerable patients at a free outpatient clinic in Paris, France, in 2010: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of depression and on how a depressive episode prompts the sufferer to seek primary care are not scarce, but the available evidence on the prevalence of depression among immigrants and poor people who frequent general practice facilities is scarce. The Baudelaire Outpatient Clinic at the Saint-Antoine Hospital in Paris provides free medical and social assistance to the poor and/or uninsured. The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depression among these outpatients, to characterize this depressed population, and to analyze its demand for primary care for depressive episodes. Methods From September to December 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey among users of the Baudelaire Outpatient Clinic. French-speaking patients attending the clinic between September 15 and December 30, 2010 who agreed to answer a questionnaire administered face-to-face before their consultation were included in the study. The chi-squared test (or Fisher’s exact test for small samples) was used for the comparisons of proportions. Logistic regression models were estimated, along with the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), for the multivariate analysis of factors associated with depression and healthcare-seeking. Models were estimated separately for men and women, since sex was an interaction factor. The statistical analyses were performed using Stata v. 10 software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA). Results Of the 250 patients included (mean age: 45 years), 52.0% were men and 52.4% were immigrants. Close to 40% of them reported having no supplemental health insurance. The estimated prevalence of depression in this population was 56.7%. Depression was more prevalent among the women, immigrants, and people from the poorer socioeconomic groups. Only half of these depressed patients, mostly women, reported having discussed their depression with a physician. French nationality and complete

  9. Perceptions about the cause of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior in a Pakistani population – results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Syed, Reema; Tehseen, Sarah; Gowani, Saqib A; Waqar, Sana; Zubair, Amina; Yousaf, Wajeeha; Zubairi, Akbar J; Naqvi, Haider

    2008-01-01

    Background There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. Generally patients with schizophrenia are considered dangerous. They are isolated and treatment is delayed. Studies have shown favorable prognosis with good family and social support, early diagnosis and management. Duration of untreated psychosis is a bad prognostic indicator. We aimed to determine the perceptions regarding the etiology of schizophrenia and the subsequent help seeking behavior. Methods This cross-sectional study was carried out on a sample of 404 people at the out patient departments of Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. Data was collected via a self-administered questionnaire. Questions were related to a vignette of a young man displaying schizophrenic behavior. Data was analyzed on SPSS v 14. Results The mean age of the participants was 31.4 years (range = 18–72) and 77% of them were males. The majorities were graduates (61.9%) and employed (50%). Only 30% of the participants attributed 'mental illness' as the main cause of psychotic symptoms while a large number thought of 'God's will' (32.3%), 'superstitious ideas' (33.1%), 'loneliness' (24.8%) and 'unemployment' (19.3%) as the main cause. Mental illness as the single most important cause was reported by only 22%. As far as management is concerned, only 40% reported psychiatric consultation to be the single most important management step. Other responses included spiritual healing (19.5%) and Sociachanges (10.6) while 14.8% of respondents said that they would do nothing. Gender, age, family system and education level were significantly associated with the beliefs about the cause of schizophrenia (p < 0.05). While these variables plus 'religious inclination' and 'beliefs about cause' were significantly associated with the help seeking behavior of the participants. Conclusion Despite majority of the study population being well educated, only a few recognized schizophrenia as a

  10. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  11. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  12. [Venous thromboembolism risk and prophylaxis in the acute hospital care setting (ENDORSE II study): results of a Mexican national cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zubieta, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that a significant proportion of hospitalized medical and surgical patients with risk factors for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are not receiving thromboprophylaxis. We designed this study to evaluate the proportion of at-risk patients and the proportion of those receiving recommended prophylaxis. We conducted a multicentric cross-sectional survey that included medical and surgical patients from 43 hospitals throughout Mexico. Patients who were at risk for DVT according to the ACCP 2004 guidelines were included and evaluated for thromboprophylaxis. Overall, 625 patients were at risk: 308 (49%) surgical patients and 317 (51%) medical patients. There were 179 (58%) surgical patients receiving recommended prophylaxis, whereas medical patients represented 117 (37%) patients. There is a significant proportion of hospitalized medical and surgical patients at risk for DVT. There is also a significant underutilization of recommended thromboprophylaxis among these patients.

  13. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  14. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  15. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  16. Multigroup cross section library for GFR2400

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čerba, Štefan; Vrban, Branislav; Lüley, Jakub; Haščík, Ján; Nečas, Vladimír

    2017-09-01

    In this paper the development and optimization of the SBJ_E71 multigroup cross section library for GFR2400 applications is discussed. A cross section processing scheme, merging Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, was developed. Several fine and coarse group structures and two weighting flux options were analysed through 18 benchmark experiments selected from the handbook of ICSBEP and based on performed similarity assessments. The performance of the collapsed version of the SBJ_E71 library was compared with MCNP5 CE ENDF/B VII.1 and the Korean KAFAX-E70 library. The comparison was made based on integral parameters of calculations performed on full core homogenous models.

  17. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  18. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  19. Low income is associated with poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet and a higher prevalence of obesity: cross-sectional results from the Moli-sani study.

    PubMed

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Bonanni, Americo Ettore; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; De Lucia, Francesca; Donati, Maria Benedetta; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Iacoviello, Licia

    2012-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations of socioeconomic status (ie, income and education) with an adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern and obesity prevalence. Cross-sectional study on a sample of Italian subjects enrolled in the Moli-sani Project, a population-based cohort study. The Italian EPIC food frequency questionnaire was used to determine food intake. Adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) was appraised according to both the Mediterranean score elaborated by Trichopoulou (MDS) and the novel Italian Mediterranean Index (IMI) and to the a posteriori scores derived from principal component analysis. Four income categories were identified. Molise region, Italy. 13 262 subjects (mean age 53±11, 50% men) out of 24 318 citizens (age ≥35) randomly enrolled in the Moli-sani Project. Dietary patterns and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Household higher income were significantly associated with greater adherence to an MD (p<0.0001) and to Olive oil and Vegetables dietary pattern in a multivariable model including age, sex, daily energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education and marital status. The odds of having the highest adherence to an MD clearly increased according to income levels. People having the highest income had 54% (95% CI 21% to 97%, MDS) or 72% (95% CI 34% to 121%, IMI) higher probability to stick to an MD-like eating pattern than those in the lowest-income group. Obesity prevalence was higher in the lowest-income group (36%) in comparison with the highest-income category (20%, p<0.0001). Income was associated with dietary patterns in all categories of education. A higher income and education are independently associated with a greater adherence to MD-like eating patterns and a lower prevalence of obesity.

  20. Fission Cross Section Measurements of Actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    F. Tovesson; A. B. Laptev; T. S. Hill

    2011-08-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the 235U standard. Recent measurements include the 233, 238U, 239-242Pu, and 243Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for fission cross sections of 243Am and 233U will be presented.

  1. Fission cross section measurements of actinides at LANSCE

    SciTech Connect

    Tovesson, Fredrik; Laptev, Alexander B; Hill, Tony S

    2010-01-01

    Fission cross sections of a range of actinides have been measured at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in support of nuclear energy applications. By combining measurement at two LANSCE facilities, Lujan Center and the Weapons Neutron Research center (WNR), differential cross sections can be measured from sub-thermal energies up to 200 MeV. Incident neutron energies are determined using the time-of-flight method, and parallel-plate ionization chambers are used to measure fission cross sections relative to the {sup 235}U standard. Recent measurements include the {sup 233,238}U, {sup 239,242}Pu and {sup 243}Am neutron-induced fission cross sections. In this paper preliminary results for cross section data of {sup 243}Am and {sup 233}U will be presented.

  2. Risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in hospital admissions: A cross-sectional, retrospective, case series analysis in valencia, spain

    PubMed Central

    Marco, José Luis; Amariles, Pedro; Boscá, Beatriz; Castelló, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background NSAIDs are a significant cause of drug-related hospital admissions and deaths. The therapeutic effects of NSAIDs have been associated with the risk for developing adverse events, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives The focus of this study was to identify the most common risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) resulting in hospital admissions. A secondary end point was the relationship between use of gastroprotective treatment and relevant risk factors to NSAID-induced UGIB in the selected population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective, case-series analysis of NSAID-induced UGIB resulting in hospital admission to the Requena General Hospital, Valencia, Spain, occurring from 1997 to 2005. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify UGIB admissions associated with NSAIDs. To estimate the probability of association between UGIB and the use of NSAIDs, the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability was used. Patients were categorized as high-risk to develop UGIB if they met ≥1 of the following risk criteria (relevant risk factors): aged ≥65 years (age risk factor); peptic ulcer disease or NSAID gastropathy occurring in the year before their hospital admission (history risk factor); and concomitant use of other NSAIDs, systemic corticoids, oral anticoagulants, or platelet aggregation inhibitors (concomitant medication risk factor). Patients were categorized as candidates to use gastroprotections if they met ≥1 of the relevant risk factors. Patients were categorized as users of gastroprotective treatment if they used proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, or misoprostol at hospital admission. Results This study comprised 209 cases of NSAID-induced UGIB (129 men, 80 women: mean [SD] age, 71.5 [13.8] years; 128 [61.2%] receiving acetyl salicylic acid [ASA], with 72 [34.4%] receiving low

  3. SPA Meteor Section Results: 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBeath, Alastair

    2010-12-01

    A summary of the main analyzed results and other information provided to the SPA Meteor Section from 2006 is presented and discussed. Events covered include: the radio Quadrantid maximum on January 3/4; an impressive fireball seen from parts of England, Belgium and the Netherlands at 22h53m51s UT on July 18, which was imaged from three EFN stations as well; the Southern delta-Aquarid and alpha-Capricornid activity from late July and early August; the radio Perseid maxima on August 12/13; confirmation that the October 5/6 video-meteor outburst was not observed by radio; visual and radio findings from the strong, bright-meteor, Orionid return in October; another impressive UK-observed fireball on November 1/2, with an oil painting of the event as seen from London; the Leonids, which produced a strong visual maximum around 04h-05h UT on November 18/19 that was recorded much less clearly by radio; radio and visual reports from the Geminids, with a note regarding NASA-observed Geminid lunar impact flashes; and the Ursid outburst recorded by various techniques on December 22.

  4. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  5. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  6. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  7. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  8. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  9. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  10. Future experimental programme for neutrino cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolognesi, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The neutrino-nucleus interaction modelling is crucial for a precise measurement of neutrino oscillations. The advantages and the drawbacks of the planned strategies to measure the neutrino-nucleus cross section with different detector technologies will be discussed. The present document summarizes a talk given on these topics at Neutrino 2016 conference.

  11. Self-rated quality of life of city-dwelling elderly people benefitting from social help: results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The percentage of people aged 65 or older living in Poland is 13.6%, but 17.2% in Łódź. The aim of the study was to identify factors correlating with the self-rated quality of life of elderly inhabitants of cities applying for social help, on the basis of a cross-sectional study. Methods The study was conducted in Łódź, a large Polish city, between September 2011 and February 2012 in a group of people applying for help in the Municipal Social Welfare Centre. Four hundred and sixty-six respondents aged 65 or older were included in the study. The tool used in the study was an interview questionnaire. The respondents answered questions on their demographic situation, living conditions, financial, health and social situation. The authors also applied the WHOQOL-BREF Questionnaire, the Activities of Daily Living Scale (ADL) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GSOD). For statistical purposes, the authors used single- and multiple-factor regression and the Statistica 9.0 Program. The results were presented as an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI); the adopted significance level was p < 0.05. The authors applied the Pearson’s x2 test in order to evaluate the structure of the studied group and the subpopulation, who were aged 65 or older and using social help, throughout the city. Results Logistic regression confirmed that a high quality of life depends on the following variables: university education (OR = 2.31; p < 0.05), an income which is sufficient to live (OR = 1.63; p < 0.05), no heart palpitations (OR = 2.32; p < 0.05), stable blood pressure (OR = 2.32; p < 0.05), no headaches (OR = 1.55; p < 0.05), no pain in the chest (OR = 1.51; p < 0.01), no shortness of breath (OR = 1.51; p < 0.01), no tiredness (OR = 2.08; p < 0.05), a score on the Geriatric Depression Scale pointing to a lack of suspected depression (OR = 9.88; p < 0.001 if the person does not

  12. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  13. Body weight dissatisfaction by socioeconomic status among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men: results of the cross-sectional KORA Augsburg S4 population survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Body weight dissatisfaction is an important factor in preventing weight gain and promoting weight loss or maintenance. This study focuses on differences in the rates of body weight dissatisfaction among obese, preobese and normal weight women and men by socioeconomic status within a general adult population in Germany. Methods Data were analyzed from 4186 adults aged 25 to 74 who participated in a cross-sectional, representative population-based health survey (KORA S4, 1999–2001, Augsburg region/Germany). Body mass was measured anthropometrically and indexed following international standards. Among the 2123 women participating in the survey, 40.3% had a normal weight, 34.9% were preobese, and 24.8% were obese (compared to 25.9%, 51.4% and 22.6% among men, respectively). Body weight dissatisfaction, educational level, household income and occupational status were assessed by computer-aided personal interviewing. An index for socioeconomic status was calculated and categorized into quintiles. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to test for differences in the odds of body weight dissatisfaction across socioeconomic strata in normal weight, preobese and obese groups. Body mass index, age, family status, place of residence and health behaviors were adjusted for. Results Overall, being dissatisfied with one’s body weight was more prevalent in women (48.3%) than in men (33.2%). In the normal weight group, no significant differences in the odds of being dissatisfied were found across socioeconomic groups among women or men. Among preobese men, compared to the lowest socioeconomic stratum, increased odds of being dissatisfied with one’s body weight were associated with the highest socioeconomic index group (OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.4–3.8), middle and high educational level (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.3, and OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3–3.7), high income (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2–2.7), and middle and high occupational status (both OR = 1

  14. Supporting Option B+ scale up and strengthening the prevention of mother-to-child transmission cascade in central Malawi: results from a serial cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Herce, Michael E; Mtande, Tiwonge; Chimbwandira, Frank; Mofolo, Innocent; Chingondole, Christine K; Rosenberg, Nora E; Lancaster, Kathy E; Kamanga, Esmie; Chinkonde, Jacqueline; Kumwenda, Wiza; Tegha, Gerald; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Hoffman, Irving F; Martinson, Francis E; Stein, Eva; van der Horst, Charles M

    2015-08-12

    We established Safeguard the Family (STF) to support Ministry of Health (MoH) scale-up of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B+) and to strengthen the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade from HIV testing and counseling (HTC) through maternal ART provision and post-delivery early infant HIV diagnosis (EID). To these ends, we implemented the following interventions in 5 districts: 1) health worker training and mentorship; 2) couples' HTC and male partner involvement; 3) women's psychosocial support groups; and 4) health and laboratory system strengthening for EID. We conducted a serial cross-sectional study using facility-level quarterly (Q) program data and individual-level infant HIV-1 DNA PCR data to evaluate STF performance on PMTCT indicators for project years (Y) 1 (April-December 2011) through 3 (January-December 2013), and compared these results to national averages. Facility-level uptake of HTC, ART, infant nevirapine prophylaxis, and infant DNA PCR testing increased significantly from quarterly baselines of 66 % (n/N = 32,433/48,804), 23 % (n/N = 442/1,958), 1 % (n/N = 10/1,958), and 52 % (n/N = 1,385/2,644) to 87 % (n/N = 39,458/45,324), 96 % (n/N = 2,046/2,121), 100 % (n/N = 2,121/2,121), and 62 % (n/N = 1,462/2,340), respectively, by project end (all p < 0.001). Quarterly HTC, ART, and infant nevirapine prophylaxis uptake outperformed national averages over years 2-3. While transitioning EID laboratory services to MoH, STF provided first-time HIV-1 DNA PCR testing for 2,226 of 11,261 HIV-exposed infants (20 %) tested in the MoH EID program in STF districts from program inception (Y2) through Y3. Of these, 78 (3.5 %) tested HIV-positive. Among infants with complete documentation (n = 608), median age at first testing decreased from 112 days (interquartile range, IQR: 57-198) in Y2 to 76 days (IQR: 46-152) in Y3 (p < 0.001). During Y3 (only year with national data for

  15. Sketching cross sections with a portable microcomputer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberley, M.M.

    1985-02-01

    Computer applications have been carried to the field long ago by geophysicists and their dog houses. The advent of inexpensive battery-powered microcomputers promises to allow the field geologist to participate in this application. The field geologist may record data directly onto a computer-readable medium and calculate statistics or plot a cross section. A program for routine plotting of cross sections in the field has been developed and field-tested. The program proved to be useful to 30 computer-illiterate geologists on a 6-week mapping project in New Mexico. The program allows the user to control vertical exaggeration and displays the correct apparent dip along the chosen line of section. Cubic-spline interpolation is used to plot both topography and folded bedding planes. The program executes in Pascal on an Apple IIc in a few seconds.

  16. Inelastic cross sections for electron interactions in liquid water

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.N.; Ritchie, R.H.; Turner, J.E.; Wright, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The task was to develop a set of cross sections for electron inelastic processes in liquid water suitable for use in a Monte Carlo transport calculation. Results are plotted as inverse mean free paths vs electron energy. (DLC)

  17. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  18. Review of electron impact excitation cross sections for copper atom

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, N.W.; Hazi, A.U.

    1982-02-01

    Excitation of atomic copper by electron impact plays an important role in the copper vapor laser and accurate cross sections are needed for understanding and modeling laser performance. During the past seven years, there have been several attempts to normalize the relative elastic and inelastic cross sections measured by Trajmar and coworkers. However, each of these efforts have yielded different cross sections, and the uncertainty in the correct normalization of the data has been a source of confusion and concern for the kinetic modeling efforts. This difficulty has motivated us to review previous work on the electron impact excitation of copper atom and to perform new calculations of the inelastic cross sections using the impact parameter method. In this memorandum we review the previous attempts to normalize the experimental data and provide a critical assessment of the accuracy of the resulting cross sections. We also present new theoretical cross sections for the electron impact excitation of the /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/P/sup 0/ and /sup 2/S ..-->.. /sup 2/D transitions in copper. When the experimental cross sections are renormalized to the results of the impact parameter calculations, they are a factor of three smaller than those published in the latest paper of Trajmar et. al. At impact energies above 60 eV the excitation cross sections obtained with the impact parameter method agree well with the results of the very recent, unpublished, close-coupling calculations of Henry. This agreement suggests that the present normalization of the experimental cross sections is probably the most reliable one obtained to date.

  19. Somatic complaints and refrain from buying prescribed medications. Results from a cross-sectional study on people 60 years and older living in Kaunas (Lithuania)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The use of medicines by elderly people is a growing area of concern in social pharmacy. A significant proportion of older people do not follow the recommendations from physicians and refrain from buying prescribed medications. The aim of this study is to evaluate associations between self-rated health, somatic complaints and refraining from buying prescribed medications by elderly people. Findings Data was collected in a cross-sectional study in 2009. We received 624 completed questionnaires (response rate – 48.9%) from persons aged 60–84 years living in Kaunas (Lithuania). Somatic complaints were measured with the 24 item version of the Giessen Complaint List (GBB-24). Logistic regression (Enter model) was used for evaluation of the associations between refraining from buying medications and somatic complaints. These associations were measured using odds ratio (OR) and calculating the 95% confidence interval (CI). The mean scores in total for the GBB scale and sub-scales (exhaustion, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular) were lowest among respondents who did not refrain from buying prescribed medications (means for GBB-24 scale: 21.04 vs. 24.82; p=0.001). Logistic regression suggests that somatic complaints were associated with a increased risk of refraining from buying prescribed medications (OR=1.35, 95% CI=1.15-1.60). Conclusions Somatic complaints were significantly associated with the decision to refrain from buying prescribed medications. PMID:23351159

  20. Unexpected low soil-transmitted helminth prevalence in the Butha-Buthe district in Lesotho, results from a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Moser, Wendelin; Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Cheleboi, Molisana; Muhairwe, Josephine; Keiser, Jennifer

    2017-02-08

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections with Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura affect large parts of the world's population. For the implementation of national STH control programs, e.g. preventive chemotherapy (treatment with albendazole and mebendazole), the spatial distribution and prevalence of STH infections must be known. However, for Lesotho only little data were available and the STH distribution remains largely unknown. In early 2016, a cross-sectional parasitological STH survey was conducted including six different primary schools in the Butha-Buthe district of Lesotho. In each school stool samples were collected from 50 children (age 8-14 years) and analysed with a duplicate Kato-Katz thick smear for the presence of A. lumbricoides, hookworm and T. trichiura. A total of 301 children provided a stool sample. All children were negative for A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura. Only two children from one primary school showed a light hookworm infection. Our data indicate a low prevalence of STH infections in the Butha-Buthe district of Lesotho. Additional parasitological surveys on the prevalence and the spatial distributions of STH infections across the entire country of Lesotho are needed.

  1. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bondor, Cosmina I.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Gavan, Norina A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs. PMID:27019852

  2. A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Logie, C. H.; Alaggia, R.; Rwigema, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence. PMID:24412812

  3. Occupational Social Class and Personality Traits in Relation to Leisure-Time Physical Activity Level: Cross-Sectional Results From the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Gitte L; Mortensen, Erik L; Rod, Naja H; Lange, Theis; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Hansen, Åse M; Lund, Rikke

    2017-06-01

    To investigate separate and combined associations of occupational social class and personality traits with late midlife leisure-time physical activity duration and intensity. Cross-sectional data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank ( N = 4,649) were analyzed using linear regression models with leisure-time physical activity (metric equivalence) as outcome. Low versus high occupational social class was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = [3%, 5%]) greater leisure-time physical activity duration, but 2% (CI = [1%, 3%]) lower intensity. Each 10-unit increase in extraversion was associated with 5% (CI = [2%, 8%]) greater duration. Intensity increased by each 10-unit increase in conscientiousness (6%, CI = [4%, 7%]), openness (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), neuroticism (3%, CI = [1%, 4%]), and extraversion (5%, CI = [4%, 7%]). Conscientiousness was positively associated with duration in low, but not in high, occupational social class (interaction p value = .002). Higher occupational social class was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity duration, but higher intensity. Extraversion was positively associated with duration and intensity. Conscientiousness, openness, and neuroticism were positively associated with intensity. Overall, interactions were not consistent.

  4. Association between infant- and child-feeding index and nutritional status: results from a cross-sectional study among children attending an urban hospital in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Tahmina; Mollah, Md Abid Hossain; Choudhury, Ahmed Murtaza; Islam, M Munirul; Rahman, Kazi Mizanur

    2011-08-01

    Integration of infant- and child-feeding index (ICFI) addressing the multidimensional child-feeding practices into one age-specific summary index is gaining importance. This cross-sectional study was aimed at understanding the association between the ICFI and the nutritional status of 259 children, aged 6-23 months, who attended the paediatric outpatient department of the Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. The mean length-for-age z-score (LAZ) of children aged 12-23 months was significantly (p < 0.05) higher among those who were at the upper ICFI tercile compared to those who were at the middle or lower ICFI tercile (-2.01 and -3.20 respectively). A significant correlation was found between the ICFI and the LAZ (r = 0.24, p = 0.01 and r = 0.29, p = 0.01) in children aged 6-8-months and 12-23-months. Multivariable analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, also found a significant association between the ICFI and the LAZ (beta = 0.13, p = 0.03). The predictive capability of the proposed ICFI on nutritional status of children, especially length-for-age, needs to be further evaluated prospectively among healthy children in the community.

  5. [Prevention of sudden infant death as a task of nurses in neonatology – Evaluations and recommendations as a result of a cross-sectional survey].

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Tina; Bensch, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    The sudden infant death is a diagnosis by exclusion and a multifactorial event. Premature infants are at a high risk. They must be especially protected from additional risk factors. Prevention campaigns support the decrease of mortality rate. The study aims to demonstrate various aspects of procedure applied by nurses and within neonatal units in SIDS prevention and counseling. In the nine level 1 perinatal centres of a german federal state, the study aims to examine the neonatological nurse's knowledge of prevention aspects of sudden infant death. The aim is not only to contemplate the individual nurse, but also the institutional framework of the respective clinics is considered. The cross-sectional survey was done with help of a written survey. 165 nurses participated (160 female, four male, one unknown). Premature infants do not consistently get accustomed to the supine position. 33 percent of the nurses evaluate breastfeeding as very important. 74 percent regularly talk to parents about prevention. Half of the nurses do not record the counseling interviews. Although evidence based recommendations to prevent sudden infant death exist they are not executed consequently. The motives for the inadequate implementation should be determined. Trainings should focus on the mediation of protective factors. Nurses should also demonstrate preventive interventions and support parents in putting these actions into practice.

  6. Screen viewing, body mass index, cigarette smoking and sleep duration in Belgrade University student population: results of an observational, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pantic, Igor; Malbasa, Milica; Ristic, Sinisa; Turjacanin, Drenka; Medenica, Snezana; Paunovic, Jovana; Pantic, Senka

    2011-07-01

    Subjects that spend more time working on computers or watching television could have a higher body mass index. To assess the relationship between time spent in front of a screen and studying, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and sleep duration among university students. A cross-sectional study of 734 randomly selected students aged 21 ± 2 years (450 females) that responded an anonymous, structured questionnaire about time spent watching television or in front of a computer, time spent studying, number of daily hours of sleep, smoking habits and number of daily meals. Body mass index was also calculated for all subjects Among males, the number of daily sleep hours, time spent working with computers and number of daily meals were significantly higher and time spent studying was significantly lower than females. Nonsmokers ate a significantly higher number of meals and spent less time watching television. No association was observed between time spent in front of a screen and number of sleep hours of body mass index. Men and smokers spend more time working in computers. There is no association between body mass index and time spent in front of screens.

  7. Use of Diuretics is not associated with mortality in patients admitted to the emergency department: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Haider, Dominik G; Lindner, Gregor; Wolzt, Michael; Leichtle, Alexander Benedikt; Fiedler, Georg-Martin; Sauter, Thomas C; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2016-02-01

    Patients with diuretic therapy are at risk for drug-induced adverse reactions. It is unknown if presence of diuretic therapy at hospital emergency room admission is associated with mortality. In this cross sectional analysis, all emergency room patients 2010 and 2011 at the Inselspital Bern, Switzerland were included. A multivariable logistic regression model was performed to assess the association between pre-existing diuretic medication and 28 day mortality. Twenty-two thousand two hundred thirty-nine subjects were included in the analysis. A total of 8.5%, 2.5%, and 0.4% of patients used one, two, or three or more diuretics. In univariate analysis spironolactone, torasemide and chlortalidone use were associated with 28 day mortality (all p < 0.05). In a multivariate cox regression model no association with mortality was detectable (p > 0.05). No difference existed between patients with or without diuretic therapy (P > 0.05). Age and creatinine were independent risk factors for mortaliy (both p < 0.05). Use of diuretics is not associated with mortality in an unselected cohort of patients presenting in an emergency room.

  8. Associations among health literacy, diabetes knowledge, and self-management behavior in adults with diabetes: results of a dutch cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, Iris; Uiters, Ellen; Rademakers, Jany; Struijs, Jeroen N; Schuit, A Jantine; Baan, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have examined the association between health literacy and self-management behavior, but few have explored ways through which this occurs. The present study examines to what extent health literacy is associated with diabetes self-management behavior and to what extent diabetes knowledge is a mechanism in this association. The study was based on cross-sectional data retrieved from patient registrations and questionnaires completed in 2010. The sample included 1,714 predominantly type 2 diabetes patients, with a mean age of 67 years. Diabetes self-management was indicated by HbA1c level, glucose self-control and self-reported monitoring of glucose levels, physical activity, and smoking. Multilevel analyses were applied based on multiple imputed data. Lower health literacy was significantly associated with less diabetes knowledge, higher HbA1c level, less self-control of glucose level, and less physical activity. Participants with more diabetes knowledge were less likely to smoke and more likely to control glucose levels. Diabetes knowledge was a mediator in the association between health literacy and glucose self-control and between health literacy and smoking. This study indicates that higher health literacy may contribute to participation in certain self-management activities, in some cases through diabetes knowledge. Diabetes knowledge and health literacy skills may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-management.

  9. A social ecological approach to understanding correlates of lifetime sexual assault among sexual minority women in Toronto, Canada: results from a cross-sectional internet-based survey.

    PubMed

    Logie, C H; Alaggia, R; Rwigema, M J

    2014-08-01

    Stigma, discrimination and violence contribute to health disparities among sexual minorities. Lesbian, bisexual and queer (LBQ) women experience sexual violence at similar or higher rates than heterosexual women. Most research with LBQ women, however, has focused on measuring prevalence of sexual violence rather than its association with health outcomes, individual, social and structural factors. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with LBQ women in Toronto, Canada. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess correlates of lifetime sexual assault (LSA). Almost half (42%) of participants (n = 415) reported experiences of LSA. Participants identifying as queer were more likely to have experienced LSA than those identifying as lesbian. When controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, experiencing LSA was associated with higher rates of depression, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), receiving an STI test, belief that healthcare providers were not comfortable with their LBQ sexual orientation, and sexual stigma (overall, perceived and enacted). A history of sexual violence was associated with lower: self-rated health, overall social support, family social support and self-esteem. This research highlights the salience of a social ecological framework to inform interventions for health promotion among LBQ women and to challenge sexual stigma and sexual violence.

  10. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Bondor, Cosmina I; Veresiu, Ioan A; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J; Vinik, Aaron I; Gavan, Norina A

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20-29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80-89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70-79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs.

  11. Perceived green qualities were associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity, and general health: results from a cross-sectional study in suburban and rural Scania, southern Sweden.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Kim; Albin, Maria; Skärbäck, Erik; Grahn, Patrik; Björk, Jonas

    2012-11-01

    In this study using cross-sectional survey data from suburban and rural Scania, Sweden (N=24,847), we assessed how the recently validated index score of area-aggregated perceived green neighborhood qualities (Scania Green Score; SGS), and the five distinct qualities within this index were associated with three self-reported indicators of well-being: neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. Effect sizes were compared with objective (GIS-based) assessments of the same five qualities. Area-aggregated SGS was positively associated with neighborhood satisfaction, physical activity and general health. The association with general health was mediated by physical activity and neighborhood satisfaction. Three perceived qualities had salutogenic potential: historical remains (culture), silence such that sounds of nature can be heard (serene) and species richness (lush). Spacious and wild were not appreciated. Some independent positive effects of the GIS-based index were noted, but could not be consistently attributed to specific qualities. Perceived qualities within green areas, not merely quantity, are related to aspects of well-being in suburban and rural areas.

  12. Minority Stress and Safer Sex Practices Among Sexual Minority Women in Toronto, Canada: Results from a Cross-Sectional Internet-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; MacKenzie, Rachel K; Poteat, Tonia

    2016-12-01

    Sexual stigma is a chronic stressor that enhances vulnerability to mental health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer people. Sexual stigma has also been associated with reduced uptake of safer sex practices, such as condom use, among gay and bisexual men. Scant research has examined the relationship between sexual stigma and safer sex practices among sexual minority women (SMW), including lesbian, bisexual, and queer women. We explored associations between sexual stigma and safer sex practices among SMW. We also tested the interaction between sexual stigma, social support, and resilient coping in this relationship. A cross-sectional internet-based survey was administered to SMW in Toronto, Canada. Among 388 participants with complete measurement data, simple linear regression indicated both perceived and enacted sexual stigma were positively associated with uptake of safer sex practices. In multivariable analyses, significant interactions were found between perceived sexual stigma and resilient coping, and between enacted sexual stigma and social support. At low levels of resilient coping, higher levels of perceived sexual stigma were associated with fewer safer sex practices, while at high levels of resilient coping the relationship was reversed. At low levels of social support, higher levels of enacted sexual stigma were associated with fewer safer sex practices, while at high levels of social support the relationship was reversed. These findings document complex relationships between sexual stigma dimensions, coping, social support, and safer sex practices. Understanding the role these variables play in uptake of safer sex practices can inform sexual health interventions tailored for SMW.

  13. Is the association between various emotion-regulation skills and mental health mediated by the ability to modify emotions? Results from two cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Berking, Matthias; Poppe, Christine; Luhmann, Maike; Wupperman, Peggilee; Jaggi, Verena; Seifritz, Erich

    2012-09-01

    In order to clarify mechanisms underlying the association between emotion regulation and psychopathology, we tested whether the ability to modify negative emotions mediates the associations of other emotion-regulation skills with psychopathological symptoms in two studies. The first study included 151 college students; the second included 121 psychiatric inpatients. Bootstrapping-enhanced mediation analyses were utilized to assess associations between self-reports of emotion-regulation skills and psychopathology, as well as potential mediation effects. In both samples, the ability to modify emotions completely mediated the association between symptoms and skills for most skills, but not for the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions. Major limitations include the use of a cross-sectional design as well as exclusive use of self-report data. The ability to modify negative emotions may be the common pathway by which many emotion-regulation skills exert their influence on mental health; however, the skill of accepting/tolerating negative emotions may be beneficial to mental health regardless of whether or not it facilitates modification of emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk Cohort.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas; Griffin, Simon; Jones, Andy P

    2017-01-01

    A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Norfolk study. Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute), daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA). Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling. After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01) and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions. Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  15. Correlation between instrumental activities of daily living and white matter hyperintensities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Kim, Yong-Duk; Lee, Kee Ook; Na, Sang-Jun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Park, Kyung Won; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Seong Hye; Yang, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have supported the association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive impairment, whether WMH are associated with the impairments in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) remains unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated differences in basic ADLs and IADLs among different severity of WMH in a large, well-defined registry of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). 1,514 patients with aMCI were divided into three groups according to the degree of WMH (1,026 mild, 393 moderate, and 95 severe). We compared the total IADL scores and analyzed the prevalence of the impairment for each IADL item for each group. The severity of WMH was associated with the impairments in IADLs. Among 15 Seoul IADL items, "using public transportation", "going out (short distance)", "grooming" and "participating in leisure activities/hobbies" showed greater positive association with the severity of WMH. WMH in patients with aMCI were associated with the impairments in IADLs but not in basic ADLs. These findings are likely to be more obvious with respect to using public transportation, going out (short distances), shopping, grooming and participating in leisure activities/hobbies.

  16. Clustering of geriatric deficits emerges to be an essential feature of ageing - results of a cross-sectional study in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karolina, Piotrowicz; Agnieszka, Pac; Barbara, Skalska Anna; Jerzy, Chudek; Alicja, Klich-Rączka; Aleksandra, Szybalska; Jean-Pierre, Michel; Tomasz, Grodzicki

    2016-01-01

    The majority of old people suffer from various clinical conditions that affect health, functioning and quality of life. This research is a part of a cross-sectional, nationwide PolSenior Study that provides a comprehensive assessment of eight geriatric impairments and their co-occurrence in a representative sample (3471 participant aged 65-104 years, mean age 78.3 years) of the old adults living in the community in Poland. The participants were recruited randomly from all administrative regions of Poland by a three-stage, proportional, stratified-by-age group selection process. Eight geriatric conditions were assessed: falls, incontinences, cognitive impairment, mood disorders, vision and hearing impairments, malnutrition, and functional dependence. We showed that the most common deficits causing disability were vision and hearing impairments, and mood disorders, with more than two thirds of the participants presented at least one geriatric deficit. We showed that presence any of the analyzed conditions significantly increased the risk for co-occurrence of other examined weaknesses. The highest prevalence odds ratios were for functional dependence and, respectively: malnutrition (8.61, 95%CI: 4.70-15.80), incontinences (8.0, 95%CI:5.93-10.70), and cognitive impairment (7.22; 95%CI:5.91-8.83). We concluded that the majority of the old people living in the community present various clinical conditions that prompt disability. PMID:27794563

  17. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-18

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8-7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1-0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren's homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08-2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities.

  18. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V.

  19. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  20. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  1. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  2. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  3. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  4. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  5. Investigation into knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding medical nutrition therapy among patients with diabetes in China: Results from a national multicenter cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lu Lu; Chen, Wei; Sun, Zi Lin; Zhu, Sai Nan; Shen, Li; Li, Wen Xia; Huang, Jin; Lou, Qing Qing; Bian, Rong Wen; Guo, Xiao Hui

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) associated with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) among Chinese adult patients with diabetes and prediabetes. From May to August 2014, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 40 hospitals across China. The KAP of respondents was investigated through a pretested structured questionnaire in face-to-face interviews. Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected, and KAP scores were recorded according to patient responses. In all, responses from 7017 of 7508 patients were analyzed. The mean (±SD) overall KAP score was 9.63 ± 3.46, with individual scores for the K, A, and P components being 2.69 ± 1.90, 1.77 ± 1.99, and 5.17 ± 1.99, respectively (out of possible total scores of 19, 6, 3, and 10, respectively). All scores were higher in respondents who received ≥15 min MNT education than in those with shorter sessions. Patients with higher KAP scores exhibited significantly better glycemic control, with a higher proportion achieving target HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, and 2-h postprandial blood glucose levels (P < 0.05). "Health publicity in hospitals" and "expert outpatient services" were the most favorable means of acquiring MNT information. The two predominant concerns associated with MNT were "the feasibility" and "the authenticity and professionalism of the information". Patients with diabetes and prediabetes achieved moderate scores for KAP towards MNT. Glycemic control was positively correlated with the KAP score. Thus, MNT education should be improved, with a particular focus on feasibility and authenticity and professionalism, in China. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Epidemiology of HPV infection and current status of cervical cancer prevention in Greece: final results of the LYSISTRATA cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Siamanta, Vagia; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Lampropoulos, Alexandros F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the overall prevalence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and distribution of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types in Greece and evaluate the participation of women in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between October 2005 and January 2011 in Greece; 5379 women filled out the study questionnaire anonymously. 5107 women underwent cervical HPV-DNA testing, either by Hybrid Capture 2, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, or by the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV test. Overall, 5.8% (295/5107) of women were positive for hrHPV infection. The most common hrHPV type was HPV-16 (24.8% among infected women; 1.4% overall), followed by HPV types 31, 35, 53, 18, 51, 56, 58, 52, 39, 66, 45, 33, 59, and 68. In respect to primary prevention of cervical cancer, acceptance of anti-HPV vaccination appeared to decrease over time (from 85-89.9% annually during 2005-2008 to 64.4-60.5% during 2009-2010, P<0.001). In respect to secondary prevention, only 30.3% of women had regular (annually for more than 5 years) Pap smears; regular gynecologic examinations, Papanicolaou testing, and knowledge of HPV were all associated with various demographic parameters (age, education, place of residence, occupation, and income). The prevalence of hrHPV infection in Greece is similar to that in other European countries; the most common type is HPV-16. The initially relatively high acceptance of HPV vaccination decreased after licensing of the vaccine. Demographic parameters appear to influence participation in cervical cancer screening.

  7. Predictors of family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Black, Sandra E; Beattie, B Lynn; Patterson, Christopher; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Borrie, Michael; Byszewski, Anna; Bergman, Howard; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and caregiver factors consistently predict family caregiver ratings of patient quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample. : Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. : Family caregivers (n = 412) of community-living patients with AD of all severities. Caregiver ratings of patient QOL using three utility indexes, the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, Quality of Well-Being Scale and Health Utilities Index; a global QOL visual analogue scale; a disease-specific measure, the Quality of Life-Alzheimer's Disease; and a generic health status measure, the Short Form-36. Patient cognition was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and Mini-Mental State Examination, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Caregiver burden was assessed with the Zarit Burden Interview and caregiver depression with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between patient dementia symptom and caregiver variables with QOL ratings. In multivariable analyses, caregiver ratings of patient function and depressive symptoms were the only consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL across the QOL measures. Caregiver ratings of patient function and depression were consistent independent predictors of caregiver-rated QOL, using a spectrum of QOL measures, while measures of patient cognition and caregiver burden and depression were not. These findings support the continued use of caregiver ratings as an important source of information about patient QOL and endorse the inclusion in AD clinical trials of caregiver-rated measures of patient function, depression

  8. Undergraduate teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism at medical schools in the UK and the Republic of Ireland: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Green, Stephen T; Cladi, Lorenzo; Morris, Paul; Forde, Donall

    2013-06-20

    To determine if individual undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and the Republic of Ireland provide any teaching to medical students about biological weapons, bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation, if they perceive them to be relevant issues and if they figure them in their future plans. A cross-sectional study utilising an internet-based questionnaire sent to key figures responsible for leading on the planning and delivery of undergraduate medical teaching at all schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland. All identified undergraduate schools of medicine in the UK and Ireland between August 2012 and December 2012. Numerical data and free text feedback about relevant aspects of undergraduate teaching. Of the 38 medical schools approached, 34 (28 in UK, 6 in Ireland) completed the questionnaire (89.47%). 4 (all in UK) chose not to complete it. 6/34 (17.65%) included some specific teaching on biological weapons and bioterrorism. 7/34 (20.59%) had staff with bioterrorism expertise (mainly in microbiological and syndromic aspects). 4/34 (11.76%) had plans to introduce some specific teaching on bioterrorism. Free text responses revealed that some felt that because key bodies (eg, UK's General Medical Council) did not request teaching on bioterrorism, then it should not be included, while others regarded this field of study as a postgraduate subject and not appropriate for undergraduates, or argued that the curriculum was too congested already. 4/34 (11.76%) included some specific teaching on chemical weapons, and 3/34 (8.82%) on weaponised radiation. This study provides evidence that at the present time there is little teaching at the undergraduate level in the UK and Ireland on the subjects of biological weapons and bioterrorism, chemical weapons and weaponised radiation and signals that this situation is unlikely to change unless there were to be high-level policy guidance.

  9. Prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases in a semi-urban Nigerian community: results of a cross-sectional survey using COPCORD methodology.

    PubMed

    Courage, Uhunmwangho U; Stephen, Dungwom P; Lucius, Imoh C; Ani, Charles; Oche, Agbaji O; Emmanuel, Agaba I; Olufemi, Adelowo O

    2017-04-26

    The International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated the Community Oriented Program for the Control of Rheumatic diseases (COPCORD) to promote the growth of rheumatology in developing countries. This is the first COPCORD-type survey carried out in a West African community. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases in a semi-urban Nigerian community, using the COPCORD methodology. This is a cross-sectional total population survey, carried out in Katon Rikkos, Jos, Nigeria, from June 2015 to November 2016. All inhabitants of the community who are 15 years and older were included in the study, except those who were not available or refused to participate. Trained health workers from the community carried out a house-to-house survey, to administer the COPCORD questionnaire. People reporting musculoskeletal symptoms were examined and investigated at the teaching hospital, to determine the specific type of musculoskeletal diseases. Data was analyzed using Epi-info version 7.1.5 and P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. The median age of the study population was 33 (IQR 24-46) years, with a male to female ratio of 1:1.1. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disease was 33%. Females (57.0%) were more affected than males (43.0%); the most common form of musculoskeletal diseases diagnosed was osteoarthritis (22.0%). Male sex and a family history of musculoskeletal diseases were independent predictors of musculoskeletal diseases. A Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI) ≥1 was recorded in 14% of subjects with musculoskeletal diseases. The prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases in this community is high with significant disability; therefore, there is urgent need for increased access to rheumatology care in the community.

  10. Cognitive function alone is a poor predictor of health-related quality of life in employed patients with MS: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brenna, Greta; Brambilla, Laura; Confalonieri, Paolo; Cortese, Francesca; Covelli, Venusia; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; Raggi, Alberto

    2016-02-01

    Depression, anxiety, disease severity, and cognitive functions impact on the quality of life of people with MS. However, the majority of studies were not based on multivariate models and did not target employed patients. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of HRQoL in persons with MS in the workforce considering cognitive, psychological, disease severity, and disability-related variables. Cross-sectional study. Hierarchical block regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of physical and mental components of HRQoL, measured with the MSQOL-54. Candidate predictors included cognitive functioning (a selection of Rao's BRB-NT), sample features (age, education, MS duration), depressive symptoms (BDI-II), anxiety (STAI-Y), disability (WHODAS 2.0), and MS severity (EDSS): those that correlated with PCS and MCS with p < .250 and those that correlated with other predictors with coefficients >.800 were excluded from regression analyses. In total, 181 patients (60.8% females, mean age 39.6, median EDSS 1.5) were included. In both models, cognitive variables had a poor explicative power. The models improved significantly when psychological, as well as, disease severity and disability variables were added. R(2) of complete models was 0.732 for the physical component, 0.697 for the mental one: BDI-II, STAI-State and, some WHODAS 2.0 scales were significant predictors of HRQoL. Monitoring anxiety, depressive symptoms, and level of disability through self-reported questionnaires may provide useful suggestions to improve the HRQoL of persons with MS in the workforce, permitting to address possible problems in the work context and plan corrective actions.

  11. Frequency, severity and determinants of functional limitations in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, Lotte A H; Leone, Stephanie S; Smalbrugge, Martin; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2014-01-01

    Older adults with joint pain and comorbidity are especially at risk of becoming functionally impaired. Therefore, we studied the frequency and severity of functional limitations and identified potential modifiable determinants that may reduce functional limitations. A prospective cohort study of older adults (≥65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity provided cross-sectional baseline data (n=407). Based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) model, we measured Physical Functioning; PF, (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living; (I)ADL, and participation. Apart from examining the frequency and severity, we identified determinants of functional limitations with multivariate regression analyses, by adding determinants in two steps: (1) only physical determinants, (2) physical and psychosocial determinants. Limitations in PF, ADL, IADL and participation were present in 66%, 31%, 61% and 47% of the participants, respectively. About 22% reported limitations on all four measures. Of the physical determinants, especially frailty and higher pain intensity were related to functional limitations. Remarkably, adding psychosocial determinants to the model weakened some of these relations. The psychosocial determinants were especially related to poor PF (i.e. anxiety symptoms, activity avoidance and poor general health perception) and participation restrictions (i.e. depressive symptoms, less social support). An inverse relation was present between self-efficacy and both outcomes. In conclusion, our sample reported substantial levels of functional limitations. More depressive symptoms, more activity avoidance and less social support were indicative of more functional limitations, whereas higher perceived self-efficacy was indicative of better functioning. Such psychosocial determinants should receive more attention in research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The family role in children׳s sleep disturbances: Results from a cross-sectional study in a Portuguese Urban pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andreia Luís; Chaves, Petra; Papoila, Ana Luísa; Loureiro, Helena Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Sleep Disorders (SlD) are frequently undervalued complaints in childhood. Several factors influence sleep, particularly socio-cultural environment and medical conditions such as breathing disorders. Poor sleep hygiene has physical, educational and social consequences. In Portugal, there are few published studies about children׳s sleep habits and rarely based on validated questionnaires. To study the prevalence of SlD and associated factors, in an outpatient pediatric population of a Primary Health Care Center (PHCC). Cross-sectional study of children admitted to a PHCC on a suburban area of Lisbon. Children Sleep Habits Questionnaire, validated for the Portuguese population (CSHQ-PT) for the screening of SlD (cut-off=44), was applied to parents, as well as a demographic inquiry. Body mass index z-score was evaluated. Children scoring 44 or above were sent to Pediatric Sleep Disorders consultation (PSDC). Parametric and non-parametric tests were used whenever appropriate. From 128 children, 57.8% were male; the median age was 6.0 years (P 25=5.0; P 75=8.0). The median of cohabitants per family was 4.0 (P 25=3.0; P 75=5.0); 21.1% lived in a single-parent family. From CSHQ-PT, 59.4% (76) scored above the cut-off. Data showed that children from a single-parent family have more SlD (p=0.048), particularly parasomnia (p=0.019). Children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) suffer more daytime sleepiness (p=0.034). From 63 children sent to PSDC, 33 attended. Regarding these children, a difference was found between BMI z-scores of those with and without SDB (p=0.06). Family structure plays a non-negligible role in children's sleep habits. Daily performance of children with SDB may become compromised.

  13. Inverse association between intelligence quotient and urinary retinol binding protein in Chinese school-age children with low blood lead levels: results from a cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Chen, Wen; Wang, Dongyue; Jin, Yinlong; Chen, Xiaodong; Xu, Yan; Huang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Examine the relationship between blood lead concentration and children's intelligence quotient (IQ) in Chinese children 8-12 years old. This is a cross-sectional study, and participants included 446 children from three primary schools in Jiangsu, China. We collected environmental and genetic information from questionnaires. Blood lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se) concentrations were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). IQ was assessed using the Combined Raven's Test and then converted to a standard IQ score according to Chinese children's norm. Morning urine samples were collected to measure retinol binding protein (RBP). The average blood lead concentration was 33.13 μg L(-1) (geometric mean), and the blood lead concentration (BoxCox transform) was inversely and significantly associated with IQ (r=-0.11, p=0.02). The geometric mean of blood Mn, Cd and Se was 7.02 μg L(-1), 0.18 μg L(-1) and 94.77 μg L(-1), respectively. Blood Mn, Cd and Se showed no association with IQ, but all of them associated with urinary RBP. Urinary RBP was identified as a new factor associated with IQ (β=-6.49, p=0.011). Urinary RBP was recognized as a new indicated factor associated with children's IQ. Mn, Cd and Se exposure might affect urinary RBP concentration and further IQ. Findings also support that blood lead concentrations in 8-12 years old children, even <44 μg L(-1), have a negative association with IQ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Quality, Sanitation, and Hygiene Conditions in Schools and Households in Dolakha and Ramechhap Districts, Nepal: Results from A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Akina; Sharma, Subodh; Gerold, Jana; Erismann, Séverine; Sagar, Sanjay; Koju, Rajendra; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed drinking water quality, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions among 708 schoolchildren and 562 households in Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in March and June 2015. A Delagua water quality testing kit was employed on 634 water samples obtained from 16 purposively selected schools, 40 community water sources, and 562 households to examine water quality. A flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to test lead and arsenic content of the same samples. Additionally, a questionnaire survey was conducted to obtain WASH predictors. A total of 75% of school drinking water source samples and 76.9% point-of-use samples (water bottles) at schools, 39.5% water source samples in the community, and 27.4% point-of-use samples at household levels were contaminated with thermo-tolerant coliforms. The values of water samples for pH (6.8–7.6), free and total residual chlorine (0.1–0.5 mg/L), mean lead concentration (0.01 mg/L), and mean arsenic concentration (0.05 mg/L) were within national drinking water quality standards. The presence of domestic animals roaming inside schoolchildren’s homes was significantly associated with drinking water contamination (adjusted odds ratio: 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.08–2.50; p = 0.02). Our findings call for an improvement of WASH conditions at the unit of school, households, and communities. PMID:28106779

  15. Differences in Case Conferences in Dementia Specific vs Traditional Care Units in German Nursing Homes: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Palm, Rebecca; Trutschel, Diana; Simon, Michael; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine; Holle, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate differences in the provision and performance of case conferences for people with dementia between dementia special care units (DSCUs) and traditional care units (TCUs) in nursing homes. Because DSCUs employ more staff, we expect the likelihood of the provision of case conferences to be higher in DSCUs. Observational cross-sectional study. Residents from DSCUs and TCUs were compared using genetic propensity score matching over all of the observed potential covariates, including the characteristics that served as admission criteria for DSCUs. Because of the multisite structure of the data, clustering was accounted for with a generalized mixed model. DSCUs are defined as units within nursing homes that offer care exclusively to residents with dementia and that charge higher rates for the specialized care provided. TCUs are defined as care units for residents with and without dementia. A matched sample was drawn out of a convenience sample of 1808 residents from 51 nursing homes. It consisted of 264 residents from 16 DSCUs and 264 residents from 48 TCUs. None. Data regarding the provision of case conferences were collected by the nurses using the Dementia Care Questionnaire. Other collected data included challenging behavior (Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire), mobility (Physical Self-Maintenance Scale), cognitive impairment (Dementia Screening Scale), and sociodemographic information. In the DSCU group, case conferences were provided to 91% (n = 224) of the residents; in the TCU group, 82.5% (n = 203) received a case conference. After adjusting for clustering, no significant difference between DSCUs and non-DSCUs was found. The topic "challenging behaviors" was discussed more often in case conferences in TCUs. Case conferences are a widespread intervention in German nursing homes, including both DSCUs and TCUs. The provision of a case conference is not a special feature of DSCUs. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long

  16. Occupational and Biomass Exposure in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results of a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the On-Sint Study.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; Calero-Acuña, Carmen; Represas-Represas, Cristina; López-Ramírez, Cecilia; Fernández, Virginia Leiro; Casamor, Ricard

    2017-01-01

    Although tobacco smoke is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), other inhaled toxics have also been associated with the disease. The present study analyzes data from exposure to these substances in a cohort of patients with COPD and assesses their impact on the clinical presentation of the disease. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the Clinical presentation, diagnosis and course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (On-Sint) study. All patients were smokers or ex-smokers as per protocol. In addition, during the inclusion visit patients were enquired about their occupational and biomass exposure history. The clinical features of patients with and without an added risk factor to tobacco were compared and those significant were entered in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, expressed as odds ratio (OR). The sample size was 1214 patients with COPD, of which 1012 (83.4%) had tobacco as the only risk factor and 202 (16.6%) had additional ones, mainly 174 (14.3%) with occupational gases and 32 (2.6%) with biomass exposure. The geographical distribution of this exposure showed a preference for the northern parts of the country and the East coast. The biomass exposure was rather low. Male gender (OR: 2.180), CAT score (OR: 1.036) and the use of long-term oxygen therapy (OR: 1.642) were associated with having an additional risk factor in the multivariate analysis. Occupational exposures are more common than biomass in Spain. COPD caused by tobacco plus other inhalants has some differential features and a more impaired quality of life. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Television viewing and abdominal obesity in women according to smoking status: results from a large cross-sectional population-based study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Taísa Rodrigues; Schlussel, Michael Maia; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Rebelo, Fernanda; Kac, Gilberto

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the associations between television viewing and abdominal obesity (AO) in Brazilian women, according to smoking status. Data of 13,262 adult women (18-49 years) from the 2006's Demographic Health Survey, a cross-sectional household study with complex probabilistic sample and national representativeness, were analyzed. AO, defined as waist circumference ≥ 80.0 cm, was the outcome. Television viewing frequency (≥ 5 times/week, 1-4 times/week, < 1 time/week) was the main exposure variable, and smoking status (yes or no) the main co-variable. Prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson regression models separately for smokers and non-smokers. A statistically significant interaction term was observed between smoking status and television viewing (p < 0.05). Prevalence of AO among smokers who reported television viewing ≥ 5 times/week amounted to 59.0%, higher than the 35.0% for those with < 1 time/week television viewing (p-value = 0.020). The values for non-smokers were 55.2% and 55.7%, respectively. Smokers with television viewing ≥ 5 times/week were 1.7 times (95% CI: 1.1 - 2.5) more likely to pre-sent AO, compared to those who reported a frequency < 1 time/week. There was no significant association among non-smokers. Television viewing ≥ 5 times/week may increase the prevalence of AO among women who smoke. More detailed information on media use, as hours per day, may offer better estimates.

  18. Adolescent tobacco use practices and user profiles in a mature Swedish moist snuff (snus) market: Results from a school-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ingeborg; Scheffels, Janne

    2016-06-23

    The aim of this work was to study the diversity of tobacco use among Norwegian adolescent tobacco users and to investigate how different user groups compared with each other in terms of lifestyle and risk correlates. Swedish moist snuff (snus) use has increased dramatically in Norway over the last few years and is now more prevalent than smoking in younger age groups. The participants were 736 15-year-old tobacco users obtained from a large school-based cross-sectional survey (response rate 73%). Leisure time activity and risk behaviour factors were extracted by principal components analysis. Associations between tobacco use, leisure activities, risk behaviours, alcohol use and sex were studied bivariately and by logistic regression. In total, 41.5% of the tobacco users were dual users (smokers and snus users). Problem behaviour and risk-taking lifestyles were associated with tobacco use frequency and high-frequency dual use, with a low risk profile for all types of occasional users (snus, cigarettes or dual users), a medium risk profile for all types of daily single-product users, including those who occasionally used the other product (i.e. dual users) and a high-risk profile for those who used both products daily (daily dual users). FRAGMENTED USE PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENCE UNDERMINE THE DICHOTOMY OFTEN APPLIED BETWEEN SMOKERS AND SNUS USERS FOR ASSOCIATIONS WITH LIFESTYLE AND RISK CORRELATES, USE FREQUENCY AND HIGH-FREQUENCY DUAL USE SEEM TO BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE CHOICE OF PRODUCT. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  19. Predictors of patient self-ratings of quality of life in Alzheimer disease: cross-sectional results from the Canadian Alzheimer's Disease Quality of Life Study.

    PubMed

    Naglie, Gary; Hogan, David B; Krahn, Murray; Beattie, B Lynn; Black, Sandra E; Macknight, Chris; Freedman, Morris; Patterson, Christopher; Borrie, Michael; Bergman, Howard; Byszewski, Anna; Streiner, David; Irvine, Jane; Ritvo, Paul; Comrie, Janna; Kowgier, Matthew; Tomlinson, George

    2011-10-01

    To assess whether the core symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD) consistently predict patient self-rated quality of life (QOL) as assessed by a variety of QOL measures in a large national sample of AD patients. Cross-sectional. Fifteen dementia and geriatric clinics across Canada. Community-living patients with AD (n = 370) with Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores greater than 10. Patients rated their QOL by using two utility indexes, the European QOL-5 Dimensions and the Quality of Well-Being Scale, a global QOL Visual Analog Scale, and the disease-specific QOL-AD instrument. Cognition was assessed with the AD Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale and MMSE, function with the Disability Assessment for Dementia, and behavioral and psychological symptoms with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). One-way analysis of variance and fully adjusted multiple linear regression were used to assess the relationship between core dementia symptoms and QOL ratings. The QOL measures had only small-to-moderate correlations with each other. For all QOL measures, patient ratings were significantly lower among patients with more depressive symptoms. In multivariable analyses, the GDS score was the only significant independent predictor of patient self-ratings for all four QOL measures. Self-rated symptoms of depression were a consistent independent predictor of patient-rated QOL across diverse QOL measures, while performance-based measures of cognition and informant-based functional status were not. These findings confirm the importance of identifying and treating depression in patients with AD and endorse the use of measures of self-rated depressive symptoms and QOL as outcomes in AD clinical trials.

  20. Current worldwide nuclear cardiology practices and radiation exposure: results from the 65 country IAEA Nuclear Cardiology Protocols Cross-Sectional Study (INCAPS).

    PubMed

    Einstein, Andrew J; Pascual, Thomas N B; Mercuri, Mathew; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Vitola, João V; Mahmarian, John J; Better, Nathan; Bouyoucef, Salah E; Hee-Seung Bom, Henry; Lele, Vikram; Magboo, V Peter C; Alexánderson, Erick; Allam, Adel H; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Flotats, Albert; Jerome, Scott; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Luxenburg, Osnat; Shaw, Leslee J; Underwood, S Richard; Rehani, Madan M; Kashyap, Ravi; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio

    2015-07-07

    To characterize patient radiation doses from nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and the use of radiation-optimizing 'best practices' worldwide, and to evaluate the relationship between laboratory use of best practices and patient radiation dose. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of protocols used for all 7911 MPI studies performed in 308 nuclear cardiology laboratories in 65 countries for a single week in March-April 2013. Eight 'best practices' relating to radiation exposure were identified a priori by an expert committee, and a radiation-related quality index (QI) devised indicating the number of best practices used by a laboratory. Patient radiation effective dose (ED) ranged between 0.8 and 35.6 mSv (median 10.0 mSv). Average laboratory ED ranged from 2.2 to 24.4 mSv (median 10.4 mSv); only 91 (30%) laboratories achieved the median ED ≤ 9 mSv recommended by guidelines. Laboratory QIs ranged from 2 to 8 (median 5). Both ED and QI differed significantly between laboratories, countries, and world regions. The lowest median ED (8.0 mSv), in Europe, coincided with high best-practice adherence (mean laboratory QI 6.2). The highest doses (median 12.1 mSv) and low QI (4.9) occurred in Latin America. In hierarchical regression modelling, patients undergoing MPI at laboratories following more 'best practices' had lower EDs. Marked worldwide variation exists in radiation safety practices pertaining to MPI, with targeted EDs currently achieved in a minority of laboratories. The significant relationship between best-practice implementation and lower doses indicates numerous opportunities to reduce radiation exposure from MPI globally. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  1. Mobile technology and social media in the clinical practice of young radiation oncologists: results of a comprehensive nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bibault, Jean-Emmanuel; Leroy, Thomas; Blanchard, Pierre; Biau, Julian; Cervellera, Mathilde; Diaz, Olivia; Faivre, Jean Christophe; Fumagalli, Ingrid; Lescut, Nicolas; Martin, Valentine; Pichon, Baptiste; Riou, Olivier; Thureau, Sébastien; Giraud, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    Social media and mobile technology are transforming the way in which young physicians are learning and practicing medicine. The true impact of such technologies has yet to be evaluated. We performed a nationwide cross-sectional survey to better assess how young radiation oncologists used these technologies. An online survey was sent out between April 24, 2013, and June 1, 2013. All residents attending the 2013 radiation oncology French summer course were invited to complete the survey. Logistic regressions were performed to assess predictors of use of these tools in the hospital on various clinical endpoints. In all, 131 of 140 (93.6%) French young radiation oncologists answered the survey. Of these individuals, 93% owned a smartphone and 32.8% owned a tablet. The majority (78.6%) of the residents owning a smartphone used it to work in their department. A total of 33.5% had more than 5 medical applications installed. Only 60.3% of the residents verified the validity of the apps that they used. In all, 82.9% of the residents had a social network account. Most of the residents in radiation oncology use their smartphone to work in their department for a wide variety of tasks. However, the residents do not consistently check the validity of the apps that they use. Residents also use social networks, with only a limited impact on their relationship with their patients. Overall, this study highlights the irruption and the risks of new technologies in the clinical practice and raises the question of a possible regulation of their use in the hospital. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Remarkable damage along with poor quality of life in Takayasu arteritis: cross-sectional results of a long-term followed-up multicentre cohort.

    PubMed

    Omma, Ahmet; Erer, Burak; Karadag, Omer; Yilmaz, Neslihan; Alibaz-Oner, Fatma; Yildiz, Fatih; Kalfa, Melike; Kimyon, Gezmis; Kiraz, Sedat; Direskeneli, Haner; Erken, Eren; Aksu, Kenan; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Gül, Ahmet; Ocal, Lale; Inanc, Murat; Kamali, Sevil

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the outcome of a large Takayasu arteritis (TAK) cohort using the vasculitis damage index (VDI) and quality of life (QoL) scale, tools which have been validated for vasculitis. Disease activity, damage and QoL were cross-sectionally evaluated in 165 TAK patients from 6 centres. SF-36 were applied to 51 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Persistent activity for ≥6 months was considered as treatment resistance (r-TAK). The correlation between VDI, clinical characteristics and mental (MCS)/physical (PCS) component scores of SF-36 were analysed. SF-36 and VDI scores were compared between TAK subgroups and HC. The median age, follow-up time and disease duration were 40 (17-68), 60 (6-384), and 72 (6-396) months, respectively. 35% of them were r-TAK. VDI scores (VDIs) in TAK 4 (1-12) were mainly due to the disease itself [4 (1-10)]. VDIs in r-TAK were significantly higher than nr-TAK [5 (2-12) vs. 3 (2-10), p<0.001)]. In the TAK patients, MCS and PCS were found as 43±10 and 38±11, respectively. A high proportion of poor MCS (70%) and PCS (80%) were demonstrated in TAK. A significantly negative but weak correlation was observed between VDI and MCS (p=0.003, r=-0.23), PCS (p<0.001, r=-0.34). Higher VDIs were detected in patients with PCS <50 [5 (1-12) vs. 2 (1-6) p<0.001)]. SF-36 score was significantly lower in TAK than HC. Disease-related damage mainly caused by peripheral vascular involvement was more predominant than treatment-related damage without reaching the level of severe damage scores, but contributing to poor QoL, in the TAK cohort.

  3. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in black African subjects with artery hypertension: Results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in semi-rural area in Senegal].

    PubMed

    Mbaye, A; Dodo, B; Ngaïde, A A; Sy, N F; Babaka, K; Mingou, J S; Faye, M; Niang, K; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Ndour-Mbaye, M; Diao, M; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diagne-Sow, D; Thiaw, I; Kane, A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria among hypertensive patients living in semi-rural Senegalese area. According to the World Health Organization STEPSwise approach, we conducted, in November 2012, a cross-sectional and exhaustive study in the population aged at least 35 years old and living for at least six months in the semi-rural area of Guéoul. We researched electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software version. The significance level was agreed for a value of P<0.05. We examined 1411 subjects aged on average of 48.5±12.7 years. In total, 654 subjects were hypertensive and screening of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was effective in 515 of them. According to Sokolow-Lyon index, 86 subjects (16.7%) presented electrocardiographic LVH, more frequently in men (P=0.002). According to Cornell index and Cornell product, LVH was founded respectively in 66 (12.8%) and 52 subjects (10.1%), more frequently in female (P=0.0001; P=0.004). It was more common in grade 3 of hypertension however criteria. In echocardiography, prevalence of LVH was 2.2% (13 cases) according to the left ventricular mass, 9.3% (48 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area and 8.2% (42 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to height(2.7). LVH was significantly correlated with the electrocardiographic LVH according to Sokolow-Lyon index (P<0.0001) and the grade 3 of hypertension (P=0.003). Although rare in hypertensive Senegalese living in semi-rural area, left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with severity of grade of hypertension. Screening by electrocardiogram will allow better follow-up of these hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and factors associated with desire for death in patients with advanced disease: results from a Portuguese cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Julião, Miguel; Barbosa, António; Oliveira, Fátima; Nunes, Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    Desire for death (DFD) within the context of palliative care has become a prominent medical issue and remains the subject of much controversy. Cross-sectional study designed to assess the prevalence and associated demographic, physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors for DFD in patients with advanced disease. Seventy-five terminally ill patients were included in the analyses in a 28-month period. The prevalence of DFD was 20% (95% CI [11.7-30.8]). No statistical differences were observed between patients with and without DFD with respect to sex, age, race, education, religion, type of family, medical diagnosis, and medication. There were associations between DFD and being married/cohabitating (OR = 4.0; 95% CI [1.21-13.29]) and being socially isolated (OR = 0.3; 95% CI [0.06-0.98]). Significant positive correlations were found between moderate to severe Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) scores and DFD for tiredness (OR = 10.1; 95% CI [1.57 ± inf]) and drowsiness (OR = 6.0; 95% CI [1.77-20.37]). DFD was also correlated with depression (DSM-IV criteria: OR = 5.5; 95% CI [1.56-19.47]; Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) depression subscale ≥11: OR = 8.6; 95% CI [1.33 ± inf]). In exact multivariate regression analyses predicting DFD, three independent factors emerged: marital status (OR = 5.3; 95% CI [1.16-29.89]); HADS depression sub-scale score ≥11 (OR = 8.3; 95% CI [1.11 ± inf]); drowsiness (OR = 5.8; 95% CI [1.29-32.85]). Prevalence of DFD was high in this sample of patients. Identifying factors associated with DFD could help provide medical and social interventions capable of diminishing suffering in terminal ill patients. Copyright © 2013 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C status are associated with leptin concentrations and obesity in Mexican women: results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    García, Olga Patricia; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, María Del Carmen; Camacho, Mariela; Long, Kurt Zane; Rosado, Jorge L

    2012-06-15

    The prevalence of obesity among Mexican women is high and it could be related to micronutrient status. We evaluated in a cross-sectional study the associations of zinc and vitamins A, C and E concentrations with BMI, central adiposity, body fat and leptin concentration. Women aged 37 ± 7.5 years (n = 580) from 6 rural communities in Mexico were evaluated. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, waist and hip circumference. A fasting blood sample was taken for the analysis of glucose, lipid profile, leptin, zinc, and vitamins A, C and E. Body composition was determined by DEXA (Hologic Mod Explorer). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 36% (BMI > 25 Kg/m2) and 44% (BMI > 30 Kg/m2), respectively. Prevalence of zinc and vitamins C and E deficiencies were similar in obese, overweight and normal weight women. No vitamin A deficiency was found. Vitamin C was negatively associated with BMI, waist-to-height ratio, and leptin concentrations (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with leptin (p < 0.05). When stratifying by BMI, % body fat and waist circumference, high leptin concentrations were associated with lower zinc and lower vitamin C concentrations in women with obesity (p < 0.05) and higher vitamin A concentrations in women without obesity (p < 0.01). Vitamin E status was not associated with any markers of obesity. Zinc and vitamins A and C are associated with obesity, adiposity and leptin concentration in women from rural Mexico, and may play an important role in fat deposition. The causality of these associations needs to be confirmed.

  6. Typical patterns of modifiable health risk factors (MHRFs) in elderly women in Germany: results from the cross-sectional German Health Update (GEDA) study, 2009 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Jentsch, Franziska; Allen, Jennifer; Fuchs, Judith; von der Lippe, Elena

    2017-04-04

    Modifiable health risk factors (MHRFs) significantly affect morbidity and mortality rates and frequently occur in specific combinations or risk clusters. Using five MHRFs (smoking, high-risk alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, low intake of fruits and vegetables, and obesity) this study investigates the extent to which risk clusters are observed in a representative sample of women aged 65 and older in Germany. Additionally, the structural composition of the clusters is systematically compared with data and findings from other countries. A pooled data set of Germany's representative cross-sectional surveys GEDA09 and GEDA10 was used. The cohort comprised 4,617 women aged 65 and older. Specific risk clusters based on five MHRFs are identified, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The MHRFs were defined as current smoking (daily or occasionally), risk alcohol consumption (according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, a sum score of 4 or more points), physical inactivity (less active than 5 days per week for at least 30 min and lack of sports-related activity in the last three months), low intake of fruits and vegetables (less than one serving of fruits and one of vegetables per day), and obesity (a body mass index equal to or greater than 30). A total of 4,292 cases with full information on these factors are included in the cluster analysis. Extended analyses were also performed to include the number of chronic diseases by age and socioeconomic status of group members. A total of seven risk clusters were identified. In a comparison with data from international studies, the seven risk clusters were found to be stable with a high degree of structural equivalency. Evidence of the stability of risk clusters across various study populations provides a useful starting point for long-term targeted health interventions. The structural clusters provide information through which various MHRFs can be evaluated simultaneously.

  7. Changes in waist circumference and the prevalence of abdominal obesity during 1994-2008 - cross-sectional and longitudinal results from two surveys: the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Aars, Nils Abel

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity increases all-cause mortality and is a risk factor for a number of diseases. There are few population-based studies of the longitudinal changes of abdominal obesity. Based on data from the Tromsø Study, we studied gender- and age-specific mean waist circumference and prevalence of abdominal overweight and abdominal obesity in two surveys in 1994-1995 (Tromsø 4, 6812 men and women aged 25 to 84) and 2007-2008 (Tromsø 6, 12,493 men and women aged 30 to 87). Furthermore, we describe the longitudinal changes of waist circumference and abdominal obesity during 13 years in 3144 subjects (aged 25-69 in 1994) who attended both surveys. Cross-sectional analyses found a higher mean waist circumference in men than women and a direct relationship with age in both men and women in both Tromsø 4 and in Tromsø 6. As the WHO cut-off points for abdominal obesity are gender-specific, however, the prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in men than in women. In 2007-2008, approximately 37 and 55 % of men and women, respectively, were classified as abdominally obese. Thirteen years before, in 1994-1995, the corresponding figures were 20 and 35 %. Longitudinal analyses of changes during the 13-year period clearly demonstrated that mean waist circumference increased in all examined birth cohorts in both men (mean change 6.1 cm) and women (mean change 8.4 cm), but increased more markedly the younger the subjects were. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in men aged 25-34 increased from 5 % in 1994 to 31 % 13 years later. The prevalence of abdominal obesity more than doubled among both men and women. The increasing mean waist circumference is of concern. There is a need for further longitudinal studies of the changes in waist circumference.

  8. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  9. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  10. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  11. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  12. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  13. Absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huder, K. J.; DeMore, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of the ClO dimer, ClOOCl, are important to the photochemistry of ozone depletion in the Antarctic. In this work, new measurements were made of the dimer cross sections at 195 K. the results yield somewhat lower values in the long wavelength region, compared to those currently recommended in the NASA data evaluation (JPL 94-26). The corresponding solar photodissociation rates in the Antarctic are reduced by about 40%.

  14. Top Quark Pair Production Cross Section at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Reinhild Yvonne

    2015-09-25

    The top quark, discovered in 1995 by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Tevatron proton antiproton collider at Fermilab, has undergone intense studies in the last 20 years. Currently, CDF and D0 converge on their measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections using the full Tevatron data sample. In these proceedings, the latest results on inclusive and differential measurements of top-antitop quark production cross sections at the Tevatron are reported.

  15. Gluon Saturation and the Total Proton-Air Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, F.; Durães, F. O.; Szpigel, S.; Navarra, F. S.

    In this work we propose a simple model for the total proton-air cross section, which is an improvement of the minijet model with the inclusion of a window in the pT-spectrum associated to the saturation physics. Our approach introduces a natural cutoff for the perturbative calculations which modifies the energy behavior of this component. The saturated component is calculated with a dipole model. The results are compared with experimental cross sections measured in cosmic ray experiments.

  16. Photoproduction models for total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Fernando; Garcia Canal, Carlos; Grau, Agnes; Pancheri, Giulia; Sciutto, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    A model for the total photoproduction cross section, based on the ansatz that resummation of infrared gluons limits the rise induced by QCD minijets in all the total cross-sections, is used to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic rays with the AIRES simulation program. The impact on common shower observables, especially those related with muon production, is analysed and compared with the corresponding results obtained with previous photoproduction models.

  17. Cross sectional study of osteoporosis among women.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tripti; Verma, A K

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 35 yrs in the women. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 158 women by calculating WHO T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be 13.3% ± 5.29% and 48.1% ± 7.79% respectively. Statistical association of prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be significant with age group; gravida status; attainment of menopause; body weight and physically active status of the women. The statistical association was not significant in relation to the rank status of their husband, as well as dietary pattern of the women but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger community based trials in future. The present study found that there was statistically significant relationship between age group and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There was a negative correlation between age of the women and BMD. Besides age, gravida status and menopausal status have negative correlation with BMD while positive correlation with physically active lifestyle. The results were found to be non-significant in relation to rank status of husband and dietary pattern.

  18. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  20. Scaling Cross Sections for Ion-atom Impact Ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-06-06

    The values of ion-atom ionization cross sections are frequently needed for many applications that utilize the propagation of fast ions through matter. When experimental data and theoretical calculations are not available, approximate formulas are frequently used. This paper briefly summarizes the most important theoretical results and approaches to cross section calculations in order to place the discussion in historical perspective and offer a concise introduction to the topic. Based on experimental data and theoretical predictions, a new fit for ionization cross sections is proposed. The range of validity and accuracy of several frequently used approximations (classical trajectory, the Born approximation, and so forth) are discussed using, as examples, the ionization cross sections of hydrogen and helium atoms by various fully stripped ions.

  1. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  2. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  3. A new technique for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Badikov, S.A.

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: An objective of this paper is a unification of the procedure for dosimetry reaction cross-section evaluation. A set of requirements for the unified evaluation procedure is presented. A new code (ORTHO) was developed in order to meet these requirements. A statistical model, an algorithm, and the basic formulae employed in the code are described. The code was used for Ti48(n,p) reaction cross-section evaluation. The results of the evaluation are compared to International Reactor Dosimetry File (IRDF)-2002 data. The evaluated cross-sections and their correlations from this work are in good agreement with the IRDF-2002 evaluated data, whereas the uncertainties of the evaluated cross-sections are inconsistent. (authors)

  4. Stellar (n ,γ ) cross sections of 23Na

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberseder, E.; Heil, M.; Käppeler, F.; Lederer, C.; Mengoni, A.; Bisterzo, S.; Pignatari, M.; Wiescher, M.

    2017-02-01

    The cross section of the 23Na(n ,γ )24Na reaction was measured via the activation method at the Karlsruhe 3.7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. NaCl samples were exposed to quasistellar neutron spectra at k T =5.1 and 25 keV produced via the 18O(p ,n )18F and 7Li(p ,n )7Be reactions, respectively. The derived capture cross sections <σ> kT =5 keV=9.1 ±0.3 mb and <σ> kT =25 keV=2.03 ±0.05 mb are significantly lower than reported in literature. These results were used to substantially revise the radiative width of the first 23Na resonance and to establish an improved set of Maxwellian average cross sections. The implications of the lower capture cross section for current models of s -process nucleosynthesis are discussed.

  5. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of Hydrocarbon Ions

    PubMed Central

    Irikura, Karl K.; Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model for electron-impact total ionization cross sections has been applied to CH2+, CH3+, CH4+, C2H2+, C2H4+, C2H6+ and H3O+. The cross sections for the hydrocarbon ions are needed for modeling cool plasmas in fusion devices. No experimental data are available for direct comparison. Molecular constants to generate total ionization cross sections at arbitrary incident electron energies using the BEB formula are presented. A recent experimental result on the ionization of H3O+ is found to be almost 1/20 of the present theory at the cross section peak. PMID:27446718

  6. Factors associated with the use of mosquito bed nets: results from two cross-sectional household surveys in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Moon, Troy D; Hayes, Caleb B; Blevins, Meridith; Lopez, Melanie L; Green, Ann F; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Olupona, Omo

    2016-04-11

    Malaria remains a major threat to some 3.2 billion persons globally. Malaria contributes heavily to the overall disease burden in Mozambique and is considered endemic. A cornerstone of Mozambique's vector control strategy has been to strive for universal coverage of insecticide-treated nets (ITN). The study is a population-based cross-sectional survey of female heads-of-household in Zambézia Province, Mozambique conducted during August-September, 2010 and April-May, 2014. Analyses accounted for a stratified two-stage cluster sample design. Outcomes of interest included sleeping under a mosquito net during the previous night. Descriptive statistics were calculated for three oversampled districts and for the entire province. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate factors associated with both changes over time and increased mosquito bed net usage. Of the 3916 households interviewed in 2010 and 3906 households in 2014, 64.3% were in possession of at least one mosquito bed net. A higher proportion of households in Namacurra (90%) reported possession of a mosquito net, compared to Alto Molócuè (77%) and Morrumbala (34%), respectively in 2014. Of pregnant respondents, 58.6% reported sleeping under a mosquito net the previous night in 2010 compared to 68.4% in 2014. Fifty percent of children 0-59 months slept under a mosquito net the previous night in 2010 compared to 60% in 2014. Factors associated with use of a mosquito net for female head-of-household respondents were higher education, understanding Portuguese, larger household size, having electricity in the household, and larger household monthly income. As travel time to a health facility increased (per 1 h), respondents had 13% lower odds of sleeping under a mosquito net (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.74-1.01, p = 0.07). Pregnant women in 2014 had a 2.4 times higher odds of sleeping under a bed net if they lived in Namacurra compared to Alto Molócuè (95% CI 0.91-6.32, p = 0.002 for district

  7. Analysis of manpower and career characteristics of nurse anesthetists in Taiwan: results of a cross-sectional survey of 113 institutes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wen-Jan; Chao, Yi-Fang; Kuo, Chien-Ju; Liang, Kuei-Min; Chen, Ta-Liang

    2009-12-01

    Manpower and the quality of nurse anesthetists (NA) have become critical concerns in Taiwan over the past few decades because of increasing clinical demand and the supervision of NAs by anesthesiologists. To understand manpower distribution, clinical load, job description and limitations, and job satisfaction of NAs, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in Taiwan in 2005. The structure of the questionnaire was initially developed by a drafting group that included members of the Taiwan Society of Anesthesiologists and the Taiwan Association of Nurse Anesthetists. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated by specialists. The survey contained questions regarding the demographic characteristics of manpower (anesthesiologist/NA ratio), clinical work load, present job roles, professional expectations, job satisfaction, and reasons for career transfer. The questionnaires were mailed to the superintendents or matrons of NAs, and the administrators of anesthesiology departments across 228 institutions with different accreditation levels and 1953 NA staff between February 1 and December 31, 2005. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire for the department chief and anesthesiology nursing staff was 0.8 and 0.7, respectively. Questionnaires were returned by 113 executives (39 anesthesiology department directors, 74 NA superintendents or matrons) with a response rate of 49.6%, and from 1452 NAs with a response rate of 74.3%. The average clinical load (2002-2004) for the anesthesiologists was 1500-1700 cases/year and 350-380 cases/year for the NAs. The manpower ratio of attending anesthesiologists to NAs was 1:4.3, while the medical centers held the highest ratio. The job stipulation for NAs in Taiwan was compatible with that in the United States and there was a high consistency of opinions between the directors and NA superintendents or matrons. The average rate of career transfer was relatively low (5.5%). From the executives' view, the concerns

  8. Prevalence and predicting factors for commonly neglected sexual side effects to radical prostatectomies: results from a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study.

    PubMed

    Frey, Anders; Sønksen, Jens; Jakobsen, Henrik; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-09-01

    Altered perception of orgasm, orgasm-associated pain, penile sensory changes, urinary incontinence (UI) during sexual activity, penile shortening (PS), and penile deformity following radical prostatectomy (RP) have received increasing attention from researchers. The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence and predictors of the above-mentioned side effects. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study among men who had undergone RP between 3 and 36 months prior to study inclusion. Predicting factors were identified through logistic regression analyses. The primary outcome measures were prevalence rates of the above-mentioned side effects. Overall, 316 questionnaires were available for analyses. Of the sexually active patients (n = 256), 12 (5%) reported anorgasmia, whereas 153 (60%) reported decreased orgasm intensity. Delayed orgasms were reported by 146 (57%). Twenty-three patients (10%) had experienced pain during orgasm. UI during sexual activity were reported by 99 patients (38%). Out of the whole population, 77 patients (25%) reported sensory changes in the penis. A total of 143 patients (47%) reported a subjective loss of penile length of >1 cm. An altered curvature of the penis was reported by 30 patients (10%). Patients had increasing risk of UI during sexual activity (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.25) and orgasmic dysfunction (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.16) with increasing International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire scores. Erectile dysfunction (OR 1.81; 95% CI 1.07-3.10) and a high body mass index (OR 1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.19) increased the risk of PS after RP. Nerve-sparing (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.16-0.95) reduced the risk of PS. Orgasm-associated problems, UI during sexual activity, penile sensory changes, PS, and penile deformity are common side effects to RP. Daytime UI, erectile dysfunction, and nerve-sparing status can help identify patients at risk. © 2014 International Society for Sexual

  9. Motives of former interns in general practice for speciality-choice--results of a cross-sectional study among graduates 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Jens; Schnell, Ute; Lichte, Thomas; Oemler, Matthias; Klement, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a final-year elective internship in general practice (IGP) on motives affecting graduates' choice of specialty is the object of great public interest, yet still insufficiently evaluated. Longitudinal studies show the influence of numerous motives (e.g., work-life balance), but not following the IGP experience itself. Thus, we performed a cross-sectional questionnaire study of all graduates who completed the IGP in Saxony-Anhalt during 2007-2012 regarding their motives for choosing a speciality. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 109 former interns in general practice. The questionnaire contained 29 items addressing three topics (personal attitudes, concept of personal and professional life, motives for speciality choice) and used single-choice and multiple-choice answers, as well as Likert scales. Correlation analysis was carried out by means of Kendall's tau. The questionnaire reached 97 former interns, of which 45 (46%) responded. In the overall ranking of motives for speciality choice, family (71%), leisure time (66%) and job opportunities (48%) rated as more important than income (36%), mentoring (20%), status or scientific work (20%). Only 29% of the respondents stated that their speciality choice was changed by the IGP. If the speciality choice was already established before the IGP, the influence of the IGP on speciality choice was significantly low (r = -.5; p < .01). However, if the IGP had an influence on speciality choice, it was correlated with a new perception of general practice (r = .36; p<.01). This new perception was associated with a positive influence of the medical teacher during the IGP. The final-year IGP is an opportunity to change the perception of general practice in students who are still undecided. This can lead to different speciality choices in a subgroup. Personal attitudes and concepts of personal life and career were also important factors affecting speciality choice. The aspects of the positive influence

  10. The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery: defining a model for antimicrobial stewardship-results from an international cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Sartelli, Massimo; Labricciosa, Francesco M; Barbadoro, Pamela; Pagani, Leonardo; Ansaloni, Luca; Brink, Adrian J; Carlet, Jean; Khanna, Ashish; Chichom-Mefire, Alain; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; May, Addison K; Viale, Pierluigi; Watkins, Richard R; Scudeller, Luigia; Abbo, Lilian M; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Adesunkanmi, Abdulrashid K; Al-Dahir, Sara; Al-Hasan, Majdi N; Alis, Halil; Alves, Carlos; Araujo da Silva, André R; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Barie, Philip S; Beltrán, Marcelo A; Bhangu, Aneel; Bouchra, Belefquih; Brecher, Stephen M; Caínzos, Miguel A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; Catani, Marco; Chandy, Sujith J; Jusoh, Asri Che; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Chiara, Osvaldo; Colak, Elif; Cornely, Oliver A; Cui, Yunfeng; Demetrashvili, Zaza; De Simone, Belinda; De Waele, Jan J; Dhingra, Sameer; Di Marzo, Francesco; Dogjani, Agron; Dorj, Gereltuya; Dortet, Laurent; Duane, Therese M; Elmangory, Mutasim M; Enani, Mushira A; Ferrada, Paula; Esteban Foianini, J; Gachabayov, Mahir; Gandhi, Chinmay; Ghnnam, Wagih Mommtaz; Giamarellou, Helen; Gkiokas, Georgios; Gomi, Harumi; Goranovic, Tatjana; Griffiths, Ewen A; Guerra Gronerth, Rosio I; Haidamus Monteiro, Julio C; Hardcastle, Timothy C; Hecker, Andreas; Hodonou, Adrien M; Ioannidis, Orestis; Isik, Arda; Iskandar, Katia A; Kafil, Hossein S; Kanj, Souha S; Kaplan, Lewis J; Kapoor, Garima; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar R; Kenig, Jakub; Kerschaever, Ivan; Khamis, Faryal; Khokha, Vladimir; Kiguba, Ronald; Kim, Hong B; Ko, Wen-Chien; Koike, Kaoru; Kozlovska, Iryna; Kumar, Anand; Lagunes, Leonel; Latifi, Rifat; Lee, Jae G; Lee, Young R; Leppäniemi, Ari; Li, Yousheng; Liang, Stephen Y; Lowman, Warren; Machain, Gustavo M; Maegele, Marc; Major, Piotr; Malama, Sydney; Manzano-Nunez, Ramiro; Marinis, Athanasios; Martinez Casas, Isidro; Marwah, Sanjay; Maseda, Emilio; McFarlane, Michael E; Memish, Ziad; Mertz, Dominik; Mesina, Cristian; Mishra, Shyam K; Moore, Ernest E; Munyika, Akutu; Mylonakis, Eleftherios; Napolitano, Lena; Negoi, Ionut; Nestorovic, Milica D; Nicolau, David P; Omari, Abdelkarim H; Ordonez, Carlos A; Paiva, José-Artur; Pant, Narayan D; Parreira, Jose G; Pędziwiatr, Michal; Pereira, Bruno M; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Poulakou, Garyphallia; Preller, Jacobus; Pulcini, Céline; Pupelis, Guntars; Quiodettis, Martha; Rawson, Timothy M; Reis, Tarcisio; Rems, Miran; Rizoli, Sandro; Roberts, Jason; Pereira, Nuno Rocha; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús; Sakakushev, Boris; Sanders, James; Santos, Natalia; Sato, Norio; Sawyer, Robert G; Scarpelini, Sandro; Scoccia, Loredana; Shafiq, Nusrat; Shelat, Vishalkumar; Sifri, Costi D; Siribumrungwong, Boonying; Søreide, Kjetil; Soto, Rodolfo; de Souza, Hamilton P; Talving, Peep; Trung, Ngo Tat; Tessier, Jeffrey M; Tumbarello, Mario; Ulrych, Jan; Uranues, Selman; Van Goor, Harry; Vereczkei, Andras; Wagenlehner, Florian; Xiao, Yonghong; Yuan, Kuo-Ching; Wechsler-Fördös, Agnes; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Zakrison, Tanya L; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Zuidema, Wietse P; Catena, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) have been promoted to optimize antimicrobial usage and patient outcomes, and to reduce the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant organisms. However, the best strategies for an ASP are not definitively established and are likely to vary based on local culture, policy, and routine clinical practice, and probably limited resources in middle-income countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate structures and resources of antimicrobial stewardship teams (ASTs) in surgical departments from different regions of the world. A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted in 2016 on 173 physicians who participated in the AGORA (Antimicrobials: A Global Alliance for Optimizing their Rational Use in Intra-Abdominal Infections) project and on 658 international experts in the fields of ASPs, infection control, and infections in surgery. The response rate was 19.4%. One hundred fifty-six (98.7%) participants stated their hospital had a multidisciplinary AST. The median number of physicians working inside the team was five [interquartile range 4-6]. An infectious disease specialist, a microbiologist and an infection control specialist were, respectively, present in 80.1, 76.3, and 67.9% of the ASTs. A surgeon was a component in 59.0% of cases and was significantly more likely to be present in university hospitals (89.5%, p < 0.05) compared to community teaching (83.3%) and community hospitals (66.7%). Protocols for pre-operative prophylaxis and for antimicrobial treatment of surgical infections were respectively implemented in 96.2 and 82.3% of the hospitals. The majority of the surgical departments implemented both persuasive and restrictive interventions (72.8%). The most common types of interventions in surgical departments were dissemination of educational materials (62.5%), expert approval (61.0%), audit and feedback (55.1%), educational outreach (53.7%), and compulsory order forms (51.5%). The survey showed a heterogeneous

  11. Educational outcomes associated with childhood obesity in the United States: cross-sectional results from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Carey, Felicia R; Singh, Gopal K; Brown, H Shelton; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2015-07-27

    educational outcomes. While recognizing that these are cross-sectional data, we suggest that 1) health-related and sociodemographic factors should be a focus point of intervention, and 2) a socio-structural approach including Coordinated School Health intervention is crucial to reducing childhood obesity and improving educational outcomes in this population.

  12. Evaluation of factors associated with noncompliance in users of combined hormonal contraceptive methods: a cross-sectional study: results from the MIA study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Astorquiza-Ortiz de Zarate, Txantón; Díaz-Martín, Teresa; Martínez-Astorquiza-Corral, Txantón

    2013-10-20

    Understanding contraception from the perspective of the user may help to improve compliance. The aim of this project was to determine the factors that influence the noncompliance in young women that use combined hormonal contraceptives (pill, patch or vaginal ring). A nationwide cross-sectional multicenter epidemiology study. Physicians [obstetricians/gynecologists]) recorded socio-demographic, clinical and current contraception data of 8,762 women. Women completed a self-administered questionnaire on compliance. After the assessment of self-administrated questionnaire, the physicians reported on their recommendations on the possibility of changing the contraceptive. Fifty-two percent of women were noncompliant, mainly because of simple forgetfulness (pill, 74.9%; patch, 47.8%; vaginal ring, 69.1%). The percentage of noncompliant women was lower in vaginal ring users (26.6%) than in patch users (42.4%) or pill users (65.1%) (p < 0.0001). The most common course of action after noncompliance was to take/use the contraceptive as soon as possible. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the use of the pill increased the probability of noncompliance compared with the patch and the vaginal ring (odds ratio [IC95%]: 2.53 (2.13-3.02) and 4.17 (3.68-4.73, respectively), and using the patch compared with the vaginal ring (1.65 (1.36-1.99)). Others factors associated with noncompliance were: high treatment duration, low degree of information on the contraceptive method, understanding of instructions on the contraceptive method, indifference to becoming pregnant, lack of partner support, not participation in selecting the method, not having a routine for taking treatment and difficulties remembering use the contraceptive method. Switching contraceptive method was proposed by the physicians to 43.2% of women (51.8% of pill users, 58.2% of patch users and 19.4% of vaginal ring users). More than 50% of combined hormonal contraceptive users did not comply with the

  13. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT.

  14. Sexual and reproductive health services utilization by female sex workers is context-specific: results from a cross-sectional survey in India, Kenya, Mozambique and South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lafort, Yves; Greener, Ross; Roy, Anuradha; Greener, Letitia; Ombidi, Wilkister; Lessitala, Faustino; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Beksinska, Mags; Gichangi, Peter; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Smit, Jenni A; Chersich, Matthew; Delva, Wim

    2017-01-19

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are extremely vulnerable to adverse sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes. To mitigate these risks, they require access to services covering not only HIV prevention but also contraception, cervical cancer screening and sexual violence. To develop context-specific intervention packages to improve uptake, we identified gaps in service utilization in four different cities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, as part of the baseline assessment of an implementation research project. FWSs were recruited in Durban, South Africa (n = 400), Mombasa, Kenya (n = 400), Mysore, India (n = 458) and Tete, Mozambique (n = 308), using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and starting with 8-16 'seeds' identified by the peer educators. FSWs responded to a standardised interviewer-administered questionnaire about the use of contraceptive methods and services for cervical cancer screening, sexual violence and unwanted pregnancies. RDS-adjusted proportions and surrounding 95% confidence intervals were estimated by non-parametric bootstrapping, and compared across cities using post-hoc pairwise comparison tests with Dunn-Šidák correction. Current use of any modern contraception ranged from 86.2% in Tete to 98.4% in Mombasa (p = 0.001), while non-barrier contraception (hormonal, IUD or sterilisation) varied from 33.4% in Durban to 85.1% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Ever having used emergency contraception ranged from 2.4% in Mysore to 38.1% in Mombasa (p < 0.001), ever having been screened for cervical cancer from 0.0% in Tete to 29.0% in Durban (p < 0.001), and having gone to a health facility for a termination of an unwanted pregnancy from 15.0% in Durban to 93.7% in Mysore (p < 0.001). Having sought medical care after forced sex varied from 34.4% in Mombasa to 51.9% in Mysore (p = 0.860). Many of the differences between cities remained statistically significant after adjusting for variations in FSWs

  15. Is the association between acne and mental distress influenced by diet? Results from a cross-sectional population study among 3775 late adolescents in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Dalgard, Florence; Thoresen, Magne; Bjertness, Espen; Lien, Lars

    2009-09-16

    Several studies with conflicting findings have investigated the association between acne and mental health problems. Acne usually starts in adolescents, as does an increase in the prevalence of depression and anxiety. Recently, there has been more focus on the link between diet and acne and diet and mental health problems. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between acne and mental distress and to explore a possible influence of dietary factors on the relation. A population-based cross-sectional study in Oslo of 18 or 19 year old adolescents. The participation rate was 80%. Acne was self-reported. To measure mental distress, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 was used. Diet and lifestyle variables were also collected by questionnaire and socio-demographic variables were obtained from Statistics Norway. The prevalence of acne was 14.4% among the males and 12.8% among the females. The mean score of mental distress increased when the severity of acne increased. In the crude analyses, the significant associations with acne among the males were: mental distress OR = 1.63, frequent consumption of chocolate/sweets OR = 1.40, frequent consumption of potato chips OR = 1.54. The significant crude associations with acne among the females were: mental distress OR = 2.16, infrequent consumption of raw vegetables OR = 1.41, non-Western background OR = 1.77 and low family income OR = 2.14. No crude associations with acne were identified in either gender for the consumption of sugary soft drinks, fatty fish, cigarette smoking or alcohol. In adjusted models which included diet and socio-demographic variables, the association between acne and mental distress was unchanged for both males (OR = 1.68) and females (OR = 2.04), and between acne and infrequent consumption of raw vegetables among the females (OR = 1.38). Among late adolescents in Oslo, self-reported acne is significantly associated with mental distress and, among girls, with infrequent consumption

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected inflammation is associated with functional disability in early arthritis-results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Leonie E; Nieuwenhuis, Wouter P; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; Newsum, Elize C; Huizinga, Tom W J; Reijnierse, Monique; le Cessie, Saskia; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M

    2016-12-01

    MRI sensitively detects inflammation, but the clinical relevance of MRI-detected inflammation is undetermined in early arthritis. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between MRI-detected inflammation of hands and feet and functional disability in early arthritis. Five hundred and fourteen early arthritis patients, consecutively included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic, were studied. At baseline a unilateral 1.5 T MRI of the wrist, MCP and MTP joints was performed and functional disability was measured using the HAQ. MRIs were scored for tenosynovitis, synovitis and bone marrow oedema (BME) by two readers. The sum of these types of MRI-detected inflammation yielded the total MRI-inflammation score. Linear and nonlinear regression analyses were performed with HAQ as outcome. The total MRI-inflammation score was associated with the HAQ score (β = 0.014, P < 0.001), as were tenosynovitis (β = 0.046, P < 0.001), synovitis (β = 0.039, P < 0.001) and bone marrow oedema scores (β = 0.015, P < 0.001) separately. Analysing these three types of MRI-detected inflammation in one multivariable model revealed that only tenosynovitis was independently associated with the HAQ score (β = 0.039, P < 0.001). Also after correction for age, gender, joint counts, CRP and auto-antibodies, this association remained significant (β = 0.034, P < 0.001). MRI-detected inflammation at wrists or MCP joints associated significantly with impairments in hand functioning (e.g. difficulties with opening milk cartons or jars). Exploring the relation between MRI-detected inflammation and HAQ scores showed no evidence of a floor effect, suggesting that even low scores of MRI-detected inflammation are functionally relevant. MRI-detected inflammation, and tenosynovitis in particular, is associated with functional disability. This demonstrates the functional relevance of MRI-detected inflammation in early arthritis. © The Author 2016. Published by