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Sample records for cross-over bed net

  1. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI) is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5%) was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p < 0.001) and DuraNet® (69.8%, p < 0.001). The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6). LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3) and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5) were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  2. Use of Bed Nets and Factors That Influence Bed Net Use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-wei; Liao, Yuan-mei; Liu, Hui; Nie, Ren-hua; Havumaki, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are an integral part of vector control recommendations for malaria elimination in China. This study investigated the extent to which bed nets were used and which factors influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority in China-Myanmar-Laos border areas. Methods and Findings This study combined a quantitative household questionnaire survey and qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews (SDI). Questionnaires were administered to 352 heads of households. SDIs were given to 20 key informants. The bed net to person ratio was 1∶2.1 (i.e., nearly one net for every two people), however only 169 (48.0%) households owned at least one net and 623 (47.2%) residents slept under bed nets the prior night. The percentages of residents who regularly slept under nets (RSUN) and slept under nets the prior night (SUNPN) were similar (48.0% vs. 47.2%, P>0.05), however the percentage correct use of nets (CUN) was significantly lower (34.5%, P<0.0001). The annual cash income per person (ACIP) was an independent factor that influenced bed net use (P<0.0001), where families with an ACIP of CNY10000 or more were much more likely to use nets. House type was strongly associated with bed net use (OR: 4.71, 95% CI: 2.81, 7.91; P<0.0001), where those with traditional wood walls and terracotta roofs were significantly more likely to use nets, and the head of household's knowledge was an independent factor (OR: 5.04, 95% CI: 2.72, 9.35; P<0.0001), where those who knew bed nets prevent malaria were significantly more likely to use nets too. Conclusions High bed net availability does not necessarily mean higher coverage or bed net use. Household income, house type and knowledge of the ability of bed nets to prevent malaria are all independent factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo Ethnic Minority. PMID:25080267

  3. Unforeseen misuses of bed nets in fishing villages along Lake Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, Gorge O; Futami, Kyoko; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Background To combat malaria, the Kenya Ministry of Health and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have distributed insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for use over beds, with coverage for children under five years of age increasing rapidly. Nevertheless, residents of fishing villages have started to use these bed nets for drying fish and fishing in Lake Victoria. This study investigated the extent of bed net misuse in fishing villages. Methods Seven fishing villages along the lake were surveyed to estimate how widely bed nets were being used for fishing and drying fish. Villagers were asked why they used the bed nets for such purposes. Results In total, 283 bed nets were being used for drying fish. Of these, 239 were long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLIN) and 44 were non-long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (NLLIN). Further, 72 of the 283 bed nets were also being used for fishing. The most popular reasons were because the bed nets were inexpensive or free and because fish dried faster on the nets. LLINs were preferred to NLLINs for fishing and drying fish. Conclusion There is considerable misuse of bed nets for drying fish and fishing. Many villagers are not yet fully convinced of the effectiveness of LLINs for malaria prevention. Such misuses may hamper the efforts of NGOs and governmental health organizations. PMID:18752662

  4. Use of insecticide-impregnated bed nets in Gambian primary health care: economic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    MacCormack, C. P.; Snow, R. W.; Greenwood, B. M.

    1989-01-01

    Village-wide use of permethrin-impregnated bed nets, compared with placebo-treated nets, has reduced clinical attacks of malaria by 63% in the Gambia. Costs were calculated for nets made by local tailors and for their treatment with insecticide in the villages, as well as for targeted chemoprophylaxis and back-up treatment for fever, in a comprehensive malaria control strategy through primary health care. The villagers' preferences for bed net fabrics and willingness to pay for them, and their preferences for various items of expenditure by ranked order, age group, and sex are given. Ethnic differences in the use of bed nets are also discussed. PMID:2743540

  5. Net Risk: A Risk Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticide Bed Nets Used for Malaria Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K. D.; Barber, Loren M.; Schleier, Jerome J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated ability of bed nets that have been factory-impregnated with long-lasting insecticides (LLINs) to protect people from malaria and despite the ambitious plans for their widespread use, the health risks from the LLINs themselves have not been adequately investigated and reported in the peer-reviewed science literature. Here, we use a probabilistic risk assessment approach to estimate the risks to Africans from inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to the newer LLINs with permethrin, α-cypermethrin, or deltamethrin as the insecticide active ingredient. We estimated exposures to LLINs using 17 age groups to incorporate different body weights and sleeping behaviors. Risk quotients (exposure divided by toxic threshold) at the 50th and 90th percentiles for non-cancer risks were < 1.0 for lifetime adjusted risk and all youth and adult age groups. Risk quotients for infants and toddlers (0–3 years) and child groups from 3 to 10 years were ≥ 1.0 for specific bed nets. PMID:21633033

  6. Reports of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets catching on fire: a threat to bed net users and to successful malaria control?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the control tools to reduce malaria transmission is the use of LLINs. However, several studies show that household bed net use is quite low. A study was developed to better understand the cultural factors that might explain these gaps in Benin. One reason mentioned is that bed nets can catch on fire and cause harm. This paper presents a summary of these findings, their analysis and the ensuing issues. Methods This anthropological study is based on an inductive qualitative approach, including 91 semi-structured interviews conducted from July 2011 to March 2012 in a health district in Southern Benin. Results Fifty-six persons stated that bed nets can catch on fire but do not always refer to specific facts. However, 34 of the 56 people narrate specific events they heard or experienced. 39 accounts were geographically located and situated in time, with various details. In 27 situations, people were burned, for which 12 people reportedly died. Discussion The disparity between these results and the dearth of bibliographic documentation in the initial search prompted a more in-depth literature review: 16 contributions between 1994 and 2013 were found. Bed net fires were noted in 10 countries, but it is impossible to ascertain the frequency of such events. Moreover, bodily harm can be significant, and several cases of death attributed to bed net fires were noted. Conclusions Indisputably, the use of bed nets to reduce the impact of this terrible disease is an optimal control method. However, the perception that LLINs have a potentially negative effect hinders the use rate in the real world, at least for some. If some people fear the risk of fires, this possibility must be addressed during information and prevention sessions on malaria, with a communication strategy tailored to specific social contexts. Moreover, all possible measures should be taken to limit the harm suffered by individuals and their families. PMID:24972637

  7. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that tension strength with one grab and one hook better represent how holes are generated in bed nets in real life. Methods Measurements of bursting strength and tension strengths in the two directions are analysed for eight model nets created for the study. The nets were made in the most commonly used denier (75 and 100 D) and mesh (156 holes/inch2) for multifilament polyester yarns, texturized or not, and with 4 or 6 sided holes. All were made from one polyester quality. Data was arranged in a randomized, complete block design and analysed for significant variables and their interactions. Data was then subjected to regression analyses using net square metre weight as a weighting factor with stepwise removal of variables. This revealed how the four textile variables interacted and allowed for making predictions for the strength of commercial nets in polyester or polyethylene. Results For the model nets, higher denier provided higher bursting strength and tension strengths, texturizing weakened nets and four-sided holes were stronger than six-sided holes. Even when compensating for square metre weight, 100 D nets are stronger than 75 D nets. Results for the commercial polyester net nets are less clear, probably because of different qualities of polyester. Tensile strength: a 75 denier net knitted tightly to provide the same square metre weight as a standard 100 denier net therefore does not obtain the same strength. Polyethylene nets are made of mono-fibre yarns and, therefore, have higher tension strength in both directions than multifilament polyester nets. For bursting strength results overlap for 100 denier yarns of both yarn types. As a class, commercial polyethylene nets are stronger than commercial polyester net whatever method is used for evaluation. Conclusion Tension strength measured in the length and width directions of the net using one hook

  8. Efficacy of Permethrin Treated Bed Nets Against Leishmania major Infected Sand Flies.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Tobin; Davidson, Silas A; Kobylinski, Kevin; Menses, Claudio; Rowton, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide treated nets (ITNs) are a potential tool to help control sand flies and prevent Leishmaniasis. However, little is currently known about the response of Leishmania infected sand flies to ITNs. In this study, Phlebotomus duboscqi sand flies were infected with the parasite Leishmania major. Infected and noninfected sand flies were then evaluated against permethrin treated and untreated bed nets in a laboratory assay that required sand flies to pass through suspended netting material to feed on a mouse serving as an attractive host. The number of sand flies passing through the nets and blood feeding was recorded. There was not a significant difference in the ability of infected or noninfected sand flies to move through treated or untreated nets. Fewer sand flies entered the permethrin treated nets compared to the untreated nets, indicating that permethrin creates an effective barrier. The results show that in addition to reducing the nuisance bites of noninfected sand flies, ITNs also protect against Leishmania infected sand flies and therefore can play in key role in reducing the rates of Leishmaniasis. This study is important to the Department of Defense as it continues to develop and field new bed nets to protect service members.

  9. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Del Valle, Sara Y; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-12-21

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  10. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  11. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated “KO Palu” (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM’s NightWatch program) on bed net use. Methods Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. Results The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net

  12. Infrared video tracking of Anopheles gambiae at insecticide-treated bed nets reveals rapid decisive impact after brief localised net contact

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Josephine E.A.; Angarita-Jaimes, Natalia; Abe, Mayumi; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David; McCall, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) protect humans from malaria transmission and are fundamental to malaria control worldwide, but little is known of how mosquitoes interact with nets. Elucidating LLIN mode of action is essential to maintain or improve efficacy, an urgent need as emerging insecticide resistance threatens their future. Tracking multiple free-flying Anopheles gambiae responding to human-occupied bed nets in a novel large-scale system, we characterised key behaviours and events. Four behavioural modes with different levels of net contact were defined: swooping, visiting, bouncing and resting. Approximately 75% of all activity occurred at the bed net roof where multiple brief contacts were focussed above the occupant’s torso. Total flight and net contact times were lower at LLINs than untreated nets but the essential character of the response was unaltered. LLINs did not repel mosquitoes but impacted rapidly: LLIN contact of less than 1 minute per mosquito during the first ten minutes reduced subsequent activity; after thirty minutes, activity at LLINs was negligible. Velocity measurements showed that mosquitoes detected nets, including unbaited untreated nets, prior to contact. This is the most complete characterisation of mosquito-LLIN interactions to date, and reveals many aspects of LLIN mode of action, important for developing the next generation of LLINs. PMID:26323965

  13. Insecticide-impregnated bed nets for malaria control: varying experiences from Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru concerning acceptability and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, A; Mancheno, M; Alarcon, J; Pesse, K

    1995-10-01

    Between 1991 and 1994, an intervention program with permethrin- and lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bed nets was carried out over a period of nine months in each of five endemic, malarious areas of Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia. This program was evaluated through household surveys, blood sampling, in-depth longitudinal studies, and entomologic analysis. Eighty-four communities (including approximately 35,000 individuals) were paired according to malaria incidence, size, and coverage with bed nets and then randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The results showed that peoples' acceptance of the measure was related to their perception of an immediate protective effect against insects. The effectiveness of the bed nets, measured as a reduction of malaria incidence in intervention communities as against control communities, showed large variations between and within the study areas. The protective efficacy varied between 0% and 70% when looking only at the postintervention differences between intervention and control groups. The average protection was 40.8% when considering a four-month incidence of clinical malaria attacks and 28.3% when considering a two-week malaria incidence. Important factors for the success of the bed net program were insect susceptibility to pyrethroids, high coverage with impregnated bed nets, high malaria incidence, good community participation, high mosquito densities when people go to bed, and a high proportion of Plasmodium falciparum. In one area, where DDT spraying in the control communities was executed, the effectiveness of bed net impregnation was slightly better than that of spraying.

  14. Increasing Coverage and Decreasing Inequity in Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Use among Rural Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. Methods and Findings We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0–4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor

  15. Evaluation of Polyethylene-Based Long Lasting Treated Bed Net Netprotect on Anopheles Mosquitoes, Malaria Incidence, and Net Longivity in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Odhiambo, M. T. O.; Skovmand, O.; Vulule, J. M.; Kokwaro, E. D.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect on malaria incidence, mosquito abundance, net efficacy, net use rate, chemical analysis, and holes of a long lasting insecticide treated bed net (Netprotect) in western Kenya, 2007–2010. Nets were hung in 150 households 6 months before they were hung in a second, 2 km away. Indoor resting densities were monitored by pyrethrum spray catch and malaria cases by passive detection using clinical manifestations and rapid diagnostic test. The probability of finding An. arabiensis in the control area was 2.6 times higher than that in intervention area during the first 6 months. Human blood feeding index of Anopheles funestus declined 17%. After bed nets were hung in the second area, malaria incidence declined 25% down to the level in the first area. Incidence remained at this low level for 2 years. 90% of collected nets were efficacious after 3-year use. Deltamethrin dosage declined from 1.9 to 0.5 g/kg over 3 years. Attrition rate after 3 years was 21%. WHO hole index changed from 333 to 114 to 381 over the three years. This index summarizes the numbers of holes in size categories and multiplies with the mean hole area per category. It is very sensitive to the impact of big holes in a few nets. PMID:24194770

  16. Cedarwood: cross-over pressure research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the cross-over pressure for cedarwood oil in carbon dioxide. A closed stirrer reactor with an in-line loop connected to the injector of a GC was used to measure the concentration of cedarwood oil in the carbon dioxide. Both neat cedarwood oil as ...

  17. Challenges in universal coverage and utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets in migrant plantation workers in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High coverage of the bed nets can reduce mortality and morbidity of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. Although the migrant workers are at high risk of malaria, there are many hidden challenges in universal coverage and utilization of the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in this populations. Methods Cross sectional study was conducted in 170 migrant workers in palm oil plantation sites in Tanintharyi Region and 175 in rubber plantation sites in Mon State. A multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to select the participants. During household visit, face-to-face interviews using structured pre-coded, pre tested questionnaires and direct observation on installation of the bed nets was conducted. Two focus group discussions in each site were done by sample stratified purposive sampling method mainly focused on effective utilization of bed nets. Results Among them, 332 (96.2%) had a bed net and 284 (82.3%) had an ITN, while 204 (59.1%) had unused extranets. Among the ITNs users, 28.9% reported problems including insecticide smell (56.9%), dizziness (20.2%), headache (12.8%) and itchiness (9.2%). More than 75% received ITNs from health authorities and NGOs free-of-charge. More than 70% wanted to buy a net but they were unaffordable for 64% of them. On observation, only five families could show no bed net, but 80% showed 1–3 ITNs. Consistent utilization in all seasons was noted in 189 (53.1%), that was higher in palm oil plantation than rubber plantation workers (p = 0.0001) due to the nature of the work at night. Perceived malaria risk was also significantly higher ITNs consistent users than non-users (p = 0.0004) and better willingness to buy an ITN by themselves (p = 0.0005). They said that effectiveness of the ITNs was reduced after 6 months and 2–3 times washing. They wished to receive more durable smooth nets with small holes in lace. Misuses of the ITNs such as use the nets for animals and fishing, were also noted

  18. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cheryl L; Sallau, Adamu; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Noland, Gregory S; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Miri, Emmanuel; McFarland, Deborah A; Richards, Frank O; Patterson, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC) intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45-65.79) or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020), increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022), and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.78). The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions.

  19. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cheryl L; Sallau, Adamu; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Noland, Gregory S; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Miri, Emmanuel; McFarland, Deborah A; Richards, Frank O; Patterson, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC) intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45-65.79) or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020), increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022), and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.78). The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions. PMID:26430747

  20. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cheryl L.; Sallau, Adamu; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M.; Noland, Gregory S.; Ngondi, Jeremiah M.; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Miri, Emmanuel; McFarland, Deborah A.; Richards, Frank O.; Patterson, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC) intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45–65.79) or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020), increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022), and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.78). The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions. PMID:26430747

  1. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN’s insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  2. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission.

    PubMed

    Birget, Philip L G; Koella, Jacob C

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN's insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  3. Possession of bed nets in Haut-Katanga (DRC): prevalence-elastic behaviour or performance of health care system delivery?

    PubMed

    Seban, Juliette; Thuilliez, Josselin; Herbreteau, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    This article provides an empirical multi-disciplinary strategy that enables to identify prevalence-elastic behaviours influencing the possession of mosquito nets and to assess the relative performance of health centers in promoting the possession of nets in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). We use a household survey conducted in 2009 in Haut Katanga, DRC. We combine these data with estimates on malaria prevalence from the Malaria Atlas project. Results show that households behave rationally with respect to the disease, meaning that the cause for a low possession of nets should be found elsewhere. They also show that health centers are not the most effective in promoting possession of bed nets, in areas where they are most needed for malaria control.

  4. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, A.; Adebayo, S. B.; Arogundade, E. D.; Anyanti, J.; Nwokolo, E.; Inyang, U.; Ipadeola, Oladipupo B.; Meremiku, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria. PMID:24778895

  5. NETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1993-01-01

    NETS development tool provides environment for simulation and development of neural networks - computer programs that "learn" from experience. Written in ANSI standard C, program allows user to generate C code for implementation of neural network.

  6. “Tazomoka Is Not a Problem”. Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. Methods A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Results Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka (“mosquito fever”), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo (“fever”) and tazomahery (“strong fever”) were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to

  7. A mechanistic model linking insect (Hydropsychidae) silk nets to incipient sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Pontau, Patricia; Dow, Michelle; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2014-09-01

    Plants and animals affect stream morphodynamics across a range of scales, yet including biological traits of organisms in geomorphic process models remains a fundamental challenge. For example, laboratory experiments have shown that silk nets built by caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate bed motion by more than a factor of 2. The contributions of specific biological traits are not well understood, however. Here we develop a theoretical model for the effects of insect nets on the threshold of sediment motion, τ*crit, that accounts for the mechanical properties, geometry, and vertical distribution of insect silk, as well as interactions between insect species. To parameterize the model, we measure the tensile strength, diameter, and number of silk threads in nets built by two common species of caddisfly, Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari. We compare model predictions with new measurements of τ*crit in experiments where we varied grain size and caddisfly species composition. The model is consistent with experimental results for single species, which show that the increase in τ*crit above the abiotic control peaks at 40-70% for 10-22 mm sediments and declines with increasing grain size. For the polyculture experiments, however, the model underpredicts the measured increase in τ*crit when two caddisfly species are present in sediments of larger grain sizes. Overall, the model helps explain why the presence of caddisfly silk can substantially increase the forces needed to initiate sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams and also illustrates the challenge of parameterizing the behavior of multiple interacting species in a physical model.

  8. A Small-Scale Field Trial of Pyriproxyfen-Impregnated Bed Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O.; Ohashi, Kazunori; Kawashima, Emiko; Sonye, George; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance is becoming a major problem for vector control programs, because at present, there are few suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids, as when used on bed nets the insecticide must have low mammalian toxicity as well as high activity to mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of the most active chemicals among the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) group. Sterilizing mosquitoes by using PPF could be a potential control measure for pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. We investigated the sterilizing effects of two types of PPF-impregnated bed nets – a 1% PPF-impregnated net and a 1% PPF +2% permethrin-impregnated net (Olyset Duo) – to pyrethroid-resistant wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. High mortality of blood-fed mosquitos was observed 3 days post-collection, in the houses where PPF-impregnated nets were used, indicating the effect of PPF on the longevity of mosquitos that came in contact with the net. Reduction in the number of ovipositing females, number of eggs, and number of progeny per female were also observed in the houses in which both Olyset Duo and PPF-impregnated nets were used. This is the first field study showing the high sterilizing efficacy of PPF against wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. population. In addition, we recognized the necessity of combined use of permethrin with PPF, in order to reduce the risk of mosquito bites and provide a level of personal protection. Further studies on wild pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations such as An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. would provide more information on the practical use of the PPF-impregnated bed nets. PMID:25333785

  9. Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Zhao, Ruijun; Prosper, Olivia

    2016-05-21

    Although malaria prevalence has witnessed a significant reduction within the past decade, malaria still constitutes a major health and economic problem, especially to low-income countries. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remain one of the primary measures for preventing the malignant disease. Unfortunately, the success of ITN campaigns is hampered by improper use and natural decay in ITN-efficacy over time. Many models aimed at studying malaria transmission and control fail to account for this decay, as well as mosquito demography and feeding preferences exhibited by mosquitoes towards humans. Omitting these factors can misrepresent disease risk, while understanding their effects on malaria dynamics can inform control policy. We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify disease risks and corresponding ITN coverage, as well as feeding preference levels for which the disease can be controlled or eradicated. Our study leads to important insights that could assist in the design and implementation of better malaria control strategies. We conclude that ITNs that can retain their effectiveness for longer periods will be more appropriate in the fight against malaria and that making more ITNs available to highly endemic regions is

  10. View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May Wash. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 3, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. Adaptive introgression in an African malaria mosquito coincident with the increased usage of insecticide-treated bed nets.

    PubMed

    Norris, Laura C; Main, Bradley J; Lee, Yoosook; Collier, Travis C; Fofana, Abdrahamane; Cornel, Anthony J; Lanzaro, Gregory C

    2015-01-20

    Animal species adapt to changes in their environment, including man-made changes such as the introduction of insecticides, through selection for advantageous genes already present in populations or newly arisen through mutation. A possible alternative mechanism is the acquisition of adaptive genes from related species via a process known as adaptive introgression. Differing levels of insecticide resistance between two African malaria vectors, Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae, have been attributed to assortative mating between the two species. In a previous study, we reported two bouts of hybridization observed in the town of Selinkenyi, Mali in 2002 and 2006. These hybridization events did not appear to be directly associated with insecticide-resistance genes. We demonstrate that during a brief breakdown in assortative mating in 2006, A. coluzzii inherited the entire A. gambiae-associated 2L divergence island, which includes a suite of insecticide-resistance alleles. In this case, introgression was coincident with the start of a major insecticide-treated bed net distribution campaign in Mali. This suggests that insecticide exposure altered the fitness landscape, favoring the survival of A. coluzzii/A. gambiae hybrids, and provided selection pressure that swept the 2L divergence island through A. coluzzii populations in Mali. We propose that the work described herein presents a unique description of the temporal dynamics of adaptive introgression in an animal species and represents a mechanism for the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in this important vector of human malaria in Africa.

  13. A genetic model of the effects of insecticide-treated bed nets on the evolution of insecticide-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Birget, Philip L. G.; Koella, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evolution of insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors is emerging as a serious challenge for the control of malaria. Modelling the spread of insecticide-resistance is an essential tool to understand the evolutionary pressures and dynamics caused by the application of insecticides. Methodology: We developed a population-genetic model of the spread of insecticide-resistance in a population of Anopheles vectors in response to insecticides used either as adulticides (focussing on insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)) or as larvicides (either for the control of malaria or, as an inadvertent side-product, in agriculture). Results: We show that indoor use of insecticides leads to considerably less selection pressure than their use as larvicides, supporting the idea that most resistance of malaria vectors is due to the agricultural use of the insecticides that are also used for malaria control. The reasons for the relatively low selection pressure posed by adulticides are (i) that males are not affected by the ITNs and, in particular, (ii) that the insecticides are also repellents, keeping mosquitoes at bay from contacting the insecticide but also driving them to bite either people who do not use the insecticide or alternative hosts. Conclusion: We conclude by discussing the opposing public health benefits of high repellency at an epidemiological and an evolutionary timescale: whereas repellency is beneficial to delay the evolution of resistance, other models have shown that it decreases the population-level protection of the insecticide. PMID:26320183

  14. How reliable are light traps in estimating biting rates of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in the presence of treated bed nets?

    PubMed

    Magbity, E B; Magbity, E B; Lines, J D; Marbiah, M T; David, K; Peterson, E

    2002-02-01

    The sampling efficiency of light trap catches relative to human bait catches in estimating biting rates of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles was investigated in two types of community in southern Sierra Leone: (i) where most of the inhabitants slept under treated bed nets; and (ii) where most of the inhabitants slept without bed nets. The number of female A. gambiae mosquitoes caught in these communities by light trap was strongly correlated (r > or = 0.72) with those from corresponding human biting catches performed either on the same or adjacent nights. It was found that the relative sampling efficiency of light traps varied slightly but significantly with mosquito abundance in villages with treated bed nets, but not in those without them. Nevertheless, the relationship between relative sampling efficiency and mosquito abundance did not differ significantly between the two types of village. Overall, there was insufficient evidence to show that the presence of treated nets altered the relative efficiency of light traps and any bias was only slight, and unlikely to be of any practical importance. Hence, it was concluded that light traps can be used as a surrogate for human bait catches in estimating biting rates of A. gambiae mosquitoes in the two communities.

  15. Bayesian population genomic inference of crossing over and gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Padhukasahasram, Badri; Rannala, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    Meiotic recombination is a fundamental cellular mechanism in sexually reproducing organisms and its different forms, crossing over and gene conversion both play an important role in shaping genetic variation in populations. Here, we describe a coalescent-based full-likelihood Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for jointly estimating the crossing-over, gene-conversion, and mean tract length parameters from population genomic data under a Bayesian framework. Although computationally more expensive than methods that use approximate likelihoods, the relative efficiency of our method is expected to be optimal in theory. Furthermore, it is also possible to obtain a posterior sample of genealogies for the data using this method. We first check the performance of the new method on simulated data and verify its correctness. We also extend the method for inference under models with variable gene-conversion and crossing-over rates and demonstrate its ability to identify recombination hotspots. Then, we apply the method to two empirical data sets that were sequenced in the telomeric regions of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Our results indicate that gene conversion occurs more frequently than crossing over in the su-w and su-s gene sequences while the local rates of crossing over as inferred by our program are not low. The mean tract lengths for gene-conversion events are estimated to be ∼70 bp and 430 bp, respectively, for these data sets. Finally, we discuss ideas and optimizations for reducing the execution time of our algorithm.

  16. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Bobogare, Albino; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Boaz, Leonard; Appleyard, Bridget; Toaliu, Hilson; Vallely, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable will be more important for

  17. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males <1-day post-emergence were released in a mesocosm. Overnight they had access to either one or six Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net). In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar

  18. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Ponzio, Camille; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Pates Jamet, Helen V.; Takken, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to resulting health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization (WHO) bioassays. There was no difference in response time, latency time to reach the net, or spatial distribution in the wind tunnel between treatments. Unaffected resistant mosquitoes spent less time close to (< 30 cm) treated nets. Nettings that caused high knockdown or mortality in standard WHO assays evoked significantly less mortality in the wind tunnel; there was no excitorepellent effect in mosquitoes making contact with the nettings in free flight. This study shows a new approach to understanding mosquito behavior near insecticidal nets. The methodology links free-flight behavior to mosquito health status on exposure to nets. The results suggest that behavioral assays can provide important insights for evaluation of insecticidal effects on disease vectors. PMID:24752686

  19. An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Timor-Leste Ministry of Health has recently finalized the National Malaria Control Strategy for 2010-2020. A key component of this roadmap is to provide universal national coverage with long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) in support of achieving the primary goal of reducing both morbidity and mortality from malaria by 30% in the first three years, followed by a further reduction of 20% by end of the programme cycle in 2020 [1]. The strategic plan calls for this target to be supported by a comprehensive information, education and communication (IEC) programme; however, there is limited prior research into household and personal usage patterns to assist in the creation of targeted, effective, and socio-culturally specific behaviour change materials. Methods Nine separate focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Dili, Manatuto, and Covalima districts, Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, in July 2010. These focus groups primarily explored themes of perceived malaria risk, causes of malaria, net usage patterns within families, barriers to correct and consistent usage, and the daily experience of users (both male and female) in households with at least one net. Comprehensive qualitative analysis utilized open source analysis software. Results The primary determinants of net usage were a widespread perception that nets could or should only be used by pregnant women and young children, and the availability of sufficient sleeping space under a limited number of nets within households. Both nuisance biting and disease prevention were commonly cited as primary motivations for usage, while seasonality was not a significant factor. Long-term net durability and ease of hanging were seen as key attributes in net design preference. Very frequent washing cycles were common, potentially degrading net effectiveness. Finally, extensive re-purposing of nets (fishing, protecting crops) was both reported and observed, and may significantly decrease

  20. Mutagenesis and interchromosomal effect on crossing-over in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Chadov, B.F.; Chadova, E.V.

    1994-12-01

    The possibility of mutational consequences of interchromosomal effect on crossing-over was studied in Drosophila melanogaster females with four genotypes: (1) structurally normal (control); (2) heterozygous at In(1)Muller-5 inversion (X chromosome); (3) heterozygous at In(3LR)CxD inversion (chromosome 3); and (4) heterozygous at both inversions. The mutational effect was determined through the loss of autosome 2 and formation of arm compounds C(2L) and C(2R). In females with recombinations, the rate of mutational events did not exceed that of the control. It was concluded that interchromosomal effect on crossing-over is of a regulatory character and disturbs neither recombination itself nor chromosome pairing. Coorientation X-3 leading to the appearance of intersexes in the progeny occurred in meiosis in females with two inversions.

  1. Adequate Wound Care and Use of Bed Nets as Protective Factors against Buruli Ulcer: Results from a Case Control Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Landier, Jordi; Boisier, Pascal; Fotso Piam, Félix; Noumen-Djeunga, Blanbin; Simé, Joseph; Wantong, Fidèle Gaetan; Marsollier, Laurent; Fontanet, Arnaud; Eyangoh, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is an infectious disease involving the skin, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Its exact transmission mechanism remains unknown. Several arguments indicate a possible role for insects in its transmission. A previous case-control study in the Nyong valley region in central Cameroon showed an unexpected association between bed net use and protection against Buruli ulcer. We investigated whether this association persisted in a newly discovered endemic Buruli ulcer focus in Bankim, northwestern Cameroon. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a case-control study on 77 Buruli ulcer cases and 153 age-, gender- and village-matched controls. Participants were interviewed about their activities and habits. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis identified systematic use of a bed net (Odds-Ratio (OR) = 0.4, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI] = [0.2–0.9], p-value (p) = 0.04), cleansing wounds with soap (OR [95%CI] = 0.1 [0.03–0.3], p<0.0001) and growing cassava (OR [95%CI] = 0.3 [0.2–0.7], p = 0.005) as independent protective factors. Independent risk factors were bathing in the Mbam River (OR [95%CI] = 6.9 [1.4–35], p = 0.02) and reporting scratch lesions after insect bites (OR [95%CI] = 2.7 [1.4–5.4], p = 0.004). The proportion of cases that could be prevented by systematic bed net use was 32%, and by adequate wound care was 34%. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that two previously identified factors, adequate wound care and bed net use, significantly decreased the risk of Buruli ulcer. These associations withstand generalization to different geographic, climatic and epidemiologic settings. Involvement of insects in the household environment, and the relationship between wound hygiene and M. ulcerans infection should now be investigated. PMID:22087346

  2. Effect of incentives on insecticide-treated bed net use in sub-Saharan Africa: a cluster randomized trial in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Strategies using incentives to increase ITN use could be more efficient than traditional distribution campaigns. To date, behavioural incentives have been studied mostly in developed countries. No study has yet looked at the effect of incentives on the use of ITNs. Reported here are the results of a cluster randomized controlled trial testing household-level incentives for ITN use following a free ITN distribution campaign in Madagascar. Methods The study took place from July 2007 until February 2008. Twenty-one villages were randomized to either intervention or control clusters. Households in both clusters received a coupon redeemable for one ITN. After one month, intervention households received a bonus for ITN use, determined by visual confirmation of a mounted ITN. Data were collected at baseline, one month and six months. Both unadjusted and adjusted results, using cluster specific methods, are presented. Results At baseline, 8.5% of households owned an ITN and 6% were observed to have a net mounted over a bed in the household. At one month, there were no differences in ownership between the intervention and control groups (99.5% vs. 99.4%), but net use was substantially higher in the intervention group (99% vs. 78%), with an adjusted risk ratio of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.10 to 1.40; p < 0.001). After six months, net ownership had decreased in the intervention compared to the control group (96.7% vs. 99.7%), with an adjusted risk ratio of 0.97 (p < 0.01). There was no difference between the groups in terms of ITN use at six months; however, intervention households were more likely to use a net that they owned (96% vs. 90%; p < 0.001). Conclusions Household-level incentives have the potential to significantly increase the use of ITNs in target households in the immediate-term, but, over time, the use of ITNs is similar to households

  3. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  4. Predictors of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership and utilization: evidence from community-based cross-sectional comparative study, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria is the notorious impediment of public health and economic development. Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets/insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs/ITNs) are among major intervention strategies to avert the impact the disease. However, effectiveness of LLINs/ITNs depends on, inter alia, possessing sufficient number, proper utilization and timely replacement of nets. Thus, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends surveys to evaluate possession and proper use of LLINs/ITNs by households. Methods A cross-sectional comparative household survey was conducted during peak malaria transmission season using interviewer-introduced questionnaires in southwest Ethiopia. A study site was selected from villages around a man-made lake, Gilgel-Gibe (GG) and a control site, with similar geographic and socio-economic features but far away from the lake, was identified. A total of 2,373 households from randomly selected cluster of households were included into the study and heads/spouses of the households responded to interviews. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of LLIN ownership and utilization. Results LLIN/ITN ownership among the study populations was 56.6%, while 43.4% of households did not own a net. A higher proportion of households in GG reported owning at least one LLITN/ITN compared to control village (OR =2. 2, P <0.001) and more households in GG reported having only one LLITN/ITN in contrast to households in the control village (OR = 2.1, P <0.001). The mean number of LLINs/ITNs owned was 1.6 for GG residents and 1.8 for control village with a mean difference of -0.26 (95% CI = - 0.34, -0.19). The age of household heads, household relative wealth index (RWI), distance to nearest health service and accessibility to transportation showed a significant association with ownership of LLINs/ITNs. The probability of owning two or more LLINs/ITNs was positively associated with age of household head

  5. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G < 2.83 cm/s. In the second step of the present work, the kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented.

  6. Algorithms for optimizing cross-overs in DNA shuffling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DNA shuffling generates combinatorial libraries of chimeric genes by stochastically recombining parent genes. The resulting libraries are subjected to large-scale genetic selection or screening to identify those chimeras with favorable properties (e.g., enhanced stability or enzymatic activity). While DNA shuffling has been applied quite successfully, it is limited by its homology-dependent, stochastic nature. Consequently, it is used only with parents of sufficient overall sequence identity, and provides no control over the resulting chimeric library. Results This paper presents efficient methods to extend the scope of DNA shuffling to handle significantly more diverse parents and to generate more predictable, optimized libraries. Our CODNS (cross-over optimization for DNA shuffling) approach employs polynomial-time dynamic programming algorithms to select codons for the parental amino acids, allowing for zero or a fixed number of conservative substitutions. We first present efficient algorithms to optimize the local sequence identity or the nearest-neighbor approximation of the change in free energy upon annealing, objectives that were previously optimized by computationally-expensive integer programming methods. We then present efficient algorithms for more powerful objectives that seek to localize and enhance the frequency of recombination by producing "runs" of common nucleotides either overall or according to the sequence diversity of the resulting chimeras. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CODNS in choosing codons and allocating substitutions to promote recombination between parents targeted in earlier studies: two GAR transformylases (41% amino acid sequence identity), two very distantly related DNA polymerases, Pol X and β (15%), and beta-lactamases of varying identity (26-47%). Conclusions Our methods provide the protein engineer with a new approach to DNA shuffling that supports substantially more diverse parents, is more deterministic

  7. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation.

    PubMed

    Jesús, A Gómez-De; Romano-Baez, F J; Leyva-Amezcua, L; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A(D)/A(R) ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values epsilon(G), and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ( approximately 95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ( approximately 80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions). PMID:18539387

  8. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation.

    PubMed

    Jesús, A Gómez-De; Romano-Baez, F J; Leyva-Amezcua, L; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A(D)/A(R) ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values epsilon(G), and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ( approximately 95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ( approximately 80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions).

  9. The role of the United States military in the development of vector control products, including insect repellents, insecticides, and bed nets.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, Lynn W; Lawrence, Kendra L; Coleman, Russell E

    2009-06-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, and leishmaniasis continue to pose a significant threat to U.S. military forces deployed in support of operational and humanitarian missions. These diseases are transmitted by a variety of arthropods, including mosquitoes, ticks, chiggers, sand flies, and biting midges. In addition to disease threats, biting arthropods can cause dermatitis, allergic reactions, and sleep loss; therefore, monitoring of vector impact and integrated use of personal protective measures (PPM) and methods to reduce the vector populations are needed to protect service members. The U.S. military has played a vital role in vector identification tools and the development and testing of many of the most effective PPM and vector control products available today, including the topical repellent DEET and the repellent/insecticide permethrin, which is applied to clothing and bed nets. Efforts to develop superior products are ongoing. Although the U.S. military often needs vector control products with rather specific properties (e.g., undetectable, long-lasting in multiple climates) in order to protect its service members, many Department of Defense vector control products have had global impacts on endemic disease control.

  10. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    PubMed

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use. PMID:26517449

  11. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting

    PubMed Central

    Doe, John E.; Lander, Deborah R.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N.; Lowit, Anna B.; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D.; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H.; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, “pseudomethrin,” in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use. PMID:26517449

  12. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    PubMed

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use.

  13. Control of cross-over by single-strand DNA resection.

    PubMed

    Prado, Félix; Aguilera, Andrés

    2003-08-01

    Control of DNA cross-overs is necessary for meiotic recombination and genome integrity. The frequency of cross-overs is dependent on homology length and the conversion tract, but the mechanisms underlying the regulation of cross-overs remain unknown. We propose that 5'-end resection, a key intermediate in double-strand break repair, could determine the formation of cross-overs. Extensive DNA resection might favor gene conversion without cross-over by channeling recombination events through synthesis-dependent strand-annealing. In reactions with short regions of homology, resection beyond the homologous sequence would impede Holliday junction formation and, consequently, cross-over. Extensive DNA resection could be an effective mechanism to prevent reciprocal exchanges between dispersed DNA sequences, and thus contribute to the genome stability.

  14. The Impact of Pyrethroid Resistance on the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets against African Anopheline Mosquitoes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strode, Clare; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes. Methods and Findings We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization–recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut), deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs) using the risk difference (RD). Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD) 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01); moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88); high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95). For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87); moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60); high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54). For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68); moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0

  15. Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX (former B&O) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX (former B&O) tracks and North Branch Road, looking northwest. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  16. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners

  17. Crossing-over in rearranging chromosomes of Drosophila: The role of delayed pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Chadov, B.F.; Chadova, E.V.; Khotskina, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    A Df(2R)MS2-10 deletion of pericentromeric heterochromatin and an Is(Y;2L)419 insertion of Y material in the region 34A, as well as nondisjunction of chromosomes 2 in 2/F(2L); F(2R) females did not directly prevent chromosome arms in chromosome 2 of Drosophila from pairing. However, these events resulted in (1) two- to four-fold decrease in the rate of crossing-over in chromosome 2; (2) a decreased proportion of exchange tetrads two to three times greater for multiple-exchange tetrads than for single-exchange ones; and (3) a decreased rate of crossing-over throughout the entire chromosome arm enhanced in a proximal direction. An In(1)dl-49+B{sup M1}inversion in the X chromosome cancelled the suppression of crossing-over. Crossing-over increased due to an increasing proportion of single-exchange tretrads. The changes in crossing-over found cannot be explained by asynapsis in the chromosomes with rearrangements. According to the authors, these changes are probably accounted for by a delayed pairing of these chromosomes. The delayed pairing of individual chromosome regions or the whole chromosome is considered the most common type of pairing disturbance. It effects on meiosis are discussed. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Behavioral response of host-seeking mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to insecticide-impregnated bed netting: a new approach to insecticide bioassays.

    PubMed

    Miller, J E; Gibson, G

    1994-01-01

    The response of Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s and Culex quinquefasciatus Say to insecticide-treated netting in a wind tunnel permeated with guinea pig odors was recorded on videotape. With no insecticide present, mosquitoes spent 99% of the time on the netting, either at rest or occasionally walking across it. On nylon netting, permethrin at 50, 400, and 1,000 mg m-2 irritated the mosquitoes, causing them to spend significantly more time away from the netting and relatively more time walking than at rest when they were on the netting. These effects increased with dose, but the total contact time was always enough to cause 100% mortality. At the two highest doses, knockdown occurred before the end of the 10-min observation period. A wash-resistant formulation of permethrin (ICI patent) reduced irritancy without affecting mortality or knockdown. A mixture of pirimiphos-methyl and permethrin also was less irritating than permethrin alone. Pirimiphos-methyl at 400 mg m-2 was the least irritating of all treatments tested. Lambda-cyhalothrin at 2.5, 6, and 25 mg m-2 was less irritating than permethrin, even though the doses of lambda-cyhalothrin used were far more toxic than the permethrin doses as measured by LT50. Cotton netting significantly reduced the toxicity and irritancy of the permethrin treatments. Cx. quinquefasciatus was less irritated by permethrin but more irritated by lambda-cyhalothrin, than was An. gambiae. Our study indicated that mosquitoes are so strongly attracted to a host protected by netting, they will tolerate relatively high doses of irritating insecticides long enough to pick up lethal doses.

  19. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  20. Crossing over does occur in males of Drosophila ananassae from natural populations.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi; Vilela, Carlos R; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2012-07-01

    Spontaneous crossing over in males of Drosophila ananassae has been well demonstrated using F(1) individuals from crosses between marker stocks and wild type strains. However, the question of its occurrence in males from natural populations remained open. Here we present the cytological evidence that crossing over does occur in males of D. ananassae from two Brazilian populations, sampled nearly 21 years apart, and in two recently sampled populations, one from Indonesia and one from Okinawa, Japan. Cytological analysis of meiosis in males collected from nature and in sons of females from the same population inseminated in nature revealed the presence of chiasmata, inversion chiasmata, and isosite chromosome breakages in the diplotene cells in all sampled populations. These data demonstrate that reciprocal and nonreciprocal exchanges and chromosome breakages, previously reported as related events of male crossing over, do occur at variable frequencies among males from natural populations.

  1. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  2. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  3. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  4. Design of MEMS based `cross over junction' for T-type switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maninder, K.; Bansal, Deepak; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel design approach of T-type RF MEMS switch cross over junction, implemented using symmetric toggle switch (STS) as a basic building block. T-type switches are key elements for designing redundancy switch matrices. Proposed design is a dual type switch, i.e. under operation same bridge is used as an ohmic series switch as well as a capacitive shunt switch. This reconfigurable switch constitutes the cross over junction part for the T-type switch. Simulated results show an insertion loss of < 0.2 dB upto 10 Ghz and isolation is better than -20 dB over a band of 5 Ghz through capacitive path and is better than -80 dB up-to 10 Ghz through ohmic contact path. STS as a building block is used for designing cross over junction and is a technologically mature device. The designed actuation voltage of this cross over switch is 4.75 Volts and simulated resonant frequency is 3.253 KHz.

  5. Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX tracks in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bridge No. 1601, Third B&O Crossing, over CSX tracks in North Branch, Maryland, looking northwest. The Pittsburgh Plate Glass Plant can be seen in the background. NPS property boundary is out of view at lower right. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  6. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (p<0.05) in the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (p<0.05) were also seen in the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is

  7. Ketazolam once daily for spasticity: double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Basmajian, J V; Shankardass, K; Russell, D

    1986-08-01

    This double-blind cross-over study of 14 severely spastic inpatients with chronic multiple sclerosis reveals that once-daily doses of ketazolam, a new drug, are effective in reducing spasticity in a significant proportion of patients without significant side-effects. Added to the similar findings of an earlier double-blind controlled study of divided doses, the results suggest that this special feature of ketazolam provides a unique flexibility that may be exploited in individual cases.

  8. Genetic regulation of meiotic cross-overs between related genomes in Brassica napus haploids and hybrids.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Stéphane D; Leflon, Martine; Monod, Hervé; Eber, Frédérique; Coriton, Olivier; Huteau, Virginie; Chèvre, Anne-Marie; Jenczewski, Eric

    2009-02-01

    Although the genetic regulation of recombination in allopolyploid species plays a pivotal role in evolution and plant breeding, it has received little recent attention, except in wheat (Triticum aestivum). PrBn is the main locus that determines the number of nonhomologous associations during meiosis of microspore cultured Brassica napus haploids (AC; 19 chromosomes). In this study, we examined the role played by PrBn in recombination. We generated two haploid x euploid populations using two B. napus haploids with differing PrBn (and interacting genes) activity. We analyzed molecular marker transmission in these two populations to compare genetic changes, which have arisen during meiosis. We found that cross-over number in these two genotypes was significantly different but that cross-overs between nonhomologous chromosomes showed roughly the same distribution pattern. We then examined genetic recombination along a pair of A chromosomes during meiosis of B. rapa x B. napus AAC and AACC hybrids that were produced with the same two B. napus genotypes. We observed significant genotypic variation in cross-over rates between the two AAC hybrids but no difference between the two AACC hybrids. Overall, our results show that PrBn changes the rate of recombination between nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis of B. napus haploids and also affects homologous recombination with an effect that depends on plant karyotype.

  9. Crossing over is rarely associated with mitotic intragenic recombination in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Virgin, J B; Bailey, J P; Hasteh, F; Neville, J; Cole, A; Tromp, G

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements can result from crossing over during ectopic homologous recombination between dispersed repetitive DNA. We have previously shown that meiotic ectopic recombination between artificially dispersed ade6 heteroalleles in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe frequently results in chromosomal rearrangements. The same recombination substrates have been studied in mitotic recombination. Ectopic recombination rates in haploids were approximately 1-4 x 10(-6) recombinants per cell generation, similar to allelic recombination rates in diploids. In contrast, ectopic recombination rates in heterozygous diploids were 2.5-70 times lower than allelic recombination or ectopic recombination in haploids. These results suggest that diploid-specific factors inhibit ectopic recombination. Very few crossovers occurred in ade6 mitotic recombination, either allelic or ectopic. Allelic intragenic recombination was associated with 2% crossing over, and ectopic recombination between multiple different pairing partners showed 1-7% crossing over. These results contrast sharply with the 35-65% crossovers associated with meiotic ade6 recombination and suggest either differential control of resolution of recombination intermediates or alternative pathways of recombination in mitosis and meiosis. PMID:11139492

  10. Fission yeast Mus81.Eme1 Holliday junction resolvase is required for meiotic crossing over but not for gene conversion.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gerald R; Boddy, Michael N; Shanahan, Paul; Russell, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Most models of homologous recombination invoke cleavage of Holliday junctions to explain crossing over. The Mus81.Eme1 endonuclease from fission yeast and humans cleaves Holliday junctions and other branched DNA structures, leaving its physiological substrate uncertain. We report here that Schizosaccharomyces pombe mus81 mutants have normal or elevated frequencies of gene conversion but 20- to 100-fold reduced frequencies of crossing over. Thus, gene conversion and crossing over can be genetically separated, and Mus81 is required for crossing over, supporting the hypothesis that the fission yeast Mus81.Eme1 protein complex resolves Holliday junctions in meiotic cells. PMID:14704204

  11. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  12. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian; Dwan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design. Objective We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews. Methodology We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews. Principal Findings We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63%) Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56%) used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21%) of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32%) trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed. PMID:27409076

  13. Increased frequency of mitotic crossing-over in heterochromatin during the first cleavage division in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Omel`yanchuk, L.V.; Volkova, E.I.

    1995-06-01

    It is shown that, although no compaction of paracentromeric heterochromatin occurs during the first cleavage division in Drosophila melanogaster, the frequency of mitotic crossing-over in corresponding chromosome regions is increased, as compared to that in euchromatin. Because a similar situation is observed at later stages of Drosophila development, at which compact chromatin regions become well-manifested, it is concluded that the effect of heterochromatin on the frequency of crossing-over does not depend on its packing. A positive correlation between crossing-over events in paracentromeric heterochromatin and euchromatin was observed. This effect is probably due to the formation of a continuous region of somatic synapsis, which facilitates the process of mitotic crossing-over. On this basis, it is proposed that the effect of heterochromatin on mitotic crossing-over is associated with preferential chromosome pairing in the corresponding regions. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Dzi, Kevin T. J.; Ngimuh, Leonard; Enyong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p < 0.001) and Nyasoso (p < 0.015) health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group. PMID:27403371

  15. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  16. Proton pump inhibitors and vascular function: A prospective cross-over pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Cooke, John P.; Khan, Fouzia; Thakker, Rahul N.; Chang, Peter; Shah, Nigam H.; Nead, Kevin T.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of gastric reflux. Recent retrospective cohorts and large database studies have raised concern that the use of PPIs is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, there is no prospective clinical study evaluating whether the use of PPIs directly causes CV harm. Methods We conducted a controlled open-label cross-over pilot study among 21 adults aged 18 and older who are healthy (n = 11) or have established clinical cardiovascular disease (n = 10). Study subjects were assigned to receive a PPI (Prevacid; 30 mg) or a placebo pill once daily for 4 weeks. After a 2 week washout period, participants were crossed-over to receive the alternate treatment for the ensuing 4 weeks. Subjects underwent evaluation of vascular function (by the EndoPAT technique) and had plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial function previously implicated in PPI-mediated risk) measured prior to and after each treatment interval. Results We observed a marginal inverse correlation between the EndoPAT score and plasma levels of ADMA (r = −0.364). Subjects experienced a greater worsening in plasma ADMA levels while on PPI than on placebo, and this trend was more pronounced amongst those subjects with a history of vascular disease. However, these trends did not reach statistical significance, and PPI use was also not associated with an impairment in flow mediated vasodilation during the course of this study. Conclusions In this open-label, cross-over pilot study conducted among healthy subjects and coronary disease patients, PPI use did not significantly influence vascular endothelial function. Larger, long-term and blinded trials are needed to mechanistically explain the correlation between PPI use and adverse clinical outcomes, which has recently been reported in retrospective cohort studies. PMID:25835348

  17. Recombination and Gene Flux Caused by Gene Conversion and Crossing over in Inversion Heterokaryotypes

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, A.; Betran, E.; Barbadilla, A.; Ruiz, A.

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the effects of inversions on recombination and gene flux between arrangements caused by gene conversion and crossing over was carried out. Two different mathematical models of recombination were used: the Poisson model (without interference) and the Counting model (with interference). The main results are as follows. (1) Recombination and gene flux are highly site-dependent both inside and outside the inverted regions. (2) Crossing over overwhelms gene conversion as a cause of gene flux in large inversions, while conversion becomes relatively significant in short inversions and in regions around the breakpoints. (3) Under the Counting model the recombination rate between two markers depends strongly on the position of the markers along the inverted segment. Two equally spaced markers in the central part of the inverted segment have less recombination than if they are in a more extreme position. (4) Inversions affect recombination rates in the uninverted regions of the chromosome. Recombination increases in the distal segment and decreases in the proximal segment. These results provide an explanation for a number of observations reported in the literature. Because inversions are ubiquitous in the evolutionary history of many Drosophila species, the effects of inversions on recombination are expected to influence DNA variation patterns. PMID:9178017

  18. 'Petite' mutagenesis and mitotic crossing-over in yeast by DNA-targeted alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, L R; Turner, P M; Gourdie, T A; Valu, K K; Denny, W A

    1989-12-01

    Although the biological properties (cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity) of alkylating agents result from their bonding interactions with DNA, such compounds generally do not show any special binding affinity for DNA. A series of acridine-linked aniline mustards of widely-varying alkylator reactivity have been designed as DNA-directed alkylating agents. We have considered whether such DNA targeting has an effect on mutagenic properties by evaluating this series of drugs in comparison with their untargeted counterparts for toxic, recombinogenic and mutagenic properties in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D5. The simple untargeted aniline mustards are effective inducers of mitotic crossing-over in this strain, but resemble other reported alkylators in being rather inefficient inducers of the "petite" or mitochondrial mutation in yeast. However, the majority of the DNA-targeted mustards were very efficient petite mutagens, while showing little evidence of mitotic crossing-over or other nuclear events. The 100% conversion of cells into petites and the lack of a differential between growing and non-growing cells are similar to the effects of the well characterised mitochondrial mutagen ethidium bromide. These data suggest very different modes of action between the DNA-targeted alkylators and their non-targeted counterparts.

  19. “Slalom”: Microsurgical Cross-Over Decompression for Multilevel Degenerative Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Selective, bilateral multisegmental microsurgical decompression of lumbar spinal canal stenosis through separate, alternating cross-over approaches. Indications. Two-segmental and multisegmental degenerative central and lateral lumbar spinal stenosis. Contraindications. None. Surgical Technique. Minimally invasive, muscle, and facet joint-sparing bilateral decompression of the lumbar spinal canal through 2 or more alternating microsurgical cross-over approaches from one side. Results. From December 2010 until December 2015 we operated on 202 patients with 2 or multisegmental stenosis (115 f; 87 m; average age 69.3 yrs, range 51–91 yrs). All patients were suffering from symptoms typical of a degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All patients complained about back pain; however the leg symptoms were dominant in all cases. Per decompressed segment, the average OR time was 36 min and the blood loss 45.7 cc. Patients were mobilized 6 hrs postop and hospitalization averaged 5.9 days. A total of 116/202 patients did not need submuscular drainage. 27/202 patients suffered from a complication (13.4%). Dural tears occurred in 3.5%, an epidural hematoma in 5.5%, a deep wound infection in 1.98%, and a temporary radiculopathy postop in 1.5%. Postop follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. There was a significant improvement of EQ 5 D, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), VAS for Back and Leg Pain, and preoperative standing times and walking distances. PMID:27504456

  20. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  1. SPECIFIC AND CROSS OVER EFFECTS OF MASSAGE FOR MUSCLE SORENESS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D.; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A.; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera‐band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non‐massaged limb. Methods: 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/− 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/− 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/− 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/− 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0‐10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff‐legged dead‐lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. Results: There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non‐massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30

  2. Mimic nets.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G E

    1993-01-01

    This paper introduces techniques to train feedforward nets to automate ranking and classification tasks. The techniques are denoted mimic nets since the nets can always mimic self-consistent training data. The mimic nets are constructed not for any neurological analogy, but for computational ease and purposeful utility. Mimic nets are designed for problems requiring sensible extrapolation from noiseless training data, and errorless recall of the training data. Linear programming algorithms are utilized to train the net to exactly mimic the expert in all training situations, to identify efficacious features, and to assess the training data. The number of nodes and the number of connections, the structure of the mimic net, are adapted together with weights in the net. The existence of a mimic net for every consistent set of training data is demonstrated.

  3. Aspartame and dizziness: preliminary results of a prospective, nonblinded, prevalence and attempted cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Gulya, A J; Sessions, R B; Troost, T R

    1992-09-01

    Aspartame is a low-calorie food sweetener recently approved by the FDA for general human consumption. One of us (AJG) treated a patient whose symptoms of episodic vertigo and continuous unsteadiness resolved upon ceasing aspartame intake. A literature review revealed that although dizziness has been associated with aspartame intake, no systematic study of the problem exists. As an initial attempt to ascertain the prevalence of aspartame-related dizziness in an otolaryngologic clinic, we elected to study prospectively all patients entering with the complaint of vertigo by means of a standardized questionnaire. Those patients determined to consume aspartame were further studied in a nonblinded manner to see if aspartame intake could be correlated to symptomatology. A cross-over limb was also attempted, but no patient would participate. This presentation details the case history of the propositus patient and the preliminary results of the currently ongoing prospective study.

  4. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  5. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J.; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers.

  6. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    PubMed Central

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  7. First principles study of thermal conductivity cross-over in nanostructured zinc-chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-01-28

    Systematic first principles studies of zinc-chalcogenides have been performed to understand their thermal transport behaviour. We have applied the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation to calculate the thermal conductivity of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find a thermal conductivity cross-over between ZnS and ZnSe at nanostructure sizes around 0.1–0.2 μm and explain this in terms of the different contributions of phonon modes in these materials. We study the effect of nanostructuring using both the diffusive boundary scattering and confined mean free path limit and discuss the variations in the results. Furthermore, we show the strong influence of isotope scattering on the thermal conductivity. The calculated thermal conductivity is found to be strongly dependent on the volume and we explain the observed differences between local density and generalized gradient approximation calculations. We compare further calculated thermal properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient, to experiment to validate our approach.

  8. Regions of lower crossing over harbor more rare variants in African populations of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, P; Przeworski, M

    2001-01-01

    A correlation between diversity levels and rates of recombination is predicted both by models of positive selection, such as hitchhiking associated with the rapid fixation of advantageous mutations, and by models of purifying selection against strongly deleterious mutations (commonly referred to as "background selection"). With parameter values appropriate for Drosophila populations, only the first class of models predicts a marked skew in the frequency spectrum of linked neutral variants, relative to a neutral model. Here, we consider 29 loci scattered throughout the Drosophila melanogaster genome. We show that, in African populations, a summary of the frequency spectrum of polymorphic mutations is positively correlated with the meiotic rate of crossing over. This pattern is demonstrated to be unlikely under a model of background selection. Models of weakly deleterious selection are not expected to produce both the observed correlation and the extent to which nucleotide diversity is reduced in regions of low (but nonzero) recombination. Thus, of existing models, hitchhiking due to the recurrent fixation of advantageous variants is the most plausible explanation for the data. PMID:11404330

  9. Crossing-over in a hypervariable species preferentially occurs in regions of high local similarity.

    PubMed

    Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B; Logacheva, Maria D; Penin, Aleksey A; Baranova, Maria A; Leushkin, Evgeny V; Demidenko, Natalia V; Klepikova, Anna V; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Kondrashov, Alexey S; James, Timothy Y

    2014-11-01

    Recombination between double-stranded DNA molecules is a key genetic process which occurs in a wide variety of organisms. Usually, crossing-over (CO) occurs during meiosis between genotypes with 98.0-99.9% sequence identity, because within-population nucleotide diversity only rarely exceeds 2%. However, some species are hypervariable and it is unclear how CO can occur between genotypes with less than 90% sequence identity. Here, we study CO in Schizophyllum commune, a hypervariable cosmopolitan basidiomycete mushroom, a frequently encountered decayer of woody substrates. We crossed two haploid individuals, from the United States and from Russia, and obtained genome sequences for their 17 offspring. The average genetic distance between the parents was 14%, making it possible to study CO at very high resolution. We found reduced levels of linkage disequilibrium between loci flanking the CO sites indicating that they are mostly confined to hotspots of recombination. Furthermore, CO events preferentially occurred in regions under stronger negative selection, in particular within exons that showed reduced levels of nucleotide diversity. Apparently, in hypervariable species CO must avoid regions of higher divergence between the recombining genomes due to limitations imposed by the mismatch repair system, with regions under strong negative selection providing the opportunity for recombination. These patterns are opposite to those observed in a number of less variable species indicating that population genomics of hypervariable species may reveal novel biological phenomena.

  10. Parametric representation of open quantum systems and cross-over from quantum to classical environment

    PubMed Central

    Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I.; Verrucchi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables , and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of φ, whereas as a function of θ is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-δ function in the classical limit. In such limit, because φ is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field. PMID:23572581

  11. Meiotic checkpoints and the interchromosomal effect on crossing over in Drosophila females

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Eric F

    2011-01-01

    During prophase of meiosis I, genetic recombination is initiated with a Spo11-dependent DNA double-strand break (DSB). Repair of these DSBs can generate crossovers, which become chiasmata and are important for the process of chromosome segregation. To ensure at least one chiasma per homologous pair of chromosomes, the number and distribution of crossovers is regulated. One system contributing to the distribution of crossovers is the pachytene checkpoint, which requires the conserved gene pch2 that encodes an AAA+ATPase family member. Pch2-dependent pachytene checkpoint function causes delays in pachytene progression when there are defects in processes required for crossover formation, such as mutations in DS B-repair genes and when there are defects in the structure of the meiotic chromosome axis. Thus, the pachytene checkpoint appears to monitor events leading up to the generation of crossovers. Interestingly, heterozygous chromosome rearrangements cause Pch2-dependent pachytene delays and as little as two breaks in the continuity of the paired chromosome axes are sufficient to evoke checkpoint activity. These chromosome rearrangements also cause an interchromosomal effect on recombination whereby crossing over is suppressed between the affected chromosomes but is increased between the normal chromosome pairs. We have shown that this phenomenon is also due to pachytene checkpoint activity. PMID:21339705

  12. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-10-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  13. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  14. Unequal Crossing over at the Rrna Tandon as a Source of Quantitative Genetic Variation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, R.; Briscoe, D. A.; Nurthen, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Abdominal bristle selection lines (three high and three low) and controls were founded from a marked homozygous line to measure the contribution of sex-linked "mutations" to selection response. Two of the low lines exhibited a period of rapid response to selection in females, but not in males. There were corresponding changes in female variance, in heritabilities in females, in the sex ratio (a deficiency of females) and in fitness, as well as the appearance of a mutant phenotype in females of one line. All of these changes were due to bb alleles (partial deficiencies for the rRNA tandon) in the X chromosomes of these lines, while the Y chromosomes remained wild-type bb+. We argue that the bb alleles arose by unequal crossing over in the rRNA tandon.—A prediction of this hypothesis is that further changes can occur in the rRNA tandon as selection is continued. This has now been shown to occur.—Our minimum estimate of the rate of occurrence of changes at the rRNA tandon is 3 x 10-4. As this is substantially higher than conventional mutation rates, the questions of the mechanisms and rates of origin of new quantitative genetic variation require careful re-examination. PMID:7439683

  15. Assessing individual bioequivalence with high-order cross-over designs: a unified procedure.

    PubMed

    Hsuan, Francis C; Reeve, Russell

    2003-09-30

    The U.S. FDA's newly issued guidance on bioequivalence recommends the use of individual bioequivalence (IBE) for highly variable drugs and possibly for modified release dosage forms. The recommended approach to the analysis is to follow the methodology of Hyslop, Hsuan and Holder (HHH), based on a linear mixed model. A limitation of the HHH method is that it works only for uniform designs, such as RTRT/TRTR. In this paper, we present an alternative approach based on a multivariate model. The multivariate model is shown to be a strict superset of the linear mixed model and can successfully model data where the mixed model fails. Our multivariate approach coincides with the HHH method where the HHH method applies, but generalizes to any high-order cross-over design, such as the Balaam design, RTR/TRT, and TRSS/RSTT/STRR. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the proposed method, and examine its properties with a simulation study. PMID:12953284

  16. Parametric representation of open quantum systems and cross-over from quantum to classical environment.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I; Verrucchi, Paola

    2013-04-23

    The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the s = 1/2 Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables (θ, ϕ), and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of ϕ, whereas as a function of θ is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-δ function in the classical limit. In such limit, because ϕ is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field.

  17. CSR Interaction at the Cross-Over of the Full Compression Point

    SciTech Connect

    Rui Li

    2005-05-01

    In recent commissioning of the 10 kW FEL at Jefferson Lab, as one varies the energy chirp of the electron bunches at the entrance of the chicane to make the bunch more and more compressed at the exit of the chicane, a sudden increase in the energy spread is observed [1] at the crossover of the full compression point. This phenomenon is accompanied simultaneously with a significant increase of the THz radiation from the electron beam. A similar observation was made earlier in the CTF II CSR experiment at CERN [2]. For example, for 5 nC bunch charge, ''the mean momentum spread increased by a factor of 4 at full compression with respect to the initial spread, and decreased to a factor of 3 larger than the initial spread at overcompression''. There is also a sudden drop of mean momentum at the full compression, along with a sudden increase in the horizontal emittance (see Fig. 5 of [2]). As a first step to understand this phenomenon, in this paper, we analyze the effective longitudinal CSR force using our recent formulation of CSR dynamics [3], and show there is a sudden increase in the magnitude of the effective longitudinal CSR force at the cross-over of the full compression point. A numerical example is given for an LCLS type chicane. The physical picture of this sudden increase is also discussed.

  18. Crossing over between regions of limited homology in Escherichia coli. RecA-dependent and RecA-independent pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, Susan T; Hurley, Rebecca L; Sutera, Vincent A; Aubuchon, Rachel H; Lebedeva, Maria A

    2002-01-01

    We have developed an assay for intermolecular crossing over between circular plasmids carrying variable amounts of homology. Screens of Escherichia coli mutants demonstrated that known recombination functions can only partially account for the observed recombination. Recombination rates increased three to four orders of magnitude as homology rose from 25 to 411 bp. Loss of recA blocked most recombination; however, RecA-independent crossing over predominated at 25 bp and could be detected at all homology lengths. Products of recA-independent recombination were reciprocal in nature. This suggests that RecA-independent recombination may involve a true break-and-join mechanism, but the genetic basis for this mechanism remains unknown. RecA-dependent crossing over occurred primarily by the RecF pathway but considerable recombination occurred independent of both RecF and RecBCD. In many respects, the genetic dependence of RecA-dependent crossing over resembled that reported for single-strand gap repair. Surprisingly, ruvC mutants, in both recA(+) and recA mutant backgrounds, scored as hyperrecombinational. This may occur because RuvC preferentially resolves Holliday junction intermediates, critical to both RecA-dependent and RecA-independent mechanisms, to the noncrossover configuration. Levels of crossing over were increased by defects in DnaB helicase and by oxidative damage, showing that damaged DNA or stalled replication can initiate genetic recombination. PMID:11901106

  19. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem. PMID:25577850

  20. Placebo-controlled cross-over study of effects of Org OD 14 in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kicovic, P M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Luisi, M; Milojevic, S; Franchi, F

    1982-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over study with Org OD 14 and placebo was performed in 82 menopausal patients presenting with hot flushes and associated symptoms. Patients were randomly allocated to Org OD 14 or placebo as first treatment, and switched to placebo or Org OD 14 as second treatment. Each treatment period lasted for 16 weeks; no wash-out period was introduced. Tablets containing 2.5 mg of Org OD 14 or matched placebo tablets were supplied. Data on the following variables were obtained and analysed by the non-parametric randomization test for paired observations: hot flushes, sweating, dizziness, palpitations, fatiguability, headache, sleeplessness, irritability, breathlessness, backache and loss of libido and, in 16 patients, on circulating levels of FSH, LH, PRL, T3, T4, cortisol (F), SHBG, TBG and CBG. Twenty patients (13 placebo, 7 Org OD 14) withdrew, because their symptoms did not improve and one patient withdrew for reasons unrelated to treatment, so that 61 patients completed the study. The data demonstrated a good clinical effect and statistically significant differences in favour of Org OD 14 for hot flushes and a number of associated symptoms. Many patients reported on a general feeling of well being and a mood-elevating effect following Org OD 14. Org OD 14 significantly suppressed FSH and LH levels, while those of PRL remained unchanged. Although there was slight suppression of TBG and T4 which attained statistical significance, there was no influence on the most important parameter, T3. SHBG levels were slightly suppressed, whereas F and CBG levels were unaffected.

  1. Open cross-over comparison of tulobuterol and fenoterol in asthmatic adult patients.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, J; Rivero, A; Dal-Re, R; Azanza, J R

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this open randomized cross-over study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of a recently introduced beta-2 mimetic, tulobuterol, with fenoterol in asthma patients. The study length was four weeks with each drug, with a seven-day washout period between treatment courses. Spirometric tests were carried out every 14 days; laboratory tests and an electrocardiograph were performed at the beginning and end of each treatment course, and a daily diary of salbutamol aerosol use and adverse reactions was kept. Pulmonary function tests and registration of pulse rate and arterial pressure were performed on days 1, 14 and 28 of both treatment courses, before the morning dose and 3 h after administration of the drug. No statistically significant changes were detected in laboratory tests, pulse rate or arterial pressure. The only adverse reaction noted was transient tremor which appeared in three cases with tulobuterol and in two cases with fenoterol. Spirometric tests revealed increases in all parameters with both drugs, although in the comparison between groups no overall statistically significant differences were found. All patients required inhaled salbutamol with both of the drug treatments, and there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) in its use during the fenoterol treatment course. With both tulobuterol and fenoterol, inhaled salbutamol was mainly used within 2 h before and 1 h after each dose. It is concluded that tulobuterrol (2 mg, twice daily) was at least as effective as fenoterol (2.5 mg, thrice daily), while its clinical effect was longer-lasting. It is doubtful, however, that it provides coverage for 12 h in the type of patients selected.

  2. Where and When To Inject Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Hemodiafiltration? A Cross Over Randomised Trial

    PubMed Central

    Dhondt, Annemieke; Pauwels, Ruben; Devreese, Katrien; Eloot, Sunny; Glorieux, Griet; Vanholder, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are small enough to pass large pore dialysis membranes. Removal of LMWH if injected before the start of the session is possible during high-flux dialysis and hemodiafiltration. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal mode (place and time) of tinzaparin administration during postdilution hemodiafiltration. Study Design, Setting, Patients In 13 chronic hemodiafiltration patients, 3 approaches of injection were compared in a randomised cross over trial: i) before the start of the session at the inlet blood line filled with rinsing solution (IN0), ii) 5 min after the start at the inlet line filled with blood (IN5) and iii) before the start of the session at the outlet blood line (OUT0). Anti-Xa activity, thrombin generation, visual clotting score and reduction ratios of urea and beta2microglobulin were measured. Results Anti-Xa activity was lower with IN0 compared with IN5 and OUT0, and also more thrombin generation was observed with IN0. No differences were observed in visual clotting scores and no clinically relevant differences were observed in solute reduction ratio. An anti-Xa of 0.3 IU/mL was discriminative for thrombin generation. Anti-Xa levels below 0.3 IU/mL at the end of the session were associated with worse clotting scores and lower reduction ratio of urea and beta2microglobulin. Conclusions Injection of tinzaparin at the inlet line before the start of postdilution hemodiafiltration is associated with loss of anticoagulant activity and can therefore not be recommended. Additionally, we found that an anti-Xa above 0.3 IU/mL at the end of the session is associated with less clotting and higher dialysis adequacy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00756145 PMID:26076014

  3. A randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic bioavailability study of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Carr, Anitra C; Bozonet, Stephanie M; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2013-11-11

    Kiwifruit are a rich source of vitamin C and also contain numerous phytochemicals, such as flavonoids, which may influence the bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. The aim of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of synthetic versus kiwifruit-derived vitamin C using a randomised cross-over pharmacokinetic study design. Nine non-smoking males (aged 18-35 years) received either a chewable tablet (200 mg vitamin C) or the equivalent dose from gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis var. Sungold). Fasting blood and urine were collected half hourly to hourly over the eight hours following intervention. The ascorbate content of the plasma and urine was determined using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Plasma ascorbate levels increased from 0.5 h after the intervention (P = 0.008). No significant differences in the plasma time-concentration curves were observed between the two interventions (P = 0.645). An estimate of the total increase in plasma ascorbate indicated complete uptake of the ingested vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit-derived vitamin C. There was an increase in urinary ascorbate excretion, relative to urinary creatinine, from two hours post intervention (P < 0.001). There was also a significant difference between the two interventions, with enhanced ascorbate excretion observed in the kiwifruit group (P = 0.016). Urinary excretion was calculated as ~40% and ~50% of the ingested dose from the vitamin C tablet and kiwifruit arms, respectively. Overall, our pharmacokinetic study has shown comparable relative bioavailability of kiwifruit-derived vitamin C and synthetic vitamin C.

  4. A role for DNA polymerase delta in gene conversion and crossing over during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Maloisel, Laurent; Bhargava, Jaya; Roeder, G Shirleen

    2004-01-01

    A screen for mutants of budding yeast defective in meiotic gene conversion identified a novel allele of the POL3 gene. POL3 encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase delta, an essential DNA polymerase involved in genomic DNA replication. The new allele, pol3-ct, specifies a protein missing the last four amino acids. pol3-ct shows little or no defect in DNA replication, but displays a reduction in the length of meiotic gene conversion tracts and a decrease in crossing over. We propose a model in which DNA synthesis determines the length of strand exchange intermediates and influences their resolution toward crossing over. PMID:15280229

  5. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  6. Effect of training on the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets on the burden of malaria among vulnerable groups, south-west Ethiopia: baseline results of a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, the utilization of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN) is hampered by behavioural factors such as low awareness and negative attitude of the community. The aim of this study was to present the design and baseline results of a cluster randomized trial on the effect of training of household heads on the use of LLITN. Methods This baseline survey was undertaken from February to March, 2009 as part of a randomized cluster trial. A total of 11 intervention and 11 control Gots (villages) were included in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Centre, south-west Ethiopia. House to house visit was done in 4135 households to collect information about the use of LLITN and socio-demographic variables. For the diagnosis of malaria and anaemia, blood samples were collected from 2410 under-five children and 242 pregnant women. Results One fourth of the households in the intervention and control Gots had functional LLITN. Only 30% of the observed LLITN in the intervention and 28% in the control Gots were hanged properly. Adults were more likely to utilize LLITN than under-five children in the control and intervention Gots. The prevalence of malaria in under-five children in the intervention and control Gots was 10.5% and 8.3% respectively. The intervention and control Gots had no significant difference concerning the prevalence of malaria in under-five children, [OR = 1.28, (95%CI: 0.97, 1.69)]. Eight (6.1%) pregnant women in the intervention and eight (7.2%) in the control Gots were positive for malaria (P = 0.9). Children in the intervention Gots were less likely to have anaemia than children in the control Gots, [OR = 0.75, (95%CI: 0.62, 0.85)]. Conclusion The availability and utilization of LLITN was low in the study area. The prevalence of malaria and anaemia was high. Intervention strategies of malaria should focus on high risk population and vulnerable groups. PMID:20459742

  7. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debashis; Priyanka, Jyoti; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Upfill-Brown, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent. Methods This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention. Findings Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching. Interpretation DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub

  8. Topical Nasal Anesthesia in Flexible Bronchoscopy – A Cross-Over Comparison between Two Devices

    PubMed Central

    Fuehner, Thomas; Fuge, Jan; Jungen, Meike; Buck, Anna; Suhling, Hendrik; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens; Greer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Topical airway anesthesia is known to improve tolerance and patient satisfaction during flexible bronchoscopy (FB). Lidocaine is commonly used, delivered as an atomized spray. The current study assesses safety and patient satisfaction for nasal anesthesia of a new atomization device during outpatient bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients. Methods Using a prospective, non-blinded, cross-over design, patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 24-11-2014 received 2% lidocaine using the standard reusable nasal atomizer (CRNA). Those enrolled between 25-11-2014 and 30-01-2015, received a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD). After each procedure, the treating physician, their assistant and the patient independently rated side-effects and satisfaction, basing their responses on visual analogue scales (VAS). At their next scheduled bronchoscopy during the study period, patients then received the alternative atomizer. Written consent was obtained prior to the first bronchoscopy, and the study approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results Of the 252 patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 30-01-2015, 80 (32%) received both atomizers. Physicians reported better efficacy (p = 0.001) and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001) for DIMAD in patients exposed to both procedures. Among patients with one visit, physicians and their assistants reported improved efficacy (p = 0.018, p = 0.002) and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001, p = 0.029) for the disposable atomizer, whereas patients reported no difference in efficacy or side effects (p = 0.72 and p = 0.20). No severe adverse events were noted. The cost of the reusable device was 4.08€ per procedure, compared to 3.70€ for the disposable device. Discussion Topical nasal anesthesia via a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD) offers comparable safety and patient comfort, compared to conventional reusable nasal atomizers (CRNA) in lung transplant recipients. Procedural costs

  9. Etodolac versus diclofenac: double-blind cross-over study in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ciompi, M L; Puccetti, L; Bazzichi, L; Remorini, E; Marotta, G

    1989-01-01

    A 14-day double-blind clinical study was conducted on 16 patients with clinically active rheumatoid arthritis to compare the effects of etodolac (600 mg daily) and diclofenac (150 mg daily). Admission criteria were: functional impairment between Steinbrocker's classes I to III, Ritchie's index greater than 10 and erythrocyte sedimentation rate greater than 25 mm/h, and finally active involvement of the small joints of the hands. Following a wash-out period of at least two days from their previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, trial patients received etodolac or diclofenac for five consecutive days by random allocation; after that, and after another two day wash-out period, all patients were crossed-over to the alternate drug for another five consecutive days. One day before intake and on the last day of each treatment lap, each patient was examined in regard to the circadian grip strength (of the more severely affected hand), Ritchie's index and acute phase reactants; at the end of the second treatment period, subjective drug preference was explored. Grip strength was assessed by the patients themselves with a dynamometer at 08h00 and every two hours thereafter until 20h00. The overall daily value was calculated by measuring the area under curve (AUC) depicting the grip strength profile. Both groups of patients showed significant improvement of the Ritchie's index (p less than 0.01) and grip strength AUC (p less than 0.05), while taking medication, whereas no significant variations were noted in regard to the values of the acute phase parameters both between the two treatment groups, and within each treatment group. At termination, four patients expressed preference for etodolac, eight were in favour of diclofenac, and four gave an indifferent judgement. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two treatment groups; also no adverse events were seen in this short-term study. The results confirm the effectiveness and tolerability of

  10. 78 FR 59754 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent Bay in the Town of Ocean City, Worcester County, Maryland Correction In...

  11. Catamaran Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    West Coast Netting, Inc.'s net of Hyperester twine, is made of three strands of fiber twisted together by a company-invented sophisticated twisting machine and process that maintain precisely the same tension on each strand. The resulting twine offers higher strength and improved abrasion resistance. The technology that created the Hyperester supertwine has found spinoff applications, first as an extra-efficient seine for tuna fishing, then as a capture net for law enforcement agencies. The newest one is as a deck for racing catamarans. Hyperester twine net has been used on most of the high performance racing catamarans of recent years, including the America's Cup Challenge boats. They are tough and hold up well in the continual exposure to sunlight and saltwater.

  12. Feasibility demonstration of booster cross-over system for 3 1/2 inch SRB/MLP frangible nut system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Recent testing of the SRB/MLP Frangible Nut System (SOS Part Number 114850-9/Boosters P/N 114848-3) at NASA indicated a need to reduce the function time between boosters (2) within a single frangible nut. These boosters are initiated separately by electrical impulse(s). Coupling the output of each detonator with an explosive cross-over would reduce the function time between boosters (independent of electrical impulse) while providing additional redundancy to the system. The objectives of this program were to: provide an explosive cross-over between boosters, reduce function time between boosters to less than one (1) millisecond within a given nut, reduce cost of boosters, be compatible with the existing frangible nut system, and meet requirements of USBI Spec's (nut 10SPC-0030, booster 10SPC-0031).

  13. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  14. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose–Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF∼1(∼0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  15. Inherited differences in crossing over and gene conversion frequencies between wild strains of Sordaria fimicola from "Evolution Canyon".

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, M; Lamb, B C; Nevo, E

    2001-01-01

    Recombination generates new combinations of existing genetic variation and therefore may be important in adaptation and evolution. We investigated whether there was natural genetic variation for recombination frequencies and whether any such variation was environment related and possibly adaptive. Crossing over and gene conversion frequencies often differed significantly in a consistent direction between wild strains of the fungus Sordaria fimicola isolated from a harsher or a milder microscale environment in "Evolution Canyon," Israel. First- and second-generation descendants from selfing the original strains from the harsher, more variable, south-facing slope had higher frequencies of crossing over in locus-centromere intervals and of gene conversion than those from the lusher north-facing slopes. There were some significant differences between strains within slopes, but these were less marked than between slopes. Such inherited variation could provide a basis for natural selection for optimum recombination frequencies in each environment. There were no significant differences in meiotic hybrid DNA correction frequencies between strains from the different slopes. The conversion analysis was made using only conversions to wild type, because estimations of conversion to mutant were affected by a high frequency of spontaneous mutation. There was no polarized segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I or of chromatids at meiosis II. PMID:11779798

  16. Social Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csermely, Peter

    This is not only the time to get down to work, as I noted at the end of the last chapter, but also a time to thank you for your patience in coming along with me on this trip to Netland. We have reached an important point. We are just about to rise above ourselves. In the last chapter, we surveyed some of the networks in our body, and in this chapter the same body will be an element of a larger network, the social net. The current chapter will give me a good opportunity to understand my obsession with building social networks.

  17. NET Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics – high numbers and toxicity – that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil “containment” processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  18. NET Confusion.

    PubMed

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D; Quinn, Mark T; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics - high numbers and toxicity - that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil "containment" processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  19. Fatigue is specific to working muscles: no cross-over with single-leg cycling in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Elmer, Steven J; Amann, Markus; McDaniel, John; Martin, David T; Martin, James C

    2013-02-01

    Fatigue induced via a maximal isometric contraction of a single limb muscle group can evoke a "cross-over" of fatigue that reduces voluntary muscle activation and maximum isometric force in the rested contralateral homologous muscle group. We asked whether a cross-over of fatigue also occurs when fatigue is induced via high-intensity endurance exercise involving a substantial muscle mass. Specifically, we used high-intensity single-leg cycling to induce fatigue and evaluated associated effects on maximum cycling power (P (max)) in the fatigued ipsilateral leg (FAT(leg)) as well as the rested contralateral leg (REST(leg)). On separate days, 12 trained cyclists performed right leg P (max) trials before and again 30 s, 3, 5, and 10 min after a cycling time trial (TT, 10 min) performed either with their right or left leg. Fatigue was estimated by comparing exercise-induced changes in P (max) and maximum handgrip isometric force (F (max)). Mean power produced during the right and left leg TTs did not differ (203 ± 8 vs. 199 ± 8 W). Compared to pre-TT, FAT(leg) P (max) was reduced by 22 ± 3 % at 30 s post-TT and remained reduced by 9 ± 2 % at 5 min post-TT (both P < 0.05). Despite considerable power loss in the FAT(leg), post-TT REST(leg) P (max) (596-603 W) did not differ from pre-TT values (596 ± 35 W). There were no alterations in handgrip F (max) (529-547 N). Our data suggest that any potential cross-over of fatigue, if present at all, was not sufficient to measurably compromise REST(leg) P (max) in trained cyclists. These results along with the lack of changes in handgrip F (max) indicate that impairments in maximal voluntary neuromuscular function were specific to working muscles.

  20. Neural nets.

    PubMed

    Hejnol, Andreas; Rentzsch, Fabian

    2015-09-21

    Although modern evolutionary biology has abandoned the use of 'lower' or 'higher' for animals, the quote of G.H. Parker captures quite well the current understanding of the nerve net as the evolutionarily oldest organization of the nervous system, the major organ system responsible for processing information and coordinating animal behaviour. The degree of complexity of a nervous system - in particular its organization into substructures such as brains and nerve cords - shows fascinating variations between animals. Even within an individual, the nervous system can show parallel existing types of organizations that are only partially connected, illustrated by the well-known central and peripheral nervous system. In general, the architecture of the nervous system is adapted to the specific needs and lifestyle of the individual species. How these diverse and complex nervous systems evolved is an ongoing debate among zoologists and evolutionary biologists.

  1. [Gitadyl versus ibuprofen in patients with osteoarthrosis. The result of a double-blind, randomized cross-over study].

    PubMed

    Ryttig, K; Schlamowitz, P V; Warnøe, O; Wilstrup, F

    1991-08-12

    Thirty-five patients suffering from mild to moderate osteoarthrosis were treated with Gitadyl (a herbal medicine containing 110 mg fever few, 90 mg American aspen, and 60 mg milfoil) or ibuprofen (Ibumetin) for three plus three weeks in a double-blind, cross-over trial. The dosages of Gitadyl and ibuprofen were three tablets per day and 1,200 mg, respectively. Both treatments gave the same reductions in subjective symptoms (pain and walking ability). Gastrointestinal side effects were more frequent in patients treated with ibuprofen. It is concluded that Gitadyl is an alternative form of treatment for patients who do not want a conventional drug or who experience gastrointestinal side effects of NSAID even in low dosage.

  2. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation. PMID:26090092

  3. Motor effects of radio electric asymmetric conveyer in Alzheimer's disease: results from a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Olazarán, Javier; González, Belén; Osa-Ruiz, Emma; Felipe-Ruiz, Silvia; Boyano, Inmaculada; Fontani, Vania; Castagna, Alessandro; Mendoza, Carolina; Zea, María Ascensión; Frades, Belén; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Martínez-Martín, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, cross-over trial to investigate the feasibility, safety, and motor effects of brain stimulation with radio electric asymmetric conveyer (REAC) technique in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuropostural optimization (NPO) and sham protocol were administered to 60 patients from the nursing home and day care units of the Alzheimer Center Reina Sofía Foundation. The mean age was 84.1 (SD 7.9) years and 86.7% of the subjects were female. Motor measures were collected at baseline (T1), immediately (T2), seven (T3), and 11 days (T4) after treatment and, following cross-over, immediately (T5), seven (T6), and 11 (T7) days after treatment. Close safety surveillance was conducted from seven days before T1 to the end of the study (T7), with total study duration of 35 days. Wilcoxon test was utilized in the efficacy analysis, considering T1 and T5 as independent baseline assessments and using a threshold of p < 0.05 (corrected) for statistical significance. The NPO protocol was easily administered and well accepted by the participants. Axial movements improved at T3 and T4 after NPO and at T2 after sham NPO, but no significant effects were observed in axial movements in the second phase of the trial. The effects of NPO in gait performance were not consistent. There were six falls between T2 and T7, but only two of them occurred in patients who had received NPO. In light of safety and feasibility of REAC, a trial with the more intense neuropsycho-physical optimization protocol is warranted.

  4. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  5. Hemostasis during low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a randomized cross-over trial comparing two hemofiltration rates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Renal insufficiency increases the half-life of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) removes LMWHs is unsettled. We studied hemostasis during nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH, and explored the implication of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Methods This cross-over study, performed in a 20-bed teaching hospital ICU, randomized non-surgical patients with acute kidney injury requiring nadroparin for CVVH to compare hemostasis between two doses of CVVH: filtrate flow was initiated at 4 L/h and converted to 2 L/h after 60 min in group 1, and vice versa in group 2. Patients received nadroparin 2850 IU i.v., followed by 380 IU/h continuously in the extracorporeal circuit. After baseline sampling, ultrafiltrate, arterial (art) and postfilter (PF) blood was taken for hemostatic markers after 1 h, and 15 min, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after converting filtrate flow. We compared randomized groups, and 'early circuit clotting' to 'normal circuit life' groups. Results Fourteen patients were randomized, seven to each group. Despite randomization, group 1 had higher SOFA scores (median 14 (IQR 11-15) versus 9 (IQR 5-9), p = 0.004). Anti-Xa art activity peaked upon nadroparin bolus and declined thereafter (p = 0.05). Anti-Xa PF did not change in time. Anti-Xa activity was not detected in ultrafiltrate. Medians of all anti-Xa samples were lower in group 1 (anti-Xa art 0.19 (0.12-0.37) vs. 0.31 (0.23-0.52), p = 0.02; anti-Xa PF 0.34 (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.51 (0.41-0.76), p = 0.005). After a steep decline, arterial ETPAUC tended to increase (p = 0.06), opposite to anti-Xa, while postfilter ETPAUC increased (p = 0.001). Median circuit life was 24.5 h (IQR 12-37 h). Patients with 'short circuit life' had longer baseline prothrombin time (PTT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), lower ETP, higher thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and higher SOFA scores; during CVVH, anti-Xa, and platelets were lower; PTT, aPTT, TAT

  6. Randomized, Cross-Over Evaluation of Mobile Phone vs Paper Diary in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Persistent Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Eli O; Kelley, Norma; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2008-01-01

    Diaries are frequently used to evaluate therapy. Forgetfulness, however, can lead to missed entries. With paper diaries, these missing entries can be backfilled, compromising the reasons for using a diary. Electronic diaries are a potential means of mitigating this limitation. The pilot study was conducted to evaluate use of a mobile phone diary. Twelve subjects with mild persistent asthma were randomly assigned to mobile or paper diary for 2 weeks and then crossed over to use the other diary type for next 2 weeks. Of the 12 subjects, 7 preferred the mobile diary. However, the mean prevalence of missing data was greater when using the mobile (18% ± 9%) compared to paper diary (9% ± 4%; P = 0.05). In conclusion, the mobile diary was preferred by slightly more subjects. The greater prevalence of missing data when using this diary most likely results from the inability to backfill missing entries. Trial Registration: Clintrials.gov NCT00367263 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00367263). PMID:19412327

  7. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine in adults' burns wound dressing--A randomized double blind cross over study.

    PubMed

    Kundra, Pankaj; Velayudhan, Savitri; Krishnamachari, Srinivasan; Gupta, Suman Lata

    2013-09-01

    Study was designed to compare analgesic efficacy and side effects of oral dexmedetomidine and ketamine in adults for burn wound dressing. Sixty healthy adults with thermal burns with burn area (20-50%) were randomly assigned into 2 groups. In Group K 5mg/kg ketamine and in Group D 4 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine was given orally. Patients crossed over to the other group the following day. Visual analogue score, sedation score, haemodynamic parameters were recorded from 30min after drug administration to 2h after procedure. Patients' preference was also recorded. Mean VAS score was significantly reduced from baseline in both the groups at all time points (P<0.05). Pain relief in Group K (overall mean VAS 2.6±0.6cm) was significantly better when compared to Group D (overall mean VAS 3.8±0.8cm). Patients in group K were significantly more sedated (median 3) when compared to group D (median 2), P<0.05. Delirium and excessive salivation were significant complications observed with ketamine. More patients preferred ketamine (63.3%) than dexmedetomidine (36.7%), P<0.05. Oral ketamine and dexmedetomidine produced significant pain relief during burns wound dressing. Oral ketamine produced significantly better pain relief than dexmedetomidine but was associated with delirium and excessive salivation.

  8. The predictive distribution of the residual variability in the linear-fixed effects model for clinical cross-over trials.

    PubMed

    Bertsche, Anja; Nehmiz, Gerhard; Beyersmann, Jan; Grieve, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    In the linear model for cross-over trials, with fixed subject effects and normal i.i.d. random errors, the residual variability corresponds to the intraindividual variability. While population variances are in general unknown, an estimate can be derived that follows a gamma distribution, where the scale parameter is based on the true unknown variability. This gamma distribution is often used for the sample size calculation for trial planning with the precision approach, where the aim is to achieve in the next trial a predefined precision with a given probability. But then the imprecision in the estimated residual variability or, from a Bayesian perspective, the uncertainty of the unknown variability is not taken into account. Here, we present the predictive distribution for the residual variability, and we investigate a link to the F distribution. The consequence is that in the precision approach more subjects will be necessary than with the conventional calculation. For values of the intraindividual variability that are typical of human pharmacokinetics, that is a gCV of 17-36%, we would need approximately a sixth more subjects. PMID:27003464

  9. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  10. Chromosome Axis Defects Induce a Checkpoint-Mediated Delay and Interchromosomal Effect on Crossing Over during Drosophila Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Eric F.; McKim, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    Crossovers mediate the accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The widely conserved pch2 gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for a pachytene checkpoint that delays prophase progression when genes necessary for DSB repair and crossover formation are defective. However, the underlying process that the pachytene checkpoint is monitoring remains unclear. Here we have investigated the relationship between chromosome structure and the pachytene checkpoint and show that disruptions in chromosome axis formation, caused by mutations in axis components or chromosome rearrangements, trigger a pch2-dependent delay. Accordingly, the global increase in crossovers caused by chromosome rearrangements, known as the “interchromosomal effect of crossing over,” is also dependent on pch2. Checkpoint-mediated effects require the histone deacetylase Sir2, revealing a conserved functional connection between PCH2 and Sir2 in monitoring meiotic events from Saccharomyces cerevisiae to a metazoan. These findings suggest a model in which the pachytene checkpoint monitors the structure of chromosome axes and may function to promote an optimal number of crossovers. PMID:20711363

  11. Improving total field geomagnetic secular variation modeling from a new set of cross-over marine data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Torta, J. Miquel; Catalán, Manuel; Talarn, Àngela; Ishihara, Takemi

    2013-03-01

    A new set of cross-over marine data has been used to generate a regional model for the secular variation of the total geomagnetic field, showing the potential of the suggested approach for gaining a better knowledge of the field over oceanic regions. The model, which is valid for the Northern Atlantic region during the temporal interval 1960-2000, was obtained using spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA) in space and penalized splines in time. The maximum spatial expansion is equivalent to degree 9 in ordinary spherical harmonic analysis. Annual mean intensity data from different geomagnetic observatories have been used to improve the spatial and temporal resolution of the original dataset. Results indicate that the regional model improves, in terms of the root mean square error, the prediction given by the 11th generation of IGRF and CM4 global models, especially for the geomagnetic observatories considered. We also provide the uncertainty of the model coefficients and the secular variation prediction given by a bootstrap algorithm. The model is available in the EarthRef. org Digital Archive at http://earthref.org/ERDA/1728/.

  12. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration ‘wait-time’ prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  13. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  14. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  15. Microwave conductance in random waveguides in the cross-over to Anderson localization and single-parameter scaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhou; Wang, Jing; Genack, Azriel Z

    2014-02-25

    The nature of transport of electrons and classical waves in disordered systems depends upon the proximity to the Anderson localization transition between freely diffusing and localized waves. The suppression of average transport and the enhancement of relative fluctuations in conductance in one-dimensional samples with lengths greatly exceeding the localization length, L>ξ, are related in the single-parameter scaling (SPS) theory of localization. However, the difficulty of producing an ensemble of statistically equivalent samples in which the electron wave function is temporally coherent has so-far precluded the experimental demonstration of SPS. Here we demonstrate SPS in random multichannel systems for the transmittance T of microwave radiation, which is the analog of the dimensionless conductance. We show that for L∼4ξ, a single eigenvalue of the transmission matrix (TM) dominates transmission, and the distribution of the T is Gaussian with a variance equal to the average of −ln T, as conjectured by SPS. For samples in the cross-over to localization, L∼ξ, we find a one-sided distribution for T. This anomalous distribution is explained in terms of a charge model for the eigenvalues of the TM τ in which the Coulomb interaction between charges mimics the repulsion between the eigenvalues of TM. We show in the localization limit that the joint distribution of T and the effective number of transmission eigenvalues determines the probability distributions of intensity and total transmission for a single-incident channel.

  16. The predictive distribution of the residual variability in the linear-fixed effects model for clinical cross-over trials.

    PubMed

    Bertsche, Anja; Nehmiz, Gerhard; Beyersmann, Jan; Grieve, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    In the linear model for cross-over trials, with fixed subject effects and normal i.i.d. random errors, the residual variability corresponds to the intraindividual variability. While population variances are in general unknown, an estimate can be derived that follows a gamma distribution, where the scale parameter is based on the true unknown variability. This gamma distribution is often used for the sample size calculation for trial planning with the precision approach, where the aim is to achieve in the next trial a predefined precision with a given probability. But then the imprecision in the estimated residual variability or, from a Bayesian perspective, the uncertainty of the unknown variability is not taken into account. Here, we present the predictive distribution for the residual variability, and we investigate a link to the F distribution. The consequence is that in the precision approach more subjects will be necessary than with the conventional calculation. For values of the intraindividual variability that are typical of human pharmacokinetics, that is a gCV of 17-36%, we would need approximately a sixth more subjects.

  17. Clomipramine vs desipramine vs placebo in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy symptoms. A double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed Central

    Sindrup, S H; Gram, L F; Skjold, T; Grodum, E; Brøsen, K; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of clomipramine and desipramine on diabetic neuropathy symptoms was examined in a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, cross-over study for 2 + 2 + 2 weeks. Drug doses were adjusted according to the sparteine phenotype, i.e. extensive metabolisers were treated with 75 mg clomipramine day-1 and 200 mg desipramine day-1 whereas poor metabolisers were treated with 50 mg day-1 of both drugs. Nineteen patients completed the study. 2. Plasma concentration of clomipramine plus desmethylclomipramine was 70-510 nM in extensive metabolisers, vs 590 and 750 nM in two poor metabolisers. Desipramine levels were 130-910 nM, vs 860 and 880 nM. 3. Both clomipramine and desipramine significantly reduced the symptoms of neuropathy as measured by observer- and self rating in comparison with placebo. Clomipramine tended to be more efficacious than desipramine. Patients with a weak or absent response on clomipramine had lower plasma concentrations (clomipramine plus desmethyl-clomipramine less than 200 nM) than patients with a better response. For desipramine a relationship between plasma concentration and effect was not established. 4. Side effect ratings did not differ for clomipramine and desipramine and on both drugs three patients withdrew due to side effects. 5. Compared with earlier results obtained with imipramine dosed on the basis of plasma level monitoring, clomipramine and desipramine on fixed doses appeared less efficacious whereas the side effect profiles were the same. At least for clomipramine, appropriate dose adjustment on the basis of plasma level monitoring may increase the efficacy. PMID:2271367

  18. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (P< 0·05). Increasing the consumption of almonds or pistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  19. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  20. Randomized cross-over clinical trial to study potential pharmacokinetic interactions between cisplatin or carboplatin and etoposide

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Huw D; Porter, David J; Bartelink, Imke; Nobbs, Joy R; Cole, Michael; Elliott, Suzie; Newell, David R; Calvert, A Hilary; Highley, Martin; Boddy, Alan V

    2002-01-01

    Aims Cisplatin and carboplatin are often used in combination with etoposide. In a randomized cross-over study, the potential interaction between the two platinum drugs and the metabolism of etoposide was explored. In vitro investigations using human liver microsomes were also performed. Methods Etoposide was administered to 15 patients over 3 days, with the platinum drug administered on day 2. The alternate platinum drug was administered on the second course. The pharmacokinetics of etoposide were determined on all 3 days of each cycle. The effect of platinum drugs on etoposide metabolism by human liver enzymes was explored in vitro. Results Neither cisplatin nor carboplatin coadministration affected the pharmacokinetics of etoposide during cycle 1. When carboplatin was administered on course 2, etoposide AUC was 8% higher on day 2 compared with day 1 or day 3 (for day 2 vs day 3, 95% CI: −0.72, −0.08 mg ml−1 min). In contrast, cisplatin on course 2 increased the AUC of etoposide (28%) on day 3 (day 3 vs day 1, 95% CI: 0.67, 2.09 mg ml−1 min), with no effect on day 2. In vitro carboplatin and cisplatin (10–100 µm) inhibited the metabolism of etoposide, if rat liver microsomes were preincubated (30 min) with NADPH and the platinum complexes. With human liver microsomes a small effect on etoposide metabolism, but not on catechol formation, was observed. Conclusions The interaction between etoposide and platinum drugs is small and, given the pharmacokinetic variability seen with etoposide, the clinical impact is unlikely to be significant. PMID:11849199

  1. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake.

  2. Oxytocin to modulate emotional processing in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Dagani, Jessica; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Balestrieri, Matteo; Pini, Stefano; Raimondi, Sara; Saviotti, Francesco Maria; Scocco, Paolo; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in social cognition, including emotional processing, are hallmarks of schizophrenia and antipsychotic agents seem to be ineffectual to improve these symptoms. However, oxytocin does seem to have beneficial effects on social cognition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four months of treatment with intranasal oxytocin, in 31 patients with schizophrenia, on distinct aspects of social cognition. This was assessed using standardized and experimental tests in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. All patients underwent clinical and experimental assessment before treatment, four months after treatment and at the end of treatment. Social cognition abilities were assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET). Furthermore, an Emotional Priming Paradigm (EPP) was developed to examine the effects of oxytocin on implicit perceptual sensitivity to affective information and explicit facial affect recognition. We found that oxytocin improved performance on MSCEIT compared to placebo in Branch 3-Understanding Emotion (p-value=0.004; Cohen׳s d=1.12). In the EPP task, we observed a significant reduction of reaction times for facial affect recognition (p-value=0.021; Cohen׳s d=0.88). No effects were found for implicit priming or for theory of mind abilities. Further study is required in order to highlight the potential for possible integration of oxytocin with antipsychotic agents as well as to evaluate psycho-social treatment as a multi-dimensional approach to increase explicit emotional processing abilities and compensate social cognition deficits related to schizophrenia.

  3. A randomised cross-over cohort study of exposure to emissions from a road tunnel ventilation stack

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christine T; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Lilley, William; Rose, Nectarios; Rae, Michael; Marks, Guy B

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Road tunnels are increasingly important components of urban infrastructure. However, knowledge of their health impact on surrounding communities is limited. Our objective was to estimate the short-term respiratory health effects of exposure to emissions from a road tunnel ventilation stack. Methods We conducted a randomised cross-over cohort study in 36 volunteers who underwent three exposure scenarios in 2006 before the road tunnel opened, and in 2007 (n=27) and 2008 (n=20) after the tunnel opened. Exposure downwind of the stack was compared to upwind of the stack and to a distant heavily trafficked location adjacent to a main road. Spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and symptom scores were measured repeatedly during each 2 h exposure session. Results Downwind locations were associated with increased reports of ‘dry nose’ (score difference 0.36; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63) compared with the control location (2006 vs 2007/2008), but not with impaired lung function, increased airway inflammation or other symptoms. The heavily trafficked location was associated with significantly increased eNO (ratio=1.09; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.14), eye (score difference 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10) and chest (score difference 0.21; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.33) symptoms compared to the stack locations. Conclusions There was no consistent evidence of adverse respiratory effects from short-term exposures downwind of the tunnel ventilation stack, except for dry nose symptoms. However, the findings of increased airway inflammation and symptoms in subjects after only 2 h exposure at the heavily trafficked location, are suggestive of detrimental effects of short-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution. PMID:22904331

  4. Carotenoids are more bioavailable from papaya than from tomato and carrot in humans: a randomised cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Schweiggert, Ralf M.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Villalobos-Gutierrez, Maria G.; Högel, Josef; Quesada, Silvia; Esquivel, Patricia; Schwartz, Steven J.; Carle, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Carrot, tomato and papaya represent important dietary sources of β-carotene and lycopene. The main objective of the present study was to compare the bioavailability of carotenoids from these food sources in healthy human subjects. A total of sixteen participants were recruited for a randomised cross-over study. Test meals containing raw carrots, tomatoes and papayas were adjusted to deliver an equal amount of β-carotene and lycopene. For the evaluation of bioavailability, TAG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fractions containing newly absorbed carotenoids were analysed over 9.5 h after test meal consumption. The bioavailability of β-carotene from papayas was approximately three times higher than that from carrots and tomatoes, whereas differences in the bioavailability of β-carotene from carrots and tomatoes were insignificant. Retinyl esters appeared in the TRL fractions at a significantly higher concentration after the consumption of the papaya test meal. Similarly, lycopene was approximately 2.6 times more bioavailable from papayas than from tomatoes. Furthermore, the bioavailability of β-cryptoxanthin from papayas was shown to be 2.9 and 2.3 times higher than that of the other papaya carotenoids β-carotene and lycopene, respectively. The morphology of chromoplasts and the physical deposition form of carotenoids were hypothesised to play a major role in the differences observed in the bioavailability of carotenoids from the foods investigated. Particularly, the liquid-crystalline deposition of β-carotene and the storage of lycopene in very small crystalloids in papayas were found to be associated with their high bioavailability. In conclusion, papaya was shown to provide highly bioavailable β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin and lycopene and may represent a readily available dietary source of provitamin A for reducing the incidence of vitamin A deficiencies in many subtropical and tropical developing countries. PMID:23931131

  5. Oxytocin to modulate emotional processing in schizophrenia: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria; Manenti, Rosa; Dagani, Jessica; Sisti, Davide; Rocchi, Marco; Balestrieri, Matteo; Pini, Stefano; Raimondi, Sara; Saviotti, Francesco Maria; Scocco, Paolo; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Deficits in social cognition, including emotional processing, are hallmarks of schizophrenia and antipsychotic agents seem to be ineffectual to improve these symptoms. However, oxytocin does seem to have beneficial effects on social cognition. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of four months of treatment with intranasal oxytocin, in 31 patients with schizophrenia, on distinct aspects of social cognition. This was assessed using standardized and experimental tests in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. All patients underwent clinical and experimental assessment before treatment, four months after treatment and at the end of treatment. Social cognition abilities were assessed with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task (RMET). Furthermore, an Emotional Priming Paradigm (EPP) was developed to examine the effects of oxytocin on implicit perceptual sensitivity to affective information and explicit facial affect recognition. We found that oxytocin improved performance on MSCEIT compared to placebo in Branch 3-Understanding Emotion (p-value=0.004; Cohen׳s d=1.12). In the EPP task, we observed a significant reduction of reaction times for facial affect recognition (p-value=0.021; Cohen׳s d=0.88). No effects were found for implicit priming or for theory of mind abilities. Further study is required in order to highlight the potential for possible integration of oxytocin with antipsychotic agents as well as to evaluate psycho-social treatment as a multi-dimensional approach to increase explicit emotional processing abilities and compensate social cognition deficits related to schizophrenia. PMID:27527256

  6. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón Moreno, Jose Luis; García Caldentey, Juan; Trigo Cubillo, Patricia; Ruiz Romero, Carolina; García Ribas, Guillermo; Alonso Arias, M A Alonso; García de Yébenes, María Jesús; Tolón, Rosa María; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Sagredo, Onintza; Valdeolivas, Sara; Resel, Eva; Ortega-Gutierrez, Silvia; García-Bermejo, María Laura; Fernández Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; García de Yébenes Prous, Justo

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which there is no curative treatment available. Given that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of HD mouse models, stimulation of specific targets within this signaling system has been investigated as a promising therapeutic agent in HD. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot clinical trial with Sativex(®), a botanical extract with an equimolecular combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Both Sativex(®) and placebo were dispensed as an oral spray, to be administered up to 12 sprays/day for 12 weeks. The primary objective was safety, assessed by the absence of more severe adverse events (SAE) and no greater deterioration of motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional scales during the phase of active treatment. Secondary objectives were clinical improvement of Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale scores. Twenty-six patients were randomized and 24 completed the trial. After ruling-out period and sequence effects, safety and tolerability were confirmed. No differences on motor (p = 0.286), cognitive (p = 0.824), behavioral (p = 1.0) and functional (p = 0.581) scores were detected during treatment with Sativex(®) as compared to placebo. No significant molecular effects were detected on the biomarker analysis. Sativex(®) is safe and well tolerated in patients with HD, with no SAE or clinical worsening. No significant symptomatic effects were detected at the prescribed dosage and for a 12-week period. Also, no significant molecular changes were observed on the biomarkers. Future study designs should consider higher doses, longer treatment periods and/or alternative cannabinoid combinations.Clincaltrals.gov identifier: NCT01502046. PMID:27159993

  7. [The contact model of crossing over: definition of conditions required for the co-orientation of homologs].

    PubMed

    Chadov, B F

    1999-05-01

    Three phenomena have been examined: (1) independence of the segregation of structurally normal homologues from the position of crossover exchange relative to the centromere; (2) independence of chromosomal rearrangement ability to disturb disjunction from its position on chromosome; and (3) dependent, predominantly distal position of crossover exchanges in nondisjunction chromosomes. All three phenomena are explained in terms of the contact model of crossing over. According to the model, disjunction of the homologues is provided by a series of local contacts between them. The maximal number of contacts per arm is constant and is determined by the size of the absolute interference zone. The co-orientating influence of the contact decreases with the movement of its site away from the centromeric region responsible for the co-orientation. The role of the contact consists of bringing the centromeric regions of the homologues together. Co-orientation success does not depend on the presence or absence of a crossover exchange at the site of the contact. The nondisjunction chromosomes are selected with regard to the absence of proximal (or close to proximal) contacts. Hence, the exchanges formed on the basis of these contacts, are co-orientation-associated. In the disjunction chromosomes, the entire set of contacts is present. Any of these can be the first to develop and generate a crossover exchange. Because of this, exchanges in the disjunction chromosomes do not demonstrate association with the co-orientation. According to the model, the distortion of the previous contact disturbs (retards or prevents) the formation of the next contact. Hence, distortion of the contact formation in the site of rearrangement, irrespective to its location, would negatively affect the formation of the contact in the proximal region, and would promote nondisjunction. PMID:10495946

  8. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  9. A randomized controlled cross-over trial and cost analysis comparing endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration and fine needle biopsy*

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A. Aziz; Wani, Sachin; Amick, Ashley; Shah, Janak N.; Bhat, Yasser M.; Hamerski, Christopher M.; Klapman, Jason B.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Watson, Rabindra R.; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Keswani, Rajesh N.; Keefer, Laurie; Das, Ananya; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Techniques to optimize endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) in a variety of lesion types have not yet been established. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield (DY) of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for pancreatic and non-pancreatic masses. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients referred for EUS-TA underwent randomization to EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB at four tertiary-care medical centers. A maximum of three passes were allowed for the initial method of EUS-TA and patients were crossed over to the other arm based on on-site specimen adequacy. Results: A total of 140 patients were enrolled. The overall DY was significantly higher with specimens obtained by EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA (90.0 % vs. 67.1 %, P = 0.002). While there was no difference in the DY between the two groups for pancreatic masses (FNB: 91.7 % vs. FNA: 78.4 %, P = 0.19), the DY of EUS-FNB was higher than the EUS-FNA for non-pancreatic lesions (88.2 % vs. 54.5 %, P = 0.006). Specimen adequacy was higher for EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA for all lesions (P = 0.006). There was a significant rescue effect of crossover from failed FNA to FNB in 27 out of 28 cases (96.5 %, P = 0.0003). Decision analysis showed that the strategy of EUS-FNB was cost saving compared to EUS-FNA over a wide range of cost and outcome probabilities. Conclusions: Results of this RCT and decision analysis demonstrate superior DY and specimen adequacy for solid mass lesions sampled by EUS-FNB. PMID:27227104

  10. Bilateral Leg Ischemia due to Descending Aortic Dissection: Combined Treatment with Femoro-femoral Cross-over Bypass and Unilateral Aorto-iliac stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Frahm, Christian; Widmer, Matthias K.; Do, Dai-Do

    2002-10-15

    We report a case of aorto-iliac occlusion due to descending aortic dissection treated initially with femoro-femoral cross-over bypass and secondarily with unilateral aorto-iliac stenting because of progression of the dissection. A 75-year-old man presented with acute ischemia of the right leg. CT revealed occlusion of the right iliac artery due to descending aortic dissection with a clotted false lumen. Three days after femoro-femoral cross-over bypass,ischemia of both legs developed and angiography demonstrated occlusion of the infrarenal aorta and left common iliac artery. Two overlapping stents were deployed in these vessel segments. Completion angiography confirmed successful recanalization with adequate distal flow and good patency of the cross-over bypass. Peripheral pulses were restored and the patient's symptoms were alleviated. Combined treatment with cross-over bypass and endovascular recanalization may be considered as a viable alternative to open aortic surgery in selected cases of complicated aorto-iliac dissection with bilateral leg ischemia.

  11. Longitudinal Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior during an Atypical Neuroleptic Medication Cross-over Evaluation for an Adolescent with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Timothy R.; Tervo, Raymond C.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Rivard, Patrick F.; Symons, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-longitudinal descriptive case study evaluated problem behavior for an adolescent boy with developmental disabilities via repeated functional behavioral analysis (FBA) probes during a blinded cross-over from the atypical neuroleptic Risperdal (Risperidone) to Seroquel (Quetiapine). The repeated FBA probes showed no medication differences…

  12. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  13. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  14. The effect of levetiracetam on focal nocturnal epileptiform activity during sleep--a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Pål Gunnar; Bakke, Kristin A; Bjørnæs, Helge; Heminghyt, Einar; Rytter, Elisif; Brager-Larsen, Line; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie

    2012-05-01

    Electric Status Epilepticus during Sleep (ESES) occurs in children with and without epilepsy. It may be related to disturbances as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and acquired aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment has been reported in small studies without placebo control. This study was designed to assess AED effect in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Levetiracetam (LEV) was chosen based on clinical evidence. Eighteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean spike index at baseline was 56, falling to a mean of 37 at the end of the LEV treatment period. Assessed with a 2-way ANOVA, there is a significant treatment effect (p<0.0002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study for any AED in patients with ESES. The effect of LEV is comparable with its effect in treatment of epileptic seizures.

  15. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that group of woven cloth products used as coverings on a bed. Bedding includes products such as...

  16. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet…

  17. Bean and rice meals reduce postprandial glycemic response in adults with type 2 diabetes: a cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Around the world, beans and rice are commonly consumed together as a meal. With type 2 diabetes increasing, the effect of this traditional diet pattern on glycemic response has not been studied fully. Methods We evaluated the glycemic response of bean and rice traditional meals compared to rice alone in adults with type 2 diabetes. Seventeen men and women with type 2 diabetes controlled by metformin (n = 14) or diet/exercise (n = 3) aged 35–70 years participated in the randomized 4 × 4 crossover trial. The white long grain rice control, pinto beans/rice, black beans/rice, red kidney beans/rice test meals, matched for 50 grams of available carbohydrate, were consumed at breakfast after a 12 hour fast. Capillary blood glucose concentrations at baseline and at 30 minute intervals up to 180 minutes postprandial were collected. MANOVA for repeated measures established glucose differences between treatments. Paired t tests identified differences between bean types and the rice control following a significant MANOVA. Results Postprandial net glucose values were significantly lower for the three bean/rice treatments in contrast to the rice control at 90, 120 and 150 minutes. Incremental area under the curve values were significantly lower for the pinto and black bean/rice meals compared to rice alone, but not for kidney beans. Conclusions Pinto, dark red kidney and black beans with rice attenuate the glycemic response compared to rice alone. Promotion of traditional foods may provide non-pharmaceutical management of type 2 diabetes and improve dietary adherence with cultural groups. Trial registration Clinical Trials number NCT01241253 PMID:22494488

  18. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  19. Somatic crossing over in Glycine max (L.) Merrill: mutagenicity of sodium azide and lack of synergistic effect with caffeine and mitomycin C.

    PubMed

    Vig, B K

    1973-10-01

    Glycine max (soybean) is one angiosperm which lends itself to the study of somatic crossing over. This is made possible because some varieties have gene combinations Y(11)Y(11), Y(11)y(11) and y(11)y(11) in the segregating populations from Y(11)y(11) plants. The gene in question is responsible for chlorophyll synthesis. The Y(11)Y(11) plants have dark green leaves, Y(11)y(11) are light green and y(11)y(11) plants are golden yellow. The heterozygous plants have dark green, yellow and dark green-yellow (double) spots on the leaves of the untreated control material, whereas the two homozygotes are almost always devoid of somatic sectoring. Application of caffeine, or mitomycin C, to the seeds increased the frequency of double, dark green and yellow spots on the Y(11)y(11) background. Possibly, some dark green or yellow spots originate by failure of one of the two components of what might start as a double spot due to somatic crossing over. The application of NaN(3) increases the frequency of dark green or yellow spots, almost exclusively. The two spots increase in equal frequency. The y(11)y(11) plants so treated do not have any light green sectors, but dark green, Y(11)Y(11), plants do develop a few light green or very dark green spots. The data indicate that NaN(3) is capable of inducing nondisjunction, but does not cause mutations (at this locus), chromosome fragmentations (segmental losses) or somatic crossing over to an appreciable degree. It has previously been shown that caffeine-induced chromosome rejoining in Vicia faba can be inhibited by treating the roots with NaN(3). In the present experiments NaN(3) did not affect the processes of somatic crossing over as induced by caffeine or mitomycin C. The effect was additive. This system offers advantages for studying chemical mutagens in that somatic crossing over, point mutations, segmental losses through chromosome breakage and nondisjunction can all be studied in a single treatment to the seeds.

  20. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  1. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  2. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  3. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems ...

  4. Subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of heparin in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis; which do patients prefer? A randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A M; McLean, K A; Greaves, M; Channer, K S

    1993-02-01

    Patient preference for intravenous or subcutaneous heparin in the treatment of deep venous thrombosis was assessed in a randomized cross-over study. Twenty patients with venographically proven deep venous thrombosis were randomized to receive subcutaneous or intravenous heparin for 3 days followed by 3 days of the other treatment. Discomfort at the injection site, assessed by visual analogue scale, was significantly less for the subcutaneous than the intravenous administration route (P < 0.001), mobility was thought to be better when receiving subcutaneous heparin (P < 0.005) and patients' overall preference was for subcutaneous treatment (P < 0.001). PMID:8506190

  5. A NET Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thea; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis. PMID:23227026

  6. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Souday, Vincent; Koning, Nick J.; Perez, Bruno; Grelon, Fabien; Mercat, Alain; Boer, Christa; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter; Asfar, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN) breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression. Methods Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2) in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes). Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler. Results Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0–3.5] vs. 8 [4.5–10]; P < 0.001). Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217). Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively. Conclusion EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing. Trial Registration ISRCTN 31681480 PMID:27163253

  7. [Triazolam 0.25 mg versus loprazolam 1 mg in the treatment of common insomnia treated in general practice. Double-blind cross-over randomized trial].

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; André-David, F

    1989-01-01

    In a double-blind cross over randomized study for the first two nights efficacy and safety of triazolam 0.25 mg and loprazolam 1 mg have been compared in 67 out-patients complaining of common insomnia and treated by general practitioners. After the second night patients had to choose one of the two treatments and were continuing a 3-week treatment period with the preferred one. In case of no preference they received one of the 2 drugs according to a new randomization. Cross over administration of the two drugs for the first two nights shows that with triazolam global help to get in sleep is greater (p = 0.016) and sleep latency is shorter (p = 0.07) than with loprazolam, and number of night awakenings is decreased (p = 0.02) compared to loprazolam. Patients felt more rested under triazolam (p = 0.015) than loprazolam. Triazolam (N = 31) is more frequently preferred than loprazolam (N = 19) p = 0.09. Preferred treatment continued to be effective during the following three weeks and quality of sleep improved drastically for all items compared to baseline data (p = 0.01). Both treatments are well tolerated (4 drop-outs for side-effects: 2 under each treatment). The one-week tapering period allows progressive withdrawal with rare reappearance of minimum sleep disorders (5 cases: 2 under triazolam, 3 under loprazolam).

  8. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  9. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  10. Neural timing nets.

    PubMed

    Cariani, P A

    2001-01-01

    Formulations of artificial neural networks are directly related to assumptions about neural coding in the brain. Traditional connectionist networks assume channel-based rate coding, while time-delay networks convert temporally-coded inputs into rate-coded outputs. Neural timing nets that operate on time structured input spike trains to produce meaningful time-structured outputs are proposed. Basic computational properties of simple feedforward and recurrent timing nets are outlined and applied to auditory computations. Feed-forward timing nets consist of arrays of coincidence detectors connected via tapped delay lines. These temporal sieves extract common spike patterns in their inputs that can subserve extraction of common fundamental frequencies (periodicity pitch) and common spectrum (timbre). Feedforward timing nets can also be used to separate time-shifted patterns, fusing patterns with similar internal temporal structure and spatially segregating different ones. Simple recurrent timing nets consisting of arrays of delay loops amplify and separate recurring time patterns. Single- and multichannel recurrent timing nets are presented that demonstrate the separation of concurrent, double vowels. Timing nets constitute a new and general neural network strategy for performing temporal computations on neural spike trains: extraction of common periodicities, detection of recurring temporal patterns, and formation and separation of invariant spike patterns that subserve auditory objects.

  11. Bed rest in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Catherine; Stone, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The use of bed rest in medicine dates back to Hippocrates, who first recommended bed rest as a restorative measure for pain. With the formalization of prenatal care in the early 1900s, maternal bed rest became a standard of care, especially toward the end of pregnancy. Antepartum bed rest is a common obstetric management tool, with up to 95% of obstetricians utilizing maternal activity restriction in some way in their practice. Bed rest is prescribed for a variety of complications of pregnancy, from threatened abortion and multiple gestations to preeclampsia and preterm labor. Although the use of bed rest is pervasive, there is a paucity of data to support its use. Additionally, many well-documented adverse physical, psychological, familial, societal, and financial effects have been discussed in the literature. There have been no complications of pregnancy for which the literature consistently demonstrates a benefit to antepartum bed rest. Given the well-documented adverse effects of bed rest, disruption of social relationships, and financial implications of this intervention, there is a real need for scientific investigation to establish whether this is an appropriate therapeutic modality. Well-designed randomized, controlled trials of bed rest versus normal activity for various complications of pregnancy are required to lay this debate to rest once and for all. PMID:21425272

  12. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  13. Channel-bed elevation changes downstream from large reservoirs in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Channel-bed elevation changes were assessed downstream from 24 large Federal reservoirs in Kansas using information from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. Changes in river/stream stage associated with mean annual discharge indicated that channel-bed lowering had occurred downstream from most of the reservoirs. The net decrease in channel-bed elevation ranged from less than 1 foot to slightly more than 9 feet. The magnitude of channel-bed lowering downstream from the reservoirs likely was related to the composition of the channel bed.

  14. Crossing over into Language Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Although many linguists seek to demonstrate the validity and profundity of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), much of the pop culture world seems to use it as a way to sell products and to rebel against parents. Each time that the dialect is pulled into the sphere of pop culture--and each time that it is reduced to a stereotype--its…

  15. NetState

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  16. SpawnNet

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  17. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  18. NASA's Software Bank (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NETS (A Neural Network Development Tool) is a software system for mimicking the human brain. It is used in a University of Arkansas project in pattern matching of chemical systems. If successful, chemists would be able to identify mixtures of compounds without long and costly separation procedures. Using NETS, the group has trained the computer to recognize pattern relationships in a known compound and associate the results to an unknown compound. The research appears to be promising.

  19. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively.

  20. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively. PMID:25594848

  1. A new design of trial for hypnotics comparison: a double-blind cross-over trial with patient's preference assessment and continuation of the preferred treatment.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Malinge, M

    1996-04-01

    1. This study compared two hypnotics administrated at comparable therapeutic dosages: triazolam (0.25 mg) and loprazolam (1 mg), were administered using an original scheme (cross-over on the first 2 nights, and continuation of the preferred treatment or new randomization). 2. Sixty-seven outpatients complaining of common insomnia participated in this study conducted by general practitioners. 3. Both drugs provided improvement in sleep quality (decreased sleep latency, increased total duration of sleep, decreased number of night awakenings), and are equally well tolerated. 4. For the first 2 nights, triazolam was evaluated to be more efficient than loprazolam (p < 0.001), and patients felt more rested the following day (p < 0.01) with the former drug. Moreover, triazolam is more frequently preferred than loprazolam by 47.7% and 29.2%, respectively, (p = 0.09). 5. No interaction was found between treatment and order of administration or specific effects and order of administration.

  2. Randomised controlled cross-over comparison of continuous positive airway pressure through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator with a Dräger CF 800 device.

    PubMed

    Sutton, P J; Perkins, C L; Giles, S P; McAuley, D F; Gao, F

    2005-01-01

    In this controlled, randomised cross-over trial on 26 intensive care patients, we compared the effects on haemodynamic and respiratory profiles of continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Hamilton Galileo ventilator or a Drager CF 800 device. We also compared the nursing time saved using the two approaches when weaning patients from mechanical ventilation. We did not find significant differences in haemodynamics, respiratory rate, physiological dead space, oxygen saturation and carbon dioxide production between the continuous positive airway pressure generated by the Galileo and Drager machines. However, there was a 10-fold reduction in nursing time using the Galileo ventilator compared with the Drager generator. We conclude that continuous positive airway pressure delivered through the Galileo ventilator is as efficient as a Drager device but consumes less nursing time.

  3. Pipamperone (Dipiperon, R3345) in troublesome mental retardates: a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, J C

    1975-10-01

    A 6-week double-blind cross-over study comparing pipamperone with placebo was conducted in 20 female mental retardates with behavioural disorders. The ages of the patients ranged between 22 and 42 years. After a 2-week washout period, patients were randomly allocated to either pipamperone or placebo treatment. The initial dosage of pipamperone was 40 mg b.i.d., which was gradually increased to 80 mg b.i.d. within 5 days. Patients were assessed using a ten-item rating scale before and after each week of treatment. For six of the ten items, patients showed a better response during the pipamperone than during the placebo period. When pre-trial scores were compared with those at the end of the trial, seven items had significantly improved with pipamperone. The nursing staff considered the patients more alert and amenable during pipamperone treatment.

  4. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  5. The Effect of Purslane Seeds on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zakizadeh, Elahe; Faghihimani, Elham; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to examine the effects of purslane seeds on biomarkers of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 40 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g/day purslane seeds with 240 cc low-fat yogurt (intervention group) or only 240 cc low-fat yogurt (as a control group) for 5 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were moved to the alternate arm for an additional 5 weeks. At baseline and end of each study phase, fasting blood samples were collected to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress. Results: We observed a slight decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity in both groups, however, between-group changes were not significant (−2.67 vs. −2.95 μg/dL, P = 0.94). Plasma malondialdehyde in purslane group increased slightly, however, we observed no significant effect in the control group (1.62 vs. −0.47 μg/dL, P = 0.58). Although both groups had a slight reduction in plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), we failed to find any significant effect of purslane on plasma ox-LDL (−1.06 vs. −1.71 μg/dL, P = 0.85). Conclusions: This cross-over clinical trial revealed that consumption of purslane seeds for 5 weeks in type 2 diabetic patients did not result in improved oxidative stress. PMID:26605016

  6. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P<0·01; n 21) and significant reductions in stool ammonia concentration (P<0·05; n 21) after consumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (P<0·01; n 21). Our data indicate that consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota.

  7. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  8. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: A clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Kadriye; Ertaş, Mustafa; Orhan, Elif Kocasoy; Üstay, Didem Kanca; Lieners, Camille; Baykan, Betül

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that specific foods trigger migraine attacks in some patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of diet restriction, based on IgG antibodies against food antigens on the course of migraine attacks in this randomised, double blind, cross-over, headache-diary based trial on 30 patients diagnosed with migraine without aura. Methods: Following a 6-week baseline, IgG antibodies against 266 food antigens were detected by ELISA. Then, the patients were randomised to a 6-week diet either excluding or including specific foods with raised IgG antibodies, individually. Following a 2-week diet-free interval after the first diet period, the same patients were given the opposite 6-week diet (provocation diet following elimination diet or vice versa). Patients and their physicians were blinded to IgG test results and the type of diet (provocation or elimination). Primary parameters were number of headache days and migraine attack count. Of 30 patients, 28 were female and 2 were male, aged 19–52 years (mean, 35 ± 10 years). Results: The average count of reactions with abnormally high titre was 24 ± 11 against 266 foods. Compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of headache days (from 10.5 ± 4.4 to 7.5 ± 3.7; P < 0.001) and number of migraine attacks (from 9.0 ± 4.4 to 6.2 ± 3.8; P < 0.001) in the elimination diet period. Conclusion: This is the first randomised, cross-over study in migraineurs, showing that diet restriction based on IgG antibodies is an effective strategy in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:20647174

  9. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P<0·01; n 21) and significant reductions in stool ammonia concentration (P<0·05; n 21) after consumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (P<0·01; n 21). Our data indicate that consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota. PMID:26428278

  10. Bathing a patient in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Bed bath; Sponge bath ... Some patients cannot safely leave their beds to bathe. For these people, daily bed baths can help keep their skin healthy, control odor, and increase comfort. If moving the ...

  11. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  12. Invariance and neural nets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, E; Casasent, D

    1991-01-01

    Application of neural nets to invariant pattern recognition is considered. The authors study various techniques for obtaining this invariance with neural net classifiers and identify the invariant-feature technique as the most suitable for current neural classifiers. A novel formulation of invariance in terms of constraints on the feature values leads to a general method for transforming any given feature space so that it becomes invariant to specified transformations. A case study using range imagery is used to exemplify these ideas, and good performance is obtained.

  13. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Sheran, Jane; Smith, Natalie; Fonseca, Sofia; Lee, Amanda J

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite effective treatments, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Interest exists in complementary therapies, particularly in herbal remedies for asthma treatment, currently with inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The encapsulated botanical mixture AKL1 has anecdotal evidence of effectiveness in asthma. Methods We performed a randomised controlled cross over study comparing the effectiveness of AKL1 with indistinguishable placebo as add-on therapy in patients uncontrolled on standard asthma treatment. Thirty two adult asthmatics completed a 36 week trial consisting of a 4 week single blind run in period, during which placebo was added to usual treatment, a 12 week double blind active phase in which subjects received AKL1 or placebo, a single blind 8 week washout period receiving placebo and a final 12 week double blind cross-over active treatment phase. Daily diaries were kept of peak expiratory flow and symptoms, and spirometry, validated symptom and health status questionnaire scores and adverse events were monitored at study visits. Paired T tests were used to compare the effects of placebo and AKL1 on outcomes. Changes in outcome measures over treatment phases are presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of means. Results No significant differences in lung function (active-placebo) were found (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second: mean difference [95% CI] = 0.01 [-0.12 to 0.14] L, p = 0.9. Peak Expiratory Flow: -4.08 [-35.03 to 26.89]. L/min, p = 0.8). Trends to clinical improvements favouring active treatment were however consistently seen in the patient-centered outcomes: Asthma Control Questionnaire mean difference (active – placebo) [95% CI] = -0.35 [-0.78 to 0.07], p = 0.10, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire mean difference 0.42 [-0.08 to 0.93], p = 0.09, Leicester Cough Questionnaire mean difference 0.49, [-0.18 to 1.16], p = 0.15. Nine exacerbations occurred during placebo treatment and five whilst on AKL1. No significant

  14. Cyclosporine and Extracorporeal Photopheresis are Equipotent in Treating Severe Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized Cross-Over Study Comparing Two Efficient Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Poulsen, Johan; Grunnet, Niels; Deleuran, Mette Søndergaard; Obitz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent and debilitating disease often requiring systemic immunosuppressive treatment. The efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) is well proven but potential side effects are concerning. Several reports point at extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) as an alternative treatment modality with few and mild side effects. However, no direct comparison between CsA and ECP in the treatment of AD has been performed so far. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of CsA (3 mg/kg/day) and ECP (administered two consecutive days twice a month) in a cohort of patients with severe AD. Methods: A randomized cross-over study involving twenty patients with severe AD (SCORAD index 41-89) refractory to other treatments. The patients were allocated to a 4-month course of either of the two treatment modalities. Individual relapse periods (2–8 weeks) were interspersed before cross-over to the other treatment modality. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by SCORAD, PRURITUS (VAS-index 0–10), “overall global assessment” and serological biomarkers; sIL-2Rα, sE-selectin, eosinophilocytes, basophilocytes, and sIgE. Results: 15 patients completed treatment. Both treatments lead to a marked and significant decrease in SCORAD and pruritus index. The average reduction of the SCORAD and pruritus index, respectively was a little higher for ECP treatment compared to CsA treatment; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. The “overall global assessment” was significantly better in patients who underwent ECP therapy as compared to CsA treatment. None of the biomarkers showed significant changes after either treatment when compared to the initial values. Conclusion: ECP administered on two consecutive days twice a month to patients with severe AD has similar potency as CsA administered daily in a moderate dose. ECP is a treatment alternative in patients with severe AD that do not tolerate or are refractory to conventional

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in

  16. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: Is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S.; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age=16): N=14,101; Wave 4 (mean age=29): N=11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents’ highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in cigarette and

  17. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  18. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  19. Bed exit alarms.

    PubMed

    2004-09-01

    Bed-exit alarms alert caregivers that a patient who should not get out of bed unassisted is doing so. These alarms can help reduce the likelihood of falls and can promote speedy assistance to patients who have already fallen. But as we described in our May 2004 Guidance Article on bed-exit alarms, they don't themselves prevent falls. They are only effective if used as part of an overall fall-prevention program and with a clear understanding of their limitations. This Evaluation examines the effectiveness of 16 bed-exit alarms from seven suppliers. Our ratings focus primarily on each product's reliability in detecting bed-exit events and alerting caregivers, its ability to minimize nuisance alarms (alarms that sound even though the patient isn't leaving the bed or that sound while a caregiver is helping the patient to leave the bed), and its resistance to deliberate or inadvertent tampering. Twelve of the products use pressure-sensor-activated alarms (mainly sensor pads placed on or under the mattress); three use a cord that can attach to the patient's garment, alarming if the cord is pulled loose from the control unit; and one is a position-sensitive alarm attached to a leg cuff. All the products reliably detect attempted or successful bed exits. But they vary greatly in how effectively they alert staff, minimize nuisance alarms, and resist tampering. Ease of use and battery performance also vary for many units. Of the pressure-sensor units, three are rated Preferred. Those units meet most of our criteria and have no significant disadvantages. Five of the other pressure-sensor products are Acceptable, and the remaining four are Not Recommended. All three cord-activated alarms are rated Acceptable, as is the patient-worn alarm.

  20. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  1. MASTER Net: optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gress, O.; Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.; Lipunov, V.; Buckley, D.; Lopez, R. Rebolo; Ricart, M. Serra; Podesta, R.; Levato, H. O.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Ivanov, K.; Vladimirov, V.; Potter, S.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-SAAO auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 14h 38m 49.60s -44d 37m 24.5s on 2016-10-01.73438 UT with unfiltered m_OT=16.4m (mlim=19.7m).

  2. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  3. Strengthening the safety net.

    PubMed

    May, Ellen Lanser

    2004-01-01

    If you've ever built a house of cards or played a game of Jenga, you know how quickly an ill-timed move can destroy your goal of maintaining equilibrium. The consequence of upsetting one piece of the whole is a common metaphor many safety net providers use to help other healthcare organizations understand their role in the system. The fiscal and physical pressure on just one safety net provider can create a dangerous ripple effect in a community, threatening the stability of other area providers and access to care for the patients they serve. "We have created a complicated tension within our healthcare system," says Stuart H. Altman, Ph.D., HFACHE, professor, National Health Policy, at Brandeis University in Waltham, MA. "If any single major sector of the system is out of balance, the others will be affected in a very negative way." Depending (in part) on geography as well as local and state politics, the fate of "non"-safety net providers can hinge on the success of those organizations whose primary mission is to provide indigent care. "If the safety net fails, the whole healthcare system could potentially collapse because the remaining providers simply cannot handle all of the demand," says C. Duane Dauner, FACHE, president of the California Healthcare Association in Sacramento. The current situations in Washington, D.C., Dallas, and several California counties illustrate this domino effect Dauner describes. PMID:14716922

  4. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  5. Nonmetro Net Outmigration Stops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromartie, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Annual population losses from net migration for nonmetro areas declined from 0.38-0.20 percent during the period of 1988-91. However, annual inmigration and outmigration flows were consistently above 1.5 million (about 3 percent of nonmetro population). During the three-year period, nonmetro areas consistently lost young adults and those with…

  6. A Randomised, Cross-Over, Placebo-Controlled Study of Aloe vera in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Effects on Patient Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, H A; Wareham, K; Baxter, J N; Atherton, P; Kingham, J G C; Duane, P; Thomas, L; Thomas, M; Ch'ng, C L; Williams, J G

    2011-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, difficult to treat condition. The efficacy of Aloe vera in treating IBS symptoms is not yet proven. The purpose of this study was to determine if Aloe vera is effective in improving quality of life. Methods. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, cross-over placebo controlled study design. Patients were randomised to Aloe vera, wash-out, placebo or placebo, washout, Aloe vera. Each preparation (60 mL) was taken orally twice a day. Patient quality of life was measured using the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Score, Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life, EuroQol and the Short-Form-12 at baseline and treatment periods 1 and 2. Results. A total of 110 patients were randomised, but only 47 completed all questionnaires and both study arms. Statistical analysis showed no difference between the placebo and Aloe vera treatment in quality of life. Discussion. This study was unable to show that Aloe vera was superior to placebo in improving quality of life. Drop outs and other confounding factors may have impacted on the power of the study to detect a clinically important difference. Conclusion. This study failed to find Aloe vera superior to placebo in improving quality of life proven Irritable Bowel Syndrome patients.

  7. Acute reduction in blood pressure following consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice may be dose-interval dependant: a pilot cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen E; Jenner, Andrew; Roodenrys, Steven

    2016-01-01

    A pilot cross-over study assessed the acute effects on blood pressure and plasma biomarkers associated with consumption of a 300 ml anthocyanin-rich fruit juice, provided in differing dose-intervals. Young adults (n = 6) and older adults (n = 7) received in random order, either a single 300 ml dose or 3 × 100 ml doses of high-flavonoid cherry juice provided at 0, 1 and 2 h. Blood pressure and plasma levels of phenolic metabolites were measured at 0, 2 and 6 h.The single 300 ml dose of cherry juice resulted in a significant reduction in systolic (p = 0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.008) and heart-rate (p = 0.033) 2 h after consumption, before returning to baseline levels at 6 h post-consumption. The 3 × 100 ml dose provided over 2 h did not result in significant blood pressure reductions. Plasma phenolic metabolites increased at 2 and 6 h; however, fluctuations were higher after the single 300 ml dose in older adults. These findings have implications for design of intervention studies that investigate vascular effects associated with flavonoid-rich foods. PMID:26654244

  8. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  9. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. PMID:26684684

  10. Cis- and trans-acting genetic factors contribute to heterogeneity in the rate of crossing over between the Drosophila simulans clade species.

    PubMed

    Cattani, M V; Kingan, S B; Presgraves, D C

    2012-10-01

    In the genus Drosophila, variation in recombination rates has been found within and between species. Genetic variation for both cis- and trans-acting factors has been shown to affect recombination rates within species, but little is known about the genetic factors that affect differences between species. Here, we estimate rates of crossing over for seven segments that tile across the euchromatic length of the X chromosome in the genetic backgrounds of three closely related Drosophila species. We first generated a set of Drosophila mauritiana lines each having two semidominant visible markers on the X chromosome and then introgressed these doubly marked segments into the genetic backgrounds of its sibling species, Drosophila simulans and Drosophila sechellia. Using these 21 lines (seven segments, three genetic backgrounds), we tested whether recombination rates within the doubly marked intervals differed depending on genetic background. We find significant heterogeneity among intervals and among species backgrounds. Our results suggest that a combination of both cis- and trans-acting factors have evolved among the three D. simulans clade species and interact to affect recombination rate.

  11. A Randomised, Cross-Over Study to Estimate the Influence of Food on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D₃ Serum Level after Vitamin D₃ Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Jandrain, Bernard; Coffiner, Monte; Da Silva, Stéphanie; De Niet, Sophie; Vanderbist, Francis; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D₃ is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D₃. However, as bioavailability is related not only to the active molecules but also to the formulations and excipients used, the optimization of the pharmaceutical form of vitamin D₃ is also important. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a food effect on absorption when a high dose of vitamin D₃ is completely solubilized in an oily solution. In the present cross-over study, 88 subjects were randomized and received a single dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D₃ in fasting state or with a standardized high-fat breakfast. Assessment of serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25(OH)D₃) was performed three, five, seven, 14, 30 and 60 days after supplementation. In fed and fast conditions, the 25(OH)D₃ serum concentrations were significantly higher than the baseline value three days after administration and remained significantly higher during the first month. No significant difference between fasting vs. fed conditions was observed. It is therefore concluded that the vitamin D₃ absorption from an oily solution was not influenced by the presence or absence of a meal. PMID:27213447

  12. A single crossing-over event in voltage-sensitive Na+ channel genes may cause critical failure of dengue mosquito control by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Koichi; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tomita, Takashi; Kasai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    The voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+) channel (Vssc) is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Pest insects develop resistance to this class of insecticide by acquisition of one or multiple amino acid substitution(s) in this channel. In Southeast Asia, two major Vssc types confer pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, namely, S989P+V1016G and F1534C. We expressed several types of Vssc in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of amino acid substitutions in Vssc on pyrethroid susceptibilities. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 100- and 25-fold, respectively, while S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 1100-fold. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 10- and 1-fold (no reduction), respectively, but S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 90-fold. These results imply that pyrethroid insecticides are highly likely to lose their effectiveness against A. aegypti if such a Vssc haplotype emerges as the result of a single crossing-over event; thus, this may cause failure to control this key mosquito vector. Here, we strongly emphasize the importance of monitoring the occurrence of triple mutations in Vssc in the field population of A. aegypti.

  13. Cardiovascular Safety of Oral p-Synephrine (Bitter Orange) in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J; Mukattash, Tareq L

    2016-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined at baseline, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 4 , 6, and 8 h. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 2 h and 8 h for serum chemistries, blood cell counts, and p-synephrine and caffeine levels. No significant changes occurred in electrocardiograms, heart rates, systolic blood pressure, blood chemistries, or blood cell counts at any time point in either control or p-synephrine treated group. A small (4.5 mmHg) decrease in diastolic blood pressure occurred in the p-synephrine treated group at 60 min. No adverse effects were reported. Caffeine ingestion varied markedly among the participants. p-Synephrine does not act as a stimulant at the dose used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26948284

  14. A randomized, controlled cross-over trial of dermally-applied lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) oil as a treatment of agitated behaviour in dementia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lavender essential oil shows evidence of sedative properties in neurophysiological and animal studies but clinical trials of its effectiveness as a treatment of agitation in people with dementia have shown mixed results. Study methods have varied widely, however, making comparisons hazardous. To help remedy previous methodological shortcomings, we delivered high grade lavender oil in specified amounts to nursing home residents whose agitated behaviours were recorded objectively. Methods 64 nursing home residents with frequent physically agitated behaviours were entered into a randomized, single-blind cross-over trial of dermally-applied, neurophysiologically active, high purity 30% lavender oil versus an inactive control oil. A blinded observer counted the presence or absence of target behaviours and rated participants’ predominant affect during each minute for 30 minutes prior to exposure and for 60 minutes afterwards. Results Lavender oil did not prove superior to the control oil in reducing the frequency of physically agitated behaviours or in improving participants’ affect. Conclusions Studies of essential oils are constrained by their variable formulations and uncertain pharmacokinetics and so optimal dosing and delivery regimens remain speculative. Notwithstanding this, topically delivered, high strength, pure lavender oil had no discernible effect on affect and behaviour in a well-defined clinical sample. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12609000569202) PMID:24219098

  15. Intra-gastric pH following single oral administrations of rabeprazole and esomeprazole: double-blind cross-over comparison

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Kenji; Kohata, Yukie; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Uotani, Takahiro; Yamade, Mihoko; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Furuta, Takahisa; Nio, Kenta; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Inamori, Masahiko; Kawamura, Osamu; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kato, Mototsugu; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Aimi, Masahito; Naora, Kohji; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons between the acid inhibitory effects of rabeprazole and esomeprazole after single oral administration with standard doses have not been previously presented. We examined intra-gastric pH after oral administrations of these two proton pump inhibitors using 24-h pH monitoring. Fifty-four normal volunteers not infected by Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Using a cross-over design, we administered 10 mg of rabeprazole or 20 mg of esomeprazole in 27 at 30 min after supper and in the remaining 27 subjects at 15 min before supper, and performed 24-h pH monitoring. Intra-gastric pH data were nearly identical when the proton pump inhibitors were taken after meals. Even if the data were compared in different CYP2C19 genotypes, rabeprazole and esomeprazole did not show the difference. In poor metabolizer, both of the drugs showed stronger acid inhibition. When taken before meals, intra-gastric pH after esomeprazole administration was slightly but not significantly higher than that observed after rabeprazole administration not only in daytime but also in nighttime period. In conclusion, rabeprazole and esomeprazole were similarly effective when administered after a meal. PMID:25411523

  16. Intra-gastric pH following single oral administrations of rabeprazole and esomeprazole: double-blind cross-over comparison.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Kenji; Kohata, Yukie; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Uotani, Takahiro; Yamade, Mihoko; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Furuta, Takahisa; Nio, Kenta; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Inamori, Masahiko; Kawamura, Osamu; Kusano, Motoyasu; Kato, Mototsugu; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Aimi, Masahito; Naora, Kohji; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Arakawa, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2014-11-01

    Comparisons between the acid inhibitory effects of rabeprazole and esomeprazole after single oral administration with standard doses have not been previously presented. We examined intra-gastric pH after oral administrations of these two proton pump inhibitors using 24-h pH monitoring. Fifty-four normal volunteers not infected by Helicobacter pylori were investigated. Using a cross-over design, we administered 10 mg of rabeprazole or 20 mg of esomeprazole in 27 at 30 min after supper and in the remaining 27 subjects at 15 min before supper, and performed 24-h pH monitoring. Intra-gastric pH data were nearly identical when the proton pump inhibitors were taken after meals. Even if the data were compared in different CYP2C19 genotypes, rabeprazole and esomeprazole did not show the difference. In poor metabolizer, both of the drugs showed stronger acid inhibition. When taken before meals, intra-gastric pH after esomeprazole administration was slightly but not significantly higher than that observed after rabeprazole administration not only in daytime but also in nighttime period. In conclusion, rabeprazole and esomeprazole were similarly effective when administered after a meal. PMID:25411523

  17. Cardiovascular Safety of Oral p-Synephrine (Bitter Orange) in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J; Mukattash, Tareq L

    2016-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined at baseline, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 4 , 6, and 8 h. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 2 h and 8 h for serum chemistries, blood cell counts, and p-synephrine and caffeine levels. No significant changes occurred in electrocardiograms, heart rates, systolic blood pressure, blood chemistries, or blood cell counts at any time point in either control or p-synephrine treated group. A small (4.5 mmHg) decrease in diastolic blood pressure occurred in the p-synephrine treated group at 60 min. No adverse effects were reported. Caffeine ingestion varied markedly among the participants. p-Synephrine does not act as a stimulant at the dose used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers.

  19. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  20. Is Zolpidem Associated with Increased Risk of Fractures in the Elderly with Sleep Disorders? A Nationwide Case Cross-Over Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fang-Ying; Chen, Hung-An; Yin, Yun-Ju; Lee, Hua-Chin; Chu, William Cheng-Chung; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Hui-Ling; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a study using a case-crossover design to clarify the risk of acute effects of zolpidem and benzodiazepine on all-sites of fractures in the elderly. Design of study Case-crossover design. Methods and Materials Elderly enrollees (n = 6010) in Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database with zolpidem or benzodiazepine use were analyzed for the risk of developing fractures. Results After adjusting for medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, and diuretics, or comorbidities such as hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and depression, neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was found to be associated with increased risk in all-sites fractures. Subjects without depression were found to have an increased risk of fractures. Diazepam is the only benzodiazepine with increased risk of fractures after adjusting for medications and comorbidities. Hip and spine were particular sites for increased fracture risk, but following adjustment for comorbidities, the associations were found to be insignificant. Conclusion Neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was associated with increased risk of all-site fractures in this case cross-over study after adjusting for medications or comorbidities in elderly individuals with insomnia. Clinicians should balance the benefits and risks for prescribing zolpidem or benzodiazepine in the elderly accordingly. PMID:26716836

  1. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  2. Intermittency and local Reynolds number in Navier-Stokes turbulence: A cross-over scale in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Mark; Ohkitani, Koji

    2012-11-01

    We study space-time integrals, which appear in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg (CKN) theory for the Navier-Stokes equations analytically and numerically. The key quantity is written in standard notations δ (r)=1/(ν r)int _{Q_r}left|nabla {u}right|^2 d{{x}} dt, which can be regarded as a local Reynolds number over a parabolic cylinder Qr. First, by re-examining the CKN integral, we identify a cross-over scale r_* ∝ Lleft( overline{Vert nabla {u} Vert ^2_{L^2}} /Vert nabla {u Vert ^2_{L^infty }} right)^{1/3}, at which the CKN Reynolds number δ(r) changes its scaling behavior. This reproduces a result on the minimum scale rmin in turbulence: r_min^2 Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν , consistent with a result of Henshaw et al. ["On the smallest scale for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 1, 65 (1989), 10.1007/BF00272138]. For the energy spectrum E(k) ∝ k-q (1 < q < 3), we show that r* ∝ νa with a=4/3(3-q)-1. Parametric representations are then obtained as Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν ^{-(1+3a)/2} and rmin ∝ ν3(a+1)/4. By the assumptions of the regularity and finite energy dissipation rate in the inviscid limit, we derive lim _{p rArr infty }ζ _p/p=1 - ζ _2 for any phenomenological models on intermittency, where ζp is the exponent of pth order (longitudinal) velocity structure function. It follows that ζp ⩽ (1 - ζ2)(p - 3) + 1 for any p ⩾ 3 without invoking fractal energy cascade. Second, we determine the scaling behavior of δ(r) in direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. In isotropic turbulence around Rλ ≈ 100 starting from random initial conditions, we have found that δ(r) ∝ r4throughout the inertial range. This can be explained by the smallness of a ≈ 0.26,with a result that r* is in the energy-containing range. If the β-model is perfectly correct, the intermittency parameter a must be related to the dissipation correlation exponent μ as μ =4a/1+a ≈ 0.8, which is larger

  3. Effects of recommendations to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet v. usual dietary advice on childhood metabolic syndrome: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Rajaei, Somayeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    The effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance remain to be determined. The present study aimed to assess the effects of recommendations to follow the DASH diet v. usual dietary advice (UDA) on the MetS and its features in adolescents. In this randomised cross-over clinical trial, sixty post-pubescent adolescent girls with the MetS were randomly assigned to receive either the recommendations to follow the DASH diet or UDA for 6 weeks. After a 4-week washout period, the participants were crossed over to the alternate arm. The DASH group was recommended to consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats, total fats and cholesterol. UDA consisted of general oral advice and written information about healthy food choices based on healthy MyPlate. Compliance was assessed through the quantification of plasma vitamin C levels. In both the groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of each phase of the intervention. The mean age and weight of the participants were 14.2 (SD 1.7) years and 69 (SD 14.5) kg, respectively. Their mean BMI and waist circumference were 27.3 kg/m2 and 85.6 cm, respectively. Serum vitamin C levels tended to be higher in the DASH phase than in the UDA phase (860 (SE 104) v. 663 (SE 76) ng/l, respectively, P= 0.06). Changes in weight, waist circumference and BMI were not significantly different between the two intervention phases. Although changes in systolic blood pressure were not statistically significant between the two groups (P= 0.13), recommendations to follow the DASH diet prevented the increase in diastolic blood pressure compared with UDA (P= 0.01). We found a significant within-group decrease in serum insulin levels (101.4 (SE 6.2) v. 90.0 (SE 5.5) pmol/l, respectively, P= 0.04) and a non-significant reduction in the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance

  4. Quantum Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Williams, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of classical neurocomputers is limited by the number of classical degrees of freedom which is roughly proportional to the size of the computer. By Contrast, a Hypothetical quantum neurocomputer can implement an exponentially large number of the degrees of freedom within the same size. In this paper an attempt is made to reconcile linear reversible structure of quantum evolution with nonlinear irreversible dynamics for neural nets.

  5. Restricting night-time eating reduces daily energy intake in healthy young men: a short-term cross-over study.

    PubMed

    LeCheminant, James D; Christenson, Ed; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A

    2013-12-14

    Few experimental data are available to support the notion that reducing night-time eating changes total daily energy intake (EI) or body weight in healthy adults. The present study primarily examined the short-term effect of night eating restriction (NER) on daily EI in healthy young men. It secondarily examined body weight and moods associated with NER. Using a cross-over design, twenty-nine men (20·9 (sd 2·5) years; 24·4 (sd 2·5) kg/m²) initiated a 2-week NER intervention (elimination of EI from 19.00 to 06.00 hours) and a 2-week control condition, counterbalanced and separated by a 1-week washout period. EI and macronutrient intake were assessed using computerised, multiple-pass 24 h food recalls, body weight via a digital scale and mood using the Profile of Mood States survey. Of the twenty-nine participants, twenty-seven (93 %) completed all aspects of the study. During the NER condition, the participants consumed less total energy per d than during the control condition (10 125 v. 11 146 kJ/d; F= 6·41; P= 0·018). During the NER condition, no energy was reported consumed between 19.00 and 06.00 hours; however, during the control condition, the energy intake of participants was 2920 (sd 1347) kJ/d between 19.00 and 06.00 hours. There was a significant difference in weight change between the NER (-0·4 (sd 1·1) kg) and control (+0·6 (sd 0·9) kg) conditions (F= 22·68; P< 0·001). Differences in total mood score or mood subscales between the NER and control conditions were not apparent (P>0·05). These findings provide support for NER decreasing short-term EI in healthy young men.

  6. A randomized cross-over study to compare PUVA and extracorporeal photopheresis in the treatment of plaque stage (T2) mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Child, F J; Mitchell, T J; Whittaker, S J; Scarisbrick, J J; Seed, P T; Russell-Jones, R

    2004-05-01

    PUVA is a well-established and effective treatment for plaque stage mycosis fungoides (MF) but its use is limited on a long-term basis because of the risk of cutaneous carcinogenesis. A further disadvantage is that nonexposed areas (sanctuary sites) often develop persistent disease. Therefore it is important to find alternative methods of treatment. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) is a form of photochemotherapy that involves exposure of white blood cells to UVA with psoralens and can be effective in Sézary syndrome and erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of PUVA and ECP in the treatment of patients with T2 plaque stage (Stage 1B) MF who had a detectable peripheral blood T-cell clone. The study was of a cross-over design. Sixteen patients were randomized to receive either PUVA twice weekly for 3 months followed by ECP once monthly for 6 months at relapse, or vice-versa. Response was assessed by monthly skin scores and peripheral blood T-cell clonality. Ten patients received PUVA initially and six ECP initially. Eight patients completed the study. Skin scores taken at the completion of each treatment arm in patients who completed the study were 113 units better (confidence interval, 42-184 units) following 3 months PUVA than 6 months ECP (P = 0.002). Peripheral blood T-cell clones were detectable in all patients post-treatment. This study indicates that ECP is not effective in the treatment of plaque stage (1B/T2) MF even in patients with molecular evidence of a peripheral blood T-cell clone. Although PUVA was more effective than ECP, neither treatment modality cleared malignant T-cells from the peripheral blood.

  7. Direct bandgap cross-over point of Ge1-ySny grown on Si estimated through temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Thomas R.; Ryu, Mee-Yi; Yeo, Yung Kee; Wang, Buguo; Senaratne, C. L.; Kouvetakis, John

    2016-08-01

    Epitaxial Ge1-ySny (y = 0%-7.5%) alloys grown on either Si or Ge-buffered Si substrates by chemical vapor deposition were studied as a function of Sn content using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL). PL emission peaks from both the direct bandgap (Γ-valley) and the indirect bandgap (L-valley) to the valence band (denoted by ED and EID, respectively) were clearly observed at 125 and 175 K for most Ge1-ySny samples studied. At 300 K, however, all of the samples exhibited dominant ED emission with either very weak or no measureable EID emission. At 10 K, ED is dominant only for Ge1-ySny with y > 0.052. From the PL spectra taken at 125 and 175 K, the unstrained indirect and direct bandgap energies were calculated and are plotted as a function of Sn concentration, the results of which show that the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition occurs at ˜6.7% Sn. It is believed that the true indirect-to-direct bandgap cross-over of unstrained Ge1-ySny might also take place at about the same Sn content at room temperature. This observation suggests that these Ge1-ySny alloys could become very promising direct bandgap semiconductor materials, which will be very useful for the development of various new novel Si- and Ge-based infrared optoelectronic devices that can be fully integrated with current technology on a single Si chip.

  8. OROS-methylphenidate efficacy on specific executive functioning deficits in adults with ADHD: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bron, Tannetje I; Bijlenga, Denise; Boonstra, A Marije; Breuk, Minda; Pardoen, Willem F H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to impaired executive functioning (EF). This is the first study to objectively investigate the effects of a long-acting methylphenidate on neurocognitive test performance of adults with ADHD. Twenty-two adults with ADHD participated in a 6-weeks study examining the effect of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-mph) on continuous performance tests (CPTs; objective measures), and on the self-reported ADHD rating scale (subjective measure) using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. OROS-mph significantly improved reaction time variability (RTV), commission errors (CE) and d-prime (DP) as compared to baseline (Cohen's d>.50), but did not affect hit reaction time (HRT) or omission errors (OE). Compared to placebo, OROS-mph only significantly influenced RTV on one of two CPTs (p<.050). Linear regression analyses showed predictive ability of more beneficial OROS-mph effects in ADHD patients with higher EF severity (RTV: β=.670, t=2.097, p=.042; omission errors (OE): β=-.098, t=-4.759, p<.001), and with more severe ADHD symptoms (RTV: F=6.363, p=.019; HRT: F=3.914, p=.061). Side effects rates were substantially but non-significantly greater for OROS-mph compared to placebo (77% vs. 46%, p=.063). OROS-mph effects indicated RTV as the most sensitive parameter for measuring both neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in adults with ADHD. These findings suggest RTV as an endophenotypic parameter for ADHD symptomatology, and propose CPTs as an objective method for monitoring methylphenidate titration. PMID:24508533

  9. Bioavailability and inter-conversion of sulforaphane and erucin in human subjects consuming broccoli sprouts or broccoli supplement in a cross-over study design

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John D.; Hsu, Anna; Riedl, Ken; Bella, Deborah; Schwartz, Steven J.; Stevens, Jan F.; Ho, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Broccoli consumption may reduce the risk of various cancers and many broccoli supplements are now available. The bioavailability and excretion of the mercapturic acid pathway metabolites isothiocyanates after human consumption of broccoli supplements has not been tested. Two important isothiocyanates from broccoli are sulforaphane and erucin. We employed a cross-over study design in which 12 subjects consumed 40 grams of fresh broccoli sprouts followed by a 1 month washout period and then the same 12 subjects consumed 6 pills of a broccoli supplement. As negative controls for isothiocyanate consumption four additional subjects consumed alfalfa sprouts during the first phase and placebo pills during the second. Blood and urine samples were collected for 48 hours during each phase and analyzed for sulforaphane and erucin metabolites using LC-MS/MS. The bioavailability of sulforaphane and erucin is dramatically lower when subjects consume broccoli supplements compared to fresh broccoli sprouts. The peaks in plasma concentrations and urinary excretion were also delayed when subjects consumed the broccoli supplement. GSTP1 polymorphisms did not affect the metabolism or excretion of sulforaphane or erucin. Sulforaphane and erucin are able to interconvert in vivo and this interconversion is consistent within each subject but variable between subjects. This study confirms that consumption of broccoli supplements devoid of myrosinase activity does not produce equivalent plasma concentrations of the bioactive isothiocyanate metabolites compared to broccoli sprouts. This has implications for people who consume the recommended serving size (1 pill) of a broccoli supplement and believe they are getting equivalent doses of isothiocyanates. PMID:21816223

  10. No evidence of dehydration with moderate daily coffee intake: a counterbalanced cross-over study in a free-living population.

    PubMed

    Killer, Sophie C; Blannin, Andrew K; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3-6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na(+) excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  11. Xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL are differentially affected by fenofibrate and niacin HDL-raising in a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Niesor, Eric J; Gauthamadasa, Kekulawalage; Silva, R A Gangani D; Suchankova, Gabriela; Kallend, David; Gylling, Helena; Asztalos, Bela; Damonte, Elisabetta; Rossomanno, Simona; Abt, Markus; Davidson, W Sean; Benghozi, Renee

    2013-12-01

    Fenofibrate and extended-release (ER) niacin similarly raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration but their effects on levels of potent plasma antioxidant xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) and phytosterols obtained from dietary sources, and any relationship with plasma lipoproteins and pre-β1-HDL levels, have not been investigated. We studied these parameters in 66 dyslipidemic patients treated for 6 week with fenofibrate (160 mg/day) or ER-niacin (0.5 g/day for 3 week, then 1 g/day) in a cross-over study. Both treatments increased HDL-C (16 %) and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I (7 %) but only fenofibrate increased apoA-II (28 %). Lutein and zeaxanthin levels were unaffected by fenofibrate but inversely correlated with percentage change in apoB and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and positively correlated with end of treatment apoA-II. ApoA-II in isolated HDL in vitro bound more lutein than apoA-I. Xanthophylls were increased by ER-niacin (each ~30 %) without any correlation to lipoprotein or apo levels. Only fenofibrate markedly decreased plasma markers of cholesterol absorption; pre-β1-HDL was significantly decreased by fenofibrate (-19 %, p < 0.0001), with little change (3.4 %) for ER-niacin. Although fenofibrate and ER-niacin similarly increased plasma HDL-C and apoA-I, effects on plasma xanthophylls, phytosterols and pre-β1-HDL differed markedly, suggesting differences in intestinal lipidation of HDL. In addition, the in vitro investigations suggest an important role of plasma apoA-II in xanthophyll metabolism.

  12. Consumption of organic diets does not affect intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men - evidence from two cross-over trials.

    PubMed

    Mark, Alicja Budek; Kápolna, Emese; Laursen, Kristian H; Halekoh, Ulrich; Rasmussen, Søren K; Husted, Søren; Larsen, Erik H; Bügel, Susanne

    2013-02-26

    Agricultural methods may affect the nutritional composition of plants and cause complex changes in the food matrix. Whether this affects the dietary absorption of minerals that are important for maintaining health thorough life remains unclear. We compared the effects of organic and conventional diets on intake and absorption of zinc and copper in men. Two double-blinded, cross-over, intervention trials (3 dietary periods of 12 days with 2-week-long wash-out) were performed in 2008 (n = 17) and 2009 (n = 16) in young men. The diets were based on 9 crops grown in rigidly controlled organic and conventional systems in 2 replications over 2 years. The primary outcomes were intake and absorption of zinc and copper. The absorption was determined by faecal excretion of stable enriched isotopes extrinsically added to the entire menu. Within each year, the intake and absorption of zinc (overall mean ± SD; 12.35 ± 0.47 mg per 10 MJ and 44.6% ± 12.1, respectively) and copper (overall mean ± SD; 2.12 ± 0.28 mg per 10 MJ and 41.2% ± 13.2, respectively) were not different between the organic and conventional diets. The growing season had no effect on zinc intake and absorption, but the copper intake was higher (P = 0.01) and absorption lower (P < 0.005) in 2008 compared with 2009 (overall mean absorption ± SD; 35.3% ± 13.5 in 2008 and 54.0% ± 10.7 in 2009). In conclusion, organic agriculture does not affect the intake and absorption of copper and zinc in men. Consequently, it does not seem to promote the health beneficial role of these minerals in vivo.

  13. EFFECTS OF COMPRESSION ON LYMPHEDEMA DURING RESISTANCE EXERCISE IN WOMEN WITH BREAST CANCER-RELATED LYMPHEDEMA: A RANDOMIZED, CROSS-OVER TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Newton, R U; Cormie, P; Galvao, D A; Cornish, B; Reul-Hirche, H; Smith, C; Nosaka, K; Hayes, S C

    2015-06-01

    The use of compression garments during exercise is recommended for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema, but the evidence behind this clinical recommendation is unclear. The aim of this randomized, cross-over trial was to compare the acute effects of wearing versus not wearing compression during a single bout of moderate-load resistance exercise on lymphedema status and its associated symptoms in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL). Twenty-five women with clinically diagnosed, stable unilateral breast cancer-related lymphedema completed two resistance exercise sessions, one with compression and one without, in a randomized order separated by a minimum 6 day wash-out period. The resistance exercise session consisted of six upper-body exercises, with each exercise performed for three sets at a moderate-load (10-12 repetition maximum). Primary outcome was lymphedema, assessed using bioimpedance spectroscopy (L-Dex score). Secondary outcomes were lymphedema as assessed by arm circumferences (percent inter-limb difference and sum-of-circumferences), and symptom severity for pain, heaviness and tightness, measured using visual analogue scales. Measurements were taken pre-, immediately post- and 24 hours post-exercise. There was no difference in lymphedema status (i.e., L-Dex scores) pre- and post-exercise sessions or between the compression and non-compression condition [Mean (SD) for compression pre-, immediately post- and 24 hours post-exercise: 17.7 (21.5), 12.7 (16.2) and 14.1 (16.7), respectively; no compression: 15.3 (18.3), 15.3 (17.8), and 13.4 (16.1), respectively]. Circumference values and symptom severity were stable across time and treatment condition. An acute bout of moderate-load, upper-body resistance exercise performed in the absence of compression does not exacerbate lymphedema in women with BCRL. PMID:26714372

  14. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-02-12

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132.

  15. Effects of rose hip intake on risk markers of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over investigation in obese persons

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, U; Berger, K; Högberg, A; Landin-Olsson, M; Holm, C

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In studies performed in mice, rose hip powder has been shown to both prevent and reverse high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance as well as reduce plasma levels of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate whether daily intake of rose hip powder over 6 weeks exerts beneficial metabolic effects in obese individuals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 31 obese individuals with normal or impaired glucose tolerance were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which metabolic effects of daily intake of a rose hip powder drink over 6 weeks was compared with a control drink. Body weight, glucose tolerance, blood pressure, blood lipids and markers of inflammation were assessed in the subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with the control drink, 6 weeks of daily consumption of the rose hip drink resulted in a significant reduction of systolic blood pressure (−3.4% P=0.021), total plasma cholesterol (−4.9% P=0.0018), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (−6.0% P=0.012) and LDL/HDL ratio (−6.5% P=0.041). The Reynolds risk assessment score for cardiovascular disease was decreased in the rose hip group compared with the control group (−17% P=0.007). Body weight, diastolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, and plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, incretins and markers of inflammation did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of 40 g of rose hip powder for 6 weeks can significantly reduce cardiovascular risk in obese people through lowering of systolic blood pressure and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:22166897

  16. Kinematic analysis of the powerlifting style squat and the conventional deadlift during competition: is there a cross-over effect between lifts?

    PubMed

    Hales, Michael E; Johnson, Benjamin F; Johnson, Jeff T

    2009-12-01

    Many individuals involved in the sport of powerlifting believe that the squat and deadlift have such similar lifting characteristics that the lifts yield comparable training results. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast biomechanical parameters between the conventional style deadlift and the back squat performed by 25 lifters competing in regional powerlifting championship. The 3-dimensional analysis incorporated 4 60 Hz synchronized video cameras for collecting data from 25 participants. Parameters were quantified at the sticking point specific to each lift. Kinematic variables were calculated at the hip, knee, and ankle. Paired (samples) t-tests were used to detect significant differences in the kinematic mean scores for the different lift types. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences exist between the squat (0.09 m/s) and the deadlift (0.20 m/s) vertical bar velocities. Differences were found for angular position of the hip, knee, and ankle between lifts. The sticking point thigh angles were quantified as 32.54 +/- 3.02 and 57.42 +/- 4.57 for the squat and deadlift, respectively. Trunk angles were 40.58 +/- 6.29 (squat) and 58.30 +/- 7.15 (deadlift). The results indicate the back squat represents a synergistic or simultaneous movement, whereas the deadlift demonstrates a sequential or segmented movement. The kinematic analysis of the squat and the conventional deadlift indicate that the individual lifts are markedly different (p < 0.01), implying that no direct or specific cross-over effect exists between the individual lifts. PMID:19910816

  17. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Florian; Meyer, Tim; Such, Ulf; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling. Methods This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg−1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo), respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa) and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test. Results Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05) under BICA (49.5±11.5 min) compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min). No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes. Conclusion The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006198. PMID:25494054

  18. Preference, satisfaction and critical errors with Genuair and Breezhaler inhalers in patients with COPD: a randomised, cross-over, multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, Sergi; Feimer, Jan; De Soyza, Anthony; Sauleda Roig, Jaume; Haughney, John; Padullés, Laura; Seoane, Beatriz; Rekeda, Ludmyla; Ribera, Anna; Chrystyn, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Background: The specific attributes of inhaler devices can influence patient use, satisfaction and treatment compliance, and may ultimately impact on clinical outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Aims: To assess patient preference, satisfaction and critical inhaler technique errors with Genuair (a multidose inhaler) and Breezhaler (a single-dose inhaler) after 2 weeks of daily use. Methods: Patients with COPD and moderate to severe airflow obstruction were randomised in a cross-over, open-label, multicentre study to consecutive once-daily inhalations of placebo via Genuair and Breezhaler, in addition to current COPD medication. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who preferred Genuair versus Breezhaler after 2 weeks (Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire). Other end points included overall satisfaction and correct use of the inhalers after 2 weeks, and willingness to continue with each device. Results: Of the 128 patients enrolled, 127 were included in the safety population (male n=91; mean age 67.6 years). Of the 110 of the 123 patients in the intent-to-treat population who indicated an inhaler preference, statistically significantly more patients preferred Genuair than Breezhaler (72.7 vs. 27.3%; P<0.001). Mean overall satisfaction scores were also greater for Genuair than for Breezhaler (5.9 vs. 5.3, respectively; P<0.001). After 2 weeks, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of patients who made ⩾1 critical inhaler technique error with Breezhaler than with Genuair (7.3 vs. 3.3%, respectively). Conclusions: Patient overall preference and satisfaction was significantly higher with Genuair compared with Breezhaler. The proportion of patients making critical inhaler technique errors was low with Genuair and Breezhaler. PMID:25927321

  19. No Evidence of Dehydration with Moderate Daily Coffee Intake: A Counterbalanced Cross-Over Study in a Free-Living Population

    PubMed Central

    Killer, Sophie C.; Blannin, Andrew K.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2014-01-01

    It is often suggested that coffee causes dehydration and its consumption should be avoided or significantly reduced to maintain fluid balance. The aim of this study was to directly compare the effects of coffee consumption against water ingestion across a range of validated hydration assessment techniques. In a counterbalanced cross-over design, 50 male coffee drinkers (habitually consuming 3–6 cups per day) participated in two trials, each lasting three consecutive days. In addition to controlled physical activity, food and fluid intake, participants consumed either 4×200 mL of coffee containing 4 mg/kg caffeine (C) or water (W). Total body water (TBW) was calculated pre- and post-trial via ingestion of Deuterium Oxide. Urinary and haematological hydration markers were recorded daily in addition to nude body mass measurement (BM). Plasma was analysed for caffeine to confirm compliance. There were no significant changes in TBW from beginning to end of either trial and no differences between trials (51.5±1.4 vs. 51.4±1.3 kg, for C and W, respectively). No differences were observed between trials across any haematological markers or in 24 h urine volume (2409±660 vs. 2428±669 mL, for C and W, respectively), USG, osmolality or creatinine. Mean urinary Na+ excretion was higher in C than W (p = 0.02). No significant differences in BM were found between conditions, although a small progressive daily fall was observed within both trials (0.4±0.5 kg; p<0.05). Our data show that there were no significant differences across a wide range of haematological and urinary markers of hydration status between trials. These data suggest that coffee, when consumed in moderation by caffeine habituated males provides similar hydrating qualities to water. PMID:24416202

  20. Efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphoedema: a cross-over randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, Marta; Ferrer, Montse; Muniesa, Josep M; Duarte, Esther; Cunillera, Oriol; Escalada, Ferran

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy and manual lymphatic drainage in the treatment of chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Design: Cross-over single-blind random clinical trial. Setting: Rehabilitation service. Participants: Thirty-six women with chronic upper limb breast cancer-related lymphoedema. Methods: Patients were randomized to undergo 10 sessions of manual lymphatic drainage followed by 10 sessions of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy or to undergo first low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy followed by manual lymphatic drainage. There was a month of washout time between treatments. Each patient was examined just before and after each treatment. Researchers and outcome assessors were blinded for assigned treatment. Measures: Outcomes were lymphoedema volume, pain, heaviness and tightness, and health-related quality of life measured with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Questionnaire for Breast Cancer version 4 (FACT-B+4). Carry-over, period and treatment effects were analysed. Treatment effect was assessed using paired t-test. Results: Thirty patients finalized treatment. Comparing the changes in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy with manual lymphatic drainage changes, there were no significant differences. Low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy did not reduce lymphoedema volume (mean of change = 19.77 mL, P = 0.36), but significant reductions were observed in pain, heaviness and tightness (mean of change = 13.1, 16.2 and 6.4 mm, respectively), and FACT-B+4 summaries improved significantly (Trial Outcome Index mean of change = 5.4, P = 0.015). Manual lymphatic drainage showed no significant changes in any of the outcomes Conclusion: Although there are no significant differences between treatment changes, the observed trend towards a better health-related quality of life is remarkable in low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy. PMID:22172923

  1. Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Fallah-Ghohroudi, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-01

    The present randomised cross-over clinical trial investigated the effects of two intervention diets (non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet v. isoenergetic legume-free TLC diet) on inflammatory biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients. A group of thirty-one participants (twenty-four women and seven men; weight 74.5 (SD 7.0) kg; age 58.1 (SD 6.0) years) were randomly assigned to one of the two following intervention diets for 8 weeks: legume-free TLC diet or non-soya legume-based TLC diet. The latter diet was the same as the legume-free TLC diet, except that two servings of red meat were replaced with different types of cooked non-soya legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, peas and beans over a period of 3 d per week. The intervention period was followed by a washout period of 4 weeks, after which the groups followed the alternate treatment for 8 weeks. Concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after the intervention periods. Compared with the legume-free TLC diet, the non-soya legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in overweight diabetic patients. The replacement of two servings of red meat by non-soya legumes in the isoenergetic TLC diet for a period of 3 d per week reduced the plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers among overweight diabetic patients, independent of weight change.

  2. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  3. Oral nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate induces sensitization in spinal cord pain processing in migraineurs: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Armando; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Arce-Leal, Natalia; Guaschino, Elena; Sances, Grazia; Rossi, Paolo; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Nappi, Giuseppe

    2011-05-01

    Nitric-oxide donor glyceryl-trinitrate (GTN) modulates cerebral and spinal regions that are involved in migraine and pain processing. We hypothesized that in migraineurs, the susceptibility to develop a migraine attack after GTN administration should parallel with an high sensitivity to GTN-induced change in the pain processing at spinal level. We used the temporal summation threshold (TST) of the lower limb nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and the related pain sensation to study in parallel the time-course of the effect of the GTN administration on the pain processing at spinal level in migraine and healthy subjects. Twenty-eight (21 F; 7M; mean age 34.2 ± 8.2) migraine and 15 (11 F; 4M; mean age 35.9 ± 8.9) healthy subjects were recruited in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Neurophysiological examinations were carried out before (baseline) and 30', 60', 120', 180' and 240' after GTN (0.9 mg sublingual) or placebo administration during two different sessions. In migraineurs, GTN administration was associated to a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain (reduced TST and increased painful sensation) 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to baseline, to placebo condition and to controls after GTN intake. Furthermore, in migraineurs who developed migraine after GTN, a significant facilitation in temporal summation of pain was detected 60', 120' and 180' after drug intake when compared to patients without clinical response. In migraineurs the susceptibility to develop migraine attack after GTN administration seems to be a specific trait of a subgroup of patients linked to a supersensitivity of the pain system to GTN.

  4. The effect of lactose-isomaltulose-containing growing-up milks on cognitive performance of Indonesian children: a cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Sekartini, Rini; Wiguna, Tjhin; Bardosono, Saptawati; Novita, Dian; Arsianti, Tiana; Calame, Wim; Schaafsma, Anne

    2013-09-28

    Glycaemic response to dietary carbohydrates might have an impact on cognitive performance. The present study investigated the effects of growing-up milks (GUM) with isomaltulose and extra minerals and vitamins or lower protein content on cognitive parameters in children aged 5–6 years. In a blinded, partly randomised, controlled, cross-over study, four GUM were provided, each taken over 14 d (2 × 200 ml/d): standard (Std) GUM; Std GUM+5 g isomaltulose (Iso-5 GUM); Iso-5 GUM with 26 % less protein (Iso-5 LP GUM); Std GUM with 2·5 g isomaltulose and extra Mg, Zn, Se, D3, B1, B2, B12, folic acid and choline (Iso-2·5 GUM). At test days, when GUM replaced breakfast, repeated (0, 60, 120 and 180 min post-dose) cognitive tasks were performed (picture presentation, simple reaction time, digit vigilance, choice reaction time, spatial and numeric working memory and picture recognition). Task performance of all subjects (n 50) worsened over the morning. Best performance was seen on isomaltulose GUM, most notably at 180 min. Iso-2·5 GUM showed best performance on several parameters of attention and memory, Iso-5 GUM performed best on parameters of memory and Iso-5 LP GUM was positively associated with parameters of attention but less with memory. Std GUM showed only a benefit on one attention and one memory task. Thus, isomaltulose-enriched GUM positively affected parameters of attention and memory at 180 min post-dose when compared with Std GUM. Extra minerals and vitamins seem beneficial, whereas lowering protein content might improve attention in particular.

  5. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    PubMed

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (P< 0.05). Ingestion of sucrose and glucose increased cardiac output (CO; P< 0.05), index of contractility (P< 0.05) and stroke volume (P< 0.05), but reduced total peripheral resistance (TPR; P< 0.05), which contrasts with the tendency of fructose (60 and 30 g) to increase resistance. Microvascular endothelial function did not differ in response to the ingestion of various sugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose. PMID:24780643

  6. Effect of hawthorn standardized extract on flow mediated dilation in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hawthorn extract has been used for cardiovascular diseases for centuries. Recent trials have demonstrated its efficacy for the treatment of heart failure, and the results of several small trials suggest it may lower blood pressure. However, there is little published evidence to guide its dosing. The blood pressure lowering effect of hawthorn has been linked to nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between hawthorn extract dose and brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD), an indirect measure of nitric oxide release. Methods We used a four-period cross-over design to evaluate brachial artery FMD in response to placebo or hawthorn extract (standardized to 50 mg oligomeric procyanidin per 250 mg extract). Randomly sequenced doses of hawthorn extract (1000 mg, 1500 mg, and 2500 mg) and placebo were assigned to each participant. Doses were taken twice daily for 3 1/2 days followed by FMD and a 4-day washout before proceeding to the next dosing period. Results Twenty-one prehypertensive or mildly hypertensive adults completed the study. There was no evidence of a dose-response effect for our main outcome (FMD percent) or any of our secondary outcomes (absolute change in brachial artery diameter and blood pressure). Most participants indicated that if given evidence that hawthorn could lower their blood pressure, they would be likely to use it either in conjunction with or instead of lifestyle modification or anti-hypertensive medications. Conclusion We found no evidence of a dose-response effect of hawthorn extract on FMD. If hawthorn has a blood pressure lowering effect, it is likely to be mediated via an NO-independent mechanism. Trial Registration This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health: NCT01331486. PMID:22458601

  7. Resistant starch type 4-enriched diet lowered blood cholesterols and improved body composition in a double blind controlled cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nichenametla, Sailendra N; Weidauer, Lee A; Wey, Howard E; Beare, Tianna M; Specker, Bonny L; Dey, Moul

    2014-06-01

    A metabolic health crisis is evident as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Effects of resistant starch type 4 (RS4), a prebiotic fiber, in comprehensive management of metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain unknown. This study examined the effects of a blinded exchange of RS4-enriched flour (30% v/v) with regular/control flour (CF) diet on multiple MetS comorbidities. In a double blind (participants-investigators), placebo-controlled, cluster cross-over intervention (n = 86, age≥18, 2-12 week interventions, 2-week washout) in the United States, individuals were classified as having MetS (With-MetS) or not (No-MetS) following International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-criteria. RS4 consumption compared with CF resulted in 7.2% (p = 0.002) lower mean total cholesterol, 5.5% (p = 0.04) lower non-HDL, and a 12.8% (p < 0.001) lower HDL cholesterol in the With-MetS group. No-MetS individuals had a 2.6% (p = 0.02) smaller waist circumference and 1.5% (p = 0.03) lower percent body fat following RS4 intervention compared to CF. A small but significant 1% increase in fat-free mass was observed in all participants combined (p = 0.02). No significant effect of RS4 was observed for glycemic variables and blood pressures. RS4 consumption improved dyslipidemia and body composition. Incorporation of RS4 in routine diets could offer an effective strategy for public cardio-metabolic health promotion.

  8. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    PubMed

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (P< 0.05). Ingestion of sucrose and glucose increased cardiac output (CO; P< 0.05), index of contractility (P< 0.05) and stroke volume (P< 0.05), but reduced total peripheral resistance (TPR; P< 0.05), which contrasts with the tendency of fructose (60 and 30 g) to increase resistance. Microvascular endothelial function did not differ in response to the ingestion of various sugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose.

  9. The Impact of Oxytocin on Food Intake and Emotion Recognition in Patients with Eating Disorders: A Double Blind Single Dose Within-Subject Cross-Over Design

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youl-Ri; Eom, Jin-Sup; Yang, Jae-Won; Kang, Jiwon; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Social difficulties and problems related to eating behaviour are common features of both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). The aim of this study was to examine the impact of intranasal oxytocin on consummatory behaviour and emotional recognition in patients with AN and BN in comparison to healthy controls. Materials A total of 102 women, including 35 patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), 34 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 33 healthy university students of comparable age and intelligence, participated in a double-blind, single dose placebo-controlled cross-over study. A single dose of intranasal administration of oxytocin (40 IU) (or a placebo) was followed by an emotional recognition task and an apple juice drink. Food intake was then recorded for 24 hours post-test. Results Oxytocin produced no significant change in appetite in the acute or 24 hours free living settings in healthy controls, whereas there was a decrease in calorie consumption over 24 hours in patients with BN. Oxytocin produced a small increase in emotion recognition sensitivity in healthy controls and in patients with BN, In patients with AN, oxytocin had no effect on emotion recognition sensitivity or on consummatory behaviour. Conclusions The impact of oxytocin on appetite and social cognition varied between people with AN and BN. A single dose of intranasal oxytocin decreased caloric intake over 24 hours in people with BN. People with BN showed enhanced emotional sensitivity under oxytocin condition similar to healthy controls. Those effects of oxytocin were not found in patients with AN. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov KCT0000716 PMID:26402337

  10. Cooling of debris beds

    SciTech Connect

    Barleon, L.; Thomauske, K.; Werie, H.

    1984-04-01

    The dependence of the dryout heat flux for volume-heated particulate beds on bed height (less than or equal to40 cm), particle diameter (0.06 to 16 mm), stratification and boundary conditions (saturated and subcooled liquid, adiabatic and cooled bottom and sidewalls) has been determined for water and Freon-113. Channel penetration through subcooled layers and ''downward boiling'' due to capillarity effects have been observed. Different types of bed disturbances have been identified, and their effect on dryout has been studied. Using existing theoretical models, which have been verified by the experiments, the upper limit of the thermal load on support structures has been calculated as a function of the particle size and bottom temperature for reactor accident conditions (Pu/U-oxide particles in sodium).

  11. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  12. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  13. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  14. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    PubMed

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses.

  15. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  16. Teaching Tennis for Net Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bryce

    1989-01-01

    A program for teaching tennis to beginners, NET (Net Easy Teaching) is described. The program addresses three common needs shared by tennis students: active involvement in hitting the ball, clearing the net, and positive reinforcement. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  17. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  18. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  19. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  20. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  1. Technology test bed review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, H. V.

    1992-07-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology test bed (TTB) history; (2) TTB objectives; (3) TTB major accomplishments; (4) TTB contributions to SSME; (5) major impacts of 3001 testing; (6) some challenges to computational fluid dynamics (CFD); (7) the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP); and (8) 3001 lessons learned in design and operations.

  2. Technology test bed review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnaughey, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: (1) Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) technology test bed (TTB) history; (2) TTB objectives; (3) TTB major accomplishments; (4) TTB contributions to SSME; (5) major impacts of 3001 testing; (6) some challenges to computational fluid dynamics (CFD); (7) the high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP); and (8) 3001 lessons learned in design and operations.

  3. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for support groups, bulletin boards, and chat rooms online for moms-to-be who are also on bed rest. Expect emotional ups and downs. Share your hopes and worries with your partner. Let each other vent if needed. If sex is not allowed, look for other ways to ...

  4. Heat training increases exercise capacity in hot but not in temperate conditions: a mechanistic counter-balanced cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Keiser, Stefanie; Flück, Daniela; Hüppin, Fabienne; Stravs, Alexander; Hilty, Matthias P; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to determine the mechanisms facilitating exercise performance in hot conditions following heat training. In a counter-balanced order, seven males (V̇o2max 61.2 ± 4.4 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were assigned to either 10 days of 90-min exercise training in 18 or 38°C ambient temperature (30% relative humidity) applying a cross-over design. Participants were tested for V̇o2max and 30-min time trial performance in 18 (T18) and 38°C (T38) before and after training. Blood volume parameters, sweat output, cardiac output (Q̇), cerebral perfusion (i.e., middle cerebral artery velocity [MCAvmean]), and other variables were determined. Before one set of exercise tests in T38, blood volume was acutely expanded by 538 ± 16 ml with an albumin solution (T38A) to determine the role of acclimatization induced hypervolemia on exercise performance. We furthermore hypothesized that heat training would restore MCAvmean and thereby limit centrally mediated fatigue. V̇o2max and time trial performance were equally reduced in T38 and T38A (7.2 ± 1.6 and 9.3 ± 2.5% for V̇o2max; 12.8 ± 2.8 and 12.9 ± 2.8% for time trial). Following heat training both were increased in T38 (9.6 ± 2.1 and 10.4 ± 3.1%, respectively), whereas both V̇o2max and time trial performance remained unchanged in T18. As expected, heat training augmented plasma volume (6 ± 2%) and mean sweat output (26 ± 6%), whereas sweat [Na(+)] became reduced by 19 ± 7%. In T38 Q̇max remained unchanged before (21.3 ± 0.6 l/min) to after (21.7 ± 0.5 l/min) training, whereas MCAvmean was increased by 13 ± 10%. However, none of the observed adaptations correlated with the concomitant observed changes in exercise performance.

  5. Consistency of response to sumatriptan/naproxen sodium in a randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study for the acute treatment of migraine in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Winner, Paul; Linder, Steven; Hershey, Andrew D

    2015-04-01

    A multi-centered, randomized, placebo-controlled, early intervention, cross-over study was conducted to evaluate the consistency of response of sumatriptan/naproxen sodium 85/500 mg (S/NS) over 4 attacks in the acute treatment of migraine in adolescents. Inclusion of subjects was dependent on their age of 12-17 years, frequency, and history of migraine headaches (1-8 per month) over the previous 6 months prior to screening and generally healthy males and females of non-childbearing potential that were not on excluded medications. Subjects were instructed to treat within 1 hour of pain onset, including when the pain was still mild. Subjects were randomized in a double-blind fashion using a computer-generated randomization list in which the study drug was prepared prior to study start, and subjects were allocated to a number in sequential order for each site. Each site was allocated number blocks in sets of 10 depending of the rate of enrollment. The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of S/NS vs placebo in the primary end-points of pain-free response at 2 hours (2hPF), 24-hour sustained pain-free response (24hPF), and pain-free response at 2 hours with early intervention (2hPFE) calculated as percentage out of all attacks. In the study, 94 subjects treated 347 attacks in total: treating 277 with S/NS and 70 with placebo. Compared with placebo, S/NS produced higher 2hPF rates (S/NS 37%, placebo 18%; P < .004), and 2hPFE with rates (S/NS 32%, 18% placebo; P < .03). Compared with placebo, 24hPF rates were S/NS 86%, placebo 78%, P < .17, which were higher than placebo but not clinically significant. 2hPF was reported in at least 2 of the 3 migraines treated with S/NS in 40.4% of subjects. 24hPF was reported in at least 2 of the 3 migraine treated with S/NS in 86.2% subjects. Adverse reactions were generally low and comparable between S/NS and placebo.

  6. Gastric electrical stimulation treatment of type 2 diabetes: effects of implantation versus meal-mediated stimulation. A randomized blinded cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lebovitz, Harold E; Ludvik, Bernhard; Kozakowski, Jaroslaw; Tarnowski, Wieslaw; Zelewski, Mateusz; Yaniv, Irit; Schwartz, Tse'ela

    2015-07-14

    Gastric electrical stimulation with the implanted DIAMOND device has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic agents. The objective of this study was to determine if device implantation alone (placebo effect) contributes to the long-term metabolic benefits of DIAMOND(®) meal-mediated gastric electrical stimulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was a 48 week randomized, blinded, cross-over trial in university centers comparing glycemic improvement of DIAMOND(®) implanted patients with type 2 diabetic with no activation of the electrical stimulation (placebo) versus meal-mediated activation of the electrical signal. The endpoint was improvement in glycemic control (HbA1c) from baseline to 24 and 48 weeks. In period 1 (0-24 weeks), equal improvement in HbA1c occurred independent of whether the meal-mediated electrical stimulation was turned on or left off (HbA1c -0.80% and -0.85% [-8.8 and -9.0 mmol/mol]). The device placebo improvement proved to be transient as it was lost in period 2 (25-48 weeks). With electrical stimulation turned off, HbA1c returned toward baseline values (8.06 compared to 8.32%; 64.2 to 67.4 mmol/mol, P = 0.465). In contrast, turning the electrical stimulation on in period 2 sustained the decrease in HbA1c from baseline (-0.93%, -10.1mmol/mol, P = 0.001) observed in period 1. The results indicate that implantation of the DIAMOND device causes a transient improvement in HbA1c which is not sustained beyond 24 weeks. Meal-mediated electrical stimulation accounts for the significant improvement in HbA1c beyond 24 weeks. PMID:26177957

  7. The effect of purslane seeds on glycemic status and lipid profiles of persons with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled cross-over clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Zakizadeh, Elahe; Faghihimani, Elham; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Jazayeri, Shima

    2015-01-01

    Background: We are aware of limited data about the effects of purslane on diabetes. Earlier studies have mostly indicated the beneficial effects in animal models. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of purslane seeds on glycemic status and lipid profiles of persons with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: This cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 48 persons with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g/day purslane seeds with 240 cc low-fat yogurt (intervention group) or only 240 cc low-fat yogurt (as a control group) for 5 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were moved to the alternate arm for an additional 5 weeks. At baseline and end of each phase of the study, fasting blood samples were collected to quantify plasma glucose levels, as well as serum insulin and lipid profiles. Within-group and between-group changes in anthropometric measures, as well as biochemical indicators, were compared using a paired-samples t-test. Results: Mean age of study participants was 51.4 ± 6.0 year. We found a significant reduction in weight (−0.57 vs. 0.09 kg, P = 0.003) and body mass index (−0.23 vs. 0.02 kg/m2, P = 0.004) following purslane seeds consumption. Despite a slight reduction in fasting plasma glucose levels (−2.10 vs. −2.77 mg/dL, P = 0.90), we failed to find any significant effect on serum insulin levels and homeostatic model of assessment of insulin resistance score. Furthermore, purslane consumption decreased serum triglyceride levels (−25.5 vs. −1.8 mg/dL, P = 0.04) but could not affect serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol levels. We observed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (−3.33 vs. 0.5 mmHg, P = 0.01) and a borderline significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure (−3.12 vs. −0.93 mmHg, P = 0.09) after purslane seeds intake. Conclusion: In summary, consumption of purslane

  8. A water-based training program that include perturbation exercises to improve stepping responses in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Itshak; Elbar, Ori; Tsedek, Irit; Oddsson, Lars IE

    2008-01-01

    Background Gait and balance impairments may increase the risk of falls, the leading cause of accidental death in the elderly population. Fall-related injuries constitute a serious public health problem associated with high costs for society as well as human suffering. A rapid step is the most important protective postural strategy, acting to recover equilibrium and prevent a fall from initiating. It can arise from large perturbations, but also frequently as a consequence of volitional movements. We propose to use a novel water-based training program which includes specific perturbation exercises that will target the stepping responses that could potentially have a profound effect in reducing risk of falling. We describe the water-based balance training program and a study protocol to evaluate its efficacy (Trial registration number #NCT00708136). Methods/Design The proposed water-based training program involves use of unpredictable, multi-directional perturbations in a group setting to evoke compensatory and volitional stepping responses. Perturbations are made by pushing slightly the subjects and by water turbulence, in 24 training sessions conducted over 12 weeks. Concurrent cognitive tasks during movement tasks are included. Principles of physical training and exercise including awareness, continuity, motivation, overload, periodicity, progression and specificity were used in the development of this novel program. Specific goals are to increase the speed of stepping responses and improve the postural control mechanism and physical functioning. A prospective, randomized, cross-over trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding and intention-to-treat analysis will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of the water-based training program. A total of 36 community-dwelling adults (age 65–88) with no recent history of instability or falling will be assigned to either the perturbation-based training or a control group (no training). Voluntary step reaction times

  9. Adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutritional supplements designed to increase adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations are commonly used by athletes as ergogenic aids. ATP is the primary source of energy for the cells, and supplementation may enhance the ability to maintain high ATP turnover during high-intensity exercise. Oral ATP supplements have beneficial effects in some but not all studies examining physical performance. One of the remaining questions is whether orally administered ATP is bioavailable. We investigated whether acute supplementation with oral ATP administered as enteric-coated pellets led to increased concentrations of ATP or its metabolites in the circulation. Methods Eight healthy volunteers participated in a cross-over study. Participants were given in random order single doses of 5000 mg ATP or placebo. To prevent degradation of ATP in the acidic environment of the stomach, the supplement was administered via two types of pH-sensitive, enteric-coated pellets (targeted at release in the proximal or distal small intestine), or via a naso-duodenal tube. Blood ATP and metabolite concentrations were monitored by HPLC for 4.5 h (naso-duodenal tube) or 7 h (pellets) post-administration. Areas under the concentration vs. time curve were calculated and compared by paired-samples t-tests. Results ATP concentrations in blood did not increase after ATP supplementation via enteric-coated pellets or naso-duodenal tube. In contrast, concentrations of the final catabolic product of ATP, uric acid, were significantly increased compared to placebo by ~50% after administration via proximal-release pellets (P = 0.003) and naso-duodenal tube (P = 0.001), but not after administration via distal-release pellets. Conclusions A single dose of orally administered ATP is not bioavailable, and this may explain why several studies did not find ergogenic effects of oral ATP supplementation. On the other hand, increases in uric acid after release of ATP in the proximal

  10. Search for atoxic cereals: a single blind, cross-over study on the safety of a single dose of Triticum monococcum, in patients with celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cereals of baking quality with absent or reduced toxicity are actively sought as alternative therapy to a gluten-free diet (GFD) for patients with coeliac disease (CD). Triticum monococcum, an ancient wheat, is a potential candidate having no toxicity in in-vitro and ex-vivo studies. The aim of our study was to investigate on the safety of administration of a single dose of gluten of Tm in patients with CD on GFD. Methods We performed a single blind, cross-over study involving 12 CD patients who had been on a GFD for at least 12 months, challenged on day 0, 14 and 28 with a single fixed dose of 2.5 grams of the following (random order): Tm, rice (as reference atoxic protein) and Amygluten (as reference toxic protein) dispersed in a gluten-free pudding. The primary end-point of the study was the change in intestinal permeability, as assessed by changes in the urinary lactulose/rhamnose ratio (L/R ratio) measured by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. We also assessed the occurrence of adverse gastrointestinal events, graded for intensity and duration according to the WHO scale. Variables were expressed as mean ± SD; paired t-test and χ2 test were used as appropriate. Results The urinary L/R ratio did not change significantly upon challenge with the 3 cereals, and was 0.055 ± 0.026 for Tm Vs 0.058 ± 0.035 for rice (p = 0.6736) and Vs 0.063 ± 0.054 with Amygluten (p = 0.6071). Adverse gastrointestinal events were 8 for Tm, Vs 11 for rice (p = 0.6321) and Vs 31 for Amygluten p = 0.0016), and, in all cases events were graded as “mild” or “moderate” with TM and rice, and as “severe” or “disabling” in 4 cases during Amygluten. Conclusions No definite conclusion can be drawn on the safety of Tm, based on no change in urinary L/R because even Amygluten, a toxic wheat protein, did not cause a significant change in urinary L/R indicating low sensitivity of this methodology in studies on acute toxicity. Tm was

  11. The study protocol of a blinded randomised-controlled cross-over trial of lavender oil as a treatment of behavioural symptoms in dementia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agitated behaviours that accompany dementia (e.g. pacing, aggression, calling out) are stressful to both nursing home residents and their carers and are difficult to treat. Increasingly more attention is being paid to alternative interventions that are associated with fewer risks than pharmacology. Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) has been thought, for centuries, to have soothing properties, but the existing evidence is limited and shows mixed results. The aim of the current study is to test the effectiveness of topically applied pure lavender oil in reducing actual counts of challenging behaviours in nursing home residents. Methods/Design We will use a blinded repeated measures design with random cross-over between lavender oil and placebo oil. Persons with moderate to severe dementia and associated behavioural problems living in aged care facilities will be included in the study. Consented, willing participants will be assigned in random order to lavender or placebo blocks for one week then switched to the other condition for the following week. In each week the oils will be applied on three days with at least a two-day wash out period between conditions. Trained observers will note presence of target behaviours and predominant type of affect displayed during the 30 minutes before and the 60 minutes after application of the oil. Nursing staff will apply 1 ml of 30% high strength essential lavender oil to reduce the risk of missing a true effect through under-dosing. The placebo will comprise of jojoba oil only. The oils will be identical in appearance and texture, but can easily be identified by smell. For blinding purposes, all staff involved in applying the oil or observing the resident will apply a masking cream containing a mixture of lavender and other essential oils to their upper lip. In addition, nursing staff will wear a nose clip during the few minutes it takes to massage the oil to the resident's forearms. Discussion If our results show

  12. Gastric electrical stimulation treatment of type 2 diabetes: effects of implantation versus meal-mediated stimulation. A randomized blinded cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Lebovitz, Harold E; Ludvik, Bernhard; Kozakowski, Jaroslaw; Tarnowski, Wieslaw; Zelewski, Mateusz; Yaniv, Irit; Schwartz, Tse’ela

    2015-01-01

    Gastric electrical stimulation with the implanted DIAMOND device has been shown to improve glycemic control and decrease weight and systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic agents. The objective of this study was to determine if device implantation alone (placebo effect) contributes to the long-term metabolic benefits of DIAMOND® meal-mediated gastric electrical stimulation in patients with type 2 diabetes. The study was a 48 week randomized, blinded, cross-over trial in university centers comparing glycemic improvement of DIAMOND® implanted patients with type 2 diabetic with no activation of the electrical stimulation (placebo) versus meal-mediated activation of the electrical signal. The endpoint was improvement in glycemic control (HbA1c) from baseline to 24 and 48 weeks. In period 1 (0–24 weeks), equal improvement in HbA1c occurred independent of whether the meal-mediated electrical stimulation was turned on or left off (HbA1c −0.80% and −0.85% [−8.8 and −9.0 mmol/mol]). The device placebo improvement proved to be transient as it was lost in period 2 (25–48 weeks). With electrical stimulation turned off, HbA1c returned toward baseline values (8.06 compared to 8.32%; 64.2 to 67.4 mmol/mol, P = 0.465). In contrast, turning the electrical stimulation on in period 2 sustained the decrease in HbA1c from baseline (−0.93%, −10.1mmol/mol, P = 0.001) observed in period 1. The results indicate that implantation of the DIAMOND device causes a transient improvement in HbA1c which is not sustained beyond 24 weeks. Meal-mediated electrical stimulation accounts for the significant improvement in HbA1c beyond 24 weeks. PMID:26177957

  13. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N; Brindley, Paul J; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases' interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species' omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net.

  14. Helminth.net: expansions to Nematode.net and an introduction to Trematode.net

    PubMed Central

    Martin, John; Rosa, Bruce A.; Ozersky, Philip; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Zhang, Xu; Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Veena; Tyagi, Rahul; Wang, Qi; Choi, Young-Jun; Gao, Xin; McNulty, Samantha N.; Brindley, Paul J.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and user-friendly manner and (ii) we introduce Trematode.net, a site dedicated to the dissemination of data from flukes, flatworm parasites of the class Trematoda, phylum Platyhelminthes. Trematode.net is an independent component of Helminth.net and currently hosts data from 16 species, with information ranging from genomic, functional genomic data, enzymatic pathway utilization to microbiome changes associated with helminth infections. The databases’ interface, with a sophisticated query engine as a backbone, is intended to allow users to search for multi-factorial combinations of species’ omics properties. This report describes updates to Nematode.net since its last description in NAR, 2012, and also introduces and presents its new sibling site, Trematode.net. PMID:25392426

  15. Design method for adsorption beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.; Jackson, J. K.

    1970-01-01

    Regenerable adsorption beds for long-term life support systems include synthetic geolite to remove carbon dioxide and silica gel to dehumidify the atmospheric gas prior to its passage through the geolite beds. Bed performance is evaluated from adsorption characteristics, heat and mass transfer, and pressure drop.

  16. The equivalency between logic Petri workflow nets and workflow nets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  17. The Equivalency between Logic Petri Workflow Nets and Workflow Nets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Yu, ShuXia; Du, YuYue

    2015-01-01

    Logic Petri nets (LPNs) can describe and analyze batch processing functions and passing value indeterminacy in cooperative systems. Logic Petri workflow nets (LPWNs) are proposed based on LPNs in this paper. Process mining is regarded as an important bridge between modeling and analysis of data mining and business process. Workflow nets (WF-nets) are the extension to Petri nets (PNs), and have successfully been used to process mining. Some shortcomings cannot be avoided in process mining, such as duplicate tasks, invisible tasks, and the noise of logs. The online shop in electronic commerce in this paper is modeled to prove the equivalence between LPWNs and WF-nets, and advantages of LPWNs are presented. PMID:25821845

  18. Fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Botros, P E

    1990-04-01

    This report describes the activities of the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's research and development program in fluidized-bed combustion from October 1, 1987, to September 30, 1989. The Department of Energy program involves atmospheric and pressurized systems. Demonstrations of industrial-scale atmospheric systems are being completed, and smaller boilers are being explored. These systems include vortex, multi-solid, spouted, dual-sided, air-cooled, pulsed, and waste-fired fluidized-beds. Combustion of low-rank coal, components, and erosion are being studied. In pressurized combustion, first-generation, combined-cycle power plants are being tested, and second-generation, advanced-cycle systems are being designed and cost evaluated. Research in coal devolatilization, metal wastage, tube corrosion, and fluidization also supports this area. 52 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. OglNet

    SciTech Connect

    Verba, Jared

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as well as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.

  20. OglNet

    2010-03-10

    OglNet is designed to capture and visualize network packets as they move from their source to intended destination. This creates a three dimensional representation of an active network and can show misconfigured components, potential security breaches and possible hostile network traffic. This visual representation is customizable by the user and also includes how network components interact with servers around the world. The software is able to process live or real time traffic feeds as wellmore » as offline historical network packet captures. As packets are read into the system, they are processed and visualized in an easy to understand display that includes network names, IP addresses, and global positioning. The software can process and display up to six million packets per second.« less

  1. Ineffectiveness of daily standard and high-dose antiviral therapy in preventing short episodes of genital HSV-2 reactivation: three randomized, open-label cross-over trials

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Christine; Saracino, Misty; Kuntz, Steve; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-li; Schiffer, Joshua T.; Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicate that short subclinical episodes of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are the predominant form of skin and mucosal viral shedding. We evaluated whether standard or high-dose antiviral therapy reduced the frequency of such shedding. Methods To determine whether short episodes of genital HSV shedding are suppressed on standard dose (SD) and high-dose (HD) antiviral therapy, HSV-2 seropositive, HIV seronegative persons in Seattle, WA were enrolled into three separate but complementary randomized, open-label, cross-over studies comparing 1) no medication to aciclovir 400 mg twice daily (SD-ACV), 2) valaciclovir 500 mg daily (SD-VAL) to aciclovir 800 mg three times daily (TID) (HD-ACV), and 3) SD-VAL to HD-VAL (1 gm TID). Study arms lasted 4–7 weeks, separated by one week wash-out. Participants obtained genital swabs four times daily for quantitative HSV DNA PCR. The primary endpoint was within-person comparison of shedding rate on each study arm. Results Of 113 participants randomized, 90 were eligible for analysis of the primary endpoint. Participants collected 23,605 swabs; of these 1272 (5·4%) had HSV detected. HSV shedding was significantly higher during the no medication arm (18·1% of swabs) compared with SD-ACV (1.2% of swabs, IRR=0·05, 95% CI=0·03–0·08). Breakthrough reactivations occurred on all doses (SD-ACV 1·2%, SD-VAL 5·2%, HD-ACV 4·2%, and HD-VAL 3·3% of swabs). HD-VAL was associated with less shedding compared with SD-VAL (IRR=0·54, 95% CI=0·44–0·66), likely due to more rapid clearance of mucosal HSV (4·7 logs/6 hours on HD-VAL vs. 4·4 logs/6 hours on SD-VAL, (p=0·02)). However, the annualized breakthrough episodes was similar on SD-VAL (22·6) and HD-ACV (20·2, p=0·54) and SD-VAL (14.9) and HD-VAL (16·5, p=0·34). Regardless of dose, breakthrough episodes were short (median 7–10 hours) and 80% were subclinical. Studies were not designed to make inter-trial comparisons between antiviral doses

  2. Paleocene-eocene lignite beds of southwest Alabama: Parasequence beds in highstand systems tracts

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, E.A.; Tew, B.H. ); Carroll, R.E. )

    1993-09-01

    In southwest Alabama, lignite beds are present in at least four stratigraphic intervals that span approximately 8 m.y. of geologic time. Lignite is found in the Paleocene Oak Hill Member and Coal Bluff Member of the Naheola Formation of the Midway Group and the Paleocene Tuscahoma Sand and the Eocene Hatchetigbee Formation of the Wilcox Group. Lignite beds range in thickness from 0.5 to 11 ft and consist of 32-53% moisture, 13-39% volatile matter, 4-36% fixed carbon, and 5-51% ash. These Paleocene and Eocene lignite beds occur as parasequence deposits in highstand systems tracts of four distinct third-order depositional sequences. The lignite beds are interpreted as strata within highstand systems tract parasequences that occur in mud-dominated regressive intervals. Lignite beds were deposited in coastal marsh and low-lying swamp environments as part of deltaic systems that prograded into southwestern Alabama from the west. As sediment was progressively delivered into the basin from these deltas, the effects of relative sea level rise during an individual cycle were overwhelmed, producing a net loss of accommodation and concomitant overall basinward progradation of the shoreline (regression). Small-scale fluctuations in water depth resulting from the interaction of eustasy, sediment yield, and subsidence led to cyclical flooding of the low-lying coastal marshes and swamps followed by periods of progradational and regression. Highstand systems tract deposition within a particular depositional sequence culminated with a relative sea level fall that resulted in a lowering of base level and an abrupt basinward shift in coastal onlap. Following sea level fall and the subsequent accumulation of the lowstand deposits, significant relative sea level rise resulted in the marine inundation of the area previously occupied by coastal marshes and swamps and deposition of the transgressive systems tract of the overlying sequence.

  3. NetView technical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for the NetView Technical Research task. This report is prepared in accordance with Contract Data Requirements List (CDRL) item A002. NetView assistance was provided and details are presented under the following headings: NetView Management Systems (NMS) project tasks; WBAFB IBM 3090; WPAFB AMDAHL; WPAFB IBM 3084; Hill AFB; McClellan AFB AMDAHL; McClellan AFB IBM 3090; and Warner-Robins AFB.

  4. AdaNET executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The goal of AdaNET is to transfer existing and emerging software engineering technology from the Federal government to the private sector. The views and perspectives of the current project participants on long and short term goals for AdaNET; organizational structure; resources and returns; summary of identified AdaNET services; and the summary of the organizational model currently under discussion are presented.

  5. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  6. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  7. Bed drain cover assembly for a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Comparato, Joseph R.; Jacobs, Martin

    1982-01-01

    A loose fitting movable cover plate (36), suitable for the severe service encountered in a fluidized bed combustor (10), restricts the flow of solids into the combustor drain lines (30) during shutdown of the bed. This cover makes it possible to empty spent solids from the bed drain lines which would otherwise plug the piping between the drain and the downstream metering device. This enables use of multiple drain lines each with a separate metering device for the control of solids flow rate.

  8. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1996-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  9. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.

    1993-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  10. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Marasco, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves.

  11. Fluidized-bed sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Gupta, R.P.

    1994-10-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc oxide-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor. In this program, regenerable ZnO-based mixed metal-oxide sorbents are being developed and tested. These include zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-SORB sorbents. The Z-SORB sorbent is a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company (PPCo).

  12. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  13. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1996-02-27

    A fluidized bed reactor system is described which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary and tertiary particulate phases, continuously introduced and removed simultaneously in the cocurrent and countercurrent mode, act in a role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Means for introducing and removing the sorbent phases include feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  14. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, C.D.; Marasco, J.A.

    1995-04-25

    A fluidized bed reactor system utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figs.

  15. Particle bed reactor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  16. SensorNet Node Suite

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  17. CAPEOPEN.NET CLASS LIBRARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Cape-Open for .Net class library is a collection of classes that implement the Cape-Open v.1.0 interfaces in the .Net framework. This is a tool to aid process modeling component (PMC) developers in producing CAPE-OPEN compliant objects using the latest version of the Visual S...

  18. Neural nets on the MPP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Harold M.; Waner, Stefan

    1987-01-01

    The Massively Parallel Processor (MPP) is an ideal machine for computer experiments with simulated neural nets as well as more general cellular automata. Experiments using the MPP with a formal model neural network are described. The results on problem mapping and computational efficiency apply equally well to the neural nets of Hopfield, Hinton et al., and Geman and Geman.

  19. KM3NeT

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, M. de; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2015-07-15

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  20. KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.

    2015-07-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure, that will consist of a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes in the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective of KM3NeT is the discovery and subsequent observation of high-energy neutrino sources in the Universe. A further physics perspective is the measurement of the mass hierarchy of neutrinos. A corresponding study, ORCA, is ongoing within KM3NeT. A cost effective technology for (very) large water Cherenkov detectors has been developed based on a new generation of low price 3-inch photo-multiplier tubes. Following the successful deployment and operation of two prototypes, the construction of the KM3NeT research infrastructure has started. The prospects of the different phases of the implementation of KM3NeT are summarised.

  1. Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, R; de Boer, A C; vd Linden, G H M; Stoter, G; Sparreboom, A; Verweij, J

    2001-01-01

    In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT3-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT3-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT3-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT3-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT3-receptor antagonist. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign  http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11710819

  2. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  3. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, J.

    1996-03-19

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine. 1 fig.

  4. Pressurized fluidized bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Isaksson, Juhani

    1996-01-01

    A pressurized fluid bed reactor power plant includes a fluidized bed reactor contained within a pressure vessel with a pressurized gas volume between the reactor and the vessel. A first conduit supplies primary gas from the gas volume to the reactor, passing outside the pressure vessel and then returning through the pressure vessel to the reactor, and pressurized gas is supplied from a compressor through a second conduit to the gas volume. A third conduit, comprising a hot gas discharge, carries gases from the reactor, through a filter, and ultimately to a turbine. During normal operation of the plant, pressurized gas is withdrawn from the gas volume through the first conduit and introduced into the reactor at a substantially continuously controlled rate as the primary gas to the reactor. In response to an operational disturbance of the plant, the flow of gas in the first, second, and third conduits is terminated, and thereafter the pressure in the gas volume and in the reactor is substantially simultaneously reduced by opening pressure relief valves in the first and third conduits, and optionally by passing air directly from the second conduit to the turbine.

  5. Traditional Nets Interfere with the Uptake of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in the Peruvian Amazon: The Relevance of Net Preference for Achieving High Coverage and Use

    PubMed Central

    Grietens, Koen Peeters; Muela Ribera, Joan; Soto, Veronica; Tenorio, Alex; Hoibak, Sarah; Aguirre, Angel Rosas; Toomer, Elizabeth; Rodriguez, Hugo; Llanos Cuentas, Alejandro; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Gamboa, Dionicia; Erhart, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Background While coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) has steadily increased, a growing number of studies report gaps between net ownership and use. We conducted a mixed-methods social science study assessing the importance of net preference and use after Olyset® LLINs were distributed through a mass campaign in rural communities surrounding Iquitos, the capital city of the Amazonian region of Peru. Methods The study was conducted in the catchment area of the Paujil and Cahuide Health Centres (San Juan district) between July 2007 and November 2008. During a first qualitative phase, participant observation and in-depth interviews collected information on key determinants for net preference and use. In a second quantitative phase, a survey among recently confirmed malaria patients evaluated the acceptability and use of both LLINs and traditional nets, and a case control study assessed the association between net preference/use and housing structure (open vs. closed houses). Results A total of 10 communities were selected for the anthropological fieldwork and 228 households participated in the quantitative studies. In the study area, bed nets are considered part of the housing structure and are therefore required to fulfil specific architectural and social functions, such as providing privacy and shelter, which the newly distributed Olyset® LLINs ultimately did not. The LLINs' failure to meet these criteria could mainly be attributed to their large mesh size, transparency and perceived ineffectiveness to protect against mosquitoes and other insects, resulting in 63.3% of households not using any of the distributed LLINs. Notably, LLIN usage was significantly lower in houses with no interior or exterior walls (35.2%) than in those with walls (73.8%) (OR = 5.2, 95CI [2.2; 12.3], p<0.001). Conclusion Net preference can interfere with optimal LLIN use. In order to improve the number of effective days of LLIN protection per dollar spent

  6. CF-netCDF Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.; Rew, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    NetCDF has long been a de facto standard for data storage and access in several communities. More recently it has been recognized by the NASA Standards Process Group and the NOAA IOOS DMAC as a de jure standard. Within the OGC, CF-netCDF is being considered as an extension to the latest recognized version of the WCS. A new initiative is underway to establish CF-netCDF as an OGC binary encoding standard in its own right. The idea is that, establishing CF-netCDF as a separate OGC encoding standard will simplify the process of using it as a payload for other standard access protocols such as the WFS and SOS. The approach is modeled on that taken for establishing KML as an OGC standard for XML encoding. One difference is that CF-netCDF will be standardized with a core and a set of extensions.. The standardization process for the core and each of the extension will involve the following steps: -- Make the existing NASA standard the basis for the OGC Core Candidate Standard for CF-netCDF -- Submit an initial draft Candidate Standard to the OGC Technical Committee (TC) -- Form a CF-netCDF Standard Working Group (SWG) -- In the CF-netCDF SWG, refine the Candidate Standard document into a draft for public comment -- Submit the Candidate Standard to the OGC TC to be submitted for public comment -- Incorporate public comment suggestions and submit the result as an OGC Standard Specification. In parallel initiatives will be undertaken for extension standard for specific CF conventions (e.g., gridded data, point data collections, swath data, etc.)., for netCDF APIs, and for NcML (the netCDF Markup Language)-GML. The presentation will outline the plan and provide a report on the status of the initiative at the time of the meeting.

  7. TacNet Tracker Software

    SciTech Connect

    WISEMAN, JAMES; & STEVENS, JAMES

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. The purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.

  8. TacNet Tracker Software

    2008-08-04

    The TacNet Tracker will be used for the monitoring and real-time tracking of personnel and assets in an unlimited number of specific applications. The TacNet Tracker software is a VxWorks Operating System based programming package that controls the functionality for the wearable Tracker. One main use of the TacNet Tracker is in Blue Force Tracking, the ability to track the good guys in an adversarial situation or in a force-on-force or real battle conditions. Themore » purpose of blue force tracking is to provide situational awareness to the battlefield commanders and personnel. There are practical military applications with the TacNet Tracker.The mesh network is a wireless IP communications network that moves data packets from source IP addresses to specific destination IP addresses. Addresses on the TacNet infrastructure utilize an 8-bit network mask (255.0.0.0). In other words, valid TacNet addresses range from 10.0.0.1 to 10.254.254.254. The TacNet software design uses uni-cast transmission techniques because earlier mesh network software releases did not provide for the ability to utilize multi-cast data movement. The TacNet design employs a list of addresses to move information within the TacNet infrastructure. For example, a convoy text file containing the IP addresses of all valid receivers of TacNet information could be used for transmitting the information and for limiting transmission to addresses on the list.« less

  9. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  10. Debris-bed friction of hard-bedded glaciers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, D.; Iverson, N.R.; Hooyer, T.S.; Fischer, U.H.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    [1] Field measurements of debris-bed friction on a smooth rock tablet at the bed of Engabreen, a hard-bedded, temperate glacier in northern Norway, indicated that basal ice containing 10% debris by volume exerted local shear traction of up to 500 kPa. The corresponding bulk friction coefficient between the dirty basal ice and the tablet was between 0.05 and 0.08. A model of friction in which nonrotating spherical rock particles are held in frictional contact with the bed by bed-normal ice flow can account for these measurements if the power law exponent for ice flowing past large clasts is 1. A small exponent (n < 2) is likely because stresses in ice are small and flow is transient. Numerical calculations of the bed-normal drag force on a sphere in contact with a flat bed using n = 1 show that this force can reach values several hundred times that on a sphere isolated from the bed, thus drastically increasing frictional resistance. Various estimates of basal friction are obtained from this model. For example, the shear traction at the bed of a glacier sliding at 20 m a-1 with a geothermally induced melt rate of 0.006 m a-1 and an effective pressure of 300 kPa can exceed 100 kPa. Debris-bed friction can therefore be a major component of sliding resistance, contradicting the common assumption that debris-bed friction is negligible. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Method for packing chromatographic beds

    DOEpatents

    Freeman, David H.; Angeles, Rosalie M.; Keller, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Column chromatography beds are packed through the application of static force. A slurry of the chromatography bed material and a non-viscous liquid is filled into the column plugged at one end, and allowed to settle. The column is transferred to a centrifuge, and centrifuged for a brief period of time to achieve a predetermined packing level, at a range generally of 100-5,000 gravities. Thereafter, the plug is removed, other fixtures may be secured, and the liquid is allowed to flow out through the bed. This results in an evenly packed bed, with no channeling or preferential flow characteristics.

  12. Fluidized bed deposition of diamond

    DOEpatents

    Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Carroll, David W.; Trkula, Mitchell; Anderson, Wallace E.; Valone, Steven M.

    1998-01-01

    A process for coating a substrate with diamond or diamond-like material including maintaining a substrate within a bed of particles capable of being fluidized, the particles having substantially uniform dimensions and the substrate characterized as having different dimensions than the bed particles, fluidizing the bed of particles, and depositing a coating of diamond or diamond-like material upon the substrate by chemical vapor deposition of a carbon-containing precursor gas mixture, the precursor gas mixture introduced into the fluidized bed under conditions resulting in excitation mechanisms sufficient to form the diamond coating.

  13. Mass distribution of free insecticide-treated nets do not interfere with continuous net distribution in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To protect the most vulnerable groups from malaria (pregnant women and infants) the Tanzanian Government introduced a subsidy (voucher) scheme in 2004, on the basis of a public-private partnership. These vouchers are provided to pregnant women at their first antenatal care visit and mothers of infants at first vaccination. The vouchers are redeemed at registered retailers for a long-lasting insecticidal net against the payment of a modest top-up price. The present work analysed a large body of data from the Tanzanian National Voucher Scheme, focusing on interactions with concurrent mass distribution campaigns of free nets. Methods In an ecologic study involving all regions of Tanzania, voucher redemption data for the period 2007 2011, as well as data on potential determinants of voucher redemption were analysed. The four outcome variables were: pregnant woman and infant voucher redemption rates, use of treated bed nets by all household members and by under- five children. Each of the outcomes was regressed with selected determinants, using a generalized estimating equation model and accounting for regional data clustering. Results There was a consistent improvement in voucher redemption rates over the selected time period, with rates >80% in 2011. The major determinants of redemption rates were the top-up price paid by the voucher beneficiary, the retailer- clinic ratio, and socio-economic status. Improved redemption rates after 2009 were most likely due to reduced top-up prices (following a change in policy). Redemption rates were not affected by two major free net distribution campaigns. During this period, there was a consistent improvement in net use across all the regions, with rates of up to 75% in 2011. Conclusion The key components of the National Treated Nets Programme (NATNETS) seem to work harmoniously, leading to a high level of net use in the entire population. This calls for the continuation of this effort in Tanzania and for emulation by

  14. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10  m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  15. On the structure of turbulent gravel bed flow: Implications for sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajeri, Seyed Hossein; Righetti, Maurizio; Wharton, Geraldene; Romano, Giovanni Paolo

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the turbulent flow field over gravel particles as a first step towards understanding sediment transport in a gravel bed river. Specifically, the vertical momentum flux in gravel bed turbulent flow was investigated with particular attention to the near-bed region. Spatial organization of vertical momentum flux was studied with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a horizontal layer 1mm above the gravel crests. The vertical momentum flux through the water column was described with digital PIV measurements in three vertical planes. The data showed that near the gravel bed, net turbulent momentum flux spatially varies with respect to bed topography. Analysis of the vertical velocity data revealed that near the gravel particle crests, there is a significant net vertical form-induced momentum flux approximately with the same order of magnitude as the net vertical turbulent momentum flux. Above the crests, total net vertical momentum flux is positive. However, below the crests, despite noticeable positive form-induced momentum flux, total net vertical momentum flux is negative. Results of quadrant analysis show that variation of turbulent net vertical momentum flux through water column is in agreement with prevalence of upward movement of low velocity flow (known as ejection) above gravel crests and downward movement of high velocity flow (known as sweep) below gravel crests. Below gravel crests (- 0.1 < z / H < 0.0), there is a region where the contribution of second quadrant to Reynolds shear stress is lower than fourth quadrant, while the contribution of second quadrant to vertical momentum flux is higher than fourth quadrant. This can be interpreted that ejection events in this region are strong enough to lift up fine particles but their contribution is not sufficient to move fine particles in the longitudinal direction.

  16. Dynamic bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Stormo, K.E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix. 27 figs.

  17. Dynamic bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Stormo, Keith E.

    1996-07-02

    A dynamic bed reactor is disclosed in which a compressible open cell foam matrix is periodically compressed and expanded to move a liquid or fluid through the matrix. In preferred embodiments, the matrix contains an active material such as an enzyme, biological cell, chelating agent, oligonucleotide, adsorbent or other material that acts upon the liquid or fluid passing through the matrix. The active material may be physically immobilized in the matrix, or attached by covalent or ionic bonds. Microbeads, substantially all of which have diameters less than 50 microns, can be used to immobilize the active material in the matrix and further improve reactor efficiency. A particularly preferred matrix is made of open cell polyurethane foam, which adsorbs pollutants such as polychlorophenol or o-nitrophenol. The reactors of the present invention allow unidirectional non-laminar flow through the matrix, and promote intimate exposure of liquid reactants to active agents such as microorganisms immobilized in the matrix.

  18. AdaNET research project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digman, R. Michael

    1988-01-01

    The components necessary for the success of the commercialization of an Ada Technology Transition Network are reported in detail. The organizational plan presents the planned structure for services development and technical transition of AdaNET services to potential user communities. The Business Plan is the operational plan for the AdaNET service as a commercial venture. The Technical Plan is the plan from which the AdaNET can be designed including detailed requirements analysis. Also contained is an analysis of user fees and charges, and a proposed user fee schedule.

  19. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The general specifications for a Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor Design Report (PAFBC) plant are presented. The design tasks for the PAFBC are described in the following areas: Coal/Limestone preparation and feed system; pulse combustor; fluidized bed; boiler parts; and ash handling system.

  20. LSP Composite Test Bed Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Arthur C.; Griess, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    This document provides standalone information for the Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) Composite Substrate Test Bed Design. A six-sheet drawing set is reproduced for reference, as is some additional descriptive information on suitable sensors and use of the test bed.

  1. 29 CFR 4204.13 - Net income and net tangible assets tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net income and net tangible assets tests. 4204.13 Section....13 Net income and net tangible assets tests. (a) General. The criteria under this section are that either— (1) Net income test. The purchaser's average net income after taxes for its three most...

  2. 26 CFR 1.904(f)-3 - Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of net operating losses and net....904(f)-3 Allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses. For rules relating to the allocation of net operating losses and net capital losses, see § 1.904(g)-3T....

  3. Pulling a patient up in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Moving a patient in bed ... You must move or pull someone up in bed the right way to avoid injuring the patient's ... people to safely move a patient up in bed. Friction from rubbing can scrape or tear the ...

  4. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smoldering multiple myeloma, and curcumin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over 4g study and an open-label 8g extension study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2012-05-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) represent useful models for studying multiple myeloma precursor disease, and for developing early intervention strategies. Administering a 4g dose of curcumin, we performed a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study, followed by an open-label extension study using an 8g dose to assess the effect of curcumin on FLC response and bone turnover in patients with MGUS and SMM. 36 patients (19 MGUS and 17 SMM) were randomised into two groups: one received 4g curcumin and the other 4g placebo, crossing over at 3 months. At completion of the 4g arm, all patients were given the option of entering an open-label, 8g dose extension study. Blood and urine samples were collected at specified intervals for specific marker analyses. Group values are expressed as mean ± 1 SD. Data from different time intervals within groups were compared using Student's paired t-test. 25 patients completed the 4g cross-over study and 18 the 8g extension study. Curcumin therapy decreased the free light-chain ratio (rFLC), reduced the difference between clonal and nonclonal light-chain (dFLC) and involved free light-chain (iFLC). uDPYD, a marker of bone resorption, decreased in the curcumin arm and increased on the placebo arm. Serum creatinine levels tended to diminish on curcumin therapy. These findings suggest that curcumin might have the potential to slow the disease process in patients with MGUS and SMM. PMID:22473809

  5. Particle pressures in fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Hu, X.; Jin, C.; Potapov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    This is an experimental project to make detailed measurements of the particle pressures generated in fluidized beds. The focus lies in two principle areas: (1) the particle pressure distribution around single bubbles rising in a two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed and (2) the particle pressures measured in liquid-fluidized beds. This first year has largely been to constructing the experiments The design of the particle pressure probe has been improved and tested. A two-dimensional gas-fluidized bed has been constructed in order to measure the particle pressure generated around injected bubbles. The probe is also being adapted to work in a liquid fluidized bed. Finally, a two-dimensional liquid fluidized bed is also under construction. Preliminary measurements show that the majority of the particle pressures are generated in the wake of a bubble. However, the particle pressures generated in the liquid bed appear to be extremely small. Finally, while not directly associated with the particle pressure studies, some NERSC supercomputer time was granted alongside this project. This is being used to make large scale computer simulation of the flow of granular materials in hoppers.

  6. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    A development plan for a proposed avionics test bed facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements is presented. A distributed data processing facility that utilizes the current laboratory resources for the test bed development is outlined. Future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are defined. A background analysis of the specific hardware system for the preliminary baseline avionics test bed system is included.

  7. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Stephen L; Orton, Christopher J; Lilly, David G; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard 'A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia' that defines and promotes 'best practice' in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in 'best practice' while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  8. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  9. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Stephen L.; Orton, Christopher J.; Lilly, David G.; Russell, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia. PMID:26467616

  10. Fluid bed oligomerization of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owens, H.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes a continuous process for upgrading lower olefins to increase gasoline yield and ease of LPG recovery. It comprises separating a C{sub 2}-C{sub 4} cracked olefinic gas into a primary overhead stream containing C{sub 2} hydrocarbons having at least about 10% ethene and a secondary stream comprising a major amount of C{sub 3}-c{sub 4} olefinic hydrocarbons; adding the primary stream containing C{sub 2} hydrocarbons to a primary fluidized reaction zone comprising solid crystalline zeolite catalyst particles in a reactor bed operating under high severity conditions; adding the secondary stream comprising C{sub 3}-C{sub 4} olefinic hydrocarbons to a secondary fluidized bed reaction zone comprising solid crystalline zeolite catalyst particles in a reactor bed operating under turbulent regime low severity conditions; and withdrawing a portion of partially deactivated catalyst particles from the primary high severity fluidized bed reaction zone.

  11. Operating characteristics of rotating beds

    SciTech Connect

    Keyvani, M.; Gardner, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor-liquid contacting in high gravitational fields offers prospects for significant reductions in the physical size, capital, and operating costs of packed towers. Pressure drops, power requirements, mass transfer coefficients and liquid residence time distributions are reported for a rotating bed separator. The beds studied were rigid, foamed aluminum, with specific surface areas ranging from 650 to 3000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. Gravitational fields were varied from 50 to 300g.

  12. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  13. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  14. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  15. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  16. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net... these services. The calculation of expenses entering into the determination of net income shall...

  17. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations... Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or..., safety lines, or safety belts is impractical. (b) Where safety net protection is required by this...

  18. 27 CFR 19.644 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 19.644... Requirements § 19.644 Net contents. The net contents of liquor bottles shall be shown on the label, unless the statement of the net contents is permanently marked on the side, front, or back of the bottle. (Sec....

  19. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  20. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.73 shall be stated in...

  1. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  2. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  3. 27 CFR 4.37 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 4.37 Section... contents. (a) Statement of net contents. The net contents of wine for which a standard of fill is... net content of wine for which no standard of fill is prescribed in § 4.72 shall be stated in...

  4. 27 CFR 5.38 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 5.38 Section... Spirits § 5.38 Net contents. (a) Bottles conforming to metric standards of fill. The net contents of....47a. (b) Bottles not conforming to the metric standards of fill. The net contents for...

  5. [The prevention of malaria with impregnated mosquito netting: impact of a social mobilization day in Brazzaville].

    PubMed

    Talani, P; Biahouila-Satounkazi, F; Moyen, G

    2002-06-01

    A study of malaria prevention was conducted in two areas of Brazzaville: Makelekele and Bacongo, 10-12 November 1997, following a day of mobilisation. The study included 111 households in each area. In Makelekele, people were informed about the use of impregnated mosquito nets. Bacongo was used as a control area. The answers to the questionnaire indicated that 56.7% of households in the informed area knew about impregnated mosquito nets versus 30.6% in the control area. Likewise, 47.7% of the households in the informed area versus 10.8% in the control area knew where to locate centers for impregnating the nets. From these findings we conclude that information concerning the use of impregnated bed nets as prevention for malaria needs to be spread to all areas of Brazzaville.

  6. Symmetry breaking in neural nets.

    PubMed

    Pessa, E

    1988-01-01

    In this paper two well-known homogeneous models of neural nets undergoing symmetry-breaking transitions are studied in order to see if, after the transition, there is the appearance of Goldstone modes. These have been found only in an approximate way; there are indications, however, that they can play a prominent role when the tissue is subjected to external inputs, constraining it to be slaved to the characteristics of those. This circumstance should be essential in explaining how a structured net can store complex inputs and give subsequently ordered outputs.

  7. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L.; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U.; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure sensitive combined with infrared beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1,636.5 hours; an average of 18.3 ± 22.3 (± S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4 ± 1.2 hours/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (mean/S.E.M. = 0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive vs. dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p = 0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher number of true positives. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed. PMID:18508138

  8. Bed-exit alarm effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Capezuti, Elizabeth; Brush, Barbara L; Lane, Stephen; Rabinowitz, Hannah U; Secic, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the accuracy of two types of bed-exit alarms to detect bed-exiting body movements: pressure-sensitive and a pressure-sensitive combined with infrared (IR) beam detectors (dual sensor system). We also evaluated the occurrence of nuisance alarms, or alarms that are activated when a participant does not attempt to get out of bed. Fourteen nursing home residents were directly observed for a total of 256 nights or 1636.5h; an average of 18.3+/-22.3 (+/-S.D.) nights/participant for an average of 6.4+/-1.2 h/night. After adjusting for body movements via repeated measures, Poisson regression modeling, the least squares adjusted means (LSM) show a marginally significant difference between the type of alarm groups on the number of true positives (NTP) (mean/S.E.M.=0.086/1.617) for pressure-sensitive versus dual sensor alarm (0.593/1.238; p=0.0599) indicating that the dual sensor alarm may have a higher NTP. While the dual sensor bed-exit alarm was more accurate than the pressure-sensitive alarm in identifying bed-exiting body movements and reducing the incidence of false alarms, false alarms were not eliminated altogether. Alarms are not a substitute for staff; adequate staff availability is still necessary when residents need or wish to exit bed.

  9. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  10. 49 CFR 236.336 - Locking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking bed. 236.336 Section 236.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.336 Locking bed. The various parts of the locking bed, locking bed supports, and tappet...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6070 - Bed board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bed board. 880.6070 Section 880.6070 Food and....6070 Bed board. (a) Identification. A bed board is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a stiff board used to increase the firmness of a bed. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. Neural Network Development Tool (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1990-01-01

    Artificial neural networks formed from hundreds or thousands of simulated neurons, connected in manner similar to that in human brain. Such network models learning behavior. Using NETS involves translating problem to be solved into input/output pairs, designing network configuration, and training network. Written in C.

  13. The power of neural nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, J. P.; Shah, B. H.

    1987-01-01

    Implementation of the Hopfield net which is used in the image processing type of applications where only partial information about the image may be available is discussed. The image classification type of algorithm of Hopfield and other learning algorithms, such as the Boltzmann machine and the back-propagation training algorithm, have many vital applications in space.

  14. Optimization for training neural nets.

    PubMed

    Barnard, E

    1992-01-01

    Various techniques of optimizing criterion functions to train neural-net classifiers are investigated. These techniques include three standard deterministic techniques (variable metric, conjugate gradient, and steepest descent), and a new stochastic technique. It is found that the stochastic technique is preferable on problems with large training sets and that the convergence rates of the variable metric and conjugate gradient techniques are similar.

  15. Generalization in probabilistic RAM nets.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, T G; Guan, Y; Taylor, J G; Gorse, D

    1993-01-01

    The probabilistic RAM (pRAM) is a hardware-realizable neural device which is stochastic in operation and highly nonlinear. Even small nets of pRAMs offer high levels of functionality. The means by which a pRAM network generalizes when trained in noise is shown and the results of this behavior are described.

  16. Videotutoring via AppalNet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Harriette C.

    The Videotutoring via AppalNet project at Appalachian State University in North Carolina offers supplementary, tutorial assistance to students in certain high risk courses such as history, biology, and mathematics. This program enables instructors to tape test review sessions which are broadcast live and then later rebroadcast at other times on…

  17. SophiNet Version 12

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-09

    SophiNet Version 12 is part of the code contained in the application ‘oglnet’ and comprises the portions that make ‘oglnet’ receive and display Sophia data from the Sophia Daemon ‘sophiad’. Specifically this encompasses the channel, host and alert receiving and the treeview HUD widget.

  18. The Net Generation Cheating Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Valerie; Sandoe, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Integral to higher education, academic integrity stands as a cornerstone of academic life. However, compelling evidence of widespread academic dishonesty among Net-Generation students threatens to undermine both the environment of trust that nourishes integrity and the safeguards that help ensure it. Working from their experience with widespread…

  19. 26 CFR 1.172-4 - Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating... Corporations (continued) § 1.172-4 Net operating loss carrybacks and net operating loss carryovers. (a) General provisions—(1) Years to which loss may be carried—(i) In general. In order to compute the net operating...

  20. Rapid ignition of fluidized bed boiler

    DOEpatents

    Osborn, Liman D.

    1976-12-14

    A fluidized bed boiler is started up by directing into the static bed of inert and carbonaceous granules a downwardly angled burner so that the hot gases cause spouting. Air is introduced into the bed at a rate insufficient to fluidize the entire bed. Three regions are now formed in the bed, a region of lowest gas resistance, a fluidized region and a static region with a mobile region at the interface of the fluidized and static regions. Particles are transferred by the spouting action to form a conical heap with the carbonaceous granules concentrated at the top. The hot burner gases ignite the carbonaceous matter on the top of the bed which becomes distributed in the bed by the spouting action and bed movement. Thereafter the rate of air introduction is increased to fluidize the entire bed, the spouter/burner is shut off, and the entire fluidized bed is ignited.

  1. Impact of malaria related messages on insecticide-treated net (ITN) use for malaria prevention in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Media messages have been used in Ghana to promote insecticide-treated net (ITN)/bed net usage in an effort to impact on malaria prevention. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of such malaria-related messages delivered through electronic/print media and by volunteers/health workers on the use of ITNs by children living in a household. Methods Data was collected from September to November of 2008 using a structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire by the Ghana Statistical Service as part of a national demographic and health survey (DHS). Secondary data analysis was performed on the collected data using multivariate logistic regression for both individual messages and a composite (any of) message variable. Results From the 11,788 households surveyed, 45% had at least one net. Households with male heads were more likely to have a child sleeping under a bed net the previous night (p = 0.0001). Individual Messages delivered by a health worker or a dedicated radio programme, had the highest effect for one or more children sleeping under a net the night before (OR adjusted = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.44 to 1.88 and OR adjusted = 1.26; 95% CI =1.12 to 1.42 respectively) while hearing any of the eight messages (composite score) resulted in the highest odds for one or more children (OR adjusted = 3.06; 95% CI = 2.27 to 4.12) sleeping under a bed net. Conclusion Efforts to relate ITN messages to the public are very useful in increasing use of bed nets and having multiple ways of reaching the public increases their effect, with the biggest effect seen when health workers and volunteers were used to deliver malaria-related messages to the public. PMID:24679068

  2. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction.

    PubMed

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M; Sorg, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction. PMID:26904301

  3. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction.

    PubMed

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M; Sorg, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction.

  4. Caught in the Net: Perineuronal Nets and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Slaker, Megan; Blacktop, Jordan M.; Sorg, Barbara A.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to drugs of abuse induces plasticity in the brain and creates persistent drug-related memories. These changes in plasticity and persistent drug memories are believed to produce aberrant motivation and reinforcement contributing to addiction. Most studies have explored the effect drugs of abuse have on pre- and postsynaptic cells and astrocytes; however, more recently, attention has shifted to explore the effect these drugs have on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Within the ECM are unique structures arranged in a net-like manner, surrounding a subset of neurons called perineuronal nets (PNNs). This review focuses on drug-induced changes in PNNs, the molecules that regulate PNNs, and the expression of PNNs within brain circuitry mediating motivation, reward, and reinforcement as it pertains to addiction. PMID:26904301

  5. Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum mechanics (Drew, 1983), is used to describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for three interpenetrating phases. The particles, like the fluidizing gas, are described as interpenetrating continua. Different particle types are treated as distinct phases; in this study, the feed coal and the bed char are represented as separate phases in order to account for their different histories. Constitutive laws account for the exchange of momentum between phases (``drag``) and interphase energy transfer. The stresses within the granular phases are determined by a formulation based on the kinetic theory, characterized by a ``granular temperature``. A computer code, based on this multiphase hydrodynamic model, has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the detailed simulation of gas and particle dynamics in heavily loaded coal conversion processes (Syamlal, Rogers, O`Brien, 1994; Syamlal, 1995). The hydrodynamic simulation showed the reactor operated in a jetting/bubbling mode. A gas jet penetrated a considerable distance into the bed, and then detached as ``bubbles`` which rose to the top of the column. The reaction scheme indicated that the feed coal did not begin to devolatilize until it had traversed this region, because of the time required to heat up. Thus, volatiles were not released in the jetting region of the bed, but higher in the bed. The oxygen fed with the coal, however, reacted immediately with the recirculating hot char. The net effect of the char reaction scheme was to created. CO, which burned in the region where.the jet detached, creating a, fairly stable ``flame``. The tar reaction scheme indicated that none of the tar escaped the bed.

  6. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  7. Space station propulsion test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briley, G. L.; Evans, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    A test bed was fabricated to demonstrate hydrogen/oxygen propulsion technology readiness for the intital operating configuration (IOC) space station application. The test bed propulsion module and computer control system were delivered in December 1985, but activation was delayed until mid-1986 while the propulsion system baseline for the station was reexamined. A new baseline was selected with hydrogen/oxygen thruster modules supplied with gas produced by electrolysis of waste water from the space shuttle and space station. As a result, an electrolysis module was designed, fabricated, and added to the test bed to provide an end-to-end simulation of the baseline system. Subsequent testing of the test bed propulsion and electrolysis modules provided an end-to-end demonstration of the complete space station propulsion system, including thruster hot firings using the oxygen and hydrogen generated from electrolysis of water. Complete autonomous control and operation of all test bed components by the microprocessor control system designed and delivered during the program was demonstrated. The technical readiness of the system is now firmly established.

  8. Crossing over...Markov meets Mendel.

    PubMed

    Mneimneh, Saad

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal crossover is a biological mechanism to combine parental traits. It is perhaps the first mechanism ever taught in any introductory biology class. The formulation of crossover, and resulting recombination, came about 100 years after Mendel's famous experiments. To a great extent, this formulation is consistent with the basic genetic findings of Mendel. More importantly, it provides a mathematical insight for his two laws (and corrects them). From a mathematical perspective, and while it retains similarities, genetic recombination guarantees diversity so that we do not rapidly converge to the same being. It is this diversity that made the study of biology possible. In particular, the problem of genetic mapping and linkage-one of the first efforts towards a computational approach to biology-relies heavily on the mathematical foundation of crossover and recombination. Nevertheless, as students we often overlook the mathematics of these phenomena. Emphasizing the mathematical aspect of Mendel's laws through crossover and recombination will prepare the students to make an early realization that biology, in addition to being experimental, IS a computational science. This can serve as a first step towards a broader curricular transformation in teaching biological sciences. I will show that a simple and modern treatment of Mendel's laws using a Markov chain will make this step possible, and it will only require basic college-level probability and calculus. My personal teaching experience confirms that students WANT to know Markov chains because they hear about them from bioinformaticists all the time. This entire exposition is based on three homework problems that I designed for a course in computational biology. A typical reader is, therefore, an instructional staff member or a student in a computational field (e.g., computer science, mathematics, statistics, computational biology, bioinformatics). However, other students may easily follow by omitting the mathematically more elaborate parts. I kept those as separate sections in the exposition. PMID:22629235

  9. Crossing over...Markov meets Mendel.

    PubMed

    Mneimneh, Saad

    2012-01-01

    Chromosomal crossover is a biological mechanism to combine parental traits. It is perhaps the first mechanism ever taught in any introductory biology class. The formulation of crossover, and resulting recombination, came about 100 years after Mendel's famous experiments. To a great extent, this formulation is consistent with the basic genetic findings of Mendel. More importantly, it provides a mathematical insight for his two laws (and corrects them). From a mathematical perspective, and while it retains similarities, genetic recombination guarantees diversity so that we do not rapidly converge to the same being. It is this diversity that made the study of biology possible. In particular, the problem of genetic mapping and linkage-one of the first efforts towards a computational approach to biology-relies heavily on the mathematical foundation of crossover and recombination. Nevertheless, as students we often overlook the mathematics of these phenomena. Emphasizing the mathematical aspect of Mendel's laws through crossover and recombination will prepare the students to make an early realization that biology, in addition to being experimental, IS a computational science. This can serve as a first step towards a broader curricular transformation in teaching biological sciences. I will show that a simple and modern treatment of Mendel's laws using a Markov chain will make this step possible, and it will only require basic college-level probability and calculus. My personal teaching experience confirms that students WANT to know Markov chains because they hear about them from bioinformaticists all the time. This entire exposition is based on three homework problems that I designed for a course in computational biology. A typical reader is, therefore, an instructional staff member or a student in a computational field (e.g., computer science, mathematics, statistics, computational biology, bioinformatics). However, other students may easily follow by omitting the mathematically more elaborate parts. I kept those as separate sections in the exposition.

  10. [Comparative studies of the response of normolipemic and dyslipemic aged subjects to 2 forms of delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters. Pentaerythrotol tetranicotinate and inositol hexanicotinate. Results of a controlled cross-over trial].

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, G R; Lamberti, G; Wagner, A; Cima, L; Genco, G

    1977-01-01

    A cross-over trial was run to compare the effects of two delayed-action nicotinic acid polyesters (pentaerythritol-tetranticotinate, PETN, and inositol-hexanicotinate, MIEN) in 59 aged normo- and dyslipaemic subjects. PETN tended to normalise the lipid picture in much the same way as nicotin acid, without a drastic effect on circulating lipids and lipoproteins. MIEN, on the other hand, had only a slight effect on total blood lipids, and appeared to be ineffective or negative with respect to the other lipid parameters. PETN proved capable of releasing active concentrations of nicotinic acid in vivo for a period of time that was sufficient to correct hyperlipaemia in age subjects. The side-effects were slight, infrequent and quickly reversible. PMID:345998

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to assess the efficacy of tadalafil (Cialis[reg]) in the treatment of erectile dysfunction following three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Incrocci, Luca . E-mail: l.incrocci@erasmusmc.nl; Slagter, Cleo; Slob, A. Koos; Hop, Wim C.J.

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal external-beam radiotherapy (3DCRT) for prostatic carcinoma is reported in as many as 64% of those patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the oral drug tadalafil (Cialis (registered) ) in patients with erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients (N = 358) who completed radiotherapy at least 12 months before the study were approached by mail. All patients had been treated by 3DCRT; 60 patients were included and entered a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study lasting 12 weeks. They received 20 mg of tadalafil or placebo for 6 weeks. Drug or placebo was taken on demand at patient's discretion, with no restrictions regarding the consumption of alcohol or food, at least once a week and no more than once daily. At 6 weeks patients crossed over to the alternative treatment. Data were collected using the Sexual Encounter Profile (SEP) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Side effects were also recorded. Results: Mean age at study entry was 69 years. All patients completed the study. For almost all questions of the IIEF questionnaire there was a significant increase in mean scores from baseline with tadalafil, but not with placebo. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported an improvement of erectile function with tadalafil (placebo: 20%), and 48% reported successful intercourse with tadalafil (placebo: 9%) (p < 0.0001). Side effects were mild or moderate. Conclusions: Tadalafil is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction after 3DCRT for prostatic carcinoma with successful intercourse reported in almost 50% of the patients, and it is well tolerated.

  12. Capturing birds with mist nets: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keyes, B.E.; Grue, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    Herein we have tried to provide a comprehensive review of mist-netting techniques suitable for both novice and experienced netters. General mist-netting procedures and modifications developed by netters for particular bird species and habitats are included. Factors which influence capture success, including site selection, net specifications and placement, weather, and time of day, are discussed. Guidelines are presented for the care of netted birds and the use of mist-net data in the study of bird communities. The advantages of the use of mist nets over other methods of capturing birds are also discussed.

  13. Petri net controllers for distributed robotic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, D. R.; Saridis, George N.

    1992-01-01

    Petri nets are a well established modelling technique for analyzing parallel systems. When coupled with an event-driven operating system, Petri nets can provide an effective means for integrating and controlling the functions of distributed robotic applications. Recent work has shown that Petri net graphs can also serve as remarkably intuitive operator interfaces. In this paper, the advantages of using Petri nets as high-level controllers to coordinate robotic functions are outlined, the considerations for designing Petri net controllers are discussed, and simple Petri net structures for implementing an interface for operator supervision are presented. A detailed example is presented which illustrates these concepts for a sensor-based assembly application.

  14. Consider nonfouling fluidized bed exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Klaren, D.G.; Baiiie, R.E. )

    1989-07-01

    Applications for fluidized bed heat exchangers in various industries, their operating principles and a detailed analysis of their suitability for replacing double-pipe scraped-surface heat exchangers in lube oil plants are discussed. Development of the fluidized bed heat exchanger started in the early 70s and was totally dedicated to improvement of the multistage flash evaporator for sea water desalination. This resulted in a demonstration plant with a fluidized bed heat exchanger with a total heat transfer surface of over 1,000 m/sup 2/. Over an operating period of more than 15,000 hours untreated sea water was heated to more than 120{sup 0}C without any fouling in the tubes due to scale deposits.

  15. Net alkalinity and net acidity 1: Theoretical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Net acidity and net alkalinity are widely used, poorly defined, and commonly misunderstood parameters for the characterization of mine drainage. The authors explain theoretical expressions of 3 types of alkalinity (caustic, phenolphthalein, and total) and acidity (mineral, CO2, and total). Except for rarely-invoked negative alkalinity, theoretically defined total alkalinity is closely analogous to measured alkalinity and presents few practical interpretation problems. Theoretically defined "CO 2-acidity" is closely related to most standard titration methods with an endpoint pH of 8.3 used for determining acidity in mine drainage, but it is unfortunately named because CO2 is intentionally driven off during titration of mine-drainage samples. Using the proton condition/mass- action approach and employing graphs to illustrate speciation with changes in pH, the authors explore the concept of principal components and how to assign acidity contributions to aqueous species commonly present in mine drainage. Acidity is defined in mine drainage based on aqueous speciation at the sample pH and on the capacity of these species to undergo hydrolysis to pH 8.3. Application of this definition shows that the computed acidity in mg L -1 as CaCO3 (based on pH and analytical concentrations of dissolved FeII, FeIII, Mn, and Al in mg L -1):aciditycalculated=50{1000(10-pH)+[2(FeII)+3(FeIII)]/56+2(Mn)/ 55+3(Al)/27}underestimates contributions from HSO4- and H+, but overestimates the acidity due to Fe3+ and Al3+. However, these errors tend to approximately cancel each other. It is demonstrated that "net alkalinity" is a valid mathematical construction based on theoretical definitions of alkalinity and acidity. Further, it is shown that, for most mine-drainage solutions, a useful net alkalinity value can be derived from: (1) alkalinity and acidity values based on aqueous speciation, (2) measured alkalinity minus calculated acidity, or (3) taking the negative of the value obtained in a

  16. Net alkalinity and net acidity 2: Practical considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, C.S.; Cravotta, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    The pH, alkalinity, and acidity of mine drainage and associated waters can be misinterpreted because of the chemical instability of samples and possible misunderstandings of standard analytical method results. Synthetic and field samples of mine drainage having various initial pH values and concentrations of dissolved metals and alkalinity were titrated by several methods, and the results were compared to alkalinity and acidity calculated based on dissolved solutes. The pH, alkalinity, and acidity were compared between fresh, unoxidized and aged, oxidized samples. Data for Pennsylvania coal mine drainage indicates that the pH of fresh samples was predominantly acidic (pH 2.5-4) or near neutral (pH 6-7); ??? 25% of the samples had pH values between 5 and 6. Following oxidation, no samples had pH values between 5 and 6. The Standard Method Alkalinity titration is constrained to yield values >0. Most calculated and measured alkalinities for samples with positive alkalinities were in close agreement. However, for low-pH samples, the calculated alkalinity can be negative due to negative contributions by dissolved metals that may oxidize and hydrolyze. The Standard Method hot peroxide treatment titration for acidity determination (Hot Acidity) accurately indicates the potential for pH to decrease to acidic values after complete degassing of CO2 and oxidation of Fe and Mn, and it indicates either the excess alkalinity or that required for neutralization of the sample. The Hot Acidity directly measures net acidity (= -net alkalinity). Samples that had near-neutral pH after oxidation had negative Hot Acidity; samples that had pH < 6.3 after oxidation had positive Hot Acidity. Samples with similar pH values before oxidation had dissimilar Hot Acidities due to variations in their alkalinities and dissolved Fe, Mn, and Al concentrations. Hot Acidity was approximately equal to net acidity calculated based on initial pH and dissolved concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Al minus the

  17. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    PubMed

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online.

  18. AdaNET research plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the AdaNET research effort is to determine how to increase the availability of reusable Ada components and associated software engineering technology to both private and Federal sectors. The effort is structured to define the requirements for transfer of Federally developed software technology, study feasible approaches to meeting the requirements, and to gain experience in applying various technologies and practices. The overall approach to the development of the AdaNET System Specification is presented. A work breakdown structure is presented with each research activity described in detail. The deliverables for each work area are summarized. The overall organization and responsibilities for each research area are described. The schedule and necessary resources are presented for each research activity. The estimated cost is summarized for each activity. The project plan is fully described in the Super Project Expert data file contained on the floppy disk attached to the back cover of this plan.

  19. Prosocial behavior on the Net.

    PubMed

    Sproull, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Volunteers and charitable organizations contribute significantly to community welfare through their prosocial behavior: that is, discretionary behavior such as assisting, comforting, sharing, and cooperating intended to help worthy beneficiaries. This essay focuses on prosocial behavior on the Internet. It describes how offline charitable organizations are using the Net to become more efficient and effective. It also considers entirely new models of Net-based volunteer behavior directed at creating socially beneficial information goods and services. After exploring the scope and diversity of online prosocial behavior, the essay focuses on ways to encourage this kind of behavior through appropriate task and social structures, motivational signals, and trust indicators. It concludes by asking how local offline communities ultimately could be diminished or strengthened as prosocial behavior increases online. PMID:22167915

  20. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  1. Software reuse issues affecting AdaNET

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, John G.

    1989-01-01

    The AdaNet program is reviewing its long-term goals and strategies. A significant concern is whether current AdaNet plans adequately address the major strategic issues of software reuse technology. The major reuse issues of providing AdaNet services that should be addressed as part of future AdaNet development are identified and reviewed. Before significant development proceeds, a plan should be developed to resolve the aforementioned issues. This plan should also specify a detailed approach to develop AdaNet. A three phased strategy is recommended. The first phase would consist of requirements analysis and produce an AdaNet system requirements specification. It would consider the requirements of AdaNet in terms of mission needs, commercial realities, and administrative policies affecting development, and the experience of AdaNet and other projects promoting the transfer software engineering technology. Specifically, requirements analysis would be performed to better understand the requirements for AdaNet functions. The second phase would provide a detailed design of the system. The AdaNet should be designed with emphasis on the use of existing technology readily available to the AdaNet program. A number of reuse products are available upon which AdaNet could be based. This would significantly reduce the risk and cost of providing an AdaNet system. Once a design was developed, implementation would proceed in the third phase.

  2. Multiscale optimization in neural nets.

    PubMed

    Mjolsness, E; Garrett, C D; Miranker, W L

    1991-01-01

    One way to speed up convergence in a large optimization problem is to introduce a smaller, approximate version of the problem at a coarser scale and to alternate between relaxation steps for the fine-scale and coarse-scale problems. Such an optimization method for neural networks governed by quite general objective functions is presented. At the coarse scale, there is a smaller approximating neural net which, like the original net, is nonlinear and has a nonquadratic objective function. The transitions and information flow from fine to coarse scale and back do not disrupt the optimization, and the user need only specify a partition of the original fine-scale variables. Thus, the method can be applied easily to many problems and networks. There is generally about a fivefold improvement in estimated cost under the multiscale method. In the networks to which it was applied, a nontrivial speedup by a constant factor of between two and five was observed, independent of problem size. Further improvements in computational cost are very likely to be available, especially for problem-specific multiscale neural net methods.

  3. On Net Currents in Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran

    2012-07-01

    Vector magnetic fields of sunspots, as measured in the photosphere, show structures on a variety of special scales. Simple inversions of stokes profiles yield average values of the vector fields at a single height. Vertical component of the current density obtained from such magnetograms is also distributed on sub-arc second scales. However, the net current, obtained by spatial integration of the current density must vanish on account of the confined nature of the sunspot fields. Various measurements of the net current show different results. In this talk, I will discuss all such results, including the evolution of net current in the case of NOAA AR 10930 during the period 10 December 2006 to 15 December 2006. The implications of such an evolution for initiating eruptions in the solar corona are also discussed. Finally, the advantage of measuring currents at different layers of the solar atmosphere will be pointed out. This will be a major science goal of the upcoming Multi Application Solar Telescope (MAST) of the Udaipur Solar Observatory.

  4. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Smeenk, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which lead to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion of coal and to relate these reactions to specific causes. A survey of agglomeration and deposit formation in industrial fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) indicate that at least five boilers were experiencing some form of bed material agglomeration. Deposit formation was reported at nine sites with deposits most commonly at coal feed locations and in cyclones. Other deposit locations included side walls and return loops. Three general types of mineralogic reactions were observed to occur in the agglomerates and deposits. Although alkalies may play a role with some {open_quotes}high alkali{close_quotes} lignites, we found agglomeration was initiated due to fluxing reactions between iron (II) from pyrites and aluminosilicates from clays. This is indicated by the high amounts of iron, silica, and alumina in the agglomerates and the mineralogy of the agglomerates. Agglomeration likely originated in the dense phase of the FBC bed within the volatile plume which forms when coal is introduced to the boiler. Secondary mineral reactions appear to occur after the agglomerates have formed and tend to strengthen the agglomerates. When calcium is present in high amounts, most of the minerals in the resulting deposits are in the melilite group (gehlenite, melilite, and akermanite) and pyroxene group (diopside and augite). During these solid-phase reactions, the temperature of formation of the melilite minerals can be lowered by a reduction of the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} (Diopside + Calcite {r_arrow}Akermanite).

  5. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  7. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nets be required for bridge construction. (d) The mesh size of nets shall not exceed 6 inches by 6...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Personal Protective and Life Saving Equipment §...

  8. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  9. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  10. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  11. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  12. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  13. 27 CFR 7.27 - Net contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Net contents. 7.27 Section... Beverages § 7.27 Net contents. (a) Net contents shall be stated as follows: (1) If less than 1 pint, in fluid ounces, or fractions of a pint. (2) If 1 pint, 1 quart, or 1 gallon, the net contents shall be...

  14. Review: granulation and fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Kono, H.

    1981-01-01

    The history of granulation techniques is very long; however, the systematic study of the granulation phenomenon began only after 1950. The first, distinguished paper treating the fundamental binding mechanism of granules was published by Rumpf in 1958. Although there are several binding forces, the discussion in this paper is confined to granulation involving the capillary energy of a liquid-particle system. This technique has been applied widely and successfully to various fields of powder technology because of its advantages of simplicity and economy (ref. 2). Granules with diameters larger than 5 mm can be prepared efficiently by rotating-type granulators, such as a pan or a trommel (ref. 3, 4, 5). On the other hand, the purpose of fluidized-bed granulators (hereafter abbreviated as FBG) is to produce small granules with diameters from 0.3 to 3 mm (ref. 6). Because it contains a small amount of liquid, a fluidized-bed granulator has a fluidization state differing significantly from that of an ordinary fluidized bed. The dispersion of liquid and powder in the bed plays an important role in the granulation mechanism. This mechanism is compared to that of pan granulators, and the differences in characteristics are discussed.

  15. Char binder for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Borio, Richard W.; Accortt, Joseph I.

    1981-01-01

    An arrangement that utilizes agglomerating coal as a binder to bond coal fines and recycled char into an agglomerate mass that will have suitable retention time when introduced into a fluidized bed 14 for combustion. The simultaneous use of coal for a primary fuel and as a binder effects significant savings in the elimination of non-essential materials and processing steps.

  16. Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, M.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.

    2009-03-01

    The Berlin Emissivity Database ranges from 3 to 50 µm. BED comprises several grain-sized mineral, up to high temperature, and has a modular structure, to collect in the future Raman measurement, samples pictures, thin section images and so on.

  17. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  18. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  19. Adaptive-clustering optical neural net.

    PubMed

    Casasent, D P; Barnard, E

    1990-06-10

    Pattern recognition techniques (for clustering and linear discriminant function selection) are combined with neural net methods (that provide an automated method to combine linear discriminant functions into piecewise linear discriminant surfaces). The resulting adaptive-clustering neural net is suitable for optical implementation and has certain desirable properties in comparison with other neural nets. Simulation results are provided.

  20. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B...

  1. 46 CFR 69.63 - Net tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net tonnage. 69.63 Section 69.63 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.63 Net tonnage. Net tonnage (NT) is determined by the formula:...

  2. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that...

  3. 25 CFR 502.16 - Net revenues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net revenues. 502.16 Section 502.16 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS OF THIS CHAPTER § 502.16 Net revenues. Net revenues means gross gaming revenues of an Indian gaming operation less—...

  4. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  5. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  6. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Net savings. 436.20 Section 436.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found...

  7. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  8. 10 CFR 436.20 - Net savings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.20 Net savings. For a retrofit project, net savings may be found by subtracting life cycle costs based on the proposed project from life cycle costs based on not having it. For a new building design, net savings is the difference between the life cycle costs of an...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.105 - Safety nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety nets. 1926.105 Section 1926.105 Labor Regulations... Safety nets. (a) Safety nets shall be provided when workplaces are more than 25 feet above the ground or water surface, or other surfaces where the use of ladders, scaffolds, catch platforms, temporary...

  10. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  11. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  12. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  13. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission,...

  14. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... English Español | Spanish नेपाली | Nepali About the AIDS InfoNet The AIDS InfoNet is an educational project ... site visitor and her/his healthcare provider. The AIDS InfoNet provides current information on HIV/AIDS treatment ...

  15. The NASA Bed Rest Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Bradley; Meck, Janice

    2005-01-01

    NASA s National Vision for Space Exploration includes human travel beyond low earth orbit and the ultimate safe return of the crews. Crucial to fulfilling the vision is the successful and timely development of countermeasures for the adverse physiological effects on human systems caused by long term exposure to the microgravity environment. Limited access to in-flight resources for the foreseeable future increases NASA s reliance on ground-based analogs to simulate these effects of microgravity. The primary analog for human based research will be head-down bed rest. By this approach NASA will be able to evaluate countermeasures in large sample sizes, perform preliminary evaluations of proposed in-flight protocols and assess the utility of individual or combined strategies before flight resources are requested. In response to this critical need, NASA has created the Bed Rest Project at the Johnson Space Center. The Project establishes the infrastructure and processes to provide a long term capability for standardized domestic bed rest studies and countermeasure development. The Bed Rest Project design takes a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, integrated approach that reduces the resource overhead of one investigator for one campaign. In addition to integrating studies operationally relevant for exploration, the Project addresses other new Vision objectives, namely: 1) interagency cooperation with the NIH allows for Clinical Research Center (CRC) facility sharing to the benefit of both agencies, 2) collaboration with our International Partners expands countermeasure development opportunities for foreign and domestic investigators as well as promotes consistency in approach and results, 3) to the greatest degree possible, the Project also advances research by clinicians and academia alike to encourage return to earth benefits. This paper will describe the Project s top level goals, organization and relationship to other Exploration Vision Projects, implementation

  16. A preliminary report on a zone containing thick lignite beds, Denver Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soister, Paul E.

    1973-01-01

    A zone of lignite beds of Paleocene age in the Denver Formation (Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene) lies about 800-1,500 feet above the well-known and extensively mined coal beds of the Laramie Formation (Upper Cretaceous). The zone is a few hundred to as much as 500 feet thick. Where lignite beds lie within 1,000 feet of the surface, this zone underlies an area about 30 miles wide by about 75 miles long, stretching from just northeast of Denver to several miles south of Calhan. Fifteen mines were operated at various periods between 1874 and 1940 and probably produced a total of less than 100,000 tons of lignite, mostly for local use. From 1874 to 1974, several geologists have reported on this lignite zone or the enclosing beds, but no detailed reports have been written except for one by this writer. Drill holes are the main source of geologic data, owing to poor exposure. There are generally about 3 to 6 lignite beds, and they are mostly about 15 or 20 to a few tens of feet apart. Most or all beds typically contain numerous non-coal partings from a fraction of an inch to several inches thick, so that thickness of lignite beds should be stated as gross thickness and as net lignite thickness; net lignite thickness is generally from 70 to 90 percent of gross thickness. Many partings are composed of kaolin, but others are composed of other clay minerals, siltstone, and sandstone. The lignite beds range generally from 1 or 2 to several feet thick, and some are as much as 10-25 feet thick; the thickest known bed has a maximum thickness of 54.5 feet, with a net lignite thickness of 40 feet. Most lignite beds seem to have fair lateral continuity, and at least some beds are several miles in extent. The thickest known lignite bed was traced for at least 18 miles, from northwest to southeast of Watkins. The lignite is brownish-black to black, weathers, checks, and disintegrates rapidly, and even in drill cores from a few hundred feet in depth the lignite is easily broken by

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  18. [Historical analysis of the hospital bed].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2010-01-01

    Until now the bed has been the basic physical resource in hospitals. This type of furniture has served to study and treat patients, through out the centuries it has undergone changes in the materials they are made of dimensions, functionality, accessories, aesthetic, and design. The hospital bed history is not well known, there are thousands of documents about the evolution of hospitals, but not enough is known about hospital beds, a link between the past and the present. The medical, anthropological, technological, social, and economic dynamics and knowledge have produced a variety of beds in general and hospital beds in particular. From instinctive, rustic, poor and irregular "sites" that have differed in shape and size they had evolved into ergonomic equipment. The history of the hospital bed reflects the culture, techniques and human thinking. Current hospital beds include several types: for adults, for children, for labor, for intensive therapy, emergency purposes, census and non census beds etc.

  19. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. 4062... CORPORATION LIABILITY LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.4 Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. (a) General rules. When a contributing sponsor, or member(s) of...

  20. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. 4062... CORPORATION LIABILITY LIABILITY FOR TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS § 4062.4 Determinations of net worth and collective net worth. (a) General rules. When a contributing sponsor, or member(s) of...

  1. Survival analysis and neural nets.

    PubMed

    Liestøl, K; Andersen, P K; Andersen, U

    1994-06-30

    We consider feed-forward neural nets and their relation to regression models for survival data. We show how the back-propagation algorithm may be used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates in certain standard regression models for survival data, as well as in various generalizations of these. Examples concerning malignant melanoma and post-partum amenorrhoea during lactation are used as illustration. We conclude that although problems with the substantial number of parameters and their interpretation remain, the feed-forward neural network models are flexible extensions to the standard regression models and thereby candidates for use in prediction and exploratory analyses in larger data sets.

  2. Artificial nets from superconducting nanogranules

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Yu. N.; Kresin, V. Z.

    2012-06-15

    We show that a large transport current can flow through superconducting nets composed of nano-clusters. Although thermal and quantum fluctuations lead to a finite value of dissipation, this value can be very small in one- and two-dimensional systems for realistic parameters of the nanoclusters and distances between them. The value of the action for vortex tunneling at zero temperature can be made sufficiently large to make the dissipation negligibly small. We estimate the temperature T{sub 0} of the transition from the thermal activation to quantum tunneling.

  3. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  4. Isomorphisms between Petri nets and dataflow graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kavi, Krishna M.; Buckles, Billy P.; Bhat, U. Narayan

    1987-01-01

    Dataflow graphs are a generalized model of computation. Uninterpreted dataflow graphs with nondeterminism resolved via probabilities are shown to be isomorphic to a class of Petri nets known as free choice nets. Petri net analysis methods are readily available in the literature and this result makes those methods accessible to dataflow research. Nevertheless, combinatorial explosion can render Petri net analysis inoperative. Using a previously known technique for decomposing free choice nets into smaller components, it is demonstrated that, in principle, it is possible to determine aspects of the overall behavior from the particular behavior of components.

  5. Swing-beds: the Arizona experience.

    PubMed

    Williams, F G; Netting, F E

    1991-06-01

    Swing-beds are acute-care hospital beds temporarily used for long-term care. A demonstration program was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of using swing-beds as catalysts for the expansion of rural hospitals into community health centers to respond better to the needs of older persons in their respective communities. We examined the background and implementation issues of the swing-bed demonstration program in six rural Arizona hospitals.

  6. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  11. Bed Bug Education for School Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Missy

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are a growing problem, not only in homes and hotels, but also in schools and colleges. Facility administrators and staff need to understand the bed bug resurgence and develop best practices to deal with an infestation. In this article, the author offers tips for preventing and treating bed bugs in school and university settings.

  12. 21 CFR 868.5180 - Rocking bed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rocking bed. 868.5180 Section 868.5180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5180 Rocking bed. (a) Identification. A rocking bed is a...

  13. Dermatology Residents are Prescribing Tanning Bed Treatment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kathryn L; Huang, Karen E; Huang, William W; Feldman, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Although 90% of dermatologists discourage the use of tanning beds, about half of psoriasis patients report using tanning beds and most of these note improvement. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if dermatology residents are advocating the tanning bed use to their patients. PMID:27617718

  14. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  15. Pro-Nets versus No-Nets: Differences in Urban Older Adults' Predilections for Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresci, M. Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N.; Morrell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Enthusiasm for information technology (IT) is growing among older adults. Many older adults enjoy IT and the Internet (Pro-Nets), but others have no desire to use it (No-Nets). This study found that Pro-Nets and No-Nets were different on a number of variables that might predict IT use. No-Nets were older, had less education and income, were…

  16. Bed occupancy by diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, P; Fowler, J; Eather, G

    1979-03-24

    The Royal Newcastle Hospital Diabetic Education and Stabilization Centre was instituted primarily to improve diabetics' understanding of their disease and its everyday management. Simultaneously with a five-day education course, stabilization if insulin-dependent diabetics was undertaken on an outpatient basis. In order to disseminate diabetic education as widely as possible, trained nurses from near and far were included in each course. It is believed that these nurses will be able to offer good advice to diabetics who have no other source of reliable information. By actively attempting to reduce hospital bed occupancy by diabetics there has been a reduction of 1400 bed days per year. It is recommended that similar centres be instituted throughout Australia.

  17. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    During this first quarter, a lab-scale water-cooled pulse combustor was designed, fabricated, and integrated with old pilot-scale PAFBC test systems. Characterization tests on this pulse combustor firing different kinds of fuel -- natural gas, pulverized coal and fine coal -- were conducted (without fluidized bed operation) for the purpose of finalizing PAFBC full-scale design. Steady-state tests were performed. Heat transfer performance and combustion efficiency of a coal-fired pulse combustor were evaluated.

  18. Avionics test bed development plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, L. H.; Parks, J. M.; Murdock, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    The plan is for a facility for the early investigation and evaluation of new concepts for the control of large space structures, orbiter attached flex body experiments, and orbiter enhancements. This plan outlines a distributed data processing facility that will utilize the current JSC laboratory resources for the test bed development. The future studies required for implementation, the management system for project control, and the baseline system configuration are described.

  19. Effects of Soy Flour Fortified Bread Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors According to APOE Genotypes in Overweight and Obese Adult Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi-Zahabi, Elham; Maracy, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inclusion of soy product in the diet may have favorable effects on relief of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and risk factors. These effects might be associated with the presence of specific polymorphism in gene. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of consumption of soy flour fortified bread on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women according to APOE genotype. In a randomized cross-over clinical trial 30 overweight and obese women received a mild weight loss diet and assigned to a regular diet and a soy bread diet, each for 6 weeks and a washout period for 20 days. Subjects in the soy bread diet were asked to replace 120 grams of their daily usual bread intake with equal amount of soy bread. No significant effects of soy bread on serum lipid, systolic blood pressure and anthropometric indices were observed compared to the regular diet (p > 0.05). For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), comparison of mean differences between two groups showed a marginally significant effect of soy bread (p = 0.06). Compared to regular diet, soy bread had a significant effect on DBP in E2 genotype group (ε2/ε2) (p = 0.03). Having ε2 allele may influences responses of CVD risk factor to soy bread consumption. However more nutrigenetic studies are required. PMID:26566517

  20. Secoiridoids delivered as olive leaf extract induce acute improvements in human vascular function and reduction of an inflammatory cytokine: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Stacey; Corona, Giulia; Yaqoob, Parveen; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Rowland, Ian

    2015-07-14

    The leaves of the olive plant (Olea europaea) are rich in polyphenols, of which oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol (HT) are most characteristic. Such polyphenols have been demonstrated to favourably modify a variety of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present intervention was to investigate the influence of olive leaf extract (OLE) on vascular function and inflammation in a postprandial setting and to link physiological outcomes with absorbed phenolics. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over, acute intervention trial was conducted with eighteen healthy volunteers (nine male, nine female), who consumed either OLE (51 mg oleuropein; 10 mg HT), or a matched control (separated by a 4-week wash out) on a single occasion. Vascular function was measured by digital volume pulse (DVP), while blood collected at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 h was cultured for 24 h in the presence of lipopolysaccharide in order to investigate effects on cytokine production. Urine was analysed for phenolic metabolites by HPLC. DVP-stiffness index and ex vivo IL-8 production were significantly reduced (P< 0.05) after consumption of OLE compared to the control. These effects were accompanied by the excretion of several phenolic metabolites, namely HT and oleuropein derivatives, which peaked in urine after 8-24 h. The present study provides the first evidence that OLE positively modulates vascular function and IL-8 production in vivo, adding to growing evidence that olive phenolics could be beneficial for health.

  1. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    PubMed

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  2. Effects of Soy Flour Fortified Bread Consumption on Cardiovascular Risk Factors According to APOE Genotypes in Overweight and Obese Adult Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Zahabi, Elham; Entezari, Mohammad H; Maracy, Mohammad R

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that inclusion of soy product in the diet may have favorable effects on relief of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and risk factors. These effects might be associated with the presence of specific polymorphism in gene. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of consumption of soy flour fortified bread on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese women according to APOE genotype. In a randomized cross-over clinical trial 30 overweight and obese women received a mild weight loss diet and assigned to a regular diet and a soy bread diet, each for 6 weeks and a washout period for 20 days. Subjects in the soy bread diet were asked to replace 120 grams of their daily usual bread intake with equal amount of soy bread. No significant effects of soy bread on serum lipid, systolic blood pressure and anthropometric indices were observed compared to the regular diet (p > 0.05). For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), comparison of mean differences between two groups showed a marginally significant effect of soy bread (p = 0.06). Compared to regular diet, soy bread had a significant effect on DBP in E2 genotype group (ε2/ε2) (p = 0.03). Having ε2 allele may influences responses of CVD risk factor to soy bread consumption. However more nutrigenetic studies are required.

  3. A cross-over, double-blind comparison of the NAL-NL1 and the DSL v4.1 prescriptions for children with mild to moderately severe hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Scollie, Susan D; Dillon, Harvey; Seewald, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of the NAL-NL1 and the DSL4.1 prescriptions for 48 children with mild to moderately severe hearing loss was studied using a double-blind, four-period, two-treatment cross-over design in Australia and in Canada. Evaluations included speech perception tests, loudness ratings, reports from parents and teachers on functional performance in real life, children's self-reports, paired-comparison judgements of intelligibility, and children's preferences in real-world environments. Electroacoustic measures of hearing aids revealed that gain differences dominated the comparison. Across trials and measures, individual Australian children consistently preferred either the NAL-NL1 or the DSL v.4.1 prescription. An overall figure of merit (FOM), calculated by averaging the standardized difference scores between prescriptions for all measures, revealed that the strongest prescription-related differences were found in Australia. On average, an advantage and preference for the NAL-NL1 prescription was associated with lesser degrees of hearing loss. This research provides evidence on the effectiveness of the NAL-NL1 and DSL v.4.1 prescriptions, and highlights the need for evaluating and fine-tuning amplification to meet the diverse needs of individual children in real life.

  4. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study to establish the bifidogenic effect of a very-long-chain inulin extracted from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Adele; Kolida, Sofia; Klinder, Annett; Gietl, Eva; Bäuerlein, Michael; Frohberg, Claus; Landschütze, Volker; Gibson, Glenn R

    2010-10-01

    There is growing interest in the use of inulins as substrates for the selective growth of beneficial gut bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli because recent studies have established that their prebiotic effect is linked to several health benefits. In the present study, the impact of a very-long-chain inulin (VLCI), derived from globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus), on the human intestinal microbiota compared with maltodextrin was determined. A double-blind, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-two healthy adults who were randomised into two groups and consumed 10 g/d of either VLCI or maltodextrin, for two 3-week study periods, separated by a 3-week washout period. Numbers of faecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were significantly higher upon VLCI ingestion compared with the placebo. Additionally, levels of Atopobium group significantly increased, while Bacteroides-Prevotella numbers were significantly reduced. No significant changes in faecal SCFA concentrations were observed. There were no adverse gastrointestinal symptoms apart from a significant increase in mild and moderate bloating upon VLCI ingestion. These observations were also confirmed by in vitro gas production measurements. In conclusion, daily consumption of VLCI extracted from globe artichoke exerted a pronounced prebiotic effect on the human faecal microbiota composition and was well tolerated by all volunteers.

  5. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  6. Agglomeration-Free Distributor for Fluidized Beds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouyang, F.; Sinica, A.; Levenspiel, O.

    1986-01-01

    New gas distributor for fluidized beds prevents hot particles from reacting on it and forming hard crust. In reduction of iron ore in fluidized bed, ore particles do not sinter on distributor and perhaps clog it or otherwise interfere with gas flow. Distributor also relatively cool. In fluidized-bed production of silicon, inflowing silane does not decompose until within bed of hot silicon particles and deposits on them. Plates of spiral distributor arranged to direct incoming gas into spiral flow. Turbulence in flow reduces frequency of contact between fluidized-bed particles and distributor.

  7. Clinical skills: bed making and patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Providing a clean, comfortable bed and positioning a patient in the optimum posture for prevention of complications and to enable maximum independence are fundamental nursing skills. Bed-making is a daily routine that requires practical and technical skills. Selecting the correct posture for a patient in bed or in a chair is essential for physiological functioning and recovery. In this article bed-making is described, as are positioning and re-positioning in relation to patients in bed, armchairs and wheelchairs. Infection control and moving and handling issues are also considered. PMID:17505378

  8. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    DOEpatents

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  9. The QuarkNet Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzberger, A.

    2003-12-01

    QuarkNet is a long-term high school education project, supported by NSF and DOE and carried out by a collaboration of university and laboratory research groups. These research groups are part of major international particle physics experiments, including those at CERN in Switzerland, Fermilab in Illinois, and SLAC in California. Goals and Objectives: A major goal is to engage students and teachers in authentic scientific research; they gain a first-hand understanding of research and its application in the inquiry method of learning. Teachers enhance their content knowledge, increase their abilities to solve science-related problems, engage students in scientific inquiry, and develop responsibility for their own professional development. Students learn fundamental physics and are motivated by current research questions as they analyze real data. A second goal is to engage particle physicists with current issues in science education, including their understanding of the National Science Education Standards and local science education needs and what constitutes age-appropriate content. Project Design: Working with physicists nationwide, we have established a project framework with three program areas-teacher research experience, teacher development programs, and online resources and inquiry-based activities. Eight-week research appointments allow teachers to experience scientific research first-hand. In teacher institutes the next summer these teachers and scientists lead a group of teachers through a short research scenario lasting two to three weeks and assist them in creating similar scenarios for their students. When fully implemented QuarkNet will support centers associated with 60 particle physics research groups at universities and laboratories in the U. S. The QuarkNet website provides: - Experimental data for use in inquiry-based activities. - Opportunities for communication and collaboration among physicists, teachers and students. - A place for students to

  10. Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper bedding.

    PubMed

    Hogan, J S; Smith, K L; Todhunter, D A; Schoenberger, P S

    1990-07-01

    Bacterial counts associated with recycled newspaper, wood shavings, and pelleted corn cobs used as bedding for lactating dairy cows were compared. Chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and streptococcal bedding counts. Staphylococcal counts in pelleted corn cobs were greater than in chopped newspaper. Conversely, gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and staphylococcal counts in chopped newspaper were greater than in wood shavings. Coliform and streptococcal counts did not differ between chopped newspaper and wood shavings bedding materials. Teat swab counts from cows bedded on pelleted corn cobs were greater than those from cows bedded on chopped newspaper for gram-negative bacterial, coliform, Klebsiella species, and staphylococci. Streptococcal teat swab counts did not differ between cows bedded on chopped newspaper and pelleted corn cobs. Cows bedded on chopped newspaper and wood shavings had similar gram-negative bacterial, coliform, and Klebsiella species teat swab counts. Streptococcal and staphylococcal teat swab counts were greater from cows bedded on chopped newspaper than those from cows bedded on wood shavings. Teat swab and bedding counts were correlated. In general, bacterial counts in bedding suggest no advantage in using chopped newspaper over pelleted corn cobs or wood shavings in reducing exposure of teats to environmental mastitis pathogens. PMID:2229587

  11. Bed bug aggregation pheromone finally identified.

    PubMed

    Gries, Regine; Britton, Robert; Holmes, Michael; Zhai, Huimin; Draper, Jason; Gries, Gerhard

    2015-01-19

    Bed bugs have become a global epidemic and current detection tools are poorly suited for routine surveillance. Despite intense research on bed bug aggregation behavior and the aggregation pheromone, which could be used as a chemical lure, the complete composition of this pheromone has thus far proven elusive. Here, we report that the bed bug aggregation pheromone comprises five volatile components (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, 2-hexanone), which attract bed bugs to safe shelters, and one less-volatile component (histamine), which causes their arrestment upon contact. In infested premises, a blend of all six components is highly effective at luring bed bugs into traps. The trapping of juvenile and adult bed bugs, with or without recent blood meals, provides strong evidence that this unique pheromone bait could become an effective and inexpensive tool for bed bug detection and potentially their control. PMID:25529634

  12. Linear test bed. Volume 1: Test bed no. 1. [aerospike test bed with segmented combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Linear Test Bed program was to design, fabricate, and evaluation test an advanced aerospike test bed which employed the segmented combustor concept. The system is designated as a linear aerospike system and consists of a thrust chamber assembly, a power package, and a thrust frame. It was designed as an experimental system to demonstrate the feasibility of the linear aerospike-segmented combustor concept. The overall dimensions are 120 inches long by 120 inches wide by 96 inches in height. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure, at a mixture ratio of 5.5. At the design conditions, the sea level thrust is 200,000 pounds. The complete program including concept selection, design, fabrication, component test, system test, supporting analysis and posttest hardware inspection is described.

  13. Generalised nets and intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Krassimir; Hadjiski, Mincho

    2010-07-01

    This paper contains a short discussion and examples of the possibility for using the apparatus of generalised nets (GNs) for modelling of intelligent systems (ISs). A formal definition of the concept of an IS is introduced and illustrated. The GN approach for modelling is discussed and the architectural principles used in it are given. The modelling possibilities of the GNs are illustrated by the ideas for extensions of the concept of an expert system. A series of extensions of this concept are described. A GN model is given, which describes the process of construction of an IS. Some open problems are formulated. In the Appendix, short remarks on the concept of a GN are given: the definition and some components of the GN theory.

  14. Sorted bed forms as self-organized patterns: 2. complex forcing scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coco, Giovanni; Murray, A. Brad; Green, Malcom O.; Thieler, E. Robert; Hume, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    We employ a numerical model to study the development of sorted bed forms under a variety of hydrodynamic and sedimentary conditions. Results indicate that increased variability in wave height decreases the growth rate of the features and can potentially give rise to complicated, a priori unpredictable, behavior. This happens because the system responds to a change in wave characteristics by attempting to self-organize into a patterned seabed of different geometry and spacing. The new wavelength might not have enough time to emerge before a new change in wave characteristics occurs, leading to less regular seabed configurations. The new seabed configuration is also highly dependent on the preexisting morphology, which further limits the possibility of predicting future behavior. For the same reasons, variability in the mean current magnitude and direction slows down the growth of features and causes patterns to develop that differ from classical sorted bed forms. Spatial variability in grain size distribution and different types of net sediment aggradation/degradation can also result in the development of sorted bed forms characterized by a less regular shape. Numerical simulations qualitatively agree with observed geometry (spacing and height) of sorted bed forms. Also in agreement with observations is that at shallower depths, sorted bed forms are more likely to be affected by changes in the forcing conditions, which might also explain why, in shallow waters, sorted bed forms are described as ephemeral features. Finally, simulations indicate that the different sorted bed form shapes and patterns observed in the field might not necessarily be related to diverse physical mechanisms. Instead, variations in sorted bed form characteristics may result from variations in local hydrodynamic and/or sedimentary conditions.

  15. Tooth avulsions resulting from basketball net entanglement.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, D P; Winters, J; Novickas, D; Mesa, K

    1997-09-01

    The authors conducted a survey of dentists reporting tooth avulsions from basketball net accidents. Although the number of people injured was small, the dental injuries were serious. In many cases, multiple teeth were avulsed as a result of the maxillary anterior teeth becoming entangled in the basketball net while the patients were attempting to slamdunk a basketball either on a lowered backboard or from a raised take-off area. The authors present recommendations for preventing tooth avulsions resulting from basketball net entanglement.

  16. Efficacy of permethrin treated long-lasting insecticidal nets on malaria transmission and observations on the perceived side effects, collateral benefits and human safety in a hyperendemic tribal area of Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Surya K; Tyagi, Prajesh K; Upadhyay, Ashok K; Haque, Mohammed A; Mohanty, Suman S; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Dash, Aditya P

    2009-11-01

    Studies were conducted on the efficacy of Olyset nets-a long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) factory treated with 2% (w/w) permethrin on malaria transmission in an area under the influence of pyrethroid susceptible vector species Anopheles culicifacies and A. fluviatilis in Sundargarh District, Orissa, India. The study area comprised 22 villages that were randomized into three clusters and designated as Olyset net, untreated net, and no net area. Malaria incidence in the study population was measured through longitudinal active surveillance at fortnightly intervals. There was a reduction of 65-70% in malaria incidence in Olyset net area as compared to the control areas. The attack rate of Plasmodium falciparum or number of episodes per person per year in different age groups also showed significant reduction in Olyset net area as compared to untreated net and no net areas. Cross-sectional point prevalence surveys showed 45.7% reduction of malaria prevalence in Olyset net users, whereas there was an increase of 33.3% and 51% in untreated net and no net villages respectively. The compliance rate of Olyset net usage in the study population was 80-98% during different months, whereas it was between 70% and 90% for untreated nets. There were minimal complains of skin irritation (4%), itching (8%) and eye irritation (1.2%). However, these effects were only transitory in nature lasting for few hours of the first usage. Olyset nets also provided collateral benefits in terms of relief not only from mosquitoes and malaria but also from other household pests such as head lice, bed bugs, cockroaches, ants and houseflies. The Olyset nets were found to be safe to humans as no adverse event was recorded in the net users that can be attributed to the use of net. The study showed that Olyset nets are effective personal protection tool that can be used in a community based intervention programme.

  17. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  18. Noisy neural nets exhibiting epileptic features.

    PubMed

    Kokkinidis, M; Anninos, P

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of our previous studies of noisy neural nets we propose a model for the explanation of epileptic phenomena. Our neural net model is capable of exhibiting epileptic features if the number of spontaneously firing neurons is periodically increased beyond a certain threshold. Some alternative epileptogenic mechanisms are also discussed. The epileptic behavior of the neural net is determined by a combination of certain parameters of its phase diagram. The general features of the model are consistent with several experimental observations and explain some poorly understood clinical phenomena. The differences between normal and epileptic neural nets are explained in terms of the structural properties of the model.

  19. Short-term effect of strontium- and zinc-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses on volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Léo G; Jonski, Grazyna; Tinoco, Eduardo M B; Young, Alix

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) reduces the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) associated with oral malodour. Although strontium (Sr) is included in some products for reducing dental hypersensitivity, it may also have anti-halitosis properties. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study compared the anti-VSC effect of brushing with commercial toothpastes and rinses containing Zn and Sr. The volunteers (n = 30) either brushed/rinsed with/without tongue brushing using Zn-containing toothpaste/rinse, Sr-containing toothpaste/rinse, or placebo (control). Volatile sulphur compounds [hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH)] were measured, in morning breath, using gas chromatography. The anti-VSC effects of the test toothpastes and test rinses were significantly better than the anti-VSC effects of the respective controls. Toothbrushing with test toothpastes gave median reductions, compared with the control, of 70% for H2 S and 55-57% for CH3 SH. Rinsing with the Sr- and Zn-containing solutions had the same anti-VSC effect as toothbrushing and tooth- and tongue brushing with the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes. Zinc-containing rinse resulted in a significantly higher median salivary level of Zn compared with brushing with Zn-containing toothpaste, although this effect did not correlate with the anti-VSC effect. It can be concluded that the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes and the Zn- and Sr-containing rinses, when used in the evening, are equally effective in reducing morning-breath VSCs the following day. PMID:25689513

  20. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633. PMID:27313852

  1. Effect of supplementation of fermented milk drink containing probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota on the concentrations of aflatoxin biomarkers among employees of Universiti Putra Malaysia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Mohd Redzwan, Sabran; Abd Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Ahmad, Zuraini; Kang, Min-Su; Abdul Rahman, Nurul 'Aqilah; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Elham; Jamaluddin, Rosita

    2016-01-14

    Human exposure to aflatoxin is through the diet, and probiotics are able to bind aflatoxin and prevent its absorption in the small intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) (probiotic drink) to prevent aflatoxin absorption and reduce serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct (AFB1-lys) and urinary aflatoxin M1 concentrations. The present study was a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study with two 4-week intervention phases. In all, seventy-one subjects recruited from the screening stage were divided into two groups--the Yellow group and the Blue group. In the 1st phase, one group received probiotic drinks twice a day and the other group received placebo drinks. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline, 2nd and 4th week of the intervention. After a 2-week wash-out period, the treatments were switched between the groups, and blood and urine samples were collected at the 6th, 8th and 10th week (2nd phase) of the intervention. No significant differences in aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were observed during the intervention. A within-group analysis was further carried out. Aflatoxin biomarker concentrations were not significantly different in the Yellow group. Nevertheless, ANOVA for repeated measurements indicated that AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly different (P=0·035) with the probiotic intervention in the Blue group. The 2nd week AFB1-lys concentrations (5·14 (SD 2·15) pg/mg albumin (ALB)) were significantly reduced (P=0·048) compared with the baseline (6·24 (SD 3·42) pg/mg ALB). Besides, the 4th week AFB1-lys concentrations were significantly lower (P<0·05) with probiotic supplementation than with the placebo. Based on these findings, a longer intervention study is warranted to investigate the effects of continuous LcS consumption to prevent dietary aflatoxin exposure.

  2. β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sandra T; Green-Johnson, Julia M; Brooks, Stephen P J; Ramdath, D Dan; Bercik, Premysl; Avila, Christian; Inglis, G Douglas; Green, Judy; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-28

    β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters.

  3. Polyphenol- and fibre-rich dried fruits with green tea attenuate starch-derived postprandial blood glucose and insulin: a randomised, controlled, single-blind, cross-over intervention.

    PubMed

    Nyambe-Silavwe, H; Williamson, G

    2016-08-01

    Polyphenol- and fibre-rich foods (PFRF) have the potential to affect postprandial glycaemic responses by reducing glucose absorption, and thus decreasing the glycaemic response of foods when consumed together. A randomised, single-blind, cross-over study was conducted on sixteen healthy volunteers to test whether PFRF could attenuate postprandial blood glucose in healthy volunteers when added to a source of carbohydrate (starch in bread). This is the first study to examine the effects of a meal comprised of components to inhibit each stage of the biochemical pathway, leading up to the appearance of glucose in the blood. The volunteers were fasted and attended four visits: two control visits (bread, water, balancing sugars) and two test visits (single and double dose of PFRF) where they consumed bread, water and PFRF. Blood samples were collected at 0 (fasted), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after consumption. The PFRF components were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potential in vitro. Plasma glucose was lower after consumption of both doses compared with controls: lower dose, change in mean incremental areas under the glucose curves (IAUC)=-27·4 (sd 7·5) %, P<0·001; higher dose, IAUC=-49·0 (sd 15·3) %, P<0·001; insulin IAUC was also attenuated by-46·9 (sd 13·4) %, P<0·01. Consistent with this, the polyphenol components of the PFRF inhibited α-amylase (green tea, strawberry, blackberry and blackcurrant) and α-glucosidase (green tea) activities in vitro. The PFRF have a pronounced and significant lowering effect on postprandial blood glucose and insulin response in humans, due in part to inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as glucose transport. PMID:27278405

  4. A randomized, double-blind, positive-controlled, 3-way cross-over human experimental pain study of a TRPV1 antagonist (V116517) in healthy volunteers and comparison with preclinical profile.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Harris, Steve; Whiteside, Garth T; Hummel, Michele; Knappenberger, Terri; OʼKeefe, Sarah; Kapil, Ram; Kyle, Don

    2016-09-01

    This experimental, translational, experimental pain, single-center, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, 3-treatment, 3-period cross-over proof-of-concept volunteer trial studied the efficacy of a novel TRPV1 antagonist (V116517) on capsaicin- and UV-B-induced hyperalgesia. Heat and pressure pain thresholds, von Frey stimulus-response functions, and neurogenic inflammation were assessed together with safety. Each treatment period was 4 days. The 3 single oral treatments were 300 mg V116517, 400 mg celecoxib (a COX-2 inhibitor), and placebo. The heat pain detection and tolerance thresholds were increased significantly (P < 0.0001) by V116517. Heat pain detection and tolerance thresholds showed significantly less capsaicin hyperalgesia after V116517 (P = 0.004 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Celecoxib reduced UV-B-provoked pressure pain sensitization (P = 0.01). Laser Doppler flowmetry and erythema index after UV-B were significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced by celecoxib. Stimulus-response function in capsaicin-treated areas showed significant differences between both celecoxib and placebo and between V116517 and placebo. The body temperature showed no change, and no side effects were reported for any of the treatments. The TRPV1 antagonists and the COX-2 inhibitor showed different antihyperalgesic profiles indicating different clinical targets. In addition, the preclinical profile of V116517 in rat models of UV-B and capsaicin-induced hypersensitivity was compared with the human experimental data and overall demonstrated an alignment between 2 of the 3 end points tested. The TRPV1 antagonist showed a potent antihyperalgesic action without changing the body temperature but heat analgesia may be a potential safety issue. PMID:27168361

  5. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  6. Short-term effect of strontium- and zinc-containing toothpastes and mouthrinses on volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study.

    PubMed

    Soares, Léo G; Jonski, Grazyna; Tinoco, Eduardo M B; Young, Alix

    2015-04-01

    Zinc (Zn) reduces the formation of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) associated with oral malodour. Although strontium (Sr) is included in some products for reducing dental hypersensitivity, it may also have anti-halitosis properties. This randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical study compared the anti-VSC effect of brushing with commercial toothpastes and rinses containing Zn and Sr. The volunteers (n = 30) either brushed/rinsed with/without tongue brushing using Zn-containing toothpaste/rinse, Sr-containing toothpaste/rinse, or placebo (control). Volatile sulphur compounds [hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) and methyl mercaptan (CH3 SH)] were measured, in morning breath, using gas chromatography. The anti-VSC effects of the test toothpastes and test rinses were significantly better than the anti-VSC effects of the respective controls. Toothbrushing with test toothpastes gave median reductions, compared with the control, of 70% for H2 S and 55-57% for CH3 SH. Rinsing with the Sr- and Zn-containing solutions had the same anti-VSC effect as toothbrushing and tooth- and tongue brushing with the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes. Zinc-containing rinse resulted in a significantly higher median salivary level of Zn compared with brushing with Zn-containing toothpaste, although this effect did not correlate with the anti-VSC effect. It can be concluded that the Sr- and Zn-containing toothpastes and the Zn- and Sr-containing rinses, when used in the evening, are equally effective in reducing morning-breath VSCs the following day.

  7. Impact of Virgin Olive Oil and Phenol-Enriched Virgin Olive Oils on the HDL Proteome in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects: A Double Blind, Randomized, Controlled, Cross-Over Clinical Trial (VOHF Study)

    PubMed Central

    Pedret, Anna; Catalán, Úrsula; Fernández-Castillejo, Sara; Farràs, Marta; Valls, Rosa-M; Rubió, Laura; Canela, Núria; Aragonés, Gerard; Romeu, Marta; Castañer, Olga; de la Torre, Rafael; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Fitó, Montse; Motilva, Maria-José; Solà, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The effects of olive oil phenolic compounds (PCs) on HDL proteome, with respect to new aspects of cardioprotective properties, are still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on the HDL protein cargo of the intake of virgin olive oil (VOO) and two functional VOOs, enriched with their own PCs (FVOO) or complemented with thyme PCs (FVOOT), in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Eligible volunteers were recruited from the IMIM-Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (Spain) from April 2012 to September 2012. Thirty-three hypercholesterolemic participants (total cholesterol >200mg/dL; 19 men and 14 women; aged 35 to 80 years) were randomized in the double-blind, controlled, cross-over VOHF clinical trial. The subjects received for 3 weeks 25 mL/day of: VOO, FVOO, or FVOOT. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, 127 HDL-associated proteins were identified. Among these, 15 were commonly differently expressed after the three VOO interventions compared to baseline, with specific changes observed for each intervention. The 15 common proteins were mainly involved in the following pathways: LXR/RXR activation, acute phase response, and atherosclerosis. The three VOOs were well tolerated by all participants. Consumption of VOO, or phenol-enriched VOOs, has an impact on the HDL proteome in a cardioprotective mode by up-regulating proteins related to cholesterol homeostasis, protection against oxidation and blood coagulation while down-regulating proteins implicated in acute-phase response, lipid transport, and immune response. The common observed protein expression modifications after the three VOOs indicate a major matrix effect. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials ISRCTN77500181. PMID:26061039

  8. Investigation on the clinical efficacy and safety of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment (Protopic) in canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Marsella, R; Nicklin, C F; Saglio, S; Lopez, J

    2004-10-01

    Topical tacrolimus is successfully used in people with atopic dermatitis. Preliminary studies in dogs with atopic dermatitis using tacrolimus in a compounded lotion formulation indicated that tacrolimus significantly decreased erythema and pruritus according to investigator, but no significant improvement was reported by the dog owners. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of the commercially available 0.1% tacrolimus ointment (Protopic) in dogs with atopic dermatitis. The study was designed as a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Selected dogs were allocated to either tacrolimus or placebo for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks there was a wash-out period of 2 weeks and treatments were switched. Twelve dogs completed the study. Clinical signs were scored. Blood samples were collected for complete blood count, chemistry panels and tacrolimus levels at week 0 and 4 of each treatment. Tacrolimus ointment significantly decreased severity of symptoms for both owners and investigators at the end of the trial. When the same dogs received the placebo, there were no differences between week 0 and week 4 scores. Dogs with localized disease responded better than dogs with generalized disease. Tacrolimus was detected in the blood of animals receiving the active ingredient. Levels were below the level of toxicity and no adverse effects were reported in any of the dogs. No changes in complete blood count and chemistry parameters were detected between groups or within groups. In conclusion, tacrolimus appears to be a safe alternative treatment in dogs with atopic dermatitis, especially in those with localized disease.

  9. Increased gut hormones and insulin sensitivity index following a 3-d intervention with a barley kernel-based product: a randomised cross-over study in healthy middle-aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Anne C; Johansson-Boll, Elin V; Björck, Inger M E

    2015-09-28

    Certain purified indigestible carbohydrates such as inulin have been shown to stimulate gut-derived hormones involved in glycaemic regulation and appetite regulation, and to counteract systemic inflammation through a gut microbiota-mediated mechanism. Less is known about the properties of indigestible carbohydrates intrinsic to food. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility to affect release of endogenous gut hormones and ameliorate appetite control and glycaemic control by ingestion of a whole-grain cereal food product rich in NSP and resistant starch in healthy humans. In all, twenty middle-aged subjects were provided with a barley kernel-based bread (BB) or a reference white wheat bread during 3 consecutive days, respectively, in a randomised cross-over design study. At a standardised breakfast the following day (day 4), blood was collected for the analysis of blood (b) glucose regulation, gastrointestinal hormones, markers of inflammation and markers of colonic fermentation; 3 d of intervention with BB increased gut hormones in plasma (p) the next morning at fasting (p-glucagon-like peptide-1; 56%) and postprandially (p-glucagon-like peptide-2; 13% and p-peptide YY; 18%). Breath H₂ excretion and fasting serum (s) SCFA concentrations were increased (363 and 18%, respectively), and b-glucose (22%) and s-insulin responses (17%) were decreased after BB intervention. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI(composite)) was also improved (25%) after BB. In conclusion, 3 d of intervention with BB increased systemic levels of gut hormones involved in appetite regulation, metabolic control and maintenance of gut barrier function, as well as improved markers of glucose homoeostasis in middle-aged subjects, altogether relevant for the prevention of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26259632

  10. β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sandra T; Green-Johnson, Julia M; Brooks, Stephen P J; Ramdath, D Dan; Bercik, Premysl; Avila, Christian; Inglis, G Douglas; Green, Judy; Yanke, L Jay; Selinger, L Brent; Kalmokoff, Martin

    2016-05-28

    β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood was analysed for clinical, biochemical and immunological variables. Determinations of well-being and general health, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, regularity, faecal SCFA content, residual faecal β2-1 fructans and faecal bifidobacteria content were undertaken. β2-1 Fructan supplementation had no effect on blood lipid or cholesterol concentrations or on circulating lymphocyte and macrophage numbers, but significantly increased serum lipopolysaccharide, faecal SCFA, faecal bifidobacteria and indigestion. With respect to immune function, β2-1 fructan supplementation increased serum IL-4, circulating percentages of CD282+/TLR2+ myeloid dendritic cells and ex vivo responsiveness to a toll-like receptor 2 agonist. β2-1 Fructans also decreased serum IL-10, but did not affect C-reactive protein or serum/faecal Ig concentrations. No differences in host well-being were associated with either treatment, although the self-reported incidence of GI symptoms and headaches increased during the β2-1 fructan phase. Although β2-1 fructan supplementation increased faecal bifidobacteria, this change was not directly related to any of the determined host parameters. PMID:26987626

  11. Retention of laryngoscopy skills in medical students: a randomised, cross-over study of the Macintosh, A.P. Advance(™) , C-MAC(®) and Airtraq(®) laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I; Ramanathan, V; Balasubramanian, P; Evans, D A; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being effective and easy to learn how to use, the ideal laryngoscope should be associated with minimal reduction in skill performance during gaps in practice over time. We compared the time taken to intubate the trachea of a manikin by novice medical students immediately after training, and then after 1 month, with no intervening practice. We designed a two-period, four-group, randomised, cross-over trial to compare the Macintosh, Venner(™) A.P. Advance(™) with difficult airway blade, C-MAC(®) with D-Blade and Airtraq(®) with wireless video-viewer. A bougie was used to aid intubation with the Macintosh and the C-MAC. After training, there was no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) intubation time using the videolaryngoscopes compared with the Macintosh, which took 30 (26.5-35 [12-118])s. One month later, the intubation time was longer using the C-MAC (41 (29.5-52 [20-119])s; p = 0.002) and A.P. Advance (40 (28.5-57.5 [21-107])s; p = 0.0003)m compared with the Macintosh (27 (21-29 [16-90])s); there was no difference using the Airtraq (27 (20.5-32.5 [15-94])s; p = 0.258) compared with the Macintosh. While skill acquisition after a brief period of learning and practice was equal for each laryngoscope, performance levels differed after 1 month without practice. In particular, the consistency of performance using the C-MAC and A.P. Advance was worse compared with the Macintosh and the Airtraq. While the clinical significance of this is doubtful, we believe that reliable and consistent performance at laryngoscopy is desirable; for the devices that we tested, this requires regular practice.

  12. Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre-)hypertension: a randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Brüll, Verena; Burak, Constanze; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Wolffram, Siegfried; Nickenig, Georg; Müller, Cornelius; Langguth, Peter; Alteheld, Birgit; Fimmers, Rolf; Naaf, Stefanie; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stehle, Peter; Egert, Sarah

    2015-10-28

    The polyphenol quercetin may prevent CVD due to its antihypertensive and vasorelaxant properties. We investigated the effects of quercetin after regular intake on blood pressure (BP) in overweight-to-obese patients with pre-hypertension and stage I hypertension. In addition, the potential mechanisms responsible for the hypothesised effect of quercetin on BP were explored. Subjects (n 70) were randomised to receive 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract powder or placebo in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial with 6-week treatment periods separated by a 6-week washout period. Before and after the intervention, ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and office BP were measured; urine and blood samples were collected; and endothelial function was measured by EndoPAT technology. In the total group, quercetin did not significantly affect 24 h ABP parameters and office BP. In the subgroup of hypertensives, quercetin decreased 24 h systolic BP by -3·6 mmHg (P=0·022) when compared with placebo (mean treatment difference, -3·9 mmHg; P=0·049). In addition, quercetin significantly decreased day-time and night-time systolic BP in hypertensives, but without a significant effect in inter-group comparison. In the total group and also in the subgroup of hypertensives, vasoactive biomarkers including endothelin-1, soluble endothelial-derived adhesion molecules, asymmetric dimethylarginine, angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, endothelial function, parameters of oxidation, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism were not affected by quercetin. In conclusion, supplementation with 162 mg/d quercetin from onion skin extract lowers ABP in patients with hypertension, suggesting a cardioprotective effect of quercetin. The mechanisms responsible for the BP-lowering effect remain unclear.

  13. Retention of laryngoscopy skills in medical students: a randomised, cross-over study of the Macintosh, A.P. Advance(™) , C-MAC(®) and Airtraq(®) laryngoscopes.

    PubMed

    Hunter, I; Ramanathan, V; Balasubramanian, P; Evans, D A; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2016-10-01

    In addition to being effective and easy to learn how to use, the ideal laryngoscope should be associated with minimal reduction in skill performance during gaps in practice over time. We compared the time taken to intubate the trachea of a manikin by novice medical students immediately after training, and then after 1 month, with no intervening practice. We designed a two-period, four-group, randomised, cross-over trial to compare the Macintosh, Venner(™) A.P. Advance(™) with difficult airway blade, C-MAC(®) with D-Blade and Airtraq(®) with wireless video-viewer. A bougie was used to aid intubation with the Macintosh and the C-MAC. After training, there was no significant difference in median (IQR [range]) intubation time using the videolaryngoscopes compared with the Macintosh, which took 30 (26.5-35 [12-118])s. One month later, the intubation time was longer using the C-MAC (41 (29.5-52 [20-119])s; p = 0.002) and A.P. Advance (40 (28.5-57.5 [21-107])s; p = 0.0003)m compared with the Macintosh (27 (21-29 [16-90])s); there was no difference using the Airtraq (27 (20.5-32.5 [15-94])s; p = 0.258) compared with the Macintosh. While skill acquisition after a brief period of learning and practice was equal for each laryngoscope, performance levels differed after 1 month without practice. In particular, the consistency of performance using the C-MAC and A.P. Advance was worse compared with the Macintosh and the Airtraq. While the clinical significance of this is doubtful, we believe that reliable and consistent performance at laryngoscopy is desirable; for the devices that we tested, this requires regular practice. PMID:27530359

  14. Controlled cross-over study in normal subjects of naloxone-preceding-lactate infusions; respiratory and subjective responses: relationship to endogenous opioid system, suffocation false alarm theory and childhood parental loss

    PubMed Central

    Preter, M.; Lee, S. H.; Petkova, E.; Vannucci, M.; Kim, S.; Klein, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The expanded suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) hypothesizes that dysfunction in endogenous opioidergic regulation increases sensitivity to CO2, separation distress and panic attacks. In panic disorder (PD) patients, both spontaneous clinical panics and lactate-induced panics markedly increase tidal volume (TV), whereas normals have a lesser effect, possibly due to their intact endogenous opioid system. We hypothesized that impairing the opioidergic system by naloxone could make normal controls parallel PD patients' response when lactate challenged. Whether actual separations and losses during childhood (childhood parental loss, CPL) affected naloxone-induced respiratory contrasts was explored. Subjective panic-like symptoms were analyzed although pilot work indicated that the subjective aspect of anxious panic was not well modeled by this specific protocol. Method Randomized cross-over sequences of intravenous naloxone (2 mg/kg) followed by lactate (10 mg/kg), or saline followed by lactate, were given to 25 volunteers. Respiratory physiology was objectively recorded by the LifeShirt. Subjective symptomatology was also recorded. Results Impairment of the endogenous opioid system by naloxone accentuates TV and symptomatic response to lactate. This interaction is substantially lessened by CPL. Conclusions Opioidergic dysregulation may underlie respiratory pathophysiology and suffocation sensitivity in PD. Comparing specific anti-panic medications with ineffective anti-panic agents (e.g. propranolol) can test the specificity of the naloxone + lactate model. A screen for putative anti-panic agents and a new pharmacotherapeutic approach are suggested. Heuristically, the experimental unveiling of the endogenous opioid system impairing effects of CPL and separation in normal adults opens a new experimental, investigatory area. PMID:20444308

  15. Pioglitazone Improves Fat Distribution, the Adipokine Profile and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Non-Diabetic End-Stage Renal Disease Subjects on Maintenance Dialysis: A Randomized Cross-Over Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zanchi, Anne; Tappy, Luc; Lê, Kim-Anne; Bortolotti, Murielle; Theumann, Nicolas; Halabi, Georges; Gauthier, Thierry; Mathieu, Claudine; Tremblay, Sylvie; Bertrand, Pauline Coti; Burnier, Michel; Teta, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Fat redistribution, increased inflammation and insulin resistance are prevalent in non-diabetic subjects treated with maintenance dialysis. The aim of this study was to test whether pioglitazone, a powerful insulin sensitizer, alters body fat distribution and adipokine secretion in these subjects and whether it is associated with improved insulin sensitivity. Trial Design This was a double blind cross-over study with 16 weeks of pioglitazone 45 mg vs placebo involving 12 subjects. Methods At the end of each phase, body composition (anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptometry (DEXA), abdominal CT), hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity (2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with 2H2-glucose) were measured and fasting blood adipokines and cardiometabolic risk markers were monitored. Results Four months treatment with pioglitazone had no effect on total body weight or total fat but decreased the visceral/sub-cutaneous adipose tissue ratio by 16% and decreased the leptin/adiponectin (L/A) ratio from 3.63×10−3 to 0.76×10−3. This was associated with a 20% increase in hepatic insulin sensitivity without changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, a 12% increase in HDL cholesterol and a 50% decrease in CRP. Conclusions/Limitations Pioglitazone significantly changes the visceral-subcutaneous fat distribution and plasma L/A ratio in non diabetic subjects on maintenance dialysis. This was associated with improved hepatic insulin sensitivity and a reduction of cardio-metabolic risk markers. Whether these effects may improve the outcome of non diabetic end-stage renal disease subjects on maintenance dialysis still needs further evaluation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01253928 PMID:25330088

  16. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P.; Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Shimamura, K.; Maglione, M.

    2014-04-01

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba0.850Ca0.150)(Ti0.900Zr0.100)O3 ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO3-BaZrO3-CaTiO3 pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO2-ZrO2 solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba0.857Ca0.143)(Ti0.928Zr0.072)O3 to (Ba0.953Ca0.047)(Ti0.427Zr0.573)O3. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba0.838Ca0.162)(Ti0.854Zr0.146)O3 composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d31 and k31 of 93 pC.N-1 and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K).

  17. Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Reis, Caio E G; Ribeiro, Daniela N; Costa, Neuza M B; Bressan, Josefina; Alfenas, Rita C G; Mattes, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0-240 min)- and second (240-490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0-490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0-240 min) and glucose IAUC (240-490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women. PMID:23122211

  18. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  19. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Wetherell, Mark; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853).

  20. Effect of a fermented dietary supplement containing chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Mi; Wolf, Petra; Hauner, Hans; Skurk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background For the increasing development of type 2 diabetes dietary habits play an important role. In this regard, dietary supplements are of growing interest to influence the progression of this disease. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a cascade-fermented dietary supplement based on fruits, nuts, and vegetables fortified with chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, intervention study under free-living conditions using a cross-over design. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled and randomized either to receive a cascade-fermented dietary supplement enriched with chromium (100 µg/d) and zinc (15 mg/d) or a placebo similar in taste but without supplements, over a period of 12 weeks. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, the patients received the other test product. The main outcome variable was the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Other outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, fructosamine, and lipid parameters. Results Thirty-one patients completed the study. HbA1c showed no relevant changes during both treatment periods, nor was there a relevant difference between the two treatments (HbA1c: p=0.48). The same results were found for fructosamine and fasting glucose (fructosamine: p=0.9; fasting glucose: p=0.31). In addition, there was no effect on lipid metabolism. Conclusion This intervention study does not provide evidence that a cascade-fermented plant-based dietary supplement enriched with a combination of chromium and zinc improves glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under free-living conditions. PMID:27343205

  1. Evaluation of the antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine during a 24-h period: a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison in skin responses induced by histamine iontophoresis.

    PubMed

    Takeo, Tomohiro; Kasugai, Chikatoshi; Tanaka, Rui; Ando, Takashi; Ogawa, Akina; Akita, Yoichi; Watanabe, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    The antihistamine effects of olopatadine and levocetirizine, in standard-dose application described in their information (5 mg twice a day for olopatadine; 5 mg once daily for levocetirizine), were examined from 11.5 to 24 h after application. The test was designed in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of 12 healthy volunteers on histamine-induced flare and wheal response using an iontophoresis technique. The suppressive effect of olopatadine on the wheals induced by a 0.1-mA histamine iontophoresis lasted for 24 h after dosing. Both drugs inhibited flare induced by histamine iontophoresis almost completely until 24 h after the first administration. Suppression of the 0.2-mA-induced wheal response by levocetirizine, taken once daily, decreased with time, although 0.1-mA-induced flare was almost completely suppressed by the drug. Olopatadine completely suppressed even the wheal response induced by a 0.2-mA histamine iontophoresis. Compared with the placebo, the two drugs significantly suppressed the subjective itching assessed by visual analog scale at all intervals. There were no significant differences in subjective drowsiness and objective cognitive function between drug- and placebo-treated subjects. These results demonstrate that olopatadine seems to be more potent than levocetirizine when administrated in a standard dose. In conclusion, mild to moderate urticaria could be controlled by standard application as described in their information. On the other hand, severe urticaria could be managed by a standard application of olopatadine, but levocetirizine may need an additional dose to control severe urticaria. PMID:24303975

  2. An acute, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study of 320 mg and 640 mg doses of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08) on multitasking stress reactivity and mood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sarah; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Wetherell, Mark; Zangara, Andrea; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-04-01

    Little research exists in humans concerning the anxiolytic, antidepressant, sedative, and adaptogenic actions the traditional Ayurvedic medicine Bacopa monnieri (BM) possesses in addition to its documented cognitive-enhancing effects. Preclinical work has identified a number of acute anxiolytic, nootropic, and adaptogenic effects of BM that may also co-occur in humans. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study assessed the acute effects of a specific extract of BM (KeenMind® - CDRI 08) in normal healthy participants during completion of a multitasking framework (MTF). Seventeen healthy volunteers completed the MTF, at baseline, then 1 h and 2 h after consuming a placebo, 320 mg BM and 640 mg of BM. Treatments were separated by a 7-day washout with order determined by Latin Square. Outcome measures included cognitive outcomes from the MTF, with mood and salivary cortisol measured before and after each completion of the MTF. Change from baseline scores indicated positive cognitive effects, notably at both 1 h post and 2 h post BM consumption on the Letter Search and Stroop tasks, suggesting an earlier nootropic effect of BM than previously investigated. There were also some positive mood effects and reduction in cortisol levels, pointing to a physiological mechanism for stress reduction associated with BM consumption. It was concluded that acute BM supplementation produced some adaptogenic and nootropic effects that need to be replicated in a larger sample and in isolation from stressful cognitive tests in order to quantify the magnitude of these effects. The study was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12612000834853). PMID:23788517

  3. Continuous cross-over from ferroelectric to relaxor state and piezoelectric properties of BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Benabdallah, F.; Veber, P. Prakasam, M.; Viraphong, O.; Maglione, M.; Shimamura, K.

    2014-04-14

    Optimal properties like piezoelectricity can be found in polarizable materials for which the structure changes sharply under small composition variations in the vicinity of their morphotropic phase boundary or the triple point in their isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram. In the latter, lead-free (Ba{sub 0.850}Ca{sub 0.150})(Ti{sub 0.900}Zr{sub 0.100})O{sub 3} ceramics exhibit outstanding piezoelectric coefficients. For the first time, we report the growth of piezoelectric lead-free single crystals in the BaTiO{sub 3}-BaZrO{sub 3}-CaTiO{sub 3} pseudo-ternary system. The stoichiometry control in the CaO-BaO-TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solution led to single crystals with various compositions ranging from (Ba{sub 0.857}Ca{sub 0.143})(Ti{sub 0.928}Zr{sub 0.072})O{sub 3} to (Ba{sub 0.953}Ca{sub 0.047})(Ti{sub 0.427}Zr{sub 0.573})O{sub 3}. We evidenced a continuous cross-over from a ferroelectric state at high titanium content to a relaxor one on increasing the zirconium content. Such a property tuning is rather seldom observed in lead-free ferroelectrics and confirms what was already reported for ceramics. Single crystal with (Ba{sub 0.838}Ca{sub 0.162})(Ti{sub 0.854}Zr{sub 0.146})O{sub 3} composition, which has been grown and oriented along [001] crystallographic direction, displayed electromechanical coefficients d{sub 31} and k{sub 31} of 93 pC.N{sup −1} and 0.18, respectively, near the room temperature (T = 305 K)

  4. Probiotic strain Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption from an iron-supplemented fruit drink: a double-isotope cross-over single-blind study in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Michael; Önning, Gunilla; Berggren, Anna; Hulthén, Lena

    2015-10-28

    Iron deficiency is common, especially among young women. Adding probiotics to foods could be one way to increase iron absorption. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that non-haem iron absorption from a fruit drink is improved by adding Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v). Iron absorption was studied in healthy women of reproductive age using a single-blind cross-over design in two trials applying the double-isotope (55Fe and 59Fe) technique. In Trial 1, iron absorption from a fruit drink containing 109 colony-forming units (CFU) Lp299v was compared with that from a control drink without Lp299v. Trial 2 had the same design but 1010 CFU were used. The test and control drinks contained approximately 5 mg of iron as ferrous lactate and were labelled with 59Fe (B) and 55Fe (A), respectively, and consumed on 4 consecutive days in the order AABB. Retention of the isotopes was measured with whole-body counting and in blood. Mean iron absorption from the drink containing 109 CFU Lp299v (28·6(sd 12·5) %) was significantly higher than from the control drink (18·5(sd 5·8) %), n 10, P<0·028). The fruit drink with 1010 CFU Lp299v gave a mean iron absorption of 29·1(sd 17·0) %, whereas the control drink gave an absorption of (20·1(sd 6·4) %) (n 11, P<0·080). The difference in iron absorption between the 109 CFU Lp299v and the 1010 CFU Lp299v drinks was not significant (P=0·941). In conclusion, intake of probiotics can increase iron absorption by approximately 50 % from a fruit drink having an already relatively high iron bioavailability.

  5. Effect of sexual intercourse on the absorption of levonorgestrel after vaginal administration of 0.75 mg in Carraguard® gel: a randomized, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study☆

    PubMed Central

    Brache, Vivian; Croxatto, Horacio; Kumar, Narender; Sitruk-Ware, Regine; Cochón, Leila; Schiappacasse, Veronica; Sivin, Irving; Muñoz, Carla; Maguire, Robin; Faundes, Anibal

    2010-01-01

    Background The Population Council studied a pre-coital contraceptive microbicide vaginal product containing levonorgestrel (LNG) as active component and Carraguard® gel as a vehicle (Carra/LNG gel) for couples who engage in occasional unplanned intercourse. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sexual intercourse after vaginal application of Carra/LNG gel on serum levels of LNG in women and to assess LNG absorption by the male partner. Study Design This was a randomized, cross-over, pharmacokinetic study including an abstinence arm and an arm in which couples engaged in sexual intercourse between 2 and 4 h after gel application. In each study arm, each woman received a single application of Carra/LNG gel (0.75 mg in 4 mL gel) followed by serial blood samples taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after gel application for LNG measurements. In the intercourse arm, LNG was measured in blood samples taken from the male partner before intercourse and at 4, 8 and 24 h after gel application in the female partner. Results Time concentration curves for serum LNG levels showed a mean Cmax of 7.8±5.5 and 8.3±5.7 nmol/L, a mean Tmax of 6.2±5.9 and 7.5±5.7, and comparable area under the curve for the intercourse and abstinence arm, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters presented large variability between subjects, but excellent reproducibility within each subject. LNG was undetectable in 10 out of 12 male partners. Conclusion Sexual intercourse does not appear to interfere with vaginal absorption of LNG after application of a Carra/LNG gel. A vaginal pre-coital contraceptive gel is feasible. PMID:19135574

  6. Fluidized bed charcoal particle production system

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.

    1985-04-09

    A fluidized bed charcoal particle production system, including apparatus and method, wherein pieces of combustible waste, such as sawdust, fragments of wood, etc., are continuously disposed within a fluidized bed of a pyrolytic vessel. Preferably, the fluidized bed is caused to reach operating temperatures by use of an external pre-heater. The fluidized bed is situated above an air delivery system at the bottom of the vessel, which supports pyrolysis within the fluidized bed. Charcoal particles are thus formed within the bed from the combustible waste and are lifted from the bed and placed in suspension above the bed by forced air passing upwardly through the bed. The suspended charcoal particles and the gaseous medium in which the particles are suspended are displaced from the vessel into a cyclone mechanism where the charcoal particles are separated. The separated charcoal particles are quenched with water to terminate all further charcoal oxidation. The remaining off-gas is burned and, preferably, the heat therefrom used to generate steam, kiln dry lumber, etc. Preferably, the bed material is continuously recirculated and purified by removing tramp material.

  7. Development of second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Robertson, A.; Bonk, D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and its team members, Westinghouse, Gilbert/Commonwealth, and the Institute of Gas Technology are developing second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion technology capable of achieving net plant efficiency in excess of 45 percent based on the higher heating value of the coal. A three-phase program entails design and costing of a 500 MWe power plant and identification of developments needed to commercialize this technology (Phase 1), testing of individual components (Phase 2), and finally testing these components in an integrated mode (Phase 3). This paper briefly describes the results of the first two phases as well as the progress on the third phase. Since other projects which use the same technology are in construction or in negotiation stages-namely, the Power System Development Facility and the Four Rivers Energy Modernization Projects-brief descriptions of these are also included.

  8. The Berlin emissivity database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2008-03-01

    Remote-sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to the solar system bodies include in their payload, instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. Apart from measuring the reflected radiance, more and more spacecrafts are equipped with instruments measuring directly the emitted radiation from the planetary surface. The emitted radiation is not only a function of the composition of the material but also of its texture and especially the grain size distribution. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials in grain size fractions appropriate for planetary surfaces is needed. The Berlin emissivity database (BED) presented here is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing thereby a realistic basis for the interpretation of thermal emission spectra of planetary regoliths. The BED is therefore complimentary to existing thermal emission libraries, like the ASU library for example. BED currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur, Martian analogue minerals and volcanic soils, and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 μm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from <25 to 250 μm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer Bruker IFS 88 purged with dry air and equipped with a nitrogen-cooled MCT detector. All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm -1. We are currently working on upgrading our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80 V) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 μm in a vacuum environment. This will be

  9. Advanced expander test bed program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Mitchell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Chemical Transfer Propulsion Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine technology component technology for the next space engine. The AETB will be used to validate the high-pressure expander cycle concept, investigate system interactions, and conduct investigations of advanced missions focused components and new health monitoring techniques. The split-expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  10. [Special beds. Pulmonary therapy system].

    PubMed

    Calixto Rodríguez, Joaquín; Rodríguez Martínez, Xavier; Marín i Vivó, Gemma; Paunellas Albert, Josep

    2008-10-01

    To be bedridden reduces one's capacity to move and produces muscular debility that affects the respiratory system leading to a decreased effectiveness in expectoration, the ability to spit up sputum. The pulmonary therapy system integrated in a bed is the result of applying motorized elements to the articulation points of the bad in order to achieve safe positions at therapeutic angles, which improve the breathing-perfusion (blood flow) relationship. This system also makes it possible to apply vibration waves to the patient which favor the elimination of bronchial-pulmonary secretions, the rehabilitation of the bedridden patient and decrease the work load for nursing personnel.

  11. MICROTURBULENCE IN GRAVEL BED STREAMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, T.; Tsakiris, A. G.; Kramer, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The overarching objective of this investigation was to evaluate the role of relative submergence on the formation and evolution of cluster microforms in gravel bed streams and its implications to bedload transport. Secondary objectives of this research included (1) a detailed analysis of mean flow measurements around a clast; and (2) a selected number of experimental runs where the mean flow characteristics are linked together with the bed micro-topography observations around a clast. It is hypothesized that the relative submergence is an important parameter in defining the feedback processes between the flow and clasts, which governs the flow patterns around the clasts, thus directly affecting the depositional patterns of the incoming sediments. To examine the validity of the hypothesis and meet the objectives of this research, 19 detailed experimental runs were conducted in a tilting, water recirculating laboratory flume under well-controlled conditions. A fixed array of clast-obstacles were placed atop a well-packed bed with uniform size glass beads. During the runs, multifractional spherical particles were fed upstream of the clast section at a predetermined rate. State-of-the-art techniques/instruments, such as imaging analysis software, Large Scale Particle Velocimeter (LSPIV) and an Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV) were employed to provide unique quantitative measurements for bedload fluxes, clast/clusters geomorphic patterns, and mean flow characteristics in the vicinity of the clusters. Different flow patterns were recorded for the high relative submergence (HRS) and low relative submergence (LRS) experimental runs. The ADV measurements provided improved insight about the governing flow mechanisms for the HRS runs. These mechanisms were described with flow upwelling at the center of the flume and downwelling occurring along the flume walls. Flow downwelling corresponded to an increase in the free surface velocity. Additionally, the visual observations

  12. Advanced expander test bed engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) is a key element in NASA's Space Chemical Engine Technology Program for development and demonstration of expander cycle oxygen/hydrogen engine and advanced component technologies applicable to space engines as well as launch vehicle upper stage engines. The AETB will be used to validate the high pressure expander cycle concept, study system interactions, and conduct studies of advanced mission focused components and new health monitoring techniques in an engine system environment. The split expander cycle AETB will operate at combustion chamber pressures up to 1200 psia with propellant flow rates equivalent to 20,000 lbf vacuum thrust.

  13. A fluidized bed enhances biotreatment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Chlorinated organics such as trichloroethylene (TCE) are often difficult to treat biologically because they degrade into intermediate compounds that are toxic to most microorganisms. But recent advances in fluidized bed biotreatment by Envirex, Inc. (Waukesha, Wis.) indicate that difficult-to-treat wastes like TCE can be successfully biodegraded. The key is to add chemicals (dubbed co-metabolic substrates), which promote the growth of microbes that preferentially degrade the unwanted intermediate compounds. Preliminary field tests using phenol, toluene and methane as the co-metabolic substrate show that TCE levels can be reduced by as much as 95%.

  14. Predicting net cross-shore total load transport: A phase-averaging, quasi-steady approach incorporating undertow contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-hai

    2016-10-01

    Wave shapes that induce velocity skewness and acceleration asymmetry are usually responsible for onshore sediment transport, whereas undertow and bottom slope effect normally contribute to offshore sediment transport. By incorporating these counteracting driving forces in a phase-averaged manner, the theoretically-based quasi-steady formula of Wang (2007) is modified to predict the magnitude and direction of net cross-shore total load transport under the coaction of wave and current. The predictions show an excellent agreement with the measurement data on medium and fine sand collected by Dohmen-Janssen and Hanes (2002) and Schretlen (2012) in a full-scale wave flume at the Coastal Research Centre in Hannover, Germany. The modified formula can predict the net onshore transport of fine sand in sheet flows. In particular, it can predict the net offshore transport of medium sand in rippled beds through enlarged bed roughness, as well as the net offshore transport of fine-to-coarse sand in sheet flows with the aid of a new criterion to judge the occurrence of net offshore transport.

  15. Suicide following an infestation of bed bugs

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Stephanie; Perron, Stéphane; Susser, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Male, 62 Final Diagnosis: Bipolar disorder Symptoms: Bordeline personality disorder Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Bed bug infestation Specialty: Psychiatry Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: In the past decade, bed bug infestations have been increasingly common in high income countries. Psychological consequences of these infestations are rarely examined in the scientific literature. Case Report: We present a case, based on a coroner’s investigation report, of a woman with previous psychiatric morbidity who jumped to her death following repeated bed bug infestations in her apartment. Our case report shows that the bed bug infestations were the likely trigger for the onset a negative psychological state that ultimately led to suicide. Conclusions: Given the recent surge in infestations, rapid action needs to be taken not only in an attempt to control and eradicate the bed bugs but also to adequately care for those infested by bed bugs. PMID:23826461

  16. Classifying bed inclination using pressure images.

    PubMed

    Baran Pouyan, M; Ostadabbas, S; Nourani, M; Pompeo, M

    2014-01-01

    Pressure ulcer is one of the most prevalent problems for bed-bound patients in hospitals and nursing homes. Pressure ulcers are painful for patients and costly for healthcare systems. Accurate in-bed posture analysis can significantly help in preventing pressure ulcers. Specifically, bed inclination (back angle) is a factor contributing to pressure ulcer development. In this paper, an efficient methodology is proposed to classify bed inclination. Our approach uses pressure values collected from a commercial pressure mat system. Then, by applying a number of image processing and machine learning techniques, the approximate degree of bed is estimated and classified. The proposed algorithm was tested on 15 subjects with various sizes and weights. The experimental results indicate that our method predicts bed inclination in three classes with 80.3% average accuracy.

  17. Low shear stress gravel-bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    A low stress gravel bed river is a river where the cross-sectional average dimensionless shear stress (??*) rarely exceeds 0.047. That is the case for the Gunnison River below Delta in Western Colorado. The cross-sectional average ??* in the Gunnison River has not exceeded 0.047, except at one cross section during one year, in the 87 years of record. A ??* of 0.047 is the critical ??* in the bed-load equation considered to be most applicable to gravel/cobble bed rivers (the Meyer-Peter, Mueller equation). According to this equation, there has been no bed-material movement in the Gunnison River since 1920; in fact there has been bed-material movement and this movement is biologically important. Bed-material is moved when the ??* is 0.016 or larger. Streamflows that cause a ??* of at least 0.016 maintain the aquatic habitat in a low shear stress river.

  18. Price smarter on the Net.

    PubMed

    Baker, W; Marn, M; Zawada, C

    2001-02-01

    Companies generally have set prices on the Internet in two ways. Many start-ups have offered untenably low prices in a rush to capture first-mover advantage. Many incumbents have simply charged the same prices on-line as they do off-line. Either way, companies are missing a big opportunity. The fundamental value of the Internet lies not in lowering prices or making them consistent but in optimizing them. After all, if it's easy for customers to compare prices on the Internet, it's also easy for companies to track customers' behavior and adjust prices accordingly. The Net lets companies optimize prices in three ways. First, it lets them set and announce prices with greater precision. Different prices can be tested easily, and customers' responses can be collected instantly. Companies can set the most profitable prices, and they can tap into previously hidden customer demand. Second, because it's so easy to change prices on the Internet, companies can adjust prices in response to even small fluctuations in market conditions, customer demand, or competitors' behavior. Third, companies can use the clickstream data and purchase histories that it collects through the Internet to segment customers quickly. Then it can offer segment-specific prices or promotions immediately. By taking full advantage of the unique possibilities afforded by the Internet to set prices with precision, adapt to changing circumstances quickly, and segment customers accurately, companies can get their pricing right. It's one of the ultimate drivers of e-business success.

  19. Parallelizing Timed Petri Net simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using parallel processing to accelerate the simulation of Timed Petri Nets (TPN's) was studied. It was recognized that complex system development tools often transform system descriptions into TPN's or TPN-like models, which are then simulated to obtain information about system behavior. Viewed this way, it was important that the parallelization of TPN's be as automatic as possible, to admit the possibility of the parallelization being embedded in the system design tool. Later years of the grant were devoted to examining the problem of joint performance and reliability analysis, to explore whether both types of analysis could be accomplished within a single framework. In this final report, the results of our studies are summarized. We believe that the problem of parallelizing TPN's automatically for MIMD architectures has been almost completely solved for a large and important class of problems. Our initial investigations into joint performance/reliability analysis are two-fold; it was shown that Monte Carlo simulation, with importance sampling, offers promise of joint analysis in the context of a single tool, and methods for the parallel simulation of general Continuous Time Markov Chains, a model framework within which joint performance/reliability models can be cast, were developed. However, very much more work is needed to determine the scope and generality of these approaches. The results obtained in our two studies, future directions for this type of work, and a list of publications are included.

  20. A Rooted Net of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko. PMID:21936906