Science.gov

Sample records for cross-country mtb marathon

  1. Cross-Country Skiing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Guy E.

    1980-01-01

    The cross-country ski program offered at Clarkson College in New York is described, including a brief outline of the course, necessary equipment, and suggestions for developing a similar course at other campuses. (JMF)

  2. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  3. The Dissertation Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We all think of a marathon as a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometers (26 miles and 385 yards). Throughout time marathon runners have pursued their longest goals by allowing their body to adapt to the new stresses through training. Training for a marathon takes intense preparation, dedication and skill. It is…

  4. Marathon works

    PubMed Central

    Orrantia, Eliseo

    2005-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED Medical care in rural Canada has long been hampered by insufficient numbers of physicians. How can a rural community’s physicians change the local medical culture and create a new approach to sustaining their practice? OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM To create a sustainable, collegial family practice group and address one rural community’s chronically underserviced health care needs. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Elements important to physicians’ well-being were incorporated into the health care group’s functioning to enhance retention and recruitment. The intentional development of a consensus-based approach to decision making has created a supportive team of physicians. Ongoing communication is kept up through regular meetings, retreats, and a Web-based discussion board. Individual physicians retain control of their hours worked each year and their schedules. A novel obstetric call system was introduced to help make schedules more predictable. An internal governance agreement on an alternative payment plan supports varied work schedules, recognizes and funds non-clinical medical work, and pays group members for undertaking health-related projects. CONCLUSION This approach has helped maintain a stable number of physicians in Marathon, Ont, and has increased the number of health care services delivered to the community. PMID:16190174

  5. The effect of mountain bike wheel size on cross-country performance.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of different wheel size diameters on indicators of cross-country mountain bike time trial performance. Nine competitive male mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) performed 1 lap of a 3.48 km mountain bike (MTB) course as fast as possible on 26″, 27.5″ and 29″ wheeled MTB. Time (s), mean power (W), cadence (revs · min(-1)) and velocity (km · h(-1)) were recorded for the whole lap and during ascent and descent sections. One-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to determine significant differences. Results revealed no significant main effects for any variables by wheel size during all trials, with the exception of cadence during the descent (F(2, 16) = 8.96; P = .002; P(2) = .53). Post hoc comparisons revealed differences lay between the 26″ and 29″ wheels (P = .02). The findings indicate that wheel size does not significantly influence performance during cross-country when ridden by trained mountain bikers, and that wheel choice is likely due to personal choice or sponsorship commitments.

  6. Autonomous Soaring: The Montague Cross Country Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel J.

    A novel method was developed for locating and allowing gliders to stay in thermals (convective updrafts). The method was applied to a 5 kg, glider, called ALOFT (autonomous locator of thermals), that was entered in the 2008 Montague Cross-Country Challenge held on 13-15 June 2008 in Montague, California. In this competition, RC (remote controlled) gliders in the 5 kg class competed on the basis of speed and distance. ALOFT was the first known autonomously soaring aircraft to enter a soaring competition and its entry provided a valuable comparison between the effectiveness of manual soaring and autonomous soaring. ALOFT placed third in the competition in overall points, outperforming manually-flown aircraft in its ability to center and utilize updrafts, especially at higher altitudes and in the presence of wind, to fly more optimal airspeeds, and to fly directly between turn points. The results confirm that autonomous soaring is a bona fide engineering sub-discipline, which is expected to be of interest to engineers who might find this has some utility in the aviation industry.

  7. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a great activity for taking a physical education class outside during the cold winter months. It is also a diverse activity that appeals to students of all ages, and is an excellent cardio-respiratory activity to keep students active. This article has provided the first steps in preparing a cross-country skiing lesson in…

  8. Fitness Levels of University Cross-Country Skiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhling, Robert O.; Storer, Thomas W.

    Dry-land training in preparation for competitive cross-country skiing proved to be effective in increasing athletes' aerobic capacity and physical fitness. Such training included bicycle racing, roller skiing, fartlek running, cross-country running, simulated ski walking on inclines, and interval training over hills. (JD)

  9. A Guide to Equipment: Cross-Country Skiing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Ned

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are guidelines for asking questions and selecting cross-country skis, boots, bindings, poles, and touring packs. To choose any type of cross-country gear, the strategy recommended is to match the equipment to the athelete's skiing style. (WB)

  10. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  11. American women in the marathon.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; O'Neill, Jennifer R

    2007-01-01

    American women have made great advances in the sport of marathon running over the past 4 decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the trend of marathon times among American female runners between 1976 and 2005, and to compare physiological characteristics of male and female runners. The best marathon times of American female and male marathon runners for each year (1976-2005) were collected from several published sources. Two research studies were reviewed that examined a variety of physiological variables of female and male elite distance runners. While the best marathon times of American men have remained fairly constant in recent decades ( approximately 2:10:00), the best times of American women have decreased dramatically from 2:47:10 in 1976 to 2:21:25 in 2005, a decrease of 15.6% over the 30-year period. The physiological characteristics of elite American female marathon runners differ from those of elite male marathon runners (e.g. maximal oxygen uptake = 67.1 +/- 4.2 mL/kg/min vs 74.1 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min). These differences are comparable with the differences seen in marathon performance. Over the past 30 years, participation by women in marathon running has grown dramatically and during that same period the marathon performances of women have improved at a remarkable rate.

  12. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  13. The Human Capital Convergence Fallacy: A Cross Country Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatakis, D.; Petrakis, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    This article adapts a modification of Tamura's theoretical proposition and conducts a cross-country empirical investigation in an attempt to evaluate convergence on two different human capital proxies; namely enrollment rates and per capita researchers. The analysis considers three country groups at significantly different development levels:…

  14. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  15. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  16. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  17. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis among cross-country skiers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Hållmarker, Ulf; James, Stefan; Ingre, Caroline; Michaëlsson, Karl; Ahlbom, Anders; Feychting, Maria

    2016-03-01

    A highly increased risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been suggested among professional athletes. We aimed to examine whether long distance cross-country skiers have also a higher risk of ALS and whether the increased risk was modified by skiing performance. We followed 212,246 cross-country skiers in the Swedish Vasaloppet cohort and a random selection of 508,176 general Swedes not participating in the Vasaloppet during 1989-2010. The associations between cross-country skiing as well as skiing performance (i.e., type of race, finishing time and number of races) and the consequent risk of ALS were estimated through hazard ratios (HRs) derived from Cox model. During the study, 39 cases of ALS were ascertained among the skiers. The fastest skiers (100-150% of winner time) had more than fourfold risk of ALS (HR 4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.78-10.4), as compared to skiers that finished at >180% of winner time. Skiers who participated >4 races during this period had also a higher risk (HR 3.13, 95% CI 1.37-7.17) than those participated only one race. When compared to the non-skiers, the fastest skiers still had a higher risk (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.12-3.84), as skiers who had >4 races (HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.05-3.35), but those finishing at >180% of winner time had a lower risk (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.87). In conclusion, long distance cross-country skiing is associated with a higher risk of ALS, but only among the best skiers; recreational skiers appear to have a largely reduced risk.

  18. [Cross-country skiing, downhill skiing and snowboarding injuries].

    PubMed

    Kallio, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Risks of injury in cross-country skiing, downhill skiing and snowboarding are largely due to the characteristics, speed, equipment and level of difficulty of the sport. The preventative means are also found among these factors. Regardless of the injuries associated with these winter sports, skiing is considered as a safe form of physical exercise. Furthermore, the risk of injury in downhill skiing and snowboarding is acceptable provided that risk-taking is in accord with the skill level. The helmet is an easy and inexpensive means in reducing severe injuries (head injuries) occurring in downhill skiing and snowboarding. Helmet use should thus be encouraged.

  19. Corruption costs lives: evidence from a cross-country study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; An, Lian; Xu, Jing; Baliamoune-Lutz, Mina

    2017-02-14

    This paper investigates the effect of corruption on health outcomes by using cross-country panel data covering about 150 countries for the period of 1995 to 2012. We employ ordinary least squares (OLS), fixed-effects and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation methods, and find that corruption significantly increases mortality rates, and reduces life expectancy and immunization rates. The results are consistent across different regions, gender, and measures of corruption. The findings suggest that reducing corruption can be an effective method to improve health outcomes.

  20. Biomechanics of simulated versus natural cross-country sit skiing.

    PubMed

    Rosso, V; Gastaldi, L; Rapp, W; Lindinger, S; Vanlandewijck, Y; Linnamo, V

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanics of cross-country sit-skiing in simulated and natural skiing. Thirteen international level athletes participated in a ski ergometer test (simulated conditions) and a test on snow in a ski-tunnel (natural conditions) using their personal sit-ski. Tests in both conditions were performed at individual maximal speed. When comparing the two conditions the main results were: (1) maximal speed in simulated conditions was lower (p<0.05) but correlated well with the natural condition (r=0.79, p<0.001); (2) no differences in pole force variables were found; peak force (r=0.77, p<0.01) and average force (r=0.78, p<0.01) correlated well; (3) recovery time and time to peak did not differ and time to impact correlated with each other (r=0.88, p<0.01); (4) no differences were found in peak electromyography (EMG) and average EMG for Triceps, Pectoralis, and Erector Spinae; Rectus Abdominis did not differ in peak. EMG peak and average EMG of all muscles were correlated between the two conditions (r=0.65-0.94; p<0.05-0.01). Although some differences were observed, this study demonstrated that technical skill proficiency in natural and simulated cross-country skiing is comparable from a force production and muscle activation perspective.

  1. Motor abilities and anthropometrics in youth cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, R; Müller, E; Stöggl, T

    2015-02-01

    The purposes were to validate whether general motor abilities and anthropometrics are determinants of youth cross-country (XC) skiing performance; evaluate gender-specific differences; and to establish noninvasive diagnostics. Fifty-one youth XC skiers (34 boys; 13.8 ± 0.6 years and 17 girls; 13.4 ± 0.9 years) performed motor skill and laboratory tests, and anthropometric data were collected and correlated with XC skiing performance. Anthropometrics and maturity status were related to boys but not to girls XC skiing performance. Push-ups and 20-m sprint were correlated to XC skiing performance in both boys and girls. XC skiing performance of boys was predominantly influenced by upper body and trunk strength capacities (medicine ball throw, push-ups, and pull-ups) and jumping power (standing long and triple jump), whereas XC skiing of girls was mainly influenced by aerobic capacities (3000-m run). Laboratory measures did not reveal greater correlations to XC skiing performance compared with simple test concepts of speed, strength, and endurance. Maturity was a major confounding variable in boys but not girls. Use of noninvasive simple test concepts for determination of upper body strength, speed, and endurance represent practicable support for ski clubs, schools, or skiing federations in the guidance and evaluation of young talent, being aware of the effect of maturity especially in boys.

  2. Characterization of Electrocardiogram Changes Throughout a Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Clifton; Salcido, David; McEntire, Serina; Roth, Ronald; Hostler, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There are few data examining cardiovascular physiology throughout a marathon. This study was devised to characterize electrocardiographic activity continuously throughout a marathon. Methods Cardiac activity was recorded from 19 subjects wearing a Holter monitor during a marathon. The 19 subjects (14 men and 5 women) were aged 39 ± 16 years (mean ± SD) and completed a marathon in 4:32:16 ± 1:23:35. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), T-wave amplitude, T-wave amplitude variability, and T-wave alternans (TWA) were evaluated continuously throughout the marathon. Results Averaged across all subjects, HRV, T-wave amplitude variability, and TWA increased throughout the marathon. Increased variability in T-wave amplitude occurred in 86% of subjects, characterized by complex oscillatory patterns and TWA. Three minutes after the marathon, HR was elevated and HRV was suppressed relative to the pre-marathon state. Conclusion HRV and T-wave amplitude variability, especially in the form of TWA, increase throughout a marathon. Increasing TWA as a marathon progresses likely represents a physiologic process as no arrhythmias or cardiac events were observed. PMID:24832192

  3. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight; (3... communications; (10) Takeoff, approach, and landing procedures, including short-field, soft-field, and crosswind... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight;...

  4. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-country flight training in an airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and log flight training for the following... pressure with regard to ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the...

  5. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-country flight training in an airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and log flight training for the following... pressure with regard to ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the...

  6. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Maneuvers and procedures for cross-country flight training in an airship. A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight in an airship must receive and log flight training for the following... pressure with regard to ascending and descending flight and altitude control; (11) Control of the...

  7. What band rocks the MTB? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that have been found in marine and lacustrine environments and soils [e.g. 1]. The hallmark of MTB is their intracellular formation of magnetosomes, single-domain ferrimagnetic particles that are aligned in chains. The chain configuration generates a strong magnetic dipole, which is used as magnetic compass to move the MTB into their favorable habit. The term band corresponds to a frequency window of microwaves in the gigahertz (GHz) range. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy uses the microwave absorption in a magnetic field to analyze the anisotropy properties and the domain state of magnetic materials. Specific microwave frequency causes absorption in a characteristic magnetic field range. For the investigation of MTB we use S-band (4.02 GHz), X-band (9.47 GHz), and Q-band (34.16 GHz). Experiments on cultured MTB and on sediment samples of Holocene age showed that absorption in X- and Q-band occurs when the sample is in a saturated or nearly saturated state [2, 3]. By contrast, absorption in the S-band appears in lower magnetic fields, where the sample is far from saturation. All FMR spectra show two distinct low-field features that can be assigned to magnetite particles in chains, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The detailed separation of the parallel and perpendicular components in the bulk samples is hampered, because of the random orientation of the chains in the sample. The comparison of S-, X-, and Q-band shows that the lower the frequency the better the separation of the components. In the S-band FMR spectroscopy, the separation of chains parallel to the external magnetic field is supported by the internal field of the sample. This field is caused by the remanence that contributes to the external magnetic field to fulfill the resonance condition [3,4]. Considering the different FMR responses, it can be postulated that a lower microwave frequency

  8. Shoulder pathoanatomy in marathon kayakers

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, G; Rijke, A; Mars, M

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of soft and hard tissue abnormalities and their interrelations in the shoulders of marathon kayakers and to examine the pathoanatomical factors that predispose these athletes to injury. Methods: Fifty two long distance kayakers completed a questionnaire. Their shoulders were examined for range of motion, pain, and stability using a standard set of 10 clinical tests. The shoulder was subsequently scanned by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in three planes and evaluated for evidence of injury or other abnormality. The relation of clinical symptoms and MRI findings was investigated with respect to kayaker's age, number of years kayaking, and number of marathon races completed. Results: Thirty subjects were asymptomatic at the time of scanning, and twenty two showed symptoms of pain and/or instability. MRI showed acromioclavicular hypertrophy, acromial or clavicular spur, supraspinatus tendinitis, and partial tear of the supraspinatus as the most common abnormalities. Kayaker's age, number of years kayaking, and number of races completed did not relate significantly to symptoms or to the presence of an abnormality on MRI scan. Of all the pathoanatomical findings that are reported to predispose to rotator cuff injury, only acromial and clavicular spurs were found to correlate highly with supraspinatus muscle pathology. Conclusions: Rotator cuff injuries make up a large portion of the injuries seen in marathon kayakers, about twice the number reported for sprint kayakers. These injuries are the result of secondary impingement factors associated with overuse, possibly specific to kayakers, and not the result of bony restrictions around the shoulder joint. Acromioclavicular hypertrophy is a common finding in marathon kayakers, but is possibly the result of portaging or a previous injury. PMID:15273173

  9. Myths and Concerns Re: The Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Robert, L.

    The marathon is a specific form of the psycho-process cluster which has its own identifiable characteristics, the basic one being intensity. The primary objective in structuring the marathon is to intensify physical and emotional contact in order to precipitate, encourage, and accelerate the process of behavior change. Myths which have evolved…

  10. Effects of a Marathon Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treppa, Jerry A.; Fricke, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a weekend marathon group experience on values of self-actualization and on the interpersonal dimnension of personality. Both experimental and control subjects showed significanly positive changes on posttest and follow-up scores. It was premature to believe that the positive effects of a marathon group…

  11. Marathon Writing--A Letter to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Linda Jones

    Based on a year's work with 16 second grade students, this two-part paper reports the successful use of the Marathon Writing (continuous writing for short periods on a regular basis) strategy in encouraging beginning writers to write independently. The first part of the paper explains the technique of marathon writing, and notes that even though…

  12. Performance evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF in a moderate tuberculosis incidence compared with TaqMan MTB and TRCRapid M.TB.

    PubMed

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Nagai, Hideaki; Ogawa, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tomoshige; Morimoto, Kozo; Takaki, Akiko; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2017-02-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that can detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in clinical specimens as well as rifampicin (RIF) resistance resulting from rpoB mutation. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) with or without RIF resistance, the clinical performance of the test is variable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in a setting of moderate TB burden and high medical resources. A total of 427 sputum specimens were obtained from 237 suspected TB cases. Of these, 159 were identified as active TB, while the other 78 were non-TB diseases. The overall sensitivity and specificity of MTC detection by Xpert MTB/RIF using culture results as a reference were 86.8% [95% confidence interval (CI): 81.8%-90.6%] and 96.8% (95% CI: 93.1%-98.5%), respectively. Among MTC-positive culture specimens, Xpert MTB/RIF positivity was 95.2% (95% CI: 91.2%-97.5%) in smear-positive and 44.7% (95% CI 30.1-60.3) in smear-negative specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF was similar to other NATs (TaqMan MTB and TRCRapid M.TB) in terms of performance. Xpert MTB/RIF detected 25 RIF-resistant isolates as compared to 22 with the mycobacterial growth indicator tube antimicrobial susceptibility testing system, yielding a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 85.1%-100%) and specificity of 98.3% (95% CI: 95.1%-99.4%). These results indicate that although sensitivity in smear-negative/culture-positive specimens was relatively low, Xpert MTB/RIF is a useful diagnostic tool for detecting TB and RIF resistance even in settings of moderate TB burden.

  13. Marathon solves Brae Field's problems

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1983-03-15

    When Marathon Oil starts production in the South Brae field (North Sea) this summer, it will have set the following milestones: (1) The 13,500-ft reservoir is the deepest developed in the North Sea to date, (2) the topside equipment is the heaviest placed on any North Sea steel jacket, (3) the produced gas contains a large amount of liquefiable hydrocarbons and 35% carbon dioxide (4) the platforms gas-sweetening module is the first ever installed offshore, (5) reservoir temperature (240/sup 0/F) is the highest of any North Sea reservoir developed so far, (6) the entire project is one of the few in the North Sea to be completed on schedule and within the budget proposed 3 years earlier, and (7) the deck modules were virtually 100% complete before being lifted onto the jacket. Some recently drilled wells in the area have found hydrocarbons outside the reach of the platform. One of these areas, designated North Brae, appears to hold a condensate reservoir that shows promise of becoming commercial. Marathon engineers feel a strong possibility that one or more additional platforms will be needed in the area.

  14. Marathon Group: A Six Month Followup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that marathon groups may be an effective method for fostering the process of personal growth and self actualization in relatively healthy, growth seeking college students. (Author)

  15. Marathon pipe line's new control system

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.

    1983-03-01

    A new control system for Marathon Pipe Line Company's 4200 mile long oil pipeline is described. The pipeline transports 1 1/2 million barrels/day of crude oil and refined products. A comprehensive, centralized computer control system in Findlay, Ohio was developed to provide precision control of the system. Marathon is almost finished with the supervisory control and data acquisition system which can almost instantaneously control fluid movements throughout the network with the push of a few buttons.

  16. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Ainegren, Mats; Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p < 0.05) and the senior elite had better economy and higher efficiency (4-5%) than their junior counterparts (p < 0.05), whereas no differences could be found between the genders. Also, large ranges in economy and gross efficiency were found in all groups. It was concluded that, in addition to V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  17. Predicting Marathon Time Using Exhaustive Graded Exercise Test in Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Till, Eloise S; Armstrong, Stuart A; Harris, Greg; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between time on a treadmill test and exhaustion 2 weeks before a road marathon and the subsequent road marathon performance time (MPT). The study recruited 59 runners entered in the Melbourne 2012 marathon, Canberra 2013 marathon, and Gold Coast 2013 marathon. Forty runners completed both the graded exercise treadmill test to exhaustion and the 42.2 km marathon. Nineteen participants dropped out of the study due to illness, injury, or did not begin the treadmill test. A statistically significant correlation was found between treadmill time and MPT (adjusted R(2) = 0.447). Sex, weekly running duration (t = -1.58, p = 0.12), years of running (t = 1.10, p = 0.28), and age (t = 0.94, p = 0.36) did not statistically correlate with MPT. The relationship between the graded exercise test and MPT can be used to predict MPT using y = -3.85x + 351.57, where y is MPT and x is treadmill time. This is a simple, accessible, and cost-effective method to aid athletes in predicting their race time over 42.2 km. Prediction of marathon time in a simple and accessible manner was believed to be useful to the growing population of marathon runners around the world.

  18. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  19. Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, Emmet B.; Lowe, Daniel K.; Goss, J. Richard; Wayne, Robert

    1984-01-01

    A survey of 707 participants in the 13th Annual Trail's End Marathon in Seaside, Oregon, showed a high incidence of gastrointestinal disturbances, predominantly of the lower tract, associated with long-distance running. The urge to defecate, both during and immediately after running, occurred in over a third of runners. Bowel movements (35%) and diarrhea (19%) were relatively common after running, and runners occasionally interrupted hard runs or races for bowel movements (18%) or diarrhea (10%). Lower gastrointestinal disturbances were more frequent in women than in men and in younger than in older runners. Awareness of the frequency and nature of gastrointestinal symptoms documented by this survey will assist physicians in evaluating abdominal complaints in runners. PMID:6506684

  20. Gastrointestinal symptoms of marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Keeffe, E B; Lowe, D K; Goss, J R; Wayne, R

    1984-10-01

    A survey of 707 participants in the 13th Annual Trail's End Marathon in Seaside, Oregon, showed a high incidence of gastrointestinal disturbances, predominantly of the lower tract, associated with long-distance running. The urge to defecate, both during and immediately after running, occurred in over a third of runners. Bowel movements (35%) and diarrhea (19%) were relatively common after running, and runners occasionally interrupted hard runs or races for bowel movements (18%) or diarrhea (10%). Lower gastrointestinal disturbances were more frequent in women than in men and in younger than in older runners. Awareness of the frequency and nature of gastrointestinal symptoms documented by this survey will assist physicians in evaluating abdominal complaints in runners.

  1. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing

  2. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  3. Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164324.html Marathon Running May Cause Short-Term Kidney Injury But ... of endurance are also tough on the kidneys. "Marathon runners demonstrate transient or reverse short-term kidney ...

  4. Marathon Month Promotes Healthful Lifestyles for Extension Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; Bell, Beth A.; Toman, John J.; Hastings, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Marathon Month, a workplace wellness program for Extension employees. The program promoted physical activity by challenging employees to walk or run the length of a marathon (26.2 mi) or half marathon (13.1 mi) over the course of 1 month. Of the 317 participants, 90% achieved a self-set goal of completing a full or half…

  5. Hematological Changes Following a Marathon Race in Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christine L.; Mushabac, Lillian H.

    This study investigated the question of hemoconcentration-hemodilution and subsequent vascular fluid shifts evidenced by marathon runners. Blood samples were taken from runners before and after the New York City Marathon of 1978 and the Fiesta Bowl Marathon of the same year. Participants were of both sexes. Tables accompanying this report present…

  6. Fast and reliable obstacle detection and segmentation for cross-country navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, A.; Manduchi, R.; Rankin, A.; Matthies, L.

    2002-01-01

    Obstacle detection is one of the main components of the control system of autonomous vehicles. In the case of indoor/urban navigation, obstacles are typically defined as surface points that are higher than the ground plane. This characterization, however, cannot be used in cross-country and unstructured environments, where the notion of ground plane is often not meaningful.

  7. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  8. 14 CFR 61.111 - Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... small islands. 61.111 Section 61.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.111 Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an applicant located on an island from which the...

  9. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  10. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight; (3... procedures, including short-field, soft-field, and crosswind takeoffs, approaches, and landings; (11) Climbs... navigation using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of...

  11. Measuring Youth Development: A Nonparametric Cross-Country "Youth Welfare Index"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaban, Jad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical methodology for the construction of a synthetic multi-dimensional cross-country comparison of the performance of governments around the world in improving the livelihood of their younger population. The devised "Youth Welfare Index" is based on the nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology and…

  12. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  13. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  14. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  15. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  16. Metabolic Factors Limiting Performance in Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Benjamin I.

    2010-01-01

    Each year in the past three decades has seen hundreds of thousands of runners register to run a major marathon. Of those who attempt to race over the marathon distance of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 kilometers), more than two-fifths experience severe and performance-limiting depletion of physiologic carbohydrate reserves (a phenomenon known as ‘hitting the wall’), and thousands drop out before reaching the finish lines (approximately 1–2% of those who start). Analyses of endurance physiology have often either used coarse approximations to suggest that human glycogen reserves are insufficient to fuel a marathon (making ‘hitting the wall’ seem inevitable), or implied that maximal glycogen loading is required in order to complete a marathon without ‘hitting the wall.’ The present computational study demonstrates that the energetic constraints on endurance runners are more subtle, and depend on several physiologic variables including the muscle mass distribution, liver and muscle glycogen densities, and running speed (exercise intensity as a fraction of aerobic capacity) of individual runners, in personalized but nevertheless quantifiable and predictable ways. The analytic approach presented here is used to estimate the distance at which runners will exhaust their glycogen stores as a function of running intensity. In so doing it also provides a basis for guidelines ensuring the safety and optimizing the performance of endurance runners, both by setting personally appropriate paces and by prescribing midrace fueling requirements for avoiding ‘the wall.’ The present analysis also sheds physiologically principled light on important standards in marathon running that until now have remained empirically defined: The qualifying times for the Boston Marathon. PMID:20975938

  17. Marathon readies for North Brae development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes Marathon Oil UK Ltd.'s development of the North Brae field--the first gas condensate field developed by recycling in the UK sector of the north Sea. The author explains how produced gas from the field will yield condensate and associated gas liquids. The remaining dry gas will be returned to the reservoir through gas injection facilities. The reinjected gas will displace the reservoir's rich, wet gas, and eventually a mixture of the two gases will be produced at the surface. Marathon estimates recoverable reserves to be 200 million bbl of condensate and over 680 bef of dry gas.

  18. The Mtb proteome library: a resource of assays to quantify the complete proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Olga T; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Ludwig, Christina; Röst, Hannes L; Rosenberger, George; Arthur, Patrick K; Claassen, Manfred; Campbell, David S; Sun, Zhi; Farrah, Terry; Gengenbacher, Martin; Maiolica, Alessio; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Moritz, Robert L; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-05-15

    Research advancing our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biology and complex host-Mtb interactions requires consistent and precise quantitative measurements of Mtb proteins. We describe the generation and validation of a compendium of assays to quantify 97% of the 4,012 annotated Mtb proteins by the targeted mass spectrometric method selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, we estimate the absolute abundance for 55% of all Mtb proteins, revealing a dynamic range within the Mtb proteome of over four orders of magnitude, and identify previously unannotated proteins. As an example of the assay library utility, we monitored the entire Mtb dormancy survival regulon (DosR), which is linked to anaerobic survival and Mtb persistence, and show its dynamic protein-level regulation during hypoxia. In conclusion, we present a publicly available research resource that supports the sensitive, precise, and reproducible quantification of virtually any Mtb protein by a robust and widely accessible mass spectrometric method.

  19. The Mtb Proteome Library: A Resource of Assays to Quantify the Complete Proteome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Olga T.; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Ludwig, Christina; Röst, Hannes L.; Rosenberger, George; Arthur, Patrick K.; Claassen, Manfred; Campbell, David S.; Sun, Zhi; Farrah, Terry; Gengenbacher, Martin; Maiolica, Alessio; Kaufmann, Stefan H.E.; Moritz, Robert L.; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Research advancing our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) biology and complex host-Mtb interactions requires consistent and precise quantitative measurements of Mtb proteins. We describe the generation and validation of a compendium of assays to quantify 97% of the 4,012 annotated Mtb proteins by the targeted mass spectrometric method selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Furthermore, we estimate the absolute abundance for 55% of all Mtb proteins, revealing a dynamic range within the Mtb proteome of over four orders of magnitude, and identify previously un-annotated proteins. As an example of the assay library utility, we monitored the entire Mtb dormancy survival regulon (DosR), which is linked to anaerobic survival and Mtb persistence, and show its dynamic protein-level regulation during hypoxia. In conclusion, we present a publicly available research resource that supports the sensitive, precise, and reproducible quantification of virtually any Mtb protein by a robust and widely accessible mass spectrometric method. PMID:23684311

  20. Marathon performance but not BMI affects post-marathon pro-inflammatory and cartilage biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Mündermann, Annegret; Geurts, Jeroen; Hügle, Thomas; Nickel, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Halle, Martin; Hanssen, Henner

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that changes in serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration after regular endurance training and running a marathon race depend on body mass index (BMI) and/or on marathon performance. Blood samples were collected from 45 runners of varying BMI and running experience before and after a 10-week marathon training programme and before, immediately and 24 h after a marathon race. Serum biomarker concentrations, BMI and marathon finishing time were measured. The mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) changes from before to immediately after the marathon were COMP: 4.09 U/L (3.39-4.79 U/L); TNF-α: -1.17 mg/L (-2.58 to 0.25 mg/L); IL-6: 12.0 pg/mL (11.4-12.5 pg/mL); and hsCRP: -0.08 pg/mL (-0.14 to -0.3 pg/mL). The mean (95% CI) changes from immediately after to 24 h after the marathon were COMP: 0.35 U/L (-0.88 to 1.57 U/L); TNF-α: -0.43 mg/L (-0.99 to 0.13 mg/L); IL-6: -9.9 pg/mL (-10.5 to -9.4 pg/mL); and hsCRP: 1.52 pg/mL (1.25-1.79 pg/mL). BMI did not affect changes in biomarker concentrations. Differences in marathon finishing time explained 32% of variability in changes in serum hsCRP and 28% of variability in changes in serum COMP during the 24 h recovery after the marathon race (P < 0.001). Slower marathon finishing time but not a higher BMI modulates increases in pro-inflammatory markers or cartilage markers following a marathon race.

  1. Differences in age of peak marathon performance between mountain and city marathon running - The ‘Jungfrau Marathon’ in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-02-28

    The age of the best marathon performance has been well investigated for flat city marathon running, but not for mountain marathon running. The aim of this study was to determine the age of the best mountain marathon performance and to compare to results of a flat city marathon. Race times and ages of finishers of a mountain marathon with 1,830 m of altitude change (Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland) and two flat city marathons (Lausanne Marathon and Zurich Marathon, Switzerland) were analysed using linear, non-linear and mixed-effects regression analyses. Race times were slower in the mountain compared to the city marathon. In both the mountain marathon and the city marathons, women and men improved performance and men were faster than women when the fastest per year and all per year were considered. When the fastest runners in 1-year age intervals were considered in the mountain marathon, the fastest man (3:01 h:min) was ~35.6 years and the fastest women (3:28 h:min) ~34.5 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (4:59 h:min) were ~29.1 years old and the fastest women (5:16 h:min) were ~25.6 years old. In the city marathons in 1-year age intervals, the fastest man (2:10 h:min) was ~23.7 years old and the fastest woman (2:36 h:min) ~32.2 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (3:41 h:min) were ~35.0 years old and the fastest women (4:00 h:min) ~33.8 years old. In summary, the age of the fastest women and men was higher in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons when the fastest runners were considered. However, when all finishers were considered the age of the fastest women and men was lower in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons.

  2. One-dimensional V-Scope analysis of habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Candler, P D; Li, J C; Tipler, B J

    1995-07-01

    Responses to simulated cross-country skiing were measured using the V-Scope, a new telemetric ultrasound motion monitor. Ten young male adults performed a total of 45 minutes of distributed practice on a Nordic-Track ski simulator. Over a period of three 15-minute sessions cadence and velocity were unchanged. Step and stride lengths decreased significantly (p < 0.05) after the first 15-minute session and then remained unchanged. There were no left-right limb differences across all sessions indicating a normal gait. Response variability in velocity, step lengths and stride length was dramatically reduced after the first exposure period. This study demonstrates that the V-Scope system is a useful motion analysing device and, on the basis of the data presented in this preliminary investigation, at least two 15-minute habituation sessions are required for initial habituation to simulated cross-country skiing.

  3. The elite cross-country skier provides unique insights into human exercise physiology.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, H-C

    2015-12-01

    Successful cross-country skiing, one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involves considerable physiological challenges posed by the combined upper- and lower-body effort of varying intensity and duration, on hilly terrain, often at moderate altitude and in a cold environment. Over the years, this unique sport has helped physiologists gain novel insights into the limits of human performance and regulatory capacity. There is a long-standing tradition of researchers in this field working together with coaches and athletes to improve training routines, monitor progress, and refine skiing techniques. This review summarizes research on elite cross-country skiers, with special emphasis on the studies initiated by Professor Bengt Saltin. He often employed exercise as a means to learn more about the human body, successfully engaging elite endurance athletes to improve our understanding of the demands, characteristics, and specific effects associated with different types of exercise.

  4. [Injury risk of competitive, handicapped cross-country skiers in training nd competition].

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Hüring, H; Huber, G; Gösele, A; Hecker-Kube, H; Gruhn, O; Stinus, H; Birnesser, H; Keul, J

    1998-03-01

    Injuries caused by cross country skiing have been poorly investigated in handicapped athletes. The dynamic sliding shape of motion makes this sport to a suitable discipline for people with a deficit of locomotion. Visual handicapped people with a guide are able to improve their motoric skills, co-ordination, orientation and body self-consciousness in the track. Since handicapped athletes are performing in international competitions the training intensity to fulfill the requirements, but also the risk of overstrain induced injuries got increased, like in other high-performance sports. Our study examined injuries and overuse syndromes of the German National Team Ski Nordic during the Paralympics in Tignes/ Albertville (1992). Lillehammer (1994) and the training period in preparation for the Paralympics in Nagano (March 1998). The incidence and kind of injuries in the competitive handicapped cross country skier was comparable with non-handicapped athletes, but the injury pattern was different.

  5. The Marathon Group Hypothesis: An Unanswered Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Stephen E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The authors of this article contend that the Guinan and Foulds study was inadequately designed and executed, and the results indicate little of the "usefulness" of the test, much less illuminate the important hypothesis central to the investigation. Specific suggestions for further research in marathon group evaluation are made. (Author)

  6. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  7. Marathon Group: Facilitator of Personal Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinan, James F.; Foulds, Melvin L.

    1970-01-01

    This is a report of changes on scales of the Personal Orientation Inventory following a marathon experience. Pretest and posttest results indicated changes in scores of an experimental group on those scales: Inner Direction, Existentiality, Feeling Reactivity, Spontaneity, Self Acceptance, Acceptance of Aggression, Capacity for Intimate Contact.…

  8. Marathon Group Therapy with Former Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mannion, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the effects of marathon group therapy on attitudes of former drug users in a residential drug treatment center. Experimental group members responded higher on the group counseling evaluative subscale and lower on the guilt evaluative subscale than control members. (Author)

  9. Behavior Change Outcomes of Marathon Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Weigel, Richard G.

    1977-01-01

    This study evaluated behavior change occurring after a marathon group experience, with a focus on individualized rather than shared behavioral change criteria. The individualization of behavior change criteria is based on the assertion that few, if any, single change criteria are appropriate or realistic for assessing change in all individuals.…

  10. Case Report: Hyponatremia in a Marathoner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul B; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first reported case of hyponatremia from participation in endurance running of marathon distance is discussed. Nine earlier cases occurring in subjects who endured greater distances are summarized. Symptoms and treatment of the 21-year-old subject of this case report are presented and preventive measures recommended for endurance-event…

  11. Nuclear workers organize second maxi-marathon

    SciTech Connect

    Lourdais, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    The second Maxi-Marathon for the defense of the environment organized by the World Council of Nuclear Workers will take place on May 9 and 10, 1997 between Paris and Brussels. this second running, the runners will hand over to Jacques Santer, President of the European Commission, a manifesto reminding the European Union of the advantages of nuclear energy.

  12. Convection-diffusion effects in marathon race dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of the recent terrorist attack event on the 2013 Boston Marathon, the increasing participation of recreational runners in large marathon races has imposed important logistical and safety issues for organizers and city authorities. An accurate understanding of the dynamics of the marathon pack along the race course can provide important insights for improving safety and performance of these events. On the other hand, marathon races can be seen as a model of pedestrian movement under confined conditions. This work used data of the 2011 Chicago Marathon event for modeling the dynamics of the marathon pack from the corral zone to the finish line. By considering the marathon pack as a set of particles moving along the race course, the dynamics are modeled as a convection-diffusion partial differential equation with position-dependent mean velocity and diffusion coefficient. A least-squares problem is posed and solved with optimization techniques for fitting field data from the 2011 Chicago Marathon. It was obtained that the mean pack velocity decreases while the diffusion coefficient increases with distance. This means that the dispersion rate of the initially compact marathon pack increases as the marathon race evolves along the race course.

  13. Altitude is positively correlated to race time during the marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Completing a marathon (42.2 km) is one of the more challenging sports activities. Besides the distance, the ambient conditions of the race (altitude, temperature, etc) can increase the physiological demands of the event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held and the marathon race time. For this purpose, we sought the race times of 16 popular marathons performed at different altitudes above sea level (range from ≈0 to 2800 meters above sea level). In these competitions, we analyzed the race times of the female and male runners who finished from 21(st) to 100(th) position. We excluded the top 20 male and female finishers from the analysis because elite athletes usually compete in marathons held at low altitudes above sea level. Ambient temperature, the positive cumulative elevation gain, and the number of participants were used as control variables. Finishing time in the marathon was positively correlated with the altitude of the competition for both male (r=0.78; p<0.05) and female participants (r=0.73; p<0.05). On average, each increase of 1000 meters above sea level augmented marathon race time by 10.8±0.6% in men and 12.3±0.7% in women. Compared to race times in the Rotterdam marathon (held at 0 meters above sea level), the time taken to complete the marathon was significantly higher in competitions held at an altitude of over 700 meters. In conclusion, the time taken to complete a marathon strongly depends on the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held. Selecting marathon competitions close to 0 m above sea level is a good strategy to maximize marathon performance.

  14. Diffusion of pharmaceuticals: cross-country evidence of anti-TNF drugs.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Kurt Richard; Dalen, Dag Morten; Holmås, Tor Helge

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the diffusion of biopharmaceuticals across European countries, focusing on anti-TNF drugs, which are used to treat autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatism, psoriasis). We use detailed sales information on the three brands Remicade, Enbrel and Humira for nine European countries covering the period from the first launch in 2000 until becoming blockbusters in 2009. Descriptive statistics reveal large variations across countries in per-capita consumption and price levels both overall and at the brand level. We explore potential sources for the cross-country consumption differences by estimating several multivariate regression models. Our results show that large parts of the cross-country variation are explained by time-invariant country-specific factors (e.g., disease prevalence, demographics, health care system). We also find that differences in income [gross domestic product (GDP) per capita] and health spending (share of GDP) explain the cross-country variation in consumption, while relative price differences seem to have limited impact.

  15. Comprehensive Sports Medicine Treatment of an Athlete Who Runs Cross-Country and is Iron Deficient

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Linda; Rutt, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimal athletic performance may be dependent upon an athlete maintaining adequate iron levels through the consumption of dietary forms of iron and subsequent metabolism. Endurance athletes, especially female distance runners, have been identified as being at risk for developing iron deficiency. While iron deficiency is treatable, early diagnosis may be delayed if an adequate medical history and evaluation is not conducted. Objective To describe the evaluation, diagnosis, and comprehensive sports medicine treatment of a collegiate cross-country athlete with a medical diagnosis of iron deficiency with anemia and sports-related musculoskeletal pain. Case Description A 21-year-old female collegiate cross-country athlete experienced a decline in her running performance beginning her freshman year of school. She continued to experience degradation in sports performance despite medical intervention. Two-and-a-half years after initially seeking medical attention she was diagnosed with iron deficiency with anemia by a primary care medical doctor. Additionally, the subject required rehabilitation due to the onset of sports-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Outcomes Comprehensive treatment for this patient consisted of iron supplementation, therapeutic exercises, manual therapy, and modalities. The athlete was able to compete during her entire cross-country season and earn All-American status at the Division-III level. Discussion Sports medicine professionals must consider iron deficiency as a possible differential diagnosis when evaluating endurance athletes. Subtle signs of iron deficiency may, unfortunately, be overlooked ultimately delaying treatment. PMID:21509116

  16. Development of aerobic power in relation to age and training in cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Rusko, H K

    1992-09-01

    In most of the training studies on different populations the effects of training have been investigated up to a frequency of five to six times per week and a duration of 45 min per session. These correspond to the training regimens of 15-yr-old cross-country skiers and, consequently, the results cannot be applied to older athletes. The maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of cross-country skiers increases with age and training from about 55-60 to 75-80 ml.kg-1.min-1 between 15 and 25 yr of age. After 20 yr of age VO2max starts to level off, but elite skiers are able to increase VO2max further concomitantly with an increase in the volume of training and the volume of intensive training. The activity of oxidative enzymes in muscles of skiers is increased with training, but distance runners have had a higher oxidative capacity in their leg muscles. Although widely used by cross-country skiers, the training effects of roller skiing, skiwalking-skistriding, and long-distance training on skis are to a large extent unknown. However, intensive training at the intensity of "anaerobic threshold" or higher seems to be most effective in inducing improvements in maximal oxygen uptake; distance training at relatively low intensity seems to be most effective in producing improvements in the determinants of submaximal endurance.

  17. Quadrupedal Locomotion-Respiration Entrainment and Metabolic Economy in Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Kevin; Killick, Anthony; Herzog, Walter

    2016-02-01

    A 1:1 locomotion-respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals, as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced nonentrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes disentrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the disentrained compared with the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics.

  18. Physiological Demands of Competitive Sprint and Distance Performance in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiing.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Wedholm, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2016-08-01

    Carlsson, M, Carlsson, T, Wedholm, L, Nilsson, M, Malm, C, and Tonkonogi, M. Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2138-2144, 2016-The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races

  19. Mini-marathon groups: psychological "first aid" following disasters.

    PubMed

    Terr, L C

    1992-01-01

    Large group counseling sessions for soldiers following battle have been commonly used since World War II. The author conceptualizes and demonstrates how these mini-marathon sessions can be adapted to support all ages and types of civilians involved in disasters. Mini-marathons take about 3 hours and are divided into three sections: story sharing, symptom sharing, and suggestions for self-help, including sharing tales of heroism and survival. After an initial mini-marathon session, a second session may be held emphasizing creativity. The author also describes how mini-marathons can be adapted for therapists who will lead their own sessions.

  20. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world.

  1. Single muscle fiber adaptations with marathon training.

    PubMed

    Trappe, Scott; Harber, Matthew; Creer, Andrew; Gallagher, Philip; Slivka, Dustin; Minchev, Kiril; Whitsett, David

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of marathon training on single muscle fiber contractile function in a group of recreational runners. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the gastrocnemius muscle of seven individuals (22 +/- 1 yr, 177 +/- 3 cm, and 68 +/- 2 kg) before, after 13 wk of run training, and after 3 wk of taper. Slow-twitch myosin heavy chain [(MHC) I] and fast-twitch (MHC IIa) muscle fibers were analyzed for size, strength (P(o)), speed (V(o)), and power. The run training program led to the successful completion of a marathon (range 3 h 56 min to 5 h 35 min). Oxygen uptake during submaximal running and citrate synthase activity were improved (P < 0.05) with the training program. Muscle fiber size declined (P < 0.05) by approximately 20% in both fiber types after training. P(o) was maintained in both fiber types with training and increased (P < 0.05) by 18% in the MHC IIa fibers after taper. This resulted in >60% increase (P < 0.05) in force per cross-sectional area in both fiber types. Fiber V(o) increased (P < 0.05) by 28% in MHC I fibers with training and was unchanged in MHC IIa fibers. Peak power increased (P < 0.05) in MHC I and IIa fibers after training with a further increase (P < 0.05) in MHC IIa fiber power after taper. These data show that marathon training decreased slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscle fiber size but that it maintained or improved the functional profile of these fibers. A taper period before the marathon further improved the functional profile of the muscle, which was targeted to the fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  2. Systemic arterial compliance following ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Burr, J F; Bredin, S S D; Phillips, A; Foulds, H; Cote, A; Charlesworth, S; Ivey, A C; Drury, T C; Fougere, R; Warburton, D E R

    2012-03-01

    There is a growing interest in training for and competing in race distances that exceed the marathon; however, little is known regarding the vascular effects of participation in such prolonged events, which last multiple consecutive hours. There exists some evidence that cardiovascular function may be impaired following extreme prolonged exercise, but at present, only cardiac function has been specifically examined following exposure to this nature of exercise. The primary purpose of this study was to characterize the acute effects of participation in an ultra-marathon on resting systemic arterial compliance. Arterial compliance and various resting cardiovascular indices were collected at rest from 26 healthy ultra-marathon competitors using applanation tonometry (HDI CR-2000) before and after participation in a mountain trail running foot race ranging from 120-195 km which required between 20-40 continuous hours (31.2±6.8 h) to complete. There was no significant change in small artery compliance from baseline to post race follow-up (8.5±3.4-7.7±8.2 mL/mmHgx100, p=0.65), but large artery compliance decreased from 16.1±4.4 to 13.5±3.8 mL/mmHgx10 (p=0.003). Participation in extreme endurance exercise of prolonged duration was associated with acute reductions in large artery compliance, but the time course of this effect remains to be elucidated.

  3. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  4. Endurance training and the risk of bronchial asthma in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Żebrowska, A; Głuchowska, B; Jastrzębski, D; Kochańska-Dziurowicz, A; Stanjek-Cichoracka, A; Pokora, I

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is one of the crucial factors responsible for asthma development and exacerbation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of bronchial asthma in female athletes. Spirometric evaluations and physical exercise test were performed and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels were measured in 12 female elite cross-country skiers. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in all subjects before exercise, immediately after it, and after 15 min of recovery. Peak eNO values were 18.7±4.8 (ppb) and did not confirm the risk of early bronchial asthma symptoms. A graded exercise test caused significant increases in TNF-α and IL-1β concentration (p<0.05) after 15 min of recovery. A significant negative correlation was found between resting and post-exercise eNO and IL-6 levels (p<0.01). Our study did not confirm an increased risk of bronchial asthma or respiratory tract inflammatory conditions among female cross-country skiers exposed to physical exertion.

  5. Cross-Country Differences in Basal and Stress-Induced Cortisol Secretion in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lupien, Sonia J.; Fiocco, Alexandra; Suchecki, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Objective Several studies have emphasized the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and inadequate response of the biological stress system. However, other factors related to SES are rarely considered, such as cultural values, social norms, organization, language and communication skills, which raises the need to investigate cross-country differences in stress response. Although some studies have shown differences in cortisol levels between immigrants and natives, there is no cross-country evidence regarding cortisol levels in country-native elders. This is particularly important given the high prevalence of stress-related disorders across nations during aging. The current study examined basal diurnal and reactive cortisol levels in healthy older adults living in two different countries. Methods Salivary cortisol of 260 older adults from Canada and Brazil were nalyzed. Diurnal cortisol was measured in saliva samples collected at home throughout two working days at awakening, 30 min after waking, 1400 h, 1600 h and before bedtime. Cortisol reactivity was assessed in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in both populations. Results Our results showed that even under similar health status, psychological and cognitive characteristics, Brazilian elders exhibited higher basal and stress-induced cortisol secretion compared to the Canadian participants. Conclusion These findings suggest that country context may modulate cortisol secretion and could impact the population health. PMID:25153322

  6. Monitoring of cross-country skiers by means of an expert model of potential performance.

    PubMed

    Pustovrh, Janez; Cernohorski, Branimir; Jost, Bojan

    2006-12-01

    On the basis of expert knowledge, an expert model of potential performance covering the motor, morphological, psychological, and sociological subspace was constructed (MMPS). The scores of variables were obtained by application of the computer program Sport Measurement Management System (SMMS). In the subjects included in measurements, trends of the obtained average scores of variables were established through various competition categories and age periods. The sample of subjects consisted of 48 cross-country skiers in three competition categories. Fluctuations in development in individual age periods are larger in the motor and morphological subspace. In the psychological subspace, an upward trend of average scores can be noticed, while the sociological subspace is not subjected to any essential changes in different age and competition categories. Monitoring of cross-country skiers across all three competition categories showed that in these age categories there are periods which owing to laws of development do not allow uniform progress. Therefore, the principle of individuality must be taken into account especially in planning the transformation process.

  7. MTB-3, a Microtubule Plus-End Tracking Protein (+TIP) of Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Mouriño-Pérez, Rosa R.; Linacre-Rojas, Lorena P.; Román-Gavilanes, Ariana I.; Lew, Thomas K.; Callejas-Negrete, Olga A.; Roberson, Robert W.; Freitag, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The microtubule (MT) “plus end” constitutes the platform for the accumulation of a structurally and functionally diverse group of proteins, collectively called “MT plus-end tracking proteins” (+TIPs). +TIPs control MT dynamics and link MTs to diverse sub-cellular structures. Neurospora crassa MicroTubule Binding protein-3 (MTB-3) is the homolog of yeast EB1, a highly conserved +TIP. To address the function of MTB-3, we examined strains with mtb-3 deletions, and we tagged MTB-3 with GFP to assess its dynamic behavior. MTB-3-GFP was present as comet-like structures distributed more or less homogeneously within the hyphal cytoplasm, and moving mainly towards the apex at speeds up to 4× faster than the normal hyphal elongation rates. MTB-3-GFP comets were present in all developmental stages, but were most abundant in mature hyphae. MTB-3-GFP comets were observed moving in anterograde and retrograde direction along the hypha. Retrograde movement was also observed as originating from the apical dome. The integrity of the microtubular cytoskeleton affects the presence and dynamics of MTB-3-GFP comets, while actin does not seem to play a role. The size of MTB-3-GFP comets is affected by the absence of dynactin and conventional kinesin. We detected no obvious morphological phenotypes in Δmtb-3 mutants but there were fewer MTs in Δmtb-3, MTs were less bundled and less organized. Compared to WT, both MT polymerization and depolymerization rates were significantly decreased in Δmtb-3. In summary, the lack of MTB-3 affects overall growth and morphological phenotypes of N. crassa only slightly, but deletion of mtb-3 has strong effect on MT dynamics. PMID:23950979

  8. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  9. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  10. Marathon Group Therapy: Potential for University Counseling Centers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger, Thomas; Harris, Rafael S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A descriptive analysis of marathon group therapy was conducted, specifying issues of set-up, screening, preparation, start-up, introduction to group process, facilitating therapeutic moments throughout the weekend, termination, and follow-up. Factors and dynamics unique to this modality are outlined for marathon groups in university counseling…

  11. Comparison between recreational male Ironman triathletes and marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Daniele; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-08-01

    Recent investigations described a personal best marathon time as a predictor variable for an Ironman race time in recreational male Ironman triathletes. Similarities and differences in anthropometry and training were investigated between 83 recreational male Ironman triathletes and 81 recreational male marathoners. Ironman triathletes were significantly taller and had a higher body mass and a higher skin-fold thickness of the calf compared to the marathoners. Weekly training volume in hours was higher in Ironman triathletes. In the Ironman triathletes, percent body fat was related to overall race time and both the split time in cycling and running. The weekly swim kilometres were related to the split time in swimming, and the speed in cycling was related to the bike split time. For the marathoners, the calf skin-fold thickness and running speed during training were related to marathon race time. Although personal best marathon time was a predictor of Ironman race time in male triathletes, anthropometric and training characteristics of male marathoners were different from those of male Ironman triathletes, probably due to training of different muscle groups and metabolic endurance beyond marathon running, as the triathletes are also training for high-level performance in swimming and cycling. Future studies should compare Olympic distance triathletes and road cyclists with Ironman triathletes.

  12. Marathon Race Affects Neutrophil Surface Molecules: Role of Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; Sierra, Ana Paula Renno; Oliveira, Rodrigo; Caçula, Kim Guimarães; Momesso, César Miguel; Sato, Fabio Takeo; Silva, Maysa Braga Barros; Oliveira, Heloisa Helena; Passos, Maria Elizabeth Pereira; de Souza, Diego Ribeiro; Gondim, Olivia Santos; Benetti, Marino; Levada-Pires, Adriana Cristina; Ghorayeb, Nabil; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tânia Cristina; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue induced by marathon races was observed in terms of inflammatory and immunological outcomes. Neutrophil survival and activation are essential for inflammation resolution and contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marathon races on surface molecules related to neutrophil adhesion and extrinsic apoptosis pathway and its association with inflammatory markers. We evaluated 23 trained male runners at the São Paulo International Marathon 2013. The following components were measured: hematological and inflammatory mediators, muscle damage markers, and neutrophil function. The marathon race induced an increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts; creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CK-MB, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-8 levels. C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations were significantly higher 24 h and 72 h after the marathon race. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels decreased 72 h after the marathon race. We also observed an increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and decreasedTNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) expression immediately after and 24 h after the marathon race. We observed an increased DNA fragmentation and L-selectin and Fas receptor expressions in the recovery period, indicating a possible slow rolling phase and delayed neutrophil activation and apoptosis. Marathon racing affects neutrophils adhesion and survival in the course of inflammation, supporting the "open-window" post-exercise hypothesis.

  13. Marathon Race Affects Neutrophil Surface Molecules: Role of Inflammatory Mediators

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fatigue induced by marathon races was observed in terms of inflammatory and immunological outcomes. Neutrophil survival and activation are essential for inflammation resolution and contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of marathon races on surface molecules related to neutrophil adhesion and extrinsic apoptosis pathway and its association with inflammatory markers. We evaluated 23 trained male runners at the São Paulo International Marathon 2013. The following components were measured: hematological and inflammatory mediators, muscle damage markers, and neutrophil function. The marathon race induced an increased leukocyte and neutrophil counts; creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), CK-MB, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and IL-8 levels. C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plasma concentrations were significantly higher 24 h and 72 h after the marathon race. Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels decreased 72 h after the marathon race. We also observed an increased intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and decreasedTNF receptor-1 (TNFR1) expression immediately after and 24 h after the marathon race. We observed an increased DNA fragmentation and L-selectin and Fas receptor expressions in the recovery period, indicating a possible slow rolling phase and delayed neutrophil activation and apoptosis. Marathon racing affects neutrophils adhesion and survival in the course of inflammation, supporting the “open-window” post-exercise hypothesis. PMID:27911915

  14. Skin manifestations in ultra-marathon runners: experience in the Marathon des Sables 2014.

    PubMed

    Descamps, V; Claessens, Y-E; Doumenc, B

    2016-11-18

    Ultra-marathons are becoming increasingly popular (1). In 2014 (4(th) to 14(th) April), the 29(th) Sultan Marathon des Sables (MDS) took place in Morocco. Overall, 1100 runners, men and women aged 16 to 80, met this challenge. Their goal was an endurance race of around 250 km in 5 self-sufficient stages in the desert over 6 days. Each runner carried their own rucksack of 7-10 kg with all of the necessary equipment and food (except water). Ultra-marathons are associated with well-known problems including dehydration, changes in body mass, loss of skeletal muscle mass, rhabdomyolysis with renal failure, and an increase in total body water. Lower limb and foot injuries are frequent in ultra-marathon runners, but specific skin manifestations may occur as a consequence of the extreme conditions of the MDS: high temperature with high rate of perspiration and salt loss, sun exposure, and contact with the sand. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Aging, Fitness, and Marathon Times in a 91 Year-old Man Who Competed in 627 Marathons.

    PubMed

    Addison, Odessa; Steinbrenner, Gregory; Goldberg, Andrew P; Katzel, Leslie I

    Aging is associated with a decline in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) that may be attenuated by chronic endurance exercise. This case study chronicles the changes in marathon times in a 91 year old man who completed 627 marathons and 117 ultramarathons over 42 years. He began running marathons at age 48. His yearly best times remained fairly constant at ~240 minutes from age 50 - 64 years and then gradually rose to about 260 minutes in his early seventies followed by a curvilinear deterioration as he approached his ninth decade. His times plateaued at ~ 600 minutes in his late eighties. Between ages 68 and 89 his VO2max declined from 43 to 20 ml/kg/min. His marathon times were highly correlated with his VO2max (r(2)=0.87). The decline in marathons times and VO2max may reflect the contributions of biological aging, changes in exercise training volume and intensity, injuries, and comorbid disease.

  16. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  17. Gender differences in wheelchair marathon performance – Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was (1) to examine the changes in participation and performance of males and females at the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon in Oita, Japan, between 1983 and 2011, and (2) to analyze the gender difference in the age of peak wheelchair marathon performance. Methods Age and time performance data for all wheelchair athletes completing the Oita International Wheelchair Marathon from 1983 to 2011 were analyzed. Results Mean annual number of finishers was 123 ± 43 for males and 6 ± 3 for females (5.0% ± 2.0% of all finishers), respectively. Mean age of overall finishers was significantly (P = 0.026) greater for males (41.3 ± 1.8 years) compared to females (32.7 ± 1.4 years). In contrast, there was no difference in the mean age of the top three overall finishers between males (35.8 ± 3.2 years) and females (31.6 ± 1.5 years). The race time of the top three overall finishers was significantly lower (P < 0.01) for males (1:34 ± 0:11 hours:minutes) compared to females (1:59 ± 0:20 hours:minutes), but it was not significantly different between male (2:06 ± 0:12 hours:minutes) and female (2:12 ± 0:18 hours:minutes) overall finishers. The mean gender difference in time was 26.1% ± 9.7% for the top three overall finishers. Conclusion Further studies are required to investigate the reasons for the low participation of females in wheelchair marathons and why the gender difference in marathon performance is much greater for disabled athletes than for able-bodied athletes. PMID:24198599

  18. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    PubMed

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Predictor Variables for Marathon Race Time in Recreational Female Runners

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Wiebke; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine predictor variables of anthropometry and training for marathon race time in recreational female runners in order to predict marathon race time for future novice female runners. Methods Anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, body mass index, circumferences of limbs, thicknesses of skin-folds and body fat as well as training variables such as volume and speed in running training were related to marathon race time using bi- and multi-variate analysis in 29 female runners. Results The marathoners completed the marathon distance within 251 (26) min, running at a speed of 10.2 (1.1) km/h. Body mass (r=0.37), body mass index (r=0.46), the circumferences of thigh (r=0.51) and calf (r=0.41), the skin-fold thicknesses of front thigh (r=0.38) and of medial calf (r=0.40), the sum of eight skin-folds (r=0.44) and body fat percentage (r=0.41) were related to marathon race time. For the variables of training, maximal distance ran per week (r=− 0.38), number of running training sessions per week (r=− 0.46) and the speed of the training sessions (r= − 0.60) were related to marathon race time. In the multi-variate analysis, the circumference of calf (P=0.02) and the speed of the training sessions (P=0.0014) were related to marathon race time. Marathon race time might be partially (r 2=0.50) predicted by the following equation: Race time (min)=184.4 + 5.0 x (circumference calf, cm) –11.9 x (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational female marathoners. Conclusions Variables of both anthropometry and training were related to marathon race time in recreational female marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. For practical applications, a low circumference of calf and a high running speed in training are associated with a fast marathon race time in recreational female runners. PMID:22942994

  20. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Men's and Women's Cross-Country Injuries, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Kroshus, Emily; Grant, Jon; Parsons, John T.; Folger, Dustin; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Context  Recent injury-surveillance data for collegiate-level cross-country athletes are limited. Objective  To describe the epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's cross-country injuries during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design  Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting  Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 25 men's and 22 women's cross-country programs, providing 47 and 43 seasons of data, respectively. Patients or Other Participants  Collegiate student-athletes participating in men's and women's cross-country during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Injury rates; injury rate ratios (RRs); injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and apparatus; and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results  The Injury Surveillance Program captured 216 injuries from men's cross-country and 260 injuries from women's cross-country, leading to injury rates of 4.66/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) for men (95% CI = 4.04, 5.28) and 5.85/1000 AEs for women (95% CI = 5.14, 6.56). The injury rate in women's cross-country was 1.25 times that of men's cross-country (95% CI = 1.05, 1.50). Most injuries affected the lower extremity (men = 90.3%, women = 81.9%). The hip/groin-injury rate in women (0.65/1000 AEs) was higher than that in men (0.15/1000 AEs; RR = 4.32; 95% CI = 1.89, 9.85). The ankle-injury rate in men (0.60/1000 AEs) was higher than that in women (0.29/1000 AEs; RR = 2.07; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.99). Common diagnoses were strains (men = 19.9%, women = 20.4%) and inflammation (men = 18.1%, women = 23.8%). The majority of injuries were classified as overuse (men = 57.6%, women = 53.3%). Conclusions  Consistent with prior research, injury distributions varied between male and female athletes, and the injury rate among females was higher. Understanding the epidemiology of these cross-country injuries may be

  1. Rapid diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis by Xpert MTB/RIF assay using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Yin, Qing-Qin; Jiao, Wei-Wei; Han, Rui; Jiao, An-Xia; Sun, Lin; Tian, Jian-Ling; Ma, Yu-Yan; Rao, Xiao-Chun; Shen, Chen; Li, Qin-Jing; Shen, A-Dong

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay on childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), we evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF in comparison with acid-fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture for diagnosing childhood PTB using Chinese "composite clinical reference standard" (CCRS) as reference standard. Two hundred fifty-five children with suspected PTB were enrolled at Beijing Children's Hospital from September 2010 to July 2013. Compared with Chinese CCRS, the sensitivity of AFB microscopy, MTB culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 8.4%, 28.9%, and 53.0%, respectively. The specificity of three assays was all 100%. Xpert MTB/RIF assay could detect 33.9% of cases with negative MTB culture, and 48.7% of cases with negative AFB microscopy. Younger age (<3 years), absence of BCG scar, and contact with TB patient were found significantly associated with a positive result of Xpert MTB/RIF assay. In conclusion, Xpert MTB/RIF assay using BALF can assist in diagnosing childhood PTB much faster when fiberoptic bronchoscopy is necessary according to the chest radiograph.

  2. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome.

  3. Running Performance, Nationality, Sex and Age in 10km, Half-marathon, Marathon and 100km Ultra-marathon IAAF 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-10-13

    The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km. Most of the runners in 10km (women 40%, men 67%) and half-marathon (women 30%, men 57%) were Kenyans. In marathon, most female and male runners were Ethiopians (women 17%, men 14%) and Kenyans (women 15%, men 43%), respectively. In 100km, most runners were Japanese (20% in women and men). Women were older than men in 10km (32.0±6.0 versus 25.3±4.3 years, p<0.001), half-marathon (27.5±4.7 versus 25.9±4.1 years, p<0.001) and marathon (29.5±5.5 versus 29.1±4.3 years, p<0.001), but not in 100km (36.6±6.1 versus 35.9±5.5 years, p=0.097). Men were faster than women in 10km (28:04±0:17 versus 32:08±0.31 min:sec, p<0.001), half-marathon (1:01:58±0:00:52 versus 1:11:21±0:01:18 h:min:sec, p<0.001), marathon (2:13:42±0:03:01 versus 2:35:04±0:05:21 h:min:s, p<0.001), and 100km (6:48:01±0:11:29 versus 7:53:51±0:16:37 h:min:sec, p<0.001). East-Africans were not the fastest compared to athletes originating from other countries where only Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon. In summary, (i) most runners were from Kenya and Ethiopia in 10km, half-marathon and marathon, but from Japan and Russia in 100km, (ii) women were older than men in all distances except 100km, (iii) men were the fastest in all distances, and (iii) Ethiopian men were faster than all other men in marathon.

  4. Public spending for illegal drug and alcohol treatment in hospitals: an EU cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per

  5. Do Marathons' Road Closures Lead to More Local Deaths?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- When a marathon shuts down city streets, it's more than an inconvenience: Nearby residents ... new study finds. The study, of 11 U.S. cities, found that older residents were less likely to ...

  6. 9. View of bridge looking west. A fundraising marathon is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of bridge looking west. A fund-raising marathon is in prgress. The traffic levels outside the main arch were added in 1965 when the bridge underwent extensive rehabilitation. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000779, the Marathon Oil Company – Maverick Springs is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  8. Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000922, the Marathon Oil Company – Chatterton Battery is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Five Mile Creek.

  9. Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit WY-0000949, the Marathon Oil Company – Circle Ridge is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in Fremont County, Wyoming to a tributary to Coal Draw.

  10. Marathon Training in the University Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dernbach, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A course at Northern Illinois University trains college students for running marathons. The course offers information about conditioning, injury prevention, and diet requirements, as well as instruction in long-distance running. Techniques for motivating students are discussed. (PP)

  11. Short-term performance peaking in an elite cross-country mountain biker.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Hansen, Joar; Vegge, Geir; Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-08-01

    Endurance athletes usually achieve performance peaks with 2-4 weeks of overload training followed by 1-3weeks of tapering. With a tight competition schedule, this may not be appropriate. This case investigates the effect of a 7-day overload period including daily high-intensity aerobic training followed by a 5-day step taper between two competitions in an elite cross-country mountain biker. Pre-test peak oxygen consumption was 89 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), peak aerobic power 6.8 W·kg(-1), power output at 2 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration 3.9 W·kg(-1), maximal isometric force 180 Nm and squat jump 21 cm. During overload, perceived leg well-being went from normal to very heavy. On day 1 after overload, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis EMGmean activity was reduced by 3% and 7%, respectively. Other baseline measurements were reduced by 3-7%. On day 4 of the taper, he felt that his legs were good and all measurements were 3-7% higher than before overload. On day 6 after the taper, his legs felt very good. This case shows that an elite mountain biker (11th in UCI World Cup one week prior to the pre-test) could achieve a rather large supercompensation by using a 12-day performance peaking protocol.

  12. The effects of skiing velocity on mechanical aspects of diagonal cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Erik; Pellegrini, Barbara; Sandbakk, Oyvind; Stüggl, Thomas; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-09-01

    Cycle and force characteristics were examined in 11 elite male cross-country skiers using the diagonal stride technique while skiing uphill (7.5°) on snow at moderate (3.5 ± 0.3 m/s), high (4.5 ± 0.4 m/s), and maximal (5.6 ± 0.6 m/s) velocities. Video analysis (50 Hz) was combined with plantar (leg) force (100 Hz), pole force (1,500 Hz), and photocell measurements. Both cycle rate and cycle length increased from moderate to high velocity, while cycle rate increased and cycle length decreased at maximal compared to high velocity. The kick time decreased 26% from moderate to maximal velocity, reaching 0.14 s at maximal. The relative kick and gliding times were only altered at maximal velocity, where these were longer and shorter, respectively. The rate of force development increased with higher velocity. At maximal velocity, sprint-specialists were 14% faster than distance-specialists due to greater cycle rate, peak leg force, and rate of leg force development. In conclusion, large peak leg forces were applied rapidly across all velocities and the shorter relative gliding and longer relative kick phases at maximal velocity allow maintenance of kick duration for force generation. These results emphasise the importance of rapid leg force generation in diagonal skiing.

  13. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  14. Reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer for cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Nilsson, Johnny

    2008-01-15

    Thirty-eight competitive cross-country skiers were divided into three groups to assess the reliability and validity of a new double poling ergometer. Group A (n = 22) performed two maximal 60-s tests, Group B (n = 8) repeated peak oxygen uptake tests on the double poling ergometer, and Group C (n = 8) performed a maximal 6-min test on the double poling ergometer and a double poling time-trial on snow. The correlation between the power calculated at the flywheel and the power applied at the base of the poles was r = 0.99 (P < 0.05). The power at the poles was 50-70% higher than that at the flywheel. There was a high test-retest reliability in the two 60-s power output tests (coefficient of variation = 3.0%) and no significant difference in peak oxygen uptake in the two 6-min all-out tests (coefficient of variation = 2.4%). There was a strong correlation between the absolute (W) and relative power (W x kg(-1)) output in the 6-min double poling ergometer test and the double poling performance on snow (r = 0.86 and 0.89 respectively; both P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that the double poling ergometer has both high reliability and validity. However, the power calculated at the flywheel underestimated the total power produced and needs to be corrected for in ergonomic estimations.

  15. Identification of Cross-Country Skiing Movement Patterns Using Micro-Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Marsland, Finn; Lyons, Keith; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Macintosh, Colin; Chapman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of micro-sensors for use in the identification of the main movement patterns used in cross-country skiing. Data were collected from four elite international and four Australian athletes in Europe and in Australia using a MinimaxX™ unit containing accelerometer, gyroscope and GPS sensors. Athletes performed four skating techniques and three classical techniques on snow at moderate velocity. Data from a single micro-sensor unit positioned in the centre of the upper back was sufficient to visually identify cyclical movement patterns for each technique. The general patterns for each technique were identified clearly across all athletes while at the same time distinctive characteristics for individual athletes were observed. Differences in speed, snow condition and gradient of terrain were not controlled in this study and these factors could have an effect on the data patterns. Development of algorithms to process the micro-sensor data into kinematic measurements would provide coaches and scientists with a valuable performance analysis tool. Further research is needed to develop such algorithms and to determine whether the patterns are consistent across a range of different speeds, snow conditions and terrain, and for skiers of differing ability. PMID:22666075

  16. Biomechanical analysis of different starting strategies utilized during cross-country skiing starts.

    PubMed

    Wiltmann, Victor Wennemar; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pelttari, Pasi; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Ohtonen, Olli; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-11-01

    The present study was designed to analyse and compare the kinetics and kinematics associated with three different starting strategies during classic cross-country ski racing. Inside a ski tunnel, 12 elite male skiers performed three sets of three 38 m starts. Each set included one start using: double poling only (DP), diagonal stride only (DIA) and freely chosen (FREE) (i.e. where subjects used the strategy or combination of strategies they felt was fastest) in random order. The first 18 m was performed on a series of force plates that measured horizontal and vertical forces followed by 20 m of a standard snow track. Additionally, cycle characteristics and joint angles were measured. DIA and FREE were faster over 38 m than DP (P < .01). Net horizontal impulse (taking into account both positive and negative impulses) 5-10 m after the start was lower during DP than during DIA and FREE (both P < .05). All subjects skied faster when using only DIA for the entire 38 m. Furthermore, the sum duration and frequency of propulsive contacts over the first 18 m was less in DP than DIA and FREE (P < .01). In conclusion, differences between the starting strategies examined was especially pronounced during the initial cycles. Transition from DIA to DP during the start also slowed the skiers, but optimal timing for such a transition was not elucidated.

  17. The Replacement Rate: An Imperfect Indicator of Pension Adequacy in Cross-Country Analyses.

    PubMed

    Chybalski, Filip; Marcinkiewicz, Edyta

    Pension systems are usually evaluated from the perspective of two basic criteria: pension adequacy and financial sustainability. The first criterion concerns the level of pension benefits and protection of the elderly from poverty. The second criterion applies to financial liquidity. This paper is primarily of methodological nature. We discuss the problem of measuring pension adequacy, focusing mainly on the replacement rate, which, defined in a number of ways, is the most common measure of pension adequacy. However, as we argue in this paper, it covers only one of its dimensions, namely consumption smoothing. Meanwhile, an equally important dimension, often discussed in the literature and included in most definitions of pension adequacy, is protection of old-age pensioners from poverty. Accordingly, we have proved the thesis that the replacement rate is not a sufficient measure of broadly understood pension adequacy in cross-country studies. Consequently, we have proposed alternative (or possibly complementary) measures called the synthetic pension adequacy indicators (SPAI1-3), defined in basic form as a quotient of relative median income and the at-risk-of-poverty rate. These indicators provide for both the above-mentioned dimensions of adequacy and, according to statistical analysis, also represent them very well. Moreover, the indicators, calculated separately for men and for women, enables evaluation of the third dimension of pension adequacy, namely gender-related differences in pension adequacy.

  18. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among half marathon and marathon runners of the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012: A prospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, D; de Koning, J; Verhagen, A P; Scholten-Peeters, G G M

    2016-02-01

    To determine risk factors for running injuries during the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012. Prospective cohort study. Population-based study. This study included 943 runners. Running injuries after the Lage Landen Marathon. Sociodemographic and training-related factors as well as lifestyle factors were considered as potential risk factors and assessed in a questionnaire 1 month before the running event. The association between potential risk factors and injuries was determined, per running distance separately, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 154 respondents sustained a running injury. Among the marathon runners, in the univariate model, body mass index ≥ 26 kg/m(2), ≤ 5 years of running experience, and often performing interval training, were significantly associated with running injuries, whereas in the multivariate model only ≤ 5 years of running experience and not performing interval training on a regular basis were significantly associated with running injuries. Among marathon runners, no multivariate model could be created because of the low number of injuries and participants. This study indicates that interval training on a regular basis may be recommended to marathon runners to reduce the risk of injury.

  19. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  20. Influence of compression garments on recovery after marathon running.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jessica A; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A; Walshe, Ian; Pedlar, Charles R

    2014-08-01

    Strenuous physical activity can result in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a lower limb compression garment in accelerating recovery from a marathon run. Twenty four subjects (female, n = 7; male, n = 17) completed a marathon run before being assigned to a treatment group or a sham treatment group. The treatment group wore lower limb compression tights for 72 hours after the marathon run, the sham treatment group received a single treatment of 15 minutes of sham ultrasound after the marathon run. Perceived muscle soreness, maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and serum markers of creatine kinase (CK) and C-reactive protein (C-RP) were assessed before, immediately after, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after the marathon run. Perceived muscle soreness was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05) in the compression group at 24 hours after marathon when compared with the sham group. There were no significant group effects for MVIC, CK, and C-RP (p > 0.05). The use of a lower limb compression garment improved subjective perceptions of recovery; however, there was neither a significant improvement in muscular strength nor a significant attenuation in markers of exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation.

  1. Beating the storm. [Procedures of Marathon Oil Co

    SciTech Connect

    Stelzer, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    In this article, Mr. Stelzer describes the activities of management and crews when weather advisories dictate emergency shutdown of Marathon's western Gulf of Mexico drilling activities. The Lafayette, LA office monitors the atmospheric disturbances (seeds of potential hurricanes) and, eventually, the growing storm, and alerts all Marathon platforms in Sector 2 of the western Gulf to prepare for possible shutdown. In the example described here, management gave the order at 7:00 AM to shut down all Marathon platforms and shore bases in the vicinity of the western Gulf as Hurricane Alicia built up eastward. Within minutes, a well-practed series of exercises was put in motion - lowering and chaining down lengths of drill pipe, securing anything else that could be chained down, and starting the orderly evacuation of the platform workers (by helicopter, when possible). By 5:35 PM, just 10.5 hours after the alert, all personnel from the 13 Marathon platforms had been safely transported to Lafayette and Lake Charles, LA. The shore bases themselves were then secured and vacated to await the storm's fury. Alicia eventually slammed ashore, wreaking extensive storm damage in Galveston, Houston, and Texas City; a Marathon refinery in the latter sustained heavy property loss and interruption of work. Offshore, there was very little damage aboard the Marathon platforms; and, within hours, all platforms were back in operation.

  2. Evaluation of Cobas TaqMan MTB for direct detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in comparison with Cobas Amplicor MTB.

    PubMed

    Bloemberg, Guido V; Voit, Antje; Ritter, Claudia; Deggim, Vanessa; Böttger, Erik C

    2013-07-01

    The Roche Cobas Amplicor MTB assay, recently replaced by the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay, was one of the first commercially available assays for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on nucleic acid amplification. We reported previously on the limited specificity of the Cobas Amplicor MTB assay, in particular for positive samples with an optical density at 660 nm (OD660) of <2.0. Using a selected set of respiratory samples, which were scored as false positive by the Cobas Amplicor test, we demonstrate here that the specificity of the Cobas TaqMan assay is significantly improved. In addition, our study of a set of 133 clinical samples revealed that the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay showed significantly less PCR inhibition than the Cobas Amplicor test. An overall concordance of 98.2% was observed between the two assays. In a subsequent prospective study, we evaluated the performance of the Roche Cobas TaqMan MTB assay on 1,143 clinical specimens, including respiratory (n = 838) and nonrespiratory (n = 305) specimens. Using culture as the gold standard, we found a sensitivity of 88.4% and a specificity of 98.8% for the 838 respiratory specimens, compared to a sensitivity of 63.6% and a specificity of 94.6% for the 305 nonrespiratory specimens. We conclude that the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay is a significantly improved tool for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis DNA in clinical specimens.

  3. The complexities of Xpert® MTB/RIF interpretation.

    PubMed

    Lippincott, C K; Miller, M B; Van Rie, A; Weber, D J; Sena, A C; Stout, J E

    2015-03-01

    The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay has demonstrated robust capability for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) and rifampin (RMP) resistance. Optimal use of Xpert in diverse settings will require knowledge of challenges when interpreting the results. We present three selected cases from the United States, a low-burden TB setting, to highlight important clinical scenarios encountered with Xpert testing: rapid RMP resistance detection in a patient with pre-extensively drug-resistant TB who immigrated from the Philippines, false-positive RMP resistance detection, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in a culture-negative patient. These cases demonstrate that a low pre-test probability of TB or drug-resistant TB can complicate the interpretation of the Xpert assay.

  4. Motility of magnetotactic bacteria/MTB to Geomagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Fatahillah

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by a local geomagnetic fields have been observed in marine sediments'' discussed by R. Blakemore, 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria/MTB discovered in 1963 by Salvatore Bellini. For ``off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope was used to correlates the physical & magnetic microstructure of magnetite nanocrystals in magnetotactic bacteria'' sought ``single-domain magnetite in hemopelagic sediments'' from JF Stolz. Otherwise, for potential source of bioproducts- product meant from result to multiplier -of magnetotactic bacteria[ACV Araujo, et.al, 2014 ] of marine drugs retrieved the `measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis, from KM Pietrosimone, 2012, whereas after ``earth magnetic field role on small living models'' are other interpretation of ``taxis'' as a movement of a cell instead usual ``tax'' for yew's taxus cuspidate, hired car & taxes in financial realms. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  5. Renal artery dissection following marathon running.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Fahad M; Goparaju, Madhavi; Yemme, Soumya; Lewis, Bruce E

    2009-01-01

    A 38-year-old, previously healthy man presented with flank pain after competing in a marathon. Initial laboratory tests and urinalysis were essentially normal. Both contrast enhanced-computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography showed an infarcted region of the left lower kidney without renal artery dissection. Thromboembolism was suspected, but further testing was negative. The diagnosis of renal artery dissection was established by angiogram, showing dissection of the segmental branch. The patient remained normotensive, maintained normal renal function, and had resolution of pain symptoms prior to discharge. On the basis of our experience and review of the literature, renal artery dissection occurs in otherwise healthy men and often goes undiagnosed. The management strategy tends to be conservative unless the patient develops progressive decline in renal function or worsening hypertension, with an excellent prognosis. This case also shows the importance of discussing the pros and cons of extreme physical exertion with all patients.

  6. The SPLASH/ICPC integrity marathon in Ibadan, Nigeria: incidence and management of injuries and marathon-related health problems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The growing interest in marathon runners and marathons in Nigeria has not been reflected in reports of injuries and other health problems associated with these events. This study therefore outlines the incidence of injuries, marathon-related health problems and delivery of physiotherapy at the maiden and second editions of the Splash 105.5 FM/ICPC Integrity Marathon in Ibadan city, south-west Nigeria in 2009 and 2010. Methods Using a data entry sheet, demographics and information on running experience, past and present injuries and other health problems reported en route and at the finish line by the runners were documented. The prevalence of injuries and other health problems reported by previous and first-time runners were compared. Results In both events, 16.3% and 17.2% of the runners respectively reported injuries with significant occurrence in first-time runners (p = 0.003 for 2009; p = 0.002 for 2010) mostly at the finish line. The reported injury type and site were muscle cramps and the thigh (39.7% and 76.4% respectively). Heat exhaustion was reported by 42.8% of runners in 2009 and 56.3% in 2010. Cryotherapy was mostly used in combination with other physiotherapy modalities in both years. Conclusion Most of the injuries and other health problems were reported by first-time marathon runners mainly at the finish line. The most reported site of injury was the thigh while muscle cramps and heat exhaustions were the most reported types of injuries and health problems. First-time marathon runners should be adequately informed of the predisposition to injury during marathons and adequate body conditioning should be emphasized. Ample preparation and effective involvement of the physiotherapy team is essential for management of injured runners en route and at the finish line in a marathon. PMID:24499546

  7. Polyphase deformation in Marathon basin, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, D.; Morris, A.

    1989-03-01

    Marathon basin, Texas, is the westernmost window into the Ouachita orogene. Interpreted as a result of northwest-southeast compression, intermittent orogenic pulses began in the Mississippian and continued into the Early Permian (Wolfcampian). However, the northeastern portion of the basin contains structures that could not have resulted from a single compression orientation and indicate that deformation continued to affect Wolfcampian and Leonardian rocks. Their work confirms the protracted nature of upper Paleozoic deformation and indicates that late- and postorogenic events were not related to the northwest-southeast compression manifest throughout the Marathon basin. The northeastern part of the basin exposes Morrowan( )-Desmoinesian rocks. The authors recognize a duplex thrust system, traceable for 10 km, rooted in the uppermost Morrowan( ) Tesnus Formation and creating a double thickness of (Morrowan-Atokan) Dimple Limestone. The duplex is folded by 50 to 2000-m half-wavelength northwestverging folds which plunge gently southwestward. Dimple thickness is further increased by a large number of contraction faults, each with up to 2 m of stratigraphic throw. Superimposed upon these structures are southeast-plunging, 10-20-m half-wavelength open kinks with vergence sympathetic with the regional trend variation apparent in this part of the basin. The superimposed structures are the result of a northeast-southwest compressive event. North of the Ouachita exposure, rocks containing lower Leonardian fusulinids are deformed into gentle east-west-trending 500-m half-wavelength folds which are likely the result of another distinct compression orientation trending north-south. Pervasive east-west extension in all Pennsylvania-age rocks is indicated by subvertical, calcite-filled veins.

  8. The effect of squat depth on multiarticular muscle activation in collegiate cross-country runners.

    PubMed

    Gorsuch, Joshua; Long, Janey; Miller, Katie; Primeau, Kyle; Rutledge, Sarah; Sossong, Andrew; Durocher, John J

    2013-09-01

    The squat is a closed-chain lower body exercise commonly performed by many athletes. Muscle activity has been examined during partial and parallel squats in male weightlifters, but not in male and female runners. Therefore, this study measured muscle activity with surface electromyography (EMG) during partial and parallel squats in 20 Division I collegiate cross-country runners (10 males and 10 females) in a randomized crossover design. We hypothesized the parallel squat would increase extensor muscle activitation (i.e. hamstrings and erector spinae). Furthermore, we sought to determine if changes in muscle activity were different between males and females. Participants performed 6 repetitions using their 10 repetition maximum loads for each condition during EMG testing. EMG was performed on the right rectus femoris, biceps femoris, lumbar erector spinae, and lateral head of the gastrocnemius. Rectus femoris activity (0.18 ± 0.01 vs. 0.14 ± 0.01 mV) and erector spinae activity (0.16 ± 0.01 vs. 0.13 ± 0.01 mV) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the parallel squat than during the partial squat condition. This increase in muscle activity may be attributed to greater ranges of motion at the hip and knee joints. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius activity were similar between conditions. No significant differences existed between males and females (squat condition × gender; p > 0.05). During preliminary isokinetic testing, both male and female runners demonstrated deficient hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratios, which would not likely improve by performing parallel squats based on our EMG findings. Despite the reduced load of the parallel squat, rectus femoris and erector spinae activity were elevated. Thus, parallel squats may help runners to train muscles vital for uphill running and correct posture, while preventing injury by using lighter weights through a larger range of motion.

  9. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  10. The Evolution of Champion Cross-Country Skier Training: From Lumberjacks to Professional Athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-17

    Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century, and was included as a men's event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources. Before 1970, most men champion XC skiers were lumberjacks who ran or skied long distances to and from felling areas while working long days in the woods. In addition, they trained as much as possible, with increased intensity during the autumn, while less work but more ski-specific training and competitions was done during the winter. Until the 1970s, few XC skiers were women, whom coaches believed tolerated less training than men. Today's XC skiers are less physically active, but the influence of both science and the systematic approaches of former athletes and coaches have gradually taught XC skiers to adopt smarter, more goal-oriented training practices. Although the very high VO2max of world-class XC skiers has remained the same since the 1960s, new events in modern XC skiing have additionally required superior upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and tactical flexibility. These elements also emerge in the training of today's best skiers, and especially women's physiological capacities and training routines seem to have improved dramatically.

  11. Comparison of a Double Poling Ergometer and Field Test for Elite Cross Country Sit Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Scott C.; Craven, Bruce; Bhambhani, Yagesh

    2010-01-01

    Background Sport specific ergometers are important for laboratory testing (i.e. peak oxygen consumption (VO2)) and out of season training. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare cardiorespiratory variables during exercise on a double poling ergometer to a field test in elite sit skiers. Methods Three male and four female athletes from the Canadian National / Developmental team (17-54 years of age, six with complete paraplegia and one with cerebral palsy) completed a field test and a double poling ergometer protocol separated by at least 24 hours. Both protocols consisted of three maximal trials of skiing of three minutes duration separated by 1.5 minutes of rest. A wireless metabolic system and heart rate monitor were used to measure cardiorespiratory responses [peak heart rate, peak VO2, and peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER)] during each test. Arterialized blood lactate was measured before the beginning of exercise, after each trial and at 5, 10 and 15 minutes post exercise. Results No significant differences existed between the field and ergometer tests for peak oxygen consumption (VO2) (field=34.7±5.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 vs. ergometer=33.4±6.9 mL·kg−1·min−1). Significantly higher peak heart rate and RER were found during the ergometer test. Significantly higher lactates were found during the ergometer test after trial 2 and trial 3. Conclusion The double poling ergometer is similar to a field test for evaluating peak VO2 in elite cross country sit skiers; however, the ergometer test elicits a higher heart rate and anaerobic response. PMID:21589660

  12. Muscle Size, Quality, and Body Composition: Characteristics of Division I Cross-Country Runners

    PubMed Central

    Roelofs, Erica J.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Melvin, Malia N.; Wingfield, Hailee L.; Trexler, Eric T.; Walker, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The primary purpose was to identify the relationship between muscle cross sectional area (mCSA), echo intensity (EI), and body composition of Division I cross-country runners. The secondary purpose was to examine differences in these variables in athletes stratified based on stress fracture (SFx) history. Thirty-six athletes were stratified based on sex and previous SFx history. A panoramic scan vastus lateralis (VL) was performed using a GE logiq-e B-mode ultrasound (US). Echo intensity and mCSA were determined from the scan by using a grayscale imaging software (Image-J). Body composition measures were determined using dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DEXA). For females, mCSA was significantly correlated with left leg lean mass (LM; R=0.54) and EI (R= −0.57). Lean mass was significantly correlated with bone mineral density (BMD; R=0.58) and content (BMC; R=0.56), while BMC was also correlated with leg LM (R=0.72). For males, mCSA was significantly correlated with leg LM (R=0.66), BMD (R=0.50), and BMC (R=0.54). Leg LM was significantly correlated with BMD (R=0.53) and BMC (R=0.77). Personal best times for males were significantly correlated with FM (R=0.489) and %fat (R=0.556) for the 10 kilometer and 5 kilometer races, respectively. Female and male athletes with previous history of SFx were not significantly different across any variables when compared to athletes with no previous history. These correlations suggest more muscle mass may associate with higher BMD and BMC for stronger bone structure. Modifications in training strategies to include heavy resistance training and plyometrics may be advantageous for preventing risk factors associated with stress fracture reoccurrence. PMID:25330086

  13. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-04-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume - in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work.

  14. Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Felleki, Majbritt; Hammarström, Daniel; Heil, Daniel; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine VO(2)max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · VO(2)max · m(-0.48) and Section speed = 5.96 · [VO(2)max · m(-(0.38 + 0.03 · α)) · e(-0.003 · Δ) (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described VO(2)max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either "1" (simple ratio-standard scaled) or "0" (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing VO(2)max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for VO(2)max.

  15. The Multidimensional Efficiency of Pension System: Definition and Measurement in Cross-Country Studies.

    PubMed

    Chybalski, Filip

    The existing literature on the efficiency of pension system, usually addresses the problem between the choice of different theoretical models, or concerns one or few empirical pension systems. In this paper quite different approach to the measurement of pension system efficiency is proposed. It is dedicated mainly to the cross-country studies of empirical pension systems, however it may be also employed to the analysis of a given pension system on the basis of time series. I identify four dimensions of pension system efficiency, referring to: GDP-distribution, adequacy of pension, influence on the labour market and administrative costs. Consequently, I propose four sets of static and one set of dynamic efficiency indicators. In the empirical part of the paper, I use Spearman's rank correlation coefficient and cluster analysis to verify the proposed method on statistical data covering 28 European countries in years 2007-2011. I prove that the method works and enables some comparisons as well as clustering of analyzed pension systems. The study delivers also some interesting empirical findings. The main goal of pension systems seems to become poverty alleviation, since the efficiency of ensuring protection against poverty, as well as the efficiency of reducing poverty, is very resistant to the efficiency of GDP-distribution. The opposite situation characterizes the efficiency of consumption smoothing-this is generally sensitive to the efficiency of GDP-distribution, and its dynamics are sensitive to the dynamics of GDP-distribution efficiency. The results of the study indicate the Norwegian and the Icelandic pension systems to be the most efficient in the analyzed group.

  16. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities.

  17. Energy system contributions and determinants of performance in sprint cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Andersson, E; Björklund, G; Holmberg, H-C; Ørtenblad, N

    2017-04-01

    To improve current understanding of energy contributions and determinants of sprint-skiing performance, 11 well-trained male cross-country skiers were tested in the laboratory for VO2max , submaximal gross efficiency (GE), maximal roller skiing velocity, and sprint time-trial (STT) performance. The STT was repeated four times on a 1300-m simulated sprint course including three flat (1°) double poling (DP) sections interspersed with two uphill (7°) diagonal stride (DS) sections. Treadmill velocity and VO2 were monitored continuously during the four STTs and data were averaged. Supramaximal GE during the STT was predicted from the submaximal relationships for GE against velocity and incline, allowing computation of metabolic rate and O2 deficit. The skiers completed the STT in 232 ± 10 s (distributed as 55 ± 3% DP and 45 ± 3% DS) with a mean power output of 324 ± 26 W. The anaerobic energy contribution was 18 ± 5%, with an accumulated O2 deficit of 45 ± 13 mL/kg. Block-wise multiple regression revealed that VO2 , O2 deficit, and GE explained 30%, 15%, and 53% of the variance in STT time, respectively (all P < 0.05). This novel GE-based method of estimating the O2 deficit in simulated sprint-skiing has demonstrated an anaerobic energy contribution of 18%, with GE being the strongest predictor of performance.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy and turnaround time of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Nakwon; Choi, Sun Mi; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Min; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2013-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced for timely and accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy and turnaround time (TAT) of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in clinical practice in South Korea. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum were requested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and detection of rifampicin resistance were calculated. In addition, TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was compared with those of other tests. Total 681 patients in whom Xpert MTB/RIF assay was requested were included in the analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of PTB were 79.5% (124/156), 100.0% (505/505), 100.0% (124/124) and 94.0% (505/537), respectively. Those for the detection of rifampicin resistance were 57.1% (8/14), 100.0% (113/113), 100.0% (8/8) and 94.9% (113/119), respectively. The median TAT of Xpert MTB/RIF assay to the report of results and results confirmed by physicians in outpatient settings were 0 (0-1) and 6 (3-7) days, respectively. Median time to treatment after initial evaluation was 7 (4-9) days in patients with Xpert MTB/RIF assay, but was 21 (7-33.5) days in patients without Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Xpert MTB/RIF assay showed acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity for the diagnosis of PTB and detection of rifampicin resistance in areas with intermediate TB burden. Additionally, the assay decreased time to the initiation of anti-TB drugs through shorter TAT.

  19. Evaluation of Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Youn; Lee, Nam Yong

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based amplification tests allow the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, a real-time PCR assay for M. tuberculosis complex, the Cobas TaqMan MTB test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), was introduced. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Cobas TaqMan MTB test system. A total of 406 specimens collected from 247 patients were simultaneously tested by conventional culture, Cobas Amplicor MTB PCR, and TaqMan MTB PCR. The cross-reactivity with other Mycobacterium species and the detection limit were also evaluated. Among 406 specimens, a total of 24 specimens (5.9%) were culture positive: 14 specimens were positive by both TaqMan and Amplicor MTB PCRs, while 5 specimens were positive by only TaqMan PCR. The remaining five specimens were negative by both PCR methods. Seven specimens with negative culture results were positive by TaqMan PCR, but five of these were negative by Amplicor MTB PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 79.1%, 98.2%, 73.1%, and 98.7% for TaqMan and 58.3%, 99.5%, 87.5%, and 97.4% for the Amplicor MTB PCR test, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with M. tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial species. The detection limit for the Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test was 4.0 copies/μl. The Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test showed higher sensitivity for detection of the M. tuberculosis complex without disturbing the specificity and NPV than the Amplicor MTB PCR test.

  20. Elite Runners, Women the First Marathoners to Lose to Father Time

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 THURSDAY, March 30, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- All marathon runners eventually slow down. But a new study ... 2016 data from three of the largest U.S. marathons -- Boston, Chicago and New York City. "We found ...

  1. MTB-DR-RIF 9G test: Detection and discrimination of tuberculosis and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis strains.

    PubMed

    Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Cho, Nam Hoon; Sung, Nackmoon; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yang, Jeongseong; Kim, Taisun

    2015-12-01

    This report describes the evaluation of the novel MTB-DR-RIF 9G test for the accurate detection and discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis (MTB-DR-RIF) in the clinical samples. The procedure included the amplification of a nucleotide fragment of the rpoB gene of the MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains and their hybridization with the immobilized probes. The MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was evaluated for its ability to detect and discriminate MTB and MTB-DR-RIF strains in 113 known clinical samples. The accuracy of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test was determined by comparing its results with sequencing analysis and drug susceptibility testing. The sensitivity and specificity of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 95.4% (89.5-98.5) and 100% (69.2-100), respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MTB-DR-RIF 9G test at 95% confidence interval were found to be 100% (85.0-95.9) and 66.7% (38.4-88.18), respectively. Sequencing analysis of all samples indicated that the mutations present in the regions identified with the MTB-DR-RIF 9G assay can be detected accurately.

  2. 75 FR 27641 - Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... No. USCG-2010-0333] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge River... vessels from a portion of the Rouge River during the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. This... offloading of equipment in conjunction with the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. The offloading...

  3. Half-Marathon and Full-Marathon Runners' Hydration Practices and Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neal, Eric K.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Richardson, Mark T.; Leeper, James D.; Neggers, Yasmine H.; Bishop, Phil A.

    2011-01-01

    Context: The behaviors and beliefs of recreational runners with regard to hydration maintenance are not well elucidated. Objective: To examine which beverages runners choose to drink and why, negative performance and health experiences related to dehydration, and methods used to assess hydration status. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Marathon registration site. Patients or Other Participants: Men (n = 146) and women (n = 130) (age = 38.3 ± 11.3 years) registered for the 2010 Little Rock Half-Marathon or Full Marathon. Intervention(s): A 23-item questionnaire was administered to runners when they picked up their race timing chips. Main Outcome Measure(s): Runners were separated into tertiles (Low, Mod, High) based on z scores derived from training volume, expected performance, and running experience. We used a 100-mm visual analog scale with anchors of 0 (never) and 100 (always). Total sample responses and comparisons between tertile groups for questionnaire items are presented. Results: The High group (58±31) reported greater consumption of sport beverages in exercise environments than the Low (42 ± 35 mm) and Mod (39 ± 32 mm) groups (P < .05) and perceived sport beverages to be superior to water in meeting hydration needs (P < .05) and improving performance during runs greater than 1 hour (P < .05). Seventy percent of runners experienced 1 or more incidents in which they believed dehydration resulted in a major performance decrement, and 45% perceived dehydration to have resulted in adverse health effects. Twenty percent of runners reported monitoring their hydration status. Urine color was the method most often reported (7%), whereas only 2% reported measuring changes in body weight. Conclusions: Greater attention should be paid to informing runners of valid techniques to monitor hydration status and developing an appropriate individualized hydration strategy. PMID:22488182

  4. A cross-country review of strategies of the German development cooperation to strengthen human resources

    PubMed Central

    Windisch, Ricarda; Wyss, Kaspar; Prytherch, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent years have seen growing awareness of the importance of human resources for health in health systems and with it an intensifying of the international and national policies in place to steer a response. This paper looks at how governments and donors in five countries – Cameroon, Indonesia, Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania – have translated such policies into action. More detailed information with regard to initiatives of German development cooperation brings additional depth to the range and entry doors of human resources for health initiatives from the perspective of donor cooperation. Methods This qualitative study systematically presents different approaches and stages to human resources for health development in a cross-country comparison. An important reference to capture implementation at country level was grey literature such as policy documents and programme reports. In-depth interviews along a predefined grid with national and international stakeholders in the five countries provided information on issues related to human resources for health policy processes and implementation. Results All five countries have institutional entities in place and have drawn up national policies to address human resources for health. Only some of the countries have translated policies into strategies with defined targets and national programmes with budgets and operational plans. Traditional approaches of supporting training for individual health professionals continue to dominate. In some cases partners have played an advocacy and technical role to promote human resources for health development at the highest political levels, but usually they still focus on the provision of ad hoc training within their programmes, which may not be in line with national human resources for health development efforts or may even be counterproductive to them. Countries that face an emergency, such as Malawi, have intensified their efforts within a relatively short time and by

  5. 75 FR 38093 - ConocoPhillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ...Phillips Alaska Natural Gas Corporation and Marathon Oil Company; Application for Blanket Authorization To... Marathon Oil Company (Marathon) (collectively Applicants), requesting blanket authorization to export a... publicly-traded Delaware corporation. Marathon is an Ohio corporation with its principal place of...

  6. Use of Bioimpedianciometer as Predictor of Mountain Marathon Performance.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athlete's chronological age were negatively associated with race performance. In contrast, the daily training volume was positively associated with mountain marathon time. A regression analysis showed that race time could be predicted (R(2) = .948) by the daily training load, sports experience, age, body fat mass, BF and level of abdominal obesity. The comparison between performance groups regarding to body composition and training characteristics showed that the higher performance group was lighter with lower BF, fat mass and level of abdominal obesity, and with more days of training per week compared with the lower performance group (p < .05). Therefore, coaches and fitness trainers working with mountain marathon runners should develop exercise and nutritional strategies to reduce BF and consider increasing mean daily training volume to improve performance.

  7. Contemporary nutrition approaches to optimize elite marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerff, Trent

    2013-09-01

    The professionalization of any sport must include an appreciation for how and where nutrition can positively affect training adaptation and/or competition performance. Furthermore, there is an ever-increasing importance of nutrition in sports that feature very high training volumes and are of a long enough duration that both glycogen and fluid balance can limit performance. Indeed, modern marathon training programs and racing satisfy these criteria and are uniquely suited to benefit from nutritional interventions. Given that muscle glycogen is limiting during a 2-h marathon, optimizing carbohydrate (CHO) intake and delivery is of maximal importance. Furthermore, the last 60 y of marathon performance have seen lighter and smaller marathoners, which enhances running economy and heat dissipation and increases CHO delivery per kg body mass. Finally, periodically training under conditions of low CHO availability (eg, low muscle glycogen) or periods of mild fluid restriction may actually further enhance the adaptive responses to training. Accordingly, this commentary highlights these key nutrition and hydration interventions that have emerged over the last several years and explores how they may assist in world-class marathon performance.

  8. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M.; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66–0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power. PMID:27536245

  9. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66-0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power.

  10. Reduced performance difference between sexes in master mountain and city marathon running

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background The performance in master marathoners has been investigated in flat city marathons but not in mountain marathons. This study examined changes in the sex differences in performance across time in female and male master runners competing in a mountain marathon compared to a flat city marathon. Methods The association between age and performance of finishers in the Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland, with 1830 meter changes in altitude and a flat city marathon (Lausanne Marathon), Switzerland, were analyzed from 2000 to 2011. Results In both events, athletes in the 35–44 years age group showed the highest number of finishers. In the mountain marathon, the number of female master runners aged > 35 years increased in contrast to female finishers aged < 35 years, while the number of male finishers was unchanged in all age groups. In the city marathon, the number of female finishers was unchanged while the number of male finishers in the age groups for 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds decreased. In female marathoners, performance improved in athletes aged 35–44 and 55–64 years in the city marathon. Male marathoners improved race time in age group 45–54 years in both the city marathon and the mountain marathon. Female master runners reduced the sex difference in performance in the 45–54-year age group in both competitions and in the 35–44-year age group in the mountain marathon. The sex difference in performance decreased in the 35–44-year age group from 19.1% ± 4.7% to 16.6% ± 1.9% in the mountain marathon (r2 = 0.39, P = 0.03). In age groups 45–54 years, the sex difference decreased from 23.4% ± 1.9% to 15.9% ± 6.1% in the mountain marathon (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.01) and from 34.7% ± 4.6% to 11.8% ± 6.2% in the city marathon (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that female master runners aged 35–54 years reduced sex differences in their performance in both mountain and city marathon running. PMID:23637550

  11. Aging, Fitness, and Marathon Times in a 91 Year-old Man Who Competed in 627 Marathons

    PubMed Central

    Addison, Odessa; Steinbrenner, Gregory; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Katzel, Leslie I.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) that may be attenuated by chronic endurance exercise. This case study chronicles the changes in marathon times in a 91 year old man who completed 627 marathons and 117 ultramarathons over 42 years. He began running marathons at age 48. His yearly best times remained fairly constant at ~240 minutes from age 50 – 64 years and then gradually rose to about 260 minutes in his early seventies followed by a curvilinear deterioration as he approached his ninth decade. His times plateaued at ~ 600 minutes in his late eighties. Between ages 68 and 89 his VO2max declined from 43 to 20 ml/kg/min. His marathon times were highly correlated with his VO2max (r2=0.87). The decline in marathons times and VO2max may reflect the contributions of biological aging, changes in exercise training volume and intensity, injuries, and comorbid disease. PMID:26290832

  12. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E.; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key points During cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiing Approximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling. Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit. By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing. Male, fit and young

  13. Coil embolization through the Marathon microcatheter: Advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Joel S; Duckwiler, Gary R; Tateshima, Satoshi; Szeder, Viktor; Jahan, Reza; Gonzalez, Nestor; Vinuela, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Due to technical limitations, small, distal, and tortuous intracranial pathology is sometimes out of reach of the current armamentarium of microcatheters designed for intracranial coil embolization. The Marathon microcatheter (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA), designed specifically for the delivery of Onyx, is longer and more flexible than most coil delivery catheters. We report on nine patients (three with arteriovenous fistula, three with arteriovenous malformation, two with intracranial aneurysm, and one with tumor) where Marathon was used to deliver commercially available platinum coils. We also conducted laboratory compatibility testing and conclude that the Marathon can be used as a coil delivery catheter for Barricade coils (Blockade Medical, Irvine, California, USA) with diameter less than 0.012 in.

  14. Running speed during training and percent body fat predict race time in recreational male marathoners

    PubMed Central

    Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Klipstein, Andreas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that personal best marathon time is a strong predictor of race time in male ultramarathoners. We aimed to determine variables predictive of marathon race time in recreational male marathoners by using the same characteristics of anthropometry and training as used for ultramarathoners. Methods Anthropometric and training characteristics of 126 recreational male marathoners were bivariately and multivariately related to marathon race times. Results After multivariate regression, running speed of the training units (β = −0.52, P < 0.0001) and percent body fat (β = 0.27, P < 0.0001) were the two variables most strongly correlated with marathon race times. Marathon race time for recreational male runners may be estimated to some extent by using the following equation (r2 = 0.44): race time ( minutes) = 326.3 + 2.394 × (percent body fat, %) − 12.06 × (speed in training, km/hours). Running speed during training sessions correlated with prerace percent body fat (r = 0.33, P = 0.0002). The model including anthropometric and training variables explained 44% of the variance of marathon race times, whereas running speed during training sessions alone explained 40%. Thus, training speed was more predictive of marathon performance times than anthropometric characteristics. Conclusion The present results suggest that low body fat and running speed during training close to race pace (about 11 km/hour) are two key factors for a fast marathon race time in recreational male marathoner runners. PMID:24198587

  15. Eye injuries in the extreme environment ultra-marathon runner.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas Adam; Kropelnicki, Anna

    2015-06-02

    We present the case of an ultra-marathon runner who developed a painful irritated eye due to prolonged exposure to high wind speed and sub-zero temperatures causing transient freezing and subsequent abrasion of the cornea. We recommend that all ultra-marathon runners racing in windy or exposed conditions should wear wrap-around eye protection or goggles. If runners present to checkpoints or after the race to primary care or the emergency department with ocular pain, corneal freezing and abrasions should be considered. Management should include ocular examination and withdrawing the runner from harmful conditions.

  16. Thermoregulation and marathon running: biological and environmental influences.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, S N; Haymes, E M

    2001-01-01

    The extreme physical endurance demands and varied environmental settings of marathon footraces have provided a unique opportunity to study the limits of human thermoregulation for more than a century. High post-race rectal temperatures (Tre) are commonly and consistently documented in marathon runners, yet a clear divergence of thought surrounds the cause for this observation. A close examination of the literature reveals that this phenomenon is commonly attributed to either biological (dehydration, metabolic rate, gender) or environmental factors. Marathon climatic conditions vary as much as their course topography and can change considerably from year to year and even from start to finish in the same race. The fact that climate can significantly limit temperature regulation and performance is evident from the direct relationship between heat casualties and Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), as well as the inverse relationship between record setting race performances and ambient temperatures. However, the usual range of compensable racing environments actually appears to play more of an indirect role in predicting Tre by acting to modulate heat loss and fluid balance. The importance of fluid balance in thermoregulation is well established. Dehydration-mediated perturbations in blood volume and blood flow can compromise exercise heat loss and increase thermal strain. Although progressive dehydration reduces heat dissipation and increases Tre during exercise, the loss of plasma volume contributing to this effect is not always observed for prolonged running and may therefore complicate the predictive influence of dehydration on Tre for marathon running. Metabolic heat production consequent to muscle contraction creates an internal heat load proportional to exercise intensity. The correlation between running speed and Tre, especially over the final stages of a marathon event, is often significant but fails to reliably explain more than a fraction of the variability in

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis suspects in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert; Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to assess the cost-benefit of enhancing or replacing the conventional sputum smear with the real-time PCR Xpert MTB/RIF method in the inpatient diagnostic schema for tuberculosis (TB).Recent data from published per-case cost studies for TB/multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and from comparative analyses of sputum microscopy, mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and drug susceptibility testing, performed at the German National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, were used. Potential cost savings of Xpert MTB/RIF, based on test accuracy and multiple cost drivers, were calculated for diagnosing TB/MDR-TB suspects from the hospital perspective.Implementing Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on in smear-positive and smear-negative TB suspects saves on average €48.72 and €503, respectively, per admitted patient as compared with the conventional approach. In smear-positive and smear-negative MDR-TB suspects, cost savings amount to €189.56 and €515.25 per person, respectively. Full replacement of microscopy by Xpert MTB/RIF saves €449.98. In probabilistic Monte-Carlo simulation, adding Xpert MTB/RIF is less costly in 46.4% and 76.2% of smear-positive TB and MDR-TB suspects, respectively, but 100% less expensive in all smear-negative suspects. Full replacement by Xpert MTB/RIF is also consistently cost-saving.Using Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on to and even as a replacement for sputum smear examination may significantly reduce expenditures in TB suspects.

  18. Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB): a database of mouse models for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Sundberg, John P; Eppig, Janan T

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB; http://tumor.informatics.jax.org) database is a unique online compendium of mouse models for human cancer. MTB provides online access to expertly curated information on diverse mouse models for human cancer and interfaces for searching and visualizing data associated with these models. The information in MTB is designed to facilitate the selection of strains for cancer research and is a platform for mining data on tumor development and patterns of metastases. MTB curators acquire data through manual curation of peer-reviewed scientific literature and from direct submissions by researchers. Data in MTB are also obtained from other bioinformatics resources including PathBase, the Gene Expression Omnibus and ArrayExpress. Recent enhancements to MTB improve the association between mouse models and human genes commonly mutated in a variety of cancers as identified in large-scale cancer genomics studies, provide new interfaces for exploring regions of the mouse genome associated with cancer phenotypes and incorporate data and information related to Patient-Derived Xenograft models of human cancers.

  19. Evaluation of the Abbott RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB INH/RIF Assays for Direct Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Resistance Markers in Respiratory and Extrapulmonary Specimens.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Thiel, Sabine; Molodtsov, Nikolay; Antonenka, Uladzimir; Hoffmann, Harald

    2016-12-01

    The Abbott RealTime MTB (RT MTB) assay is a new automated nucleic acid amplification test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. In combination with the RealTime MTB INH/RIF (RT MTB INH/RIF) resistance assay, which can be applied to RT MTB-positive specimens as an add-on assay, the tests also indicate the genetic markers of resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF). We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RT MTB using different types of respiratory and extrapulmonary specimens and to compare performance characteristics directly with those of the FluoroType MTB assay. The resistance results obtained by RT MTB INH/RIF were compared to those from the GenoType MTBDRplus and from phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. A total of 715 clinical specimens were analyzed. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of RT MTB was 92.1%; the sensitivity rates for smear-positive and smear-negative samples were 100% and 76.2%, respectively. The sensitivities of smear-negative specimens were almost identical for respiratory (76.3%) and extrapulmonary (76%) specimens. Specificity rates were 100% and 95.8% for culture-negative specimens and those that grew nontuberculous mycobacteria, respectively. RT MTB INH/RIF was applied to 233 RT MTB-positive samples and identified resistance markers in 7.7% of samples. Agreement with phenotypic and genotypic drug susceptibility testing was 99.5%. In conclusion, RT MTB and RT MTB INH/RIF allow for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in different types of specimens and reliably indicate resistance markers. The strengths of this system are the comparably high sensitivity with paucibacillary specimens, its ability to detect INH and RIF resistance, and its high-throughput capacities.

  20. Pursuit of performance excellence: a population study of Norwegian adolescent female cross-country skiers and biathletes with disordered eating

    PubMed Central

    Pettersen, Ingvild; Hernæs, Erik; Skårderud, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine the prevalence of disordered eating (DE) among the total population of Norwegian female cross-country skiers and biathletes at the junior level, and to determine whether sociodemographic characteristics predict DE among athletes. Methods A cross-sectional population study of Norwegian female junior cross-country skiers and biathletes (n=262), with a response rate of 86%. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses explored the prevalence of DE and its relation to sports, competitive age groups, competitive status and education. DE was defined as meeting at least 1 of the following criteria from 2 subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2: the Drive for Thinness score ≥15 and/or the Body Dissatisfaction score ≥14. Results 18.7% of the athletes had DE. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of DE between the sports or the competitive age groups. Athletes who had dropped out of sports had a significantly higher occurrence of DE, while athletes who attended upper secondary schools of elite sports or general studies had a significantly higher occurrence of DE based on Drive for Thinness. Conclusions The number of female cross-country skiers and biathletes with DE is higher than that found in previous similar studies using the same screening instruments. Type of education and competitive status are significant predictors of DE, indicating that DE in addition to having adverse effects on an athlete's health, may also lead to early dropout of sport. This indicates that health and achievement are not always compatible within sports. PMID:27900180

  1. Transitions: Preparing Families of Preschoolers for "Marathon Skills".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen

    1993-01-01

    Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)

  2. Deadly Serious: The Boston Marathon Tragedy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon on Monday, April 15, killing three and injuring more than 260. The pressure-cooker bombs sent shrapnel at leg-level, leading to amputations for 15 victims. An immediate concern was how to deal with the feelings of school children whose sense of safety was shattered by the blasts. As the city healed, Boston…

  3. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  4. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  5. Marathon finishers and pre-race drop-outs.

    PubMed Central

    Clough, P J; Shepherd, J; Maughan, R J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal questionnaire study was to investigate the effects of participation or non participation in a marathon race on future running behaviour. The majority (70 per cent) of the participants who intended to run a future marathon actually did so and only 11 per cent stopped running altogether. Fewer of the pre-race drop-outs (31 per cent) who indicated their intention to run a future marathon actually did so (P less than 0.001) and more of them (24 per cent) stopped running altogether (P less than 0.001) compared with the runners in the finishers' sample. These results suggest that the experience of running in a marathon does not negatively influence future running habits. However, failure to run in a race for which an entry has been made may lead to a reduced involvement in running. The present study also examined the reasons for pre-race drop-out. Injury (36 per cent), lack of training (31 per cent) and illness (12 per cent) were the most frequently given reasons for drop-out. Few differences were found between the pre-race drop-outs and the finishers, but the drop-outs did feel that running was less important (P less than 0.001), reported a greater number of longer term injuries (P less than 0.001) and did significantly less training (P less than 0.001) than the finishers. Images p101-a PMID:2605449

  6. Cognitive orientations in marathon running and "hitting the wall"

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C. D.; Biddle, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether runners' cognitions during a marathon are related to "hitting the wall". To test a new and more comprehensive system for classifying cognition of marathon runners. METHODS: Non-elite runners (n = 66) completed a questionnaire after finishing the 1996 London marathon. The runners were recruited through the charity SPARKS for whom they were raising money by running in the race. RESULTS: Most runners reported that during the race their thoughts were internally associative, with internally dissociative thoughts being the least prevalent. Runners who "hit the wall" used more internal dissociation than other runners, indicating that it is a hazardous strategy, probably because sensory feedback is blocked. However, internal association was related to an earlier onset of "the wall", suggesting that too much attention on physical symptoms may magnify them, thereby exaggerating any discomfort. External dissociation was related to a later onset, probably because it may provide a degree of distraction but keeps attention on the race. CONCLUSIONS: "Hitting the wall" for recreational non-elite marathon runners is associated with their thought patterns during the race. In particular, "the wall" is associated with internal dissociation. 




 PMID:9773172

  7. Repeated Stress Fractures in an Amenorrheic Marathoner: A Case Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John R.; Nilson, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a case conference by 2 experts on the relationship between a 26-year-old marathoner's amenorrhea and her sustained unusual stress fractures in 4 ribs (plus previous similar fractures of the calcaneal, navicular, metatarsal, and tibial bones). The experts conclude that she suffers many manifestations of overtraining. (SM)

  8. Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

    1974-01-01

    Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

  9. A Gestalt Marathon Workshop: Effects on Extraversion and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; Hannigan, Patricia S.

    1976-01-01

    College students (N=18) participated in a 24-hour marathon gestalt workshop and responded to the Eysenck Personality Inventory before and after the event. Results revealed a significant positive change at the .01 level on a measure of neuroticism-stability and no change on a measure of extroversion-introversion. (Author)

  10. Marathon Group: Changes in Scores on the California Psychological Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Eighteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive changes at the .05 level on 11 of 18 scales on this inventory. (Author)

  11. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  12. Predicting Benefit from a Gestalt Therapy Marathon Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, James; Dowd, E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Tested the utility of the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Girona Affect Scale in predicting the outcomes of a marathon Gestalt therapy workshop. Signigicant predictive equations were generated that use the POI to predict gains on the Girona Affect Scale. (Author/RC)

  13. Similarities and Differences of Marathon and Ongoing Strength Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Marilyn C.; Creveling, Patricia

    Marathon groups offer individuals an opportunity to engage in intensified, authentic personal encounter with each other in a small group setting, usually with 10-15 persons in a group. This is a report of tentative findings at the Student Life Center, University of Colorado. There were three matched groups, each with nine sophomores. The first…

  14. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  15. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  16. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  17. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  18. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Airway inflammation, cough and athlete quality of life in elite female cross-country skiers: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M D; Davidson, W J; Wong, L E; Traves, S L; Leigh, R; Eves, N D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a season of cross-country training and racing on airway inflammation, cough symptoms, and athlete quality of life in female skiers. Eighteen elite female skiers performed sputum induction and completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) at three time points (T1 - May/Jun, T2 - Oct/Nov, T3 - Jan-Mar) during the year. No changes were observed between T1 and T2. However, an increase in sputum eosinophils and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a significant change in all three domains of the LCQ were observed between T1 and T3 (P < 0.05). A significant association was found between the total yearly hours of training and the change in the total cell count (r(2)  = 0.74; P = 0.006), and a number of other sputum cell counts between T1 and T3. No changes were observed for any domain of the REST-Q. The results of this study demonstrate that airway inflammation and cough symptoms are significantly increased in elite female cross-country skiers across a year of training and racing. The increase in airway inflammation is related to the total amount of training and is worse during the winter months when athletes are training and racing in cold, dry air.

  20. Reliability of the virtual elevation method to evaluate rolling resistance of different mountain bike cross-country tyres.

    PubMed

    Maier, Thomas; Müller, Beat; Schmid, Lucas; Steiner, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon Peter

    2017-02-09

    Although a low rolling resistance is advantageous in mountain bike cross-country racing, no studies have used the virtual elevation method to compare tyres from different manufacturers as used in international competitions so far. The aims of this study were to assess the reliability of this method, to compare the off-road rolling resistance between tyres and to calculate the influence on off-road speed. Nine 29-in. mountain bike cross-country tyres were tested on a course representing typical ground surface conditions 5 or 6 times. The coefficient of rolling resistance was estimated with the virtual elevation method by 3 investigators and corresponding off-road speeds were calculated. The virtual elevation method was highly reliable (typical error = 0.0006, 2.8%; limits of agreement <0.0005, r ≥ 0.98). The mean coefficient of rolling resistance was 0.0219 and differed from 0.0205 to 0.0237 (P < 0.001) between tyres. The calculated differences in off-road speed amounted to 2.9-3.2% (0% slope) and 2.3-2.4% (10% slope) between the slowest and the fastest tyre. The reliability of the method and the differences in rolling resistance between the tyres illustrate the value of testing tyres for important competitions on a representative ground surface using the virtual elevation method.

  1. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  2. Xpert® Mtb/Rif assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

    PubMed Central

    Steingart, Karen R; Schiller, Ian; Horne, David J; Pai, Madhukar; Boehme, Catharina C; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) and TB drug resistance is critical for improving patient care and decreasing TB transmission. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay is an automated test that can detect both TB and rifampicin resistance, generally within two hours after starting the test, with minimal hands-on technical time. The World Health Organization (WHO) issued initial recommendations on Xpert® MTB/RIF in early 2011. A Cochrane Review on the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert® MTB/RIF for pulmonary TB and rifampicin resistance was published January 2013. We performed this updated Cochrane Review as part of a WHO process to develop updated guidelines on the use of the test. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert® MTB/RIF for pulmonary TB (TB detection), where Xpert® MTB/RIF was used as both an initial test replacing microscopy and an add-on test following a negative smear microscopy result. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert® MTB/RIF for rifampicin resistance detection, where Xpert® MTB/RIF was used as the initial test replacing culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST). The populations of interest were adults presumed to have pulmonary, rifampicin-resistant or multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), with or without HIV infection. The settings of interest were intermediate- and peripheral-level laboratories. The latter may be associated with primary health care facilities. Search methods We searched for publications in any language up to 7 February 2013 in the following databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; ISI Web of Knowledge; MEDION; LILACS; BIOSIS; and SCOPUS. We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the search portal of the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify ongoing trials. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials, cross-sectional studies, and cohort studies using respiratory specimens that allowed for

  3. Participation and performance trends of East-African runners in Swiss half-marathons and marathons held between 2000 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the changes in participation, performance and age of East African runners competing in half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland between 2000 and 2010. Methods Race times, sex, age and origin of East African versus Non-African finishers of half-marathon and marathon finishers were analyzed. Results Across time, the number of Kenyan and Ethiopian finishers remained stable (P > 0.05) while the number of Non-African finishers increased for both women and men in both half-marathons and marathons (P < 0.05). In half-marathons, the top ten African women (71 ± 1.4 min) and top three (62.3 ± 0.6 min) and top ten (62.8 ± 0.4 min) African men were faster than their Non-African counterparts (P < 0.05). In marathons, however, there was no difference in race times between the top three African men (130.0 ± 0.0 min) and women (151.7 ± 2.5 min) compared to Non-African men (129.0 ± 1.0 min) and women (150.7 ± 1.2 min) (P > 0.05). In half-marathons and marathons was no difference in age between the best Non-African and the best African runners (P > 0.05). Conclusions During the last decade in Switzerland, the participation of Kenyan and Ethiopian runners in half- and full- marathons remained stable. In marathons there was no difference in age and performance between the top African and the top Non-African runners. Regarding half-marathons, the top African runners were faster but not younger than the top Non-African runners. Future insight should be gained by comparing the present results with participation, performance and age trends for East African runners competing in marathons held in larger countries. PMID:24289794

  4. Diagnostic Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Behera, Digambar

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review investigating the role of Xpert MTB/RIF in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) was conducted. The pooled sensitivities and specificities of Xpert MTB/RIF were 51.4% and 98.6%, respectively, with culture used as a reference standard and 22.7% and 99.8%, respectively, with a composite reference standard (CRS) used as the benchmark. Xpert MTB/RIF has low sensitivity but excellent specificity in the diagnosis of TPE. PMID:26818675

  5. Effects of the stress of marathon running on implicit and explicit memory.

    PubMed

    Eich, Teal S; Metcalfe, Janet

    2009-06-01

    We tested the idea that real-world situations, such as the highly strenuous exercise involved in marathon running, that impose extreme physical demands on an individual may result in neurohormonal changes that alter the functioning of memory. Marathon runners were given implicit and explicit memory tasks before or immediately after they completed a marathon. Runners tested immediately upon completing the marathon showed impairment in the explicit memory task but enhancement in the implicit memory task. This postmarathon impairment in explicit memory is similar to that seen with amnesic patients with organic brain damage. However, no previous studies have shown a simultaneous enhancement in the implicit memory task, as shown by the marathon runners in the present study. This study indicates that human memory functioning can be dynamically altered by such activities as marathon running, in which hundreds of thousands of healthy normal individuals routinely partake.

  6. Genetic-and-Epigenetic Interspecies Networks for Cross-Talk Mechanisms in Human Macrophages and Dendritic Cells during MTB Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Lee, Yun-Lin; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Mtb is one of the oldest human pathogens, and evolves mechanisms implied in human evolution. The lungs are the first organ exposed to aerosol-transmitted Mtb during gaseous exchange. Therefore, the guards of the immune system in the lungs, such as macrophages (Mϕs) and dendritic cells (DCs), are the most important defense against Mtb infection. There have been several studies discussing the functions of Mϕs and DCs during Mtb infection, but the genome-wide pathways and networks are still incomplete. Furthermore, the immune response induced by Mϕs and DCs varies. Therefore, we analyzed the cross-talk genome-wide genetic-and-epigenetic interspecies networks (GWGEINs) between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb to determine the varying mechanisms of both the host and pathogen as it relates to Mϕs and DCs during early Mtb infection. First, we performed database mining to construct candidate cross-talk GWGEIN between human cells and Mtb. Then we constructed dynamic models to characterize the molecular mechanisms, including intraspecies gene/microRNA (miRNA) regulation networks (GRNs), intraspecies protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), and the interspecies PPIN of the cross-talk GWGEIN. We applied a system identification method and a system order detection scheme to dynamic models to identify the real cross-talk GWGEINs using the microarray data of Mϕs, DCs and Mtb. After identifying the real cross-talk GWGEINs, the principal network projection (PNP) method was employed to construct host-pathogen core networks (HPCNs) between Mϕs vs. Mtb and DCs vs. Mtb during infection process. Thus, we investigated the underlying cross-talk mechanisms between the host and the pathogen to determine how the pathogen counteracts host defense mechanisms in Mϕs and DCs during Mtb H37Rv early infection. Based on our findings, we propose Rv1675c as a potential drug target because of its important defensive role in

  7. Kinematic Changes During a Marathon for Fast and Slow Runners

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Roper, Maggie; Hunter, Iain; W. Myrer, Joseph; L. Eggett, Dennis; K. Seeley, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during an actual marathon. We hypothesized that (1) certain running kinematic measures would change between kilometres 8 and 40 (miles 5 and 25) of a marathon and (2) fast runners would demonstrate smaller changes than slow runners. Subjects (n = 179) were selected according to finish time (Range = 2:20:47 to 5:30:10). Two high-speed cameras were used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at kilometres 8 and 40 of the marathon. The dependent variables were stride length, contact time, peak knee flexion during support and swing, and peak hip flexion and extension during swing. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to compare dependent variables between kilometres 8 and 40 for all subjects, and regression analyses were used to determine whether faster runners exhibited smaller changes (between miles 5 and 25) than slower runners. For all runners, every dependent variable changed significantly between kilometres 8 and 40 (p < 0.001). Stride length increased 1.3%, contact time increased 13.1%, peak knee flexion during support decreased 3.2%, and peak hip extension, knee flexion, and hip flexion during swing decreased 27.9%, increased 4.3%, and increased 7.4%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among these significant changes, all runners generally changed the same from kilometres 8 and 40 except that fast runners decreased peak knee flexion during support less than the slow runners (p < 0.002). We believe that these changes, for all runners (fast and slow), were due to fatigue. The fact that fast runners maintained knee flexion during support more consistently might be due to their condition on the race day. Strengthening of knee extensor muscles may facilitate increased knee flexion during support throughout a marathon. Key points Runners changed kinematics significantly from kilometres 8 to 40 (increased stride length, contact time, peak hip flexion during swing, and peak knee flexion during swing, and

  8. Improved marathon performance by in-race nutritional strategy intervention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R

    2014-12-01

    It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups.

  9. Role of GeneXpert MTB/Rif Assay in Diagnosing Tuberculosis in Pregnancy and Puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Zaiyad G.; Dayyab, Farouq M.; Sanda, Abdallah; Tambuwal, Sirajo H.; Dalhat, Mahmood M.; Muhammad, Hamza; Iliyasu, Garba; Nashabaru, Ibrahim; Habib, Abdulrazaq G.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of tuberculosis (TB) in pregnancy may be atypical with diagnostic challenges. Two patients with complicated pregnancy outcomes, foetal loss and live premature delivery at 5 and 7 months of gestation, respectively, and maternal loss, were diagnosed with pulmonary TB. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed widespread reticuloalveolar infiltrates and consolidation with cavitations, respectively. Both patients were Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seronegative and sputum smear negative for TB. Sputum GeneXpert MTB/Rif (Xpert MTB/RIF) was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To strengthen maternal and childhood TB control, screening with same-day point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF is advocated among both HIV positive pregnant women and symptomatic HIV negative pregnant women during antenatal care in pregnancy and at puerperium. PMID:26339514

  10. A limit-cycle model of leg movements in cross-country skiing and its adjustments with fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cignetti, F; Schena, F; Mottet, D; Rouard, A

    2010-08-01

    Using dynamical modeling tools, the aim of the study was to establish a minimal model reproducing leg movements in cross-country skiing, and to evaluate the eventual adjustments of this model with fatigue. The participants (N=8) skied on a treadmill at 90% of their maximal oxygen consumption, up to exhaustion, using the diagonal stride technique. Qualitative analysis of leg kinematics portrayed in phase planes, Hooke planes, and velocity profiles suggested the inclusion in the model of a linear stiffness and an asymmetric van der Pol-type nonlinear damping. Quantitative analysis revealed that this model reproduced the observed kinematics patterns of the leg with adequacy, accounting for 87% of the variance. A rising influence of the stiffness term and a dropping influence of the damping terms were also evidenced with fatigue. The meaning of these changes was discussed in the framework of motor control.

  11. U.S. Settles with Marathon Petroleum Corporation to Cut Harmful Air Emissions at Facilities in Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) announced a settlement with Marathon Petroleum Corporation today that resolves various alleged Clean Air Act violations at 10 Marathon facilities an

  12. Optimal [Formula: see text] ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Hammarström, Daniel; Rønnestad, Bent R; Malm, Christer B; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their [Formula: see text]. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that [Formula: see text] divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min(-1) · kg(-0.5)) should be used when elite male skiers' performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  13. A longitudinal analysis of start position and the outcome of World Cup cross-country mountain bike racing.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul W; Morton, R Hugh

    2012-01-01

    For any athlete competing at the highest level it is vital to understand the components that lead to successful performance. World cup cross-country mountain biking is a complex sport involving large numbers of athletes (100-200) competing for positional advantage over varied off-road terrain. The start has been deemed a major part of performance outcome in such races. The purpose of the present study was to establish the relationship between start and finish position in cross-country mountain bike World Cup events over a 10 year (1997-2007) period and to make comparisons with a model manipulating start position based on predicted athletic capabilities. Data collection and comparisons included results from World Cup events from 1997 to 2007 (males and females), and modelled race data based on potential performance capabilities over the same period. Analyses involved the association of annual plus pooled start and finish position (Kendall's tau) along with banded mean, standard deviation for number of changes in position, while non-constrained linear regression enabled comparison between seasons. Actual race data showed significant positive correlations between starting position and finishing position (P < 0.01) in all cases but less than the model. A mean 57.4% (s = 5.6) of males changed < 15 positions, while 62.9% (s = 9.1) of females changed < 10 positions compared with modelled data (83.6%, s = 0.8 and 91.6%, s = 1.5 for males and females respectively). Individual season comparisons show general patterns to be identical (P > 0.05) for both males and females. In conclusion, finishing position is highly dependent on start position and strategies need to be devised for competing athletes to progress in the sport.

  14. Marathon lab seeks non-EOR recovery improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    In an exclusive interview, William P. McKinnell Jr. says that Marathon Oil Co. is redoing all of the geology of its highly productive reservoirs to learn more about those parts of the cross section that are nonproductive. Production improvement means more than enhanced oil recovery. There are many ways that more oil can be recovered from a given reservoir short of a fluid-injection project of one type or another. On the premise that most new technology comes from the research laboratories, Petroleum Engineer International Editor W.B. Bleakley visited with Dr. William P. McKinnell Jr., Research Director, Marathon Oil Co., Littleton, Colo., to learn what one aggressive company is doing to relieve some production problems, increase ultimate recovery, and cut production costs.

  15. ShopGirls Shine in Eco-Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Shante

    2011-01-01

    The ShopGirls of Granite Falls (WA) High School are the first-ever all-female team to successfully design, build, and race a prototype diesel car in the Shell Eco-marathon. The team took first place in the diesel fuel-efficiency category with a vehicle that achieved 470 miles per gallon! The idea for the ShopGirls came when Vervia Gabriel, career…

  16. Marathon Runner with Acute Hyponatremia: A Neurological Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kormann, R.; Philippart, F.; Hubert, S.; Bruel, C.

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of an athletic 49-year-old female who has run the 2011 Marathon of Paris and was addressed to the hospital for a confusion. The investigations revealed a cerebral edema complicating a severe hyponatremia secondary to an exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH). Using 3% hypertonic saline solution, the evolution the patient rapidly improve allowing discharge after 7 days. We then discuss the importance of EAH in long-term efforts. PMID:23326709

  17. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies.

  18. Blood coagulation activation and fibrinolysis during a downhill marathon run.

    PubMed

    Sumann, Günther; Fries, Dietmar; Griesmacher, Andrea; Falkensammer, Gerda; Klingler, Anton; Koller, Arnold; Streif, Werner; Greie, Sven; Schobersberger, Beatrix; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2007-07-01

    Prolonged physical exercise is associated with multiple changes in blood hemostasis. Eccentric muscle activation induces microtrauma of skeletal muscles, inducing an inflammatory response. Since there is a link between inflammation and coagulation we speculated that downhill running strongly activates the coagulation system. Thirteen volunteers participated in the Tyrolean Speed Marathon (42,195 m downhill race, 795 m vertical distance). Venous blood was collected 3 days (T1) and 3 h (T2) before the run, within 30 min after finishing (T3) and 1 day thereafter (T4). We measured the following key parameters: creatine kinase, myoglobin, thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen, plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen and thrombelastography with ROTEM [intrinsic pathway (InTEM) clotting time, clot formation time, maximum clot firmness, alpha angle]. Thrombin generation was evaluated by the Thrombin Dynamic Test and the Technothrombin TGA test. Creatine kinase and myoglobin were elevated at T3 and further increased at T4. Thrombin-antithrombin complex, prothrombin fragment F1 + 2, D-dimer, plasmin-alpha(2)-antiplasmin complexes, tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen and plasminogen-activator-inhibitor-1 antigen were significantly increased at T3. ROTEM analysis exhibited a shortening of InTEM clotting time and clot formation time after the marathon, and an increase in InTEM maximum clot firmness and alpha angle. Changes in TGA were indicative for thrombin generation after the marathon. We demonstrated that a downhill marathon induces an activation of coagulation, as measured by specific parameters for coagulation, ROTEM and thrombin generation assays. These changes were paralleled by an activation of fibrinolysis indicating a preserved hemostatic balance.

  19. Minimal muscle damage after a marathon and no influence of beetroot juice on inflammation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Tom; Allerton, Dean M; Brown, Meghan A; Harper, Liam; Horsburgh, Steven; Keane, Karen M; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-03-01

    This study examined whether beetroot juice (BTJ) would attenuate inflammation and muscle damage following a marathon. Using a double blind, independent group design, 34 runners (each having completed ca. ∼16 previous marathons) consumed either BTJ or an isocaloric placebo (PLA) for 3 days following a marathon. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MIVC), countermovement jumps (CMJ), muscle soreness, serum cytokines, leucocytosis, creatine kinase (CK), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured pre, post, and 2 days after the marathon. CMJ and MIVC were reduced after the marathon (P < 0.05), but no group differences were observed (P > 0.05). Muscle soreness was increased in the day after the marathon (BTJ; 45 ± 48 vs. PLA; 46 ± 39 mm) and had returned to baseline by day 2, irrespective of supplementation (P = 0.694). Cytokines (interleukin-6; IL-6, interleukin-8, tumour necrosis factor-α) were increased immediately post-marathon but apart from IL-6 had returned to baseline values by day 1 post. No interaction effects were evident for IL-6 (P = 0.213). Leucocytes increased 1.7-fold after the race and remained elevated 2 days post, irrespective of supplement (P < 0.0001). CK peaked at 1 day post marathon (BTJ: 965 ± 967, and PLA: 1141 ± 979 IU·L(-1)) and like AST and hs-CRP, was still elevated 2 days after the marathon (P < 0.05); however, no group differences were present for these variables. Beetroot juice did not attenuate inflammation or reduce muscle damage following a marathon, possibly because most of these indices were not markedly different from baseline values in the days after the marathon.

  20. Long-term cardiac remodeling and arrhythmias in nonelite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias; Roten, Laurent; Tanner, Hildegard; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Wilhelm, Ilca; Saner, Hugo

    2012-07-01

    Long-term endurance sports are associated with atrial remodeling and atrial arrhythmias. More importantly, high-level endurance training may promote right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and complex ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated the long-term consequences of marathon running on cardiac remodeling as a potential substrate for arrhythmias with a focus on the right heart. We invited runners of the 2010 Grand Prix of Bern, a 10-mile race. Of 873 marathon and nonmarathon runners who applied, 122 (61 women) entered the final analysis. Subjects were stratified according to former marathon participations: control group (nonmarathon runners, n = 34), group 1 (1 marathon to 5 marathons, mean 2.7, n = 46), and group 2 (≥6 marathons, mean 12.8, n = 42). Mean age was 42 ± 7 years. Results were adjusted for gender, age, and lifetime training hours. Right and left atrial sizes increased with marathon participations. In group 2, right and left atrial enlargements were present in 60% and 74% of athletes, respectively. RV and left ventricular (LV) dimensions showed no differences among groups, and RV or LV dilatation was present in only 2.4% or 4.3% of marathon runners, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, marathon participation was an independent predictor of right and left atrial sizes but had no effect on RV and LV dimensions and function. Atrial and ventricular ectopic complexes during 24-hour Holter monitoring were low and equally distributed among groups. In conclusion, in nonelite athletes, marathon running was not associated with RV enlargement, dysfunction, or ventricular ectopy. Marathon running promoted biatrial remodeling.

  1. Skeletal muscle plasticity with marathon training in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Luden, N; Hayes, E; Minchev, K; Louis, E; Raue, U; Conley, T; Trappe, S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate leg muscle adaptation in runners preparing for their first marathon. Soleus and vastus lateralis (VL) biopsies were obtained from six recreational runners (23 ± 1 years, 61 ± 3 kg) before (T1), after 13 weeks of run training (T2), and after 3 weeks of taper and marathon (T3). Single muscle fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and oxidative enzyme activity [citrate synthase (CS)] were measured at all three time points, and fiber type distribution was determined before and after the 16-week intervention. Training increased VO(2max) ∼9% (P<0.05). All soleus parameters were unchanged. VL MHC I fiber diameter increased (+8%; P<0.05) from T1 to T2. VL MHC I V(o) (-12%), MHC I power (-22%) and MHC IIa power (-29%) were reduced from T1 to T2 (P<0.05). No changes in VL single fiber contractile properties were observed from T2 to T3. No change was observed in soleus CS activity, whereas VL CS activity increased 66% (P<0.05). Our observations indicate that modest marathon training elicits very specific skeletal muscle adaptations that likely support the ability to perform 42.2 km of continuous running - further strengthening the existing body of evidence for skeletal muscle specificity.

  2. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies?

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    We apply statistical analysis of high frequency (1 km) split data for the most recent two world-record marathon runs: Run 1 (2:03:59, 28 September 2008) and Run 2 (2:03:38, 25 September 2011). Based on studies in the endurance cycling literature, we develop two principles to approximate 'optimal' pacing in the field marathon. By utilising GPS and weather data, we test, and then de-trend, for each athlete's field response to gradient and headwind on course, recovering standardised proxies for power-based pacing traces. The resultant traces were analysed to ascertain if either runner followed optimal pacing principles; and characterise any deviations from optimality. Whereas gradient was insignificant, headwind was a significant factor in running speed variability for both runners, with Runner 2 targeting the (optimal) parallel variation principle, whilst Runner 1 did not. After adjusting for these responses, neither runner followed the (optimal) 'even' power pacing principle, with Runner 2's macro-pacing strategy fitting a sinusoidal oscillator with exponentially expanding envelope whilst Runner 1 followed a U-shaped, quadratic form. The study suggests that: (a) better pacing strategy could provide elite marathon runners with an economical pathway to significant performance improvements at world-record level; and (b) the data and analysis herein is consistent with a complex-adaptive model of power regulation.

  3. Discovery of the disubstituted oxazole analogues as a novel class anti-tuberculotic agents against MDR- and XDR-MTB.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongsheng; Gao, Nana; Zhu, Ningyu; Lin, Yuan; Li, Yan; Chen, Minghua; You, Xuefu; Lu, Yu; Wan, Kanglin; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Wei; Si, Shuyi

    2015-11-15

    A high-throughput screening effort on 45,000 compounds resulted in the discovery of a disubstituted oxazole as a new structural class inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In order to improve the activity and investigate the SAR of this scaffold, a series of disubstituted azole analogues have been designed and synthesized. The newly synthesized compounds 1a-y were evaluated for their in vitro anti-TB activity versus replicating, multi- and extensive drug resistant Mtb strains. All the compounds, except 1o, 1p and 1q, showed potent anti-TB activity with MIC of 1-64 mg/L. The test of broad spectrum panel revealed that this series are specific to Mtb. The cytotoxicity assessment indicated that the compounds were not cytotoxic against HEK 293 cells. The compounds could have a novel mechanism to anti-Mtb as they can inhibit drug sensitive and drug resistant Mtb.

  4. Clinical Evaluation of the Automated COBAS AMPLICOR MTB Assay for Testing Respiratory and Nonrespiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Reischl, Udo; Lehn, Norbert; Wolf, Hans; Naumann, Ludmila

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system (Roche Diagnostics) for the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. Diagnostic culture, considered as the reference method, was performed with BACTEC, Löwenstein-Jensen, Stonebrink, and Kirchner media. Occasionally MB-Redox, ESP, or MGIT medium was also used. A total of 643 respiratory and 506 nonrespiratory specimens collected from 807 patients were investigated. Of the 95 culture-positive specimens, 80 were COBAS AMPLICOR MTB positive, and of the 1,054 culture-negative specimens, 1,044 were COBAS AMPLICOR MTB negative. After resolving discrepancies by review of the medical history, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB assay, respectively, were 83.5, 98.8, 86.7, and 98.6% compared to those of diagnostic culture. In smear-positive specimens, the sensitivity of the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB assay was 96%, versus 48% for smear-negative specimens. No significant differences in the test performance between respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens were observed. The overall inhibition rate was less than 2%, excluding stool specimens. The clear advantages of the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system are standardized procedures and reagents for specimen processing as well as an internal control for reliable monitoring of PCR inhibitors. By simplifying the work flow through a completely automated amplification and amplicon detection procedure, the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system proved itself as a very useful component for routine diagnostic procedures. PMID:9738032

  5. Clinical evaluation of the automated COBAS AMPLICOR MTB assay for testing respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Reischl, U; Lehn, N; Wolf, H; Naumann, L

    1998-10-01

    We evaluated the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system (Roche Diagnostics) for the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in clinical specimens. Diagnostic culture, considered as the reference method, was performed with BACTEC, Löwenstein-Jensen, Stonebrink, and Kirchner media. Occasionally MB-Redox, ESP, or MGIT medium was also used. A total of 643 respiratory and 506 nonrespiratory specimens collected from 807 patients were investigated. Of the 95 culture-positive specimens, 80 were COBAS AMPLICOR MTB positive, and of the 1,054 culture-negative specimens, 1,044 were COBAS AMPLICOR MTB negative. After resolving discrepancies by review of the medical history, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB assay, respectively, were 83.5, 98.8, 86.7, and 98.6% compared to those of diagnostic culture. In smear-positive specimens, the sensitivity of the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB assay was 96%, versus 48% for smear-negative specimens. No significant differences in the test performance between respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens were observed. The overall inhibition rate was less than 2%, excluding stool specimens. The clear advantages of the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system are standardized procedures and reagents for specimen processing as well as an internal control for reliable monitoring of PCR inhibitors. By simplifying the work flow through a completely automated amplification and amplicon detection procedure, the COBAS AMPLICOR PCR system proved itself as a very useful component for routine diagnostic procedures.

  6. Interpersonal Relationship Styles in Marathon Group Therapy: A Study with Illicit Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)

  7. Marathon Groups. Facilitating the Personal Growth of Imprisoned, Black Female Heroin Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Kubiak, Larry

    1978-01-01

    Apparent success of the marathon groups in altering the perceptions of Black female heroin addicts toward the future, counseling, and themselves offers preliminary evidence that marathons may have potential as a counseling strategy with these clients. Future research needs to be performed to substantiate or reject these findings. (Author/PD)

  8. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  9. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  10. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  12. Arterial stiffness is inversely associated with a better running record in a full course marathon race

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jeen; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sewon

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk and may contribute to reduced running capacity in humans. This study investigated the relationship between course record and arterial stiffness in marathoners who participated in the Seoul International Marathon in 2012. [Methods] A total of 30 amateur marathoners (Males n = 28, Females n = 2, mean age = 51.6 ± 8.3 years) were assessed before and after the marathon race. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV) was assessed by VP-1000 plus (Omron Healthcare Co., Ltd., Kyoto, Japan) before and immediately after the marathon race. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between race record and ba-PWV. In addition, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to determine the difference in ba-PWV between before and after the race. [Results] There was no significant change in the ba-PWV of marathoners before and after the race (1271.1 ± 185 vs. 1268.8 ± 200 cm/s, P=0.579). Both the full course record (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.416, P = 0.022) and the record of half line (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.482, P = 0.007) were positively related with the difference in ba-PWV, suggesting that reduced arterial stiffness is associated with a better running record in the marathon. [Conclusion] These results may suggest that good vascular function contributes to a better running record in the marathon race. PMID:25671202

  13. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  14. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  15. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  16. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.

    PubMed

    Nhu, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Heemskerk, Dorothee; Thu, Do Dang Anh; Chau, Tran Thi Hong; Mai, Nguyen Thi Hoang; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Loc, Pham Phu; Ha, Dang Thi Minh; Merson, Laura; Thinh, Tran Thi Van; Day, Jeremy; Chau, Nguyen van Vinh; Wolbers, Marcel; Farrar, Jeremy; Caws, Maxine

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Microbiological confirmation is rare, and treatment is often delayed, increasing mortality and morbidity. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test was evaluated in a large cohort of patients with suspected tuberculous meningitis. Three hundred seventy-nine patients presenting with suspected tuberculous meningitis to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, between 17 April 2011 and 31 December 2012 were included in the study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were tested by Ziehl-Neelsen smear, mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF. Rifampin (RIF) resistance results by Xpert were confirmed by an MTBDR-Plus line probe assay and all positive cultures were tested by phenotypic MGIT drug susceptibility testing. Overall, 182/379 included patients (48.0%) were diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis. Sensitivities of Xpert, smear, and MGIT culture among patients diagnosed with TBM were 59.3% (108/182 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 51.8 to 66.5%]), 78.6% (143/182 [95% CI, 71.9 to 84.3%]) and 66.5% (121/182 [95% CI, 59.1 to 73.3%]), respectively. There was one false-positive Xpert MTB/RIF test (99.5% specificity). Four cases of RIF resistance (4/109; 3.7%) were identified by Xpert, of which 3 were confirmed to be multidrug-resistant (MDR) TBM and one was culture negative. Xpert MTB/RIF is a rapid and specific test for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis. The addition of a vortexing step to sample processing increased sensitivity for confirmed TBM by 20% (P = 0.04). Meticulous examination of a smear from a large volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) remains the most sensitive technique but is not practical in most laboratories. The Xpert MTB/RIF represents a significant advance in the early diagnosis of this devastating condition.

  17. Delays in Emergency Care and Mortality during Major U.S. Marathons.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Mann, N Clay; Wedlund, Leia N; Olenski, Andrew

    2017-04-13

    Background Large marathons frequently involve widespread road closures and infrastructure disruptions, which may create delays in emergency care for nonparticipants with acute medical conditions who live in proximity to marathon routes. Methods We analyzed Medicare data on hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest among Medicare beneficiaries (≥65 years of age) in 11 U.S. cities that were hosting major marathons during the period from 2002 through 2012 and compared 30-day mortality among the beneficiaries who were hospitalized on the date of a marathon, those who were hospitalized on the same day of the week as the day of the marathon in the 5 weeks before or the 5 weeks after the marathon, and those who were hospitalized on the same day as the marathon but in surrounding ZIP Code areas unaffected by the marathon. We also analyzed data from a national registry of ambulance transports and investigated whether ambulance transports occurring before noon in marathon-affected areas (when road closures are likely) had longer scene-to-hospital transport times than on nonmarathon dates. We also compared transport times on marathon dates with those on nonmarathon dates in these same areas during evenings (when roads were reopened) and in areas unaffected by the marathon. Results The daily frequency of hospitalizations was similar on marathon and nonmarathon dates (mean number of hospitalizations per city, 10.6 and 10.5, respectively; P=0.71); the characteristics of the beneficiaries hospitalized on marathon and nonmarathon dates were also similar. Unadjusted 30-day mortality in marathon-affected areas on marathon dates was 28.2% (323 deaths in 1145 hospitalizations) as compared with 24.9% (2757 deaths in 11,074 hospitalizations) on nonmarathon dates (absolute risk difference, 3.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 0.7 to 6.0; P=0.01; relative risk difference, 13.3%). This pattern persisted after adjustment for covariates and in an

  18. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect among testing sessions for 1,000 m time, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit (Cohen's d effect size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p < 0.05). In general, the changes occurred between T1 and T3 with minor changes in the competitive season (T3 to T4). No significant changes were found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak across the year (ES = 0.17, trivial). In conclusion, the training performed by elite cross-country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  19. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Tonkonogi, Michail; Carlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation's ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( [Formula: see text]) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine [Formula: see text] (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects' FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers' FISsprint based on [Formula: see text], LM, and body mass. The subjects' test and performance data were as follows: [Formula: see text], 4.0±0.3 L min(-1); LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: [Formula: see text] and 6.95 × 10(10) · LM(-5.25); these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on [Formula: see text] and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose [Formula: see text] differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher [Formula: see text] or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables

  20. Aerobic power and lean mass are indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Tomas; Tonkonogi, Michail; Carlsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the optimal allometric models to predict International Ski Federation’s ski-ranking points for sprint competitions (FISsprint) among elite female cross-country skiers based on maximal oxygen uptake ( V˙O2max) and lean mass (LM). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age: 24.5±2.8 years [mean ± SD]) completed a treadmill roller-skiing test to determine V˙O2max (ie, aerobic power) using the diagonal stride technique, whereas LM (ie, a surrogate indicator of anaerobic capacity) was determined by dual-emission X-ray anthropometry. The subjects’ FISsprint were used as competitive performance measures. Power function modeling was used to predict the skiers’ FISsprint based on V˙O2max, LM, and body mass. The subjects’ test and performance data were as follows: V˙O2max, 4.0±0.3 L min−1; LM, 48.9±4.4 kg; body mass, 64.0±5.2 kg; and FISsprint, 116.4±59.6 points. The following power function models were established for the prediction of FISsprint: 3.91×105⋅V˙O2max−6.00 and 6.95 × 1010 · LM−5.25; these models explained 66% (P=0.0043) and 52% (P=0.019), respectively, of the variance in the FISsprint. Body mass failed to contribute to both models; hence, the models are based on V˙O2max and LM expressed absolutely. The results demonstrate that the physiological variables that reflect aerobic power and anaerobic capacity are important indicators of competitive sprint performance among elite female skiers. To accurately indicate performance capability among elite female skiers, the presented power function models should be used. Skiers whose V˙O2max differs by 1% will differ in their FISsprint by 5.8%, whereas the corresponding 1% difference in LM is related to an FISsprint difference of 5.1%, where both differences are in favor of the skier with higher V˙O2max or LM. It is recommended that coaches use the absolute expression of these variables to monitor skiers’ performance-related training adaptations

  1. Anti-dieting advice from teammates: a pilot study of the experience of female collegiate cross country runners.

    PubMed

    Kroshus, Emily; Kubzansky, Laura; Goldman, Roberta; Austin, S Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Disordered eating behaviors and restrictive dieting can have negative health consequences for female athletes. Teammates can play an important role in primary and secondary prevention of these unhealthy eating practices through verbal and non-verbal communication about what behaviors are normative and desirable. The present study tested two tested hypotheses related to the way anti-dieting advice from teammates is distributed: (a) that there are significant between-team differences in the level of anti-dieting advice received, and (b) that the frequency of anti-dieting advice from teammates is positively associated with the severity of an individual's eating disorder symptomatology and negatively associated with their body mass index (BMI). Participants were female members (n = 89) of six U.S. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I women's cross country teams. Findings revealed significant between-team differences in the frequency of anti-dieting advice, controlling for team levels of disordered eating. Eating pathology and BMI were positively associated with anti-dieting advice received. Implications for the design of interventions to encourage effective within-team communication for promoting teammate health are discussed.

  2. Influence of wheel size on muscle activity and tri-axial accelerations during cross-country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P < .05) for all wheel sizes and all phases of the lap with the exception of for the 26 inch wheel during the descent. Findings suggest wheel diameter has no influence on muscle activity and vibration during mountain biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.

  3. An inertial sensor-based system for spatio-temporal analysis in classic cross-country skiing diagonal technique.

    PubMed

    Fasel, Benedikt; Favre, Julien; Chardonnens, Julien; Gremion, Gérald; Aminian, Kamiar

    2015-09-18

    The present study proposes a method based on ski fixed inertial sensors to automatically compute spatio-temporal parameters (phase durations, cycle speed and cycle length) for the diagonal stride in classical cross-country skiing. The proposed system was validated against a marker-based motion capture system during indoor treadmill skiing. Skiing movement of 10 junior to world-cup athletes was measured for four different conditions. The accuracy (i.e. median error) and precision (i.e. interquartile range of error) of the system was below 6 ms for cycle duration and ski thrust duration and below 35 ms for pole push duration. Cycle speed precision (accuracy) was below 0.1m/s (0.00 5m/s) and cycle length precision (accuracy) was below 0.15m (0.005 m). The system was sensitive to changes of conditions and was accurate enough to detect significant differences reported in previous studies. Since capture volume is not limited and setup is simple, the system would be well suited for outdoor measurements on snow.

  4. Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard.

    PubMed

    Hill, P M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an incident in which exceedingly high levels of carbon dioxide may have contributed to the death of a skier in eastern California. A cross-country skier was found dead inside a large, mostly covered snow cave, 1 day after he was reported missing. The autopsy report suggests that the skier died of acute pulmonary edema consistent with asphyxiation; carbon dioxide measurements inside the hole in which he was found reached 70%. This area is known for having a high carbon dioxide flux attributed to degassing of a large body of magma (molten rock) 10 to 20 km beneath the ski area. The literature describes many incidents of fatal carbon dioxide exposures associated with volcanic systems in other parts of the world. We believe this case represents the first reported death associated with volcanically produced carbon dioxide in the United States. Disaster and wilderness medicine specialists should be aware of and plan for this potential health hazard associated with active volcanoes.

  5. Development of CD8+ T cells expressing two distinct receptors specific for MTB and HIV-1 peptides

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pei-Pei; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Luo, Wei; Zhou, Chao-Ying; Wen, Qian; Yang, Zhi; Liu, Su-Dong; Jiang, Zhen-Min; Zhou, Ming-Qian; Jin, Qi; Ma, Li

    2013-01-01

    The immune response in individuals co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the human immunodeficiency virus (MTB/HIV) gradually deteriorates, particularly in the cellular compartment. Adoptive transfer of functional effector T cells can confer protective immunity to immunodeficient MTB/HIV co-infected recipients. However, few such effector T cells exist in vivo, and their isolation and amplification to sufficient numbers is difficult. Therefore, enhancing immune responses against both pathogens is critical for treating MTB/HIV co-infected patients. One approach is adoptive transfer of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells for the treatment of MTB/HIV co-infections because lymphocyte numbers and their functional avidity is significantly increased by TCR gene transfer. To generate bispecific CD8+ T cells, MTB Ag85B199–207 peptide-specific TCRs (MTB/TCR) and HIV-1 Env120–128 peptide-specific TCRs (HIV/TCR) were isolated and introduced into CD8+ T cells simultaneously using a retroviral vector. To avoid mispairing among exogenous and endogenous TCRs, and to improve the function and stability of the introduced TCRs, several strategies were employed, including introducing mutations in the MTB/TCR constant (C) regions, substituting part of the HIV/TCR C regions with CD3ζ, and linking gene segments with three different 2A peptides. Results presented in this report suggest that the engineered T cells possessed peptide-specific specificity resulting in cytokine production and cytotoxic activity. This is the first report describing the generation of engineered T cells specific for two different pathogens and provides new insights into TCR gene therapy for the treatment of immunocompromised MTB/HIV co-infected patients.

  6. Cobalt separation by Alphaproteobacterium MTB-KTN90: magnetotactic bacteria in bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Tajer-Mohammad-Ghazvini, Parisa; Kasra-Kermanshahi, Rouha; Nozad-Golikand, Ahmad; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Ghorbanzadeh-Mashkani, Saeid; Dabbagh, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Bioremediation of toxic metals by magnetotactic bacteria and magnetic separation of metal-loaded magnetotactic bacteria are of great interest. This bioprocess technique is rapid, efficient, economical, and environmentally friendly. In this study, cobalt removal potential of a novel isolated magnetotactic bacterium (Alphaproteobacterium MTB-KTN90) as a new biosorbent was investigated. The effects of various environmental parameters in the cobalt removal and the technique of magnetic separation of cobalt-loaded bacterial cells were studied. Cobalt removal by MTB-KTN90 was very sensitive to pH solution; higher biosorption capacity was observed around pH 6.5-7.0. When biomass concentration increased from 0.009 to 0.09 g/l, the biosorption efficiency increased from 13.87 % to 19.22 %. The sorption of cobalt by MTB-KTN90 was rapid during the first 15 min (859.17 mg/g dry weight). With the increasing of cobalt concentrations from 1 to 225 mg/l, the specific cobalt uptake increased. Maximum cobalt removal (1160.51 ± 15.42 mg/g dry weight) took place at optimum conditions; pH 7.0 with initial cobalt concentration of 115 mg/l at 60 min by 0.015 g/l of dry biomass. The results showed maximum values for constants of Langmuir and Freundlich models so far. The biosorption mechanisms were studied with FTIR, PIXE, and FESEM analysis. Cobalt-loaded MTB-KTN90 had ability to separate from solution by a simple magnetic separator. Magnetic response in MTB-KTN90 is due to the presence of unique intracellular magnetic nanoparticles (magnetosomes). The orientation magnetic separation results indicated that 88.55 % of cobalt was removed from solution. Consequently, Alphaproteobacterium MTB-KTN90 as a new biosorbent opens up good opportunities for the magnetic removal of cobalt from the polluted aquatic environments.

  7. Cross-Country Skiing as a Self-Efficacy Intervention with an Adolescent Female: An Innovative Application of Bandura's Theory to Therapeutic Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel D.; Jones, Karna

    2001-01-01

    Used Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a basis for designing a therapeutic recreation intervention (cross-country skiing) for an adolescent girl with severe depression and oppositional defiant disorder in a long-term residential treatment facility. The intervention facilitated increased self- confidence and helped her discover positive ways to…

  8. Track and Field Guide including Cross Country, Pentathlon Scoring Tables and Rules for Intercollegiate Meets and Championships with Official Rules. Janauary 1974-January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donnis H., Ed.

    This guide includes information on cross country running, pentathlon scoring tables, and rules for intercollegiate meets and championships, following an introductory portion on the organization's credo and standards. The first section covers track activities for children, coaching techniques, the benefits of weight training, and some practical…

  9. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    PubMed

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches.

  10. Neuromuscular consequences of an extreme mountain ultra-marathon.

    PubMed

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Tomazin, Katja; Verges, Samuel; Vincent, Christopher; Bonnefoy, Régis; Boisson, Renée-Claude; Gergelé, Laurent; Féasson, Léonard; Martin, Vincent

    2011-02-22

    We investigated the physiological consequences of one of the most extreme exercises realized by humans in race conditions: a 166-km mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) with 9500 m of positive and negative elevation change. For this purpose, (i) the fatigue induced by the MUM and (ii) the recovery processes over two weeks were assessed. Evaluation of neuromuscular function (NMF) and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation were performed before and immediately following (n = 22), and 2, 5, 9 and 16 days after the MUM (n = 11) in experienced ultra-marathon runners. Large maximal voluntary contraction decreases occurred after MUM (-35% [95% CI: -28 to -42%] and -39% [95% CI: -32 to -46%] for KE and PF, respectively), with alteration of maximal voluntary activation, mainly for KE (-19% [95% CI: -7 to -32%]). Significant modifications in markers of muscle damage and inflammation were observed after the MUM as suggested by the large changes in creatine kinase (from 144 ± 94 to 13,633 ± 12,626 UI L(-1)), myoglobin (from 32 ± 22 to 1,432 ± 1,209 µg L(-1)), and C-Reactive Protein (from <2.0 to 37.7 ± 26.5 mg L(-1)). Moderate to large reductions in maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude, high-frequency doublet force, and low frequency fatigue (index of excitation-contraction coupling alteration) were also observed for both muscle groups. Sixteen days after MUM, NMF had returned to initial values, with most of the recovery process occurring within 9 days of the race. These findings suggest that the large alterations in NMF after an ultra-marathon race are multi-factorial, including failure of excitation-contraction coupling, which has never been described after prolonged running. It is also concluded that as early as two weeks after such an extreme running exercise, maximal force capacities have returned to baseline.

  11. Completing the Results of the 2013 Boston Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches. PMID:24727904

  12. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A). Methods Using Williams and Folland’s model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1) vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1). Results At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01) and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01) than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02). Conclusion Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise. PMID:28257486

  13. [Tomodensitometry measurements of proximal tibia and acceleration in marathon athletes].

    PubMed

    Gremion, Gérald; Cordey, Jacques; Leyvraz, Pierre-François; Rizzoli, René; Crettenand, Antoinette; Gobelet, Charles; Dériaz, Olivier; Crettenand, Andre

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated bone adaptation of the tibia to mechanical stresses in male marathon runners and in sedentary controls in function of the ground impact measured by accelerometry and of the bone mineral density assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Sixty-three subjects (51 runners and 12 controls) were enrolled. All had measurements of bone mineral density of the proximal tibia and of acceleration at the same site during a jogging at 9 km/hour. The results show a significant higher cortical BMD in runners with the higher value of late accelerations (at 50 ms after the contact with the ground). The late acceleration might be related to muscle contraction.

  14. Marathon North Brae development will emphasize condensate yield

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Marathon Oil UK Ltd. is developing the North Brae field at an estimated cost of $2.5 billion in what will be the first exploitation of a gas condensate dense phase reservoir in the UK sector of the North Sea. The project will feature gas recycling to maximize recovery of liquids and ultimately dry gas. The planned Brae B platform will be the largest gas processing facility ever to be installed offshore. The design, cost, and construction of the offshore platforms are described.

  15. Increased Circulating Anti-inflammatory Cells in Marathon-trained Runners.

    PubMed

    Rehm, K; Sunesara, I; Marshall, G D

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training can alter immune function. Marathon training has been associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases and an increased activity of inflammatory-based diseases, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of circulating CD4+  T cell subsets in the periphery of marathon-trained runners and matched non-marathon controls. 19 recreational marathoners that were 4 weeks from running a marathon and 19 demographically-matched healthy control subjects had the percentage of CD4+ T cell subpopulations (T helper 1, T helper 2, T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio, regulatory T cells, CD4+ IL10+, and CD4+ TGFβ+ (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) measured by flow cytometry. Marathon-trained runners had significantly less T helper 1 and regulatory T cells and significantly more T helper 2, CD4+ IL10+, and TGFβ+ cells than the control subjects. The alterations in the percentage of T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells led to a significantly lower T helper 1/T helper 2 ratio in the marathon-trained runners. These data suggest that endurance-based training can increase the number of anti-inflammatory cells. This may be a potential mechanism for the increased incidence of both infectious and inflammatory diseases observed in endurance athletes.

  16. Rhodiola rosea Exerts Antiviral Activity in Athletes Following a Competitive Marathon Race.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Maryam; Henson, Dru A; Sanderson, Matthew C; Nieman, David C; Zubeldia, Jose M; Shanely, R Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea, a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties, has recently been reported to contain active compounds with antimicrobial activity. The goal of this study was to measure the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of Rhodiola rosea in the serum of experienced marathon runners following supplementation. Marathon runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 600 mg/day of Rhodiola rosea (n = 24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n = 24, 7 females, 17 males) for 30 days prior to, the day of, and 7 days post-marathon. Blood serum samples were collected the day before, 15 min post-, and 1.5 h post-marathon. Serum from Rhodiola rosea-supplemented runners collected after marathon running did not attenuate the marathon-induced susceptibility of HeLa cells to killing by vesicular stomatitis virus. However, the use of Rhodiola rosea induced antiviral activity at early times post-infection by delaying an exercise-dependent increase in virus replication (P = 0.013 compared to placebo). Serum from both groups collected 15 min post-marathon significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli in culture as compared to serum collected the day before the marathon (P = 0.003, all subjects). Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea did not display antibacterial properties at any time point as indicated by a lack of group differences immediately (P = 0.785) or 1.5 h (P = 0.633) post-marathon. These results indicate that bioactive compounds in the serum of subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea may exert protective effects against virus replication following intense and prolonged exercise by inducing antiviral activity.

  17. Automatic classification of the sub-techniques (gears) used in cross-country ski skating employing a mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Holst, Anders; Jonasson, Arndt; Andersson, Erik; Wunsch, Tobias; Norström, Christer; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-10-31

    The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate an automatic algorithm for classification of cross-country (XC) ski-skating gears (G) using Smartphone accelerometer data. Eleven XC skiers (seven men, four women) with regional-to-international levels of performance carried out roller skiing trials on a treadmill using fixed gears (G2left, G2right, G3, G4left, G4right) and a 950-m trial using different speeds and inclines, applying gears and sides as they normally would. Gear classification by the Smartphone (on the chest) and based on video recordings were compared. Formachine-learning, a collective database was compared to individual data. The Smartphone application identified the trials with fixed gears correctly in all cases. In the 950-m trial, participants executed 140 ± 22 cycles as assessed by video analysis, with the automatic Smartphone application giving a similar value. Based on collective data, gears were identified correctly 86.0% ± 8.9% of the time, a value that rose to 90.3% ± 4.1% (P < 0.01) with machine learning from individual data. Classification was most often incorrect during transition between gears, especially to or from G3. Identification was most often correct for skiers who made relatively few transitions between gears. The accuracy of the automatic procedure for identifying G2left, G2right, G3, G4left and G4right was 96%, 90%, 81%, 88% and 94%, respectively. The algorithm identified gears correctly 100% of the time when a single gear was used and 90% of the time when different gears were employed during a variable protocol. This algorithm could be improved with respect to identification of transitions between gears or the side employed within a given gear.

  18. Influence of crank length on cycle ergometry performance of well-trained female cross-country mountain bike athletes.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Edwards, Andrew M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differential effects of three commonly used crank lengths (170, 172.5 and 175 mm) on performance measures relevant to female cross-country mountain bike athletes (n = 7) of similar stature. All trials were performed in a single blind and balanced order with a 5- to 7-day period between trials. Both saddle height and fore-aft position to pedal axle distance at a crank angle of 90 degrees was controlled across all trials. The laboratory tests comprised a supra-maximal (peak power-cadence); an isokinetic (50 rpm) test; and a maximal test of aerobic capacity. The time to reach supra-maximal peak power was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in the 170 mm (2.57 +/- 0.79 s) condition compared to 175 mm (3.29 +/- 0.76 s). This effect represented a mean performance advantage of 27.8% for 170 mm compared to 175 mm. There was no further inter-condition differences between performance outcome measurements derived for the isokinetic (50 rpm) maximum power output, isokinetic (50 rpm) mean power output or indices of endurance performance. The decreased time to peak power with the greater rate of power development in the 170 mm condition suggests a race advantage may be achieved using a shorter crank length than commonly observed. Additionally, there was no impediment to either power output produced at low cadences or indices of endurance performance using the shorter crank length and the advantage of being able to respond quickly to a change in terrain could be of strategic importance to elite athletes.

  19. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max.

  20. Performance of real-time PCR Xpert ®MTB/RIF in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Ester; Arosio, Marco; Nava, Alice; Fanti, Diana; Gesu, Giovanni; Farina, Claudio

    2016-12-01

    The real time PCR Xpert ® MTB/RIF is fundamental for rapid diagnosis in paucibacillary respiratory samples and for the detection of multidrug-resistant TB cases. This paper aimed to determine its performance on different extrapulmonary samples. We determined sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value on respiratory and non-respiratory samples collected from January 2010 to June 2014. The protocol for the Xpert ® MTB/RIF PCR suggested by Cepheid was strictly followed for all specimens. In 12257 respiratory samples we observed a sensitivity of 87.1% and a specificity of 99.9%. There were 2818 extrapulmonary specimens, of which 250 were followed by a positive culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, whereas 72 samples were culture-negative: tuberculosis was clinically confirmed in 71 of them and was excluded for one sample. The sensitivity of the test on urine, pus and CSF samples was 88.2%, 95.6% and 100% respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of gastric aspirates and biopsies was 81.8% and 83.6% respectively, whereas results of total cavitary fluids were significantly worse than expected (53.7% sensitivity). Our experience shows that Xpert MTB/RIF assay is an accurate, sensitive, and specific test for the rapid detection of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB with the only exception of cavitary fluids.

  1. Male and female Ethiopian and Kenyan runners are the fastest and the youngest in both half and full marathon.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    In major marathon races such as the 'World Marathon Majors', female and male East African runners particularly from Ethiopia and Kenya are the fastest. However, whether this trend appears for female and male Ethiopians and Kenyans at recreational level runners (i.e. races at national level) and in shorter road races (e.g. in half-marathon races) has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine differences in the performance and the age of female and male runners from East Africa (i.e. Ethiopians and Kenyans) between half- and full marathons. Data from 508,108 athletes (125,894 female and 328,430 male half-marathoners and 10,205 female and 43,489 male marathoners) originating from 126 countries and competing between 1999 and 2014 in all road-based half-marathons and marathons held in one country (Switzerland) were analysed using Chi square (χ(2)) tests, mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance. In half-marathons, 48 women (0.038 %) and 63 men (0.019 %) were from Ethiopia and 80 women (0.063 %) and 134 men (0.040 %) from Kenya. In marathons, three women (0.029 %) and 15 men (0.034 %) were from Ethiopia and two women (0.019 %) and 33 men (0.075 %) from Kenya. There was no statistically significant association between the nationality of East Africans and the format of a race. In both women and men, the fastest race times in half-marathons and marathons were achieved by East African runners (p < 0.001). Ethiopian and Kenyan runners were the youngest in both sexes and formats of race (p < 0.001). In summary, women and men from Ethiopia and Kenya, despite they accounted for <0.1 % in half-marathons and marathons, achieved the fastest race times and were the youngest in both half-marathons and marathons. These findings confirmed in the case of half-marathon the trend previously observed in marathon races for a better performance and a younger age in East African runners from Ethiopia and Kenya.

  2. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Pires, Flávio O.; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.; Deslandes, Andrea C.; Santos, Tony M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Methods Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7–10 x [4–6 min—highest sustainable intensity / 4–6 min—CR100 10–15]) and SIT (8–12 x [30 s—all-out intensity / 4 min—CR100 10–15]) protocols were included in the participants’ regular training programs three times per week. Results Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen’s d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865 PMID:26789124

  3. [A world record in marathon tennis: sleep deprivation and performance].

    PubMed

    Tafti, M; Vergé, M; Besset, A; Billiard, M

    1989-01-01

    We studied the effects of marked sleep deprivation on the EEG patterns and performance of a physically fit man (age 26) on the occasion of the world record continuous marathon tennis play (147 hours, 20 minutes). Before and immediately after the marathon, the sleep patterns of the player were recorded in our laboratory. After playing for 40 and 80 hours and within 24 hours, the performance changes were evaluated each hour. Amounts of the different sleep stages during the first recovery night compared with those of the baseline indicate an increase of 56% for total sleep time, 54% for stages 1 and 2, 154% for stages 3 and 4 and 20% for REM sleep. During the second recovery night, only REM sleep showed an increase. Activity index showed a marked decrease after 80 hours of sleep deprivation compared with that after 40 hours and was dramatically worsened during nighttime. The number of faults and pauses was also increased after 80 hours, suggesting a clear performance deterioration. Our results confirmed the effects of sleep deprivation on the recovery and performance deterioration.

  4. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    PubMed Central

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  5. Running a marathon induces changes in adipokine levels and in markers of cartilage degradation--novel role for resistin.

    PubMed

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3:30:46±0:02:46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = -0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation.

  6. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with line probe assay for detection of rifampin-monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rufai, Syed Beenish; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Amit; Prajapati, Suneel; Balooni, Veena; Singh, Sarman

    2014-06-01

    The MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) and Xpert MTB/RIF have been endorsed by the World Health Organization for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, there is no clarity regarding the superiority of one over the other. In a double-blinded prospective study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF on samples that were first tested by LPA under the revised national tuberculosis control program of India. A total of 405 sputum samples from suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis patients were included. Of these, 285 smear-positive samples were subjected to LPA. Seventy-two (25.8%) samples showed multidrug resistance, 62 (22.2%) showed rifampin monoresistance, 29 (10.3%) showed isoniazid monoresistance, and 116 (41.5%) were pan-susceptible. Six (2.1%) of the samples gave invalid results. Of the 62 rifampin-monoresistant samples by LPA, 38 (61.4%) showed rifampin resistance, while 21 (33.8%) were found susceptible to rifampin by Xpert MTB/RIF using cartridge version G4. Three (4.8%) samples gave an error. Of the 116 pan-susceptible samples, only 83 were available for Xpert MTB/RIF testing; 4 (5.1%) were rifampin resistant, 74 (94.8%) were susceptible, and 5 (6.0%) showed an error. The 25 discrepant samples were further subjected to MGIT960 drug susceptibility testing. The MGIT960 results showed 100% agreement with LPA results but only 64.4% agreement with Xpert MTB/RIF results. Sequencing analysis of discrepant samples showed 91.3% concordance with LPA but only 8.7% concordance with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. These findings indicate that by using Xpert MTB/RIF testing we might be underestimating the burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis and indicate that country-specific probes need to be designed to increase the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF.

  7. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with Line Probe Assay for Detection of Rifampin-Monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rufai, Syed Beenish; Kumar, Parveen; Singh, Amit; Prajapati, Suneel; Balooni, Veena

    2014-01-01

    The MTBDRplus line probe assay (LPA) and Xpert MTB/RIF have been endorsed by the World Health Organization for the rapid diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, there is no clarity regarding the superiority of one over the other. In a double-blinded prospective study, we evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF on samples that were first tested by LPA under the revised national tuberculosis control program of India. A total of 405 sputum samples from suspected drug-resistant tuberculosis patients were included. Of these, 285 smear-positive samples were subjected to LPA. Seventy-two (25.8%) samples showed multidrug resistance, 62 (22.2%) showed rifampin monoresistance, 29 (10.3%) showed isoniazid monoresistance, and 116 (41.5%) were pan-susceptible. Six (2.1%) of the samples gave invalid results. Of the 62 rifampin-monoresistant samples by LPA, 38 (61.4%) showed rifampin resistance, while 21 (33.8%) were found susceptible to rifampin by Xpert MTB/RIF using cartridge version G4. Three (4.8%) samples gave an error. Of the 116 pan-susceptible samples, only 83 were available for Xpert MTB/RIF testing; 4 (5.1%) were rifampin resistant, 74 (94.8%) were susceptible, and 5 (6.0%) showed an error. The 25 discrepant samples were further subjected to MGIT960 drug susceptibility testing. The MGIT960 results showed 100% agreement with LPA results but only 64.4% agreement with Xpert MTB/RIF results. Sequencing analysis of discrepant samples showed 91.3% concordance with LPA but only 8.7% concordance with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. These findings indicate that by using Xpert MTB/RIF testing we might be underestimating the burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis and indicate that country-specific probes need to be designed to increase the sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF. PMID:24648554

  8. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software).

  9. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  10. Effects of intensity and duration in aerobic high-intensity interval training in highly trained junior cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Sandbakk, Silvana B; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training is more effective than shorter intervals at a higher intensity in highly trained endurance athletes. The sample comprised of 12 male and 9 female, national-level, junior cross-country skiers (age, 17.5 ± 0.4 years, maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max): 67.4 ± 7.7 ml min kg), who performed 8-week baseline and 8-week intervention training periods on dry land. During the intervention period, a short-interval group (SIG, n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with short duration intervals (2- to 4-minute bouts, total duration of 15-20 minutes), a long-interval group (LIG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with long duration intervals (5- to 10-minute bouts, total duration of 40-45 minutes). The interval sessions were performed with the athletes' maximal sustainable intensity. A control group (CG; n = 7) added 2 weekly sessions with low-intensity endurance training at 65-74% of maximal heart rate. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for time-trial performance on 12-km roller-ski skating and 7-km hill run. V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT) were measured during treadmill running. After the intervention training period, the LIG-improved 12-km roller ski, 7-km hill run, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT by 6.8 ± 4.0%, 4.8 ± 2.6%, 3.7 ± 1.6%, and 5.8 ± 3.3%, respectively, from pre- to posttesting, and improved both performance tests and V[Combining Dot Above]O2VT when compared with the SIG and the CG (all p < 0.05). The SIG improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max by 3.5 ± 3.2% from pre- to posttesting (p < 0.05), whereas the CG remained unchanged. As hypothesized, a long duration of aerobic high-intensity interval training improved endurance performance and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold more than shorter intervals at a higher

  11. Determinants of a simulated cross-country skiing sprint competition using V2 skating technique on roller skis.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Laaksonen, Marko; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari

    2010-04-01

    The present study investigated the performance-predicting factors of a simulated cross-country (XC) skiing sprint competition on roller skis, on a slow surface. Sixteen elite male XC skiers performed a simulated sprint competition (4 x 850 m heat with a 20-minute recovery) using V2 skating technique on an indoor tartan track. Heat velocities, oxygen consumption, and peak lactate were measured during or after the heats. Maximal skiing velocity was measured by performing a 30-m speed test. Explosive and maximal force production in the upper body was determined by bench press (BP). Subjects also performed maximal anaerobic skiing test (MAST) and the 2 x 2-km double poling (DP) test. The maximal velocity of MAST (VMAST) and velocities at 3 (V3), 5 (V5), 7 (V7) mmol.L lactate levels in MAST were determined. In the 2 x 2-km test, DP economy (VO2SUBDP) and maximal 2-km DP velocity (VDP2KM) were determined. The best single performance-predicting factors for the sprint performance were VDP2KM (r = 0.73, p < 0.01), V7 (r = 0.70, p < 0.01), and VO2SUBDP (r = -0.70, p < 0.01). Faster skiers in sprint simulation had a higher absolute VO2 (L.min) (p < 0.05-0.01) during sprint heats, and higher anaerobic skiing power (VMAST, p < 0.05) and better anaerobic skiing economy (V3, V5, V7, p < 0.05-0.001) than slower skiers. Faster skiers were also stronger in BP, with regard to both absolute (p < 0.01) and relative (p < 0.05) values. In addition, anaerobic characteristics seem to be of importance at the beginning of the XC skiing sprint competition, whereas the aerobic characteristics become more important as the XC skiing sprint competition progressed. This study indicates that sprint skiers should emphasize sport-specific upper body training, and training skiing economy at high speeds.

  12. EPA Announces 2015 ENERGY STAR Certified Manufacturing Plants, Marathon plant in Garyville, La, among those recognized

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 24, 2016) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced today that the Marathon Louisiana Refining Division in Garyville, La., is among the 70 manufacturing plants across the nation that achieved ENERGY STAR certification f

  13. Compliance evaluation inspection report: Marathon Oil Company, Garyville, Louisiana. NPDES Permit No. LA0045683. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    The report presents the findings of a compliance evaluation inspection of the Marathon Oil Company in Garyville, Louisiana, Conducted on June 24, 1992. It is part of a series of inspections of industrial waste dischargers.

  14. MtbHLH1, a bHLH transcription factor involved in Medicago truncatula nodule vascular patterning and nodule to plant metabolic exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Godiard, Laurence; Lepage, Agnès; Moreau, Sandra; Laporte, Damien; Verdenaud, Marion; Timmers, Ton; Gamas, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at defining the role of a basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor gene from Medicago truncatula, MtbHLH1, whose expression is upregulated during the development of root nodules produced upon infection by rhizobia bacteria. We used MtbHLH1 promoter::GUS fusions and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses to finely characterize the MtbHLH1 expression pattern. We altered MtbHLH1 function by expressing a dominantly repressed construct (CRES-T approach) and looked for possible MtbHLH1 target genes by transcriptomics. We found that MtbHLH1 is expressed in nodule primordia cells derived from pericycle divisions, in nodule vascular bundles (VBs) and in uninfected cells of the nitrogen (N) fixation zone. MtbHLH1 is also expressed in root tips, lateral root primordia cells and root VBs, and induced upon auxin treatment. Altering MtbHLH1 function led to an unusual phenotype, with a modified patterning of nodule VB development and a reduced growth of aerial parts of the plant, even though the nodules were able to fix atmospheric N. Several putative MtbHLH1 regulated genes were identified, including an asparagine synthase and a LOB (lateral organ boundary) transcription factor. Our results suggest that the MtbHLH1 gene is involved in the control of nodule vasculature patterning and nutrient exchanges between nodules and roots. PMID:21679315

  15. Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background Of the anthropometry and training variables used to predict race performance in a 24-hour ultrarun, the personal best marathon time is the strongest predictor in recreational male 24-hour ultramarathoners. This finding raises the question of whether similarities exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners. Methods The association between age, anthropometric variables (ie, body mass, body height, body mass index, percent body fat, skeletal muscle mass, limb circumference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites), previous experience and training characteristics (ie, volume, speed, and personal best time), and race time for 79 male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and 126 male recreational marathoners was investigated using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results The 24-hour ultramarathoners were older (P < 0.05), had a lower circumference at both the upper arm (P < 0.05) and thigh (P < 0.01), and a lower skinfold thickness at the pectoral, axillary, and suprailiac sites (P < 0.05) compared with the marathoners. During training, the 24-hour ultramarathoners were running for more hours per week (P < 0.001) and completed more kilometers (P < 0.001), but were running slower (P < 0.01) compared with the marathoners. In the 24-hour ultramarathoners, neither anthropometric nor training variables were associated with kilometers completed in the race (P > 0.05). In the marathoners, percent body fat (P < 0.001) and running speed during training (P < 0.0001) were related to marathon race times. Conclusion In summary, differences in anthropometric and training predictor variables do exist between male recreational 24-hour ultramarathoners and male recreational marathoners for race performance. PMID:24198595

  16. Reduction in Post-Marathon Peak Oxygen Consumption: Sign of Cardiac Fatigue in Amateur Runners?

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana Paula Rennó; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Francisco, Ricardo Contesini; Barretto, Rodrigo Bellios de Mattos; Sierra, Carlos Anibal; Meneghelo, Romeu Sergio; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; Ghorayeb, Nabil; Stein, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged aerobic exercise, such as running a marathon, produces supraphysiological stress that can affect the athlete's homeostasis. Some degree of transient myocardial dysfunction ("cardiac fatigue") can be observed for several days after the race. Objective To verify if there are changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity, and cardiac inotropy and lusitropy in amateur marathoners after running a marathon. Methods The sample comprised 6 male amateur runners. All of them underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) one week before the São Paulo Marathon, and 3 to 4 days after that race. They underwent echocardiography 24 hours prior to and immediately after the marathon. All subjects were instructed not to exercise, to maintain their regular diet, ingest the same usual amount of liquids, and rest at least 8 hours a day in the period preceding the CPET. Results The athletes completed the marathon in 221.5 (207; 250) minutes. In the post-marathon CPET, there was a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and peak oxygen pulse compared to the results obtained before the race (50.75 and 46.35 mL.kg-1 .min-1; 19.4 and 18.1 mL.btm, respectively). The echocardiography showed a significant reduction in the s' wave (inotropic marker), but no significant change in the E/e' ratio (lusitropic marker). Conclusions In amateur runners, the marathon seems to promote changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity identified within 4 days after the race, with a reduction in the cardiac contractility. Such changes suggest that some degree of "cardiac fatigue" can occur. PMID:26760783

  17. Sweat sodium loss influences serum sodium concentration in a marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, B; Salinero, J J; Areces, F; Ruiz-Vicente, D; Gallo-Salazar, C; Abián-Vicén, J; Del Coso, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of sweat electrolyte concentration on body water and electrolyte homeostasis during a marathon. Fifty-one runners completed a marathon race in a warm and dry environment (24.4 ± 3.6 °C). Runners were classified as low-salt sweaters (n = 21; <30 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), typical sweaters (n = 20; ≥30 and <60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration), and salty sweaters (n = 10; ≥60 mmol/L of sweat Na(+) concentration). Before and after the race, body mass and a sample of venous blood were obtained. During the race, sweat samples were collected by using sweat patches, and fluid and electrolyte intake were recorded by using self-reported questionnaires. Low-salt, typical and salty sweaters presented similar sweat rates (0.93 ± 0.2, 0.92 ± 0.29, 0.99 ± 0.21 L/h, respectively), body mass changes (-3.0 ± 1.0, -3.3 ± 1.0, -3.2 ± 0.8%), total Na(+) intake (12.7 ± 8.1, 11.5 ± 9.7, 14.5 ± 16.6 mmol), and fluid intake (1.3 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.8, 1.2 ± 0.6 L) during the race. However, salty sweaters presented lower post-race serum Na(+) concentration (140.8 ± 1.3 vs 142.5 ± 1.1, 142.4 ± 1.4 mmol/L; P < 0.01) and serum osmolality (297 ± 6 vs 299 ± 5, 301 ± 6 mOsm/kg; P < 0.05) than low-salt and typical sweaters. Sweat electrolyte concentration could influence post-race serum electrolyte concentration in the marathon. However, even the saltiest sweaters did not develop exercise-associated hyponatremia or associated symptoms.

  18. Predictor variables for a half marathon race time in recreational male runners

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate predictor variables of anthropometry, training, and previous experience in order to predict a half marathon race time for future novice recreational male half marathoners. Eighty-four male finishers in the ‘Half Marathon Basel’ completed the race distance within (mean and standard deviation, SD) 103.9 (16.5) min, running at a speed of 12.7 (1.9) km/h. After multivariate analysis of the anthropometric characteristics, body mass index (r = 0.56), suprailiacal (r = 0.36) and medial calf skin fold (r = 0.53) were related to race time. For the variables of training and previous experience, speed in running of the training sessions (r = −0.54) were associated with race time. After multivariate analysis of both the significant anthropometric and training variables, body mass index (P = 0.0150) and speed in running during training (P = 0.0045) were related to race time. Race time in a half marathon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r2 = 0.44): Race time (min) = 72.91 + 3.045 * (body mass index, kg/m2) −3.884 * (speed in running during training, km/h) for recreational male runners. To conclude, variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half marathon race time in recreational male half marathoners and cannot be reduced to one single predictor variable. PMID:24198577

  19. Incidence of injuries and other health problems in the Auckland Citibank marathon, 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, P; Larmer, P; Gardiner, J; Norton, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of injuries and other health problems sustained during participation in a marathon. METHODS: A cohort study was undertaken involving the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon participants. Demographic data and information on injuries and other health problems sustained during, immediately after, and 7 d following the marathon were obtained from a pre-race questionnaire, the medical aid posts, and a post-race questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 1219 starters, 916 (75.1%) completed both questionnaires. Seventy five individuals (6.2%) sought assistance at the medical aid posts. During or immediately after the marathon, 283 systemic health problems were reported by 218 respondents (23.8%) and 2671 specific health problems were reported by 846 respondents (92.4%). In the 7 d following the marathon, 1905 specific health problems were reported by 723 respondents (79.2%). The majority of the specific health problems were blisters, stiffness, and pain, predominantly involving the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Although a high proportion of participants experienced health problem during the race, very few of these problems were serious. Many of the entrants were still experiencing problems 7 d after the marathon. PMID:9015595

  20. Changes of Hematological Markers during a Multi-stage Ultra-marathon Competition in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Rama, L M; Minuzzi, L G; Carvalho, H M; Costa, R J S; Teixeira, A M

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the changes in resting hematological variables in ultra-endurance runners throughout a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition, and compared athletes that completed all stages with those that failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time of competition. 19 ultra-endurance runners competing in a 230 km multi-stage ultra-marathon, conducted over 5 consecutive days in hot ambient conditions (32-40°C T(max)), volunteered to participate in the study. Each day, whole blood samples were collected prior to stage commencement and analyzed for full cell counts by Coulter counter. Linear increases were observed for leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes; with increases until Stage 3 and a decrease thereafter. Granulocytes showed a cubic growth exponent, indicating decrements to baseline after the significant increments until Stage 3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit showed linear decrements throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. No changes in erythrocytes and platelets were observed throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. Granulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit changes along the multi-stage ultra-marathon differed in runners that completed all stages compared to those who failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time. Multi-stage ultra-marathon in the heat has a large impact on hematological responses of ultra-endurance runners associated with altered performance.

  1. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  2. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.

  3. Muscle cramping in the marathon : aetiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, Martin P

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle cramps are commonly encountered in marathon runners by medical staff. However, the aetiology, and therefore management, of this condition is not well understood. Exercise-associated muscle cramping (EAMC) is defined as an involuntary, painful contraction of skeletal muscle during or immediately after exercise. In early anecdotal reports, cramps were associated with profuse sweating, together with changes in serum electrolyte concentrations. No mechanism explains how such imbalances in serum electrolytes result in localised muscle cramping. The 'muscle fatigue' hypothesis suggests that EAMC is the result of an abnormality of neuromuscular control at the spinal level in response to fatiguing exercise and is based on evidence from epidemiological studies, animal experimental data on spinal reflex activity during fatigue and electromyogram data recorded during bouts of acute cramping after fatiguing exercise. The development of premature muscle fatigue appears to explain the onset of EAMC.

  4. Source, reservoir promise seen in Marathon-Ouachita overthrust

    SciTech Connect

    Trabelsi, A.S. )

    1994-09-26

    The Permian Basin of West Texas is a prolific oil and gas province that has been extensively explored, but the Marathon-Ouachita overthrust area of Pecos County, Tex., is not fully explored. Rocks of the Ouachita fold belt have been generally regarded by most petroleum geologists as metamorphosed and unsuitable for oil and gas accumulation. Indications of the presence of hydrocarbons in Ouachita rocks have been reported from the earliest days of Permian Basin exploration. Goldstein and Flawn indicated that in the subsurface Ouachita fold belt in Texas asphaltic materials are fairly common in sandstones and cherts. The Ouachita overthrust area in Texas has all the required elements for hydro-carbon accumulation and should be fully explored. This article gives a brief assessment of these elements (traps, source rocks, and reservoirs) in this area.

  5. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  6. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Acute Atrial Remodeling in Marathon Runners (The miRathon Study – A Sub-Study of the Munich Marathon Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Bianca; Kääb, Stefan; Hoster, Eva; Klier, Ina; Martens, Eimo; Hanley, Alan; Hanssen, Henner; Halle, Martin; Nickel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is beneficial for individual health, but endurance sport is associated with the development of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation. The underlying mechanisms leading to this increased risk are still not fully understood. MicroRNAs are important mediators of proarrhythmogenic remodeling and have potential value as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the value of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for atrial remodeling in marathon runners (miRathon study). Methods 30 marathon runners were recruited into our study and were divided into two age-matched groups depending on the training status: elite (ER, ≥55 km/week, n = 15) and non-elite runners (NER, ≤40 km/week, n = 15). All runners participated in a 10 week training program before the marathon. MiRNA plasma levels were measured at 4 time points: at baseline (V1), after a 10 week training period (V2), immediately after the marathon (V3) and 24h later (V4). Additionally, we obtained clinical data including serum chemistry and echocardiography at each time point. Results MiRNA plasma levels were similar in both groups over time with more pronounced changes in ER. After the marathon miR-30a plasma levels increased significantly in both groups. MiR-1 and miR-133a plasma levels also increased but showed significant changes in ER only. 24h after the marathon plasma levels returned to baseline. MiR-26a decreased significantly after the marathon in elite runners only and miR-29b showed a non-significant decrease over time in both groups. In ER miRNA plasma levels showed a significant correlation with LA diameter, in NER miRNA plasma levels did not correlate with echocardiographic parameters. Conclusion MiRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma of marathon runners with more pronounced changes in ER. Plasma levels in ER correlate with left atrial diameter suggesting that circulating miRNAs could potentially serve

  7. Influence of chronic exercise on carotid atherosclerosis in marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Troyanos, Christopher; Baggish, Aaron L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effect of habitual, high-intensity exercise training on the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. We assessed indices of vascular health (central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness as well as carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)) in addition to cardiovascular risk factors of trained runners versus their untrained spouses or partners to evaluate the impact of exercise on the development of carotid atherosclerosis. Setting field study at Boston Marathon. Participants 42 qualifiers (mean age±SD: 46±13 years, 21 women) for the 2012 Boston Marathon and their sedentary domestic controls (46±12 years, n=21 women). Outcomes We measured medical and running history, vital signs, anthropometrics, blood lipids, C reactive protein (CRP), 10 years Framingham risk, central arterial stiffness and SBP and cIMT. Results Multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including CRP, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, body weight and body mass index (all p<0.05), were reduced in the runners. The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions). The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24531453

  8. Left ventricular dynamics during exercise in elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Fagard, R; Van den Broeke, C; Amery, A

    1989-07-01

    To assess left ventricular structure and function at rest and during exercise in endurance athletes, 10 elite marathon runners, aged 28 to 37 years, and 10 matched nonathletes were studied by echocardiography and supine bicycle ergometry. Each athlete's best marathon time was less than 2 h 16 min. Echocardiography was performed at rest, at a 60 W work load and at an individually adjusted work load, at which heart rate was 110 beats/min (physical working capacity 110 [PWC110]). Oxygen uptake at PWC110 averaged (+/- SD) 1.14 +/- 0.2 liters/min in the nonathletes and 2.0 +/- 0.2 liters/min in the runners (p less than 0.001). The left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole was similar at the three activity levels in the control subjects but increased significantly from rest to exercise in the runners (p less than 0.001). Left ventricular systolic meridional wall stress remained unchanged during exercise in the nonathletes but was significantly higher at PWC110 in the athletes (p less than 0.05). Both the systolic peak velocity of posterior wall endocardial displacement and fractional shortening of the left ventricular internal diameter increased with exercise; at PWC110 the endocardial peak velocity was higher in the runners than in the control subjects (p less than 0.01). The endocardial peak velocity during relaxation was comparable in athletes and control subjects at rest, increased similarly at a 60 W work load, but was higher in the runners at PWC110 (p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay for tuberculosis diagnosis: evaluation in an Indian setting.

    PubMed

    Myneedu, V P; Behera, D; Verma, A K; Bhalla, M; Singh, N; Arora, J; Singhal, R; Mathur, M; Lal, P; Sarin, R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay and compare Xpert results with solid and MGIT 960 liquid culture system. A total of 134 patients who had failed the Category I or II regimen were recruited for evaluation. Xpert correctly identified all Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay for the detection of rifampicin resistance was respectively 98.2% and 97.0% when compared with MGIT 960 results.

  10. Running Pace Decrease during a Marathon Is Positively Related to Blood Markers of Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Del Coso, Juan; Fernández, David; Abián-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, César; Calleja-González, Julio; Pérez-González, Benito

    2013-01-01

    Background Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s) of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women) for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity) running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. Results Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P<0.05), although the running fatigue experienced by the marathoners was uneven. Marathoners with greater running fatigue (> 15% pace reduction) had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L−1; P<0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L−1; P<0.05), and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L−1; P = 0.07) in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (−3.1 ± 1.0 v −3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60) or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35). Conclusions/Significance Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation. PMID:23460881

  11. Integrating the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay into a Diagnostic Workflow for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Area

    PubMed Central

    Deggim, Vanessa; Somoskovi, Akos; Voit, Antje; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid and fully automated real-time PCR assay. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as a primary screening test for urgent clinical specimens was evaluated during a 2-year period. The results showed that replacing smear microscopy with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay facilitates laboratory handling and improves the sensitivity and specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection. PMID:23616455

  12. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    PubMed

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P < 0.001 and Pearson's correlation coefficient: r(p) = 0.737, P < 0.001). In addition, a correlation was observed between the number of bacteria estimated based on the smear positivity grade and the number of MTB bacilli calculated by the Ct value (r(s) = 0.930, P < 0.001). This study has demonstrated the possible estimation of the smear positivity grade and MGIT TTD using the Ct value of TaqMan MTB, which is based on a real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  13. COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

    2014-09-02

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event.

  14. Declines in marathon performance: Sex differences in elite and recreational athletes

    PubMed Central

    Tomko, Kelly A.; Smoliga, James M.

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the age group at which marathon performance declines in top male and female runners and to compare that to the runners of average ability. Another aim of this of this study was to examine the age-related yearly decline in marathon performance between age group winners and the average marathon finisher. Data from the New York (NYC), Boston, and Chicago marathons from 2001–2016 were analyzed. Age, sex, and location were used in multiple linear regression models to determine the rate of decline in marathon times. Winners of each age group were assessed in 5-year increments from 16 through 74 years old (n = 47 per age group). The fastest times were between 25–34 years old, with overall champion males at 28.3 years old, and overall champion females at 30.8 years old (p = 0.004). At 35 years of age up to 74 years of age, female age group winners had a faster yearly decline in marathon finishing times compared to male age group winners, irrespective of marathon location [women = (min:sec) 2:33 per year, n = 336; men = 2:06 per year, n = 373, p < 0.01]. The median times between each age group only slowed beginning at 50 years old, thereafter the decline was similar between both men and women (women = 2:36, n = 140; men = 2:57, n = 150, p = 0.11). The median times were fastest at Boston and similar between Chicago and NYC. In conclusion, the rate of decline at 35 years old up to 74 years old is roughly linear (adjusted r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) with female age group winners demonstrating 27 s per year greater decline per year compared to male age group winners. PMID:28187185

  15. Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, P.; Norton, R.; Larmer, P.; Robinson, E.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating. 


 PMID:10027053

  16. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event.

  17. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running.

  18. The influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence and performance in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Hamstra-Wright, Karrie L; Coumbe-Lilley, John E; Kim, Hajwa; McFarland, Jose A; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C

    2013-10-01

    There has been a considerable increase in the number of participants running marathons over the past several years. The 26.2-mile race requires physical and mental stamina to successfully complete it. However, studies have not investigated how running and mental skills preparation influence injury and performance. The purpose of our study was to describe the training and mental skills preparation of a typical group of runners as they began a marathon training program, assess the influence of training and mental skills preparation on injury incidence, and examine how training and mental skills preparation influence marathon performance. Healthy adults (N = 1,957) participating in an 18-week training program for a fall 2011 marathon were recruited for the study. One hundred twenty-five runners enrolled and received 4 surveys: pretraining, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, posttraining. The pretraining survey asked training and mental skills preparation questions. The 6- and 12-week surveys asked about injury incidence. The posttraining survey asked about injury incidence and marathon performance. Tempo runs during training preparation had a significant positive relationship to injury incidence in the 6-week survey (ρ[93] = 0.26, p = 0.01). The runners who reported incorporating tempo and interval runs, running more miles per week, and running more days per week in their training preparation ran significantly faster than did those reporting less tempo and interval runs, miles per week, and days per week (p ≤ 0.05). Mental skills preparation did not influence injury incidence or marathon performance. To prevent injury, and maximize performance, while marathon training, it is important that coaches and runners ensure that a solid foundation of running fitness and experience exists, followed by gradually building volume, and then strategically incorporating runs of various speeds and distances.

  19. Declines in marathon performance: Sex differences in elite and recreational athletes.

    PubMed

    Zavorsky, Gerald S; Tomko, Kelly A; Smoliga, James M

    2017-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to determine the age group at which marathon performance declines in top male and female runners and to compare that to the runners of average ability. Another aim of this of this study was to examine the age-related yearly decline in marathon performance between age group winners and the average marathon finisher. Data from the New York (NYC), Boston, and Chicago marathons from 2001-2016 were analyzed. Age, sex, and location were used in multiple linear regression models to determine the rate of decline in marathon times. Winners of each age group were assessed in 5-year increments from 16 through 74 years old (n = 47 per age group). The fastest times were between 25-34 years old, with overall champion males at 28.3 years old, and overall champion females at 30.8 years old (p = 0.004). At 35 years of age up to 74 years of age, female age group winners had a faster yearly decline in marathon finishing times compared to male age group winners, irrespective of marathon location [women = (min:sec) 2:33 per year, n = 336; men = 2:06 per year, n = 373, p < 0.01]. The median times between each age group only slowed beginning at 50 years old, thereafter the decline was similar between both men and women (women = 2:36, n = 140; men = 2:57, n = 150, p = 0.11). The median times were fastest at Boston and similar between Chicago and NYC. In conclusion, the rate of decline at 35 years old up to 74 years old is roughly linear (adjusted r2 = 0.88, p < 0.001) with female age group winners demonstrating 27 s per year greater decline per year compared to male age group winners.

  20. Evaluation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis at peripheral tuberculosis clinics.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yan; Peng, Hong; Chen, Cheng; Zhu, Tao; Ji, Ming; Jiang, Wei; Zhu, Wei; Zhai, Xiang Jun; Lu, Wei

    2017-02-28

    Tuberculosis is one of the most common infectious diseases in China, while delayed patient finding obstructed disease control, especially for smear-negative patients. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF compared with conventional methods in the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. A total of 295 spot sputum samples from confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients were evaluated from September 2014 to June 2015. Each sample was examined by acid-fast bacillus smear microscopy, culture and GeneXpert MTB/RIF. The sputum culture on Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) was considered as the gold-standard. After testing by smear, 68.81% (203/295) was negative and 31.19% (92/295) was positive. As the gold-standard, L-J culture detected 37.97% (112/295) positive of all specimens, while the positivity for GeneXpert MTB/RIF was 46.44% (137/295). Compared with L-J culture, the combined sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for GeneXpert MTB/RIF were 94.64%, 82.97%, 77.37% and 96.18% respectively. For smear-negative specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for GeneXpert MTB/RIF were 96.00%, 83.05%, 44.44% and 99.32%; while for smear-positive specimens, the corresponding accuracy values were 94.25%, 80.00%, 98.80% and 44.44%. The findings of study indicated that GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay demonstrated a high sensitivity in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to smear method and a high NPV among smear negative patients.

  1. Systematic review: Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Xiao, Heping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in nucleic acid amplification have led to breakthroughs in the early detection of PTB compared to traditional sputum smear tests. The sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), simultaneous amplification testing (SAT), and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. A critical review of previous studies of LAMP, SAT, and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis that used laboratory culturing as the reference method was carried out together with a meta-analysis. In 25 previous studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of tuberculosis were 93% and 94% for LAMP, 96% and 88% for SAT, and 89% and 98% for Xpert MTB/RIF. The I(2) values for the pooled data were >80%, indicating significant heterogeneity. In the smear-positive subgroup analysis of LAMP, the sensitivity increased from 93% to 98% (I(2) = 2.6%), and specificity was 68% (I(2) = 38.4%). In the HIV-infected subgroup analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79% (I(2) = 72.9%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.4%). In the HIV-negative subgroup analysis for Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72% (I(2) = 49.6%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.5%). LAMP, SAT and Xpert MTB/RIF had comparably high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three methods were similar, with LAMP being highly sensitive for the diagnosis of smear-positive PTB. The cost effectiveness of LAMP and SAT make them particularly suitable tests for diagnosing PTB in developing countries.

  2. The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.

    PubMed

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers.

  3. Prediction of half-marathon race time in recreational female and male runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Barandun, Ursula; Knechtle, Patrizia; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Half-marathon running is of high popularity. Recent studies tried to find predictor variables for half-marathon race time for recreational female and male runners and to present equations to predict race time. The actual equations included running speed during training for both women and men as training variable but midaxillary skinfold for women and body mass index for men as anthropometric variable. An actual study found that percent body fat and running speed during training sessions were the best predictor variables for half-marathon race times in both women and men. The aim of the present study was to improve the existing equations to predict half-marathon race time in a larger sample of male and female half-marathoners by using percent body fat and running speed during training sessions as predictor variables. In a sample of 147 men and 83 women, multiple linear regression analysis including percent body fat and running speed during training units as independent variables and race time as dependent variable were performed and an equation was evolved to predict half-marathon race time. For men, half-marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.42, adjusted r(2) = 0.41, SE = 13.3) half-marathon race time (min) = 142.7 + 1.158 × percent body fat (%) - 5.223 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001) to the achieved race time. For women, half-marathon race time might be predicted by the equation (r(2) = 0.68, adjusted r(2) = 0.68, SE = 9.8) race time (min) = 168.7 + 1.077 × percent body fat (%) - 7.556 × running speed during training (km/h). The predicted race time correlated highly significantly (r = 0.89, p < 0.0001) to the achieved race time. The coefficients of determination of the models were slightly higher than for the existing equations. Future studies might include physiological

  4. Do adjunct tuberculosis tests, when combined with Xpert MTB/RIF, improve accuracy and the cost of diagnosis in a resource-poor setting?

    PubMed

    Theron, Grant; Pooran, Anil; Peter, Jonny; van Zyl-Smit, Richard; Kumar Mishra, Hridesh; Meldau, Richard; Calligaro, Greg; Allwood, Brian; Sharma, Surendra Kumar; Dawson, Rod; Dheda, Keertan

    2012-07-01

    Information regarding the utility of adjunct diagnostic tests in combination with Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is limited. We hypothesised adjunct tests could enhance accuracy and/or reduce the cost of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis prior to MTB/RIF testing, and rule-in or rule-out TB in MTB/RIF-negative individuals. We assessed the accuracy and/or laboratory-associated cost of diagnosis of smear microscopy, chest radiography (CXR) and interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs; T-SPOT-TB (Oxford Immunotec, Oxford, UK) and QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (Cellestis, Chadstone, Australia)) combined with MTB/RIF for TB in 480 patients in South Africa. When conducted prior to MTB/RIF: 1) smear microscopy followed by MTB/RIF (if smear negative) had the lowest cost of diagnosis of any strategy investigated; 2) a combination of smear microscopy, CXR (if smear negative) and MTB/RIF (if imaging compatible with active TB) did not further reduce the cost per TB case diagnosed; and 3) a normal CXR ruled out TB in 18% of patients (57 out of 324; negative predictive value (NPV) 100%). When downstream adjunct tests were applied to MTB/RIF-negative individuals, radiology ruled out TB in 24% (56 out of 234; NPV 100%), smear microscopy ruled in TB in 21% (seven out of 24) of culture-positive individuals and IGRAs were not useful in either context. In resource-poor settings, smear microscopy combined with MTB/RIF had the highest accuracy and lowest cost of diagnosis compared to either technique alone. In MTB/RIF-negative individuals, CXR has poor rule-in value but can reliably rule out TB in approximately one in four cases. These data inform upon the programmatic utility of MTB/RIF in high-burden settings.

  5. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  6. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  7. 77 FR 33716 - Foreign-Trade Zone 70-Detroit, MI; Expansion of Subzone; Marathon Petroleum Company LP, (Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 70--Detroit, MI; Expansion of Subzone; Marathon Petroleum... of Subzone 70T, on behalf of Marathon Petroleum Company LP in Detroit, Michigan. The application...

  8. 78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum... Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan. (B-42-2012, docketed 6/1/2012);...

  9. 76 FR 54764 - Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Marathon Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 33 CFR 165.T09-0333 - Safety zone; Marathon Oil Refinery construction, Rouge River, Detroit, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety zone; Marathon Oil... Coast Guard District § 165.T09-0333 Safety zone; Marathon Oil Refinery construction, Rouge River, Detroit, MI. (a) Location. The following area is a temporary safety zone: all U.S. waters of the...

  11. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key points Fatigue does not increase foot pressures Every runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favours Foot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run PMID:27274662

  12. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key pointsFatigue does not increase foot pressuresEvery runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favoursFoot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run.

  13. "An Imminent Sub 2-Hours Marathon is Unlikely: historical Trends of the Gender Gap in Running Events".

    PubMed

    Tucker, Ross; Santos-Concejero, Jordan

    2016-12-14

    The aim of the present study was to analyse men's and women's world records across the full range of running disciplines to contextualise the recent debate about the possibility of a sub-2 hour marathon. The average male-female gap is currently 11.2 ± 1.0% for all running events. However, reducing the marathon time to below two hours would produce a performance 12.9% (+1.7 SD) faster than the women's marathon record. This gap would be greater than all current World Record differences, and would also require a reversal of medium and long-term historical trends in the men's and women's record differences. We therefore conclude that on the basis of historical trends and known differences between men's and women's performances, the current women's World Record is not yet the equivalent of a sub-2 hour marathon and therefore, that an imminent sub-2 hour marathon is implausible.

  14. Type of sport is related to injury profile: a study on cross country skiers, swimmers, long-distance runners and soccer players. A retrospective 12-month study.

    PubMed

    Ristolainen, L; Heinonen, A; Turunen, H; Mannström, H; Waller, B; Kettunen, J A; Kujala, U M

    2010-06-01

    This 12-month retrospective questionnaire compared the occurrence of sports injuries in 149 cross country skiers, 154 swimmers, 143 long-distance runners and 128 soccer players aged 15-35 years. Soccer had significantly more injuries (5.1 injuries/1000 exposure hour) than other sports (2.1-2.8, P<0.001). More runners than soccer players reported overuse injuries (59% vs 42%, P=0.005), locating typically in the foot in runners, soccer players and skiers. Swimmers reported overuse injuries in the shoulder more commonly than skiers (40% vs 1%, P<0.001), who also intensively load shoulders. Acute injuries in skiers (80%) and in swimmers (58%), and overuse injuries in skiers (61%), occurred during exercise other than own event. In soccer and running the absence time from sport because of injuries was significantly longer than in skiing and swimming. No severe permanent disabilities occurred due to injury but seven women quit sports because of injury. In conclusion, type of loading is strictly associated with the anatomical location of an overuse injury as shown by the difference in shoulder injury incidence between swimmers and cross country skiers. In some sports, a significant proportion of acute injuries occur in other than the main event.

  15. Effect of an intense period of competition on race performance and self-reported illness in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, I S; Gleeson, M; Haugen, T A; Tønnessen, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether participating in a cross-country skiing stage race (Tour de Ski; TDS) affects subsequent illness incidence, training, and race performance. Self-reported training and illness data from 44 male and female elite cross-country skiers were included. In total, 127 years of data were collected (2-3 seasons per athlete). Illness incidence, training load, and performance in international competitions were calculated for athletes who did and did not participate in TDS. Forty-eight percent of athletes reported becoming ill during or in the days immediately after taking part in TDS vs 16% of athletes who did not participate. In both groups, illness incidence was somewhat lower for female athletes. For male athletes, race performance was significantly worse for 6 weeks following TDS vs 6 weeks before TDS. Furthermore, while female athletes who participated in TDS performed relatively better than controls in Olympics/World Championships, male athletes who participated in TDS typically performed worse in subsequent major championships. Participating in TDS appears to result in ∼ 3-fold increase in risk of illness in this period. Male athletes appear more prone to illness and also see a drop in race performance following TDS, possibly linked to differences in training load before and after the event.

  16. Rapid Molecular Detection of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by the Automated GeneXpert MTB/RIF System▿

    PubMed Central

    Hillemann, Doris; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Boehme, Catharina; Richter, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    In total, 521 nonrespiratory specimens (91 urine, 30 gastric aspirate, 245 tissue, 113 pleural fluid, 19 cerebrospinal fluid [CSF], and 23 stool specimens) submitted to the German National Reference Laboratory for Mycobacteria (NRL) from May 2009 to August 2010 were comparatively investigated with the new molecular-based GeneXpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay system and conventional liquid and solid culture methods. Twenty (3.8%) of the 521 specimens gave no interpretable result. Whereas the sensitivity of the Xpert assay with tissue specimens was 69.0% (20 out of 29 culture-positive cases detected), 100% sensitivity was found with the urine and stool specimens. The combined sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert assay were calculated to be 77.3% and 98.2%, respectively. PMID:21270230

  17. Parkinson's patient runs an ultra marathon: a case report.

    PubMed

    Daviet, J C; Roy, X; Quelven-Bertin, I; Jallageas, R; Mandigout, S; Torny, F; Monteil, J

    2014-08-01

    Studies show that physical activity involving prolonged endurance may benefit patients with Parkinson's disease by promoting the secretion and/or availability and use of dopamine. We report the case of a Parkinson's patient who took part in an ultra-marathon to show that extreme physical activity is possible and can facilitate medical treatment with a possible positive effect on brain structures. We report the case of a 48-year-old man in the initial stages of Parkinson's disease who took part in a 100-km run. Preparation included running approximately 90 km a week in six sessions. Evaluation included clinical monitoring and DaTSCAN® follow-up. After taking up running, the patient gradually stopped levodopa without worsening of symptoms as assessed on the UPDRS scale. DaTSCAN® imaging performed 3 days after the 100-km run showed partial correction of abnormalities seen 3 days before the race: improvement in binding at the putamen bilaterally and at the caudate nucleus on the right. Since then, the patient has continued to run regularly, for an average of 40 minutes on 5 days out of every 7. This case shows that demanding physical activity is possible in such circumstances and can help reduce medical treatment, potentially with a positive effect on the plasticity of the brain structures involved.

  18. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  19. Strategies to enhance immune function for marathon runners : what can be done?

    PubMed

    Akerström, Thorbjörn C A; Pedersen, Bente K

    2007-01-01

    Marathoners are at an increased risk of developing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) following races and periods of hard training, which are associated with temporary changes in the immune system. The majority of the reported changes are decreases in function or concentration of certain immune cells. During this period of immune suppression, by some referred to as an 'open window' in immune function, it has been hypothesised that viruses and bacteria might gain a foothold, which would increase the risk of infections. In light of this, nutritional interventions that can enhance immune function and reduce the risk of URTIs have been sought. This paper focuses on the effect of glutamine, vitamin C, bovine colostrum and glucose. Although, some of these supplements can affect the physiological and immune changes associated with marathon racing, none of the supplements discussed have consistently been shown to reduce the risk of URTIs and therefore cannot be recommended for use as enhancers of immune function in marathon runners.

  20. Anthropometric and training variables related to half-marathon running performance in recreational female runners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Rosemann, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    The relationship between skin-fold thickness and running has been investigated in distances ranging from 100 m to the marathon distance (42.195 km), with the exclusion of the half-marathon distance (21.0975 km). We investigated the association between anthropometric variables, prerace experience, and training variables with race time in 42 recreational, nonprofessional, female half-marathon runners using bi- and multivariate analysis. Body weight (r, 0.60); body mass index (r, 0.48); body fat percentage (r, 0.56); pectoral (r, 0.61), mid-axilla (r, 0.69), triceps (r, 0.49), subscapular (r, 0.61), abdominal (r, 0.59), suprailiac (r, 0.55), and medial calf (r, 0.53) skin-fold thickness; mean speed of the training sessions (r, -0.68); and personal best time in a half-marathon (r, 0.69) correlated with race time after bivariate analysis. Body weight (P = 0.0054), pectoral skin-fold thickness (P = 0.0068), and mean speed of the training sessions (P = 0.0041) remained significant after multivariate analysis. Mean running speed during training was related to mid-axilla (r, -0.31), subscapular (r, -0.38), abdominal (r, -0.44), and suprailiac (r, -0.41) skin-fold thickness, the sum of 8 skin-fold thicknesses (r, -0.36); and percent body fat (r, -0.31). It was determined that variables of both anthropometry and training were related to half-marathon race time, and that skin-fold thicknesses were associated with running speed during training. For practical applications, high running speed during training (as opposed to extensive training) may both reduce upper-body skin-fold thicknesses and improve race performance in recreational female half-marathon runners.

  1. Correlation of Cardiac Markers and Biomarkers With Blood Pressure of Middle-Aged Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Ahn, Jae Ki; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Park, Kyoung-Min

    2015-11-01

    Runners with exercise-induced high blood pressure have recently been reported to exhibit higher levels of cardiac markers, vasoconstrictors, and inflammation. The authors attempted to identify correlations between exercise-related personal characteristics and the levels of biochemical/cardiac markers in marathon runners in this study. Forty healthy runners were enrolled. Blood samples were taken both before and after finishing a full marathon. The change in each cardiac/biochemical marker over the course of the marathon was determined. All markers were significantly (P<.001) increased immediately after the marathon (creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB]: 7.9 ± 2.7 ng/mL, cardiac troponin I (cTnI): 0.06 ± 0.10 ng/mL, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): 95.7 ± 76.4, endothelin-1: 2.7 ± 1.16, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]: 0.1 ± 0.09, creatine kinase [CK]: 315.7 ± 94.0, lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]: 552.8 ± 130.3) compared with their premarathon values (CK-MB: 4.3 ± 1.3, cTnI: 0.01 ± 0.003, NT-proBNP: 27.6 ± 31.1, endothelin-1: 1.11 ± 0.5, hs-CRP: 0.06 ± 0.07, CK: 149.2 ± 66.0, LDH: 399 ± 75.1). In middle-aged marathon runners, factors related to increased blood pressure were correlated with marathon-induced increases in cTnI, NT-proBNP, endothelin-1, and hs-CRP. These correlations were observed independent of running history, records of finishing, and peak oxygen uptake.

  2. A comparison of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF and GenoType(®) MTBDRplus assays in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Bablishvili, N; Tukvadze, N; Avaliani, Z; Blumberg, H M; Kempker, R R

    2015-06-01

    Few studies have directly compared the performance of rapid molecular diagnostic tests for tuberculosis (TB). We found that the commercially available molecular diagnostic tests Xpert(®) MTB/RIF and GenoType(®) MTBDRplus both provided timely and accurate results compared to conventional phenotypic tests in detecting TB and rifampicin resistance.

  3. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  4. Modulation of dendritic cells and toll-like receptors by marathon running.

    PubMed

    Nickel, Thomas; Emslander, I; Sisic, Z; David, R; Schmaderer, C; Marx, N; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Hoster, E; Halle, M; Weis, M; Hanssen, H

    2012-05-01

    The focus of this study was to assess exercise-induced alterations of circulating dendritic cell (DC) subpopulations and toll-like receptor (TLR) expression after marathon running. Blood sampling was performed in 15 obese non-elite (ONE), 16 lean non-elite (LNE) and 16 lean elite (LE) marathon runners pre- and post-marathon as well as 24 h after the race. Circulating DC-fractions were measured by flow-cytometry analyzing myeloid DCs (BDCA-1+) and plasmacytoid DCs (BDCA-2+). We further analyzed the (TLR) -2/-4/-7 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (rt-PCR/Western Blot) and the cytokines CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and oxLDL by ELISA. After the marathon, BDCA-1 increased significantly in all groups [LE (pre/post): 0.35/0.47%; LNE: 0.26/0.50% and ONE: 0.30/0.49%; all p < 0.05]. In contrast, we found a significant decrease for BDCA-2 directly after the marathon (LE: 0.09/0.01%; LNE: 0.12/0.03% and ONE: 0.10/0.02%; all p < 0.05). Levels of TLR-7 mRNA decreased in all groups post-marathon (LE 44%, LNE 67% and ONE 52%; all p < 0.01), with a consecutive protein reduction (LE 31%, LNE 52%, ONE 42%; all p < 0.05) 24 h later. IL-6 and IL-10 levels increased immediately after the run, whereas increases of TNF-α and CRP-levels were seen after 24 h. oxLDL levels remained unchanged post-marathon. In our study population, we did not find any relevant differences regarding training level or body weight. Prolonged endurance exercise induces both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, may help to prevent excessive oxidative stress. Marathon running is associated with alterations of DC subsets and TLR-expression independent of training level or body weight. Myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs are differently affected by the excessive physical stress. Immunomodulatory mechanisms seem to play a key role in the response and adaptation to acute excessive exercise.

  5. [Running injuries sustained in a marathon race. Registration of the occurrence and types of injuries in the 1986 Arhus Marathon].

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, B W; Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Jensen, J

    1989-08-28

    A questionnaire investigation was undertaken in connection with the Arhus Marathon Race in 1986, with the object of registering experience, previous running injuries, amount of training, running injuries, treatment and causes. A total of 831 replies were obtained (90%). Of these, there were 731 men and 100 women with an average age of 34.6 (11-77) years, duration og training 5.5 months, training distance 47.5 km/week and tempo 10.8 km/hour. Among these, 193 injuries were registered in 161 runners (19%). Eighty-nine had to stop sports for more than one week and 26 still had injuries which limited participation in sport after eight weeks. The injuries consisted of blisters (25%) and stress injuries (66%) particularly in the knee (37%) and leg (23%). Runners who sustained injuries were found to be significantly younger than non-injured runners, their training distance was less and training tempo lower. The causes of the injuries were mainly overexertion. The significance for the types of shoes for stress injuries was investigated and a tendency to increased risk of overexertion injuries was demonstrated on employing competition shoes and cheap jogging shoes.

  6. The Role of Power Fluctuations in the Preference of Diagonal vs. Double Poling Sub-Technique at Different Incline-Speed Combinations in Elite Cross-Country Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Christine; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Danielsen, Jørgen; Ettema, Gertjan

    2017-01-01

    In classical cross-country skiing, diagonal stride (DIA) is the major uphill sub-technique, while double poling (DP) is used on relatively flat terrain. Although, the dependence of incline and speed on the preference of either sub-technique seems clearly established, the mechanisms behind these preferences are not clear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare kinetics and energy consumption in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload in cross-country skiing under two different incline-speed combinations. We compared kinetics and physiological responses in DP and DIA at the same submaximal workload (≈200 W) under two different incline-speed conditions, (5%—12.5 km h−1 vs. 12%—6.5 km h−1) where DP and DIA were expected to be preferred, respectively. Fifteen elite male cross-country skiers performed four separate 6.5-min roller skiing sessions on a treadmill at these two conditions using DP and DIA during which physiological variables, rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and kinetics, including power fluctuations, were recorded. At 12% incline, DIA resulted in lower physiological response (e.g., heart rate) and RPE, and higher gross efficiency than DP, whereas at 5% incline these variables favored DP (P < 0.05). The skiers' preference for sub-technique (13 preferred DIA at 12% incline; all 15 preferred DP at 5% incline) was in accordance with these results. Fluctuation in instantaneous power was lowest in the preferred sub-technique at each condition (P < 0.05). Preference for DP at 5% incline (high speed) is most likely because the speed is too high for effective ski thrust in DIA, which is reflected in high power fluctuations. The mechanism for preference of DIA at 12% incline is not indicated directly by the current data set showing only small differences in power fluctuations between DIA and DP. Apart from the low speed allowing ski thrust, we suggest that restricted ability to utilize the body's mechanical energy as well as the use of arms

  7. Evaluation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on extrapulmonary and respiratory samples other than sputum: a low burden country experience.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sushil; Congdon, Jacob; McInnes, Bradley; Pop, Alina; Coulter, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on extrapulmonary (EP) and respiratory (non-sputum) clinical samples of patients suspected of having tuberculosis (TB) from Queensland, Australia. A total of 269 EP and respiratory (non-sputum) clinical samples collected from Qld patients who were suspected of having TB were subjected to the GeneXpert MTB/RIF analysis, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture and drug susceptibility testing. Phenotypic and genotypic data were compared. The overall performance analysis of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of MTB complex demonstrated sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 95%, PPV of 89% and NPV of 95% using culture as a reference standard. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF analysis of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear positive samples and AFB smear negative samples showed sensitivities of 100% and 77%, respectively. Looking at individual EP and respiratory (non-sputum) sample types, the sensitivity ranged from 60% to 100% although the specificity ranged from 33% to 100% with the specificity of lymph node tissue biopsy being the lowest. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay detected 11% more TB cases than culture and 27% more cases than ZN microscopy. Due to insufficient numbers of presenting rifampicin resistance cases, performance analysis of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay on rifampicin resistance could not be carried out. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is potentially valuable for TB diagnosis in the majority of the EP and respiratory (other than sputum) samples in our setting. Although the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay provides rapid diagnostic results, the overall sensitivity to rule out the disease is suboptimal for some specimen types. Performance varied according to specimen type and AFB smear status. The sensitivity and specificity of lymph node tissue was 63% and 33%. Care must be taken when using the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of MTB in lymph node tissue samples. All

  8. Selected scientific aspects of marathon racing. An update on fluid replacement, immune function, psychological factors and the gender difference.

    PubMed

    Sparling, P B; Nieman, D C; O'Connor, P J

    1993-02-01

    Four topics are addressed: fluid/fuel replacement during the marathon, marathoning and susceptibility to infection, psychological aspects of elite marathoners and the gender gap in marathon performance. Although these topics are diverse, they all relate to practical questions raised by coaches and athletes. Evidence from laboratory and field studies indicates that it is advisable for marathoners to consume 800 to 1000 L/h of sports drink providing 45 to 60 g/h of carbohydrate. It is strongly suggested to practice fluid consumption during training sessions as it is probable that tolerance to drinking during running is a trainable adaptation. Epidemiological and clinical research support the concept that marathon training and racing increase the runner's risk of upper respiratory tract infections because of negative changes in immune function. Susceptibility to infection may be reduced by proper nutrition, adequate sleep, appropriate recovery between vigorous workouts and minimal exposure to sick people during periods of heavy training and major races. Although psychological research in this area is still limited, evidence suggests that elite marathoners rely primarily on associative strategies during competition while judiciously dissociating in order to cope with pain. It is recommended that coaches and athletes interested in employing psychological interventions seek assistance from professionals well trained in the fields of both psychology and exercise science. Will women soon outrun men? Over the past 2 decades societal views and training practices of women distance runners have changed greatly, yet certain performance-related biological differences between men and women are unlikely to change.

  9. The effect of marathon running on carnitine metabolism and on some aspects of muscle mitochondrial activities and antioxidant mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M B; Jones, D A; Edwards, R H; Corbucci, G C; Montanari, G; Trevisani, C

    1986-01-01

    Carnitine is an essential co-factor in the catabolism of fats as an energy source. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of running a marathon on the metabolism of carnitine by endurance-trained athletes, and to evaluate the effect of carnitine administration on the performance of such exercise. The effects of marathon running on mitochondrial enzymes and cellular anti-oxidants were also examined to assess whether the expression of these activities is altered by exercise. Subjects were 10 experienced male marathon runners aged between 19 and 25 years. Running a marathon caused a fall in the plasma content of unesterified carnitine (37%) and an increase in the level of acetylcarnitine present (288%). Loading of the athletes with L-carnitine for 10 days before running a marathon abolished the exercise-induced fall in plasma-free carnitine (P less than 0.05) whilst amplifying the production of acetylcarnitine (P less than 0.05). Carnitine loading of the athletes studied made no detectable improvement in performance of the marathon (P greater than 0.05). Cytochrome oxidase, succinate cytochrome C reductase and superoxide dismutase activities present in skeletal muscle were unaltered by marathon running. However, such exercise caused a large increase in the tissue content of oxidized glutathione (189%) at the expense of reduced glutathione (-18%).

  10. Are gender differences in upper-body power generated by elite cross-country skiers augmented by increasing the intensity of exercise?

    PubMed

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all P<0.001). During the ergometer tests the work performed per cycle by the men was 97%, 102% and 91% greater, respectively, and the men elevated their cycle rate to a greater extent at higher intensities (both P<0.01). Furthermore, men had a 61% higher VO2peak, 58% higher 1RM, relatively larger upper-body mass (61% vs 56%) and reported considerably more upper-body strength and endurance training (all P<0.05). In conclusion, gender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers.

  11. Are Gender Differences in Upper-Body Power Generated by Elite Cross-Country Skiers Augmented by Increasing the Intensity of Exercise?

    PubMed Central

    Hegge, Ann Magdalen; Myhre, Kenneth; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we evaluated the impact of exercise intensity on gender differences in upper-body poling among cross-country skiers, as well as the associated differences in aerobic capacity, maximal strength, body composition, technique and extent of training. Eight male and eight female elite skiers, gender-matched for level of performance by FIS points, carried out a 4-min submaximal, and a 3-min and 30-sec maximal all-out test of isolated upper-body double poling on a Concept2 ski ergometer. Maximal upper-body power and strength (1RM) were determined with a pull-down exercise. In addition, body composition was assessed with a DXA scan and training during the previous six months quantified from diaries. Relative to the corresponding female values (defined as 100%), the power output produced by the men was 88%, 95% and 108% higher during the submaximal, 3-min and 30-sec tests, respectively, and peak power in the pull-down strength exercise was 118% higher (all P<0.001). During the ergometer tests the work performed per cycle by the men was 97%, 102% and 91% greater, respectively, and the men elevated their cycle rate to a greater extent at higher intensities (both P<0.01). Furthermore, men had a 61% higher VO2peak, 58% higher 1RM, relatively larger upper-body mass (61% vs 56%) and reported considerably more upper-body strength and endurance training (all P<0.05). In conclusion, gender differences in upper-body power among cross-country skiers augmented as the intensity of exercise increased. The gender differences observed here are greater than those reported previously for both lower- and whole-body sports and coincided with greater peak aerobic capacity and maximal upper-body strength, relatively more muscle mass in the upper-body, and more extensive training of upper-body strength and endurance among the male skiers. PMID:26000713

  12. Optimal V.O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Hammarström, Daniel; Rønnestad, Bent R; Malm, Christer B; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake (V.O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V.O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V.O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V.O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be racespeed=8.83⋅(V˙O2maxm−0.53)0.66 and lapspeed=5.89⋅(V˙O2maxm−(0.49+0.0181lap))0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V.O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min−1 · kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V.O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers. PMID:26719730

  13. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  14. Attracting Primary School Children to Mathematics: The Case of a City Mathematical Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Freiman, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first year of an online competition in which 480 students took part. After a brief presentation of the organizational structure of the marathon and general data about students' participation, we discuss findings from questionnaires about participants' attitudes towards mathematics, technology, and their perception of…

  15. Writing Marathons Help Build Middle School Students' College Aspirations and Strengthen Their Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Rich A.; Stephens, Liz C.

    2010-01-01

    Young adolescents' low scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) force the question of whether these students will be ready for college in four years. Our efforts to build a college-going culture emphasize strengthening students' writing skills by using preservice teachers to lead writing marathons for at-risk middle school…

  16. Excessive Exercise Habits in Marathoners as Novel Indicators of Masked Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Joo; Kang, Duk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background. Excessive exercise such as marathon running increases the risk of cardiovascular events that may be related to myocardial infarction and sudden death. We aimed to investigate that the exercise characteristics can be used as a novel indicator of masked hypertension. Methods. A total of 571 middle-aged recreational male marathoners were assigned to a high blood pressure group (HBPG; n = 214) or a normal blood pressure group (NBPG; n = 357). A graded exercise test was used to examine the hemodynamic response and cardiac events, and the personal exercise characteristics were recorded. Results. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the HBPG than in the NBPG (p < 0.05, all). The marathon history, exercise intensity, and time were longer and higher, whereas the marathon completion duration was shorter in the HBPG than in NBPG (p < 0.05, all). HBPG showed a higher frequency of alcohol consumption than NBPG (p < 0.05). Conclusion. More excessive exercise characteristics than the normative individuals. If the individuals exhibit high blood pressure during rest as well as exercise, the exercise characteristics could be used as a novel indicator for masked hypertension. PMID:28293624

  17. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  18. A brief review: the implications of iron supplementation for marathon runners on health and performance.

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-02-01

    The marathon is considered one of the most demanding endurance events, imposing an enormous amount of physiological stress on bodily structures, the metabolic machinery, and organ systems. Scientific evidence has conclusively shown that marathoners are in need of special nutritional strategies to maintain performance and health. Indeed, among competitive athletes, marathoners are at greater risk to develop anemia, bone mineral density loss, immunosuppression, and other clinical syndromes that may affect performance. Inadequate dietary intake of the micronutrient iron has been identified as one key factor in the development of the above mentioned anomalies. In fact, iron is one of the few nutrients recommended as a supplement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), and Dietitians of Canada. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to discuss the role of iron on the marathoner's health and performance. Special emphasis will be given to the physiological mechanisms accounting for the additional iron need in this group of athletes and the nutritional strategies intended to counteract iron deficiency.

  19. Participation and performance trends in 100-km ultra-marathons worldwide.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to (1) investigate the participation trends for the origin of athletes competing in 100-km ultra-marathons and (2) determine the nationalities of athletes achieving the fastest 100-km race times worldwide. Race times and nationality from 112,283 athletes (15,204 women and 97,079 men) from 102 countries who completed a 100-km ultra-marathon worldwide between 1998 and 2011 were investigated using single- and multi-level regression analyses. The number of finishers increased exponentially, both for women and men. Most of the finishers (73.5%) were from Europe, in particular, France (30.4%). The number of finishers from Japan, Germany, Italy, Poland and the United States of America increased exponentially during the studied period. For women, runners from Canada became slower while those from Italy became faster over time. For men, runners from Belgium, Canada and Japan became slower. Between 1998 and 2011, the ten best race times were achieved by Japanese runners for both women with 457.1 (s = 28.8) min and men with 393.4 (s = 9.6) min. To summarise, most of the finishers in 100-km ultra-marathons originated from Europe, but the best performances belong to Japanese runners. Although East African runners dominate running up to a marathon, Japanese were the best in 100 km.

  20. Case study: nutrition challenges of a marathon runner with a gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    A new type of athlete is appearing in the offices of sports dietitians: formerly obese people who have undergone gastric bypass surgery and now aspire to be marathoners, triathletes, and other types of endurance athletes. The standard nutrition advice offered to bypass patients is contrary to the standard sports advice given to athletes. Bypass athletes need to limit carbohydrates, fluids, and energy intake and consume a protein-based diet. This case study describes the sport nutrition concerns of a woman who, after having gastric bypass surgery, trained to run a marathon (42 km). Because of her limited ability to consume food and fluids, she experienced difficulty preventing fatigue and dehydration during her long training runs and the marathon itself. She learned through trial and error how to survive the nutritional challenges and complete the marathon. Health professionals need to be aware of the potential medical risks associated with endurance exercise in gastric bypass patients. Research is needed to determine the best sports nutrition practices for bypass patients. Only then can sport dietitians better educate this small but growing contingent of endurance athletes so the athletes can meet their training and performance goals and reduce their risk of experiencing serious health consequences.

  1. Gait Characteristics over the Course of a Race in Recreational Marathon Competitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, John E. A.; Prebeau-Menezes, Leif; Szarko, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed gait and function of the supporting limb in participants of a marathon race at three stages: prerace, midrace (18 km), and near the end of the race (36 km). We confirmed that the most successful runners were able to maintain running speed for the duration of the race with little change in speed or gait. Speed slowed progressively…

  2. Excessive Exercise Habits in Marathoners as Novel Indicators of Masked Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Park, Yongbum; Kang, Duk-Ho; Kim, Chul-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Background. Excessive exercise such as marathon running increases the risk of cardiovascular events that may be related to myocardial infarction and sudden death. We aimed to investigate that the exercise characteristics can be used as a novel indicator of masked hypertension. Methods. A total of 571 middle-aged recreational male marathoners were assigned to a high blood pressure group (HBPG; n = 214) or a normal blood pressure group (NBPG; n = 357). A graded exercise test was used to examine the hemodynamic response and cardiac events, and the personal exercise characteristics were recorded. Results. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were higher in the HBPG than in the NBPG (p < 0.05, all). The marathon history, exercise intensity, and time were longer and higher, whereas the marathon completion duration was shorter in the HBPG than in NBPG (p < 0.05, all). HBPG showed a higher frequency of alcohol consumption than NBPG (p < 0.05). Conclusion. More excessive exercise characteristics than the normative individuals. If the individuals exhibit high blood pressure during rest as well as exercise, the exercise characteristics could be used as a novel indicator for masked hypertension.

  3. Developing a Data Visualization System for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA).

    PubMed

    Hanken, Taylor; Young, Sam; Smilowitz, Karen; Chiampas, George; Waskowski, David

    2016-10-01

    As one of the largest marathons worldwide, the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (BACCM; Chicago, Illinois USA) accumulates high volumes of data. Race organizers and engaged agencies need the ability to access specific data in real-time. This report details a data visualization system designed for the Chicago Marathon and establishes key principles for event management data visualization. The data visualization system allows for efficient data communication among the organizing agencies of Chicago endurance events. Agencies can observe the progress of the race throughout the day and obtain needed information, such as the number and location of runners on the course and current weather conditions. Implementation of the system can reduce time-consuming, face-to-face interactions between involved agencies by having key data streams in one location, streamlining communications with the purpose of improving race logistics, as well as medical preparedness and response. Hanken T , Young S , Smilowitz K , Chiampas G , Waskowski D . Developing a data visualization system for the Bank of America Chicago Marathon (Chicago, Illinois USA). Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(5):572-577.

  4. Self-Perception and Interpersonal Behavior Changes in Marathon and Time-Extended Encounter Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Michael W.; Vestre, Norris D.

    1974-01-01

    College students (N=27) were assigned to a time-extended or a marathon group or a control condition to evaluate the effects of encounter experiences on self-perception and interpersonal behavior. Both experimental groups showed significantly greater changes in self-perceptions from pretest to posttest than the control group. (Author)

  5. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  6. The influence of race length on arterial compliance following an ultra-endurance marathon.

    PubMed

    Bonsignore, Alis; Bredin, Shannon S D; Wollmann, Holly; Morrison, Barb; Jeklin, Andrew; Buschmann, Lauren; Robertson, Josh; Buckler, Elizabeth Jean; McGuinty, Duncan; Rice, Mark S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2017-05-01

    There is inconclusive evidence concerning the effects of routine participation in ultra-endurance events on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Arterial compliance is a reliable, non-invasive, and effective tool for evaluating CVD risk. The purpose of this research was to examine if race length influences acute changes in arterial compliance following an ultra-marathon event. A total of 46 ultra-marathon runners were recruited including 21 participants (39.8 ± 8.3 years, 6 females) in the 80-km event and 25 participants (43.7 ± 9.8 years, 3 female) in the 195-km event. Arterial compliance was measured via radial applanation tonometry (CR-2000, HDI) for diastolic pulse contour analysis before and following the race. Significant between-group differences were found for changes in large arterial compliance with a decrease (increase in stiffness) following the 195-km event and an increase following the 80-kilometre event (p < .05). Longer race lengths are associated with greater reductions in large arterial compliance following recreational ultra-marathon running. Assessment of arterial compliance might be a useful prognostic tool to assess the long-term risk of CVD among ultra-marathon runners.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF versus smear microscopy in the early diagnosis tuberculosis in the real life of "Umberto I" Hospital Rome.

    PubMed

    Sauzullo, Ilaria; Rodio, Donatella Maria; Facchinetti, Samantha; Puggioni, Gianluca; De Angelis, Massimiliano; Goldoni, Paola; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mengoni, Fabio; Trancassini, Maria; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2016-10-01

    Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is one of the primary challenges in curtailing the spread of TB. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF for the identification of M. tuberculosis in clinical specimens, and compare this to a microscopist's diagnostic performance. Xpert MTB/ RIF was positive in all specimens with culture-confirmed TB, giving a higher sensitivity than the smear microscopy (100% versus 63%). The use of the Xpert MTB/RIF, as part of routine assay, permits rapid diagnosis of TB and enables clinicians to start an effective treatment.

  8. Men are More Likely than Women to Slow in the Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Deaner, Robert O.; Carter, Rickey E.; Joyner, Michael J.; Hunter, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of non-elite distance runners suggest that men are more likely than women to slow their pace in the marathon. Purpose This study determined the reliability of the sex difference in pacing across many marathons, and after adjusting women’s performances by 12% to address men’s greater maximal oxygen uptake and also incorporating information on racing experience. Methods Data was acquired from 14 U.S. marathons in 2011, and encompassed 91,929 performances. For 2,929 runners, we obtained experience data from a race-aggregating website. We operationalized pace maintenance as percentage change in pace observed in the second half of the marathon relative to the first half. Pace maintenance was analyzed as a continuous variable and as two categorical variables: “maintain the pace,” defined as slowing < 10%; and “marked slowing,” defined as slowing ≥30%. Results The mean change in pace was 15.6% and 11.7% for men and women, respectively (P<0.0001). This sex difference was significant for all 14 marathons. The odds for women were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.41 to 1.50, P<0.0001) times higher than men to maintain the pace and 0.36 (95% CI: 0.34–0.38; P<0.0001) times that of men to exhibit marked slowing. Slower finishing times were associated with greater slowing, especially in men (interaction, P<.0001). However, the sex difference in pacing occurred across age and finishing-time groups. Making the 12% adjustment to women’s performances lessened the magnitude of the sex difference in pacing but not its occurrence. Although greater experience was associated with lesser slowing, controlling for the experience variables did not eliminate the sex difference in pacing. Conclusions The sex difference in pacing is robust. It may reflect sex differences in physiology, decision making, or both. PMID:24983344

  9. Xpert MTB/RIF detection of rifampin resistance and time to treatment initiation in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, John Z.; Makumbirofa, Salome; Makamure, Beauty; Sandy, Charles; Bara, Wilbert; Mason, Peter; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients at elevated risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis are prioritized for testing with Xpert MTB/RIF® (“Xpert”), though clinical utility in this population is understudied. Design From November 2011 to June 2014, consecutive outpatients with history of prior tuberculosis in high-density suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe were tested with Xpert, solid and liquid culture, and the microscopically-observed drug susceptibility assay. Diagnostic accuracy for rifampin-resistance and time to second-line regimens were ascertained. The rpoB gene was sequenced in cases of culture-confirmed rifampin resistance and genotypic sensitivity. Results Among 352 retreatment patients, 71 (20%) had rifampin-resistant, 98 (28%) rifampin-susceptible, 64 (18%) culture-negative/Xpert-positive, and 119 (34%) culture-negative/Xpert-negative TB. Xpert was 86% (95% CI 75-93%) sensitive and 98% (95% CI 92-100%) specific for rifampin-resistant TB. The positive predictive value of Xpert-determined rifampin resistance for MDR-TB was 82% (95% CI 70-91%). Fifty-nine of 71 (83%) participants initiated SLDs, with a median time to regimen initiation of 18 days (IQR, 10-44 days). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for rifampin-resistance is high, though predictive value for MDR-TB is lower than anticipated. Xpert allows for faster SLD initiation under programmatic conditions, relative to culture-based drug susceptibility testing. PMID:27287639

  10. Multicenter feasibility study to assess external quality assessment panels for Xpert MTB/RIF assay in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley; Albert, Heidi; Gilpin, Chris; Alexander, Heather; DeGruy, Kyle; Stevens, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    External quality assessment (EQA) for the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is part of the quality system required for clinical and laboratory practice. Five newly developed EQA panels that use different matrices, including a lyophilized sample (Vircell, Granada, Spain), a dried tube specimen (CDC), liquid (Maine Molecular Quality Control, Inc. [MMQCI], Scarborough, ME), artificial sputum (Global Laboratory Initiative [GLI]), and a dried culture spot (National Health Laboratory Services [NHLS]), were evaluated at 11 GeneXpert testing sites in South Africa. The panels comprised Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-negative, MTBC-positive (including rifampin [RIF] susceptible and RIF resistant), and nontuberculosis mycobacterial material that was inactivated and safe for transportation. Twelve qualitative and quantitative variables were scored as acceptable (1) or unacceptable (0); the overall panel performance score for the Vircell, CDC, GLI, and NHLS panels was 9 of 12, while the MMQCI panel scored 6 of 12 (owing to the need for cold chain maintenance). All panels showed good compatibility with Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and none showed PCR inhibition. The use of a liquid or dry matrix did not appear to be a distinguishing criterion, as both matrices had reduced scores on insufficient volumes, a need for extra consumables, and the ability to transfer to the Xpert MTB/RIF cartridge. EQA is an important component of the quality system required for diagnostic testing programs, but it must be complemented by routine monitoring of performance indicators and instrument verification. This study aims to introduce EQA concepts for Xpert MTB/RIF testing and evaluates five potential EQA panels.

  11. Evaluation of Rhodiola rosea supplementation on skeletal muscle damage and inflammation in runners following a competitive marathon.

    PubMed

    Shanely, R Andrew; Nieman, David C; Zwetsloot, Kevin A; Knab, Amy M; Imagita, Hidetaka; Luo, Beibei; Davis, Barbara; Zubeldia, José M

    2014-07-01

    Adaptogens modulate intracellular signaling and increase expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72). Rhodiola rosea (RR) is a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties. The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of RR supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS), plasma cytokines, and extracellular HSP72 (eHSP72) in experienced runners completing a marathon. Experienced marathon runners were randomized to RR (n=24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n=24, 7 female, 17 male) groups and under double-blinded conditions ingested 600mg/day RR extract or placebo for 30days prior to, the day of, and seven days post-marathon. Blood samples were collected, and vertical jump and DOMS assessed the day before, 15min post- and 1.5h post-marathon. DOMS was also assessed for seven days post-marathon. Marathon race performance did not differ between RR and placebo groups (3.87±0.12h and 3.93±0.12h, respectively, p=0.722). Vertical jump decreased post-marathon (time effect, p<0.001) with no difference between groups (interaction effect, p=0.673). Post-marathon DOMS increased significantly (p<0.001) but the pattern of change did not differ between groups (p=0.700). Myoglobin (Mb), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), C-reactive protein (CRP), and eHSP72 all increased post-marathon (all p<0.001), with no group differences over time (all p>0.300). In conclusion, RR supplementation (600mg/day) for 30days before running a marathon did not attenuate the post-marathon decrease in muscle function, or increases in muscle damage, DOMS, eHSP72, or plasma cytokines in experienced runners.

  12. SAR Studies on Trisubstituted Benzimidazoles as Inhibitors of Mtb FtsZ for the Development of Novel Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Divya; Kumar, Kunal; Knudson, Susan E.; Slayden, Richard A.; Ojima, Iwao

    2014-01-01

    FtsZ, an essential protein for bacterial cell division, is a highly promising therapeutic target, especially for the discovery and development of new-generation anti-TB agents. Following up the identification of two lead 2,5,6-trisubstituted benzimidazoles, 1 and 2, targeting Mtb-FtsZ in our previous study, an extensive SAR study for optimization of these lead compounds was performed through systematic modification of the 5 and 6 positions. This study has successfully led to the discovery of a highly potent advanced lead 5f (MIC 0.06 µg/mL) and several other compounds with comparable potencies. These advanced lead compounds possess a dimethylamino group at the 6 position. The functional groups at the 5 position exhibit substantial effects on the antibacterial activity as well. In vitro experiments such as the FtsZ polymerization inhibitory assay and TEM analysis of Mtb-FtsZ treated with 5f and others indicate that Mtb-FtsZ is the molecular target for their antibacterial activity. PMID:24266862

  13. Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?

    PubMed

    Trébucq, A; Enarson, D A; Chiang, C Y; Van Deun, A; Harries, A D; Boillot, F; Detjen, A; Fujiwara, P I; Graham, S M; Monedero, I; Rusen, I D; Rieder, H L

    2011-12-01

    Xpert ® MTB/RIF offers new and important possibilities for the diagnosis of sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) and/or rifampicin (RMP) resistance, and many are encouraging rapid and widespread implementation. This simple test can be implemented almost everywhere, and it provides results within a few hours. In low-income countries (LICs), however, its cost, environmental limitations (stable and regular electricity, adequate room temperature) and difficulties involved in supply and maintenance are major obstacles. While it may be suitable for major reference hospitals, operational research is needed to evaluate the test and its additional yield above high-quality smear microscopy and clinical algorithms before its use at the peripheral level. In the meantime, direct microscopy should remain the initial diagnostic test for TB suspects. In most LICs, the prevalence of RMP resistance among new TB patients is very low; an Xpert MTB/RIF result indicating RMP resistance will thus always need confirmation by another test. In a population at high risk of RMP resistance (> 15%), however, the positive predictive value for RMP resistance by Xpert MTB/RIF is high, and identification of RMP resistance is an excellent proxy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). The assay should be widely used for this purpose if, and only if, excellent MDR-TB management is available, both for ethical reasons and to reduce the risk of extensively drug-resistant TB.

  14. Collagen catabolism through Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 and myeloperoxidase activity in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Henrotin, Yves; Labasse, Alain; Franck, Thierry; Bosseloir, Alain; Bury, Thierry; Deberg, Michelle

    2013-12-01

    To determine the influence of marathon on the serum levels of two markers of cartilage degradation, Coll2-1 and its nitrated form, Coll2-1NO2, and of a marker of neutrophils activation, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2, total and active MPO were measured in 98 marathon runners without joint pain and with an average age of 47 years. Sera were taken at rest right before the departure and within 30 min after the marathon. The subjects were submitted to a questionnaire concerning their physical activity and their life style. The levels of Coll2-1, Coll2-1NO2 and active MPO were not affected by age, body mass index, sex or performance. The levels of total MPO were higher in female than in male (p < 0.05), but were not affected by the other parameters. After the marathon, Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 concentrations were slightly but systematically decreased. The total and active MPO concentrations were increased by 2 to 3-fold in comparison to the pre-marathon values (p < 0.001 for total and active MPO). The active MPO/total MPO ratio was significantly enhanced after the marathon (p < 0.001). The variation of total MPO during the marathon was negatively correlated with the training time per week (r = -0.34; p = 0.009). The serum levels of Coll2-1 and Coll2-1NO2 were slightly decreased by marathon, indicating that intensive running could reduce cartilage catabolism. Furthermore, Coll2-1NO2 was not correlated with the total and active MPO indicating that Coll2-1 nitration did not result of a systemic oxidative phenomenon but reflects local changes.

  15. Effects of strenuous exercise on Th1/Th2 gene expression from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of marathon participants.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Lianbin; Rehm, Kristina E; Marshall, Gailen D

    2014-08-01

    Physical stressors, such as strenuous exercise, can have numerous effects on the human body including the immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression profile of Th1/Th2 cytokines and related transcription factor genes in order to investigate possible immune imbalances before and after a marathon. Blood samples were collected from 16 normal volunteers 24-48 h before and one week after completing a marathon race. Gene expression of Th1 and Th2 related cytokines from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was analyzed using Human Th1-Th2-Th3 RT(2) Profiler PCR Array and qRT-PCR that measured the transcript levels of 84 genes related to T cell activation. We found that PBMC express a characteristic Th2-like gene profile one week post-marathon compared to pre-marathon. The majority of genes up-regulated one week post-marathon such as IL-4, GATA3, and CCR4 were Th2 associated. For Th1-related genes, CXCR3 and IRF1 were up-regulated one week post-marathon. There was a trend of down-regulation of two Th1 related genes, T-bet and STAT1. Th3-related gene expression patterns did not change in the study. The ratios of both IFN-γ/IL-4 and T-bet/GATA3 gene expressions were significantly lower one week after marathon. These findings suggest that a Th1/Th2 immune imbalance persisted at least 1 week after completion of a marathon which offers a mechanistic rationale for the increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections often reported after strenuous exercise.

  16. Performance of an IS6110-Based PCR Assay and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB PCR System for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex DNA in Human Lymph Node Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rimek, Dagmar; Tyagi, Sachin; Kappe, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    We compared the performance of two PCR assays, an IS6110-based in-house protocol and the COBAS AMPLICOR MTB PCR (COBAS MTB) system, for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in 43 human lymph node samples from 40 patients. For the in-house PCR and the COBAS MTB assays, respectively, sensitivities were 87.5% versus 45.5% (P < 0.05), specificities were 100.0% versus 91.3% (P > 0.05), and inhibition rates were 4.8% versus 19.5% (P < 0.05). For the COBAS MTB system, additional N-acetyl-l-cysteine-NaOH pretreatment of the samples changed neither the inhibition rate nor the sensitivity significantly. PMID:12149389

  17. Resveratrol exerts no effect on inflammatory response and delayed onset muscle soreness after a marathon in male athletes.

    PubMed Central

    Laupheimer, M W; Perry, M; Benton, S; Malliaras, P; Maffulli, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether the inflammatory response and delayed onset of muscle soreness after a marathon are altered by resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic flavonoid antioxidant. Design: Double blind placebo-controlled randomised pilot study. Setting: London Marathon. Participants: Marathon race participants Interventions: 7 healthy male athletes were randomised to receive Resveratrol (600 mg Resveratrol daily for 7 days immediately before the marathon) or a placebo. Main Outcome Measurements: Blood samples taken 48 hours before and 18–32 hours after the marathon were analysed for white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP). A VAS score was taken at the same times as the blood samples to assess delayed onset muscle soreness. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of changes occurring between pre- and post- tests for WBC, CRP or VAS. Conclusions: There were no differences in immune response or delayed onset muscle soreness between resveratrol and placebo after a marathon. Further investigations are needed with longer treatment time and higher doses, analysing additional parameters such interleukins for a possible effect of resveratrol on the inflammatory response due to extensive exercise. To avoid a type II error, 17 subjects in each group would be required. PMID:25147765

  18. Contribution of Upper-Body Strength, Body Composition, and Maximal Oxygen Uptake to Predict Double Poling Power and Overall Performance in Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Østerås, Sindre; Welde, Boye; Danielsen, Jørgen; van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-09-01

    Østerås, S, Welde, B, Danielsen, J, van den Tillaar, R, Ettema, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Contribution of upper-body strength, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake to predict double poling power and overall performance in female cross-country skiers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2557-2564, 2016-Maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) is regarded as the most performance-differentiating physiological measure in cross-country (XC) skiing. In addition, upper-body strength and lean mass have been associated with double poling (DP) power in XC skiers. In this study, we tested upper-body maximal strength, lean mass, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max's contributions to predict DP power production of different durations and the overall XC skiing performance level of elite female XC skiers. Thirteen skiers (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 64.9 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min) performed one 30-second and one 3-minute DP performance test using a ski ergometer. The International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking points determined their overall XC skiing performance. The skiers performed three 1-repetition maximal strength tests in poling-specific exercises that isolated the elbow extension, shoulder extension, and trunk flexion movements. Body composition was determined by a DXA scan, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was tested in an incremental running test. Multiple regressions were used to predict power production in the 30-second and 3-minute tests and FIS points. The 2 best predictions of 30-second DP power were lean upper-body mass and maximal upper-body strength (with the 3 strength tests normalized and pooled together as one variable) (R = 0.84 and 0.81, p < 0.001). Along with V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, the same 2 variables were the best predictions of both 3-minute DP power (R = 0.60 and 0.44, p ≤ 0.05) and overall XC skiing performance (R = 0.43 and 0.40, p ≤ 0.05). Although the importance of upper-body strength and lean mass to predict DP power production and the

  19. HIV/AIDS health care challenges for cross-country migrants in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Khitdee, Chiraporn; Thaichinda, Chompoonut; Kantamaturapoj, Kanang; Leelahavarong, Pattara; Jumriangrit, Pensom; Topothai, Thitikorn; Wisaijohn, Thunthita; Putthasri, Weerasak

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV/AIDS has been one of the world’s most important health challenges in recent history. The global solidarity in responding to HIV/AIDS through the provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and encouraging early screening has been proved successful in saving lives of infected populations in past decades. However, there remain several challenges, one of which is how HIV/AIDS policies keep pace with the growing speed and diversity of migration flows. This study therefore aimed to examine the nature and the extent of HIV/AIDS health services, barriers to care, and epidemic burdens among cross-country migrants in low-and middle-income countries. Methods A scoping review was undertaken by gathering evidence from electronic databases and gray literature from the websites of relevant international initiatives. The articles were reviewed according to the defined themes: epidemic burdens of HIV/AIDS, barriers to health services and HIV/AIDS risks, and the operational management of the current health systems for HIV/AIDS. Results Of the 437 articles selected for an initial screening, 35 were read in full and mapped with the defined research questions. A high HIV/AIDS infection rate was a major concern among cross-country migrants in many regions, in particular sub-Saharan Africa. Despite a large number of studies reported in Africa, fewer studies were found in Asia and Latin America. Barriers of access to HIV/AIDS services comprised inadequate management of guidelines and referral systems, discriminatory attitudes, language differences, unstable legal status, and financial hardship. Though health systems management varied across countries, international partners consistently played a critical role in providing support for HIV/AIDS services to uninsured migrants and refugees. Conclusion It was evident that HIV/AIDS health care problems for migrants were a major concern in many developing nations. However, there was little evidence suggesting if the current

  20. Evaluation of the Cobas TaqMan MTB real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meng-Rui; Chung, Kuei-Pin; Wang, Hao-Chien; Lin, Chih-Bin; Yu, Chong-Jen; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2013-08-01

    The Cobas TaqMan MTB assay is a real-time PCR (qPCR) kit for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical specimens. There are, however, limited studies validating its performance. We performed a prospective study in two hospitals in Taiwan on 586 respiratory specimens. By using culture as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay were found to be 82.7 and 96.5 %, respectively. The sensitivity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay in acid-fast stain-negative respiratory specimens was only 34.9 %. Five specimens from five patients were positive for M. tuberculosis by the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay but were negative for M. tuberculosis by conventional culture methods. A diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) was made based on clinical and radiological findings as well as the response to anti-TB treatment in these five patients. Addition of data from these five specimens with discrepant results (PCR vs culture) from patients with symptoms clinically compatible with TB increased the sensitivity of the Cobas TaqMan MTB assay to 83.1 %. The Cobas TaqMan MTB assay is a rapid identification tool with a high degree of specificity for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis in respiratory specimens. The sensitivity for detecting acid-fast smear-negative respiratory specimens, however, is low.

  1. Determinants of PCR performance (Xpert MTB/RIF), including bacterial load and inhibition, for TB diagnosis using specimens from different body compartments

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Grant; Peter, Jonny; Calligaro, Greg; Meldau, Richard; Hanrahan, Colleen; Khalfey, Hoosain; Matinyenya, Brian; Muchinga, Tapuwa; Smith, Liezel; Pandie, Shaheen; Lenders, Laura; Patel, Vinod; Mayosi, Bongani M.; Dheda, Keertan

    2014-01-01

    The determinants of Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity, a widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are poorly understood. We compared culture time-to-positivity (TTP; a surrogate of bacterial load), MTB/RIF TB-specific and internal positive control (IPC)-specific CT values, and clinical characteristics in patients with suspected TB who provided expectorated (n = 438) or induced sputum (n = 128), tracheal aspirates (n = 71), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 152), pleural fluid (n = 76), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF; n = 152), pericardial fluid (n = 131), or urine (n = 173) specimens. Median bacterial load (TTP in days) was the strongest associate of MTB/RIF positivity in each fluid. TTP correlated with CT values in pulmonary specimens but not extrapulmonary specimens (Spearman's coefficient 0.5043 versus 0.1437; p = 0.030). Inhibition affected a greater proportion of pulmonary specimens than extrapulmonary specimens (IPC CT > 34: 6% (47/731) versus 1% (4/381; p < 0.0001). Pulmonary specimens had greater load than extrapulmonary specimens [TTPs (interquartile range) of 11 (7–16) versus 22 (18–33.5) days; p < 0.0001]. HIV-infection was associated with a decreased likelihood of MTB/RIF-positivity in pulmonary specimens but an increased likelihood in extrapulmonary specimens. Mycobacterial load, which displays significant variation across different body compartments, is the main determinant of MTB/RIF-positivity rather than PCR inhibition. MTB/RIF CT is a poor surrogate of load in extrapulmonary specimens. PMID:25014250

  2. Impact of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF Technology on Tuberculosis Control.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Wendy Susan; Scott, Lesley; Noble, Lara; Gous, Natasha; Dheda, Keertan

    2017-01-01

    Molecular technology revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) with a paradigm shift to faster, more sensitive, clinically relevant patient care. The most recent molecular leader is the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), which was endorsed by the World Health Organization with unprecedented speed in December 2010 as the initial diagnostic for detection of HIV-associated TB and for where high rates of drug resistance are suspected. South Africa elected to take an aggressive smear replacement approach to facilitate earlier diagnosis and treatment through the decision to implement the Xpert assay nationally in March 2011, against the backdrop of approximately 6.3 million HIV-infected individuals, one of highest global TB and HIV coinfection rates, no available implementation models, uncertainties around field performance and program costs, and lack of guidance on how to operationalize the assay into existing complex clinical algorithms. South Africa's national implementation was conducted as a phased, forecasted, and managed approach (March 2011 to September 2013), through political will and both treasury-funded and donor-funded support. Today there are 314 GeneXperts across 207 microscopy centers; over 8 million assays have been conducted, and South Africa accounts for over half the global test cartridge usage. As with any implementation of new technology, challenges were encountered, both predicted and unexpected. This chapter discusses the challenges and consequences of such large-scale implementation efforts, the opportunities for new innovations, and the need to strengthen health systems, as well as the impact of the Xpert assay on rifampin-sensitive and multidrug-resistant TB patient care that translated into global TB control as we move toward the sustainable development goals.

  3. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05). The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  4. Twitter as a Sentinel in Emergency Situations: Lessons from the Boston Marathon Explosions

    PubMed Central

    Cassa, Christopher A.; Chunara, Rumi; Mandl, Kenneth; Brownstein, John S

    2013-01-01

    Immediately following the Boston Marathon attacks, individuals near the scene posted a deluge of data to social media sites. Previous work has shown that these data can be leveraged to provide rapid insight during natural disasters, disease outbreaks and ongoing conflicts that can assist in the public health and medical response. Here, we examine and discuss the social media messages posted immediately after and around the Boston Marathon bombings, and find that specific keywords appear frequently prior to official public safety and news media reports. Individuals immediately adjacent to the explosions posted messages within minutes via Twitter which identify the location and specifics of events, demonstrating a role for social media in the early recognition and characterization of emergency events. *Christopher Cassa and Rumi Chunara contributed equally to this work. PMID:23852273

  5. Devonian Novaculites as source of oil in Marathon-Ouachita thrust system

    SciTech Connect

    Zemmels, I.; Grizzle, P.L.; Walters, C.C.; Haney, F.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Arkansas Novaculite of southern Oklahoma and the Caballos Novaculite of west Texas (both Devonian) form fractured reservoirs in the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system. These formations were examined to ascertain their petroleum potential. Findings include the following. (1) The thermal maturity of the thrust system conforms to the maturity of the sequence that it has overthrust, suggesting that this allochthonous facies is not anomalously mature. (2) Shale units within the novaculites contain oil-prone organic matter in sufficient concentrations to constitute source rocks. (3) The composition of oils from Isom Springs field in southern Oklahoma and from McKay Creek field in west Texas is virtually identical and generally resembles Devonian oils in Oklahoma and west Texas. The authors concluded that the Devonian novaculites of the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system are self sourcing and do not require a fortuitous juxtaposition of source rocks of a different age to produce a commercial deposit.

  6. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  7. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  8. Marathon to the Stars: How the US Can Avoid Losing the Global Space Race

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    AU/ACSC/2010 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY MARATHON TO THE STARS : HOW THE US CAN AVOID LOSING THE GLOBAL SPACE RACE...Van Allen which eventually discovered Earth‘s radiation belts. 9 These innocuous beginnings would spawn several notable firsts over the next...Navigation - GPS 2 - Galileo - GLONASS - Beidou Table 1. Current space capabilities by country Today‘s Space Race showcases a field of four near-peer

  9. Biochemical and hematological changes following the 120-km open-water marathon swim.

    PubMed

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-09-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key pointsData on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce.This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim.An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences.Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required.

  10. Biochemical and Hematological Changes Following the 120-Km Open-Water Marathon Swim

    PubMed Central

    Drygas, Wojciech; Rębowska, Ewa; Stępień, Ewa; Golański, Jacek; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Data on physiological effects and potential risks of a ultraendurance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim on the Warta River, Poland. Pre-swimming examinations revealed favorable conditions (blood pressure, 110/70 mmHg; rest heart rate, 54 beats/minute, ejection fraction, 60%, 20.2 metabolic equivalents in a maximal exercise test). The swimming time and distance covered were 27 h 33 min and 120 km, respectively. Blood samples for hematological and biochemical parameters were collected 30 min, 4 hrs, 10 hrs and 8 days after the swim. The body temperature of the swimmer was 36.7°C before and 35.1°C after the swim. The hematological parameters remained within the reference range in the postexercise period except for leucocytes (17.5 and 10.6 x G/l noted 30 minutes and 4 hours after the swim, respectively). Serum urea, aspartate aminotransferase and C-reactive protein increased above the reference range reaching 11.3 mmol/l, 1054 nmol/l/s and 25.9 mg/l, respectively. Symptomatic hyponatremia was not observed. Although the results demonstrate that an experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without negative health consequences, further studies addressing the potential risks of marathon swimming are required. Key points Data on biochemical changes due to long-distance swimming are scarce. This report presents the unique case of a 61-year old athlete who completed a non-stop open-water 120-km ultramarathon swim. An experienced athlete is able to complete an ultra-marathon swim without serious health consequences. Regarding the growing popularity of marathon swimming further studies addressing the potential risks of such exhaustive exercise are required. PMID:25177192

  11. Exercise-induced hemostatic alterations are detectable by rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM): A marathon study.

    PubMed

    Sucker, Christoph; Zotz, Rainer B; Senft, Beate; Scharf, Rudiger E; Kröger, Knut; Erbel, Raimund; Möhlenkamp, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Rotation thrombelastography (ROTEM) provides a whole blood assay that allows the assessment of plasmic- and platelet-related hemostasis in a single-step procedure. In our current study, we focused on the capability of the method to detect hemostatic alterations induced by physical exercise, enrolling 33 healthy participants of the Dusseldorf Marathon 2006. Venous blood drawn immediately before and after finishing the marathon was analyzed by a rotational thrombelastograph (Pentapharm, Munich, Germany). On initiation of blood coagulation by recalcification, standard ROTEM parameters were determined. Comparison of the results obtained before and after the physical exercise was performed using the Student t test for paired samples. As a result, the mean clotting time (CT) determined from blood samples obtained immediately after the marathon was significantly shorter (662.9 + or - 67.8 seconds vs 505.6 + or - 97.3 seconds, P = .002) and the mean maximal clot firmness was significantly broader (48.4 +/- 6.6 mm vs 51.5 +/- 4.5 mm, P = .0004) when compared to results obtained before the physical exercise. Differences between mean clot formation times (CFTs; 280.6 + 96 seconds vs 270.4 + or - 73.8 seconds) and mean alpha angles (45.9 degrees + or - 8 degrees vs 47.8 degrees + or - 5.8 degrees ) before and after the marathon were not statistically significant. Remarkably, some participants showed opposed results, particularly prolongation of CT and narrowing of maximum clot firmness (MCF). Our study demonstrates that ROTEM is sensitive to exercise-induced hemostatic alterations. The method appears to be capable of detecting even distinct changes in hemostasis in a single-step procedure. Further analyses are needed to clarify which hemostasis parameters influence ROTEM results and which ROTEM results are independent predictors of exercise-induced alterations of plasmic and platelet function. This might help to explain interindividual differences in exercise

  12. Iron-regulatory protein hepcidin is increased in female athletes after a marathon.

    PubMed

    Roecker, L; Meier-Buttermilch, R; Brechtel, L; Nemeth, E; Ganz, T

    2005-12-01

    The propose of this study was to determine the influence of marathon race on hepcidin excretion in female athletes (age 26-45 years). Urine samples were taken before, immediately after, 1 and 3 days after the race. In the average, hepcidin transiently increased at day 1 from 32 to 85 ng/mg creatinine. We propose that the frequently observed iron deficiency of females runners is caused by elevated hepcidin levels.

  13. On site assessment of cardiac function and neural regulation in amateur half marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Dalla Vecchia, Laura; Traversi, Egidio; Porta, Alberto; Lucini, Daniela; Pagani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Strenuous exercise variably modifies cardiovascular function. Only few data are available on intermediate levels of effort. We therefore planned a study in order to address the hypothesis that a half marathon distance would result in transient changes of cardiac mechanics, neural regulation and biochemical profile suggestive of a complex, integrated adaptation. Methods We enrolled 35 amateur athletes (42±7 years). Supine and standing heart rate variability and a complete echocardiographic evaluation were assessed on site after the completion of a half marathon (postrace) and about 1 month after (baseline). Biochemical tests were also measured postrace. Results Compared to baseline, the postrace left ventricular end-diastolic volume was smaller, peak velocity of E wave was lower, peak velocity of A wave higher, and accordingly the E/A ratio lower. The postrace heart and respiratory rate were higher and variance of RR interval lower, together with a clear shift towards a sympathetic predominance in supine position and a preserved response to orthostasis. At baseline, athletes were characterised by a lower, although still predominant, sympathetic drive with a preserved physiological response to standing. Conclusions Immediately after a half marathon there are clear marks that an elevated sympathetic cardiac drive outlasts the performance, together with decreased left ventricular diastolic volumes and slight modifications of the left ventricular filling pattern without additional signs of diastolic dysfunction or indices of transient left or right ventricular systolic abnormalities. Furthermore, no biochemical indices of any permanent cardiac damage were found. PMID:25332775

  14. Petroleum geochemistry of Texas and Oklahoma oils from the Marathon/Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Curiale, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Marathon uplift of west Texas and the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas comprise the surface expressions of a Paleozoic orogenic belt extending across the south-central United States. A century of petroleum exploration in the Marathon and Ouachita exposures has yielded several oil discoveries. In this study, detailed molecular, elemental, and isotopic data are presented for nine Texas oils, five Oklahoma oils, and four Oklahoma solid bitumens, all associated with thrust belt rocks of the Marathons and Ouachitas. Oil-oil and oil-solid bitumen correlations are proposed, and the character of the organic matter in the source rock(s) is deduced from the chemistry of the oils and solid bitumens. All 18 samples are sourced from the same (or very similar) organic matter. This indicates that they are probably cogenetic, despite geographic separations of hundreds of miles. Chemical differences in these samples derive from secondary effects, including biodegradation (e.g., solid bitumens) and differing levels of thermal maturity. The occurrence of unusual chemical compounds (certain bisnor- and trisnor-hopanes) in all samples probably indicates the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the depositional environment. Source deductions from oil chemistry suggest that an Ordovician unit is responsible for these oils and solid bitumens. This conclusion is consistent with previous literature suggesting an Upper Ordovician source for Oklahoma Ouachita oils and supports tectonic reconstructions of the region during Ordovician time.

  15. Structural relations between Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Smith, K.J.

    1985-02-01

    The Marfa, Marathon, Val Verde, and Delaware basins and related uplifts formed the major structural elements of the southwestern continental margin of North America during the Paleozoic. In contrast with the relatively simple relationships where the southern Oklahoma aulacogen intersects the Ouachita orogenic belt, structural relationships in the area of these basins are very complex. Various geologic evidence points to an allochthonous Marathon basin. However, a prominent gravity anomaly is associated with the Ouachita system as it extends from western Arkansas through Oklahoma and Texas into northern Mexico. If this anomaly is the signature of the early Paleozoic continental margin, then the location of the Marathon basin with respect to this anomaly suggests lateral displacements have been only on the scale of tens of kilometers. The Delaware basin seems clearly analogous to the Anadarko basin in that it formed as a result of reactivation of a major crustal flaw (not necessarily a rift). This reactivation was a result of the Ouachita orogeny. The Marfa basin is also flanked by a linear gravity high and basement uplift. The relationship of this anomaly to the gravity high associated with the Ouachita system suggests that the Marfa basin may be more analogous to the Delaware basin that foreland basins such as the Ft. Worth and Arkoma. A prominent gravity high that extends into northern Mexico is associated with the Devil's River uplift, and the relationships between this feature, the Val Verde basin, and adjacent structures suggest major deformation on a crustal scale.

  16. Prior Design for Dependent Dirichlet Processes: An Application to Marathon Modeling

    PubMed Central

    F. Pradier, Melanie; J. R. Ruiz, Francisco; Perez-Cruz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP) for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners’ performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons. PMID:26821155

  17. How Biomechanical Improvements in Running Economy Could Break the 2-hour Marathon Barrier.

    PubMed

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Kram, Rodger; Arellano, Christopher J

    2017-03-03

    A sub-2-hour marathon requires an average velocity (5.86 m/s) that is 2.5% faster than the current world record of 02:02:57 (5.72 m/s) and could be accomplished with a 2.7% reduction in the metabolic cost of running. Although supporting body weight comprises the majority of the metabolic cost of running, targeting the costs of forward propulsion and leg swing are the most promising strategies for reducing the metabolic cost of running and thus improving marathon running performance. Here, we calculate how much time could be saved by taking advantage of unconventional drafting strategies, a consistent tailwind, a downhill course, and specific running shoe design features while staying within the current International Association of Athletic Federations regulations for record purposes. Specifically, running in shoes that are 100 g lighter along with second-half scenarios of four runners alternately leading and drafting, or a tailwind of 6.0 m/s, combined with a 42-m elevation drop could result in a time well below the 2-hour marathon barrier.

  18. Mixed impact of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF on tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Auld, S C; Moore, B K; Kyle, R P; Eng, B; Nong, K; Pevzner, E S; Eam, K K; Eang, M T; Killam, W P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Sites du Programme National contre la Tuberculose (TB) dans le nord-ouest du Cambodge.Objectif : Evaluer l'impact du Xpert(®) MTB/RIF dans des sites où il est réalisé sur place (POC) comparés aux autres sites sur le diagnostic des personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) et ayant des symptômes de TB ainsi que des patients présumées de TB multirésistante (MDR).Schéma : Cohorte d'observation de patients bénéficiant d'une évaluation diagnostique de routine pour la TB après le lancement de l'Xpert.Résultats : Entre octobre 2011 et juin 2013, 431/822 (52%) PVVIH ayant des symptômes de TB et 240/493 (49%) patients avec suspicion de TB-MDR ont eu un test Xpert. L'Xpert a été réalisé plus souvent lorsqu'il était disponible en POC. Une plus faible proportion de PVVIH a eu un diagnostic de TB dans les sites POC que dans les sites non-POC ; cependant, dans les sites POC, une proportion plus élevée des patients ayant eu un diagnostic de TB a eu une bactériologie positive. L'accord entre l'Xpert et les autres tests (par exemple la microscopie de frottis ou la culture) a été médiocre. Dans l'ensemble, l'évaluation des patients présumées de TB-MDR a augmenté après le lancement de l'Xpert, mais parmi les patients ayant eu une pharmacorésistance confirmée par test de pharmacosensibilité, seulement 46% ont eu une résistance à la rifampicine qui aurait été identifiée par Xpert.Conclusion : Même si l'utilisation de l'Xpert a été faible, l'Xpert pourrait avoir contribué à une augmentation de l'évaluation des suspicions de TB-MDR et à un déclin du traitement empirique des PVVIH quand il est disponible sur place.

  19. Do Xpert MTB/RIF Cycle Threshold Values Provide Information about Patient Delays for Tuberculosis Diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Willy; Respeito, Durval; Mambuque, Edson; Blanco, Silvia; Bulo, Helder; Mandomando, Inacio; de Jong, Bouke C.; Cobelens, Frank G.; García-Basteiro, Alberto L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early diagnosis and initiation to appropriate treatment is vital for tuberculosis (TB) control. The XpertMTB/RIF (Xpert) assay offers rapid TB diagnosis and quantitative estimation of bacterial burden through Cycle threshold (Ct) values. We assessed whether the Xpert Ct value is associated with delayed TB diagnosis as a potential monitoring tool for TB control programme performance. Materials and Methods This analysis was nested in a prospective study under the routine TB surveillance procedures of the National TB Control Program in Manhiça district, Maputo province, Mozambique. Presumptive TB patients were tested using smear microscopy and Xpert. We explored the association between Xpert Ct values and self-reported delay of Xpert-positive TB patients as recorded at the time of diagnosis enrolment. Patients with >60 days of TB symptoms were considered to have long delays. Results Of 1,483 presumptive TB cases, 580 were diagnosed as TB of whom 505 (87.0%) were due to pulmonary TB and 302 (94.1%) were Xpert positive. Ct values (range, 9.7–46.4) showed a multimodal distribution. The median (IQR) delay was 30 (30–45) days. Ct values showed no correlation with delay (R2 = 0.001, p = 0.621), nor any association with long delays: adjusted odds ratios (AOR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) comparing to >28 cycles 0.99 (0.50–1.96; p = 0.987) for 23–28 cycles, 0.93 (0.50–1.74; p = 0.828) for 16–22 cycles; and 1.05 (0.47–2.36; p = 0.897) for <16 cycles. Being HIV-negative (AOR [95% CI]), 2.05 (1.19–3.51, p = 0.009) and rural residence 1.74 (1.08–2.81, p = 0.023), were independent predictors of long delays. Conclusion Xpert Ct values were not associated with patient delay for TB diagnosis and cannot be used as an indicator of TB control program performance. PMID:27611466

  20. Evaluation of the implementation of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in Fiji.

    PubMed

    Gounder, A; Gounder, S; Reid, S A

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : Tous les tests Xpert® MTB/RIF réalisés dans les trois centres de traitement anti-tuberculeux aux Fidji entre juin 2012 et février 2013.Objectifs : Déterminer 1) le nombre de tests Xpert réalisés dans chaque centre, 2) l'association entre la qualité des crachats et le résultat du test Xpert, 3) l'accord entre Xpert et la microscopie des crachats acido alcoolo résistant (AFB) et la culture, et 4) le taux d'erreurs.Schéma : Revue rétrosp ective de dossiers.Résultats : Un total de 415 tests Xpert a été réalisé pendant la période d'étude. Mycobacterium tuberculosis a été détecté dans 69 (16.6%) échantillons. Aucune résistance à la rifampicine n'a été décelée. M. tuberculosis a été identifié dans 60 (18,7%) échantillons de crachats de bonne qualité. Un total de 43 (10,4%) erreurs sont survenues pendant la période d'étude. M. tuberculosis a été identifié dans 10 (2,9%) spécimens à frottis négatif. Il y a eu une concordance substantielle et presque parfaite entre les résultats du Xpert et ceux de la microscopie AFB (κ = 0,793) et de la culture (κ = 0,818), respectivement.Conclusion : En dépit de la bonne corrélation entre Xpert et les deux autres tests mise en évidence dans l'étude, Xpert ne peut toujours pas remplacer les tests de diagnostic de routine utilisés en première intention aux Fidji, en raison de contraintes logistiques et de problèmes de pérennité. Il est nécessaire de réaliser une évaluation ultérieure de la performance de ce test sur une période plus longue afin de mesurer sa valeur diagnostique dans la détection de cas à frottis négatif, Xpert positif aux Fidji.

  1. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country.

  2. Impact of the initial classic section during a simulated cross-country skiing skiathlon on the cardiopulmonary responses during the subsequent period of skate skiing.

    PubMed

    Mourot, Laurent; Fabre, Nicolas; Andersson, Erik; Willis, Sarah J; Hébert-Losier, Kim; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential changes in the performance and cardiorespiratory responses of elite cross-country skiers following transition from the classic (CL) to the skating (SK) technique during a simulated skiathlon. Eight elite male skiers performed two 6 km (2 × 3 km) roller-skiing time trials on a treadmill at racing speed: one starting with the classic and switching to the skating technique (CL1-SK2) and another employing the skating technique throughout (SK1-SK2), with continuous monitoring of gas exchanges, heart rates, and kinematics (video). The overall performance times in the CL1-SK2 (21:12 ± 1:24) and SK1-SK2 (20:48 ± 2:00) trials were similar, and during the second section of each performance times and overall cardiopulmonary responses were also comparable. However, in comparison with SK1-SK2, the CL1-SK2 trial involved significantly higher increases in minute ventilation (V̇E, 89.8 ± 26.8 vs. 106.8 ± 17.6 L·min(-1)) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2; 3.1 ± 0.8 vs 3.5 ± 0.5 L·min(-1)) 2 min after the transition as well as longer time constants for V̇E, V̇O2, and heart rate during the first 3 min after the transition. This higher cardiopulmonary exertion was associated with ∼3% faster cycle rates. In conclusion, overall performance during the 2 time trials did not differ. The similar performance times during the second sections were achieved with comparable mean cardiopulmonary responses. However, the observation that during the initial 3-min post-transition following classic skiing cardiopulmonary responses and cycle rates were slightly higher supports the conclusion that an initial section of classic skiing exerts an impact on performance during a subsequent section of skate skiing.

  3. Using reduced rank regression methods to identify dietary patterns associated with obesity: a cross-country study among European and Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Lioret, Sandrine; Mouratidou, Theodora; Gunter, Marc J; Manios, Yannis; Kersting, Mathilde; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; De Henauw, Stefaan; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; Widhalm, Kurt; Gonzales-Gross, Marcela; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine repeatability of reduced rank regression (RRR) methods in calculating dietary patterns (DP) and cross-sectional associations with overweight (OW)/obesity across European and Australian samples of adolescents. Data from two cross-sectional surveys in Europe (2006/2007 Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study, including 1954 adolescents, 12-17 years) and Australia (2007 National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey, including 1498 adolescents, 12-16 years) were used. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive, 24-h recalls. RRR was used to identify DP using dietary energy density, fibre density and percentage of energy intake from fat as the intermediate variables. Associations between DP scores and body mass/fat were examined using multivariable linear and logistic regression as appropriate, stratified by sex. The first DP extracted (labelled 'energy dense, high fat, low fibre') explained 47 and 31 % of the response variation in Australian and European adolescents, respectively. It was similar for European and Australian adolescents and characterised by higher consumption of biscuits/cakes, chocolate/confectionery, crisps/savoury snacks, sugar-sweetened beverages, and lower consumption of yogurt, high-fibre bread, vegetables and fresh fruit. DP scores were inversely associated with BMI z-scores in Australian adolescent boys and borderline inverse in European adolescent boys (so as with %BF). Similarly, a lower likelihood for OW in boys was observed with higher DP scores in both surveys. No such relationships were observed in adolescent girls. In conclusion, the DP identified in this cross-country study was comparable for European and Australian adolescents, demonstrating robustness of the RRR method in calculating DP among populations. However, longitudinal designs are more relevant when studying diet-obesity associations, to prevent reverse causality.

  4. Effect of compression stockings on physiological responses and running performance in division III collegiate cross-country runners during a maximal treadmill test.

    PubMed

    Rider, Brian C; Coughlin, Adam M; Hew-Butler, Tamara D; Goslin, Brian R

    2014-06-01

    There is a growing trend for runners to use compression stockings (CS) to improve performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS on physiological variables associated with running performance. Participants were 10 NCAA division III cross-country runners. The study used a randomized, crossover design with 2 conditions (with CS and without CS). Both conditions consisted of a maximal treadmill test that involved 3-minute stages of increasing speed and incline, separated by a minute and one-half walking recovery stage. Seven days later, the participants repeated the maximal test but switched CS condition. Heart rate, blood lactate (BLa), blood lactate threshold, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), respiratory exchange ratio, rating of perceived exertion, and time to fatigue were measured. Before and during the maximal treadmill tests, the variables showed no significant difference (p ≤ 0.05) between the CS conditions. Blood lactate was lower while wearing CS when measured during recovery at the 1-minute (CS = 13.3 ± 2.9 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 14.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.03) and the 5-minute (CS = 11.0 ± 2.7 mmol · L(-1), non-CS = 12.8 ± 2.8 mmol · L(-1), p = 0.02) periods. Time to fatigue was longer without CS (CS = 23.570 ± 2.39 minutes, non-CS = 23.93 ± 2.49 minutes, p = 0.04). These findings suggest that CS may not improve running performance, but could lend credence to certain manufacturers' claims of improved recovery through lower BLa values after exercise.

  5. Comparing results of an exact vs. an approximate (Bayesian) measurement invariance test: a cross-country illustration with a scale to measure 19 human values.

    PubMed

    Cieciuch, Jan; Davidov, Eldad; Schmidt, Peter; Algesheimer, René; Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-01-01

    One of the most frequently used procedures for measurement invariance testing is the multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA). Muthén and Asparouhov recently proposed a new approach to test for approximate rather than exact measurement invariance using Bayesian MGCFA. Approximate measurement invariance permits small differences between parameters otherwise constrained to be equal in the classical exact approach. However, extant knowledge about how results of approximate measurement invariance tests compare to the results of the exact measurement invariance test is missing. We address this gap by comparing the results of exact and approximate cross-country measurement invariance tests of a revised scale to measure human values. Several studies that measured basic human values with the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) reported problems of measurement noninvariance (especially scalar noninvariance) across countries. Recently Schwartz et al. proposed a refined value theory and an instrument (PVQ-5X) to measure 19 more narrowly defined values. Cieciuch et al. tested its measurement invariance properties across eight countries and established exact scalar measurement invariance for 10 of the 19 values. The current study applied the approximate measurement invariance procedure on the same data and established approximate scalar measurement invariance even for all 19 values. Thus, the first conclusion is that the approximate approach provides more encouraging results for the usefulness of the scale for cross-cultural research, although this finding needs to be generalized and validated in future research using population data. The second conclusion is that the approximate measurement invariance is more likely than the exact approach to establish measurement invariance, although further simulation studies are needed to determine more precise recommendations about how large the permissible variance of the priors may be.

  6. Sensory determinants of stated liking for vegetable names and actual liking for canned vegetables: A cross-country study among European adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dinnella, Caterina; Morizet, David; Masi, Camilla; Cliceri, Danny; Depezay, Laurence; Appleton, Katherine M; Giboreau, Agnés; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; Hartwell, Heather; Monteleone, Erminio

    2016-12-01

    Sensory properties are reported as one of the main factors hindering an appropriate vegetable intake by the young. In the present work the sensory determinants of likings for vegetables were explored in adolescents of four European countries (Denmark, n = 88; France, n = 206; Italy, n = 110 and United Kingdom, n = 93). A questionnaire was designed to study cross country differences in stated liking for and familiarity with a list of vegetables popular among European markets (between-vegetable approach). A within-vegetable comparison approach with actual tasting was used to analyze differences and similarities in liking for canned pea and sweet corn samples across the countries. A close positive relationship between stated liking and familiarity was found. Irrespective of the country, one group of highly liked vegetables (carrots, tomatoes, green salad) was identified, characterized by innately liked tastes (sweet, umami), delicate flavour and bright appealing colour. A second group of highly disliked vegetables consists of cauliflowers and broccoli, characterized by disliked sensations such as bitter taste and objectionable flavour. Internal Preference Maps from actual liking scores indicate that the generally disliked tastes (bitter, sour), are clearly correlated with a negative hedonic response for both peas and sweet corn. The hedonic valence of a generally well accepted taste such as salty and texture descriptors depends on the type of vegetable. Internal preference maps from actual liking data indicate that flavour and appearance descriptors of the distinct sensory properties of each type of vegetable positively affect liking, while the intensity of unusual flavours is related to sample disliking.

  7. Lipid transfer to HDL is higher in marathon runners than in sedentary subjects, but is acutely inhibited during the run.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, Mauro; Bachi, André L L; Latrilha, Conceição; Dioguardi, Giuseppe S; Bydlowski, Sergio P; Maranhão, Raul C

    2012-07-01

    Although exercise increases HDL-cholesterol, exercise-induced changes in HDL metabolism have been little explored. Lipid transfer to HDL is essential for HDL's role in reverse cholesterol transport. We investigated the effects of acute exhaustive exercise on lipid transfer to HDL. We compared plasma lipid, apolipoprotein and cytokine levels and in vitro transfer of four lipids from a radioactively labeled lipid donor nanoemulsion to HDL in sedentary individuals (n = 28) and in marathon runners (n = 14) at baseline, immediately after and 72 h after a marathon. While HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were higher in marathon runners, LDL-cholesterol, apo B and triacylglycerol levels were similar in both groups. Transfers of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.2 (4.5-6), p = 0.001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 8.2 (7.7-8.9), p = 0.0001] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 1.3 (0.8-1.7), p = 0.0001] were higher in marathon runners, but esterified-cholesterol transfer was similar. Immediately after the marathon, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol concentrations and apo A1 levels were unchanged, but apo B and triacylglycerol levels increased. Lipid transfer of non-esterified cholesterol [6.8 (5.7-7.2) vs. 5.8 (4.9-6.6), p = 0.0001], phospholipids [21.7 (20.4-22.2) vs. 19.1 (18.6-19.3), p = 0.0001], esterified-cholesterol [3.2 (2.2-3.8) vs. 2.3 (2-2.9), p = 0.02] and triacylglycerol [3.7 (3.1-4) vs. 2.6 (2.1-2.8), p = 0.0001] to HDL were all reduced immediately after the marathon but returned to baseline 72 h later. Running a marathon increased IL-6 and TNF-α levels, but after 72 h these values returned to baseline. Lipid transfer, except esterified-cholesterol transfer, was higher in marathon runners than in sedentary individuals, but the marathon itself acutely inhibited lipid transfer. In light of these novel observations, further study is required to clarify how these metabolic changes can influence HDL composition and

  8. Structure of the Mtb CarD/RNAP β-lobes complex reveals the molecular basis of interaction and presents a distinct DNA-binding domain for Mtb CarD.

    PubMed

    Gulten, Gulcin; Sacchettini, James C

    2013-10-08

    CarD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an essential protein shown to be involved in stringent response through downregulation of rRNA and ribosomal protein genes. CarD interacts with the β-subunit of RNAP and this interaction is vital for Mtb's survival during the persistent infection state. We have determined the crystal structure of CarD in complex with the RNAP β-subunit β1 and β2 domains at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure reveals the molecular basis of CarD/RNAP interaction, providing a basis to further our understanding of RNAP regulation by CarD. The structural fold of the CarD N-terminal domain is conserved in RNAP interacting proteins such as TRCF-RID and CdnL, and displays similar interactions to the predicted homology model based on the TRCF/RNAP β1 structure. Interestingly, the structure of the C-terminal domain, which is required for complete CarD function in vivo, represents a distinct DNA-binding fold.

  9. Case report of a false positive result of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay for rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

    PubMed

    Claessens, Jolien; Mathys, Vanessa; Derdelinckx, Inge; Saegeman, Veroniek

    2016-06-10

    In the present case, we report a false positive result for the detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance by the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay, version G4.Miliary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (miliary TB) was suspected in a 50-year old Angolan woman. Imaging of the thorax and abdomen displayed diffuse lesions. The Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay conducted on the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was positive for TB and positive for RIF resistance. Confirmatory molecular tests and the phenotypic drug susceptibility determination supported the diagnosis of TB but not RIF resistance. The patient was treated successfully with a conventional therapeutic scheme. Because, the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay allows the simultaneous detection of TB and RIF resistance, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends its use as initial diagnostic test, over microscopy, culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. Even though specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay version G4 is high, false positive test results remain possible and have to be considered for the interpretation of the RIF resistance detection by Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay.

  10. Structure of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Flavin Dependent Thymidylate Synthase (MtbThyX) at 2.0 Å Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sampathkumar, Parthasarathy; Turley, Stewart; Ulmer, Jonathan E.; Rhie, Ho Gun; Hopkins Sibley, Carol; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-07-20

    A novel flavin-dependent thymidylate synthase was identified recently as an essential gene in many archaebacteria and some pathogenic eubacteria. This enzyme, ThyX, is a potential antibacterial drug target, since humans and most eukaryotes lack the thyX gene and depend upon the conventional thymidylate synthase (TS) for their dTMP requirements. We have cloned and overexpressed the thyX gene (Rv2754c) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Escherichia coli. The M. tuberculosis ThyX (MtbThyX) enzyme complements the E. coli {chi}2913 strain that lacks its conventional TS activity. The crystal structure of the homotetrameric MtbThyX was determined in the presence of the cofactor FAD and the substrate analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (BrdUMP). In the active site, which is formed by three monomers, FAD is bound in an extended conformation with the adenosine ring in a deep pocket and BrdUMP in a closed conformation near the isoalloxazine ring. Structure-based mutational studies have revealed a critical role played by residues Lys165 and Arg168 in ThyX activity, possibly by governing access to the carbon atom to be methylated of a totally buried substrate dUMP.

  11. A Comparison of Anthropometric and Training Characteristics between Female and Male Half-Marathoners and the Relationship to Race Time

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Miriam; Rüst, Christoph A.; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Patrizia; Barandun, Ursula; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Lower limb skin-fold thicknesses have been differentially associated with sex in elite runners. Front thigh and medial calf skin-fold appear to be related to 1,500m and 10,000m time in men but 400m time in women. The aim of the present study was to compare anthropometric and training characteristics in recreational female and male half-marathoners. Methods The association between both anthropometry and training characteristics and race time was investigated in 83 female and 147 male recreational half marathoners using bi- and multi-variate analyses. Results In men, body fat percentage (β=0.6), running speed during training (β=-3.7), and body mass index (β=1.9) were related to half-marathon race time after multi-variate analysis. After exclusion of body mass index, r2 decreased from 0.51 to 0.49, but body fat percentage (β=0.8) and running speed during training (β=-4.1) remained predictive. In women, body fat percentage (β=0.75) and speed during training (β=-6.5) were related to race time (r2=0.73). For women, the exclusion of body mass index had no consequence on the predictive variables for half-marathon race time. Conclusion To summarize, in both female and male recreational half-marathoners, both body fat percentage and running speed during training sessions were related to half-marathon race times when corrected with co-variates after multi-variate regression analyses. PMID:24868427

  12. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in World Marathon Majors races 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Aschmann, André; Onywera, Vincent; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The age for the fastest marathoners is well investigated, but not the age and nationality of the fastest. We investigated the age of peak marathon performance for the annual top 100 women and men competing in four races of the "World Marathon Majors" (Boston, Berlin, Chicago and New York) and the "Stockholm Marathon" between 2000 and 2014 using mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way ANOVA. Race times of Ethiopian men decreased to 2:14 h:min, but remained unchanged for Kenyan (2:14 h:min), Moroccan (2:15 h:min) and South African (2:18 h:min) men. Race times in Ethiopian (2:34 h:min), Kenyan (2:29 h:min) and South African (2:49 h:min) women showed no changes. Age increased in Ethiopian and South African men to 29.0 ± 5.0 and 32.0 ± 1.0 years, respectively. Age for Kenyan (29.9 ± 2.0 years) and Moroccan (34.9 ± 3.9 years) men remained unchanged. Age remained unchanged for Ethiopian (26.5 ± 2.0 years), Kenyan (30.0 ± 0.8 years) and South African (36.3 ± 7.0 years) women. In summary, Ethiopian men improved marathon race times, but not Ethiopian women. Age increased in Ethiopian men, but not in Ethiopian women. For practical applications, female and male marathoners from Ethiopia were the youngest and the fastest.

  13. Determinants of PCR performance (Xpert MTB/RIF), including bacterial load and inhibition, for TB diagnosis using specimens from different body compartments.

    PubMed

    Theron, Grant; Peter, Jonny; Calligaro, Greg; Meldau, Richard; Hanrahan, Colleen; Khalfey, Hoosain; Matinyenya, Brian; Muchinga, Tapuwa; Smith, Liezel; Pandie, Shaheen; Lenders, Laura; Patel, Vinod; Mayosi, Bongani M; Dheda, Keertan

    2014-07-11

    The determinants of Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity, a widely used PCR test for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are poorly understood. We compared culture time-to-positivity (TTP; a surrogate of bacterial load), MTB/RIF TB-specific and internal positive control (IPC)-specific C(T) values, and clinical characteristics in patients with suspected TB who provided expectorated (n = 438) or induced sputum (n = 128), tracheal aspirates (n = 71), bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (n = 152), pleural fluid (n = 76), cerebral spinal fluid (CSF; n = 152), pericardial fluid (n = 131), or urine (n = 173) specimens. Median bacterial load (TTP in days) was the strongest associate of MTB/RIF positivity in each fluid. TTP correlated with C(T) values in pulmonary specimens but not extrapulmonary specimens (Spearman's coefficient 0.5043 versus 0.1437; p = 0.030). Inhibition affected a greater proportion of pulmonary specimens than extrapulmonary specimens (IPC C(T) > 34: 6% (47/731) versus 1% (4/381; p < 0.0001). Pulmonary specimens had greater load than extrapulmonary specimens [TTPs (interquartile range) of 11 (7-16) versus 22 (18-33.5) days; p < 0.0001]. HIV-infection was associated with a decreased likelihood of MTB/RIF-positivity in pulmonary specimens but an increased likelihood in extrapulmonary specimens. Mycobacterial load, which displays significant variation across different body compartments, is the main determinant of MTB/RIF-positivity rather than PCR inhibition. MTB/RIF C(T) is a poor surrogate of load in extrapulmonary specimens.

  14. Comparison of AdvanSure TB/NTM PCR and COBAS TaqMan MTB PCR for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Routine Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Hyung; Won, Eun-Jeong; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Kee, Seung-Jung; Shin, Jong-Hee; Ryang, Dong-Wook; Suh, Soon-Pal

    2015-05-01

    The AdvanSure tuberculosis/non-tuberculous mycobacterium (TB/NTM) PCR (LG Life Science, Korea) and COBAS TaqMan Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) are commonly used in clinical microbiology laboratories. We aimed to evaluate these two commercial real-time PCR assays for detection of MTB in a large set of clinical samples over a two-year period. AdvanSure TB/NTM PCR and COBAS TaqMan MTB PCR were performed on 9,119 (75.2%) and 3,010 (24.8%) of 12,129 (9,728 respiratory and 2,401 non-respiratory) MTB specimens, with 361 (4.0%) and 102 (3.4%) acid-fast bacilli (AFB)-positive results, respectively. In MTB culture, 788 (6.5%) MTB and 514 (4.2%) NTM were identified. The total sensitivity and specificity of the AdvanSure assay were 67.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.9-71.6) and 98.3% (95% CI, 98.0-98.6), while those of the COBAS TaqMan assay were 67.2% (95% CI, 60.0-73.8) and 98.4% (95% CI, 97.9-98.9), respectively. The sensitivities and specificities of the AdvanSure and COBAS TaqMan assays for AFB-positive and AFB-negative samples were comparable. Furthermore, the AdvanSure assay showed fewer invalid results compared with the COBAS TaqMan assay (5.0 vs. 20.4 invalid results/1,000 tests, P<0.001). AdvanSure assay represents a comparable yet more reliable method than COBAS TaqMan for the identification of mycobacteria in routine clinical microbiology.

  15. Opportunity, Geologic and Structural Context of Aqueous Alteration in Noachian Outcrops, Marathon Valley and Rim and Endeavour Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Jolliff, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.; Golombek, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    In its 12th year of exploration and 1600 sols since arrival at the rim of the 22 km-diameter Noachian Endeavour impact crater, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed from the summit of the western rim segment "Cape Tribulation" to "Marathon Valley", a shallow trough dissecting the rim and the site of strong orbital detection of smectites. In situ analysis of the exposures within Marathon Valley is establishing some of the geologic and geochemical controls on the aqueous alteration responsible for smectite detection known to occur in crater rims throughout Noachian terrains of Mars.

  16. The Dynamics of Cardiovascular Biomarkers in non-Elite Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Roca, Emma; Nescolarde, Lexa; Lupón, Josep; Barallat, Jaume; Januzzi, James L; Liu, Peter; Cruz Pastor, M; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2017-04-05

    The number of recreational/non-elite athletes participating in marathons is increasing, but data regarding impact of endurance exercise on cardiovascular health are conflicting. This study evaluated 79 recreational athletes of the 2016 Barcelona Marathon (72% men; mean age 39 ± 6 years; 71% ≥35 years). Blood samples were collected at baseline (24-48 h before the race), immediately after the race (1-2 h after the race), and 48-h post-race. Amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP, a marker of myocardial strain), ST2 (a marker of extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrosis, inflammation, and myocardial strain), and high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT, a marker of myocyte stress/injury) were assayed. The median (interquartile range, IQR) years of training was 7 (5-11) years and median (IQR) weekly training hours was 6 (5-8) h/week, respectively. The median (IQR) race time (h:min:s) was 3:32:44 (3:18:50-3:51:46). Echocardiographic indices were within normal ranges. Immediately after the race, blood concentration of the three cardiac biomarkers increased significantly, with 1.3-, 1.6-, and 16-fold increases in NT-proBNP, ST2, and hs-TnT, respectively. We found an inverse relationship between weekly training hours and increased ST2 (p = 0.007), and a direct relationship between race time and increased hs-TnT (p < 0.001) and ST2 (p = 0.05). Our findings indicate that preparation for and participation in marathon running may affect multiple pathways affecting the cardiovascular system. More data and long-term follow-up studies in non-elite and elite athletes are needed.

  17. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress marathon field studies.

    PubMed

    Maron, Michael B

    2014-03-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for studying runners under race conditions was based on my belief as a marathoner that runners would push themselves much harder while competing than under simulated conditions in the laboratory. Horvath's ready support of the studies likely had its roots in his graduate training at the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory, a laboratory well known for its field studies of individuals working in extreme environments. This report describes the studies of 1973-1975, focusing on how the measurements were made and detailing the learning experiences of a new graduate student. In 1973, blood chemistry and fluid shifts were studied in six runners before and for 3 days after a race. This was the first modern study to systematically examine the recovery process. In 1974, oxygen consumption was measured every 3 mi. in two runners during the race. In 1975, rectal temperature and five skin temperatures were evaluated in the same two runners every 1.4 mi. of the race. The latter two studies were the first to make such measurements under race conditions. The Institute of Environmental Stress marathon studies demonstrated the possibility of making measurements during competition without disrupting performance, enhanced our understanding of human exercise capacity under competitive conditions, and provided new insight into the postrace recovery process.

  18. Structural style and tectonic evolution of the marathon thrust belt, west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Varga, R.J.; Altany, R.M.; Witmer, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A balanced cross section indicates that the basal Dugout Creek thrust is strongly folded and that the Marathon facies rocks overlie a folded and thrusted sequence of late Paleozoic strata. Shortening in the allochthonous sequence is >80%. Extreme shortening across anticlinoria requires upper level detachments. These appear to have been duplex zones connected to the basal fault by steep imbricates. Progressive deformation folded the imbricates and the roof thrusts of these zones. Individual units have distinct deformational styles. Folds in the Caballos Fm. are tight, high-amplitude concentric folds with wave-lengths of 0.5 to 1.7 km. Pre-Caballos units are characterized by smaller wavelength box and chevron folds and imbricate faults. The overlying Tesnus Fm. is exposed in broad synclines. High strain within the cores of the synclines was accommodated by development of cleavage and axial-parallel pencil lineation. The pre-Mississippian part of the Marathon sequence represents slope deposits developed along a divergent continental margin. The Mississippian was marked by flysch sedimentation (Tesnus Fm.) which heralded the beginning of collision of Gondwanaland. Much of this sediment was derived from Devonian and older strata of Gondwanaland. The Tesnus Fm. was deposited on the slope sequence and is entirely allochthonous. By Atokan-Virgilian times, the slope/Tesnus sequence overrode the miogeoclinal sequence of North America. Permian foreland and taphrogenic basins formed within shelf areas north of the Marathon region during continued compression. Deformation progressed from SE to NW during a period of about 70 million years.

  19. Anthropometric Characteristics of Chinese Professional Female Marathoners and Predicted Variables for Their Personal Bests.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Gang; Wang, Yang; Bao, Da-Peng; Hu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate anthropometric characteristics of Chinese professional female marathoners and suitable predicted variables correlated with their personal bests (PB), 96 Chinese female long-distance runners were divided into international (< 2 h 34 min), national (2 h 34 min~2 h 45 min) and average (2 h 45 min~3 h 19 min) levels according to their PB in marathon during the process of talent identification for London Olympic Games. Selected anthropometric variables, including height, body mass, percentages of body fat, girths, breadths, lengths and skin-folds were measured. Only iliac crest skin-fold of international athletes was significantly lower than it is in national group. Girth of forearm and lower limbs, length of lower limbs, and all skin-folds of national athletes were significantly lower than those from average level group. Percentages of body fat, girth of forearm and calf, length of lower limbs, and skin-folds at sites of subscapular, abdominal and iliac crest of athletes from average level group were significantly higher than those in international athletes. Positive correlation was found between forearm girth and PB, and between the subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB for total athletes. Negative correlation between biiliac breadth and PB in international athletes, and positive correlations between abdominal and triceps surae skin-folds and PB in national athletes were found. For average runners, high positive correlation was found between upper arm girth and PB, and between subscapular, abdominal, iliac crest and triceps surae skin-folds and PB. The findings suggested that compared to stride length, stride frequency and efficiency were more important factors influencing running performance, which were in accordance with running technique in Chinese female marathoners.

  20. [Hyponatremic encephalopathy with non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Development following marathon run].

    PubMed

    Wellershoff, G

    2013-04-01

    This article presents the case of a 52-year-old woman who developed exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) complicated by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema after a marathon run. The condition of EAH is a potentially life-threatening complication of endurance exercise. The main cause seems to be inadequate intake of free water during or following exercise with enduring antidiuresis due to nonosmotic stimulation of ADH secretion. Known risk factors are female gender, slow running pace and lack of weight loss. Emergency therapy is fluid restriction and bolus infusion of 3% NaCl solution to rapidly reduce brain edema.

  1. Compositions of Diverse Noachian Lithologies at Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, Ralf; Yen, Albert S.; Ming, Douglas W.; Van Bommel, Scott; Farrand, William H.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Rice, James W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Meridiani Planum for 11+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of rim segments of 22 km diameter, Noachian-aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology and impact breccias representing ejecta from the crater. Opportunity is now investigating the head (higher elevation, western end) of Marathon Valley. This valley cuts eastward through the central portion of the Cape Tribulation rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record of the rim. At the head of Marathon Valley is a shallow (few 10s of cm), ovoid depression approximately 27×36 m in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis, that is surrounded by approximately 20-30 cm wide zone of more reddish rocks (red zone). Opportunity has just entered a region of Marathon Valley that shows evidence for Fe-Mg smectite in Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars spectra indicating areally extensive and distinct lithologic units and/or styles of aqueous alteration. Rocks at the head of Marathon Valley and within Spirit of Saint Louis are breccias (valley-head rocks). In some areas, layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the rocks outside. The valley-head rocks are of similar, generally basaltic composition. The continuity in composition, texture and layering suggest the valley-head rocks are coeval breccias, likely from the Endeavour impact. These local breccias are similar in non-volatile-element composition to breccias investigated elsewhere on the rim. Rocks within the red zone are like those on either side in texture, but have higher Al, Si and Ge, and lower S, Mn, Fe, Ni and Zn as compared to rocks on either side. The valley-head rocks have higher S than most Endeavour rim breccias, while red zone rocks are like those latter breccias in S. Patches within the rocks outside Spirit of Saint Louis have higher Al, Si and Ge indicating

  2. Rhythm Analyses Of Melodies Used To Obtain Women Marathon Gold Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tacano, Munecazu; Yokokura, Saburo; Kajiwara, Yoko; Pavelka, Jan; Tanuma, Nobuhisa; Uemura, Tatsuhisa; Hashiguchi, Sumihisa; Sikula, Josef

    2005-11-01

    In Athena Olympics in 2004 a Japanese girl got the gold medal in Women Marathon games. Just before the beginning, she was listening to some domestic melodies in order to concentrate on the race. The rhythm or power of that music is found to have the typical 1/f noise characteristics. The 1/f music is found effective to concentrate as well as to relax themselves for a fairly long time range, while some short time trial runner uses a kind of white noise like music.

  3. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  4. [Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF test for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance in clinical samples].

    PubMed

    Gürsoy, Nafia Canan; Yakupoğulları, Yusuf; Tekerekoğlu, Mehmet Sait; Otlu, Barış

    2016-04-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of active tuberculosis (TB) cases is one of the most important goal of tuberculosis control programme. For this purpose, new methods are being developed to isolate, serotype and determine the drug resistance of the agent. Xpert MTB/RIF test (CepheidGeneXpert® System, USA) that has been recently developed, is a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method which detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and resistance of the strain to rifampicin (RIF) from the clinical sample directly within a couple of hours. However, there are not sufficient data about the performance of that test for extrapulmonary samples and pulmonary samples other than sputum. The aims of this study were to investigate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Xpert MTB/RIF test in detection of M. tuberculosis and the performance in the determination of rifampicin resistance of the isolates from pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical samples. A total of 2160 clinical samples, in which 1141 (52.8%) were pulmonary and 1019 (47.2%) were extrapulmonary samples, sent to our laboratory between July 2013 to December 2014, were included in the study. Sixty seven of the evaluated samples (3.1%) were positive with microscopy (acid-fast stain; AFS), 116 samples (5.1%) were positive with culture and 98 samples (4.5%) were positive with Xpert MTB/RIF test. When the culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF test were determined as 73.3% and 99.3%, respectively for all samples; 77.5% and 99.5%, respectively for pulmonary samples and 63.9% and 99.2%, respectively for extrapulmonary samples. Among AFS positive samples, the sensitivity was 100% and specificity was 66.7%; whereas among AFS negative samples those values were 40.4% and 99.4%, respectively. Among all the samples involved in the study, RIF resistance was determined only in three samples with Xpert MTB/ RIF test and that was also

  5. Analytical and clinical performance characteristics of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance, an assay for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary specimens.

    PubMed

    Kostera, Joshua; Leckie, Gregor; Tang, Ning; Lampinen, John; Szostak, Magdalena; Abravaya, Klara; Wang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    Clinical management of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients continues to present significant challenges to global health. To tackle these challenges, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was developed to accelerate the diagnosis of rifampicin and/or isoniazid resistant tuberculosis to within a day. This article summarizes the performance of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay; including reliability, analytical sensitivity, and clinical sensitivity/specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF version 1.0 and Hain MTBDRplus version 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) of the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay was determined to be 32 colony forming units/milliliter (cfu/mL) using the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strain H37Rv cell line. For rifampicin resistance detection, the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF. For isoniazid resistance detection, the assay demonstrated statistically equivalent clinical sensitivity and specificity as compared to Hain MTBDRplus. The performance data presented herein demonstrate that the Abbott RealTime MTB RIF/INH Resistance assay is a sensitive, robust, and reliable test for realtime simultaneous detection of first line anti-tuberculosis antibiotics rifampicin and isoniazid in patient specimens.

  6. What is the age for the fastest ultra-marathon performance in time-limited races from 6 h to 10 days?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Valeri, Fabio; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that the age of peak ultra-marathon performance seemed to increase with increasing race distance. The present study investigated the age of peak ultra-marathon performance for runners competing in time-limited ultra-marathons held from 6 to 240 h (i.e. 10 days) during 1975-2013. Age and running performance in 20,238 (21%) female and 76,888 (79%) male finishes (6,863 women and 24,725 men, 22 and 78%, respectively) were analysed using mixed-effects regression analyses. The annual number of finishes increased for both women and men in all races. About one half of the finishers completed at least one race and the other half completed more than one race. Most of the finishes were achieved in the fourth decade of life. The age of the best ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration, also when only one or at least five successful finishes were considered. The lowest age of peak ultra-marathon performance was in 6 h (33.7 years, 95% CI 32.5-34.9 years) and the highest in 48 h (46.8 years, 95% CI 46.1-47.5). With increasing number of finishes, the athletes improved performance. Across years, performance decreased, the age of peak performance increased, and the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing number of finishes. In summary, the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased and performance decreased in time-limited ultra-marathons. The age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased with increasing race duration and with increasing number of finishes. These athletes improved race performance with increasing number of finishes.

  7. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF under routine conditions in diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis: a study in two hospitals in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, S K; Kumar, A M V; Dogar, O F; Khan, M A; Qadeer, E; Tahseen, S; Masood, F; Chandio, A K; Edginton, M E

    2013-03-21

    Xpert(®) MTB/RIF testing was offered to consecutive patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) attending two hospitals in Pakistan during April-May 2012, in addition to routine diagnostic protocol (smear microscopy, chest radiography and clinical judgement). We assessed the relative contribution of each tool in detecting pulmonary TB under routine conditions. Of 606 participants, 121 (20%) were detected as pulmonary TB: 46 (38%) by microscopy, 38 (31%) by Xpert alone and 37 (31%) on clinical and radiological grounds; 41 (65%) were detected by both Xpert and microscopy. One patient had rifampicin resistance. Although Xpert detected approximately twice as many TB cases as microscopy (n = 79, 65%), clinical judgement remained favoured by clinicians even when smear and Xpert were negative.

  8. Xpert MTB/RIF Assay Shows Faster Clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA with Higher Levels of Rifapentine Exposure.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, A; Savic, R M; Everett, C K; Benator, D; Alland, D; Heilig, C M; Weiner, M; Friedrich, S O; Martinson, N A; Kerrigan, A; Zamudio, C; Goldberg, S V; Whitworth, W C; Davis, J L; Nahid, P

    2016-12-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses of up to 20 mg/kg of body weight. Xpert was performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Longitudinal CT data were modeled using a nonlinear mixed effects model in relation to rifapentine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]). The rate of change of CT was higher in subjects receiving rifapentine than in subjects receiving standard-dose rifampin. Moreover, rifapentine exposure, but not assigned dose, was significantly associated with rate of change in CT (P = 0.02). The estimated increase in CT slope for every additional 100 μg · h/ml of rifapentine drug exposure (as measured by AUC) was 0.11 CT/week (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.17). Increasing rifapentine exposure is associated with a higher rate of change of Xpert CT, indicating faster clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. These data suggest that the quantitative outputs of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be useful as a dynamic measure of TB treatment response.

  9. Xpert MTB/RIF Assay Shows Faster Clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA with Higher Levels of Rifapentine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, A.; Savic, R. M.; Everett, C. K.; Benator, D.; Alland, D.; Heilig, C. M.; Weiner, M.; Friedrich, S. O.; Martinson, N. A.; Kerrigan, A.; Zamudio, C.; Goldberg, S. V.; Whitworth, W. C.; Davis, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is both sensitive and specific as a diagnostic test. Xpert also reports quantitative output in cycle threshold (CT) values, which may provide a dynamic measure of sputum bacillary burden when used longitudinally. We evaluated the relationship between Xpert CT trajectory and drug exposure during tuberculosis (TB) treatment to assess the potential utility of Xpert CT for treatment monitoring. We obtained serial sputum samples from patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB who were consecutively enrolled at 10 international clinical trial sites participating in study 29X, a CDC-sponsored Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study evaluating the tolerability, safety, and antimicrobial activity of rifapentine at daily doses of up to 20 mg/kg of body weight. Xpert was performed at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12. Longitudinal CT data were modeled using a nonlinear mixed effects model in relation to rifapentine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC]). The rate of change of CT was higher in subjects receiving rifapentine than in subjects receiving standard-dose rifampin. Moreover, rifapentine exposure, but not assigned dose, was significantly associated with rate of change in CT (P = 0.02). The estimated increase in CT slope for every additional 100 μg · h/ml of rifapentine drug exposure (as measured by AUC) was 0.11 CT/week (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.17). Increasing rifapentine exposure is associated with a higher rate of change of Xpert CT, indicating faster clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. These data suggest that the quantitative outputs of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be useful as a dynamic measure of TB treatment response. PMID:27733634

  10. VNIR Multispectral Observations of Rocks at Spirit of St. Louis Crater and Marathon Valley on Th Rim of Endeavour Crater Made by the Opportunity Rover Pancam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Mittlefehldt, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the western rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August, 2011. Recently, Opportunity has reached a break in the Endeavour rim that the rover team has named Mara-thon Valley. This is the site where orbital observations from the MRO CRISM imaging spectrometer indicated the presence of iron smectites. On the outer western portion of Marathon Valley, Opportunity explored the crater-form feature dubbed Spirit of St. Louis (SoSL) crater. This presentation describes the 430 to 1009 nm (VNIR) reflectance, measured by the rover's Pancam, of rock units present both at Spirit of St. Louis and within Marathon Valley.

  11. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasun, G. Sue

    2013-01-01

    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  12. Expanding What It Means to Make Evidence-Based Claims: Online Comments and the Boston Marathon Bombings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that exploration of media coverage of a story like the Boston Marathon bombings, including online comments posted by readers, can support youth in reflecting on and thinking critically about a tragedy while offering opportunities for literacy pedagogy consistent with the goals of the Common Core State Standards for English…

  13. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K.K.; Luk, Connie W.Y.; Ning, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring. PMID:26861336

  14. Development and Application of a Next Generation Air Sensor Network for the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Wong, Ka Chun; Wei, Peng; Ye, Sheng; Huang, Hao; Yang, Fenhuan; Westerdahl, Dane; Louie, Peter K K; Luk, Connie W Y; Ning, Zhi

    2016-02-05

    This study presents the development and evaluation of a next generation air monitoring system with both laboratory and field tests. A multi-parameter algorithm was used to correct for the impact of environmental conditions on the electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollutants. The field evaluation in an urban roadside environment in comparison to designated monitors showed good agreement with measurement error within 5% of the pollutant concentrations. Multiple sets of the developed system were then deployed in the Hong Kong Marathon 2015 forming a sensor-based network along the marathon route. Real-time air pollution concentration data were wirelessly transmitted and the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) for the Green Marathon was calculated, which were broadcast to the public on an hourly basis. The route-specific sensor network showed somewhat different pollutant patterns than routine air monitoring, indicating the immediate impact of traffic control during the marathon on the roadside air quality. The study is one of the first applications of a next generation sensor network in international sport events, and it demonstrated the usefulness of the emerging sensor-based air monitoring technology in rapid network deployment to supplement existing air monitoring.

  15. Detection of changes in the fractal scaling of heart rate and speed in a marathon race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billat, Véronique L.; Mille-Hamard, Laurence; Meyer, Yves; Wesfreid, Eva

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to detect changes in the fractal scaling behavior of heart rate and speed fluctuations when the average runner’s speed decreased with fatigue. Scaling analysis in heart rate (HR) and speed (S) dynamics of marathon runners was performed using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the wavelet based structure function. We considered both: the short-range ( α1) and the long-range ( α2) scaling exponents for the DFA method separated by a change-point, n0=64=5.3 min (box length), the same for all the races. The variability of HR and S decreased in the second part of the marathon race, while the cardiac cost time series (i.e. the number of cardiac beats per meter) increased due to the decreasing speed behavior. The scaling exponents α1 and α2 of HR and α1 of S, increased during the race ( p<0.01) as did the HR wavelet scaling exponent ( τ). These findings provide evidence of the significant effect of fatigue induced by long exercise on the heart rate and speed variability.

  16. Impact of different running distances on muscle and lymphocyte DNA damage in amateur marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae Hoon; Paik, Il Young; Woo, Jin Hee; Shin, Ki Ok; Cho, Su Youn; Roh, Hee Tae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different marathon running distances (10 km, 21 km, and 42.195 km) on muscle and lymphocyte DNA damage in amateur marathon runners. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male amateur runners were randomly assigned to 10 km, 21 km, and 42 km groups, with 10 subjects in each group. Blood samples were collected before and after the races and on the 3rd day of recovery to examine levels of muscle damage (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) and lymphocyte DNA damage (DNA in the tail, tail length, and tail moment). [Results] Serum creatine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and tail moment were significantly higher after the races compared with before the races in all groups. In addition, the 42 km group showed significantly higher levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and tail moment than the 10 km and 21 km groups after the races. [Conclusion] Strenuous endurance exercise can cause muscle and lymphocyte DNA damage, and the extent of such damage can increase as running distance increases.

  17. Seismic imaging of producing trend of Marathon thrust belt, Terrell County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagne, A.J.; Pennachioni, J.L.; Leising, T.C.

    1987-05-01

    Exploration in the Marathon thrust belt has resulted in the discovery of three fields producing from fractured Caballos novaculite of Devonian age. The relatively shallow depth of production makes Caballos anticlines attractive targets. However, seismic data in the area are generally very poor due largely to high-amplitude coherent surface noise generated within Edwards Group limestones (Lower Cretaceous) during shooting. In January 1986, a Vibroseis test line was shot southeast of McKay Creek field (Terrell County) with the objective of recording useable data from the thrusted section. Extensive field tests were conducted before selecting final acquisition parameters. The Wide Line Profiling (TM) technique was used to acquire three parallel lines spaced 220 ft apart. The lines were recorded and processed separately and later were stacked together to generate a superstack of 120 fold. The superstack shows coherent events in the shallow (thrusted) section and relatively continuous events in the deeper (subthrust) section. The productive anticlinal trend in the vicinity of McKay Creek field was found to have a distinctive seismic expression. To facilitate seismic interpretation, a geologic field study was made of McKay Creek. The field is interpreted to consist of a (Woods Hollow) shale-cored Caballos anticline overridden by a shallower thrust that carries Caballos. The seismic data are interpreted to exhibit a similar structural style. The test line appears to have successfully imaged the producing trend of the Marathon thrust belt, suggesting that it will be possible to explore this play seismically in the future.

  18. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running.

    PubMed

    Howatson, G; McHugh, M P; Hill, J A; Brouner, J; Jewell, A P; van Someren, K A; Shave, R E; Howatson, S A

    2010-12-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of a tart cherry juice in aiding recovery and reducing muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Twenty recreational Marathon runners assigned to either consumed cherry juice or placebo for 5 days before, the day of and for 48 h following a Marathon run. Markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, muscle soreness and isometric strength), inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid], total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress [thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls] were examined before and following the race. Isometric strength recovered significantly faster (P=0.024) in the cherry juice group. No other damage indices were significantly different. Inflammation was reduced in the cherry juice group (IL-6, P<0.001; CRP, P<0.01; uric acid, P<0.05). TAS was ~10% greater in the cherry juice than the placebo group for all post-supplementation measures (P<0.05). Protein carbonyls was not different; however, TBARS was lower in the cherry juice than the placebo at 48 h (P<0.05). The cherry juice appears to provide a viable means to aid recovery following strenuous exercise by increasing total antioxidative capacity, reducing inflammation, lipid peroxidation and so aiding in the recovery of muscle function.

  19. Rapid and Accurate Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Sputum Samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF Assay—A Clinical Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Rachow, Andrea; Zumla, Alimuddin; Heinrich, Norbert; Rojas-Ponce, Gabriel; Mtafya, Bariki; Reither, Klaus; Ntinginya, Elias N.; O'Grady, Justin; Huggett, Jim; Dheda, Keertan; Boehme, Catharina; Perkins, Mark; Saathoff, Elmar; Hoelscher, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background A crucial impediment to global tuberculosis control is the lack of an accurate, rapid diagnostic test for detection of patients with active TB. A new, rapid diagnostic method, (Cepheid) Xpert MTB/RIF Assay, is an automated sample preparation and real-time PCR instrument, which was shown to have good potential as an alternative to current reference standard sputum microscopy and culture. Methods We performed a clinical validation study on diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay in a TB and HIV endemic setting. Sputum samples from 292 consecutively enrolled adults from Mbeya, Tanzania, with suspected TB were subject to analysis by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay. The diagnostic performance of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay was compared to standard sputum smear microscopy and culture. Confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a positive culture was used as a reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Xpert MTB/RIF Assay achieved 88.4% (95%CI = 78.4% to 94.9%) sensitivity among patients with a positive culture and 99% (95%CI = 94.7% to 100.0%) specificity in patients who had no TB. HIV status did not affect test performance in 172 HIV-infected patients (58.9% of all participants). Seven additional cases (9.1% of 77) were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF Assay among the group of patients with clinical TB who were culture negative. Within 45 sputum samples which grew non-tuberculous mycobacteria the assay's specificity was 97.8% (95%CI = 88.2% to 99.9%). Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay is a highly sensitive, specific and rapid method for diagnosing TB which has potential to complement the current reference standard of TB diagnostics and increase its overall sensitivity. Its usefulness in detecting sputum smear and culture negative patients needs further study. Further evaluation in high burden TB and HIV areas under programmatic health care settings to ascertain applicability, cost-effectiveness, robustness and local acceptance are required. PMID:21738575

  20. Diagnostic Accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in Comparison to Conventional Drug Susceptibility Testing Method for the Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pratikshya; Pant, Narayan Dutt; Rijal, Komal Raj; Shrestha, Bhawana; Kattel, Sirita; Banjara, Megha Raj; Maharjan, Bhagwan; Kc, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method. McNemar chi square test was used to compare the performance of Xpert with that of DST method. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of total 88 culture positive samples, one was reported as invalid while 2 were found to contain nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Among remaining 85 Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positive samples, 69 were found to be MDR-TB positive by both methods. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay were found to be 98.6%, 100%, 100% and 93.8% respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the diagnostic performance of Xpert and conventional DST method for detection of MDR-TB. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was found to be highly sensitive, specific and comparable to gold standard conventional DST method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB.

  1. Accuracy of Lipoarabinomannan and Xpert MTB/RIF Testing in Cerebrospinal Fluid To Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis in an Autopsy Cohort of HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Cox, Janneke A; Lukande, Robert L; Kalungi, Sam; Van Marck, Eric; Lammens, Martin; Van de Vijver, Koen; Kambugu, Andrew; Nelson, Ann M; Colebunders, Robert; Manabe, Yukari C

    2015-08-01

    Point-of-care tests for tuberculous meningitis (TBM) are needed. We studied the diagnostic accuracy of the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) lateral flow assay (LFA), LAM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and Xpert MTB/RIF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in an autopsy cohort of Ugandan HIV-infected adults. We obtained written informed consent postmortem from the next of kin. A complete autopsy was done and CSF obtained. We performed LAM LFA (on unprepared and supernatant CSF after heating and spinning), LAM ELISA, and Xpert MTB/RIF on the CSF samples. Accuracy parameters were calculated for histopathological TBM and also for the composite standard, including Xpert MTB/RIF-positive cases. We tested CSF of 91 patients. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 75% for definite histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 43%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 100% and specificities of 87%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 50% for definite and probable histopathological TBM, ELISA a sensitivity of 38%, and Xpert MTB/RIF a sensitivity of 86% and specificities of 70%, 91%, and 87%, respectively. LAM LFA had a sensitivity of 68% for the composite standard and ELISA a sensitivity of 48% and specificities of 78% and 98%, respectively. The rapid diagnostic tests detected TBM in 22% to 78% of patients not on anti-TB treatment. Point-of-care tests have high accuracy in diagnosis of TBM in deceased HIV-infected adults. LAM LFA in CSF is a useful additional diagnostic tool.

  2. Diagnostic Accuracy of GeneXpert MTB/RIF Assay in Comparison to Conventional Drug Susceptibility Testing Method for the Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Pratikshya; Rijal, Komal Raj; Shrestha, Bhawana; Kattel, Sirita; Banjara, Megha Raj; Maharjan, Bhagwan; KC, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF assay is regarded as a great achievement of modern medicine for the rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The main purpose of this study was to determine the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. A comparative cross sectional study was carried out at German-Nepal Tuberculosis Project, Kathmandu, Nepal, from April 2014 to September 2014. A total of 88 culture positive clinical samples (83 pulmonary and 5 extra-pulmonary) received during the study period were analyzed for detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis by both GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and conventional DST method. McNemar chi square test was used to compare the performance of Xpert with that of DST method. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Of total 88 culture positive samples, one was reported as invalid while 2 were found to contain nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). Among remaining 85 Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture positive samples, 69 were found to be MDR-TB positive by both methods. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay were found to be 98.6%, 100%, 100% and 93.8% respectively. Statistically, there was no significant difference between the diagnostic performance of Xpert and conventional DST method for detection of MDR-TB. GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay was found to be highly sensitive, specific and comparable to gold standard conventional DST method for the diagnosis of MDR-TB. PMID:28081227

  3. Bone turnover response is linked to both acute and established metabolic changes in ultra-marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Veronica; Vernillo, Gianluca; Perego, Silvia; Barbuti, Andrea; Merati, Giampiero; Schena, Federico; La Torre, Antonio; Banfi, Giuseppe; Lombardi, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    Bone and energy metabolisms regulation depends on a two-way street aimed at regulating energy utilization. Mountain ultra-marathons are highly demanding aerobic performances that deeply affect the whole body homeostasis. In this study we aimed to investigate and characterize the metabolic profile (in terms of hormones involved in energy metabolism), the inflammatory adipokines, and the bone turnover; in particular the osteocalcin-mediated response has been compared in experienced mountain ultra-marathons runners versus control subjects. Serum concentrations of specific markers of bone turnover (pro-collagen type I N-terminal propeptide, carboxylated/undercarboxylated osteocalcin), measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and metabolic hormones (C-peptide, insulin, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide, gastric-inhibitory peptide, ghrelin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin), measured by fluorescent-based multiplex assay, were compared before and after a 65 km mountain ultra-marathons in 17 trained runners and 12 age-matched controls characterized by a low physical activity profile. After the mountain ultra-marathons, runners experienced a reduction in pro-collagen type I N-terminal propeptide, though it remained higher than in controls; while carboxylated osteocalcin remained unchanged. Among the metabolic hormones, only glucagon and leptin were different between runners and controls at rest. C-peptide and leptin decreased after the mountain ultra-marathons in runners; while glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, resistin, and visfatin were all increased. Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (and uncarboxylated/carboxylated osteocalcin ratio) was decreased and this highly correlated with insulin and C-peptide levels. In conditions of high energy expenditure, homeostasis is maintained at expenses of bone metabolism. Changes in the uncarboxylated osteocalcin clearly mark the global energy needs of the body.

  4. Study of weather and thermal comfort influence on sport performance: prognostic analysis applied to Rio de Janeiro's city marathon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, M.; Herdies, D. L.; Gonçalves, L. G.

    2013-05-01

    There is nowadays a growing interest in the influence and impacts of weather and climate in human life. The weather conditions analysis shows the utility of this type of tool when applied in sports. These conditions act as a differential in strategy and training, especially for outdoor sports. This study had as aim objective develop weather forecast and thermal comfort evaluation targeted to sports, and hoped that the results can be used to the development of products and weather service in the Olympic Games 2016 in Rio de Janeiro City. The use of weather forecast applied to the sport showed to be efficient for the case of Rio de Janeiro City Marathon, especially due to the high spatial resolution. The WRF simulations for the three marathons studied showed good results for temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity. On the other hand, the forecast of the wind showed a pattern of overestimation of the real situation in all cases. It was concluded that the WRF model provides, in general, more representative simulations from 36 hours in advance, and with 18 hours of integration they were even better, describing efficiently the synoptic situation that would be found. A review of weather conditions and thermal comfort at specific points of the marathon route showed that there are significant differences between the stages of the marathon, which makes possible to plan the competition strategy under the thermal comfort. It was concluded that a relationship between a situation more thermally comfortable (uncomfortable) and the best (worst) time in Rio de Janeiro City Marathon

  5. The effects of running a 308 km ultra-marathon on cardiac markers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Joo; Shin, Young-Oh; Lee, Jeong-Beom; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Shin, Kyung-A; Kim, Al-Chan; Goh, Choong-Won; Kim, Chul; Oh, Jae-Keun; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cardiac strain and damage in 18 male marathoners with average age of 52.8 ± 5.0 years running at a 308 km ultra-marathon. Blood samples were collected at pre-race, 100 km, 200 km and 308 km check points for the analysis of cardiac muscle injury markers, creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac muscle strain marker, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The CK levels increased 1127.2 ± 507.9 IU/L, 5133.8 ± 2492.7 IU/L and 4958.4 ± 2087.9 IU/L at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB levels increased 20.2 ± 11.2 ng/mL, 73.3 ± 35.6 ng/mL and 68.6 ± 42.6 ng/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The CK-MB/CK ratio showed that the CK-MB mass index was within the normal range (<2.5%) at 100 km, 200 km and 308 km. The cTnI levels showed no significant difference in all check points. The NT-proBNP levels increased 146.55 ± 92.7 pg/mL, 167.95 ± 111.9 pg/mL and 241.23 ± 121.2 pg/mL at 100, 200 and 308 km, respectively, compared to the pre-race levels. The normal CK-MB mass index (<5.0 ng/mL) and the absence of an increase in the cTnI levels during the 308 km ultra-marathon suggested that no myocardial injury despite an elevation in CK-MB. The increase in NT-proBNP levels probably resulted from continuous hemodynamic cardiac stress and represents a transient physiological myocardial protective response.

  6. Increase in finishers and improvement of performance of masters runners in the Marathon des Sables

    PubMed Central

    Jampen, Saskia Carolin; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Lepers, Romuald; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to examine finisher and performance trends of ultrarunners in the Marathon des Sables, the world’s largest multistage ultramarathon. Methods The age and running speed was analyzed for 6945 finishes of 909 women and 6036 men between 2003 and 2012 at the Marathon des Sables covering about 240 km in the Moroccan desert. Results The number of finishes increased significantly for both women and men from 2003–2012. The annual number of finishes increased in age groups: 30–34 years (r2 = 0.50; P = 0.021), 45–49 years (r2 = 0.81; P = 0.0004), and 50–54 years (r2 = 0.46; P = 0.029) for women and in all age groups older than 35 years for men (35–39 years: r2 = 0.64, P = 0.0054; 40–44 years: r2 = 0.67, P = 0.0036; 45–49 years: r2 = 0.77, P = 0.0007; 50–54 years: r2 = 0.72, P = 0.0018; 55–59 years: r2 = 0.42, P = 0.041; and 60–64 years: r2 = 0.67, P = 0.0038). The fastest running speed was achieved by runners in the age group of 35–39 years for both sexes. The mean age of overall finishers was 41.0 ± 9.1 years for women and 41.3 ± 9.5 years for men. For men, running speed improved for athletes in the age group of 35–39 years (r2 = 0.44; P = 0.036) and of 40–44 years (r2 = 0.51; P = 0.019), while it decreased for athletes in the age group of 30–34 years (r2 = 0.66, P = 0.0039). For women, running speed remained stable during the study period for athletes in all age groups. Conclusion These data suggest that the number of finishers of masters runners older than 40 years increased for both sexes at the Marathon des Sables, as has been previously observed for single-stage ultramarathons. In contrast to women, men aged 35 to 44 years improved running speed during the study period. Future studies are needed to investigate the reasons for the growing numbers of masters athletes in endurance sports and their improvement in performance. PMID:23776392

  7. Localized and Areally Extensive Alterations in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Gellert, Ralf; Van Bommel, Scott; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Clark, Benton C.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Farrand, William H.; Ming, Douglas W.; Schroeder, Christian; Yen, Albert S.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring the rim of 22 km diameter, Noachian-aged Endeavour crater. Marathon Valley cuts through the central region of the western rim providing a window into the local lower rim stratigraphic record. Spectra from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars show evidence for the occurrence of Fe-Mg smectite in this valley, indicating areally extensive and distinct lithologic units and/or styles of aqueous alteration. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of 59 outcrop targets on untreated, brushed and abraded surfaces. Rocks in the Marathon Valley region are soft breccias composed of mm- to cm-sized darker clasts set in a lighter-toned, finegrained matrix. They are basaltic in non-volatile-element composition and compositionally similar to breccias investigated elsewhere on the rim. Alteration styles recorded in the rocks include: (1) Enrichments in Si, Al, Ti and Cr in more reddish-colored rock, consistent with leaching of more soluble cations and/or precipitation of Si +/- Al, Ti, Cr from fluids. Coprecipitation of Ge-rich phases with Si occurred in the western area only; high water:rock is indicated. Pancam multispectral observations indicate higher nanophase ferric oxide contents, but the rocks have lower Fe contents. The highly localized nature of the red zones indicate they cannot be the source of the widespread smectite signature observed from orbit. (2) Outcrops separated by approximately 65 m show common compositional changes between brushed and abraded (approximately 1 mm deep) targets: increases in S and Mg; decreases in Al, Cl and Ca. These changes are likely due to relatively recent, surface-related alteration of valley rocks and formation of surface coatings under low water:rock. (3) One target, from the center of a region of strong CRISM smectite signature, shows modest differences in composition (higher Si, K; lower Mn) compared to most Marathon Valley rocks, while

  8. Magnetic behaviour of the MTbF{sub 6} fluoroterbates (M=Cd, Ca, Sr, ({alpha}/{beta})-Ba)

    SciTech Connect

    Josse, M.; El-Ghozzi, M.; Avignant, D.; Andre, G.; Bouree, F.; Isnard, O.

    2012-01-15

    Neutron powder diffraction has been performed on the MTbF{sub 6} fluorides (M=Cd, Ca, Sr, ({alpha}/{beta})-Ba). Four of these fluorides (Cd, Ca, Sr, {beta}-Ba) are built of a (pseudo-) tetragonal packing of [TbF{sub 6}]{sup 2-} chains and only differs by the chains relative orientations. Thus this series represents a valuable opportunity to evaluate the Tb{sup 4+}-Tb{sup 4+} magnetic interactions. All the compounds displayed antiferromagnetic order (T{sub N}=2.70 K (Cd), 2.15 K (Ca), 2.60 K (Sr), 2.10 K ({beta}-Ba)), except for the {alpha} form of BaTbF{sub 6}. The crystal structure of this latter fluoroterbate has also been investigated by means of high-resolution neutron powder diffraction. From Neutron Powder Diffraction data, CdTbF{sub 6} and {beta}-BaTbF{sub 6} magnetic structures were determined, together with the metamagnetic behaviour of {beta}-BaTbF{sub 6} as a function of an external magnetic field. A tentative phase diagram is then given for {beta}-BaTbF{sub 6}. Advantage was taken of the polymorphism of the BaTbF{sub 6} fluoroterbate to analyse, on the basis of topological parameters such as bond distances and angles, the magnetic behaviour of its {alpha} and {beta} forms. It was shown that superexchange interactions are present in {beta}-BaTbF{sub 6}, and that these interactions may also rule the magnetic behaviour of the other MTbF{sub 6} (M=Ca, Sr, Cd) tetravalent terbium fluorides. - Graphical abstract: Powder neutron diffraction revealed magnetic order in four of the five investigated fluoroterbates, while crystal chemical analyses of {alpha} and {beta} forms of BaTbF{sub 6} evidenced the existence of superexchange interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five fluoroterbates are investigated by Powder Neutron Diffraction (PND). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four of them are antiferromagnetically ordered at 1.4 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic structures of {beta}-BaTbF{sub 6} and CdTbF{sub 6} are determined. Black

  9. Structure of the Mtb CarD/RNAP β-lobes complex reveals the molecular basis of interaction, and presents a novel DNA binding domain for Mtb CarD

    PubMed Central

    Gulten, Gulcin; Sacchettini, James C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY CarD from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an essential protein thought to be involved in stringent response through downregulation of rRNA and ribosomal protein genes. CarD interacts with the β-subunit of RNAP and this interaction is vital for Mtb’s survival during the persistent infection state. We have determined the crystal structure of CarD in complex with the RNAP β-subunit β1 and β2 domains at 2.1 Å resolution. The structure reveals the molecular basis of CarD/RNAP interaction, providing a basis to further our understanding of RNAP regulation by CarD. The structural fold of the CarD N-terminal domain is conserved in RNAP interacting proteins such as TRCF-RID and CdnL, and displays similar interactions to the predicted homology model based on the TRCF/RNAP β1 structure. Interestingly, the structure of the C-terminal domain, which is required for complete CarD function in vivo, represents a novel DNA binding fold. PMID:24055315

  10. Discordance between MTB/RIF and Real-Time Tuberculosis-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Bronchial Washing Specimen and Its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied. The clinical risk factors for discordance and false positivity of assays were also studied. Among 130 patients who were clinically diagnosed with PTB, 64 patients showed positive acid-fast bacilli culture results, 56 patients showed positive results in molecular methods and clinician diagnosed PTB without results of microbiology in 10 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.0%, 98.95%, 98.1%, and 87.9%, respectively, for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.5%, 92.6%, 88.3%, and 88.0%, respectively, for TB/NTM PCR. The discordant proportion was 16.9% and was higher in culture-negative PTB compared to culture-confirmed PTB (24.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.024). However, there were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics, regardless of the discordance. The diagnostic yield increased with an additional assay (7.7% for Xpert MTB/RIF and 9.2% for TB/NTM PCR). False positivity was less common in patients tested with Xpert MTB/RIF (1.05% vs. 7.37%, p = 0.0035). No host-related risk factor for false positivity was identified. The Xpert MTB/RIF and TB/NTM PCR assay in bronchial washing specimens can improve the diagnostic yields for PTB, although there were considerable discordant results without any patient-related risk factors. PMID:27760181

  11. Discordance between MTB/RIF and Real-Time Tuberculosis-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay in Bronchial Washing Specimen and Its Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yong Suk; Park, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Kyeom

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence and clinical implications of discordance between Xpert MTB/RIF assays and the AdvanSure TB/NTM real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bronchial washing specimens have not been studied in pulmonary TB (PTB) patients. The discordant proportion and its clinical impact were evaluated in 320 patients from the bronchoscopy registry whose bronchial washing specimens were tested simultaneously with Xpert MTB/RIF and the TB/NTM PCR assay for three years, and the accuracy of the assays, including the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV), were studied. The clinical risk factors for discordance and false positivity of assays were also studied. Among 130 patients who were clinically diagnosed with PTB, 64 patients showed positive acid-fast bacilli culture results, 56 patients showed positive results in molecular methods and clinician diagnosed PTB without results of microbiology in 10 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 80.0%, 98.95%, 98.1%, and 87.9%, respectively, for Xpert MTB/RIF and 81.5%, 92.6%, 88.3%, and 88.0%, respectively, for TB/NTM PCR. The discordant proportion was 16.9% and was higher in culture-negative PTB compared to culture-confirmed PTB (24.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.024). However, there were no significant differences in the clinical characteristics, regardless of the discordance. The diagnostic yield increased with an additional assay (7.7% for Xpert MTB/RIF and 9.2% for TB/NTM PCR). False positivity was less common in patients tested with Xpert MTB/RIF (1.05% vs. 7.37%, p = 0.0035). No host-related risk factor for false positivity was identified. The Xpert MTB/RIF and TB/NTM PCR assay in bronchial washing specimens can improve the diagnostic yields for PTB, although there were considerable discordant results without any patient-related risk factors.

  12. Personal best times in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male triathletes

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to define predictor variables for recreational male Ironman triathletes, using age and basic measurements of anthropometry, training, and previous performance to establish an equation for the prediction of an Ironman race time for future recreational male Ironman triathletes. Methods Age and anthropometry, training, and previous experience variables were related to Ironman race time using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results A total of 184 recreational male triathletes, of mean age 40.9 ± 8.4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.06 m, and weight 76.3 ± 8.4 kg completed the Ironman within 691 ± 83 minutes. They spent 13.9 ± 5.0 hours per week in training, covering 6.3 ± 3.1 km of swimming, 194.4 ± 76.6 km of cycling, and 45.0 ± 15.9 km of running. In total, 149 triathletes had completed at least one marathon, and 150 athletes had finished at least one Olympic distance triathlon. They had a personal best time of 130.4 ± 44.2 minutes in an Olympic distance triathlon and of 193.9 ± 31.9 minutes in marathon running. In total, 126 finishers had completed both an Olympic distance triathlon and a marathon. After multivariate analysis, both a personal best time in a marathon (P < 0.0001) and in an Olympic distance triathlon (P < 0.0001) were the best variables related to Ironman race time. Ironman race time (minutes) might be partially predicted by the following equation: (r2 = 0.65, standard error of estimate = 56.8) = 152.1 + 1.332 × (personal best time in a marathon, minutes) + 1.964 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, minutes). Conclusion These results suggest that, in contrast with anthropometric and training characteristics, both the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon and in a marathon predict Ironman race time in recreational male Ironman triathletes. PMID:24198578

  13. Marathon runners presented lower serum cholesteryl ester transfer activity than sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Serrat-Serrat, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Serra-Grima, R; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Pellicer-Thoma, E; Payés-Romero, A; González-Sastre, F

    1993-06-01

    Acute exercise promotes raised HDL cholesterol concentrations by lipolysis stimulation, but this effect is insufficient to explain the more permanent HDL increases seen during regular exercise. During training periods in a group of marathon runners, we measured lipid transfer protein I (LTP-I)-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) and its relationship to their HDL concentrations. Runners of both sexes showed significantly lower CETA values than those of sedentary controls. Male runners also had significantly lower serum concentrations of triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and significantly higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I than male controls. Results indicate that regular practice of aerobic exercise promotes modifications of lipoprotein metabolism related not only to lipolysis, but also to lower CETA. Such modifications are associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  14. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing.

    PubMed

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  15. Dose-response relationship of autonomic nervous system responses to individualized training impulse in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Vincenzo; Castagna, Carlo; Padua, Elvira; Lombardo, Mauro; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Massaro, Michele; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2009-06-01

    In athletes, exercise training induces autonomic nervous system (ANS) adaptations that could be used to monitor training status. However, the relationship between training and ANS in athletes has been investigated without regard for individual training loads. We tested the hypothesis that in long-distance athletes, changes in ANS parameters are dose-response related to individual volume/intensity training load and could predict athletic performance. A spectral analysis of heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure variability, and baroreflex sensitivity by the sequences technique was investigated in eight recreational athletes during a 6-mo training period culminating with a marathon. Individualized training load responses were monitored by a modified training impulse (TRIMP(i)) method, which was determined in each athlete using the individual HR and lactate profiling determined during a treadmill test. Monthly TRIMP(i) steadily increased during the training period. All the ANS parameters were significantly and very highly correlated to the dose of exercise with a second-order regression model (r(2) ranged from 0.90 to 0.99; P < 0.001). Variance, high-frequency oscillations of HR variability (HRV), and baroreflex sensitivity resembled a bell-shaped curve with a minimum at the highest TRIMP(i), whereas low-frequency oscillations of HR and systolic arterial pressure variability and the low frequency (LF)-to-high frequency ratio resembled an U-shaped curve with a maximum at the highest TRIMP(i). The LF component of HRV assessed at the last recording session was significantly and inversely correlated to the time needed to complete the nearing marathon. These results suggest that in recreational athletes, ANS adaptations to exercise training are dose related on an individual basis, showing a progressive shift toward a sympathetic predominance, and that LF oscillations in HRV at peak training load could predict athletic achievement in this athlete population.

  16. School- and Classroom-Based Supports for Children Following the 2013 Boston Marathon Attack and Manhunt

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Melissa K.; Kwong, Lana; Reid, Gerald; Xuan, Ziming; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    School staff provide key mental health services following mass crisis events and teachers, in particular, can provide important supports within their classrooms. This study examines Boston-area teachers’ perception of classroom-wide psychiatric distress and the types of supports that schools and teachers provided following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. Boston-area K-12 teachers (N = 147) in communities with varying levels of exposure to the bombing and manhunt completed an anonymous web-based survey 2–5 months after the attack. Teachers reported on students’ exposure to the bombings and manhunt, classroom-wide psychiatric distress, and the types of supports they and their schools provided students. Teacher reports of student exposure to the bombings and manhunt were significantly associated with their perceptions of greater classroom-wide psychiatric distress. Almost half indicated that their school had no formal policy for responding to the crisis, half reported no training to address events, and even the most common classroom-based support strategy—reassuring students of their safety—was provided by only 76 % of teachers. Teacher perceptions of student exposure to the manhunt, but not the bombing, were significantly associated with greater provision of these supports. In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombings and manhunt, teachers and schools provided supports; however, the extent and types of supports varied considerably. Working with teachers to most effectively and consistently serve in this complex role has the potential to improve school-based crisis response plans, as well as student outcomes. PMID:26005502

  17. ADJUSTMENT AMONG CHILDREN WITH RELATIVES WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE MANHUNT FOLLOWING THE BOSTON MARATHON ATTACK

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Kerns, Caroline E.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Edson, Aubrey L.; Chou, Tommy; Dantowitz, Annie; Miguel, Elizabeth; Brown, Bonnie; Coxe, Stefany; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2014-01-01

    Background Following the Boston Marathon attack, the extraordinary interagency manhunt and shelter-in-place made for a truly unprecedented experience for area families. Although research on Boston youth has found robust associations between manhunt-related experiences and post-attack functioning, such work does little to identify the specific needs of a particularly vulnerable population—i.e., children with a relative who participated in the manhunt. Understanding the adjustment of these youth is critical for informing clinical efforts. Methods Survey of Boston-area parents/caretakers (N = 460) reporting on their child’s attack/manhunt-related experiences, as well as psychosocial functioning in the first six post-attack months; analyses compared youth with and without a relative in law enforcement or the armed services who participated in the manhunt. Results The proportion of youth with likely PTSD was 5.7 times higher among youth with relatives in the manhunt than among youth without. After accounting for child demographics, blast exposure, and children’s own exposure to manhunt events (e.g., hearing/seeing gunfire/explosions, having officers enter/search home), having a relative in the manhunt significantly predicted child PTSD symptoms, emotional symptoms, and hyperactivity/inattention. Fear during the manhunt that a loved one could be hurt mediated relationships between having a relative in the manhunt and clinical outcomes; living within the zone of greatest manhunt activity did not moderate observed relationships. Conclusions Children with relatives called upon to participate in the unprecedented interagency manhunt following the Boston Marathon attack carried a particularly heavy mental health burden. Continued research is needed to clarify the clinical needs of youth with relatives in high-risk occupations. PMID:24865569

  18. A performance analysis of a Stand Up Paddle Board marathon race.

    PubMed

    Schram, AProf Ben; Hing, Prof Wayne; Climstein, AProf Mike; Furness, AProf James

    2016-10-28

    Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity in which little scientific research exists. A review of the literature failed to identify a single article pertaining to the physiological demands of SUP competition. The purpose of this study was to conduct a performance analysis of a national level SUP marathon race. Ten elite SUP athletes (6 male, 4 female) were recruited from the Stand Up Paddle Surfing Association of Australia to have their race performance in the Australian Titles analyzed. Performance variables included SUP speed, course taken and heart rate, measured with a 15Hz GPS unit. Results demonstrated that there was a variation in distance covered (13.3km-13.9km), peak speed (18.8km/hr-26.4km/hr) and only moderate correlations (r=0.38) of race result to distance covered. Significantly greater amounts of time were spent in 5-10km/hr speed zones (p<0.05) during the race. Peak heart rate varied from 168-208bpm amongst the competitors with the average heart rate was 168.6±9.8bpm. Significantly higher durations were spent in elevated heart rate zones (p<0.05) with participants spending 89.3% of their race within 80-100% of their age-predicted HRmax. Marathon SUP races appear to involve a high aerobic demand, with maintenance of near max heart rates required for the duration of the race. There is a high influence of tactical decisions and extrinsic variables to race results. These results provide a greater understanding of the physiological demands of distance events and may assist in the development of specialised training programs for SUP athletes.

  19. School- and Classroom-Based Supports for Children Following the 2013 Boston Marathon Attack and Manhunt.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer Greif; Holt, Melissa K; Kwong, Lana; Reid, Gerald; Xuan, Ziming; Comer, Jonathan S

    2015-06-01

    School staff provide key mental health services following mass crisis events and teachers, in particular, can provide important supports within their classrooms. This study examines Boston-area teachers' perception of classroom-wide psychiatric distress and the types of supports that schools and teachers provided following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. Boston-area K-12 teachers (N = 147) in communities with varying levels of exposure to the bombing and manhunt completed an anonymous web-based survey 2-5 months after the attack. Teachers reported on students' exposure to the bombings and manhunt, classroom-wide psychiatric distress, and the types of supports they and their schools provided students. Teacher reports of student exposure to the bombings and manhunt were significantly associated with their perceptions of greater classroom-wide psychiatric distress. Almost half indicated that their school had no formal policy for responding to the crisis, half reported no training to address events, and even the most common classroom-based support strategy-reassuring students of their safety-was provided by only 76 % of teachers. Teacher perceptions of student exposure to the manhunt, but not the bombing, were significantly associated with greater provision of these supports. In the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombings and manhunt, teachers and schools provided supports; however, the extent and types of supports varied considerably. Working with teachers to most effectively and consistently serve in this complex role has the potential to improve school-based crisis response plans, as well as student outcomes.

  20. Basement-influenced deformation in the Marathon fold-thrust belt, West Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Tauvers, P.R.

    1988-09-01

    The Marathon Basin of West Texas is a window into the southwestern end of the Ouachita system and formed as a response to north-to-northwest-directed late Paleozoic thrust faulting. Folds in the basin are elongate, trend northeast, and are highly non-cylindrical. Thickness and facies changes within the flysch sediments of the basin are coincident with the plunge of major anticlinoria. These features are superimposed on a pre-existing structural framework inherited from earlier deformation and modified by pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic sedimentation. Field, seismic, aeromagnetic, and deep well data indicate the presence of both northeast-trending frontal ramps and northwest-trending transverse ramps beneath the allochthonous rocks of the Marathon Basin. Evidence for reactivated northwest-trending features includes: (1) changes in plunge of first- and second-order folds; (2) large offsets in Devonian carbonate/top of basement seismic reflectors; (3) structure contours on Cretaceous rocks surrounding the basin; (4) dramatic changes in elevation of top of Ellenburger along strike; (5) variable tectonic stratigraphy and flysch thickness along strike; (6) a northwest-trending magnetic low through the middle of the basin; and (7) outcrop and well data for large-scale vertical movements along colinear northwest-trending features both north and south of the basin proper. These basement structural features (high-angle faults.) were inherited from Late Precambrian rifting and reactivated during Ouachita, Laramide, and Basin and Range events. Basement-influenced transverse structures affect the sedimentological and subsequent deformational histories of this and other fold-thrust belts around the world.

  1. Cardiorespiratory responses to maximal arm and leg exercise in national-class marathon runners.

    PubMed

    deJong, Adam T; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Franklin, Barry A; Saltarelli, William

    2009-06-01

    Marathon runners (MR) are among the most aerobically fit athletes in the world. Although aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) during arm exercise generally varies between 64% and 80% of leg VO(2)max (mean 70%) in healthy men, few data are available regarding the comparative arm fitness of MR. To clarify the relationship between arm and leg fitness in MR, we studied 10 national-class MR (mean + or - standard deviation age 30 + or - 4 years) whose best marathon times averaged < 2 hours and 40 minutes. Each MR underwent lower and upper body maximal exercise evaluations with measurement of cardiorespiratory variables using indirect calorimetry during treadmill testing (standard Bruce protocol) and arm-crank ergometry, respectively. Our subjects achieved VO(2)max levels equaling 75.8 + or - 7.1 mL/kg/min (5.2 + or - 0.6 L/min) during treadmill testing, which was significantly higher than the level of cardiorespiratory fitness achieved during maximal arm exercise (45.4 + or - 12.4 mL/kg/min [3.1 + or - 0.9 L/min]; P < 0.01). In addition, maximal heart rate (183.2 + or - 8.2 vs 163.7 + or - 10 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (201.8 + or - 10.1 vs 186.6 + or - 12.1 mm Hg) were significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) during maximal leg versus arm exercise. Relative arm fitness (arm VO(2)max/leg VO(2)max) was extremely variable (41%-76%), averaging 60% + or - 13%. Although MR are able to achieve significantly higher VO(2)max values during treadmill testing than those observed in the general population, their relative arm fitness appears to be slightly reduced. These findings add to and strongly support the specificity of measurement and training concept.

  2. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert® MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Ade, S.; Harries, A. D.; Ncube, R. T.; Zishiri, C.; Sandy, C.; Mutunzi, H.; Takarinda, K.; Owiti, P.; Mafaune, P.; Chonzi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: In Zimbabwe, there are concerns about the management of tuberculosis (TB) patients with rifampicin (RMP) resistance diagnosed using Xpert® MTB/RIF. Objective: To assess linkages between diagnosis and treatment for these patients in Harare and Manicaland provinces in 2014. Design: A retrospective cohort study. Results: Of 20 329 Xpert assays conducted, 90% were successful, 11% detected Mycobacterium tuberculosis and 4.5% showed RMP resistance. Of 77 patients with RMP-resistant TB diagnosed by Xpert, 70% had samples sent to the reference laboratory for culture and drug susceptibility testing (CDST); 53% of the samples arrived. In 21% the samples showed M. tuberculosis growth, and in 17% the DST results were recorded, all of which confirmed RMP resistance. Of the 77 patients, 34 (44%) never started treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB, with documented reasons being death, loss to follow-up and incorrect treatment. Of the 43 patients who started MDR-TB treatment, 12 (71%) in Harare and 17 (65%) in Manicaland started within 2 weeks of diagnosis. Conclusion: Xpert has been rolled out successfully in two Zimbabwe provinces. However, the process of confirming CDST for Xpert-diagnosed RMP-resistant TB works poorly, and many patients are either delayed or never initiate MDR-TB treatment. These shortfalls must be addressed at the programmatic level. PMID:27358806

  3. Stool Xpert® MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis at primary clinics in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Mateveke, K.; Makamure, B.; Ferrand, R. A.; Gomo, E.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of Xpert® MTB/RIF on stool samples from children with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) at primary care clinics. DESIGN: A cross-sectional diagnostic evaluation enrolling 5–16 year olds from whom one induced sputum (IS) sample was tested for microbiological TB confirmation. Results of a single stool sample tested using Xpert were compared against microbiologically confirmed TB, defined as a positive result on sputum microscopy and/or culture and/or IS Xpert. RESULTS: Of 222 children enrolled, 218 had complete microbiological results. The median age was 10.6 years (interquartile range 8–13). TB was microbiologically confirmed in 19/218 (8.7%) children. Of these, respectively 5 (26%), 9 (47%) and 15 (79%) were smear-, culture- and IS Xpert-positive. Stool Xpert was positive in 13/19 (68%) microbiologically confirmed cases and 4/199 (2%) microbiologically negative cases. Stool Xpert detected 76.9% (10/13) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and 50% (3/6) of non-HIV-infected children with microbiologically confirmed TB (P = 0.241). CONCLUSION: Stool Xpert is a potential alternative screening test for children with suspected TB if sputum is unavailable. Strategies to optimise the diagnostic yield of stool Xpert assay need further study. PMID:28234079

  4. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  5. Performance of REBA MTB-XDR to detect extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in an intermediate-burden country.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Seok; Kang, Mi Ran; Jung, Hoon; Choi, Sang Bong; Jo, Kyung-Wook; Shim, Tae Sun

    2015-05-01

    Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a serious worldwide problem. The REBA MTB-XDR (REBA-XDR) was recently developed in Korea to detect resistance to ofloxacin, kanamycin, and streptomycin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the REBA-XDR. We prospectively enrolled 104 patients with acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens between July 2010 and January 2013. Performance characteristics were compared between REBA-XDR and conventional drug-susceptibility testing. The sensitivity values of REBA-XDR for detecting resistance to ofloxacin, kanamycin, and streptomycin were 66.7%, 90.9%, and 60.0%, and the specificity values were 93.3%, 93.5%, and 85.4%, respectively. The positive predictive values were 62.5%, 62.5%, and 40.9%, and the negative predictive values were 94.3%, 98.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. Accuracy was 89.4%, 93.3%, and 81.7%, respectively. REBA-XDR seems to be a useful kit for "ruling in" XDR-TB in intermediate-burden countries, and especially useful for detecting kanamycin resistance.

  6. GeneXpert MTB/Rif to Diagnose Tuberculous Meningitis: Perhaps the First Test but not the Last.

    PubMed

    Bahr, Nathan C; Marais, Suzaan; Caws, Maxine; van Crevel, Reinout; Wilkinson, Robert J; Tyagi, Jaya S; Thwaites, Guy E; Boulware, David R

    2016-05-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of tuberculous with substantial mortality. In May 2015, 54 researchers from 10 countries met in Da Lat, Vietnam, to discuss advances in TBM. Among the attendees were researchers involved in pivotal studies on the use of Xpert MTB/Rif for TBM diagnosis. Attendees discussed the 2014 World Health Organization strong recommendation favoring the use of Xpert "in preference to conventional microscopy and culture as the initial diagnostic test for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) if the sample volume is low or if additional specimens cannot be obtained to make a quick diagnosis." Attendees were concerned that the limitations of Xpert testing for TBM are not emphasized. Clear guidance is needed for the investigational pathway for TBM, including recommendations on the diagnostic package of investigations, which does not stop with Xpert testing. Second, emphasis on the large CSF volumes (ideally 8-10 mL) needed for Xpert testing is required. Guidelines should also emphasize that TBM is a medical emergency and early treatment reduces mortality.

  7. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in half- and full marathons held in Switzerland, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    Aschmann, André; Knechtle, Beat; Cribari, Marco; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Onywera, Vincent; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Endurance running performance of African (AF) and non-African (NAF) athletes is investigated, with better performances seen for Africans. To date, no study has compared the age of peak performance between AF and NAF runners. The present research is an analysis of the age and running performance of top AF and NAF athletes, using the hypothesis that AF athletes were younger and faster than NAF athletes. Methods Age and performance of male and female AF and NAF athletes in half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland in 2000–2010 were investigated using single and multilevel hierarchical regression analyses. Results For half-marathons, male NAF runners were older than male AF runners (P = 0.02; NAF, 31.1 years ± 6.4 years versus AF, 26.2 years ± 4.9 years), and their running time was longer (P = 0.02; NAF, 65.3 minutes ± 1.7 minutes versus AF, 64.1 minutes ± 0.9 minutes). In marathons, differences between NAF and AF male runners in age (NAF, 33.0 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 28.6 years ± 3.8 years; P < 0.01) and running time (NAF, 139.5 minutes ± 5.6 minutes versus AF, 133.3 minutes ± 2.7 minutes; P < 0.01) were more pronounced. There was no difference in age (NAF, 31.0 years ± 7.0 years versus AF, 26.7 years ± 6.0 years; P > 0.05) or running time (NAF, 75.0 minutes ± 3.7 minutes versus AF, 75.6 minutes ± 5.3 minutes; P > 0.05) between NAF and AF female half-marathoners. For marathoners, NAF women were older than AF female runners (P = 0.03; NAF, 31.6 years ± 4.8 years versus AF, 27.8 years ± 5.3 years), but their running times were similar (NAF, 162.4 minutes ± 7.2 minutes versus AF, 163.0 minutes ± 7.0 minutes; P > 0.05). Conclusion In Switzerland, the best AF male half-marathoners and marathoners were younger and faster than the NAF counterpart runners. In contrast to the results seen in men, AF and NAF female runners had similar performances. Future studies need to investigate performance and age of AF and NAF marathoners in the

  8. Effects of the fusion design and immunization route on the immunogenicity of Ag85A-Mtb32 in adenoviral vectored tuberculosis vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiling; Feng, Liqiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Dimin; Li, Chufang; Sun, Caijun; Li, Pingchao; Zheng, Xuehua; Liu, Yichu; Yang, Wei; Niu, Xuefeng; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines containing multiple antigens may induce broader immune responses and provide better protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection as compared to a single antigen. However, strategies for incorporating multiple antigens into a single vector and the immunization routes may affect their immunogenicity. In this study, we utilized recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) as a model vaccine vector, and Ag85A (Rv3804c) and Mtb32 (Rv0125) as model antigens, to comparatively evaluate the influence of codon usage optimization, signal sequence, fusion linkers, and immunization routes on the immunogenicity of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine containing multiple antigens in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that codon-optimized Ag85A and Mtb32 fused with a GSG linker induced the strongest systemic and pulmonary cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Strong CMI responses were characterized by the generation of a robust IFN-γ ELISPOT response as well as antigen-specific CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, which secreted mono-, dual-, or multiple cytokines. We also found that subcutaneous (SC) and intranasal (IN)/oral immunization with this candidate vaccine exhibited the strongest boosting effects for Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed systemic and pulmonary CMI responses, respectively. Our results supported that codon optimized Ag85A and Mtb32 fused with a proper linker and immunized through SC and IN/oral routes can generate the strongest systemic and pulmonary CMI responses in BCG-primed mice, which may be particularly important for the design of TB vaccines containing multiple antigens. PMID:26076321

  9. Effects of the fusion design and immunization route on the immunogenicity of Ag85A-Mtb32 in adenoviral vectored tuberculosis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiling; Feng, Liqiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Dimin; Li, Chufang; Sun, Caijun; Li, Pingchao; Zheng, Xuehua; Liu, Yichu; Yang, Wei; Niu, Xuefeng; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines containing multiple antigens may induce broader immune responses and provide better protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection as compared to a single antigen. However, strategies for incorporating multiple antigens into a single vector and the immunization routes may affect their immunogenicity. In this study, we utilized recombinant adenovirus type 5 (rAd5) as a model vaccine vector, and Ag85A (Rv3804c) and Mtb32 (Rv0125) as model antigens, to comparatively evaluate the influence of codon usage optimization, signal sequence, fusion linkers, and immunization routes on the immunogenicity of tuberculosis (TB) vaccine containing multiple antigens in C57BL/6 mice. We showed that codon-optimized Ag85A and Mtb32 fused with a GSG linker induced the strongest systemic and pulmonary cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses. Strong CMI responses were characterized by the generation of a robust IFN-γ ELISPOT response as well as antigen-specific CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells, which secreted mono-, dual-, or multiple cytokines. We also found that subcutaneous (SC) and intranasal (IN)/oral immunization with this candidate vaccine exhibited the strongest boosting effects for Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed systemic and pulmonary CMI responses, respectively. Our results supported that codon optimized Ag85A and Mtb32 fused with a proper linker and immunized through SC and IN/oral routes can generate the strongest systemic and pulmonary CMI responses in BCG-primed mice, which may be particularly important for the design of TB vaccines containing multiple antigens.

  10. Evaluation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Arzu N; Tasbakan, Sezai; Cavusoglu, Cengiz

    2011-12-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains one of the most significant causes of death from an infectious agent. The rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance are essential for early disease management. The GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay is a novel integrated diagnostic device for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and rapid detection of RIF resistance in clinical specimens. We determined the performance of the MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of rifampin resistance in smear-positive and smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens obtained from possible tuberculosis patients. Two hundred fifty-three pulmonary and 176 extrapulmonary specimens obtained from 429 patients were included in the study. One hundred ten (89 culture positive and 21 culture negative for M. tuberculosis) of the 429 patients were considered to have tuberculosis. In pulmonary specimens, sensitivities were 100% (27/27) and 68.6% (24/35) for smear-positive and smear-negative specimens, respectively. It had a lower sensitivity with extrapulmonary specimens: 100% for smear-positive specimens (4/4) and 47.7% for smear-negative specimens (21/44). The test accurately detected the absence of tuberculosis in all 319 patients without tuberculosis studied. The MTB/RIF assay also detected 1 RIF-resistant specimen and 88 RIF-susceptible specimens, and the results were confirmed by drug susceptibility testing. We concluded that the MTB/RIF test is a simple method, and routine staff with minimal training can use the system. The test appeared to be as sensitive as culture with smear-positive specimens but less sensitive with smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens that include low numbers of bacilli.

  11. A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

  12. Identification of novel inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis L-alanine dehydrogenase (MTB-AlaDH) through structure-based virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shalini; Devi, Parthiban Brindha; Soni, Vijay; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Sriram, Dharmarajan

    2014-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB) survives in the human host for decades evading the immune system in a latent or persistent state. The Rv2780 (ald) gene that codes for L-alanine dehydrogenase (L-AlaDH) enzyme catalyzes reversible oxidative deamination of L-alanine to pyruvate and is overexpressed under hypoxic and nutrient starvation conditions in MTB. At present, as there is no suitable drug available to treat dormant tuberculosis; it is essential to identify drug candidates that could potentially treat dormant TB. Availability of crystal structure of MTB L-AlaDH bound with co-factor NAD+ facilitated us to employ structure-based virtual screening approach to obtain new hits from a commercial library of Asinex database using energy-optimized pharmacophore modeling. The resulting pharmacophore consisted of three hydrogen bond donor sites (D) and two hydrogen bond acceptor sites (A). The database compounds with a fitness score more than 1.0 were further subjected to Glide high-throughput virtual screening and docking. Thus, we report the identification of best five hits based on structure-based design and their in vitro enzymatic inhibition studies revealed IC₅₀ values in the range of 35-80 μM.

  13. Draft Environmental Impact Report/Environmental Impact Statement, Proposed Marathon Industrial/Commercial Business Center Tract 5167, Hayward, California.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    losses. (Other applicant purposes specific to the type of industrial business park are described in detail in Section III). The public benefit ...which, if approved, is considered to be in the public interest (i.e. provides a public benefit ). This is the case with the proposed Marathon industrial...site wetland losses. The public benefits associated with the proposed development are: 1) additional industrial/commercial development which would

  14. Sickle cell trait as a limiting factor for high-level performance in a semi-marathon.

    PubMed

    Le Gallais, D; Prefaut, C; Mercier, J; Bile, A; Bogui, P; Lonsdorfer, J

    1994-10-01

    Of 1506 black males participating in the first Abidjan semi-marathon, 123 subjects with sickle cell trait (SCT) were detected, i.e., 8.7%. Twenty-nine of these subjects with hemoglobin S (HbS) were ranked among the first 332 participants to finish the race, a percentage of 8.2. These percentages did not significantly differ from the prevalence of SCT observed in the general Ivory Coast population (12.0%). Only one subject with SCT was found among the 22 internationally-ranked athletes. The concentration of HbS found in this athlete (37.7%), his mean globular volume (87 fl), and his hemoglobin concentration (13.8 g/100 ml) suggest the coexistence of alpha-thalassemia with SCT. These results indicate that the percentage of SCT individuals participating in a semi-marathon is equal to the prevalence of SCT found in the local population. Furthermore, the general ranking of SCT individuals is comparable to that of non-SCT individuals. Nevertheless, at the level of internationally-ranked performance, no subject with SCT only, was ranked; the one ranked subject with SCT presented an associated alpha thalassemia. We thus hypothesize that SCT may be a limiting factor for high level performance in a semi-marathon and alpha-thalassemia, an enhancing factor for subjects with SCT to succeed in long distance races.

  15. "Personal best times in an olympic distance triathlon and a marathon predict an ironman race time for recreational female triathletes".

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Ellenrieder, Birte; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-06-30

    "The aim of this study was to investigate whether the characteristics of anthropometry, training or previous performance were related to an Ironman race time in recreational female Ironman triathletes. These characteristics were correlated to an Ironman race time for 53 recreational female triathletes in order to determine the predictor variables, and so be able to predict an Ironman race time for future novice triathletes. In the bi-variate analysis, no anthropometric characteristic was related to race time. The weekly cycling kilometers (r = -0.35) and hours (r = -0.32), as well as the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon (r = 0.49) and in a marathon (r = 0.74) were related to an Ironman race time (< 0.05). Stepwise multiple regressions showed that both the personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon ( P = 0.0453) and in a marathon (P = 0.0030) were the best predictors for the Ironman race time (n = 28, r² = 0.53). The race time in an Ironman triathlon might be partially predicted by the following equation (r² = 0.53, n = 28): Race time (min) = 186.3 + 1.595 × (personal best time in an Olympic distance triathlon, min) + 1.318 × (personal best time in a marathon, min) for recreational female Ironman triathletes."

  16. Power law scaling behavior of physiological time series in marathon races using wavelet leaders and detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesfreid, Eva; Billat, Véronique

    2009-02-01

    Data power law scaling behavior is observed in many fields. Velocity of fully developed turbulent flow, telecommunication traffic in networks, financial time series are some examples among many others. The goal of the present contribution is to show the scaling behavior of physiological time series in marathon races using wavelet leaders and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. Marathon race is an exhausting exercise, it is referenced as being a model for studying the limits of human ambulatory abilities. We analyzed the athlete's heart rate and speed time series recorded simultaneously. We find that the heart cost time series, number of heart beats per meter, increases with the fatigue appearing during the marathon race, its tendency grows in the second half of the race for all athletes. For most physiological time series, we observed a concave behavior of the wavelet leaders scaling exponents which suggests a multifractal behavior. Otherwise, the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis shows short and long range time-scale power law exponents with the same break point for each physiological time series and each athlete. The short range time-scale exponent increases with fatigue in most physiological signals.

  17. An investigation into breast support and sports bra use in female runners of the 2012 London Marathon.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicola; White, Jennifer; Brasher, Amanda; Scurr, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that appropriate breast support during exercise is important, no published literature has assessed breast support usage in a cohort of female marathon runners. This study aimed to identify sport bra use and perceived importance of sports bra use in female marathon runners. Bra satisfaction, incidence of bra related issues and factors that influence the appropriateness of sports bras were also investigated. A 4-part, 30-question survey was administered to 1397 female runners at the 2012 London marathon registration and via an online survey. In total 1285 surveys were completed. Sports bra use and its perceived importance was high, however was lower in moderate compared to vigorous activity, and lower in participants with smaller breasts. Seventy-five per cent of participants reported bra fit issues. The most common issues were chaffing and shoulder straps digging in, with a higher incidence of issues reported by participants with larger breasts. Use of professional bra fitting was low, and perceived knowledge of breast health was poor. Engagement with sports bra use is high although sports bra design could be improved to alleviate bra fit issues experienced by female runners. Educational initiatives are needed to ensure females are informed regarding the importance of breast support and appropriate bra fit during activity.

  18. It’s a Matter of Mind! Cognitive Functioning Predicts the Athletic Performance in Ultra-Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Cavazzana, Annachiara; Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Grainer, Alessandro; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the influence of cognitive processes on performance in ultra-marathon runners, providing an overview of the cognitive aspects that characterize outstanding runners. Thirty runners were administered a battery of computerized tests right before their participation in an ultra-marathon. Then, they were split according to the race rank into two groups (i.e., faster runners and slower runners) and their cognitive performance was compared. Faster runners outperformed slower runners in trials requiring motor inhibition and were more effective at performing two tasks together, successfully suppressing the activation of the information for one of the tasks when was not relevant. Furthermore, slower runners took longer to remember to execute pre-defined actions associated with emotional stimuli when such stimuli were presented. These findings suggest that cognitive factors play a key role in running an ultra-marathon. Indeed, if compared with slower runners, faster runners seem to have a better inhibitory control, showing superior ability not only to inhibit motor response but also to suppress processing of irrelevant information. Their cognitive performance also appears to be less influenced by emotional stimuli. This research opens new directions towards understanding which kinds of cognitive and emotional factors can discriminate talented runners from less outstanding runners. PMID:26172546

  19. [Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in an intermediate-prevalence setting].

    PubMed

    Ozkutuk, Nuri; Surucüoglu, Süheyla

    2014-04-01

    Early and accurate detection of tuberculosis (TB) is a global priority for TB control. In order to obtain results in a short period of time, nucleic acid amplification tests are increasingly used worldwide for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. The Xpert MTB/RIF® (Cepheid, USA) is a commercially available, real-time PCR-based assay, which can detect both TB and resistance to rifampicin directly in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for M.tuberculosis detection in pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical samples in routine laboratory practice in Turkey, an intermediate-prevalence setting. A total of 2639 clinical specimens, 1611 of which were pulmonary and 1028 were extrapulmonary, were included in the study. The results of Xpert MTB/RIF assay were evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained by culture [BACTEC MGIT 960 (Becton Dickinson, USA) and Löwenstein Jensen medium]. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Xpert MTB/RIF assay were determined as 73.9%, 98.6%, 79.6% and 98.1%, respectively. These values were calculated as 80.8%, 98.8%, 84.9% and 98.4% for pulmonary specimens, and 58.2%, 98.4%, 66.7% and 97.7% for extrapulmonary specimens. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 58.1%, respectively, for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-positive specimens, 39.7% and 99.1%, respectively for smear-negative specimens. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 76.2% for smear-positive pulmonary specimens; 100% and 20% for smear-positive extrapulmonary specimens; 47.8% and 99.1% for smear-negative pulmonary specimens; and 28.2% and 99.2% for smear-negative extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination were found to be 56.7% and 98.7% for all specimens; 63.2% and 98.6% for pulmonary specimens; and 41.8% and 99% for extrapulmonary specimens, respectively. Rifampicin resistance was detected by Xpert MTB

  20. Multispectral VNIR Observations by the Opportunity Rover Pancam of Multiple Episodes of Aqueous Alteration in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Rice, Melissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2015, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the break in the rim of Endeavour Crater dubbed Marathon Valley by the rover team. Marathon Valley was identified by orbital hyperspectral data from the MRO CRISM as having a relatively strong spectral feature in the 2.3 micrometer region indicative of an Mg or Fe-OH combination overtone absorption band indicative of smectite clay. Earlier in its mission, Opportunity examined the Matijevic Hill region on the more northerly Cape York crater rim segment and found evidence for smectite clays in a stratigraphically lower, pre-impact formed unit dubbed the Matijevic formation. However, the smectite exposures in Marathon Valley appear to be associated with the stratigraphically higher Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Evidence for alteration in this unit in Marathon Valley is provided by Pancam multispectral observations in the 430 to 1010 nm visible/near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Sinuous troughs ("red zones") contain fragmented cobbles and pebbles displaying higher blue-to-red slopes, moderately higher 535 nm band depths, elevated 754 to 934 nm, and negative 934 to 1009 nm slopes. The lack of an absorption at 864 to 904 nm indicates the lack of crystalline red hematite in these red zones, but likely an enrichment in nanophase ferric oxides. The negative 934 to 1009 nm slope is potentially indicative of the presence of adsorbed or structurally bound water. A scuff in a red zone near the southern wall of Marathon Valley uncovered light-toned soils and a pebble with an 803 to 864 nm absorption resembling that of light-toned Fe-sulfate bearing soils uncovered by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. APXS chemical measurements indicated enrichments of Mg and S in the scuff soils and the pebble, Joseph Field, with the strongest 803 nm band- consistent with Mg and Fe sulfates. The presence of Fe and Mg sulfates can be interpreted as evidence of a potentially later episode of

  1. Coronary atherosclerosis burden, but not transient troponin elevation, predicts long-term outcome in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Leineweber, Kirsten; Lehmann, Nils; Braun, Siegmund; Roggenbuck, Ulla; Perrey, Mareike; Broecker-Preuss, Martina; Budde, Thomas; Halle, Martin; Mann, Klaus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Heusch, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We determined the prognostic value of transient increases in high-sensitive serum troponin I (hsTnI) during a marathon and its association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and imaging-based risk markers for incident coronary events and all-cause mortality in recreational marathon runners. Baseline data of 108 marathon runners, 864 age-matched controls and 216 age- and risk factor-matched controls from the general population were recorded and their coronary event rates and all-cause mortality after 6 ± 1 years determined. hsTnI was measured in 74 marathon finishers before and after the race. Other potential predictors for coronary events, i.e., Framingham Risk Score (FRS), coronary artery calcium (CAC) and presence of myocardial fibrosis as measured by magnetic resonance imaging-based late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), were also assessed. An increase beyond the 99 % hsTnI-threshold, i.e., 0.04 μg/L, was observed in 36.5 % of runners. FRS, CAC, or prevalent LGE did not predict hsTnI values above or increases in hsTnI beyond the median after the race, nor did they predict future events. However, runners with versus without LGE had higher hsTnI values after the race (median (Q1/Q3), 0.08 μg/L (0.04/0.09) versus 0.03 μg/L (0.02/0.06), p = 0.039), and higher increases in hsTnI values during the race (median (Q1/Q3), 0.05 μg/L (0.03/0.08) versus 0.02 μg/L (0.01/0.05), p = 0.0496). Runners had a similar cumulative event rate as age-matched or age- and risk factor-matched controls, i.e., 6.5 versus 5.0 % or 4.6 %, respectively. Event rates in runners with CAC scores <100, 100-399, and ≥400 were 1.5, 12.0, and 21.4 % (p = 0.002 for trend) and not different from either control group. Runners with coronary events had a higher prevalence of LGE than runners without events (57 versus 8 %, p = 0.003). All-cause mortality was similar in marathon runners (3/108, 2.8 %) and controls (26/864, 3.0 % or 5/216, 2.4 %, respectively). Recreational marathon runners with

  2. Can neuromuscular fatigue explain running strategies and performance in ultra-marathons?: the flush model.

    PubMed

    Millet, Guillaume Y

    2011-06-01

    While the industrialized world adopts a largely sedentary lifestyle, ultra-marathon running races have become increasingly popular in the last few years in many countries. The ability to run long distances is also considered to have played a role in human evolution. This makes the issue of ultra-long distance physiology important. In the ability to run multiples of 10 km (up to 1000 km in one stage), fatigue resistance is critical. Fatigue is generally defined as strength loss (i.e. a decrease in maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]), which is known to be dependent on the type of exercise. Critical task variables include the intensity and duration of the activity, both of which are very specific to ultra-endurance sports. They also include the muscle groups involved and the type of muscle contraction, two variables that depend on the sport under consideration. The first part of this article focuses on the central and peripheral causes of the alterations to neuromuscular function that occur in ultra-marathon running. Neuromuscular function evaluation requires measurements of MVCs and maximal electrical/magnetic stimulations; these provide an insight into the factors in the CNS and the muscles implicated in fatigue. However, such measurements do not necessarily predict how muscle function may influence ultra-endurance running and whether this has an effect on speed regulation during a real competition (i.e. when pacing strategies are involved). In other words, the nature of the relationship between fatigue as measured using maximal contractions/stimulation and submaximal performance limitation/regulation is questionable. To investigate this issue, we are suggesting a holistic model in the second part of this article. This model can be applied to all endurance activities, but is specifically adapted to ultra-endurance running: the flush model. This model has the following four components: (i) the ball-cock (or buoy), which can be compared with the rate of perceived

  3. Alterations in Postural Control during the World's Most Challenging Mountain Ultra-Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Degache, Francis; Van Zaen, Jérôme; Oehen, Lukas; Guex, Kenny; Trabucchi, Pietro; Millet, Gégoire

    2014-01-01

    We investigated postural control (PC) effects of a mountain ultra-marathon (MUM): a 330-km trail run with 24000 m of positive and negative change in elevation. PC was assessed prior to (PRE), during (MID) and after (POST) the MUM in experienced ultra-marathon runners (n = 18; finish time = 126±16 h) and in a control group (n = 8) with a similar level of sleep deprivation. Subjects were instructed to stand upright on a posturographic platform over a period of 51.2 seconds using a double-leg stance under two test conditions: eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC). Traditional measures of postural stability (center of pressure trajectory analysis) and stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) parameters were analysed. For the SDA, a significantly greater short-term effective diffusion was found at POST compared with PRE in the medio-lateral (ML; Dxs) and antero-posterior (AP) directions (Dys) in runners (p<0.05) The critical time interval (Ctx) in the ML direction was significantly higher at MID (p<0.001) and POST (p<0.05) than at PRE in runners. At MID (p<0.001) and POST (p<0.05), there was a significant difference between the two groups. The critical displacement (Cdx) in the ML was significantly higher at MID and at POST (p<0.001) compared with PRE for runners. A significant difference in Cdx was observed between groups in EO at MID (p<0.05) and POST (p<0.005) in the ML direction and in EC at POST in the ML and AP directions (p<0.05). Our findings revealed significant effects of fatigue on PC in runners, including, a significant increase in Ctx (critical time in ML plan) in EO and EC conditions. Thus, runners take longer to stabilise their body at POST than at MID. It is likely that the mountainous characteristics of MUM (unstable ground, primarily uphill/downhill running, and altitude) increase this fatigue, leading to difficulty in maintaining balance. PMID:24465417

  4. Direct Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay with Liquid and Solid Mycobacterial Culture for Quantification of Early Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kayigire, Xavier A.; Friedrich, Sven O.; Venter, Amour; Dawson, Rodney; Gillespie, Stephen H.; Boeree, Martin J.; Heinrich, Norbert; Hoelscher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents is usually determined by measuring the reduction of the sputum mycobacterial load over time on solid agar medium or in liquid culture. This study investigated the value of a quantitative PCR assay for early bactericidal activity determination. Groups of 15 patients were treated with 6 different antituberculosis agents or regimens. Patients collected sputum for 16 h overnight at baseline and at days 7 and 14 after treatment initiation. We determined the sputum bacterial load by CFU counting (log CFU/ml sputum, reported as mean ± standard deviation [SD]), time to culture positivity (TTP, in hours [mean ± SD]) in liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF cycle thresholds (CT, n [mean ± SD]). The ability to discriminate treatment effects between groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All measurements showed a decrease in bacterial load from mean baseline (log CFU, 5.72 ± 1.00; TTP, 116.0 ± 47.6; CT, 19.3 ± 3.88) to day 7 (log CFU, −0.26 ± 1.23, P = 0.2112; TTP, 35.5 ± 59.3, P = 0.0002; CT, 0.55 ± 3.07, P = 0.6030) and day 14 (log CFU, −0.55 ± 1.24, P = 0.0006; TTP, 54.8 ± 86.8, P < 0.0001; CT, 2.06 ± 4.37, P = 0.0020). The best discrimination between group effects was found with TTP at day 7 and day 14 (F = 9.012, P < 0.0001, and F = 11.580, P < 0.0001), followed by log CFU (F = 4.135, P = 0.0024, and F = 7.277, P < 0.0001). CT was not significantly discriminative (F = 1.995, P = 0.091, and F = 1.203, P = 0.316, respectively). Culture-based methods are superior to PCR for the quantification of early antituberculosis treatment effects in sputum. PMID:23596237

  5. Direct comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF assay with liquid and solid mycobacterial culture for quantification of early bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kayigire, Xavier A; Friedrich, Sven O; Venter, Amour; Dawson, Rodney; Gillespie, Stephen H; Boeree, Martin J; Heinrich, Norbert; Hoelscher, Michael; Diacon, Andreas H

    2013-06-01

    The early bactericidal activity of antituberculosis agents is usually determined by measuring the reduction of the sputum mycobacterial load over time on solid agar medium or in liquid culture. This study investigated the value of a quantitative PCR assay for early bactericidal activity determination. Groups of 15 patients were treated with 6 different antituberculosis agents or regimens. Patients collected sputum for 16 h overnight at baseline and at days 7 and 14 after treatment initiation. We determined the sputum bacterial load by CFU counting (log CFU/ml sputum, reported as mean ± standard deviation [SD]), time to culture positivity (TTP, in hours [mean ± SD]) in liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF cycle thresholds (C(T), n [mean ± SD]). The ability to discriminate treatment effects between groups was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All measurements showed a decrease in bacterial load from mean baseline (log CFU, 5.72 ± 1.00; TTP, 116.0 ± 47.6; C(T), 19.3 ± 3.88) to day 7 (log CFU, -0.26 ± 1.23, P = 0.2112; TTP, 35.5 ± 59.3, P = 0.0002; C(T), 0.55 ± 3.07, P = 0.6030) and day 14 (log CFU, -0.55 ± 1.24, P = 0.0006; TTP, 54.8 ± 86.8, P < 0.0001; C(T), 2.06 ± 4.37, P = 0.0020). The best discrimination between group effects was found with TTP at day 7 and day 14 (F = 9.012, P < 0.0001, and F = 11.580, P < 0.0001), followed by log CFU (F = 4.135, P = 0.0024, and F = 7.277, P < 0.0001). C(T) was not significantly discriminative (F = 1.995, P = 0.091, and F = 1.203, P = 0.316, respectively). Culture-based methods are superior to PCR for the quantification of early antituberculosis treatment effects in sputum.

  6. Countrywide roll-out of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Swaziland: the first three years of implementation.

    PubMed

    Sikhondze, W; Dlamini, T; Khumalo, D; Maphalala, G; Dlamini, S; Zikalala, T; Albert, H; Wambugu, J; Tayler-Smith, K; Ali, E; Ade, S; Harries, A D

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Tous les 19 laboratoires de santé publique du Swaziland qui ont bénéficié de l'installation de machines Xpert(®) MTB/RIF dans le cadre d'un déploiement dans l'ensemble du pays entre juin 2011 et juin 2014.Objectif : Evaluer l'utilisation et la fonctionnalité du text Xpert de 2011 à juin 2014.Schéma : Etude descriptive de la mise en œuvre du test Xpert grâce à des données recueillies en routine.Resultats : Au total, 48 829 tests Xpert ont été réalisés. Parmi eux, 93% l'ont été avec succès dont 14% qui ont détecté Mycobacterium tuberculosis ; parmi ces derniers, 12% étaient résistants à la rifampicine. La cause la plus fréquente de tests non aboutis a été un résultat qualifié d' « Erreur » (62%). Des laboratoires soutenus par le gouvernement et par des partenaires ont obtenu des résultats similaires. L'utilisation annuelle du test Xpert s'est améliorée, passant de 51% de la capacité maximale en 2011 et 2012 à 74% en 2013 et 2014. Un exercice de suivi et évaluation de tous les sites de tests Xpert en 2014 a mis en évidence une performance généralement bonne, puisque plus de 50% des laboratoires atteignaient un score ⩾80% sur la majorité des éléments. Cependant, des scores médiocres ont été obtenus en ce qui concerne l'utilisation des équipements et leur maintenance (6% des sites atteignant un score ⩾80%), l'audit interne (19% atteignant un score ⩾80%) et le contrôle des procédures (25% atteignant un score ⩾80%).Conclusion : Le déploiement national du test Xpert au Swaziland a été un succès, même si certains problèmes opérationnels ont été identifiés et nécessitent d'être résolus.

  7. Rollout of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Northwest Cambodia for the diagnosis of tuberculosis among PLHA.

    PubMed

    Auld, S C; Moore, B K; Killam, W P; Eng, B; Nong, K; Pevzner, E C; Eam, K K; Eang, M T; Warren, D; Whitehead, S J

    2014-12-21

    Objectif : Décrire la mise en œuvre et l'utilisation du test Xpert(R) MTB/RIF afin de diagnostiquer la tuberculose (TB) parmi des personnes vivant avec le VIH/SIDA (virus de l'mmunodéficience humaine/syndrome de l'immunodéficience acquise ; PLHA) au Cambodge.Schéma : Après le déploiement du test Xpert, une évaluation a été réalisée dans quatre provinces du Cambodge entre mars et décembre 2012 afin de déterminer l'utilisation, la performance et le délai d'exécution du Xpert parmi les PLHA. Des données ont été recueillies à partir des dossiers papiers des patients.Résultats : Sur 497 PLHA ayant une grille de symptômes de TB positive, 357 (72%) ont bénéficié d'une microscopie de frottis et 250 (50%) ont eu un test Xpert ; 25 (10%) PLHA testés par Xpert étaient positifs pour la TB et aucun n'était résistant à la rifampicine. L'utilisation du Xpert est passée de 23% à 75% avec un délai d'exécution médian d'un jour. Dans les districts, l'utilisation allait de zéro à 85% et le délai de mise en œuvre allait de zéro à 22 jours.Conclusion : Si les données précoces montrent une utilisation croissante du Xpert chez les PLHA avec une grille de symptômes positive, la majorité des patients bénéficiait initialement d'un diagnostic par examen microscopique de frottis. Les délais de formation et les problèmes posés par l'envoi des spécimens peuvent avoir contribué à la variabilité du recours au Xpert et au délai de sa mise en œuvre, particulièrement dans les endroits dépourvus de possibilité de test Xpert sur place. Davantage de soutien aux programmes, notamment en termes d'envoi des spécimens et de retour des résultats, pourrait faciliter son utilisation appropriée.

  8. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Baral, S; Shrestha, P; Puri, M; Kandel, S; Lamichanne, B; Elsey, H; Brouwer, M; Goel, S; Chinnakali, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Vingt-deux districts du Népal où des activités intensifiées de recherche des cas (ICF) de la tuberculose (TB) ont été mises en œuvre au sein de groupes à risque sous l'égide du projet TB REACH en collaboration avec le programme national TB entre juillet 2013 et novembre 2015.Objectifs : Evaluer le rendement du dépistage de la TB grâce à un algorithme basé sur la microscopie de frottis suivie d'un test Xpert(®) MTB/RIF.Schéma : Etude descriptive basée sur des données recueillies en routine.Résultats : Sur un total de 145 679 individus dépistés, 28 574 (19,6%) ont été présumés atteints de TB ; 1239 (4,3%) d'entre eux ont eu une confirmation du diagnostic de TB ; parmi ces derniers, 1195 (96%) ont mis en route un traitement anti-tuberculose. Le rendement a été le plus élevé parmi les personnes vivant avec le virus l'immunodéficience humaine (PVVIH) (6,1%) suivies par les contacts domiciliaires (3,5%) et les habitants des bidonvilles (0,5%). Dans d'autres groupes à risque comme les prisonniers, les travailleurs d'usine, les réfugiés et les diabétiques, le rendement a été inférieur à 0,5%. Le nombre de personnes à dépister (NNS) pour diagnostiquer un cas de TB active a été de 17 pour les PVVIH, de 29 pour les contacts domiciliaires et de 197 pour les habitants des bidonvilles urbains. Sur 11 525 patients émanant soit du programme ICF soit du dépistage de routine, 112 (1%) ont eu un diagnostic de TB multirésistante.Conclusion : Le rendement en termes de cas de TB dépistés parmi les groupes à risque comme les PVVIH et les contacts domiciliaires a été substantiel. Même si ce rendement a été modeste parmi les habitants des bidonvilles, ceux-ci justifient néanmoins une intervention en raison de leur nombre élevé et de leur médiocre accès aux soins.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of TB patients with rifampicin resistance detected using Xpert(®) MTB/RIF in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Charambira, K; Ade, S; Harries, A D; Ncube, R T; Zishiri, C; Sandy, C; Mutunzi, H; Takarinda, K; Owiti, P; Mafaune, P; Chonzi, P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Au Zimbabwe, la prise en charge des patients tuberculeux ayant une résistance à la rifampicine (RMP) diagnostiqués par Xpert(®) MTB/RIF est préoccupante.Objectif : Evaluer les liens entre le diagnostic et le traitement de ces patients dans les provinces de Harare et de Manicaland en 2014.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte.Résultats : Sur 20 329 tests Xpert, 90% ont été réussis, 11% ont détecté Mycobacterium tuberculosis et 4,5% ont mis en évidence une résistance à la RMP. Il y a eu 77 patients atteints d'une tuberculose (TB) résistante à la RMP diagnostiqués par Xpert. Parmi eux, 70% ont bénéficié d'un envoi d'échantillon au laboratoire de référence pour une culture et un test de pharmacosensibilité (CDST) ; pour 53% d'entre eux, les échantillons sont arrivés à bon port ; pour 21%, les échantillons ont mis en évidence une croissance de M. tuberculosis ; et chez 17%, les résultats du CDST ont été enregistrés et tous ont confirmé la résistance à la RMP. Sur 77 patients, 34 (44%) n'ont jamais mis en route un traitement pour le TB multirésistante (TB-MDR) ; les motifs documentés étaient le décès, la perte de vue ou un traitement incorrect. Des 43 patients qui ont débuté le traitement de TB-MDR, 12 (71%) à Harare et 17 (65%) au Manicaland ont commencé dans les 2 semaines suivant le diagnostic.Conclusion : L'Xpert a été lancé avec succès dans deux provinces du Zimbabwe. Cependant, le processus de confirmation du CDST pour une TB résistante à la RMP diagnostiquée par Xpert ne fonctionne pas bien, et de nombreux patients sont soit traités avec retard, soit ne démarrent jamais le traitement de TB-MDR. Ces problèmes doivent être examinés par le programme.

  10. Kinetics of lipids, apolipoproteins, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein in plasma after a bicycle marathon.

    PubMed

    Föger, B; Wohlfarter, T; Ritsch, A; Lechleitner, M; Miller, C H; Dienstl, A; Patsch, J R

    1994-05-01

    The short-term effects of prolonged intense exercise on plasma lipid transport parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein (LD) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its subfractions HDL2 cholesterol and HDL3 cholesterol, on apolipoproteins (apos) A-I, A-II, and B, and on mass and activity of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) were studied in eight male endurance-trained athletes over the first week after a bicycle marathon. CETP mass concentration in plasma was quantified by a newly developed immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, TGs, LDL cholesterol, apo B, CETP, and cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) were significantly reduced in the recovery period compared with pre-exercise values (cholesterol by 20%, P < .05; TGs by 63%, P < .05; LDL cholesterol by 32%, P < .05; apo B by 18%, P < .05; CETP mass by 29%, P < .05; and CETA by 14%, P < .05). HDL cholesterol and HDL2 cholesterol, in contrast, were significantly increased in the post-exercise period (HDL cholesterol by 12%, P < .05, and HDL2 cholesterol by 96%, P < .05), whereas HDL3 cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in the late recovery period (by 8%, NS). Although changes in cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apo B, and CETP mass and activity were already evident in the early recovery period, HDL2 cholesterol showed a delayed response, reaching its maximum 72 hours after initiation of exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Airborne and ground reconnaissance of part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vickers, R.C.

    1955-01-01

    Airborne and ground reconnaissance for radioactive minerals in part of the syenite complex near Wausau, Marathon county, Wis., found 12 radioactive mineral localities. The rocks in the area are of Precambrian age and consist of syenite and nepheline syenite, which have intruded older granite, greenstone, quartzite, and argillite. There are very few outcrops, and much of the bedrock is deeply weathered and covered by residual soil. Thorium-bearing zircon pegatite float was found within the area of syenite and nepheline syenite at four localities. Reddish-brown euhedral to subeuhedral crystals of well-zoned zircon (variety cyrtolite) comprise more than 40 percent of some of the specimens. The radioactive mineral at four localities outside the area of syneites was identified as thorogummite, which occurred in nodular masses in residual soil. Alinement of the thorogummite float and associated radioactivity suggests that the thorogummite has resulted from weathering of narrow veins or pegmatites containing thorium-bearing minerals. Unidentified thorium-bearing minerals were found at three localities, and a specimen of allanite weighing about 2 pounds was found at one locality. Shallow trenches at two of the largest radioactivity anomalies showed that the radioactive material extended down into weathered bedrock. The occurrences might warrant additional physical exploration should there be sufficient demand for thorium. Further reconnaissance in the area would probably result in the discovery of additional occurrences.

  12. The age of the best ultramarathon performance - the case of the "Comrades Marathon".

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the age of the fastest running speed in 202,370 runners (34,090 women and 168,280 men) competing in the "Comrades Marathon" between 1994 and 2015 using non-linear regression analysis (second order polynomial function). When all runners were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest running speed (9.61 ± 1.65 km/h) was achieved at the age of 29.89 years in men, whereas women achieved it at the age of 35.96 years 8.60 ± 1.10 km/h. When the fastest runners were considered in 1-year intervals, the fastest running speed (16.65 km/h) was achieved in men at the age of 36.38 years. For the fastest women, the age of the fastest running speed (13.89 km/h) was 32.75 years. To summarize, for all runners, men achieved the best ultramarathon performance ~6 years earlier than women. When the fastest runners were considered, however, men achieved the best performance ~4 years later than women.

  13. Anthropometric measurements for assessing insulin sensitivity on patients with metabolic syndrome, sedentaries and marathoners.

    PubMed

    Severeyn, Erika; Wong, Sara; Herrera, Hector; Altuve, Miguel

    2015-08-01

    The diagnosis of low insulin sensitivity is commonly done through the HOMA-IR index, in which fasting insulin and glucose blood levels are evaluated. Insulin and blood glucose levels are used for insulin sensitivity assessment by surrogate methods (HOMA-IR, Matsuda, etc), but anthropometric measurements like body weight, height and waist circumference are not considered, even if these variables also are related to low insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome. In this study we evaluate the impact of anthropometric measurements on the HOMA-IR, Matsuda and Caumo indexes to estimate insulin sensitivity. Specifically, we compare insulin sensitivity indexes with and without the anthropometric measurements in their equations on three different groups: patients with metabolic syndrome, sedentaries and marathoners. Results show relationships between anthropometric variables and insulin sensitivity indexes. On the other hand, subjects are mapped differently for insulin sensitivity assessment when anthropometric variables are taken into account. In addition, subjects diagnosed with normal insulin sensitivity could be considered as having low insulin sensitivity when anthropometric variables are considered.

  14. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  15. Threat Perception after the Boston Marathon Bombings: The Effects of Personal Relevance and Conceptual Framing

    PubMed Central

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Quigley, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to “shoot” armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., “Terror Strikes Boston”) made more false alarms (i.e., more errors “shooting” unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., “Boston Strong”) and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favoring the “shoot” response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively-framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community. PMID:25707419

  16. Using BigBite to Detect DIS Electrons for the MARATHON Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, Tyler

    2015-04-01

    The MARATHON experiment will use the BigBite Spectrometer to extract F2n /F2p from the inelastic cross section ratio of 12 GeV electrons on the mirror nuclei 3 He and 3 H. The BigBite Spectrometer consists of a series of detectors to detect electrons and an array of electronics (the ``Front End'') to create triggers in the Data Acquisition System (DAQ). BigBite uses two multi-wire drift chambers to determine the track of particles passing through it, a scintillator array for timing, and two lead-glass detectors for particle identification and a measurement of energy deposition. The Front End uses a series of logic units to create triggers for the DAQ when certain combinations of detectors fire. In this talk an overview of the detectors of the BigBite spectrometer and its Front End electronics setup will be presented. This work is supported by Kent State University, NSF Grant PHY-1405814, and DOE Contract DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  17. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric

    2015-07-01

    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow.

  18. Impact of polyphenols on physiological stress and cardiac burden in marathon runners - results from a substudy of the BeMaGIC study.

    PubMed

    Clauss, Sebastian; Scherr, Johannes; Hanley, Alan; Schneider, Jens; Klier, Ina; Lackermair, Korbinian; Hoster, Eva; Vogeser, Michael; Nieman, David C; Halle, Martin; Nickel, Thomas

    2017-01-16

    Both physiologic stress and chronic heart disease are associated with increased systemic levels of chromogranin A (CGA) and NT-proBNP. Marathon running causes physiological stress and imposes a significant cardiac burden. Polyphenol-rich Mediterranean and Asian diets have been demonstrated to exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In this study we investigated whether pretreatment with a polyphenol beverage could attenuate the physiological and cardiac stress associated with a marathon. In the BeMaGIC trial, 277 athletes were randomized into 2 groups in a double-blinded fashion, receiving 1-1.5 L/day of the same beverages either with (study beverage) or without (placebo) polyphenol enrichment (approximately 400 mg of gallic acid equivalents per day of a complex mixture of polyphenols). Blood samples were taken 3 weeks and 1 day before, and immediately, 24 h, and 72 h after running a marathon. In our current substudy, CGA and NT-proBNP levels were analyzed by ELISA in the fastest 18 and the slowest 22 runners. CGA and NT-proBNP levels increased significantly immediately after the marathon and returned to baseline at 72 h after the marathon. Neither CGA nor NT-proBNP differed significantly between athletes receiving study beverage versus placebo. Separating our cohort into fast and slow runners did not reveal any significant difference regarding CGA or NT-proBNP levels between groups. Our study provides no evidence that polyphenol supplementation attenuates marathon running-induced physiological stress and cardiac burden in fast or slow runners.

  19. Synthesis of a New Cubic Conductive Cu6O8-yMX (M=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, X=NO3, Cl) Family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugise, Ryoji; Ohdan, Kyoji; Hamamoto, Toshikazu; Kashiwagi, Kouichi; Shirai, Masashi; Yazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Hideo

    1993-07-01

    A new cubic Cu6O8-yMX family (M=Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, X=NO3, Cl) was prepared. These compounds showed metallic resistivity and paramagnetism. The Cu6O8-yMX compounds could be easily synthesized when a trivalent metal element (M) whose oxide (M2O3) has a cubic Tl2O3-type structure was used. These compounds were prepared in the thermal decomposition process of a mixed copper nitrate, copper chloride and metal element oxide solution. The lattice constants of the Cu6O8-yMX compounds were related to those of M2O3.

  20. Mtb-Specific CD27low CD4 T Cells as Markers of Lung Tissue Destruction during Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nikitina, Irina Yu; Kondratuk, Natalya A.; Kosmiadi, George A.; Amansahedov, Rasul B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Effector CD4 T cells represent a key component of the host’s anti-tuberculosis immune defense. Successful differentiation and functioning of effector lymphocytes protects the host against severe M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. On the other hand, effector T cell differentiation depends on disease severity/activity, as T cell responses are driven by antigenic and inflammatory stimuli released during infection. Thus, tuberculosis (TB) progression and the degree of effector CD4 T cell differentiation are interrelated, but the relationships are complex and not well understood. We have analyzed an association between the degree of Mtb-specific CD4 T cell differentiation and severity/activity of pulmonary TB infection. Methodology/Principal Findings The degree of CD4 T cell differentiation was assessed by measuring the percentages of highly differentiated CD27low cells within a population of Mtb- specific CD4 T lymphocytes (“CD27lowIFN-γ+” cells). The percentages of CD27lowIFN-γ+ cells were low in healthy donors (median, 33.1%) and TB contacts (21.8%) but increased in TB patients (47.3%, p<0.0005). Within the group of patients, the percentages of CD27lowIFN-γ+ cells were uniformly high in the lungs (>76%), but varied in blood (12–92%). The major correlate for the accumulation of CD27lowIFN-γ+ cells in blood was lung destruction (r = 0.65, p = 2.7×10−7). A cutoff of 47% of CD27lowIFN-γ+ cells discriminated patients with high and low degree of lung destruction (sensitivity 89%, specificity 74%); a decline in CD27lowIFN-γ+cells following TB therapy correlated with repair and/or reduction of lung destruction (p<0.01). Conclusions Highly differentiated CD27low Mtb-specific (CD27lowIFN-γ+) CD4 T cells accumulate in the lungs and circulate in the blood of patients with active pulmonary TB. Accumulation of CD27lowIFN-γ+ cells in the blood is associated with lung destruction. The findings indicate that there is no deficiency in CD4 T cell

  1. Whole blood coagulation and platelet activation in the athlete: A comparison of marathon, triathlon and long distance cycling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Serious thrombembolic events occur in otherwise healthy marathon athletes during competition. We tested the hypothesis that during heavy endurance sports coagulation and platelets are activated depending on the type of endurance sport with respect to its running fraction. Materials and Methods 68 healthy athletes participating in marathon (MAR, running 42 km, n = 24), triathlon (TRI, swimming 2.5 km + cycling 90 km + running 21 km, n = 22), and long distance cycling (CYC, 151 km, n = 22) were included in the study. Blood samples were taken before and immediately after completion of competition to perform rotational thrombelastometry. We assessed coagulation time (CT), maximum clot firmness (MCF) after intrinsically activation and fibrin polymerization (FIBTEM). Furthermore, platelet aggregation was tested after activation with ADP and thrombin activating peptide 6 (TRAP) by using multiple platelet function analyzer. Results Complete data sets were obtained in 58 athletes (MAR: n = 20, TRI: n = 19, CYC: n = 19). CT significantly decreased in all groups (MAR -9.9%, TRI -8.3%, CYC -7.4%) without differences between groups. In parallel, MCF (MAR +7.4%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) and fibrin polymerization (MAR +14.7%, TRI +6.1%, CYC +8.3%) were significantly increased in all groups. However, platelets were only activated during MAR and TRI as indicated by increased AUC during TRAP-activation (MAR +15.8%) and increased AUC during ADP-activation in MAR (+50.3%) and TRI (+57.5%). Discussion While coagulation is activated during physical activity irrespective of type we observed significant platelet activation only during marathon and to a lesser extent during triathlon. We speculate that prolonged running may increase platelet activity, possibly, due to mechanical alteration. Thus, particularly prolonged running may increase the risk of thrombembolic incidents in running athletes. PMID:20452885

  2. Event-Related Household Discussions Following the Boston Marathon Bombing and Associated Posttraumatic Stress Among Area Youth.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Aubrey L; Elkins, R Meredith; Kerns, Caroline; Chou, Tommy; Green, Jennifer Greif; Comer, Jonathan S

    2015-11-04

    Despite research documenting the scope of disaster-related posttraumatic stress (PTS) in youth, less is known about how family processes immediately postdisaster might associate with child outcomes. The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing affords a unique opportunity to assess links between immediate family discussions about community trauma and child mental health outcomes. The present study examined associations between attack-related household discussions and child PTS among Boston-area youth ages 4 to 19 following the Marathon bombing (N = 460). Caregivers completed surveys 2 to 6 months postattack about immediate household discussions about the events, child exposure to potentially traumatic attack-related experiences, and child PTS. During the Marathon bombing and manhunt, there was considerable heterogeneity in household discussions across area families, and several discussion items were differentially predictive of variability in children's PTS. Specifically, after controlling for children's direct exposure to the potentially traumatic attack/manhunt events, children showed lower PTS when it was their caregivers who informed them about the attack and manhunt, and when their caregivers expressed confidence in their safety and discussed their own feelings about the manhunt with their child. Children showed higher PTS when their caregivers did not discuss the events in front of them, asked others to avoid discussing the events in front of them, and expressed concern at the time that their child might not be safe. Child age and traumatic attack/manhunt exposure moderated several links between household discussions and child PTS. Findings underscore the importance of family communication and caregiver modeling during times of community threat and uncertainty.

  3. An increased fluid intake leads to feet swelling in 100-km ultra-marathoners - an observational field study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An association between fluid intake and changes in volumes of the upper and lower limb has been described in 100-km ultra-marathoners. The purpose of the present study was (i) to investigate the association between fluid intake and a potential development of peripheral oedemas leading to an increase of the feet volume in 100-km ultra-marathoners and (ii) to evaluate a possible association between the changes in plasma sodium concentration ([Na+]) and changes in feet volume. Methods In seventy-six 100-km ultra-marathoners, body mass, plasma [Na+], haematocrit and urine specific gravity were determined pre- and post-race. Fluid intake and the changes of volume of the feet were measured where the changes of volume of the feet were estimated using plethysmography. Results Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (2.4%) (p < 0.0001); plasma [Na+] increased by 1.2% (p < 0.0001). Haematocrit decreased (p = 0.0005). The volume of the feet remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Plasma volume and urine specific gravity increased (p < 0.0001). Fluid intake was positively related to the change in the volume of the feet (r = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and negatively to post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0142). Running speed was negatively related to both fluid intake (r = -0.33, p = 0.0036) and the change in feet volume (r = -0.23, p = 0.0236). The change in the volume of the feet was negatively related to the change in plasma [Na+] (r = -0.26, p = 0.0227). The change in body mass was negatively related to both post-race plasma [Na+] (r = -0.28, p = 0.0129) and running speed (r = -0.34, p = 0.0028). Conclusions An increase in feet volume after a 100-km ultra-marathon was due to an increased fluid intake. PMID:22472466

  4. In silico discovery and in vitro activity of inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (Mtb BioA)

    PubMed Central

    Billones, Junie B; Carrillo, Maria Constancia O; Organo, Voltaire G; Sy, Jamie Bernadette A; Clavio, Nina Abigail B; Macalino, Stephani Joy Y; Emnacen, Inno A; Lee, Alexandra P; Ko, Paul Kenny L; Concepcion, Gisela P

    2017-01-01

    Computer-aided drug discovery and development approaches such as virtual screening, molecular docking, and in silico drug property calculations have been utilized in this effort to discover new lead compounds against tuberculosis. The enzyme 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase (BioA) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), primarily involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathway, was chosen as the drug target due to the fact that humans are not capable of synthesizing biotin endogenously. The computational screening of 4.5 million compounds from the Enamine REAL database has ultimately yielded 45 high-scoring, high-affinity compounds with desirable in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Seventeen of the 45 compounds were subjected to bioactivity validation using the resazurin microtiter assay. Among the 4 actives, compound 7 ((Z)-N-(2-isopropoxyphenyl)-2-oxo-2-((3-(trifluoromethyl)cyclohexyl)amino)acetimidic acid) displayed inhibitory activity up to 83% at 10 μg/mL concentration against the growth of the Mtb H37Ra strain. PMID:28280303

  5. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for the 18-29 and the 30-39-year age groups, while it significantly (P < 0.01) increased for the 40-49 and the 50-59-year age groups over the studied period. From 1998 to 2010, the mean age of the top ten finishers increased by 0.4 years per annum for both females (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.003). The running time for the top ten finishers remained stable for females, while it significantly (P = 0.001) increased by 2.4 min per annum for males. There was a significant (P < 0.001) age effect on running times for both sexes. The best 100-km running times was observed for the age comprised between 30 and 49 years for males, and between 30 and 54 years for females, respectively. The age-related decline in running performance was similar until 60-64 years between males and females, but was greater for females compared to males after 65 years. Future studies should investigate the lifespan from 65 to 75 years to better understand the performance difference between male and female master ultra-marathoners.

  6. Why marathon migrants get away with high metabolic ceilings: towards an ecology of physiological restraint.

    PubMed

    Piersma, Theunis

    2011-01-15

    Animals usually are not willing to perform at levels, or for lengths of time, of which they should be maximally capable. In stating this, exercise performance and inferred capacity are gauged with respect to body size and the duration of particular levels of energy expenditure. In such relative terms, the long-term metabolic ceiling of ca. 7 times basal metabolic rate in challenged but energy-balanced individuals may be real and general, because greater performance over long periods requires larger metabolic machinery that is ever more expensive to maintain. Avian marathon migrants relying on stored fuel (and therefore not in energy balance) that work for 9 consecutive days at levels of 9-10 times basal metabolic rate are exceptional performers in terms of the 'relative expenditure' on 'duration of a particular activity' curve nevertheless. Here I argue that metabolic ceilings in all situations (energy balanced or not) have their origin in the fitness costs of high performance levels due to subsequently reduced survival, which then precludes the possibility of future reproduction. The limits to performance should therefore be studied relative to ecological context (which includes aspects such as pathogen pressure and risk of overheating), which determines the severity of the survival punishment of over-exertion. I conclude that many dimensions of ecology have determined at which performance levels (accounting for time) individual animals, including human athletes, begin to show physiological restraint. Using modern molecular techniques to assay wear and tear, in combination with manipulated work levels in different ecological contexts, might enable experimental verification of these ideas.

  7. Hydration assessment among marathoners using urine specific gravity and bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between urine specific gravity (Usg), body mass (BM) and bioelectrical impedance determined variables [total body water (TBW), per cent TBW and impedance values] before and after a marathon (n = 25 men; 10 women). A significant reduction in BM (pre: 71.2 ± 12.4 kg; post: 69.6 ± 12.0 kg; p < 0.001) and an increase in Usg (pre: 1.009 ± 0.007; post: 1.018 ± 0.009; p < 0.001) was observed post-race. TBW was not significantly decreased (pre: 42.7 ± 8.0 kg; post: 42.4 ± 7.7 kg) while per cent TBW significantly increased post-race (pre: 60.0 ± 3.9%; post: 60.8 ± 3.8%; p < 0.001). Impedance values were significantly greater post-race (pre: 3288 ± 482; post: 3416 ± 492 Ω; p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the change in Usg and the change in BM or any of the bioelectrical impedance determined variables. On average, BM, Usg and impedance values appear to express changes in hydration; however, the observed changes among these variables for a given individual appear to be inconsistent with one another.

  8. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on running gait in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Filingeri, Davide; Chamari, Karim; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Calcagno, Giuseppe; Bosco, Gerardo; Annino, Giuseppe; Tihanyi, Jozsef; Pizzolato, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) on running gait. The running kinematic of sixteen male marathon runners was assessed on a treadmill at iso-efficiency speed after 10 min of WBV and SHAM (i.e. no WBV) conditions. A high-speed camera (210 Hz) was used for the video analysis and heart rate (HR) was also monitored. The following parameters were investigated: step length (SL), flight time (FT), step frequency (SF), contact time (CT), HR and the internal work (WINT). Full-within one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomised crossover design indicated that when compared to SHAM conditions, WBV decreased the SL and the FT by ~4% (P < 0.0001) and ~7.2% (P < 0.001), respectively, and increased the SF ~4% (P < 0.0001) while the CT was not changed. This effect occurred during the first minute of running: the SL decreased ~3.5% (P < 0.001) and SF increased ~3.3% (P < 0.001). During the second minute the SL decreased ~1.2% (P = 0.017) and the SF increased ~1.1% (P = 0.02). From the third minute onwards, there was a return to the pre-vibration condition. The WINT was increased by ~4% (P < 0.0001) during the WBV condition. Ten minutes of WBV produced a significant alteration of the running kinematics during the first minutes post exposure. These results provide insights on the effects of WBV on the central components controlling muscle function.

  9. Detecting Outliers in Marathon Data by Means of the Andrews Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stehlík, Milan; Wald, Helmut; Bielik, Viktor; Petrovič, Juraj

    2011-09-01

    For an optimal race performance, it is important, that the runner keeps steady pace during most of the time of the competition. First time runners or athletes without many competitions often experience an "blow out" after a few kilometers of the race. This could happen, because of strong emotional experiences or low control of running intensity. Competition pace of half marathon of the middle level recreational athletes is approximately 10 sec quicker than their training pace. If an athlete runs the first third of race (7 km) at a pace that is 20 sec quicker than is his capacity (trainability), he would experience an "blow out" in the last third of the race. This would be reflected by reducing the running intensity and inability to keep steady pace in the last kilometers of the race and in the final time as well. In sports science, there are many diagnostic methods ([3], [2], [6]) that are used for prediction of optimal race pace tempo and final time. Otherwise there is lacking practical evidence of diagnostics methods and its use in the field (competition, race). One of the conditions that needs to be carried out is that athletes have not only similar final times, but it is important that they keep constant pace as much as possible during whole race. For this reason it is very important to find outliers. Our experimental group consisted of 20 recreational trained athletes (mean age 32,6 years±8,9). Before the race the athletes were instructed to run on the basis of their subjective feeling and previous experience. The data (running pace of each kilometer, average and maximal heart rate of each kilometer) were collected by GPS-enabled personal trainer Forerunner 305.

  10. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    PubMed

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  11. Adjustment Among Area Youth After the Boston Marathon Bombing and Subsequent Manhunt

    PubMed Central

    Dantowitz, Annie; Chou, Tommy; Edson, Aubrey L.; Elkins, R. Meredith; Kerns, Caroline; Brown, Bonnie; Green, Jennifer Greif

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of research on terrorism-exposed youth has examined large-scale terrorism with mass casualties. Limited research has examined children’s reactions to terrorism of the scope of the Boston Marathon bombing. Furthermore, the extraordinary postattack interagency manhunt and shelter-in-place warning made for a truly unprecedented experience in its own right for families. Understanding the psychological adjustment of Boston-area youth in the aftermath of these events is critical for informing clinical efforts. METHODS: Survey of Boston-area parents/caretakers (N = 460) reporting on their child’s experiences during the attack week, as well as psychosocial functioning in the first 6 attack months. RESULTS: There was heterogeneity across youth in attack- and manhunt-related experiences and clinical outcomes. The proportion of youth with likely attack/manhunt-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was roughly 6 times higher among Boston Marathon–attending youth than nonattending youth. Attack and manhunt experiences each uniquely predicted 9% of PTSD symptom variance, with manhunt exposures more robustly associated than attack-related exposures with a range of psychosocial outcomes, including emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems. One-fifth of youth watched >3 hours of televised coverage on the attack day, which was linked to PTSD symptoms, conduct problems, and total difficulties. Prosocial behavior and positive peer functioning buffered the impact of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical efforts must maintain a broadened focus beyond simply youth present at the blasts and must also include youth highly exposed to the intense interagency pursuit and manhunt. Continued research is needed to understand the adjustment of youth after mass traumas and large-scale manhunts in residential communities. PMID:24918223

  12. MEDIA EXPOSURE AND SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM REACTIVITY PREDICT PTSD SYMPTOMS AFTER THE BOSTON MARATHON BOMBINGS

    PubMed Central

    Busso, Daniel S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Terrorist attacks have been shown to precipitate posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in children and adolescents, particularly among youths with high exposure to media coverage surrounding such events. Media exposure may be particularly likely to trigger PTSD symptoms in youths with high physiological reactivity to stress or with prior psychopathology or exposure to violence. We examined the interplay between media exposure, preattack psychopathology, autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, and prior violence exposure in predicting PTSD symptom onset following the terrorist attack at the 2013 Boston Marathon. Methods A community sample of 78 adolescents (mean age = 16.7 years, 65% female) completed a survey about the bombings, including media exposure to the event and PTSD symptoms. All respondents participated in a study assessing psychopathology prior to the attack, and sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity to a laboratory-based stressor was assessed in a subset (N = 44) of this sample. We examined the associations of media exposure, ANS reactivity, preattack psychopathology, and prior violence exposure with onset of PTSD symptoms related to the bombings. Results Media exposure, preattack psychopathology, and prior violence exposure were associated with PTSD symptoms. Moreover, media exposure interacted with sympathetic reactivity to predict PTSD symptom onset, such that adolescents with lower levels of sympathetic reactivity developed PTSD symptoms only following high exposure to media coverage of the attack. Conclusions We provide novel evidence that physiological reactivity prior to exposure to an unpredictable traumatic stressor predicts PTSD symptom onset. These findings have implications for identifying youths most vulnerable to PTSD following wide-scale trauma. PMID:24995832

  13. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    PubMed Central

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  14. Acute metabolic responses to a 24-h ultra-marathon race in male amateur runners.

    PubMed

    Waśkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kłapcińska, Barbara; Sadowska-Krępa, Ewa; Czuba, Milosz; Kempa, Katarzyna; Kimsa, Elżbieta; Gerasimuk, Dagmara

    2012-05-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the metabolic responses to a 24 h ultra-endurance race in male runners. Paired venous and capillary blood samples from 14 athletes (mean age 43.0 ± 10.8 years, body weight 64.3 ± 7.2 kg, VO(2max) 57.8 ± 6.1 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), taken 3 h before the run, after completing the marathon distance (42.195 km), after 12 h, and at the finish of the race, were analyzed for blood morphology, acid-base balance and electrolytes, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and serum enzyme activities. Mean distance covered during the race was 168.5 ± 23.1 km (range 125.2-218.5 km). Prolonged ultra-endurance exercise triggered immune and inflammatory responses, as evidenced by a twofold increase in total leukocyte count with neutrophils and monocytes as main contributors, nearly 30-fold increase in serum IL-6 and over 20-fold rise in hsCRP. A progressive exponential increase in mean creatine kinase activity up to the level 70-fold higher than the respective pre-race value, a several fold rise in serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, and a fairly stable serum γ-glutamyl transferase level, were indicative of muscle, but not of liver damage. With duration of exercise, there was a progressive development of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnic alkalosis, and a marked alteration in substrate utilization towards fat oxidation to maintain blood glucose homeostasis. The results of this study may imply that progressive decline in partial CO(2) pressure (hypocapnia) that develops during prolonged exercise may contribute to increased interleukin-6 production.

  15. Epidemiology of Rifampicin Resistant Tuberculosis and Common Mutations in rpoB Gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Retrospective Study from Six Districts of Punjab (India) Using Xpert MTB/RIF Assay

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ramandeep; Jindal, Neerja; Arora, Shilpa; Kataria, Shajla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Xpert MTB/RIF assay has revolutionized the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) by simultaneously detecting the bacteria and resistance to rifampicin (RIF), a surrogate marker for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in <2 h. The RIF resistance pattern in Malwa region of Punjab, India, is not documented. Here, we report the epidemiology of RIF-resistant TB and mutations in rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Materials and Methods: A total of 1612 specimens received between October 2013 and February 2015 were tested by Xpert MTB/RIF assay following manufacturer's instructions. The results thus obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) statistical software. Result: RIF resistance was statistically higher in previously treated patients in comparison to the new patients (P = 0.006) and in patients with acid fast-Bacilli (AFB) positive smears to AFB-negative smears (P = 0.048). RIF resistance mutations in 130 specimens revealed frequency of E 73/130 (56%), B 28/130 (21.5%), D 18/130 (13.8%), A 11/130 (8.4%), and C 1/130 (0.7%) while in one specimen, mutation combination, i.e., mutations associated with more than one probe (A and B both) was present. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a user-friendly screening tool for detection of MTB and RIF resistance from suspected TB/MDR cases in a shorter period of time. It could also serve as a useful technique to have simultaneous preliminary information regarding the mutation pattern of RIF resistance in MTB isolates. PMID:27365918

  16. Comparison of the Xpert MTB/RIF test with an IS6110-TaqMan real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Armand, Sylvie; Vanhuls, Pascale; Delcroix, Guy; Courcol, René; Lemaître, Nadine

    2011-05-01

    The sensitivities of the Xpert MTB/RIF test and an in-house IS6110-based real-time PCR using TaqMan probes (IS6110-TaqMan assay) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA were compared by use of 117 clinical specimens (97 culture positive and 20 culture negative for MTBC) that were frozen in sediment. The 97 clinical specimens included 60 respiratory and 37 nonrespiratory specimens distributed into 36 smear-positive and 61 smear-negative specimens. Among the 97 culture-positive specimens, 4 had rifampin-resistant isolates. Both methods were highly specific and exhibited excellent sensitivity (100%) with smear-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF test with the whole smear-negative specimens was more reduced than that of the IS6110-TaqMan assay (48 versus 69%, P = 0.005). Both methods exhibited similar sensitivities with smear-negative respiratory specimens, but the Xpert MTB/RIF test had lower sensitivity with smear-negative nonrespiratory specimens than the IS6110-TaqMan assay (37 versus 71%, P = 0.013). Finally, the sensitivities of the Xpert MTB/RIF test and the IS6110-TaqMan assay were 79% and 84%, respectively, with respiratory specimens and 53% and 78%, respectively (P = 0.013), with nonrespiratory specimens. The Xpert MTB/RIF test correctly detected the rifampin resistance in smear-positive specimens but not in the one smear-negative specimen. The Xpert MTB/RIF test is a simple rapid method well adapted to a routine laboratory that appeared to be as sensitive as the IS6110-TaqMan assay with respiratory specimens but less sensitive with paucibacillary specimens, such as smear-negative nonrespiratory specimens.

  17. Marathon Running, Accreditation of Study Programmes and Professional Development in Consultancies: Are They All about the Same? A Cognitive Perspective on Transfer of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Three challenges are presented which address problems of transfer of training: running marathon, accreditation of study programmes, professional development in consultancies. It is discussed in-how-far and why different approaches to transfer of training stress commonalities or differences between these challenges. The results are used to analyse…

  18. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    McManus, Chris J; Murray, Kelly A; Parry, David A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 - 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 - 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr(-1). 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.

  19. Environmental impact statement/environmental impact report for the proposed marathon industrial/commercial business center tract 5167, Hayward California. Supplement. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-01

    Joint State Federal environmental impact document concerning a regulatory permit application by Marathon U.S. Realties, Inc. under Section 10 of the River and Harbor Act of 1899 and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. The proposed project involves a nonwater-oriented industrial, business development with public utilities, and habitat mitigation.

  20. The effects of prolonged running on foot posture: a repeated measures study of half marathon runners using the foot posture index and navicular height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different foot postures are associated with alterations in foot function, kinetics and the subsequent occurrence of injury. Little is known about changes in foot posture following prolonged weightbearing exercise. This study aimed to identify changes in foot posture after running a half marathon. Methods Foot posture was measured using the Foot Posture Index (FPI-6) and navicular height in thirty volunteer participants before and after running a half marathon. FPI-6 scores were converted to Rasch logit values and means compared for these and navicular height using an ANOVA. Results There was a 5 mm drop in navicular height in both feet when measured after the half marathon (P < 0.05). The FPI-6 showed a side x time interaction with an increase in score indicating a more ‘pronated’ position in the left foot of + 2 [Rasch value + 1.7] but no change in the right foot (+ 0.4 [+ 0.76]) following the half marathon. Conclusion The apparent differences between the FPI-6 and navicular height on the right foot may be because the FPI-6 takes soft tissue contour changes into consideration whilst the navicular height focuses on skeletal changes. The changes in foot posture towards a more pronated position may have implications for foot function, and therefore risk of injury; shoe fit and comfort and also the effect of therapeutic orthoses worn during prolonged running. PMID:23705863

  1. Level of minerals and trace elements in the urine of the participants of mountain ultra-marathon race.

    PubMed

    Jablan, Jasna; Inić, Suzana; Stosnach, Hagen; Hadžiabdić, Maja Ortner; Vujić, Lovorka; Domijan, Ana-Marija

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore impact of endurance exercise on urinary level of minerals and trace elements as well as on some oxidative stress and biochemical parameters. Urine samples were collected from participants (n=21) of mountain ultra-marathon race (53km; Medvednica, Zagreb, Croatia), before (baseline value), immediately after, 12h and 24h after the race. In urine samples level of minerals (Ca, P, K and Na) and trace elements (Se, Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe and Co) were assessed using the bench top Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer. Oxidative stress was determined as level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Immediately after the race level of minerals, trace elements, MDA, creatinine, ketones, erythrocytes and specific gravity increased compared to their baseline value. In 24h follow-up trace elements involved in antioxidant defence, MDA and biochemical parameters returned to their baseline values, Cu and Co remained increased as after the race, Fe and K tended to return to baseline values while Ca, P and Na continued to increase. Mountain ultra-marathon resulted in alteration of physiologically important minerals and trace elements that for some minerals and trace elements persist, indicating their involvement in recovery processes. However, due to their loss in urine, level of minerals and trace elements in athletes participating in endurance exercise should be monitored.

  2. Continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics during a marathon by means of inertial magnetic measurement units to objectify changes in running mechanics.

    PubMed

    Reenalda, Jasper; Maartens, Erik; Homan, Lotte; Buurke, J H Jaap

    2016-10-03

    Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon. Data were continuously recorded during the entire 42.2km (26.2Miles) of the Marathon. Data from the individual sensors were transmitted wirelessly to a receiver, mounted on the handlebar of an accompanying cyclist. Anatomical calibration was performed using both static and dynamic procedures and sensor orientations were thus converted to body segment orientations by means of transformation matrices obtained from the segment calibration. Joint angle (hip, knee and ankle) trajectories as well as center of mass (COM) trajectory and acceleration were derived from the sensor data after segment calibration. Data were collected and repeated measures one way ANOVA׳s, with Tukey post-hoc test, were used to statistically analyze differences between the defined kinematic parameters (max hip angle, peak knee flexion at mid-stance and at mid-swing, ankle angle at initial contact and COM vertical displacement and acceleration), averaged over 100 strides, between the first and the last stages (8 and 40km) of the marathon. Significant changes in running mechanics were witnessed between the first and the last stage of the marathon. This study showed the possibility of performing a 3D kinematic analysis of the running technique, in the sport specific setting, by using inertial magnetic measurement units. For

  3. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Chris J.; Murray, Kelly A.; Parry, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1) who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km) in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2) and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19). Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events. Key points Multi-day endurance running (MDER) events are increasingly prevalent among recreational and elite runners, as such, reporting the practices of populations underrepresented in the literature are important. This case study reports nutritional practices of a female recreational runner undertaking 26 marathons in 26 consecutive days. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for MDER events. PMID:28344459

  4. Direct Detection by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and Characterization of Multi and Poly Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, Gema; Sanca, Lilica; Mané, Morto; Armada, Ana; Machado, Diana; Vieira, Fina; Gomes, Victor F.; Martins, Elisabete; Colombatti, Raffaella; Riccardi, Fabio; Perdigão, João; Sotero, Joana; Portugal, Isabel; Couto, Isabel; Atouguia, Jorge; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Viveiros, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the rapid direct detection of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains and rifampicin resistance associated mutations in a resource-limited setting such as Guinea-Bissau and its implications in the management of tuberculosis (TB) and drug resistant tuberculosis, complementing the scarce information on resistance and genotypic diversity of MTBC strains in this West African country. Methods and Results This cross-sectional prospective study included 100 consecutive TB patients with positive acid-fast smears at two months of anti-tuberculosis treatment or in a re-treatment situation, between May and December 2012. Resistance to rifampicin was detected using the GeneXpert system and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. MTBC isolates obtained with the BACTEC MGIT 960 system were tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. Overall, the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was found to be 9 cases. Of these, 67% (6 patients) of confirmed MDR-TB cases had no past history of TB treatment and 33% (3 patients) were previously treated cases. Extensively drug-resistant TB was not found. Molecular typing of the MDR-TB strains revealed recent transmission patterns of imported MDR strains. Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reliable for the detection of rifampicin resistant MTBC strains directly from sputum samples of patients undergoing first-line treatment for two months, being more trustworthy than the simple presence of acid-fast bacilli in the smear. Its implementation is technically simple, does not require specialized laboratory infrastructures and is suitable for resource-limited settings when a regular source of electricity and maintenance is available as well as financial and operation sustainability is guaranteed by the health authorities. A high prevalence of MDR-TB among patients at risk of MDR-TB after two months of first-line treatment was

  5. Accuracy and Adoption of Wearable Technology Used by Active Citizens: A Marathon Event Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Suleder, Julian; Zowalla, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Today, runners use wearable technology such as global positioning system (GPS)–enabled sport watches to track and optimize their training activities, for example, when participating in a road race event. For this purpose, an increasing amount of low-priced, consumer-oriented wearable devices are available. However, the variety of such devices is overwhelming. It is unclear which devices are used by active, healthy citizens and whether they can provide accurate tracking results in a diverse study population. No published literature has yet assessed the dissemination of wearable technology in such a cohort and related influencing factors. Objective The aim of this study was 2-fold: (1) to determine the adoption of wearable technology by runners, especially “smart” devices and (2) to investigate on the accuracy of tracked distances as recorded by such devices. Methods A pre-race survey was applied to assess which wearable technology was predominantly used by runners of different age, sex, and fitness level. A post-race survey was conducted to determine the accuracy of the devices that tracked the running course. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate whether age, sex, fitness level, or track distance were influencing factors. Recorded distances of different device categories were tested with a 2-sample t test against each other. Results A total of 898 pre-race and 262 post-race surveys were completed. Most of the participants (approximately 75%) used wearable technology for training optimization and distance recording. Females (P=.02) and runners in higher age groups (50-59 years: P=.03; 60-69 years: P<.001; 70-79 year: P=.004) were less likely to use wearables. The mean of the track distances recorded by mobile phones with combined app (mean absolute error, MAE=0.35 km) and GPS-enabled sport watches (MAE=0.12 km) was significantly different (P=.002) for the half-marathon event. Conclusions A great variety of vendors (n=36) and devices

  6. Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events. PMID:24626948

  7. Evaluating the Influence of Massage on Leg Strength, Swelling, and Pain Following a Half-Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Lance G.; Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tiidus, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Massage therapy is commonly used following endurance running races with the expectation that it will enhance post-run recovery of muscle function and reduce soreness. A limited number of studies have reported little or no influence of massage therapy on post-exercise muscle recovery. However, no studies have been conducted in a field setting to assess the potential for massage to influence muscle recovery following an actual endurance running race. To evaluate the potential for repeated massage therapy interventions to influence recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle soreness, recovery of quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength and reduction of upper leg muscle swelling over a two week recovery period following an actual road running race. Twelve adult recreational runners (8 male, 4 female) completed a half marathon (21.1 km) road race. On days 1,4, 8, and 11 post-race, subjects received 30 minutes of standardized massage therapy performed by a registered massage therapist on a randomly assigned massage treatment leg, while the other (control) leg received no massage treatment. Two days prior to the race (baseline) and preceding the treatments on post-race days 1, 4, 8, and 11 the following measures were conducted on each of the massage and control legs: strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, leg swelling, and soreness perception. At day 1, post-race quadriceps peak torque was significantly reduced (p < 0.05), and soreness and leg circumference significantly elevated (p < 0.05) relative to pre-race values with no difference between legs. This suggested that exercise-induced muscle disruption did occur. Comparing the rate of return to baseline measures between the massaged and control legs, revealed no significant differences (p > 0.05). All measures had returned to baseline at day 11. Massage did not affect the recovery of muscles in terms of physiological measures of strength, swelling, or soreness. However, questionnaires revealed that 7 of the 12

  8. Alterations of Vertical Jump Mechanics after a Half-Marathon Mountain Running Race.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Pappas, Achilleas; Bogdanis, Gregory; Vagenas, Georgios; Bayios, Ioannis A; Boudolos, Konstantinos D

    2016-06-01

    The fatiguing effect of long-distance running has been examined in the context of a variety of parameters. However, there is scarcity of data regarding its effect on the vertical jump mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations of countermovement jump (CMJ) mechanics after a half-marathon mountain race. Twenty-seven runners performed CMJs before the race (Pre), immediately after the race (Post 1) and five minutes after Post 1 (Post 2). Instantaneous and ensemble-average analysis focused on jump height and, the maximum peaks and time-to-maximum peaks of: Displacement, vertical force (Fz), anterior-posterior force (Fx), Velocity and Power, in the eccentric (tECC) and concentric (tCON) phase of the jump, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). The jump height decrease was significant in Post 2 (-7.9%) but not in Post 1 (-4.1%). Fx and Velocity decreased significantly in both Post 1 (only in tECC) and Post 2 (both tECC and tCON). Α timing shift of the Fz peaks (earlier during tECC and later during tCON) and altered relative peak times (only in tECC) were also observed. Ensemble-average analysis revealed several time intervals of significant post-race alterations and a timing shift in the Fz-Velocity loop. An overall trend of lowered post-race jump output and mechanics was characterised by altered jump timing, restricted anterior-posterior movement and altered force-velocity relations. The specificity of mountain running fatigue to eccentric muscle work, appears to be reflected in the different time order of the post-race reductions, with the eccentric phase reductions preceding those of the concentric one. Thus, those who engage in mountain running should particularly consider downhill training to optimise eccentric muscular action. Key pointsThe 4.1% reduction of jump height immediately after the race is not statistically significantThe eccentric phase alterations of jump mechanics precede

  9. Alterations of Vertical Jump Mechanics after a Half-Marathon Mountain Running Race

    PubMed Central

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N.; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Pappas, Achilleas; Bogdanis, Gregory; Vagenas, Georgios; Bayios, Ioannis A.; Boudolos, Konstantinos D.

    2016-01-01

    The fatiguing effect of long-distance running has been examined in the context of a variety of parameters. However, there is scarcity of data regarding its effect on the vertical jump mechanics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alterations of countermovement jump (CMJ) mechanics after a half-marathon mountain race. Twenty-seven runners performed CMJs before the race (Pre), immediately after the race (Post 1) and five minutes after Post 1 (Post 2). Instantaneous and ensemble-average analysis focused on jump height and, the maximum peaks and time-to-maximum peaks of: Displacement, vertical force (Fz), anterior-posterior force (Fx), Velocity and Power, in the eccentric (tECC) and concentric (tCON) phase of the jump, respectively. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used for statistical analysis (p ≤ 0.05). The jump height decrease was significant in Post 2 (-7.9%) but not in Post 1 (-4.1%). Fx and Velocity decreased significantly in both Post 1 (only in tECC) and Post 2 (both tECC and tCON). Α timing shift of the Fz peaks (earlier during tECC and later during tCON) and altered relative peak times (only in tECC) were also observed. Ensemble-average analysis revealed several time intervals of significant post-race alterations and a timing shift in the Fz-Velocity loop. An overall trend of lowered post-race jump output and mechanics was characterised by altered jump timing, restricted anterior-posterior movement and altered force-velocity relations. The specificity of mountain running fatigue to eccentric muscle work, appears to be reflected in the different time order of the post-race reductions, with the eccentric phase reductions preceding those of the concentric one. Thus, those who engage in mountain running should particularly consider downhill training to optimise eccentric muscular action. Key points The 4.1% reduction of jump height immediately after the race is not statistically significant The eccentric phase alterations of jump mechanics precede