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Sample records for cross-sectional correlation study

  1. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions: Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. Citation: Piano C, Losurdo A, Della Marca G, Solito M

  2. Correlation Between Vision and Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Oriel; Fischer, Naomi; Barak, Adiel; Belkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between vision and cognition is not fully understood. Visual impairment in the elderly has been associated with impaired cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. The aim was to study the correlation between near visual acuity (VA), refraction, and cognitive state in an elderly population.Subjects ≥75 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and near VA was tested. Cognitive function was evaluated with a version of the mini-mental state examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind). The eye with better VA and no cataract or refractive surgery was analyzed.One-hundred ninety subjects (81.6 ± 5.1 years, 69.5% female) were included. Good VA (≤J3) was associated with high MMSE-blind (>17) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.57-6.43, P = 0.001). This remained significant adjusting for sex, age, and years of education. Wearing reading glasses correlated significantly with high MMSE-blind after adjustment for sex and age (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.16-3.97, P = 0.016), but reached borderline significance after adjustment for education. There was a trend toward correlation between myopia and better MMSE-blind (r = -0.123, P = 0.09, Pearson correlation).Good VA and wearing glasses seem to correlate with better cognitive function. Reading glasses can serve as a protective factor against cognitive deterioration associated with sensory (visual) deprivation in old age. The association between myopia and cognition requires further investigation.

  3. Correlates of COPD and chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers: data from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Waked, Mirna; Salame, Joseph; Khayat, Georges; Salameh, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to assess the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their correlates among a Lebanese nonsmoker group. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010, using a multistage cluster sample throughout Lebanon including Lebanese residents aged 40 years and above with no exclusion criteria. Pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry measurements were performed and carbon monoxide level was measured in exhaled air. COPD was defined and classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines or according to the lower limit of normal (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity postbronchodilator < 5th percentile of the healthy population having the same age and sex). Chronic bronchitis was defined by the declaration of morning cough and expectorations for more than 3 months a year over more than 2 years in individuals with normal spirometry. Results Out of 2201 individuals, 732 were never-smokers: 25 (3.4%) of them had COPD, and 86 (11.75%) fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchitis. Correlates of COPD included a childhood respiratory disease, house heated by diesel, and older age. On the other hand, correlates of chronic bronchitis included childhood respiratory diseases, living in southern Lebanon versus other regions, heating home by gas, older age, number of smokers at work, and lower height. Conclusion A substantial percentage of the nonsmoking population may exhibit chronic bronchitis or COPD. The significant correlates mentioned above should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the risk of developing such chronic and debilitating respiratory diseases. PMID:23055708

  4. Correlates of COPD and chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers: data from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Waked, Mirna; Salame, Joseph; Khayat, Georges; Salameh, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and their correlates among a Lebanese nonsmoker group. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and September 2010, using a multistage cluster sample throughout Lebanon including Lebanese residents aged 40 years and above with no exclusion criteria. Pre- and postbronchodilator spirometry measurements were performed and carbon monoxide level was measured in exhaled air. COPD was defined and classified according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines or according to the lower limit of normal (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity postbronchodilator < 5th percentile of the healthy population having the same age and sex). Chronic bronchitis was defined by the declaration of morning cough and expectorations for more than 3 months a year over more than 2 years in individuals with normal spirometry. Out of 2201 individuals, 732 were never-smokers: 25 (3.4%) of them had COPD, and 86 (11.75%) fulfilled the definition of chronic bronchitis. Correlates of COPD included a childhood respiratory disease, house heated by diesel, and older age. On the other hand, correlates of chronic bronchitis included childhood respiratory diseases, living in southern Lebanon versus other regions, heating home by gas, older age, number of smokers at work, and lower height. A substantial percentage of the nonsmoking population may exhibit chronic bronchitis or COPD. The significant correlates mentioned above should be taken into consideration in order to reduce the risk of developing such chronic and debilitating respiratory diseases.

  5. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Majeedkutty, Nizar A.; Khairulanuar, Nor A.B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian

  6. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Cross-sectional cohort study. Sleep laboratory. Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m(2). No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Death attitudes and positive coping in Spanish nursing undergraduates: a cross-sectional and correlational study.

    PubMed

    Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    To analyse the relationship between death attitudes, emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem in a sample of nursing undergraduates. The death attitudes held by nursing students may influence the care they offer to end-of-life patients and their families. Emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem are important social and emotional competencies for coping positively with death and dying. Cross-sectional and correlational study. Participants were 760 nursing undergraduates from four nursing schools in Spain. Data were collected in 2013-2014. The students responded anonymously to a self-report questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic data and which assessed the following aspects: fear of death (Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale), death anxiety (Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised), perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, with its three dimensions: attention, clarity and repair), resilience (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition to descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, mean differences, correlations and regression analyses were computed. Linear regression analysis indicated that attention to feelings, resilience and self-esteem are the significant predictors of death anxiety. The results show that death anxiety and fear of death are modulated by social and emotional competencies associated with positive coping. The training offered to future nurses should include not only scientific knowledge and technical skills but also strategies for developing social and emotional competencies. In this way, they will be better equipped to cope positively and constructively with the suffering and death they encounter at work, thus helping them to offer compassionate patient-centred care and minimising the distress they experience in the process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  9. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified

  10. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-07-08

    Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study Examining Youth Smoking Rates and Correlates in Tbilisi, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Aslanikashvili, Ana; Djibuti, Mamuka

    2014-01-01

    Georgia has high smoking rates; however, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of youth smoking. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a 2010 cross-sectional survey of 1,879 secondary and postsecondary school students aged 15 to 24 years in Tbilisi, Georgia, examining substance use, perceived risk, and recreational activities in relation to lifetime and current (past 30 days) smoking. Lifetime and current smoking prevalence was 46.1% and 22.6%, respectively. In secondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, and lower perceived risk (P's ≤ .001). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, less frequently exercise, and more often going out (P's < .05). In postsecondary schools, lifetime smoking correlates included being male, consuming alcohol, lifetime marijuana use, lower perceived risk, more often going out, and recreational internet use (P's < .0). Correlates of current smoking among lifetime smokers included being male (P's = .04), consuming alcohol, marijuana use, lower perceived risk, and more often going out (P's < .05). Tobacco control interventions might target these correlates to reduce smoking prevalence in Georgian youth. PMID:24738059

  12. Neuropathological diagnoses and clinical correlates in older adults in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Suemoto, Claudia K.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Cippiciani, Tarcila M.; Farfel, Jose M.; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre; Naslavsky, Michel Satya; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis. Methods and findings In this cross-sectional study, we describe clinical and neuropathological variables related to cognitive impairment in 1,092 participants (mean age = 74 y, 49% male, 69% white, and mean education = 4 y). Cognitive function was investigated using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE); neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Associations between neuropathological lesions and cognitive impairment were investigated using ordinal logistic regression. We developed a neuropathological comorbidity (NPC) score and compared it to CDR, IQCODE, and NPI scores. We also described and compared the frequency of neuropathological diagnosis to clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. Forty-four percent of the sample met criteria for neuropathological diagnosis. Among these participants, 50% had neuropathological diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD), and 35% of vascular dementia (VaD). Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), hippocampal sclerosis, lacunar infarcts, hyaline atherosclerosis, siderocalcinosis, and Lewy body disease were independently associated with cognitive impairment. Higher NPC scores were associated with worse scores in the CDR sum of boxes (β = 1.33, 95% CI 1.20–1.46), IQCODE (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.13–0.16), and NPI (β = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.33–2.16). Compared to neuropathological diagnoses, clinical diagnosis had high sensitivity to AD and high

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection is not correlated with subclinical thrombocytopenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samson, Annette D; Schipperus, Martin R; Langers, Alexandra M J; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-01-01

    In a small percentage of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), H. pylori eradication has a positive effect on platelet counts. Whether H. pylori infection is associated with a lower thrombocyte count in persons without clinical ITP is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study to compare thrombocyte count between H. pylori infected (n=108) and H. pylori non-infected patients (n=600) who underwent a diagnostic gastroscopy. The mean thrombocyte count in H. pylori negative patients was 257 × 10(9)/l, in H. pylori positive patients 252 × 10(9)/l (mean difference 5 × 10(9)/l, 95% CI: -23 to 14). Subgroup analysis did not show significant differences either. In the patient group without apparent comorbidity, there were no subjects with thrombocyte counts <120. In 36 H. pylori positive patients in whom data post-eradication was available, platelet counts pre- and post-eradication were similar. In conclusion, this study could not demonstrate a lower thrombocyte count in H. pylori infected patients or in subgroups of H. pylori infected patients compared to non-infected subjects.

  14. Correlation between systemic lupus erythematosus and malignancies: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Azrielant, Shir; Tiosano, Shmuel; Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2017-01-14

    Autoimmune conditions reflect dysregulation of the immune system; this may be of clinical significance in the development of several malignancies. Previous studies show an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the development of malignancies; however, their investigations into the development of specific malignancies are inconsistent, and their external validity may be questionable. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between the presence of SLE and various malignancies, in a large-scale population-based study. Data for this study was collected from Clalit Health Services, the largest state-mandated health service organization in Israel. All adult members diagnosed with SLE were included (n = 5018) and their age and sex-matched controls (n = 25,090), creating a cross-sectional population-based study. Medical records of all subjects were analyzed for documentation of malignancies. Logistic regression models were built separately for each malignant condition, controlling for age, gender, BMI, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Diagnosis of malignancy (of any type) was more prevalent in the SLE population (odds ratio [OR] 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.02-3.72). SLE diagnosis was also found to be independently associated with higher proportions of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.72-3.33), Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.88-2.99), multiple myeloma (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.85-3.28), cervix uteri malignancies (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.10-2.20), and genital organ malignancies (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.42-3.22), after adjustment for confounding variables. The presence of an SLE diagnosis was found to be independently associated with higher proportions of malignancies, particularly hematologic malignancies. These findings should be considered while treating SLE patients, and possibly supplement their screening routine.

  15. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among schoolchildren in Cyprus: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    PubMed

    Sokratis, Sokratous; Christos, Ζilides; Despo, Panagi; Maria, Karanikola

    2017-01-01

    Depressive symptoms in the young constitute a public health issue. The current study aims to estimate: (a) the frequency of depressive symptoms in a sample of final grade elementary-school children in Cyprus, (b) the association among frequency of depressive symptoms, gender and nationality and, (c) the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the children's depression inventory (CDI). A descriptive cross-sectional study with internal comparison was performed. The occurrence of depressive symptoms was assessed with the CDI, which includes 5 subscales: depressive mood, interpersonal difficulties, ineffectiveness, anhedonia and negative self-esteem. Clinical depressive symptoms were reported as CDI score ≥19. CDI was anonymously and voluntarily completed by 439 schoolchildren [mean age 12.3 (±0.51) years old] from fifteen public elementary schools (217 boys and 222 girls), yielding a response rate of 58.2%. The metric properties of the CDI were assessed in terms of internal consistency reliability and construct validity via exploratory factor analysis (rotated and unrotated principal component analysis). Descriptive and inferential statistics were explored. 10.25% of Cypriot schoolchildren reported clinical depressive symptoms (CDI score ≥19). Statistically significant differences were reported between boys and girls in all five subscales of the CDI. Girls reported higher scores in "Depressive mood", "Negative self-esteem" and "Anhedonia" subscales, while boys scored higher in "Interpersonal difficulties" and "Ineffectiveness" subscales. There were no statistically significant differences among ethnicity groups regarding the entire CDI or the subscales of it. Concerning the metric properties of the Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI, internal consistency reliability was adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.84). Factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in five factors explaining 42% of the variance. The Greek-Cypriot version of the CDI is a reliable

  16. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Matthews, Charles E; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-01-01

    Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings

  17. Correlation between frontal sinus dimensions and cephalometric indices: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tehranchi, Azita; Motamedian, Saeed Reza; Saedi, Sara; Kabiri, Sattar; Shidfar, Shireen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Growth prediction plays a significant role in accurate diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontics patients. It was hypothesized that the unique pattern of pneumatization of the frontal sinus as a component of craniofacial structure would influence the skeletal growth pattern and may be used as a growth predictor. Materials and Methods: A total of 144 subjects (78 females and 66 males) with a mean age of 19.26 ± 4.66 years were included in this retrospective study. Posterior-anterior and lateral cephalograms (LCs) were used to measure the frontal sinus dimensions. The skeletal growth pattern and relations of craniofacial structures were analyzed on LC using variables for sagittal and vertical analyses. Correlation between the frontal sinus dimensions and cephalometric indices was assessed by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: The SN-FH and SNA angles had significant associations with frontal sinus dimensions in all enrolled subjects (P < 0.05). In males, the SN-FH, sum of posterior angles, Pal-SN, and Jarabak index were significantly associated with the size of frontal sinus (P < 0.05). In females, the associations of SN-FH and gonial angles with frontal sinus dimensions were significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results show that larger size of frontal sinus was associated with reduced inclination of the anterior cranial base, increased anterior facial height (in males), and increased gonial angle (in females) in the study population. PMID:28435368

  18. Correlates of children's independent outdoor play: Cross-sectional analyses from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Daniel; Gardner, Benjamin; Roberts, Justin; Johnstone, James; Stubbs, Brendon; Williams, Genevieve; López Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe; Smith, Lee

    2017-12-01

    Time spent outdoors is associated with higher levels of physical activity. To date, correlates of independent outdoor play have not been investigated. This study aimed to identify potential demographic, behavioural, environmental and social correlates of children's independent outdoor play. Data were from the Millennium Cohort Study when children were aged 7 years. Parents reported whether their children played out unsupervised (yes/no) as well as the above mentioned correlates of unsupervised outdoor play. Children's physical activity levels were measured using waist worn accelerometry. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between correlates and odds of independent (unsupervised) outdoor play. Adjusted multiple linear regression was used to estimate associations between independent outdoor play and objective measures of physical activity. Activity was measured as average daily moderate-to-vigorous activity, steps, and sedentary behaviour. 3856 (n = 29%) participants were categorised as engaging in independent outdoor play. Older age, being white British, being in poverty, living in close proximity to both family friends and family, having fewer internalising problems, having more externalising conduct problems and fewer pro-social behaviours were associated with higher odds of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with > 2 additional minutes of moderate-to-vigorous activity (B = 2.21 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.34), > 330 additional steps per day (B = 336.66 95% CI 209.80 to 463.51), and nearly 5 min less time spent sedentary per day (B = - 4.91 95% CI - 7.54, - 2.29) Younger children, those from a higher socio-economic-status, those isolated in location from family friends and family, and those with high levels of prosocial behaviour have lower levels of independent outdoor play. Independent outdoor play was associated with higher levels of physical activity and less time sedentary. Future interventions to

  19. Correlates of Regular Participation in Sports Groups among Japanese Older Adults: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yamakita, Mitsuya; Kanamori, Satoru; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2015-01-01

    Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults. Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002). Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups. Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors. Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate the causal

  20. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery.

    PubMed

    Embo, M; Driessen, E; Valcke, M; van der Vleuten, C P M

    2015-01-01

    increasingly, reflection is highlighted as integral to core practice competencies but empirical research into the relationship between reflection and performance in the clinical workplace is scarce. this study investigated the relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance. we designed a cross-sectional and a retrospective-longitudinal cohort study. Data from first, second and third year midwifery students were collected to study the variables 'clinical performance' and 'reflection ability'. Data were analysed with SPSS for Windows, Release 20.0. Descriptive statistics, Pearson׳s Product Moment Correlation Coefficients (r) and r² values were computed to investigate associations between the research variables. the results showed a moderate observed correlation between reflection ability and clinical performance scores. When adopting a cross-sectional perspective, all correlation values were significant (p<0.01) and above 0.4, with the exception of the third year correlations. Assuming perfect reliability in the measurement, the adjusted correlations, for year 2 and year 3 indicated a high association between reflection ability and clinical performance (>0.6). The results based on the retrospective-longitudinal data set explained a moderate proportion of the variance after correction for attenuation. Finally, the results indicate that 'reflection ability' scores of earlier years are significant related with 'clinical performance' scores of subsequent years. These results suggest that (1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement. the data showed a moderate but significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice of midwifery students. Reflection therefore seems an important component of professional

  1. Prevalence and Correlates of Insufficient Sleep Syndrome in Japanese Young Adults: A Web-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Yuko; Sasai-Sakuma, Taeko; Asaoka, Shoichi; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of insufficient sleep syndrome (ISS), and factors associated with daytime dysfunction in the disorder in Japanese young adults. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a web-based questionnaire survey was used to assess demographic variables, sleep habits and quality, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 2,276 participants aged 20–25. Results: Eleven percent of participants were classified as having ISS. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of ISS was significantly associated with social status (student or full-time employee). The participants with ISS had significantly higher depression scores and lower mental component summary scores than healthy sleepers. In the participants with ISS, a delayed sleep-wake schedule was extracted as a factor associated with worse mental component summary. Conclusions: Results indicate a relatively high proportion of Japanese young adults suffer from ISS, and that the condition is associated with a social status of student or full-time employee. Moreover, a delayed sleep-wake schedule may lead to further deterioration of mental HRQOL in ISS-affected persons. Citation: Morita Y, Sasai-Sakuma T, Asaoka S, Inoue Y. Prevalence and correlates of insufficient sleep syndrome in Japanese young adults: a web-based cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1163–1169. PMID:26094926

  2. Correlation of headache frequency and psychosocial impairment in migraine: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ruscheweyh, Ruth; Müller, Melanie; Blum, Bernhard; Straube, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    To investigate if a headache frequency of 15 days per month constitutes a turning point in the psychosocial impairment associated with migraine. Migraine is differentiated into episodic and chronic forms based on a headache frequency criterion (< vs ≥15 headache days per month). It is presently not clear if this criterion represents a clinically and pathophysiologically meaningful turning point of the disease. Six hundred and one migraine patients completed measures of pain-specific disability (Migraine Disability Assessment Scale, von Korff scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form-12 Health Survey), habitual well-being (Marburg questionnaire), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score). A significant increase of psychosocial impairment with the number of headache days per month was found at lower headache frequencies, but leveled off at higher headache frequencies. Visual inspection and spline interpolation suggested that the turning point was not exactly at 15 headache days per month but rather around 13.3 (confidence interval: 8.9-17.7) days. Accordingly, significant correlations between headache days and psychosocial impairment were found in the group with ≤13 headache days per month (Spearman's rho = 0.25, P < .001) but not in the group with >13 headache days (rho = -0.02, n.s.). These results suggest that a meaningful turning point in psychosocial impairment associated with migraine is located around 13.3 headache days per month, somewhat below the 15-headache days criterion that by definition separates chronic from episodic migraine. However, confidence intervals surrounding the turning point were large. Further studies will be needed to more exactly localize the turning point. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  3. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mousumi; Singh, Darrel; Massod, Shahid S; Nganba, Khundrakpam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans (MS) in mother-child pairs and to evaluate the correlation in the levels of salivary MS of working and nonworking mothers with that of their children and their associations with other related factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 100 mother-child pairs residing in New Multan Nagar Colony, New Delhi, India. A total of 50 children with their mothers were included in the working group and another 50 were included in the nonworking group. A questionnaire regarding the feeding habits, oral hygiene habits, daily intake of sugars of the children along with their weaning time was carried out. All mothers and children were clinically examined for recording decayed, extracted, and filled teeth (deft)/decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), and whole unstimulated saliva was collected and cultured for MS in the laboratory. The data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square, Spearman’s correlation, and logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of salivary MS in the children was 69%. A statistically significant correlation was found between the oral levels of MS in nonworking and working mother-child pairs. Regression analysis showed that those children who feed by bottle for more than 12 months, have daily sweet intake, have sugars in feeding bottle and have higher defts were more likely to have mutans score of 1 or 2. Conclusion The mother, working or nonworking, being the primary care provider is the major source of transmission of MS to their child irrespective of the amount of time spent with them. How to cite this article Sharma P, Goswami M, Singh D, Massod SS, Nganba K. Correlation of Streptococcus mutans count in Mother-child Pair of Working and Nonworking Mothers: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):342-348. PMID:28127167

  4. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in Botswana: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan; Phatsimo, Mpho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases and their correlates in Botswana. This is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. This is a cross-sectional study of respondents aged 10-64 years using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV conducted in 2013. Three self-reported non-communicable diseases, namely, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify their correlates. Out of the 2153 participants, the prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes and asthma were 14.2%, 3.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The study found that among other factors, older populations are at a much higher risk of having more than one non-communicable disease. After controlling for other covariates, the ORs of self-reported non-communicable disease was highest among older respondents aged 50 years and over (AOR=12.01, p<0.001) followed by richer respondents (AOR=1.86, p≤0.025). The ORs were also higher among females (AOR=1.83, p<0.001) and urban village residents (AOR=1.41, p=0.038). It is evident that chronic non-communicable diseases are likely to increase in the future due to the rise in the old age population resulting from fertility transition and improvement in life expectancy in Botswana. Therefore urgent and holistic intervention programmes are required to halt the problem. Failure to act now is likely to result in high morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested.

  6. Physical Activity and Its Correlates among Adults in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai Lian, Tam; Bonn, Gregory; Si Han, Yeoh; Chin Choo, Yap; Chee Piau, Wong

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and rates of non-communicable diseases linked to physical inactivity have increased dramatically in Malaysia over the past 20 years. Malaysia has also been identified as one of the least physically active countries in the world with over 60% of adults being essentially sedentary. This study examines the relationship of socio-demographic factors to physical activity among 770 adults from 3 Malaysian states. Physical activity levels were significantly related to ethnicity, gender, age, occupation and educational level. Controlling for inter-relationships among these variables; age, gender, Chinese ethnicity and education level were found to have unique effects on total physical activity, as well as moderate and vigorous exercise. As would be expected, younger people were more physically active, engaging more in both moderate and vigorous types of exercise and males were generally more active than females. Contrary to findings from many developed countries, however, more educated Malaysians were less likely to engage in all types of physical activity. Ethnic Chinese participants, and to a lesser degree Indians also consistently reported lower levels of activity. Possible intervention strategies are discussed that specifically target ethnic and cultural norms related to physical activity. Future research programs exploring barriers to participation and perceptions of physical activity, as well as programs to encourage active life styles among youths are also suggested. PMID:27332883

  7. Correlation of serum liver fibrosis markers with severity of liver dysfunction in liver cirrhosis: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Cuihong; Qi, Xingshun; Li, Hongyu; Peng, Ying; Dai, Junna; Chen, Jiang; Xia, Chunlian; Hou, Yue; Zhang, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), amino-terminal pro-peptide of type III pro-collagen (PIIINP), and collagen IV (CIV) are four major serum markers of liver fibrosis. This retrospective cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the correlations of the four serum markers with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. Between January 2013 and June 2014, a total of 228 patients with a clinical diagnosis with liver cirrhosis and without malignancy underwent the tests of HA, LN, PIIINP, and CIV levels. Laboratory data were collected. Child-Pugh and model for the end-stage of liver diseases (MELD) scores were calculated. Of them, 32%, 40%, and 18% had Child-Pugh class A, B, and C, respectively. MELD score was 7.58±0.50. HA (coefficient r: 0.1612, P=0.0203), LN (coefficient r: 0.2445, P=0.0004), and CIV (coefficient r: 0.2361, P=0.0006) levels significantly correlated with Child-Pugh score, but not PIIINP level. Additionally, LN (coefficient r: 0.2588, P=0.0002) and CIV (coefficient r: 0.1795, P=0.0108) levels significantly correlated with MELD score, but not HA or PIIINP level. In conclusions, HA, LN, and CIV levels might be positively associated with the severity of liver dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. However, given a relatively weak correlation between them, our findings should be cautiously interpreted and further validated. PMID:26131195

  8. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, Aaron; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Prehypertension and Hypertension among Adults in Northeastern China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Ma, Yue; Wang, Shibin; Su, Yingying; Rao, Wenwang; Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Kou, Changgui

    2015-12-25

    Prehypertension is a category between normotension and hypertension that is becoming increasingly common in China. However, limited data are available on the prevalence and correlates of prehypertension in northeastern China. A cross-sectional study using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods was performed on 17,584 participants. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension was 36.0% and 30.8% in northeastern China, respectively. As age increased, the prevalence of prehypertension in males declined (p-trend < 0.001), in parallel to an increase in the prevalence of hypertension (p-trend < 0.001). The prevalence of hypertension for females increased as age increased (p-trend < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, location, drinking, Body Mass Index (BMI), abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia correlated with prehypertension and hypertension (p-trend < 0.05). This study revealed a high prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in an adult population of northeastern China and some correlates of prehypertension and hypertension.

  10. Strong correlations between empathy, emotional intelligence, and personality traits among podiatric medical students: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Kurtis; Randazzo, John; Alabi, Nathaniel; Levenson, Jack; Doucette, John T; Barbosa, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The ability of health-care providers to demonstrate empathy toward their patients results in a number of positive outcomes improving the quality of care. In addition, a provider's level of emotional intelligence (EI) can further the doctor-patient relationship, stimulating a more personalized and comprehensive manner of treating patients. Furthermore, personality traits of a clinician may positively or negatively influence that relationship, as well as clinical outcomes. This study was designed to evaluate empathy levels in podiatric medical students in a 4-year doctoral program. Moreover, this study aimed to determine whether EI, personality traits, and demographic variables exhibit correlations with the observed empathy patterns. This cross-sectional study collected data using an anonymous web-based survey completed by 150 students registered at the New York College of Podiatric Medicine. There were four survey sections: (1) demographics, (2) empathy (measured by the Jefferson Scale of Physicians' Empathy), (3) EI (measured by the Assessing Emotions Scale), and (4) personality traits (measured by the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory-3). Empathy levels were significantly correlated with EI scores (r = 0.62, n = 150, P< 0.0001). All the five domains of personality were also shown to correlate with empathy scores, as well as with EI scores. With respect to demographics, Asian-American students had lower mean empathy scores than students of other races (P = 0.0018), females had higher mean empathy scores compared to men (P = 0.001), and undergraduate grade point average correlated with empathy scores in a nonmonotonic fashion (P = 0.0269). When measuring the variables, it was evident that there was a strong correlation between empathy, EI, and personality in podiatric medical students. Given the suggested importance and effect of such qualities on patient care, these findings may serve as guidance for possible amendments and warranted curriculum initiatives in medical

  11. Clinical and biological correlates of resilience in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuya; Hofer, Alex; Suzuki, Takefumi; Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Wartelsteiner, Fabienne; Kemmler, Georg; Saruta, Juri; Tsukinoki, Keiichi; Mimura, Masaru; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The concept of resilience is relevant in understanding the heterogeneous outcomes noted in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, clinical and biological correlates of resilience in these populations have rarely been investigated. We aimed to identify key correlates of subjective resilience in such patients using comprehensive assessments and to explore associations between resilience levels and peripheral biomarkers. 180 subjects with DSM-IV schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and healthy controls (60 per group) were included. Demographic and clinical variables were assessed by means of interview and various psychometric scales. Furthermore, blood and saliva samples were obtained for the assessment of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and alpha-amylase levels. Cross-sectional associations with resilience, as assessed by the 25-item Resilience Scale were sought. Resilience Scale total scores were significantly higher in healthy individuals (130.1, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 124.8-135.4) compared to subjects with schizophrenia (109.9, 95% CI: 104.6-115.2, p<0.001) and bipolar disorder (119.0, 95% CI: 113.8-124.3, p=0.012), while the difference between patient groups was non-significant (p=0.055). Self-esteem, spirituality, quality of life, and hopelessness were correlated with resilience in all three groups. In addition, internalized stigma and depression were relevant factors in the schizophrenia and bipolar disorder group, respectively. Correlations between resilience levels and peripheral biomarkers did not reach significance. Although causal relationships must be confirmed in prospective studies, our results have implications in developing psychological interventions to enhance resilience in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The biological correlates of resilience in these populations warrant further investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  12. Visual dysfunction and its correlation with retinal changes in patients with Parkinson's disease: an observational cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polo, V; Satue, M; Rodrigo, M J; Otin, S; Alarcia, R; Bambo, M P; Fuertes, M I; Larrosa, J M; Pablo, L E; Garcia-Martin, E

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate visual dysfunction and its correlation with structural changes in the retina in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods Patients with PD (n=37) and controls (n=37) were included in an observational cross-sectional study, and underwent visual acuity (VA), colour vision (using the Farnsworth and Lanthony desaturated D15 colour tests) and contrast sensitivity vision (CSV; using the Pelli-Robson chart and CSV 1000E test) evaluation to measure visual dysfunction. Structural measurements of the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), and macular and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thicknesses, were obtained using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Comparison of obtained data, and correlation analysis between functional and structural results were performed. Results VA (in all different contrast levels) and all CSV spatial frequencies were significantly worse in patients with PD than in controls. Colour vision was significantly affected based on the Lanthony colour test. Significant GCL loss was observed in the minimum GCL+inner plexiform layer. A clear tendency towards a reduction in several macular sectors (central, outer inferior, outer temporal and superior (inner and outer)) and in the temporal quadrant of the RNFL thickness was observed, although the difference was not significant. CSV was the functional parameter most strongly correlated with structural measurements in PD. Colour vision was associated with most GCL measurements. Macular thickness was strongly correlated with macular volume and functional parameters (r>0.70, p<0.05). Conclusions Patients with PD had visual dysfunction that correlated with structural changes evaluated by SD-OCT. GCL measurements may be reliable indicators of visual impairment in patients with PD. PMID:27154474

  13. A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Disability and Its Correlates among Treatment Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Singh, Shalini; Modak, Tamonud; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62) from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8) criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along) and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026) and social relationships (P = 0.046), work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001). Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040), and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001). Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is

  14. Correlation between infection of herpes virus family and liver function parameters: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yali; Huang, Xiaocui; Wang, Xia; Li, Yingying; Tang, Chao; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Yongmei

    2017-04-30

    To evaluate the relationship between seropositivity to herpes virus family and liver function parameters in children from southwest China. A 2-year cross-sectional retrospective study of 6,396 children aged 6 months to 12 years was performed. All participants underwent physical examination and liver function tests. Of the children, 622 were positive for EBV, HSV, or CMV IgM, with dramatic changes in liver function parameters. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels were negatively correlated with EBV-IgM and hepatocellular injuries in children < 3 years of age, whereas a positive correlation between lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and EBV-IgM and hepatocellular injuries was documented in children < 1 year of age. In those < 1 year and 3-6 years of age, HSV-IgM seropositivity was positively correlated with indirect bilirubin and γ-glutamyl transferase. The percentage of children < 1 year of age with positive CMV-IgM was 72.8% (158/217), approximately five times higher than that in those 1-3 years. Sixty-three children were infected with two pathogens simultaneously. Abnormal levels of LDH were observed in 85.71% of children simultaneously infected with CMV and HSV, 77.78% for CMV and EBV, 83.33% for EBV and HSV, and irregular levels of AST were noted in 69.19% of children infected with CMV and HSV, 77.78% for CMV and EBV, and 83.33% for EBV and HSV. Seropositivity to herpes virus family was correlated with abnormal liver function parameters across years of age. Clinicians should aim to protect the liver function of children infected with herpes viruses.

  15. Prevalence and correlates of hypertension: a cross-sectional study among rural populations in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    de Ramirez, S Stewart; Enquobahrie, D A; Nyadzi, G; Mjungu, D; Magombo, F; Ramirez, M; Sachs, S Ehrlich; Willett, W

    2010-12-01

    Substantial evidence suggests an increasing burden of hypertension (HTN) in urban sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, data on HTN prevalence in rural SSA are sparse. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated magnitude and correlates of HTN in rural SSA. Study participants (N=1485), 18 years and above, were selected using a stratified random sampling technique from three villages (in Malawi, Rwanda and Tanzania) that participated in the Millennium Villages Project. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, risk factors and blood pressure measures was collected using standardized protocols. Prevalence of HTN and pre-HTN were 22 and 44%, respectively. Older age (P<0.001), higher body mass index (BMI) (P=0.07), television ownership (P=0.01) and less work-related vigorous physical activity (P=0.02) were associated with higher prevalence of HTN and higher blood pressure measures (all P<0.05). Frequent meat and fat intake were associated with higher HTN prevalence (trend P=0.02 and 0.07, respectively). Frequent fruit and vegetable intake was significantly associated with lower blood pressure measures (all P<0.05). HTN and pre-HTN are common in rural SSA. Modifiable risk factors (such as BMI, dietary intake and physical activity) are associated with HTN prevalence in this population, indicating potential opportunities for prevention measures.

  16. The prevalence and correlates of low sexual functioning in women on hemodialysis: A multinational, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saglimbene, Valeria; Natale, Patrizia; Palmer, Suetonia; Scardapane, Marco; Craig, Jonathan C.; Ruospo, Marinella; Gargano, Letizia; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Török, Marietta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Rubén; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Stroumza, Paul; Leal, Miguel; Del Castillo, Domingo; Murgo, Angelo Marco; Schon, Staffan; Wollheim, Charlotta; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Strippoli, Giovanni F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction may affect 80% of women in hemodialysis. However the specific patterns and clinical correlates of sexual functioning remain poorly described. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of the individual domains of sexual functioning in women treated with hemodialysis. We recruited, into this multinational cross-sectional study, women treated with long-term hemodialysis (Collaborative Working Group on Depression and Sexual dysfunction in Hemodialysis study). Self-reported domains of sexual functioning were assessed by the Female Sexual Function Index, which is routinely administered within the network of dialysis patients followed by the working group. Lower scores represented lower sexual functioning. Socio-demographic and clinical correlates of each domain of sexual functioning were identified by stepwise multivariable linear regression. Sensitivity analyses were restricted to women who reported being sexually active. We found that of 1309 enrolled women, 659 (50.3%) provided complete responses to FSFI survey questions and 232 (35%) reported being sexually active. Overall, most respondents reported either no sexual activity or low sexual functioning in all measured domains (orgasm 75.1%; arousal 64.0%; lubrication 63.3%; pain 60.7%; satisfaction 60.1%; sexual desire 58.0%). Respondents who were waitlisted for a kidney transplant reported scores with higher sexual functioning, while older respondents reported scores with lower functioning. The presence of depression was associated with worse lubrication and pain scores [mean difference for depressed versus non-depressed women (95% CI) -0.42 (-0.73 to -0.11), -0.53 (-0.89 to -0.16), respectively] while women who had experienced a previous cardiovascular event reported higher pain scores [-0.77 (-1.40- to -0.13)]. In conclusion, women in hemodialysis reported scores consistent with marked low sexual functioning across a range of domains; the low functioning appeared to be

  17. Correlates of cannabis use among high school students in Shamva District, Zimbabwe: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chivandire, Charmaine T; January, James

    2016-06-01

    We set out to determine the predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that influence cannabis use in young people aged 13 to 19 years in Shamva District, Zimbabwe. A descriptive cross-sectional study focusing on the correlates of cannabis use was conducted among 311 school-going adolescents who were selected using multistage sampling. Eight percent of the students in our sample reported current use of cannabis. Associations were found between cannabis use and alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), cigarette smoking (P < 0.001), and having had engaged in sexual intercourse (P < 0.001). Significant relationships were found between recreational use of cannabis and having family members, friends, and parents who have used cannabis (P < 0.001). Students who reported using alcohol, smoking cigarettes, and having had engaged in sexual activity were more likely to use cannabis. There is need for identification of these risky behaviours among students, and ecological frameworks and holistic approaches in health promotion programming should be fostered in an effort to increase awareness of the potential harmful effects of cannabis use on adolescents' health and life outcomes.

  18. Multiple sexual partnerships and their correlates among Facebook users in Swaziland: an online cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-Saaidi, Christina; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have been suggested to facilitate risky sexual activities. However, it is unknown and of concern how SNSs such as Facebook shape risky sexual activities in developing settings such as Swaziland, the country hardest hit by HIV and AIDS. We conducted an online cross-sectional study in 2012 to explore the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships (MSPs) and their correlates among Facebook users in Swaziland. The response rate was 44.1% (N = 882); relatively, an equal proportion of men 82.7% (341/414) and 82.9% (388/468) women had ever had sex. Of those sexually active, 44.9% of men and 30.7% of women reported having sex with someone they met on Facebook. Approximately half of the participants (61.6% men, 41.0% women and 50.6% total) reported MSPs over the past 12 months. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that time spent on Facebook, "finding it easier to initiate a romantic conversation on Facebook" and having had sex with someone met on Facebook were significantly associated with having MSPs (adjusted odds ratio = 1.6-3.8). The potential impact of risky sexual behaviour among Facebook users should be appropriately addressed particularly in high HIV-prevalent settings like Swaziland.

  19. Correlation Between Critical Thinking Disposition and Mental Self-Supporting Ability in Nursing Undergraduates: A Cross-Sectional Descriptive Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Defang; Luo, Yang; Liao, Xinyu

    2017-02-01

    There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a convenience sample from four nursing schools. Four hundred six Chinese nursing undergraduates completed two questionnaires including (a) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (Chinese version) and (b) the Mental Self-Supporting Questionnaire for University Students. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between these two variables and the predicted positive psychological qualities for the critical thinking disposition of participants. Average participant scores for critical thinking disposition and mental self-supporting were 280.91 ± 28.43 and 76.40 ± 8.47, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between these two variables (r = .583, p < .01) and participants' self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility, which suggest that these factors play a significant role in critical thinking disposition (R = .435, p < .01). The participants earned midlevel scores for both disposition toward critical thinking and mental self-supporting abilities.The four factors that had a major influence on critical thinking disposition included self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility. Nursing educators should focus on improving the critical thinking

  20. Factors affecting quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Fang; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Hsi, Mo-Song; Chen, Jui-Chen

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess eight factors considered important for quality of life in persons with epilepsy in order to determine which of these components affect quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan. A cross-sectional, correlational study using structured questionnaires assessed 260 patients with epilepsy purposively sampled from a medical center in Northern Taiwan. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was evaluated with the Quality of Life in Epilepsy-31 (QOLIE-31) questionnaire. Data also included personal and health-related characteristics, knowledge of epilepsy, efficacy in the self-management of epilepsy, and social support. Scores for the QOLIE-31 were correlated with the following factors: (1) demographic characteristics of age, gender, and income; (2) sleep quality; (3) symptoms of anxiety and depression; (4) epilepsy-specific variables: seizure frequency; types, number, and frequency of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and adverse events of AEDs; and (5) social support. Stepwise regression analysis showed that seven factors were predictive for quality of life: anxiety, depression, adverse events of AEDs, social support, seizure frequency of at least once in three months, household income of NT$ 40,001-100,000, and male gender. These factors accounted for 58.2% of the variance of quality of life. Our study assessed multiple factors in an examination of relationships and predictive factors for quality of life in adults with epilepsy in Taiwan. Knowledge of these contributing factors can assist health-care providers when evaluating patients with epilepsy to help target interventions for improving quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction in men on chronic haemodialysis: a multinational cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Mariacristina; Palmer, Suetonia; De Berardis, Giorgia; Craig, Jonathan; Johnson, David; Pellegrini, Fabio; Nicolucci, Antonio; Sciancalepore, Michela; Saglimbene, Valeria; Gargano, Letizia; Bonifati, Carmen; Ruospo, Marinella; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Stroumza, Paul; Zsom, Marianna; Torok, Mariatta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Graziano, Giusi; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Gentile, Giorgio; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Santoro, Antonio; Zucchelli, Annalisa; Triolo, Giorgio; Maffei, Stefano; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Manfreda, Valeria M; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2012-06-01

    Factors associated with erectile dysfunction in men on haemodialysis are incompletely identified due to suboptimal existing studies. We determined the prevalence and correlates of erectile dysfunction and identified combinations of clinical characteristics associated with a higher risk of erectile dysfunction using recursive partitioning and amalgamation (REPCAM) analysis. We conducted a multinational cross-sectional study in men on haemodialysis within a collaborative network. Erectile dysfunction and depressive symptoms were evaluated using the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Nine hundred and forty-six (59%) of 1611 eligible men provided complete data for erectile dysfunction. Eighty-three per cent reported erectile dysfunction and 47% reported severe erectile dysfunction. Four per cent of those with erectile dysfunction were receiving pharmacological treatment. Depressive symptoms were the strongest correlate of erectile dysfunction [adjusted odds ratio 2.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57-3.71)]. Erectile dysfunction was also associated with age (1.06, 1.05-1.08), being unemployed (1.80, 1.17-2.79) or receiving a pension (2.05, 1.14-3.69) and interdialytic weight gain (1.9-2.87 kg, 1.92 [CI 1.19-3.09]; >2.87 kg, 1.57 [CI 1.00-2.45]). Married men had a lower risk of erectile dysfunction (0.49, 0.31-0.76). The prevalence of erectile dysfunction was highest (94%) in unmarried and unemployed or retired men who have depressive symptoms. Most men on haemodialysis experience erectile dysfunction and are untreated. Given the prevalence of this condition and the relative lack of efficacy data for pharmacological agents, we suggest that large trials of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for erectile dysfunction and depression are needed.

  2. Correlation between health-related quality of life and venous leg ulcer's severity and characteristics: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    González de la Torre, Héctor; Quintana-Lorenzo, María L; Perdomo-Pérez, Estrella; Verdú, José

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients suffering with venous ulceration and to correlate wound's severity status with HRQoL loss as well as identify the aspects of HRQoL most negatively affected by the presence of venous ulcers. In this observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical multi-centre study, data was compiled over a period of 3·5 months. Thrity-four patients with venous ulceration were recruited. The RESVECH 2·0 scale was used to monitor wounds. The MAID scale was used to measure wound's severity. The Charing Cross Venous Ulcer Questionnaire (CCVUQe) (Spanish version) was used to evaluate quality of life. The mean CCVUQe score was 60·58 ± 16·04. The HRQoL dimension most affected was 'Emotional state' (mean score = 77. 67 ± 17·34). The average RESVECH 2.0 score for the wounds was 13·15 ± 5·07. A statistically significant association between total CCVUQ-e score and total RESVECH 2.0 score was detected [Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0·546 (P ≤ 0·001)]. Venous ulcers affect patients' HRQoL, particularly their emotional status. There is a relationship between the severity of the wound and loss of HRQoL. The presence of non-viable tissue, poor exudate control and infection all determine loss of HRQoL. New studies are needed to confirm these findings. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong D; Bakhotmah, Balkees A; Hu, Frank B; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count.

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in a Saudi Arabic Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong D.; Bakhotmah, Balkees A.; Hu, Frank B.; Alzahrani, Hasan Ali

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in a Saudi population. The study population consisted of 552 diabetic participants with an average age of 53.4 years. Among this population, 62.7% were male and 94.9% had type 2 diabetes. The average body mass index was 31.1 kg/m2. DPN was diagnosed based on a combination of reduced vibration perception measured by neurothesiometer and/or reduced light touch perception evaluated by the 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament, as well as neurological symptoms. Information on socio-demographic variables, smoking status, duration of diabetes, and medications was obtained through interviews by physicians. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and clinical markers were assessed following standard procedures. The prevalence of DPN in this population was 19.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-23.5%). In the multivariable analyses, longer duration of diabetes [odds ratio (OR) for every 5-year increase, 2.49, 95% CI, 1.75-3.53], abdominal obesity (OR, 2.53, 95% CI, 1.41-4.55), and higher levels of fasting blood glucose (OR for every 1 mmol/L increase, 1.05, 95% CI, 0.99-1.12), creatinine (OR for every 10 µmol/L increase, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.99-1.14) and white blood cell count (OR for every 106/L increase, 1.08, 95% CI, 1.01-1.16) were associated with higher odds of DPN, while oral hypoglycemic medication use was associated with a lower odds of DPN (OR, 0.47, 95% CI, 0.26-0.85). In this large Saudi population, several correlates for DPN, in addition to glycemic control and diabetes duration, were identified, including abdominal obesity, creatinine and white blood cell count. PMID:25184511

  5. Clinical and cognitive correlates of employment among patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gainful employment is one major area of functioning which is becoming an important goal in psychiatric rehabilitation of patients with schizophrenia. Studies in western countries are pointing to evidence that certain sociodemographic and clinical factors may contribute to employment outcomes in this group of people. However, the area is still largely unexplored in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to examine the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive correlates of employment status among patients with Schizophrenia. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. All participants who fulfilled the requirements of the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. Study instruments included a demographic data questionnaire, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Trail Making Tests, Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) and Digit Span. Bivariate analyses were done using chi-square for categorical data and t-test for continuous data and multiple logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of employment status. Results A total of 95 participants who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Among the sociodemographic, clinical and cognitive variables studied marital status, educational level, mean scores of negative symptoms, Digit Span and RAVLT and Trail Making Tests were found to show significant association with employment status on bivariate analyses. However, when entered into a logistic regression model, only cognitive variables ie. Trail A and B, Digit Span and RAVLT were significant predictors of employment status. Conclusions The results from this study support the role of cognitive function, particularly, attention, working memory and executive functioning on attaining and maintaining employment in persons with schizophrenia as measured by the RAVLT, Digit Span and Trail Making Tests. These findings may act as preliminary evidence suggesting the importance of integrating

  6. The impact of learned resourcefulness on quality of life in type II diabetic patients: a cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chen, Hisu-Fung; Lai, Chien-Yu

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that patients with diabetes encounter a host of daily self-care issues, including controlling blood sugar and preventing and managing complications, which impact significantly upon quality of life. Studies have indicated that learned resourcefulness has a potentially positive effect in dealing with psychosocial and health problems. The purpose of this study was to test the relationship between learned resourcefulness and quality of life in type II diabetic patients. The mediating and moderating effects of learned resourcefulness on the relationship between metabolic control and quality of life of diabetic patients was also examined. This cross-sectional and correlational study included a convenience sample of 131 type II diabetic patients recruited from three hospitals in southern Taiwan. Data were collected through questionnaires, which included the Rosenbaum's Self Control Schedule and World Health Organization's Quality of Life (Short Version). Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze outcome predictors. Study findings include identification of a mediating effect of learned resourcefulness between metabolic control and quality of life. While most DM patients were not satisfied with their health, we found that those with greater learned resourcefulness enjoyed a better quality of life. Learned resourcefulness, gender, and HbA1C explained 35.2% of variance in DM patient quality of life. Male diabetic patients enjoyed a better quality of life than females, even though levels of learned resourcefulness between the two groups were not significantly different. Results indicate that poor metabolic control of diabetic patients has a detrimental effect on quality of life, and when diabetic patients use more self-control skills, they may achieve better quality of life. Results suggest that nurses who use cognitive behavior coping strategies (resourcefulness) may help diabetic patients achieve better metabolic control and promote better

  7. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed.

  8. Prevalence and Positive Correlates of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Chinese Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yang, Yi-Long; Wang, Zi-Yue; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological constructs have been given increasing attention in research on the coping resources of cancer-related distresses. However, little research is available on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hematological malignancies. The purposes of this study were to assess the prevalence of PTSD symptoms and to explore the associations of perceived social support (PSS), hope, optimism and resilience with PTSD symptoms among Chinese patients with hematological malignancies. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the period from July 2013 through April 2014. A total of 225 inpatients with hematological malignancies, which were eligible for the study, completed the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist-Civilian Version, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Adult Hope Scale, Life Orientation Scale-Revised, and Resilience Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the correlates of PTSD symptoms. Overall, the prevalence of PTSD symptoms was 10.7%. Initially, PSS was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.248, P < 0.01). However, when positive psychological variables were added, optimism was negatively associated with PTSD symptoms (β = -0.452, P < 0.01), and gender had a significant effect on PTSD symptoms. Women were more vulnerable to these symptoms than men (β = 0.123, P < 0.05). When the analysis was performed separately by gender, only optimism showed a significantly negative association with PTSD symptoms in both men (β = -0.389, P < 0.01) and women (β = -0.493, P < 0.01). Some patients with hematological malignancies suffer from PTSD symptoms. The positive effects of PSS and optimism on PTSD symptoms suggest that an integrated approach to psychosocial intervention from both external and internal perspectives could have practical significance. Gender difference should be considered in developing potential interventions in reducing cancer-related PTSD symptoms.

  9. Intraclass correlation and design effect in BMI, physical activity and diet: a cross-sectional study of 56 countries

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Mohd; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Measuring the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and design effect (DE) may help to modify the public health interventions for body mass index (BMI), physical activity and diet according to geographic targeting of interventions in different countries. The purpose of this study was to quantify the level of clustering and DE in BMI, physical activity and diet in 56 low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Design Cross-sectional study design. Setting Multicountry national survey data. Methods The World Health Survey (WHS), 2003, data were used to examine clustering in BMI, physical activity in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) and diet in fruits and vegetables intake (FVI) from low-income, middle-income and high-income countries. Multistage sampling in the WHS used geographical clusters as primary sampling units (PSU). These PSUs were used as a clustering or grouping variable in this analysis. Multilevel intercept only regression models were used to calculate the ICC and DE for each country. Results The median ICC (0.039) and median DE (1.82) for BMI were low; however, FVI had a higher median ICC (0.189) and median DE (4.16). For MET, the median ICC was 0.141 and median DE was 4.59. In some countries, however, the ICC and DE for BMI were large. For instance, South Africa had the highest ICC (0.39) and DE (11.9) for BMI, whereas Uruguay had the highest ICC (0.434) for MET and Ethiopia had the highest ICC (0.471) for FVI. Conclusions This study shows that across a wide range of countries, there was low area level clustering for BMI, whereas MET and FVI showed high area level clustering. These results suggested that the country level clustering effect should be considered in developing preventive approaches for BMI, as well as improving physical activity and healthy diets for each country. PMID:26743697

  10. Prevalence and correlates of nicotine dependence among construction site workers: A cross-sectional study in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Mamta; Agarwalla, Rashmi; Mallik, Praveen; Dwivedi, Shridhar; Patvagekar, Bilkish; Pathak, Rambha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Workers represent half the world's population and are major contributors to economic and social development. Tobacco consumption in construction site workers has been considered a big challenge. Objectives: (1) To assess the prevalence of nicotine dependence among tobacco users. (2) To study the correlates of nicotine dependence among the construction site workers. Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted using a predesigned and pretested structured proforma. The study was conducted among all construction site workers aged 18yrs and above in campus of Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research and associated HAH centenary hospital, New Delhi. Karl Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Questionnaire was used to assess dependence on nicotine. Results: The mean age of construction site workers was 32.04±11.6 years. Among the workers, majority (91%) were tobacco user. Among the users, 60% found it difficult to refrain from smoking/chewing in places where use of tobacco is not allowed (e.g. hospitals, government offices, cinemas, Libraries etc). 55% of the users smoked or chewed tobacco during the first hours after waking than during the rest of the day. On multivariate analysis, the factors which were found to be significantly associated with nicotine dependence were lower income group (OR 2.57, CI:1.66-3.99), smokeless tobacco use (OR 2.36, CI:1.30-4.27) and lower education (OR = 2.86 (95% CI 1.97-4.16) for illiterate). Discussion: The prevalence of tobacco use (91%) among construction workers is very high compared to that in the general population. Recognition of construction sites as work places and proper implementation of law is needed. PMID:27625442

  11. Red Cell Distribution Width and Serum BNP Level Correlation in Diabetic Patients with Cardiac Failure: A Cross - Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    A R, Subhashree

    2014-06-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a red cell measurement given by fully automated hematology analyzers. It is a measure of heterogeneity in the size of circulating erythrocytes. Studies have shown that it is a prognostic marker in non - anemic diabetic patients with symptomatic cardiovascular disease but its correlation with cardiac failure in diabetics has not been studied so far. Moreover, studies have also shown that a higher RDW may reflect an underlying inflammatory state. Since Diabetes is a pro inflammatory state there is a possibility that it might have an influence on the RDW values even when there is no cardiac failure, but research data on this aspect is lacking. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a proven marker for cardiac failure whose values are comparable with echo cardio graphic findings in assessing the left ventricular dysfunction. This study aimed to find out the correlation between RDW% and serum BNP levels in Diabetics with heart failure (cases) when compared to those without failure (controls). Further, we compared the RDW % values of the cases with controls. Settings and Design : The study was approved by institutional ethical and research committee. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients attending the Diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Chennai, India, during the period of October to December 2013. Hundred known cases of type II Diabetes mellitus attending Diabetes centre of the Hospital, with clinical and Echo cardio graphic features of cardiac failure were included as cases. Hundred age and gender matched diabetics with negative history of cardiovascular disease and with normal Echo cardio graphic features were included as controls. Informed consent was obtained from all the cases and controls. Demographic data and clinical history were gathered from all the cases and controls by using a standardized self - administered questionnaire. Biochemical and hematological parameters which included Fasting and

  12. Child, maternal and household-level correlates of nutritional status: a cross-sectional study among young Samoan children.

    PubMed

    Choy, Courtney C; Desai, Mayur M; Park, Jennifer J; Frame, Elizabeth A; Thompson, Avery A; Naseri, Take; Reupena, Muagututia S; Duckham, Rachel L; Deziel, Nicole C; Hawley, Nicola L

    2017-05-01

    Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24-59 months. A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score +2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l). Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu. Mother-child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling. Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group. The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.

  13. Quality of life of glaucoma patients in China: sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological correlates-a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuandi; Qian, Shaohong; Wu, Peixia; Qiu, Chen

    2014-04-01

    To assess vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in Chinese glaucoma patients and explore its sociodemographic, clinical and psychological correlates, and determine which of them explain the largest variation. This cross-sectional study included 508 Chinese glaucoma patients. Chinese-version Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 questionnaire (CHI-GQL-15) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were administered to all participants to evaluate their VRQoL and psychological distresses. Visual functions (habitual-corrected visual acuity (HCVA), intraocular pressure, and mean defect (MD) of visual field) were assessed through clinical examinations by professionals. Sociodemographic information and other treatment histories were collected via interviews and chart review. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological predictors of VRQoL. The mean summary score for CHI-GQL-15 was 28.79 ± 12.74. Patients exhibited the greatest difficulty in activities involving glare and dark adaptation (28.19 ± 22.86), followed by central and near vision (26.18 ± 26.56), peripheral vision (18.03 ± 21.37), and the least difficulty for outdoor mobility (15.06 ± 24.57). Moderate and heavy economic burden, HCVA and MD of both the better and the worse eyes, number of glaucoma surgeries in the treatment history and the presence of depression were independent predictors for VRQoL of glaucoma patients. Clinical factors explained the largest variation. VRQoL of glaucoma patients is multifactorial and was primarily determined by clinical indices. VRQoL assessment could be informative when adopted as a complement to objective visual measures in clinical practice.

  14. Mental health and behaviour of students of public health and their correlation with social support: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Future public health professionals are especially important among students partly because their credibility in light of their professional messages and activities will be tested daily by their clients; and partly because health professionals' own lifestyle habits influence their attitudes and professional activities. A better understanding of public health students' health and its determinants is necessary for improving counselling services and tailoring them to demand. Our aim was to survey public health students' health status and behaviour with a focus on mental health. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among public health students at 1-5-years (N = 194) with a self-administered questionnaire that included standardized items on demographic data, mental wellbeing characterized by sense of coherence (SoC) and psychological morbidity, as well as health behaviour and social support. Correlations between social support and the variables for mental health, health status and health behaviour were characterized by pairwise correlation. Results The response rate was 75% and represented students by study year, sex and age in the Faculty. Nearly half of the students were non-smokers, more than one quarter smoked daily. Almost one-fifth of the students suffered from notable psychological distress. The proportion of these students decreased from year 1 to 5. The mean score for SoC was 60.1 and showed an increasing trend during the academic years. 29% of the students lacked social support from their student peers. Significant positive correlation was revealed between social support and variables for mental health. Psychological distress was greater among female public health students than in the same age female group of the general population; whereas the lack of social support was a more prevalent problem among male students. Conclusions Health status and behaviour of public health students is similar to their non-students peers except for their

  15. Inverse Correlation Between Plasma Adropin and ET-1 Levels in Essential Hypertension: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaosong; Li, Hui; Zhu, Xinyi; Gu, Haibo; Chen, Jianchang; Wang, Luchen; Harding, Pamela; Xu, Weiting

    2015-10-01

    Adropin is a recently identified bioactive protein that promotes energy homeostasis by affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, adropin has also been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Also, ET-1, as a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction, is a key regulator in hypertension. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to detect the relationship between plasma adropin and ET-1 levels in hypertension. A total of 123 participants, diagnosed with primary hypertension on the basis of World Health Organization criteria (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg), and 58 normotensive subjects were enrolled in the cross-sectional study from October 2011 to December 2013. All study participants were older than 18 years of age. Adropin and ET-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that plasma adropin levels were significantly lower in hypertensives compared with controls (3.18 ± 1.00 vs 4.21 ± 1.14 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Plasma ET-1 levels were higher in hypertensives than controls (2.60 ± 1.14 vs 1.54 ± 0.66 pg/mL, P < 0.001). Adropin had a negative correlation with DBP (r = -0.40, P < 0.001), SBP (r = -0.49, P < 0.001), and adjusted for age, body mass index, SBP, DBP, glucose, TC, TG, LDL, and Cr, there was a negative correlation between ET-1 and adropin (r = -0.20, P = 0.04). In multivariate logistic regression analysis of the variables, ET-1 (odds ratio [OR], 3.84; 95% CI, 2.16-6.81; P < 0.001) and adropin (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99 -1.0; P <  .001) were found to be independent predictors for hypertension.In conclusion, decreased plasma adropin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in hypertension. Adropin is an independent predictor for hypertension, and may influence blood pressure by protecting endothelial function.

  16. Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence among nursing home residents: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fecal incontinence is highly prevalent among nursing home residents. Previous nursing home studies have identified co-morbidity associated with fecal incontinence, but as this population is increasingly old and frail, we wanted to see if the rate of fecal incontinence had increased and to investigate correlates of fecal incontinence further. Methods Cross-sectional study of the entire nursing home population in one Norwegian municipality. Registered nurses filled in a questionnaire for all residents in the municipality (980 residents aged ≥65). Statistical methods used are descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression. Results The response rate of the study was 90.3%. The prevalence of fecal incontinence was 42.3%. In multivariable analysis of FI, residents with diarrhea (OR 7.33, CI 4.39-12.24), urinary incontinence (OR 2.77, CI 1.73-4.42) and dementia (OR 2.17, CI 1.28-3.68) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to those without the condition. Residents residing in a nursing home between 4–5 years had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents who had stayed under a year (OR 2.65, CI 1.20-5.85). Residents with deficiency in feeding (2.17, CI 1.26-3.71), dressing (OR 4.03, CI 1.39-11.65), toilet use (OR 7.37, CI 2.65-20.44) and mobility (OR 2.54, CI 1.07-6.00) had higher odds of having fecal incontinence compared to residents without deficiencies in activities of daily living (ADL). Needing help for transfer between bed and chair was a protective factor for fecal incontinence compared to residents who transferred independently (OR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.91). Conclusions Fecal incontinence is a prevalent condition in the nursing home population and is associated with ADL decline, frailty, diarrhea and quality of care. This knowledge is important for staff in nursing home in order to provide the best treatment and care for residents with fecal incontinence. PMID:24119057

  17. Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Naja, Farah; Mousa, Dana; Alameddine, Mohamad; Shoaib, Hikma; Itani, Leila; Mourad, Yara

    2014-06-06

    Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut--a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a "married" status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of CAM therapies to appropriately advise their patients

  18. The association between stressful life events and depressive symptoms among Cypriot university students: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous findings suggest that stressful life events have a causal relationship with depressive symptoms. However, to date little is known concerning the contribution of the number and severity of recent stressful life events on the prevalence of depressive symptoms among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its association with the number and the severity of self-reported stressful life events among university students in Cyprus. Methods A descriptive correlational design with cross sectional comparison was used. The CES-D scale was applied for the assessment of depressive symptoms and the LESS instrument for stressful life events. Both scales were completed anonymously and voluntarily by 1.500 students (response rate 85%). Results The prevalence of mild to moderate depressive symptoms [CES-D score between 16 and 21] and of clinically significant depressive symptoms [CES-D score ≥ 22] were 18.8% and 25.3% respectively. There were statistically significant differences in clinically significant depressive symptoms by gender, with higher rates among women (x2 = 8.53, df = 1, p = 0.003). Higher scores on the LESS scale were associated with more frequent reports of clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 70.63, df = 4, p < 0.001). Similarly, an association was found between the number of life events and clinical depressive symptoms (x2 = 40.06, df = 4, p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics confirmed that the responders who reported a high number (n = 12–21) of stressful life events during the previous year (OR = 2.64 95% CI: 1.02, 6.83) and a severe degree of stress due to these events (total LESS score > 351, OR = 3.03 95% CI: 1.66, 5.39) were more likely to manifest clinical depressive symptoms. Conclusions The high frequency of occurrence of depressive symptoms among Cypriot

  19. Prevalence and correlates of complementary and alternative medicine use among diabetic patients in Beirut, Lebanon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies due to difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens and lifestyle changes necessary for disease management. Little is known about the prevalence and mode of CAM use among patients with T2DM in Lebanon. Objective To assess the prevalence and modes of CAM use among patients with T2DM residing in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods A cross-sectional survey of T2DM patients was conducted on patients recruited from two major referral centers in Beirut- a public hospital and a private academic medical center. In a face-to-face interview, participants completed a questionnaire comprised of three sections: socio-demographic, diabetes characteristics and types and modes of CAM use. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the prevalence and correlates of CAM use, as well as whether the use was complementary or alternative to mainstream medicine. The main outcome in this study, CAM use, was defined as using CAM at least once since diagnosis with T2DM. Results A total of 333 T2DM patients completed the survey (response rate: 94.6%). Prevalence of CAM use since diagnosis with the disease was 38%. After adjustment, CAM use was significantly associated with a “married” status, a longer duration of T2DM, the presence of disease complications, and a positive family history of the disease. Folk foods and herbs were the most commonly used CAM followed by natural health products. One in five patients used CAM as alternative to conventional treatment. Only 7% of CAM users disclosed the CAM use to their treating physician. Health care practitioners were the least cited (7%) as influencing the choice of CAM among users. Conclusion The use of CAM therapies among T2DM patients in Lebanon is prevalent. Decision makers and care providers must fully understand the potential risks and benefits of

  20. Cross sectional study of osteoporosis among women.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Tripti; Verma, A K

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem, associated with substantial morbidity and socio-economic burden. An early detection can help in reducing the fracture rates and overall socio-economic burden. The present study was carried out to screen the bone status (osteopenia and osteoporosis) above the age of 35 yrs in the women. A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 158 women by calculating WHO T-scores utilizing calcaneal QUS as diagnostic tool. The prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was found to be 13.3% ± 5.29% and 48.1% ± 7.79% respectively. Statistical association of prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis was found to be significant with age group; gravida status; attainment of menopause; body weight and physically active status of the women. The statistical association was not significant in relation to the rank status of their husband, as well as dietary pattern of the women but still it has to be substantiated by conducting larger community based trials in future. The present study found that there was statistically significant relationship between age group and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. There was a negative correlation between age of the women and BMD. Besides age, gravida status and menopausal status have negative correlation with BMD while positive correlation with physically active lifestyle. The results were found to be non-significant in relation to rank status of husband and dietary pattern.

  1. Methamphetamine use and correlates in two villages of the highland ethnic Karen minority in northern Thailand: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Eiko; Visrutaratna, Surasing; Maeda, Yuko; Wongchai, Siriporn; Kada, Akiko; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Hayami, Yoko; Kihara, Masahiro

    2009-05-15

    The prevalence of methamphetamine use and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are high in lowland Thai society. Despite increasing social and cultural mixing among residents of highland and lowland Thai societies, however, little is known about methamphetamine use among ethnic minority villagers in the highlands. A cross-sectional survey examined Karen villagers from a developed and a less-developed village on February 24 and March 26, 2003 to evaluate the prevalence and social correlates of methamphetamine use in northern Thailand. Data were collected in face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. The response rate was 79.3% (n = 548). In all, 9.9% (males 17.6%, females 1.7%) of villagers reported methamphetamine use in the previous year. Methamphetamine was used mostly by males and was significantly related to primary or lower education; to ever having worked in town; to having used opium, marijuana, or heroin in the past year; and to ever having been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Since labor migration to towns is increasingly common among ethnic minorities, the prevention of methamphetamine use and of HIV/STI infection among methamphetamine users should be prioritized to prevent HIV in this minority population in Thailand.

  2. Correlation of body mass index levels with menarche in adolescent girls in Shaanxi, China: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjie; Dang, Shaonong; Xing, Yuan; Li, Qiang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-06

    Menarche is a milestone for adolescent girls. The timing of menarche is influenced by genetics, social status and nutritional status (e.g., height, weight and body mass index [BMI]) and impacts future health (e.g., obesity and breast cancer). There have been many studies on trends in age at menarche among adolescent girls in China, but few have investigated associations between growth status and the timing of menarche. This study examined the association between age at menarche and growth status among adolescent girls in Western China. The participants in this cross sectional study came from three geographical regions of Shaanxi Province. A total of 533 adolescent girls from urban and rural areas were randomly selected. Trained investigators administered a standard questionnaire to each participant during a face-to-face interview and carried out anthropometric measurements. The average age at menarche was 13.3 years. There were statistically significant differences in BMI z-scores between pre-menarcheal and post-menarcheal girls of the same age and these differences were related to socioeconomic factors. Girls who had reached menarche, in particular those aged 13-14 years, were significantly taller (P < 0.01) and had higher BMI (P < 0.01) than girls in the same age group who had not reached menarche. BMI is associated with the timing of menarche but socioeconomic factors are also important.

  3. Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar and Bipolar Depression in North-East India: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti; Sharma, Mohan; Saikia, Shilpi; Patangia, Priyanka; Hazarika, Pranabjyoti; Sarmah, Anil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and management of depression is important for better therapeutic outcome. Strategies for distinguishing between unipolar and bipolar depression are yet to be defined, resulting improper management. This study aims at comparing the socio-demographic and other variables between patients with unipolar and bipolar depression, along with assessment of severity of depression. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in North-East India. The study included total of 330 subjects selected through purposive sampling technique from outpatient department after obtaining due informed consent. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) version 6.0 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was applied for analysis. Results: Bipolar group had onset of illness at significantly younger age with more chronicity (32.85 ± 11.084). Mean BDI score was significantly higher in the unipolar depressive group. Conclusion: Careful approach in eliciting symptom severity and associated socio demographic profiles in depressed patients may be helpful in early diagnosis of bipolar depression. PMID:28250558

  4. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Barth, Jürgen

    2014-03-24

    The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N=12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p's<0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being.

  5. Social relationship correlates of major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in Switzerland: nationally representative cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The quality and quantity of social relationships are associated with depression but there is less evidence regarding which aspects of social relationships are most predictive. We evaluated the relative magnitude and independence of the association of four social relationship domains with major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms. Methods We analyzed a cross-sectional telephone interview and postal survey of a probability sample of adults living in Switzerland (N = 12,286). Twelve-month major depressive disorder was assessed via structured interview over the telephone using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The postal survey assessed depressive symptoms as well as variables representing emotional support, tangible support, social integration, and loneliness. Results Each individual social relationship domain was associated with both outcome measures, but in multivariate models being lonely and perceiving unmet emotional support had the largest and most consistent associations across depression outcomes (incidence rate ratios ranging from 1.55-9.97 for loneliness and from 1.23-1.40 for unmet support, p’s < 0.05). All social relationship domains except marital status were independently associated with depressive symptoms whereas only loneliness and unmet support were associated with depressive disorder. Conclusions Perceived quality and frequency of social relationships are associated with clinical depression and depressive symptoms across a wide adult age spectrum. This study extends prior work linking loneliness to depression by showing that a broad range of social relationship domains are associated with psychological well-being. PMID:24656048

  6. Correlates of sex trading among male non-injecting drug users in Myanmar: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Wai, Kyi Mar; Poudel, Krishna C; Win, Hla Hla

    2016-12-05

    Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information on participants' sexual and drug use behaviors. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to analyze the resulting data. Of 210 NIDUs, 84 (40%) reported involvement in the sex trade during the last 3 months. In the adjusted model, factors associated with sex trade involvement included homosexual preference (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-14.95), having more than two partners (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.55-9.72), had a regular job (AOR = 5.10; 95% CI 1.65-15.72), use of stimulant drugs rather than opiate (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.10-5.15), and who used drugs more than twice per day. More than one third of NIDUs were involved in sex trading. This study suggested that further comprehensive intervention programs that aim to reduce risk factors of trading sex among NIDUs may consider including NIDUs who used stimulant drugs, had regular/full-time jobs, used drugs more than twice per day, and had homosexual preferences.

  7. Complex Correlation Calculation of e(-) - H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e(-) - H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with 2 projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S-1 phase shifts is 95 while for the S-3 it is 56, except for k = 0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k = 0.3 and 0.4 for S-1. The main aim of this approach is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T-matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

  8. Complex Correlation Calculation of e-H Total Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Calculation of e-H total and elastic partial wave cross sections is being carried out using the complex correlation variational T-matrix method. In this preliminary study, elastic partial wave phase shifts are calculated with the correlation functions which are confined to be real. In that case the method reduces to the conventional optical potential approach with projection operators. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the S phase shifts is 95 while for the S it is 56, except for k=0.8 where it is 84. Our results, which are rigorous lower bounds, are given. They are seen to be in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are of 0 greater accuracy and outside of his error limits for k=0.3 and 0.4 for S. The main aim of this approach' is the application to higher energy scattering. By virtue of the complex correlation functions, the T matrix is not unitary so that elastic and total scattering cross sections are independent of each other. Our results will be compared specifically with those of Bray and Stelbovics.

  9. Prevalence and correlates of dizziness in community-dwelling older people: a cross sectional population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness is a common complaint among older adults and has been linked to a wide range of health conditions, psychological and social characteristics in this population. However a profile of dizziness is still uncertain which hampers clinical decision-making. We therefore sought to explore the relationship between dizziness and a comprehensive range of demographic data, diseases, health and geriatric conditions, and geriatric syndromes in a representative sample of community-dwelling older people. Methods This is a cross-sectional, population-based study derived from FIBRA (Network for the Study of Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Adults), with 391 elderly adults, both men and women, aged 65 years and older. Elderly participants living at home in an urban area were enrolled through a process of random cluster sampling of census regions. The outcome variable was the self-report of dizziness in the last year. Several feelings of dizziness were investigated including vertigo, spinning, light or heavy headedness, floating, fuzziness, giddiness and instability. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the adjusted odds ratios and build the probability model for dizziness. Results The complaint of dizziness was reported by 45% of elderly adults, from which 71.6% were women (p=0.004). The multivariate regression analysis revealed that dizziness is associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 2.08; 95% CI 1.29–3.35), perceived fatigue (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.21-3.10), recurring falls (OR = 2.01; 95% CI 1.11-3.62) and excessive drowsiness (OR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.11–3.29). The discrimination of the final model was AUC = 0.673 (95% CI 0.619-0.727) (p< 0.001). Conclusions The prevalence of dizziness in community-dwelling elderly adults is substantial. It is associated with other common geriatric conditions usually neglected in elderly adults, such as fatigue and drowsiness, supporting its possible multifactorial manifestation. Our findings

  10. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Yoremes (Mayos) in Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Almada-Balderrama, Gerardo Javier; Nuñez-Aguirre, Alan Daniel; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Yoremes and to identify associations of T. gondii exposure with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of Yoremes. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Yoremes were enrolled in the locality of Tierra Blanca in the municipality of Navojoa in Sonora State, Mexico. Participants We studied 200 Yoremes (Mayos); they are an indigenous ethnic group living in a coastal region in northwestern Mexico. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We used a standardised questionnaire to obtain the characteristics of Yoremes. The association of T. gondii exposure and Yoremes’ characteristics was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 200 Yoremes studied (mean age: 31.50±18.43 years), 26 (13.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 19 (73.1%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with sex, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. In contrast, multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with increasing age (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04; p=0.03) and consumption of squirrel meat (OR=4.99; 95% CI 1.07 to 23.31; p=0.04). Furthermore, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Yoremes with a history of lymphadenopathy (p=0.03) and those suffering from frequent abdominal pain (p=0.03). In women, T. gondii exposure was associated with a history of caesarean sections (p=0.03) and miscarriages (p=0.02). Conclusions We demonstrate, for the first time, serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Yoremes in Mexico. Results suggest that infection with T. gondii might be affecting the health of Yoremes. Results may be useful for an

  11. [Human papillomavirus infection and its correlates with clinically relevant gynecological and obstetric conditions: A cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Daniel; Beltrán-Lagunes, Luis; Brito-Aranda, Leticia; López-Hernández, Maria de la Luz

    2016-08-05

    To analyze the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the possible epidemiological association with conditions of clinical relevance in women. A cross-sectional study from Mexico City was conducted from January 2012 to December 2014. HPV molecular detection was performed on cervical samples. Data were analyzed with appropriated statistic tests. A total of 1,604 females (median 47, interquartile range 38-54) were analyzed. Global prevalence of infection for any HPV is 9.91% (95% CI 8.6-11.3). An association between infection with 16-HPV and number of abortions (NA) (OR=1.427; 95% CI 1.091-1.866), by univariate regression model (UVRM) was estimated. Moreover, menarche (OR=1.566; 95% CI 1.079-2.272), NA (OR=1.570; 95% CI 1.106-2.227) and number of pregnancies (NP) (OR=0.461; 95% CI 0.260-0.818) have a direct and inverse association with infection by genotype 18 of HPV, respectively. Also, infection with HR-HPV genotypes has an inverse association with NP (OR=0.791; 95% CI 0.707-0.884) by normal labor (OR=0.867; 95% CI 0.767-0.979) and NA (OR=0.715; 95% CI 0.534-0.959) (UVRM), and a direct association with number of sexual partners (OR=1.082; 95% CI 1.015-1.154). Onset of sexual activity has an inverse association with infection by genotype 16- (UVRM: OR=0.814; 95% CI 0.715-0.926; multinomial regression model (MNRM): OR=0.803; 95% CI 0.702-0.918) and HR-HPV (UVRM: OR=0.933; 95% CI 0.889-0.980, and MNRM: OR=0.912; 95% CI 0.867-0.959), all P values were lower than .03. Prevalence of HPV cervical infection is different according to age and it is associated with several medical conditions of clinical relevance in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlates of shoulder pain in wheelchair basketball players from the Japanese national team: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tsunoda, Kenji; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Hotta, Kazushi; Tachibana, Kaori; Shimizu, Yukiyo; Fukaya, Takashi; Ikeda, Eiji; Wadano, Yasuyoshi

    2016-11-21

    To reveal correlates of shoulder pain in wheelchair basketball players from the Japanese national team. Study participants were 19 males (29.7 ± 5.2 years) and 21 females (29.0 ± 8.2 years) players. We assessed shoulder pain using the wheelchair user's shoulder pain index (WUSPI). As potential correlates of shoulder pain, age, ability class, practice time and years of experience in wheelchair basketball were collected. The total WUSPI score for men (16.18 ± 17.39 points) was significantly higher than that for women (8.62 ± 15.70 points). In men, higher age was significantly correlated with greater shoulder pain for total WUSPI score and on two WUSPI items. Lower ability in wheelchair basketball was correlated with men's greater shoulder pain on three WUSPI items. In men, there were also significant correlations between longer years of experience and greater shoulder pain for total WUSPI score and on three WUSPI items. For women, there were significant correlations between longer practice time and less pain for total WUSPI score and on four WUSPI items. Because top male wheelchair basketball players have a higher risk of shoulder pain than female players, daily care of shoulder and periodic medical checkups are needed, especially for older male players with lower ability and more experience.

  13. Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, D.; CDF Collaboration

    1994-09-01

    Using data collected during the 1992--93 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross section where one b is detected from a muon from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions.

  14. Correlations between physical activity and neurocognitive domain functions in patients with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, Yusuke; Otaki, Junichi

    2017-01-05

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is a critical target symptom of schizophrenia treatment. A positive correlation between physical activity level and neurocognitive function has been reported in healthy individuals, but it is unclear whether such a correlation exists in patients with schizophrenia and whether the relationship is different according to inpatients or outpatients. This study aimed to examine the differences in the correlations between physical activity and multiple neurocognitive domains in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia and obtain suggestions for further study to facilitate this field. Twenty-nine patients with schizophrenia were examined (16 inpatients and 13 outpatients, 56.0 ± 11.4 years of age). Current symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and neurocognitive functions using Cognitrax, which yields a composite neurocognitive index (NCI) and 11 domain scores. After testing, participants wore an HJA-750C accelerometer for one week to measure physical activity levels and durations. Partial correlation analyses were performed between exercise and cognitive parameters. In the outpatient group, higher physical activity was associated with faster Motor and Psychomotor Speeds in outpatients. However, higher physical activity was associated with lower overall NCI, Attention score, and Memory scores in inpatients. Although higher physical activity was associated with better neurocognitive functions of outpatients, in inpatients with non-remitted schizophrenia, higher physical activity was associated with worsening of several cognitive domains. In a future study examining the relationship between physical activity and neurocognitive function for facilitating this research field, separation between inpatients and outpatients are needed because the relationship is different between inpatients and outpatients.

  15. Correlation of adiposity indices with cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy adults of Singapore: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xinyan; Tey, Siew Ling; Leong, Claudia; Quek, Rina; Loo, Yi Ting; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has long been highlighted for its association with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nonetheless, the best adiposity indices to evaluate the CVD risk factors remain contentious and few studies have been performed in Asian populations. In the present study, we compared the association strength of percent body fat (PBF) to indirect anthropometric measures of general adiposity (body mass index (BMI) and body adiposity index (BAI)) and central adiposity (waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) for the prediction of CVD risk factors in healthy men and women living in Singapore. A total of 125 individuals (63 men and 62 women) took part in this study. PBF was measured by using three different techniques, including bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), BOD POD, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Anthropometric measurements (WC, hip circumference (HC), height, and weight), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FSI), and lipid profiles were determined according to standard protocols. Correlations of anthropometric measurements and PBF with CVD risk factors were compared. Irrespective of the measuring techniques, PBF showed strong positive correlations with FSI, HOMA-IR, TC/HDL, TG/HDL, and LDL/HDL in both genders. While PBF was highly correlated with FBG, SBP, and DBP in females, no significant relationships were observed in males. Amongst the five anthropometric measures of adiposity, BAI was the best predictor for CVD risk factors in female participants (r = 0.593 for HOMA-IR, r = 0.542 for TG/HDL, r = 0.474 for SBP, and r = 0.448 for DBP). For males, the combination of WC (r = 0.629 for HOMA-IR, and r = 0.446 for TG/HDL) and WHR (r = 0.352 for SBP, and r = 0.366 for DBP) had the best correlation with CVD risk factors. Measurement of PBF does not outperform the simple anthropometric measurements of obesity, i.e. BAI, WC, and WHR, in the prediction of CVD risk factors in

  16. A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

    PubMed Central

    TS, Jaisoorya; Nair, Sivasankaran; Rani, Anjana; Menon, Priya; Madhavan, Revamma; Rajan, Jeevan Chakkandan; Radhakrishnan, Komath Sankaran; Jose, Vineeta; Benegal, Vivek; Thennarasu, K.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India. Aims This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population. Method We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. Conclusions This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population. Declaration of

  17. Physical activity level and its clinical correlates in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mikael; Slinde, Frode; Grönberg, Anne Marie; Svantesson, Ulla; Janson, Christer; Emtner, Margareta

    2013-11-15

    Decreased physical activity is associated with higher mortality in subjects with COPD. The aim of this study was to assess clinical characteristics and physical activity levels (PALs) in subjects with COPD. Seventy-three subjects with COPD (67 ± 7 yrs, 44 female) with one-second forced expiratory volume percentage (FEV1%) predicted values of 43 ± 16 were included. The ratio of total energy expenditure (TEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) was used to define the physical activity level (PAL) (PAL = TEE/RMR). TEE was assessed with an activity monitor (ActiReg), and RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. Walking speed (measured over 30-meters), maximal quadriceps muscle strength, fat-free mass and systemic inflammation were measured as clinical characteristics. Hierarchical linear regression was applied to investigate the explanatory values of the clinical correlates to PAL. The mean PAL was 1.47 ± 0.19, and 92% of subjects were classified as physically very inactive or sedentary. The walking speed was 1.02 ± 0.23 m/s, the quadriceps strength was 31.3 ± 11.2 kg, and the fat-free mass index (FFMI) was 15.7 ± 2.3 kg/m2, identifying 42% of subjects as slow walkers, 21% as muscle-weak and 49% as FFM-depleted. The regression model explained 45.5% (p < 0.001) of the variance in PAL. The FEV1% predicted explained the largest proportion (22.5%), with further improvements in the model from walking speed (10.1%), muscle strength (7.0%) and FFMI (3.0%). Neither age, gender nor systemic inflammation contributed to the model. Apart from lung function, walking speed and muscle strength are important correlates of physical activity. Further explorations of the longitudinal effects of the factors characterizing the most inactive subjects are warranted.

  18. Individual, social, environmental, and physical environmental correlates with physical activity among Canadians: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Sai Yi; Cameron, Christine; DesMeules, Marie; Morrison, Howard; Craig, Cora Lynn; Jiang, XiaoHong

    2009-01-01

    Background The identification of various individual, social and physical environmental factors affecting physical activity (PA) behavior in Canada can help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Canada. This study examined the influences of various individual, social and physical environmental factors on PA participation by gender, age and socioeconomic status, using data from the 2002 nationwide survey of the Physical Activity Monitor. Methods In 2002, 5,167 Canadians aged 15–79 years, selected by random-digit dialling from household-based telephone exchanges, completed a telephone survey. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to collect information on total physical activity. The effects of socio-economical status, self-rated health, self-efficacy, intention, perceived barriers to PA, health benefits of PA, social support, and facility availability on PA level were examined by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Self-efficacy and intention were the strongest correlates and had the greatest effect on PA. Family income, self-rated health and perceived barriers were also consistently associated with PA. The effects of the perceived health benefits, education and family income were more salient to older people, whereas the influence of education was more important to women and the influence of perceived barriers was more salient to women and younger people. Facility availability was more strongly associated with PA among people with a university degree than among people with a lower education level. However, social support was not significantly related to PA in any subgroup. Conclusion This study suggests that PA promotion strategies should be tailored to enhance people's confidence to engage in PA, motivate people to be more active, educate people on PA's health benefits and reduce barriers, as well as target different factors for men and women and for

  19. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Georgina Sa; Giles-Corti, Billie; Christian, Hayley E; Bulsara, Max; Timperio, Anna F; McCormack, Gavin R; Villaneuva, Karen P

    2011-11-10

    Active school transport (AST) has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Children (n = 1197) attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls), school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96) and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99). Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05), parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82); and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17). School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls) cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving.

  20. On your bike! a cross-sectional study of the individual, social and environmental correlates of cycling to school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active school transport (AST) has declined rapidly in recent decades. While many studies have examined walking, cycling to school has received very little attention. Correlates of cycling are likely to differ to those from walking and cycling enables AST from further distances. This study examined individual, social and environmental factors associated with cycling to school among elementary school-aged children, stratified by gender. Methods Children (n = 1197) attending 25 Australian primary schools located in high or low walkable neighborhoods, completed a one-week travel diary and a parent/child questionnaire on travel habits and attitudes. Results Overall, 31.2% of boys and 14.6% of girls cycled ≥ 1 trip/week, however 59.4% of boys and 36.7% of girls reported cycling as their preferred school transport mode. In boys (but not girls), school neighborhood design was significantly associated with cycling: i.e., boys attending schools in neighborhoods with high connectivity and low traffic were 5.58 times more likely to cycle (95% CI 1.11-27.96) and for each kilometer boys lived from school the odds of cycling reduced by 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.99). Irrespective of gender, cycling to school was associated with parental confidence in their child's cycling ability (boys: OR 10.39; 95% CI 3.79-28.48; girls: OR 4.03; 95% CI 2.02-8.05), parental perceived convenience of driving (boys: OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23-0.74; girls: OR 0.40; 95% CI 0.20-0.82); and child's preference to cycle (boys: OR 5.68; 95% CI 3.23-9.98; girls: OR 3.73; 95% CI 2.26-6.17). Conclusion School proximity, street network connectivity and traffic exposure in school neighborhoods was associated with boys (but not girls) cycling to school. Irrespective of gender, parents need to be confident in their child's cycling ability and must prioritize cycling over driving. PMID:22074261

  1. European adults’ physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey

    PubMed Central

    Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18–65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55–64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity. PMID:27280072

  2. European adults' physical activity socio-demographic correlates: a cross-sectional study from the European Social Survey.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Peralta, Miguel; Catunda, Ricardo; Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2016-01-01

    Background. From a public health perspective, the study of socio-demographic factors related to physical activity is important in order to identify subgroups for intervention programs. Objective. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of, and the socio-demographic correlates related to, the achievement of recommended physical activity levels. Methods. Using data from the European Social Survey round 6, physical activity and socio-demographic characteristics were collected, in 2012, from 39,278 European adults (18,272 men, 21,006 women), aged 18-65 years, from 28 countries. The question of meeting physical activity guidelines was assessed using World Health Organization criteria. Results. A total of 64.50% (63.36% men, 66.49% women) attained physical activity recommended levels. The likelihood of attaining physical activity recommendations was higher in the 55-64 years age group (men: OR = 1.22, p < 0.05; women: OR = 1.66, p < 0.001), among those who had secondary education (men: OR = 1.28, p < 0.01; women: OR = 1.26, p < 0.05), among those who lived in rural areas (men: OR = 1.20, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.10, p < 0.05), and among those who had three or more people living at home (men: OR = 1.40, p < 0.001; women: OR = 1.43, p < 0.001). On the other hand, attaining physical activity recommendations was negatively associated with being unemployed (men: OR = 0.70, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.87, p < 0.05), being a student (OR = 0.56, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.64, p < 0.01), being a retired person (men: OR = 0.86, p < 0.05) and with having a higher household income (OR = 0.80, p < 0.001; women: OR = 0.81, p < 0.01). Conclusions. This research helped clarify that, as the promotion of physical activity is critical to sustain health and prevent disease, socio-demographic factors are important to consider when planning the increase of physical activity.

  3. Measurement of correlated b quark cross sections at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    CDF Collaboration

    1994-05-01

    Using data collected during the 1992--1993 collider run at Fermilab, CDF has made measurements of correlated b quark cross sections where one b is detected from the lepton from semileptonic decay and the second b is detected with secondary vertex techniques. We report on measurements of the cross section as a function of the momentum of the second b and as a function of the azimuthal separation of the two b quarks, for transverse momentum of the initial b quark greater than 15 GeV. The vertex reconstruction techniques are valid over a large range in transverse momentum, starting at a minimum of 10 GeV. Results are compared to QCD predictions.

  4. Close correlation between arterial and central venous lactate concentrations of children in shock: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Phumeetham, Suwannee; Kaowchaweerattanachart, Nujaree; Law, Suvikrom; Chanthong, Prakul; Pratumvinit, Busadee

    2017-09-01

    Arterial lactate (aLact) has been widely used to guide therapeutic decisions in children with shock. We evaluated the feasibility of central venous lactate (cvLact) in assessing aLact among children with shock. Pairs of arterial and central venous samples for lactate concentrations were collected simultaneously during the shock and hemodynamically stable states. The results were analyzed by using a Cobas 8000 analyzer. Sixty-four blood paired samples were collected from 48 patients. The overall correlation between central venous and arterial lactate concentrations was r=0.962, p<0.0001, r(2)=0.965. The regression equation was aLact=(0.978×cvLact)-0.137. A similar correlation was found between central venous and arterial lactate concentrations during the states of shock and stable hemodynamics (r=0.970, p<0.0001, r(2)=0.966 and r=0.935, p<0.0001, r(2)=0.962, respectively). The mean difference between central venous and arterial lactate concentrations was 0.20mmol/l (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.32) and the limits of agreement were -0.74mmol/l (95% CI: -0.94 to -0.53) and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.34). In situations of shock where a central venous catheter is required, samples from a central vein present an acceptable and timely alternative to arterial samples for quantitating lactate concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation Between Arthroscopy Simulator and Video Game Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study of 30 Volunteers Comparing 2- and 3-Dimensional Video Games.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Rahm, Stefan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Werner, Clément M L; Bouaicha, Samy

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between arthroscopy simulator performance and video game skills. This study compared the performances of 30 volunteers without experience performing arthroscopies in 3 different tasks of a validated virtual reality knee arthroscopy simulator with the video game experience using a questionnaire and actual performances in 5 different 2- and 3-dimensional (D) video games of varying genres on 2 different platforms. Positive correlations between knee arthroscopy simulator and video game performances (ρ = 0.63, P < .001) as well as experiences (ρ = 0.50, P = .005) were found. The strongest correlations were found for the task of catching (hooking) 6 foreign bodies (virtual rings; "triangulation") and the dribbling performance in a sports game and a first-person shooter game, as well as the meniscus resection and a tile-matching puzzle game (all ρ ≥ 0.60, P < .001). No correlations were found for any of the knee arthroscopy simulator tasks and a strategy game. Although knee arthroscopy performances do not correlate with 2-D strategy video game skills, they show a correlation with 2-D tile-matching puzzle games only for easier tasks with a rather limited focus, and highly correlate with 3-D sports and first-person shooter video games. These findings show that experienced and good 3-D gamers are better arthroscopists than nonexperienced and poor 3-D gamers. Level II, observational cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cord Blood Hepcidin: Cross-Sectional Correlates and Associations with Anemia, Malaria, and Mortality in a Tanzanian Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Elizabeth B; Spottiswoode, Natasha; Kabyemela, Edward; Morrison, Robert; Kurtis, Jonathan D; Wood, Angela M; Drakesmith, Hal; Fried, Michal; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-10-05

    Hepcidin, the master regulator of bioavailable iron, is a key mediator of anemia and also plays a central role in host defense against infection. We hypothesized that measuring hepcidin levels in cord blood could provide an early indication of interindividual differences in iron regulation with quantifiable implications for anemia, malaria, and mortality-related risk. Hepcidin concentrations were measured in cord plasma from a birth cohort (N = 710), which was followed for up to 4 years in a region of perennial malaria transmission in Muheza, Tanzania (2002-2006). At the time of delivery, cord hepcidin levels were correlated with inflammatory mediators, iron markers, and maternal health conditions. Hepcidin levels were 30% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12%, 44%) lower in children born to anemic mothers and 48% (95% CI: 11%, 97%) higher in placental malaria-exposed children. Relative to children in the lowest third, children in the highest third of cord hepcidin had on average 2.5 g/L (95% CI: 0.1, 4.8) lower hemoglobin levels over the duration of follow-up, increased risk of anemia and severe anemia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI]: 1.18 [1.03, 1.36] and 1.34 [1.08, 1.66], respectively), and decreased risk of malaria and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR [95% CI]: 0.78 [0.67, 0.91] and 0.34 [0.14, 0.84], respectively). Although longitudinal measurements of hepcidin and iron stores are required to strengthen causal inference, these results suggest that hepcidin may have utility as a biomarker indicating children's susceptibility to anemia and infection in early life. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. b Quark production cross sections and the b {minus} {bar b} correlated production cross section at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, B.T.; CDF Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    Recent results on b quark and B meson production cross sections have been obtained at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV proton-antiproton collisions using the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab, using the exclusive decay modes B{sup {+-}} {yields}J/{Psi} K{sup {+-}} and B{sup 0} {yields} J/{Psi} K*. Another measurement made using data from the 1988--89 run on the correlated b + {bar b} cross section is also presented.

  8. Correlates of delayed sexual intercourse and condom use among adolescents in Uganda: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E; Bos, Arjan E R; Lie, Rico; Ruiter, Robert A C; Leerlooijer, Joanne N; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-09-21

    Comprehensive sex education, including the promotion of consistent condom use, is still an important intervention strategy in tackling unplanned pregnancies, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Ugandan adolescents. This study examines predictors of the intention to use a condom and the intention to delay sexual intercourse among secondary school students (aged 12-20) in Uganda. A school-based sample was drawn from 48 secondary schools throughout Uganda. Participants (N = 1978) completed a survey in English measuring beliefs regarding pregnancy, STIs and HIV and AIDS, attitudes, social norms and self-efficacy towards condom use and abstinence/delay, intention to use a condom and intention to delay sexual intercourse. As secondary sexual abstinence is one of the recommended ways for preventing HIV, STIs and unplanned pregnancies among the sexually experienced, participants with and without previous sexual experience were compared. For adolescents without sexual experience (virgins), self-efficacy, perceived social norms and attitude towards condom use predicted the intention to use condoms. Among those with sexual experience (non-virgins), only perceived social norm was a significant predictor. The intention to delay sexual intercourse was, however, predicted similarly for both groups, with attitudes, perceived social norm and self-efficacy being significant predictors. This study has established relevant predictors of intentions of safe sex among young Ugandans and has shown that the intention to use condoms is motivated by different factors depending on previous sexual experience. A segmented approach to intervention development and implementation is thus recommended.

  9. The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one’s residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Methods Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n = 7105, 2007–2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Results Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one’s residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one’s neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the

  10. Exploring correlations between positive psychological resources and symptoms of psychological distress among hematological cancer patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zi-Yue; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Lie

    2016-07-01

    Hematological cancer patients experience high levels of psychological distress during diagnoses and intensive treatments. The aim of the present study is to explore the effects of positive psychological resources on depressive and anxiety symptoms in hematological cancer patients. This survey was conducted in a hospital during the period from July 2013 to April 2014. A total of 300 inpatients were recruited and finally 227 of them completed the questionnaires. Questionnaires included demographic and clinical variables, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, the Life Orientation Scale-Revised, the General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Resilience Scale-14. Results showed that the prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was 66.1 and 45.8%, respectively. Both optimism (β = -.479, p < .001) and resilience (β = -.174, p < .05) were negatively associated with depressive symptoms, and optimism (β = -.393, p < .001) was negatively associated with anxiety symptoms. However, resilience (β = -.133, p > .05) was not significantly associated with anxiety symptoms, and self-efficacy was not significantly associated with depressive (β = -.032, p > .05) or anxiety symptoms (β = -.055, p > .05). The results suggest that hematological cancer patients who possess high levels of positive psychological resources may have fewer symptoms of psychological distress. The findings indicate that enhancing positive psychological resources can be considered in developing intervention strategies for decreasing depressive and anxiety symptoms.

  11. Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany: A Cross-Sectional Geographic Correlation Study.

    PubMed

    Ruffing, Ulla; Alabi, Abraham; Kazimoto, Theckla; Vubil, Delfino C; Akulenko, Ruslan; Abdulla, Salim; Alonso, Pedro; Bischoff, Markus; Germann, Anja; Grobusch, Martin P; Helms, Volkhard; Hoffmann, Jonas; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Schubert, Sabine; Strauß, Lena; Tanner, Marcel; Briesen, Hagen von; Wende, Laura; Müller, Lutz von; Herrmann, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Clonal clusters and gene repertoires of Staphylococcus aureus are essential to understand disease and are well characterized in industrialized countries but poorly analysed in developing regions. The objective of this study was to compare the molecular-epidemiologic profiles of S. aureus isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany. S. aureus isolates from 600 staphylococcal carriers and 600 patients with community-associated staphylococcal disease were characterized by DNA hybridization, clonal complex (CC) attribution, and principal component (PCA)-based gene repertoire analysis. 73% of all CCs identified representing 77% of the isolates contained in these CCs were predominant in either African or German region. Significant differences between African versus German isolates were found for alleles encoding the accessory gene regulator type, enterotoxins, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, immune evasion gene cluster, and adhesins. PCA in conjunction with silhouette analysis distinguished nine separable PCA clusters, with five clusters primarily comprising of African and two clusters of German isolates. Significant differences between S. aureus lineages in Africa and Germany may be a clue to explain the apparent difference in disease between tropical/(so-called) developing and temperate/industrialized regions. In low-resource countries further clinical-epidemiologic research is warranted not only for neglected tropical diseases but also for major bacterial infections.

  12. Correlates of Insufficient Physical Activity among Junior High School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study in Xi’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Hui, Zhaozhao; Terry, Paul D.; Ma, Mei; Cheng, Li; Deng, Fu; Gu, Wei; Zhang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity plays an important role in individual health at all stages of life. However, evidence is lacking regarding the level of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the related factors to insufficient physical activity (IPA). Methods: A sample of 1060 students aged 12–15 years from nine public junior high schools in China were invited to participate in this study. Physical activity was assessed by a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with IPA. Results: 30.1% boys and 43.0% girls in our sample did not engage in sufficient physical activity. Obesity (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.5–2.9) and high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.8) were positively associated with IPA, whereas male sex (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5–0.9), underweight status (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.7), and high family support level for physical activity (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9) showed inverse associations. Age was not associated with IPA. Conclusions: IPA appears to be a considerable problem in this sample of Chinese youth. Effective interventions to increase physical activity are needed and may include improving family support level for physical activity, especially for girls, the obese and those with high SES. PMID:27043607

  13. Allergic conjunctivitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, A; Piliego, F; Castegnaro, A; Lazzarini, D; La Gloria Valerio, A; Mattana, P; Fregona, I

    2015-06-01

    Ocular allergy is a common disease in daily practice. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate clinical aspects of and therapeutic approaches to ocular allergy in Italy. Of the 3685 patients affected by ocular allergy and enrolled by 304 ophthalmologists nationally, 3545 were eligible to be included in the statistical analysis. A questionnaire was administered in office to record demographic data, comorbidities, trigger factors, number of conjunctivitis episodes, and past treatments. Signs and symptoms were graded according to their severity, frequency, and duration. Mean age of enrolled patients was 38 ± 19 years. Seasonal allergic conjunctivitis (55% of patients) was equally distributed among the different age groups, while perennial allergic conjunctivitis (18%) increased with age and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (9%) was more frequent under the age of 18. Itching and redness were reported in 90% and 85%, respectively; lid skin involvement was observed in 22% of cases and keratitis in 11%. Pollen sensitivities were indicated as the most frequent triggers; however, exposure to non-specific environmental conditions, pollutants, and cigarette smoke was frequently reported. Only 35% of patients underwent a diagnostic evaluation of specific allergic sensitization, with positive allergy tests found in 82% of this subset. With regard to treatment, topical decongestants were used in 43% of patients, corticosteroids in 41%, antihistamines in 29%, systemic antihistamines in 27%, and mast cell stabilizers in 15%. This survey provided useful epidemiological information regarding the clinical characteristics and treatment options of a large cohort of patients affected by different forms of ocular allergy. An understanding of ocular allergic disease, its incidence, demographics, and treatment paradigms provides important information towards understanding its pharmacoeconomics and burden on the national health system. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts.

  15. Prevalence of burnout and its correlates among residents in a tertiary medical center in Kerala, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ratnakaran, B; Prabhakaran, A; Karunakaran, V

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Residents work in emotionally demanding environments with multiple stressors. The risk for burnout is high in them and it has significant negative consequences for their career. Burnout is also associated with consequences in terms of physical and mental health including insomnia, cardiovascular disease, depression and suicidal ideation. Thus, the study aimed to study the prevalence of burn out and its correlates among interns and residents at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Settings and Design: Cross Sectional Study at Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Methods: It was a cross Sectional study of 558 interns and residents of Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Data was collected which included the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory [CBI] which assesses burnout in the dimensions of Personal burnout, Work burnout and Patient related burnout, with a cut off score of 50 for each dimension. Age, sex, year of study, department the resident belonged to, or an intern, junior resident or a super speciality senior resident (resident doing super speciality course after their post graduate masters degree) were the correlates assessed. Statistical analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: More than one third of the participants were found to have burnout in one or another dimension of the CBI. Burnout was found to be the highest among the interns in the domains of personal burnout (64.05 %) and patient related burnout (68.62 %) and in junior residents for work related burnout (40%). Super specialty senior residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions. Among the residents, Non Medical/Non Surgical residents had the least prevalence of burnout in all three dimensions, whereas surgical speciality residents had the highest of personal burnout (57.92 %) and Medical speciality residents had the highest patient related burnout (27.13%). Both medical and

  16. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45-70 years): a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mesters, Ilse; Wahl, Stefanie; Van Keulen, Hilde M

    2014-06-25

    Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45-70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45-70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was significantly associated with age, gender

  17. Sequence stratigraphic correlation of well-log cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Correlation of well-log cross sections using the principles of sequence stratigraphy is not as straight forward as it might at first appear. It is a very subjective process, being an interpretation of limited data based on the geologist's knowledge and experience, and consequently, the results can be as varied as the interpreters who do the work. Many decisions are required at each step of the correlation process, and they may be made subjectively (to fit a preconceived understanding of the stratigraphy) or as objectively as possible. Experience has yielded a number of guidelines and [open quotes]rules of thumb[close quotes] that make the process easier and, if not more objective, at least provide a clearer understanding of what assumptions are being made and how they affect the correlation decisions underlying the finished product. This paper provides some of those guidelines. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Correlation between suspended particles in the environmental air and causes of disease among inhabitants: cross-sectional studies using the vital statistics and air pollution data in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwai, Kazuro; Mizuno, Shoichi; Miyasaka, Yoji; Mori, Toru

    2005-09-01

    To identify the diseases that correlate with suspended particle concentration in the ambient air, a cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted using the annual vital statistics and air pollution estimates of 1881 points throughout Japan. The concentration of suspended particulate matters (SPMs) 10 microm or less in diameter were hypothetically converted to PM(2.5) values (converted PM(2.5) or cPM(2.5)) by using a conversion factor obtained from 25 estimates in Japan. Among various causes of death, a significant correlation was observed between both the SPM and cPM(2.5) (SPM/cPM(2.5)) levels and the age-adjusted death rates of ischemic heart disease or hypertensive heart disease in both genders. Correlation was noted with pneumonia, asthma, chronic bronchitis/emphysema, or lung cancer only in females. Unexpectedly, breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer also showed significant increases in mortality rates related to the SPM/cPM(2.5) level, suggesting a role for suspended particles in the ambient air with or without gaseous component as a possible endocrine-disrupting, estrogenic agent. Multivariate regression analysis of confounding factors, smoking rate, population density, and hormone-related factors revealed consistent significance of SPM/cPM(2.5) in these diseases.

  19. Acculturation, quality of life and work environment of international nurses in a multi-cultural society: A cross-sectional, correlational study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Lopez, Violeta

    2016-05-01

    The aim is to examine the acculturation level of international nurses working in a multi-cultural society. The relationship between acculturation, working environment and quality of life of international nurses was also explored. A cross-sectional, correlational study using self-report questionnaire was conducted on 814 international nurses using stratified random sampling based on the nationality distribution of international nurses registered with the Singapore Nursing Board. Outcome measures included World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL_BREF) and Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index-Revised (PES-NWI-R). Data were collected from June to December 2012. There were variations in the acculturation level among different nationality groups of international nurses. Acculturation levels were the lowest among Mainland Chinese international nurses (M=27.47, SD 5.23). A positive correlation was found between acculturation and quality of life whereas a lower perception of work environment was associated with lower acculturation level. Data obtained from this study can be utilized to develop interventions targeted at the unique needs of the international nurses as they migrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Vitamin B12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    M Hugar, Shivayogi; S Dhariwal, Neha; Majeed, Andleeb; Badakar, Chandrashekhar; Gokhale, Niraj; Mistry, Laresh

    2017-01-01

    To assess the level of vitamin B12 and correlate it with dental caries [decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) score] and gingival diseases [plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI)]. Healthy children according to the inclusion criteria were selected by the computerized randomization method from a school to assess the vitamin B12 levels using Centaur/ Versace machine. Blood samples were collected to assess vitamin B12 levels using automated analyzer. Oral examination was done by a single calibrated dentist. A thorough oral examination was carried out and the DMFT, PI, and GI scores of all the children were recorded and assessed. Data were analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation test. Vitamin B12 levels were deficient in 64% of the children. In boys, vitamin B12 deficiency was found in about 76.2%, whereas, in girls it was 57.1%, which was not statistically significant. The vitamin B12 deficient children showed a significantly high DMFT scores than the children with normal vitamin B12 levels. The Pearson's correlation was -0.614 for DMFT, PI value -0.663, and GI value of -0.477. The negative correlation stated that there was a reverse relation between these indices and vitamin B12. In children with systemic vitamin B12 deficiency, there is increased dental caries prevalence and associated gingival problems. Hugar SM, Dhariwal NS, Majeed A, Badakar C, Gokhale N, Mistry L. Assessment of Vitamin B12 and Its Correlation with Dental Caries and Gingival Diseases in 10- to 14-year-old Children: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):142-146.

  1. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular changes in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and their correlation with disease severity: A hospital-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kothiwala, Sunil K; Khanna, Neena; Tandon, Nikhil; Naik, Nitish; Sharma, Vinod K; Sharma, Sanjeev; Sreenivas, V

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies suggest an association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome and risk of subclinical atherosclerosis. However, there is a paucity of data in the Indian population on these associations. To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis compared to healthy controls and to correlate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome with severity of psoriasis. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed on 140 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis and 140 controls. Psoriasis was categorized as mild, moderate and severe based on psoriasis area and severity index (<10, 10-14 and ≥15, respectively) and as disease of short (<1 year), intermediate (1-3 years) and long duration (>3 years). In all patients and controls, body mass index was calculated, blood pressure and waist circumference were measured and fasting bloaod sugar and lipid profile were estimated. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the presence of 3 or more of the modified National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. A subset of 30 psoriatic patients and 30 healthy controls were selected by the systematic sampling method for cardiac evaluation including electrocardiography, echocardiography and carotid intima-media thickness measurement. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly more in psoriatic patients than in controls (39.3% vs. 17.1%, odds ratio = 3.13). Psoriatic patients also had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, abdominal obesity and diabetes. There was a significant trend to increase in prevalence of metabolic syndrome, hypertension and type 2 diabetes with increased severity and longer duration of the psoriasis. Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher carotid intima-media thickness (mean 0.61 mm ± 0.01 mm vs. 0.37 mm ± 0.01 mm) than controls. This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study with a relatively small sample

  2. Nursing students' perceptions of using the Clinical Education Assessment tool AssCE and their overall perceptions of the clinical learning environment - A cross-sectional correlational study.

    PubMed

    Engström, Maria; Löfmark, Anna; Vae, Karen Johanne Ugland; Mårtensson, Gunilla

    2017-04-01

    Clinical education is a vital part of nursing students' learning; the importance of assessment tools and feedback in stimulating student learning has been stressed, but this needs to be studied in more detail. To examine relationships between nursing students' perceptions of using an Assessment tool in Clinical Education (AssCE) during their mid-course discussion and final assessment, the content discussed during these meetings between the student, preceptor and nurse teacher and the students' overall perception of the clinical learning environment. A cross-sectional, correlational design was used. A convenience sample of 110 nursing students from one Norwegian university college with two campuses. Data were collected with self-developed questionnaires and analysed using logistic regression with SPSS and the PROCESS macro for mediation analysis. There was a positive relationship between nursing students' perceptions of using the assessment tool AssCE and their overall perception of the clinical learning environment. This relationship was, in turn, mediated by the content discussed during the formative mid-course discussion and summative final assessment. Our conclusion is that the assessment tool AssCE supported students' clinical learning and that this relationship, in turn, was mediated by the degree to which the conversation during the assessment meeting focused on the student's knowledge, skills and professional judgement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives-BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35-30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96-6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01-25.14; p = 0.04). Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously.

  4. Prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Molyko and Bomaka, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nsoh, Fuh Anold; Wung, Buh Amos; Atashili, Julius; Benjamin, Pokam Thumamo; Marvlyn, Eba; Ivo, Keumami Katte; Nguedia, Assob Jules Clément

    2016-11-08

    Access to potable water remains a major challenge particularly in resource-limited settings. Although the potential contaminants of water are varied, enteric pathogenic protozoa are known to cause waterborne diseases greatly. This study aimed at investigating the prevalence, characteristics and correlates of enteric pathogenic protozoa in drinking water sources in Buea, Cameroon. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 155 water samples collected from various drinking sources (boreholes, springs, taps and wells). Each sample was subjected to physicochemical examinations (pH, turbidity, odour and sliminess) and parasitological analysis (wet mount, modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain) to determine the presence of enteric pathogenic protozoa. A data collection tool was used to note characteristics of collected samples and the data was analysed using EPI-INFO Version 3.5.3. The overall prevalence of enteric pathogenic protozoa in water sources was 62.6 %. Eight species of enteric protozoa were observed with Cryptosporidium parvum being the most predominant (45.8 %). Spring water was the most contaminated source with enteric protozoa (85.7 %) while pipe borne water had all eight species of protozoa identified. A pH of 6 was the only significant factor associated with the prevalence of these pathogens in water sources. The prevalence of enteric protozoa in water sources in Molyko and Bomaka is high, spring water is the most contaminated water source and Cryptosporidium parvum is the most common protozoa contaminating water. A water pH of 6 is associated to the prevalence of protozoa. Community members need to be educated to treat water before drinking to avoid infection by enteric protozoa in water and further studies with larger samples of water need to be conducted to find other correlates of the presence of protozoa in water.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of sexual and gender-based violence against Chinese adolescent women who are involved in commercial sex: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Dong; Myers, Sierra; Yang, Hong-Juan; Li, Yun; Li, Ji-Hong; Luo, Wei; Luchters, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the vast quantity of research among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs) to address concerns regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk, there is a paucity of research on issues of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and the missed opportunity for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) promotion among young FSWs. Our research aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of SGBV among Chinese adolescent FSWs, and to explore SRH service utilisation. Design and methods A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed. A semistructured questionnaire was administered by trained peer educators or health workers. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine individual and structural correlates of SGBV. Setting and participants Between July and September 2012, 310 adolescent women aged 15–20 years, and who self-reported having received money or gifts in exchange for sex in the past 6 months were recruited and completed their interview in Kunming, Yunnan Province, China. Results Findings confirm the high prevalence of SGBV against adolescent FSWs in China, with 38% (118/310) of participants affected in the past year. Moreover, our study demonstrated the low uptake of public health services and high rates of prior unwanted pregnancy (52%; 61/118), abortion (53%; 63/118) and self-reported STI symptoms (84%; 99/118) in participants who were exposed to SGBV. Forced sexual debut was reported by nearly a quarter of FSWs (23%; 70/310) and was independently associated with having had a drug-using intimate partner and younger age (<17 years old) at first abortion. When controlling for potential confounders, having experienced SGBV was associated with frequent alcohol use, having self-reported symptoms of STI, having an intimate partner and having an intimate partner with illicit drug use. Conclusions This study calls for effective and integrated interventions addressing adolescent FSWs

  6. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis in different sub-populations of women in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7-10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Bacterial Vaginosis in Different Sub-Populations of Women in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Jespers, Vicky; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Verhelst, Rita; Mwaura, Mary; Mandaliya, Kishor; Ndayisaba, Gilles F.; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Verstraelen, Hans; Hardy, Liselotte; Buvé, Anne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical development of vaginally applied products aimed at reducing the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, has highlighted the need for a better characterisation of the vaginal environment. We set out to characterise the vaginal environment in women in different settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted in Kenya, Rwanda and South-Africa. Women were recruited into pre-defined study groups including adult, non-pregnant, HIV-negative women; pregnant women; adolescent girls; HIV-negative women engaging in vaginal practices; female sex workers; and HIV-positive women. Consenting women were interviewed and underwent a pelvic exam. Samples of vaginal fluid and a blood sample were taken and tested for bacterial vaginosis (BV), HIV and other reproductive tract infections (RTIs). This paper presents the cross-sectional analyses of BV Nugent scores and RTI prevalence and correlates at the screening and the enrolment visit. Results At the screening visit 38% of women had BV defined as a Nugent score of 7–10, and 64% had more than one RTI (N. gonorrhoea, C. trachomatis, T. vaginalis, syphilis) and/or Candida. At screening the likelihood of BV was lower in women using progestin-only contraception and higher in women with more than one RTI. At enrolment, BV scores were significantly associated with the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in the vaginal fluid and with being a self-acknowledged sex worker. Further, sex workers were more likely to have incident BV by Nugent score at enrolment. Conclusions Our study confirmed some of the correlates of BV that have been previously reported but the most salient finding was the association between BV and the presence of PSA in the vaginal fluid which is suggestive of recent unprotected sexual intercourse. PMID:25289640

  8. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p = 0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and former (M: 21.4%, F: 0.7%, p < 0.0001) drinking was much higher in males. The highest prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and

  9. The prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health guidelines in older people: a cross-sectional study in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of meeting the current physical activity for health (PAfH) guidelines, proposed by the World Health Organization in 2010, in community-dwelling older women from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1806 women (aged 60.0-92.7 years) who were randomly selected from eighteen care centers. The short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to determine the weekly time spent in physical activities, and this variable was categorized into three categories (0<150min/wk; 1: 150-299.9min/wk; 2: ≥300min/wk). Age, race/ethnicity, economic class, education level, occupational and marital status, body mass index and blood pressure status, medical conditions, use of medications, and self-rated health status were the potential correlates. The ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. From the total group of participants, 49.9% followed the current recommendations related to basic health benefits (150-299min/wk), and 35.9% met the guidelines for additional health effects (300 or more min/wk). Women with secondary complete education (OR=1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.74), positive self-rated health (OR=5.25, 95% CI: 2.10-13.09), and high blood pressure (OR=1.33, 95% CI: 1.09-1.62) were more likely to meet the current PAfH guidelines than their peers with primary incomplete education, negative self-rated health, and normal blood pressure. Increasing age was inversely associated with meeting the PAfH guidelines (odds ranging: 0.77-0.48). These results highlighted the elderly population subgroups, in a developing country, that needspecific guidelinesfor inclusion inhealth programs andmotivation toparticipate in physical activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cross-sectional single-centre study on the spectrum of Pompe disease, German patients: molecular analysis of the GAA gene, manifestation and genotype-phenotype correlations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pompe disease (Glycogen storage disease type II, GSD II, acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency, acid maltase deficiency, OMIM # 232300) is an autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder due to a deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA, acid maltase, EC 3.2.1.20, Swiss-Prot P10253). Clinical manifestations are dominated by progressive weakness of skeletal muscle throughout the clinical spectrum. In addition, the classic infantile form is characterised by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Methods In a cross-sectional single-centre study we clinically assessed 3 patients with classic infantile Pompe disease and 39 patients with non-classic presentations, measured their acid alpha-glucosidase activities and analysed their GAA genes. Results Classic infantile patients had nearly absent residual enzyme activities and a typical clinical course with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy until the beginning of therapy. The disease manifestations in non-classic patients were heterogeneous. There was a broad variability in the decline of locomotive and respiratory function. The age of onset ranged from birth to late adulthood and correlated with enzyme activities. Molecular analysis revealed as many as 33 different mutations, 14 of which are novel. All classic infantile patients had two severe mutations. The most common mutation in the non-classic group was c.-32-13 T > G. It was associated with a milder course in this subgroup. Conclusions Disease manifestation strongly correlates with the nature of the GAA mutations, while the variable progression in non-classic Pompe disease is likely to be explained by yet unknown modifying factors. This study provides the first comprehensive dataset on the clinical course and the mutational spectrum of Pompe disease in Germany. PMID:22676651

  11. Correlation of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Detection with Clinical/Immunoinflammatory Profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Using a 16S rRNA Microarray Method: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Patricia F.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Huang, Hong; Paster, Bruce J.; Aukhil, Ikramuddin; Wallet, Shannon M.; Shaddox, Luciana M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) correlates with the clinical and immunoinflammatory profile of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis (LAP), as determined by by 16S rRNA gene-based microarray. Subjects and Methods Subgingival plaque samples from the deepest diseased site of 30 LAP patients [PD ≥ 5 mm, BoP and bone loss] were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-based microarrays. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were analyzed for 14 cyto/chemokines. Peripheral blood was obtained and stimulated in vitro with P.gingivalis and E.coli to evaluate inflammatory response profiles. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels were also measured. Results Aa was detected in 56% of LAP patients and was shown to be an indicator for different bacterial community structures (p<0.01). Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cyto/chemokines were detected in LPS-stimulated blood samples in both Aa-detected and Aa-non-detected groups (p>0.05). Clinical parameters and serum LPS levels were similar between groups. However, Aa-non-detected GCF contained higher concentration of IL-8 than Aa-detected sites (p<0.05). TNFα and IL1β were elevated upon E.coli LPS stimulation of peripheral blood cells derived from patients with Aa-detected sites. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that the detection of Aa in LAP affected sites, did not correlate with clinical severity of the disease at the time of sampling in this cross-sectional study, although it did associate with lower local levels of IL-8, a different subgingival bacterial profile and elevated LPS-induced levels of TNFα and IL1β. PMID:24376864

  12. Nutritional indicators are correlated with the radiological severity score in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kozo; Yoshiyama, Takashi; Kurashima, Atsuyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Hoshino, Yoshihiko; Yoshimori, Kouzou; Ogata, Hideo; Gemma, Akihiko; Kudoh, Shoji; Shiraishi, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Body weight loss in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) pulmonary disease can be fatal. The administration of nutritional supplements should be an important component in the treatment of this disease. Objective data regarding the association between the nutritional status and disease severity have not been reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to compare the nutritional status and radiological severity scores in MAC pulmonary disease patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 40 patients who were admitted to our institution for the treatment of MAC pulmonary disease between July 2008 and July 2010. Nutritional indices, including the ideal body weight ratio, triceps skinfold, mid-upper arm muscle circumference, and percentage of predicted resting energy expenditure, were compared with the radiological severity scores. Quantitative values of the extent of nodules, infiltration shadows, cavities, and bronchiectasis on the computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the radiological severity scores. The patients suffered from a significantly decreased percentage of ideal body weight, body fat and muscle mass. The average radiological score was 17.6±8.4 points. The percentage of ideal body weight (p<0.001), percentage of triceps skinfold (p<0.001) and percentage of mid-upper arm muscle circumference (p<0.002) were negatively correlated with the radiological scores, while the percentage of the predicted resting energy expenditure (p<0.001) was positively correlated with the scores. A poor nutritional status is common in patients with progressive MAC pulmonary disease, which supports the hypothesis that aggressive nutritional interventions are indicated in the treatment of this disease.

  13. Pineal gland calcification, lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta calcifying atherosclerosis correlate in low back pain subjects: A cross-sectional observational CT study.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Ahmet Tuncay; Sönmez, Iclal; Cakıt, Burcu Duyur; Koşar, Pınar; Koşar, Uğur

    2008-06-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional observational study was to assess the possible impact of pineal gland calcification upon the intervertebral disc degeneration and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis in subjects with low back pain, and to investigate the course of these processes with aging. The study was carried out on 81 (66 women and 15 men) subjects: younger than 45 years (group X, n=22), 45-65 years of age (group Y, n=45), and older than 65 years (group Z, n=14). In addition to clinical data, computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain as well as X-ray and CT examination of the lumbar spine were recorded in this study. The degree of disc degeneration and calcification rates of aortic wall and pineal gland were independently determined by two radiologists. Both ratio of calcified pineal gland and density of pineal calcification increased progressively with aging. Also, both the degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score increased with advancing age. On CT scan, a positive correlation between degree of aortic wall calcification and disc degeneration score was found (r=0.306, p<0.01). Importantly, there was a positive association between calcification of the pineal gland and degenerative disc disease in X-ray or CT study (r=0.378 and r=0.295, p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between abdominal aorta atherosclerosis and pineal calcification (r=0.634, p<0.001). Our findings suggest that there is a significant interaction between pineal gland calcification and lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration and also abdominal aorta atherosclerosis. However, further studies with a larger subject cohorts are needed.

  14. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Diameter and Cross Sectional Area with Gestational Age and Foetal Anthropometric Parameters.

    PubMed

    Begum, K; Ahmed, M U; Rahman, M M; Hossain, M M; Begum, M; Sarkar, S K; Reza, M T; Hoshneara, M; Beg, A; Sultana, F; Begum, F; Akter, F A

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to find out correlation between umbilical cord diameter, cross sectional area with gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. This cross sectional study was conducted among healthy women between the 24(th) and 40(th) completed weeks of a normal pregnancy in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the study period, from July 2009 to June 2011. A total of 230 consecutive normal pregnancy patients were included in the study. The diameter & cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord were measured on a plane adjacent to the junction of the umbilical cord and the fetal abdomen, in cross-section, with maximum magnification of the image. The cord was manually circled, and it's cross sectional areas was automatically calculated by the ultrasonograph. The mean±SD age was 24.3±4.7 years with range from 19 to 36 years. The mean gestational age was 32.1±4.5 weeks and more than a half (56.4%) of the pregnant women were nulliparas. A positive significant (p<0.001) correlation were found between umbilical cord diameter with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.548); head circumference (r=0.411); abdominal circumference (r=0.444); femur length (r=0.366) and gestational age gestation age (r=0.643). Similarly, a significant (p<0.001) positive week correlation were found between umbilical cross sectional area with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.3303); head circumference (r=0.3202); abdominal circumference (r=0.2651); femur length (r=0.3307) and gestation age (r=0.4051). A positive significant better correlation was found with umbilical cord diameter than cross sectional area with foetal anthropometric parameters.

  15. Magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia among adult HIV patients receiving first line HAART in Northwestern Tanzania: a cross sectional clinic based study

    PubMed Central

    Gunda, Daniel Wilfred; Kilonzo, Semvua Bukheti; Mpondo, Bonaventura Cornel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Moderate to severe anemia is an important clinical problem in HIV patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. The rate of progression and mortality in this sub group of patients is high compared to non anemic patients. In sub Saharan Africa with scale up of Anti retroviral therapy, the magnitude of this problem is not known especially in Tanzania. This study aimed at determining the magnitude and correlates of moderate to severe anemia in HIV patients receiving first line ART in northwestern Tanzania. Methods This was a cross sectional clinic based study, involving adult HIV patients on first line Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Bugando Medical Centre Care and Treatment Center. The patients’ data were analyzed using STATA version 11 to determine the prevalence of moderate to severe anemia and risk factors that could predict occurrence of anemia. Results In this study 346 patients on Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy were enrolled, of whom 100(40.46%) had moderate to severe anemia. The odds of being anemic were strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 count (< 200 cells/μl) and HIV stage 3&4 at enrollment. Most of the anemic patients had mean corpuscular volume of >100fl. Conclusion The prevalence of moderate to severe anemia is significantly high in this cohort of HIV-infected patients on first line Anti Retroviral Therapy and it is strongly predicted by Zidovudine based regime, low baseline CD4 and HIV stage 3 and 4. On clinical grounds this suggests that patients who are initiated on Zidovudine based regimen and those in advanced HIV at enrollment should have regular haemoglobin follow up to identify anemia at its earliest stage to improve the clinical outcome of these patients. PMID:27200131

  16. Prevalence and Correlates of Preschool Overweight and Obesity Amidst the Nutrition Transition: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, Lara; Hwalla, Nahla; Saliba, Angie; Akl, Christelle; Naja, Farah

    2017-03-11

    There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2-5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father's education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04-27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05-4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13-4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition.

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Preschool Overweight and Obesity Amidst the Nutrition Transition: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Nasreddine, Lara; Hwalla, Nahla; Saliba, Angie; Akl, Christelle; Naja, Farah

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing evidence linking early life adiposity to disease risk later in life. This study aims at determining the prevalence and correlates of overweight and obesity among preschoolers in Lebanon. A national cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 2–5 years old children (n = 525). Socio-demographic, lifestyle, dietary, and anthropometric data were obtained. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated at 6.5% and 2.7%, respectively. Based on stepwise logistic regression for the prediction of overweight and obesity (combined), the variance accounted for by the first block (socioeconomic, parental characteristics) was 11.9%, with higher father’s education (OR = 5.31, 95% CI: 1.04–27.26) and the presence of household helper (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.05–4.56) being significant predictors. The second block of variables (eating habits) significantly improved the prediction of overweight/obesity to reach 21%, with eating in front of the television (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02–1.13) and satiety responsiveness (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.99) being significantly associated with overweight/obesity. In the third block, fat intake remained a significant predictor of overweight/obesity (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.13–4.75). This study identified specific risk factors for preschool overweight/obesity in Lebanon and characterized children from high socioeconomic backgrounds as important target groups for preventive interventions. These findings may be of significance to other middle-income countries in similar stages of nutrition transition. PMID:28287459

  18. Assessment of serum CX3CL1/fractalkine level in Han Chinese girls with anorexia nervosa and its correlation with nutritional status: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengkang; Tang, Hanfeng; Gong, Cai; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Jindong

    2017-02-01

    The chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1), also named fractalkine (FKN), has been implicated in psychiatric disorders and functions as a novel adipocytokine. However, no attention has been paid to the role of FKN in anorexia nervosa (AN). The current study was performed to explore FKN levels in AN to determine its role in the involvement of AN. A total of 96 girls aged 11-18 years with AN (n=34), healthy controls (HC; n=32) and simple obesity (OB, n=30) were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Blood samples were collected during the fasting state. Serum FKN concentrations were determined using ELISA. The skinfold thickness (TSF) of the biceps and triceps as well as mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) were used to determine the nutritional status. Our results showed that serum FKN levels were significantly lower in the AN group than in the control and OB groups. After adjusting for body mass index (BMI), FKN concentrations in the AN group were statistically higher than in the HC and OB groups. Significant correlations between serum FKN and body weight, BMI, Cole index and serum insulin were observed. In addition, serum FKN levels were positively related to TSF and MAMC in all subjects. Serum FKN concentrations are attenuated in girls with AN compared with healthy adolescents and are positively related to nutritional status. The lower FKN levels may be regulated by nutrition status and response to starvation. After adjusting for BMI, higher FKN levels may reflect that persistent inflammation is present in patients with AN.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study on Selected Correlates of High risk Sexual Behavior in Polish Migrants Resident in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Ganczak, Maria; Czubińska, Grażyna; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the correlates of the high risk sexual behaviors of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) after 2004, and to compare such behaviors before/after immigration. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted through the use of a Computer-assisted web interviewing surveying technique with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among 408 respondents (56.9% women), with a median age of 32 years, significantly more admitted to having unprotected sexual contact with a casual partner while in the UK (p < 0.0001) than while in Poland; more were engaged in sex after the use of recreational drugs and alcohol (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001 respectively). Being a male was associated with greater odds of unprotected sex, sex after the use of alcohol, and having multiple partners. Being single and having only been a resident for a short time in the UK, presenting a lower self-esteem, were predictors of unprotected sex. A total of 19.6% of the respondents admitted to having been tested while in Poland, a lower (p < 0.0001) frequency than while in the UK (49.5%); this referred to both genders; 1.2% (95% CI: 0.79–2.83%) reported that they were HIV positive. Conclusions: Migration can create a vulnerability to STIs, especially for single male migrants with low self-esteem, staying in the UK for less than two years. The results point to strengthening strategies which help reduce high risk sexual behavior among Polish migrants, and to introduce interventions to promote an awareness of HIV sero-status. PMID:28420115

  20. A Cross-Sectional Study on Selected Correlates of High risk Sexual Behavior in Polish Migrants Resident in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Ganczak, Maria; Czubińska, Grażyna; Korzeń, Marcin; Szych, Zbigniew

    2017-04-14

    Objective: To assess the correlates of the high risk sexual behaviors of Polish migrants in the United Kingdom (UK) after 2004, and to compare such behaviors before/after immigration. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional study was conducted through the use of a Computer-assisted web interviewing surveying technique with the use of a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Among 408 respondents (56.9% women), with a median age of 32 years, significantly more admitted to having unprotected sexual contact with a casual partner while in the UK (p < 0.0001) than while in Poland; more were engaged in sex after the use of recreational drugs and alcohol (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.001 respectively). Being a male was associated with greater odds of unprotected sex, sex after the use of alcohol, and having multiple partners. Being single and having only been a resident for a short time in the UK, presenting a lower self-esteem, were predictors of unprotected sex. A total of 19.6% of the respondents admitted to having been tested while in Poland, a lower (p < 0.0001) frequency than while in the UK (49.5%); this referred to both genders; 1.2% (95% CI: 0.79-2.83%) reported that they were HIV positive. Conclusions: Migration can create a vulnerability to STIs, especially for single male migrants with low self-esteem, staying in the UK for less than two years. The results point to strengthening strategies which help reduce high risk sexual behavior among Polish migrants, and to introduce interventions to promote an awareness of HIV sero-status.

  1. Evaluation of pelvic floor muscle strength and its correlation with sexual function in primigravid and non-pregnant women: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marília Duarte; Palmezoni, Vanessa Pinho; Torelli, Luiza; Baldon, Vanessa Santos Pereira; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and sexual function in primigravid and non-pregnant women and compare PFM strength between those who exhibited and did not exhibit sexual dysfunction. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. The sample consisted of 154 women, including 76 primigravid and 78 non-pregnant women. The inclusion criteria were as follows: non-pregnant nulliparous women or primigravid women who were pregnant with a single foetus at least 14 weeks of gestational age and reported having sexual intercourse at least once during the last 4 weeks. The exclusion criteria were as follows: inability to contract the PFMs and prior urogynaecologic surgery. PFM strength was assessed via vaginal palpation (using the Modified Oxford Scale) and vaginal squeeze pressure (using the Peritron™ manometer). Sexual function was assessedusing the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Sexual dysfunction was identified based on low FSFI scores.The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whiney and Spearman correlation tests. To discussion, primigravid women had lower FSFI scores and lower PFM strength than non-pregnant women. Women with sexual dysfunction had lower PFM strength than women without sexual dysfunction, as indicated by vaginal palpation (scores of 2 out of 5 and 4 out of 5, respectively; P < 0.001) and vaginal squeeze pressure (17.5 and 36.8 cm H2 O, P < 0.001, respectively)regardless of whether they were non-pregnant nulliparous women and primigravid. Primigravid women exhibited worse sexual function and lower PFM strength than non-pregnant women. Women who had higher FSFI scores demonstrated greater PFM strength. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Young People Enrolled in Non-Formal Education Centers in Urban Chiang Mai, Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Yungyuankul, Sawang; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV testing is the gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, and care. Despite the established vulnerability of young Thai people to HIV infection, studies examining the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing among the general population of Thai youth are still very limited. This study investigates socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with HIV testing among young Thai people enrolled in Non-formal Education Centers (NFEC) in urban Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. Methods This was a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among young unmarried Thai youth—between the ages of 15 and 24—who were enrolled in NFEC in urban Chiang Mai. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify correlates of “ever tested for HIV” among the sexually active participants. Findings Of the 295 sexually active participants, 27.3% reported “ever tested for HIV;” 65.4% “did not consistently use condom;” and 61.7% “had at least 2 lifetime partners.” We found that “self-efficacy” (AOR, 4.92; CI, 1.22–19.73); “perception that it is easy to find a location nearby to test for HIV” (AOR, 4.67; CI, 1.21–18.06); “having at least 2 lifetime sexual partners” (AOR, 2.05; CI, 1.09–3.85); and “ever been pregnant or made someone pregnant” (AOR, 4.06; CI, 2.69–9.15); were associated with increased odds of having ever been tested. On the other hand, “fear of HIV test results” (AOR, 0.21; CI, 0.08–0.57) was associated with lower odds of ever having been tested for HIV. Conclusion The main finding is that a substantially high proportion of Thai youth is engaged in risky sexual behaviors—yet reports low rates of ever having been tested for HIV. This highlights an urgent need to develop appropriate interventions—based on the identified correlates of HIV testing. There is also an urgent need to enhance HIV testing and to promote safer sexual behaviors among young Thai people—particularly those who are out

  3. Endoanal MRI of the anal sphincter complex: correlation with cross-sectional anatomy and histology.

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, S M; Stoker, J; Zwamborn, A W; Den Hollander, J C; Kuiper, J W; Entius, C A; Laméris, J S

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the in vivo endoanal MRI findings of the anal sphincter with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Fourteen patients with rectal tumours were examined with a rigid endoanal MR coil before undergoing abdominoperineal resection. In addition, 12 cadavers were used to obtain cross-sectional anatomical sections. The images were correlated with the histology and anatomy of the resected rectal specimens as well as with the cross-sectional anatomical sections of the 12 cadavers. The findings in 8 patients, 11 rectal preparations, and 10 cadavers, could be compared. In these cases, there was an excellent correlation between endoanal MRI and the cross-sectional cadaver anatomy and histology. With endoanal MRI, all muscle layers of the anal canal wall, comprising the internal anal sphincter, longitudinal muscle, the external anal sphincter and the puborectalis muscle were clearly visible. The levator ani muscle and ligamentous attachments were also well demonstrated. The perianal anatomical spaces, containing multiple septae, were clearly visible. In conclusion, endoanal MRI is excellent for visualising the anal sphincter complex and the findings show a good correlation with the cross-sectional anatomy and histology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8982844

  4. Correlates of male involvement in maternal and newborn health: a cross-sectional study of men in a peri-urban region of Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Ampt, Frances; Mon, Myo Myo; Than, Kyu Kyu; Khin, May May; Agius, Paul A; Morgan, Christopher; Davis, Jessica; Luchters, Stanley

    2015-05-27

    Evidence suggests that increasing male involvement in maternal and newborn health (MNH) may improve MNH outcomes. However, male involvement is difficult to measure, and further research is necessary to understand the barriers and enablers for men to engage in MNH, and to define target groups for interventions. Using data from a peri-urban township in Myanmar, this study aimed to construct appropriate indicators of male involvement in MNH, and assess sociodemographic, knowledge and attitude correlates of involvement. A cross-sectional study of married men with one or more children aged up to one year was conducted in 2012. Structured questionnaires measured participants' involvement in MNH, and their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and attitudes. An ordinal measure of male involvement was constructed describing the subject's participation across five areas of MNH, giving a score of 1-4. Proportional-odds regression models were developed to determine correlates of male involvement. A total of 210 men participated in the survey, of which 203 provided complete data. Most men reported involvement level scores of either 2 or 3 (64 %), with 13 % reporting the highest level (score of 4). Involvement in MNH was positively associated with wives' level of education (AOR = 3.4; 95 % CI: 1.9-6.2; p < 0.001) and men's level of knowledge of MNH (AOR = 1.2; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.3; p < 0.001), and negatively correlated with number of children (AOR = 0.78; 95 % CI: 0.63-0.95; p = 0.016). These findings can inform the design of programs aiming to increase male involvement, for example by targeting less educated couples and addressing their knowledge of MNH. The composite index proved a useful summary measure of involvement; however, it may have masked differential determinants of the summed indicators. There is a need for greater understanding of the influence of gender attitudes on male involvement in Myanmar and more robust indicators that capture these gender dynamics for

  5. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  6. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Djupegot, Ingrid Laukeland; Nenseth, Camilla Bengtson; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter; Helland, Sissel Heidi; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte

    2017-05-15

    Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods

  7. Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Beatriz; Moneta, Maria Victoria; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Eke, Ceyda; Goelitz, Dietmar; Keyes, Katherine M; Kuijpers, Rowella; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Otten, Roy; Fermanian, Christophe; Haro, Josep Maria; Kovess, Viviane

    2015-05-08

    The present study aims to estimate childhood overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with individual and population-level correlates in Eastern and Western European countries. Data were obtained from the School Children Mental Health in Europe, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey. The sample consists of 5,206 school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Information on socio-demographics, children's height and weight, life-style and parental attitude were reported by the mothers. Country-level indicators were obtained through several data banks. Overweight and obesity in children were calculated according to the international age and gender-specific child Body Mass Index cut-off points. Multivariable logistic regression models included socio-demographic, lifestyle, mothers' attitude, and country-level indicators to examine the correlates of overweight. Overall prevalence was 15.6% (95% CI = 19.3-21.7%) for overweight and 4.9% (95% CI = 4.3-5.6%) for obesity. In overweight (including obesity), Romanian children had the highest prevalence (31.4%, 95% CI = 28.1-34.6%) and Italian the lowest (10.4%, 95% CI = 8.1-12.6%). Models in the pooled sample showed that being younger (aOR = 0.93, 95% = CI 0.87-0.97), male (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), an only child (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.84), spending more hours per week watching TV (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI =1.002-1.03), and living in an Eastern Country were associated with greater risk of childhood overweight (including obesity). The same predictors were significantly associated with childhood overweight in the model conducted in the Eastern region, but not in the West. Higher Gross Domestic Product and Real Domestic Product, greater number of motor and passenger vehicles, higher percentage of energy available from fat, and more public sector expenditure on health were also associated with lower risk for childhood overweight after

  8. Neural correlates of consciousness in patients who have emerged from a minimally conscious state: a cross-sectional multimodal imaging study.

    PubMed

    Di Perri, Carol; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Amico, Enrico; Thibaut, Aurore; Heine, Lizette; Antonopoulos, Georgios; Charland-Verville, Vanessa; Wannez, Sarah; Gomez, Francisco; Hustinx, Roland; Tshibanda, Luaba; Demertzi, Athena; Soddu, Andrea; Laureys, Steven

    2016-07-01

    Between pathologically impaired consciousness and normal consciousness exists a scarcely researched transition zone, referred to as emergence from minimally conscious state, in which patients regain the capacity for functional communication, object use, or both. We investigated neural correlates of consciousness in these patients compared with patients with disorders of consciousness and healthy controls, by multimodal imaging. In this cross-sectional, multimodal imaging study, patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, patients in a minimally conscious state, and patients who had emerged from a minimally conscious state, diagnosed with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, were recruited from the neurology department of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Belgium. Key exclusion criteria were neuroimaging examination in an acute state, sedation or anaesthesia during scanning, large focal brain damage, motion parameters of more than 3 mm in translation and 3° in rotation, and suboptimal segmentation and normalisation. We acquired resting state functional and structural MRI data and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET data; we used seed-based functional MRI (fMRI) analysis to investigate positive default mode network connectivity (within-network correlations) and negative default mode network connectivity (between-network anticorrelations). We correlated FDG-PET brain metabolism with fMRI connectivity. We used voxel-based morphometry to test the effect of anatomical deformations on functional connectivity. We recruited a convenience sample of 58 patients (21 [36%] with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, 24 [41%] in a minimally conscious state, and 13 [22%] who had emerged from a minimally conscious state) and 35 healthy controls between Oct 1, 2009, and Oct 31, 2014. We detected consciousness-level-dependent increases (from unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state, emergence from minimally conscious state, to healthy controls) for

  9. Nutritional Improvement Correlates with Recovery of Activities of Daily Living among Malnourished Elderly Stroke Patients in the Convalescent Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Shinta; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Nishioka, Emi; Yoshida, Tomomi; Mori, Natsumi; Watanabe, Riko

    2016-05-01

    Whether nutritional improvement correlates with functional recovery in convalescent stroke patients is unclear. This study was conducted to examine the relationship between nutritional improvement and recovery of activities of daily living among malnourished elderly stroke patients in the convalescent stage. This study used a cross-sectional study design. One hundred seventy-eight malnourished stroke patients aged 65 years and older from convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan between April 2012 and December 2014 were included in the analyses. The participants were classified into three groups according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (MNA-SF) score at discharge (0 to 7 as no improvement, 8 to 11 as lesser improvement, and 12 to 14 as greater improvement). The primary outcome was functional independence measure (FIM) efficiency (FIM gain/length of hospital stay). The secondary outcomes were FIM gain and discharge outcome. One-way analysis of variance, χ(2) test, and Kruskal-Wallis test were performed for univariate analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, length of hospital stay, FIM (motor and cognitive) on admission, and lower-order items of MNA-SF. Binomial logistic analysis for discharge outcome (home/others) was performed to adjust for covariates such as age, sex, and FIM. Study participants included 85 men and 93 women with a mean age of 77 years. Based on MNA-SF, 16 were classified as no improvement, 113 as lesser improvement, and 49 as greater improvement. The median FIM efficiency and length of hospital stay were 0.27 points/day and 151.5 days, respectively. The greater improvement group had significantly higher FIM efficiency than the other groups (P<0.001). Home discharge rate was also higher in the GI group (P=0.014). Linear regression analysis for FIM efficiency indicated that mobility, neuropsychological problems, and weight loss, which were lower-order items of MNA-SF at discharge

  10. Correlation of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly type 2 diabetes patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major global public health problem in the worldwide and is increasing in aging populations. Magnesium intake may be one of the most important factors for diabetes prevention and management. Low magnesium intake may exacerbate metabolic abnormalities. In this study, the relationships of magnesium intake with metabolic parameters, depression and physical activity in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes were investigated. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 210 type 2 diabetes patients aged 65 years and above. Participants were interviewed to obtain information on lifestyle and 24-hour dietary recall. Assessment of depression was based on DSM-IV criteria. Clinical variables measured included anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and biochemical determinations of blood and urine samples. Linear regression was applied to determine the relationships of magnesium intake with nutritional variables and metabolic parameters. Results Among all patients, 88.6% had magnesium intake which was less than the dietary reference intake, and 37.1% had hypomagnesaemia. Metabolic syndromes and depression were associated with lower magnesium intake (p < 0.05). A positive relationship was found between magnesium intake and HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.005). Magnesium intake was inversely correlated with triglyceride, waist circumference, body fat percent and body mass index (p < 0.005). After controlling confounding factor, HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher with increasing quartile of magnesium intake (p for trend = 0005). Waist circumference, body fat percentage, and body mass index were significantly lower with increase quartile of magnesium intake (p for trend < 0.001). The odds of depression, central obesity, high body fat percentage, and high body mass index were significantly lower with increasing quartile of magnesium intake (p for trend < 0.05). In addition, magnesium intake was related to high

  11. Utilization of community-based health planning and services compounds in the Kintampo North Municipality: a cross-sectional descriptive correlational study.

    PubMed

    Wiru, Kenneth; Kumi-Kyereme, Akwasi; Mahama, Emmanuel N; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2017-09-26

    The Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) initiative was introduced to improve coverage and utilization of basic health services for people in remote rural communities whose use of orthodox health services was hitherto limited by distance. To achieve this aim, the scheme has so far been scaled up to several communities nationwide as part of government's agenda to improve the general wellbeing of the populace. The objectives of this study were to examine the extent of patronage of CHPS compounds in the Kintampo North Municipality, factors associated with their use and challenges faced by community members regarding the use of these facilities. We adopted a descriptive cross-sectional correlational design for this study. We collected data from 171 household heads or their representatives, selected through a multistage sampling technique. The respondents were drawn from five randomly selected communities among those with CHPS compounds and their proportions weighted based on the populations of these communities. Our analysis revealed that a high proportion (73.7%) of the respondents patronized CHPS compounds for health care. We also found sex and income to predict the use of the facilities though income was less significant after adjusting for sex in a multivariate analysis. Females were about six times more likely than males to patronize CHPS compounds (adjusted OR = 5.98, 95% CI 2.55, 14.0, P = < 0.01). Household heads earning between GH¢ 200.00 and GH¢ 300.00 were about nine times more likely to use the facilities than those who earned below GH¢ 100.00 (adjusted OR = 8.88, 95% CI 1.94, 40.6, P = 0.05). Our findings also showed that shortage of medicines (41.5%), lack of money to pay for services (28.7%) and absenteeism of Community Health Officers (CHOs) (12.3%) were major barriers to the use of the facilities. Based on the foregoing findings, there is an apparent need to ensure timely replenishment of medicines at the facilities and step

  12. A Positive Correlation between Atypical Memory B Cells and Plasmodium falciparum Transmission Intensity in Cross-Sectional Studies in Peru and Mali

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Greta E.; Clark, Eva H.; Li, Shanping; Traore, Boubacar; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoiba, Aissata; Hernandez, Jean N.; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Pierce, Susan K.; Branch, OraLee H.; Crompton, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antibodies that protect against Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria are only acquired after years of repeated infections. The B cell biology that underlies this observation is poorly understood. We previously reported that “atypical” memory B cells are increased in children and adults exposed to intense Pf transmission in Mali, similar to what has been observed in individuals infected with HIV. In this study we examined B cell subsets of Pf -infected adults in Peru and Mali to determine if Pf transmission intensity correlates with atypical memory B cell expansion. Methodology/Principal Findings In this cross-sectional study venous blood was collected from adults in areas of zero (U.S., n = 10), low (Peru, n = 18) and high (Mali, n = 12) Pf transmission. Adults in Peru and Mali were infected with Pf at the time of blood collection. Thawed lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry to quantify B cell subsets, including atypical memory B cells, defined by the cell surface markers CD19+ CD20+ CD21− CD27− CD10−. In Peru, the mean level of atypical memory B cells, as a percent of total B cells, was higher than U.S. adults (Peru mean: 5.4% [95% CI: 3.61–7.28]; U.S. mean: 1.4% [95% CI: 0.92–1.81]; p<0.0001) but lower than Malian adults (Mali mean 13.1% [95% CI: 10.68–15.57]; p = 0.0001). In Peru, individuals self-reporting ≥1 prior malaria episodes had a higher percentage of atypical memory B cells compared to those reporting no prior episodes (≥1 prior episodes mean: 6.6% [95% CI: 4.09–9.11]; no prior episodes mean: 3.1% [95% CI: 1.52–4.73]; p = 0.028). Conclusions/Significance Compared to Pf-naive controls, atypical memory B cells were increased in Peruvian adults exposed to low Pf transmission, and further increased in Malian adults exposed to intense Pf transmission. Understanding the origin, function and antigen specificity of atypical memory B cells in the context of Pf infection could contribute to our

  13. Prevalence and correlates of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Wang, Lingling; Jia, Xiaoli; Li, Zhe; Mu, Huitong; Liu, Xin; Peng, Boshi; Li, Anqi; Fan, Lihua

    2017-08-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychological maladjustment to undergoing a traumatic event. Our aim was to measure the prevalence of PTSD among Chinese healthcare workers exposed to physical violence' and explore the associations of their demographic characteristics, social support, personality traits' and coping styles with their PTSD symptoms. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS), Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised Short Scale and Trait Coping Style Questionnaire. We used convenience sampling method to collect data from March 2015 to September 2016. Healthcare workers (n=2706) from 39 public hospitals located in Heilongjiang, Hebei and Beijing provinces of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=84.25%). Overall, the prevalence of physical violence in the previous 12 months was 13.60% (n=2706). The prevalence of PTSD among the healthcare workers who experienced physical violence was 28.0% (n=368). Most of the victims of physical violence (50.80%) did not exhibit PTSD symptoms based on their PCL-C scores, and 47.0% did not manifest the diagnostic criteria for PTSD after experiencing physical violence. The level of PTSD symptoms was negatively correlated with their scores on the SSRS (r=-0.188, p<0.001). The hierarchical regression analysis (block 3) revealed that, in women, positive coping was significantly associated with PTSD symptoms (β=-0.376, p=0.001). However, the effect of positive coping was not significant in men. The results suggest that the aftermath of physical violence contributes to the current prevalence of PTSD. The positive effects of social support on PTSD symptoms suggest that it has practical implications for interventions to promote psychological health. The healthcare workers' coping styles influenced the development of PTSD symptoms. Therefore, adopting

  14. Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

  15. Factors, Correlates, Problem Areas Affecting Career Decision Making of a Cross-Sectional Sample of Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of the correlates and problem areas affecting career decision making and specifically to test the validity of the O'Neil, Meeker & Borgers' (1978) model. A cross-sectional sample of high school, undergraduate, and graduate students (N=1,436) responded to the Career Factor Checklist (CFC) and…

  16. Burnout Syndrome prevalence of on-call surgeons in a trauma reference hospital and its correlation with weekly workload: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Novais, Rodrigo Nobre DE; Rocha, Louise Matos; Eloi, Raissa Jardelino; Santos, Luciano Menezes Dos; Ribeiro, Marina Viegas Moura Rezende; Ramos, Fernando Wagner DA Silva; Lima, Fernando José Camello DE; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando DE; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó

    2016-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome (BS) for surgeons working in referral hospital for trauma in Maceio and to evaluate the possible correlation between BS and weekly workload. cross-sectional study with 43 on-call surgeons at Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela General State Hospital, Maceió, between July and December, 2015. A self-administered form was used to evaluate BS through the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and socio-demographic characteristics among participants. Spearman's S test was used to compare BS and weekly workload. Significant level was 5%. among the surgeons studied, 95.35% were male and the mean age was 43.9 ± 8.95 years. The mean weekly workload on call in trauma was 33.90 ± 16.82 hours. The frequency of high scores in at least one of the three dimensions of MBI was 46.5%. Professional achievement was correlated with weekly workload (P = 0.020). the prevalence of Burnout Syndrome among on-call surgeons in referral hospital for trauma was 46.5%. In this sample there was correlation between weekly workload and the Burnout Syndrome. determinar a prevalência da Síndrome de Burnout (SB) em médicos cirurgiões que trabalham em hospital de referência para o trauma em Maceió e avaliar a possível correlação entre SB e a carga horária semanal de trabalho. estudo transversal com 43 cirurgiões de plantão do Hospital Geral do Estado Professor Osvaldo Brandão Vilela, Maceió, entre julho e dezembro de 2015. Um formulário autoadministrado foi utilizado para avaliar SB por meio do Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) e as características sociodemográficas entre os participantes. Foi utilizado o teste de Spearman S para comparar SB e carga horária semanal. O nível de significância foi 5%. entre os cirurgiões estudados, 95,35% eram do sexo masculino e a média de idade foi 43,9±8,95 anos. A média da carga horária semanal de plantão no trauma foi 33,90±16,82 horas. A frequência de pontuações elevadas em pelo menos uma das tr

  17. Seroprevalence and correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection among young adults in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Balaeva, Tatiana; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Sidorenkov, Oleg; Samodova, Olga; Firsova, Natalia; Sannikov, Anatoly; Klouman, Elise

    2016-10-28

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection is the most common cause of genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide. Mother to child transmission causes high morbidity and mortality among infants. Russia is on the brink of a generalized HIV-epidemic, but Arkhangelsk is still a low-prevalence area. HSV-2 infection is associated with a three-fold increased risk of HIV-infection. The evidence on the seroprevalence of HSV-2 in Russia is limited. The aim of this study was to assess HSV-2 seroprevalence and correlates among young adults in the city of Arkhangelsk. 1243 adults aged 18-39 years participated in a cross-sectional population-based study, recruited by a public opinion agency applying a quota sampling method to achieve a data set with similar age- and sex-distribution as the population in Arkhangelsk. All participants completed a standardized, self-administrated questionnaire and were tested for HSV-2. Associations between HSV-2 seropositivity and selected sociodemographic and behavioral factors, and self-reported history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were studied by multivariable logistic regression. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 18.8 %: 12.2 % (95 % confidence interval, CI 9.7-15.2) among men and 24.0 % (95 % CI 20.1-27.3) among women. Among men, HSV-2 positivity was associated with being divorced/widowed (OR = 2.85, 95 % CI 1.06-7.70), cohabitation (OR = 2.45, 95 % CI 1.07-5.62), and a history of STIs (OR = 2.11, 95 % CI 1.14-3.91). In women, HSV-2 positivity was associated with high income (OR = 3.11, 95 % CI 1.45-6.71) and having a lifetime number of sexual partners between 2 and 5 (OR = 2.72, 95 % CI 1.14-6.51), whereas sexual debut at age 18 years or older was inversely associated with the outcome (OR = 0.47, 95 % CI 0.31-0.72). In both sexes, increasing age was the strongest correlate of HSV-2 seropositivity in multivariable analyses. The HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in women than in men and increased

  18. A cross-sectional study of the individual, social, and built environmental correlates of pedometer-based physical activity among elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Children who participate in regular physical activity obtain health benefits. Preliminary pedometer-based cut-points representing sufficient levels of physical activity among youth have been established; however limited evidence regarding correlates of achieving these cut-points exists. The purpose of this study was to identify correlates of pedometer-based cut-points among elementary school-aged children. Method A cross-section of children in grades 5-7 (10-12 years of age) were randomly selected from the most (n = 13) and least (n = 12) 'walkable' public elementary schools (Perth, Western Australia), stratified by socioeconomic status. Children (n = 1480; response rate = 56.6%) and parents (n = 1332; response rate = 88.8%) completed a survey, and steps were collected from children using pedometers. Pedometer data were categorized to reflect the sex-specific pedometer-based cut-points of ≥15000 steps/day for boys and ≥12000 steps/day for girls. Associations between socio-demographic characteristics, sedentary and active leisure-time behavior, independent mobility, active transportation and built environmental variables - collected from the child and parent surveys - and meeting pedometer-based cut-points were estimated (odds ratios: OR) using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall 927 children participated in all components of the study and provided complete data. On average, children took 11407 ± 3136 steps/day (boys: 12270 ± 3350 vs. girls: 10681 ± 2745 steps/day; p < 0.001) and 25.9% (boys: 19.1 vs. girls: 31.6%; p < 0.001) achieved the pedometer-based cut-points. After adjusting for all other variables and school clustering, meeting the pedometer-based cut-points was negatively associated (p < 0.05) with being male (OR = 0.42), parent self-reported number of different destinations in the neighborhood (OR 0.93), and a friend's (OR 0.62) or relative's (OR 0.44, boys only) house being at least a 10-minute walk from home. Achieving the

  19. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Sun, Xuan Hong; Liu, Wen Ya; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Li, Ri; Yu, Qin Ya; Huang, Feng Xu; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yang Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8%) had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one's spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05). This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one's spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province.

  20. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among diabetes mellitus adults in the Jilin province in China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Ya; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Li, Ri; Yu, Qin Ya; Huang, Feng Xu

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological disorders are common in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, and the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of psychological distress and to determine the influence factors associated with psychological distress among DM patients in the Jilin province of China. Methods and Materials Multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to assess psychological status with the total score of ≥4 as the threshold for psychological distress. Results A total of 1,956 subjects with DM were included in the study. Out of this total diabetic participants, 524 (26.8%) had psychological distress. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, being aware of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are positively associated with psychological distress (all P < 0.05). Conclusions This study revealed a high rate of psychological distress among DM population in Jilin province. Low educational level, divorce or separation from one’s spouse, low family average monthly income, short sleep duration, awareness of DM status, and multiple co-morbidities are all associated with psychological distress among our study subjects. Interventions to control these factors are needed to address the psychological problems among diabetics in Jilin Province. PMID:28123907

  1. [Influence and correlation of attitude, availability and institutional support to research implementation in nursing practice – results from an exploratory, cross-sectional quantitative study].

    PubMed

    Haslinger-Baumann, Elisabeth; Lang, Gert; Müller, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    The concrete application of research findings in nursing practice is a multidimensional process. In Austria, there are currently no results available that explain the impact of and association with the implementation of research in hospitals. The aim of the study was to investigate influences and relationships of individual attitudes towards research utilization, availability of research results and institutional support of nurses in Austrian hospitals with respect to research application. In a non-experimental quantitative cross-sectional design a multi-centre study (n = 10) was performed in 2011. The sample comprises 178 certified nurses who were interviewed with a survey questionnaire. The multiple regression analysis shows that a positive attitude towards research use (β = 0.388, p < 0.001), the availability of processed research results (β = 0.470, p < 0.001), and an adequate institutional support (β = 0.142, p < 0.050) has a significant influence on the application of research results. The path analysis proves that course attendance in evidence-based nursing has a strong positive influence towards research application (β = 0.464; p < 0.001). Health institutions are, according to legal instructions, called on to make use of the positive attitude and supply supporting measures in order to introduce research results into the daily nursing practice.

  2. Correlation between instrumental activities of daily living and white matter hyperintensities in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Kim, Yong-Duk; Lee, Kee Ook; Na, Sang-Jun; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Oh, Yoon-Sang; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Park, Kyung Won; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sang Yun; Lee, Jae-Hong; Choi, Seong Hye; Yang, Dong-Won

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have supported the association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive impairment, whether WMH are associated with the impairments in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) remains unknown. This cross-sectional study investigated differences in basic ADLs and IADLs among different severity of WMH in a large, well-defined registry of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). 1,514 patients with aMCI were divided into three groups according to the degree of WMH (1,026 mild, 393 moderate, and 95 severe). We compared the total IADL scores and analyzed the prevalence of the impairment for each IADL item for each group. The severity of WMH was associated with the impairments in IADLs. Among 15 Seoul IADL items, "using public transportation", "going out (short distance)", "grooming" and "participating in leisure activities/hobbies" showed greater positive association with the severity of WMH. WMH in patients with aMCI were associated with the impairments in IADLs but not in basic ADLs. These findings are likely to be more obvious with respect to using public transportation, going out (short distances), shopping, grooming and participating in leisure activities/hobbies.

  3. Correlation of Occupational Stress Index with 24-hour Urine Cortisol and Serum DHEA Sulfate among City Bus Drivers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mia Chihya; Lu, Luo; Tai, John Jen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The questionnaire of occupational stress index (OSI) has been popular in the workplace, and it has been tailored for bus drivers in Taiwan. Nevertheless, its outcomes for participants are based on self-evaluations, thus validation by their physiological stress biomarker is warranted and this is the main goal of this study. Methods A cross-sectional study of sixty-three city bus drivers and fifty-four supporting staffs for comparison was conducted. Questionnaire surveys, 24-hour urine cortisol testing, and blood draws for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) testing were performed. The measured concentrations of these biological measures were logarithmically transformed before the statistical analysis where various scores of stressor factors, moderators, and stress effects of each OSI domain were analyzed by applying multiple linear regression models. Results For drivers, the elevated 24-hour urine cortisol level was associated with a worker's relationship with their supervisor and any life change events in the most recent 3 months. The DHEA-S level was higher in drivers of younger age as well as drivers with more concerns relating to their salary and bonuses. Non-drivers showed no association between any stressor or satisfaction and urine cortisol and blood DHEA-S levels. Conclusion Measurements of biomarkers may offer additional stress evaluations with OSI questionnaires for bus drivers. Increased DHEA-S and cortisol levels may result from stressors like income security. Prevention efforts towards occupational stress and life events and health promotional efforts for aged driver were important anti-stress remedies. PMID:22953199

  4. Effectiveness of Albendazole for Hookworm Varies Widely by Community and Correlates with Nutritional Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study of School-Age Children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Debbie; Nguyen, Sara; Kumar, Sunny; Quagraine, Josephine E; Otchere, Joseph; Harrison, Lisa M; Wilson, Michael; Cappello, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STHs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011. Among 140 school-age children residing in five contiguous communities, the hookworm prevalence was 59% (82/140). The overall cure rate following administration of single-dose albendazole (400 mg) was 35% (27/76), with a community-wide fecal egg reduction rate (ERR) of 61% (95% confidence interval: 51.8-71.1). Significant disparities were observed in albendazole effectiveness by community, with a cure rate as low as 0% (N = 24) in Jato Akuraa and ERRs ranging from 53% to 95% across the five study sites. Individual host factors associated with response to deworming treatment included time since last meal, pretreatment blood hemoglobin level, and mid-upper arm circumference. These data demonstrate significant community-level variation in the effectiveness of albendazole, even among populations living in close proximity. Identification of host factors that influence response to albendazole, most notably the timing of drug administration and nutritional factors, creates an opportunity to enhance the effectiveness of deworming through targeted interventions. These findings also demonstrate the importance of measuring anthelminthic response as part of the monitoring and evaluation of community-based deworming programs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Cross-sectional study on socio-demographic and clinical correlates of depression among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Surat City, Western India.

    PubMed

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Pawar, Ajay Bhaskar; Bansal, Raj Kumar; Patel, Prakash B; Shah, Parag S; Parikh, Khushali D

    2015-12-01

    Surat has the highest incidence of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Gujarat, the main reason being its large migrant population. Mental health in HIV/AIDS has most often been a topic of neglect all over the world. This study attempts to assess the magnitude of depression and the socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with it in HIV-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 270 HIV-positive patients using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; translated and validated in Gujarati and Hindi) along with a questionnaire for eliciting information on socio-demographic and clinical variables. The prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients was 30% with 12.22% having mild depression; 14.07% with moderate depression and 3.7% with severe depression. Bivariate analysis showed that physical pain, physical illness, Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4)<300 cells/mm3, HIV positive spouse, discrimination at hospital, discrimination in society, government setup as the first place of HIV test and broken relationship with spouse after HIV disclosure were significantly associated with depression among the patients. On multiple logistic regression, discrimination at hospital, physical pain and CD4<300 cells/mm3 were found to be the significant predictors of depression among the patients. HIV-positive patients can be screened by counselors using easy-to-administer scales like BDI, which can be translated and validated into any regional language. A trained psychiatrist should be appointed at the Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) center to take care of the mental health issues of the patients. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Gait speed correlates in a multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in Brazil: a cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gait speed is a strong predictor of a wide range of adverse health outcomes in older adults. Mean values for gait speed in community-dwelling older adults vary substantially depending on population characteristics, suggesting that social, biological, or health factors might explain why certain groups tend to self-select their gait speed in different patterns. The vast majority of studies reported in the literature present data from North American and European populations. There are few population-based studies from other regions with a different ethnicity and/or social and health conditions. To address this, the present study identified the mean usual and fast gait speeds in a representative multiracial population of community-dwelling older adults living in a developing country, and explored their association with sociodemographic, mental and physical health characteristics. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study of a sample of 137 men and 248 women, aged 65 years and over. Usual gait speed and fast gait speed were measured on a 4.6 m path. Participants were classified into slow, intermediate, and faster groups by cluster analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the independent effect of each factor on the odds of presenting with a slower usual and slower fast gait speeds. Results Participants had a mean (SD) usual gait speed of 1.11 (0.27) m/s and a mean fast gait speed of 1.39 (0.34) m/s. We did not observe an independent association between gait speed and race/ethnicity, educational level, or income. The main contributors to present a slower usual gait speed were low physical activity level, stroke, diabetes, urinary incontinence, high concern about falling, and old age. A slower fast gait speed was associated with old age, low physical activity, urinary incontinence and high concern about falling. Conclusion A multiracial population of older adults living in a developing country showed a similar mean gait speed

  7. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuhei; Tamesue, Dai; Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance.

  8. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  9. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress symptoms among patients with substance use disorders in drug rehabilitation centers in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Bishal; Choulagai, Bishnu P; Paneru, Damaru Prasad; Ahmad, Meraj; Leppin, Anja; Kallestrup, Per

    2016-09-08

    The burden of substance misuse in developing countries is large and increasing, with negative consequences for physical and psychological health. Substance use disorders and psychological distress commonly co-exist, however few studies have examined this relationship in developing countries, including Nepal. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of psychological distress symptoms and associated factors among patients with substance use disorders attending drug rehabilitation centers in Nepal. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 180 patients attending drug rehabilitation centers in the Kathmandu Valley region of Nepal. We used the 6-item Kessler scale (K6) to measure symptoms of psychological distress, and data on socio-demographics, behavioral and psychosocial factors. Multivariable analyses were used to identify factors associated with distress. The prevalence of high psychological distress symptoms among patients with substance use disorder was 51.1 %. The mean score found on the K6 was 12.22 (SD = 5.87). Outcomes of multivariable analyses demonstrated various factors associated with symptoms of psychological distress, including age (β = -0.122, 95 % CI = -0.218; -0.026), education (β =2.694, 95 % CI = 0.274; 5.115), severity of drug abuse (Drug Abuse Screening Test-10-DAST10)(β = 0.262, 95 % CI = 0.022;0.502), and family functioning (Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection and Resolve-APGAR) (β = -0.525, 95 % CI = -0.787; -0.264). High psychological distress symptoms are common in patients with substance use disorder in Nepal. Demographics (age, education), behavioral (drug abuse severity), and psychosocial factors (family functionality) were associated with psychological distress symptoms. If confirmed by future longitudinal studies such characteristics may assist in identifying groups at risk for co-morbid psychological distress symptoms among patients with substance use disorders. Future treatment

  10. Dietary and other lifestyle correlates of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hatzis, Christos M; Bertsias, George K; Linardakis, Manolis; Scott, John M; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Background Folate has emerged as a key nutrient for optimising health. Impaired folate status has been identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, various types of cancers, and neurocognitive disorders. The study aimed at examining the distribution and determinants of serum folate concentrations in a healthy adult population in Crete, Greece. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 486 healthy adults (250 men, 236 women) aged 39 ± 14 years, personnel of the Medical School and the University Hospital of Crete in Greece, was examined. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured by microbiological assay, and total homocysteine was determined fluorometrically and by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Lifestyle questionnaires were completed, and nutrient intakes and food consumption were assessed by 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariate analyses were performed using SPSS v10.1. Results The geometric mean (95% confidence interval) concentrations of serum folate were 15.6 μmol/l (14.6–16.8) in men and 19.2 μmol/l (17.9–20.7) in women (p < 0.001). Inadequate folate levels (≤7 nmol/l) were present in 6.8% of men and 2.1% of women (p < 0.001). Approximately 76% of men and 87% of women did not meet the reference dietary intake for folate (400 μg/day). Serum folate was inversely related to total homocysteine levels (p < 0.001). Increased tobacco and coffee consumption were associated with lower folate concentrations (p < 0.05 for both) but these associations disappeared after controlling for nutrient intakes. In multivariate analysis, intakes of MUFA, fibre, calcium, magnesium, folate, and vitamins A, E, C, B1, and B6 were positively associated with serum folate. Consumption of potatoes, legumes, fruits, and vegetables were favourably related to the serum folate status. Conclusion Serum folate concentrations were associated with various demographic, lifestyle and dietary factors in healthy Cretan adults. Large-scale epidemiological studies should

  11. Family and home correlates of children's physical activity in a multi-ethnic population: the cross-sectional Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE).

    PubMed

    McMinn, Alison M; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Nightingale, Claire M; Griffin, Simon J; Cook, Derek G; Owen, Chris G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Whincup, Peter H

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the family and home environment on childhood physical activity (PA) and whether this differs between ethnic groups remains uncertain. This paper investigates associations between family and home factors and childhood PA in a multi-ethnic population and explores whether associations differ between ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 9-10 year-old schoolchildren, in which PA was objectively measured by Actigraph GT1 M accelerometers for ≤7 days to estimate average activity counts per minute (CPM). Information on 11 family and home environmental factors were collected from questionnaires. Associations between these factors and CPM were quantified using multi-level linear regression. Interactions with ethnicity were explored using likelihood ratio tests. 2071 children (mean ± SD age: 9.95 ± 0.38 years; 47.8% male) participated, including 25% white European, 28% black African-Caribbean, 24% South Asian, and 24% other ethnic origin. Family PA support and having a pet were associated with higher average CPM (adjusted mean difference: 6 (95%CI:1,10) and 13 (95%CI:3,23), respectively) while car ownership and having internet access at home were associated with lower average CPM (adjusted mean difference: -19 (95%CI:-30,-8) and -10 (95%CI:-19,0), respectively). These associations did not differ by ethnicity. Although the number of siblings showed no overall association with PA, there was some evidence of interaction with ethnicity (p for ethnicity interaction=0.04, 0.05 in a fully-adjusted model); a positive significant association with number of siblings was observed in white Europeans (per sibling CPM difference 10.3 (95% CI 1.7, 18.9)) and a positive non-significant association was observed in black African-Caribbeans (per sibling CPM difference: 3.5 (-4.2, 11.2)) while a negative, non-significant association was observed in South Asians (per sibling CPM difference -6.0 (-15.5, 3.4)). Some family and home environmental factors have modest

  12. Study of Exotic Nuclear Structures via Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takechi, Maya

    2009-10-01

    Nuclear radius is one of the most basic physical quantities to study unknown exotic nuclei. A number of radii for unstable nuclei were studied through measurements of interaction cross sections (σI) at high energies, using the Glauber-type calculation (Optical-Limit approximation (OLA) of Glauber theory) to investigate halo and skin structures of exotic nuclei. On the other hand, it was indicated that reaction cross sections (σR) at intermediate energies (from several tens to hundreds of MeV/nucleon) were more sensitive to dilute nucleon density distribution owing to large nucleon-nucleon total cross sections (σNN) compared to high-energy region. Recently, we developed a new method to deduce nucleon density distributions from the energy dependences of σ R, through the precise measurements of σ R for various nuclei and some modifications of Glauber-type calculation. Using this method, we studied nucleon density distributions of light nuclei by measuring σ R for those nuclei at HIMAC (Heavy ion Medical Accelerator in CHIBA), NIRS (National Institute of Radiological Sciences). And very recently, we deduced nuclear radii of neutron-rich Ne isotopes (^28-32Ne) which are in the island-of-inversion region by measuring σI using BigRIPS at RIBF (RI Beam Factory) to study nuclear structures of those isotopes using our method. In this workshop, results of nucleon density distributions obtained at HIMAC and results of the studies of Ne isotopes at RIBF will be introduced and discussed.

  13. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  14. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  15. Decisional conflict in asthma patients: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Des Cormiers, Annick; Légaré, France; Simard, Serge; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the level of decisional conflict in asthmatic individuals facing recommendation-based decisions provided to improve asthma control. This was a cross-sectional study performed on a convenience sample of 50 adults aged between 18 and 65 years with a diagnosis of asthma. They completed a decisional conflict scale (possible range of 0-100%), asthma knowledge and control questionnaires (both 0% and 100%), and a general questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics. A decisional conflict was considered clinically significant with a score greater than 37.5%. Simple descriptive statistics were used to investigate associations with decisional conflict. Participants were mainly women (76%) and diagnosed with mild asthma (72%). The median age (1st and 3rd quartile) was 25 years (22 and 42). The median score (1st and 3rd quartile) of decisional conflict was 33% (24 and 44). A clinically significant score (>37.5%) was obtained in 36% of subjects. A statistically significant negative correlation between the knowledge score and the decisional conflict score (r(p) = -0.38; p = 0.006) was observed. The level of knowledge was the only statistically independent variable associated with the decisional conflict score (p = 0.0043). A considerable proportion of patients with asthma have a clinically significant level of decisional conflict when facing decisions aimed at improving asthma control. Patients with poor knowledge of asthma are more at risk of clinically significant level of decisional conflict. These findings support the relevance of providing asthmatic patients with relevant information in decision aids.

  16. Depression in military medicine cadets: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nasioudis, Dimitrios; Palaiodimos, Leonidas; Dagiasis, Matthaios; Katsarou, Angeliki; Ntouros, Evangelos

    2015-01-01

    Military medicine cadets undergo strenuous military training alongside demanding medical studies. This stressful and complex educational environment can lead to the emergence of depressive symptoms. We investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms in a cohort of military medicine cadets. We conducted a descriptive questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among Greek military medicine cadets in the undergraduate program of the Hellenic Military School of Combat Support Officers. The Greek translation of the Zung self-rating depression scale questionnaire was used to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms. In addition, demographic, academic and dietary information was collected. The Shapiro-Wilk test of normality, Pearson correlation test, Chi-square test, t-test and Mann Whitney U test were employed for statistical analysis. We enrolled 55 female and 91 male military medicine cadets with a mean age of 19.84 years (SD = 0.99). The mean Zung crude score was 43.32 (SD = 4.55): 42.8 (SD = 4.43) for female cadets and 43.64 (SD = 4.6) for male cadets. Cadets were further subdivided into low and high risk groups for the presence of depressive symptoms. We identified 57 (39 %) cadets with a total Zung crude score of 45 or above: 21 females and 36 males. Statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two groups based on gender, year of training, academic performance, alcohol consumption, smoking status, vitamin supplementation, dietary habits or BMI. We report a high prevalence of depressive symptoms in a cohort of military medicine cadets that underscores the need for effective screening and appropriate and timely interventions. We did not identify any related risk factors. Military medicine cadets are exposed to a challenging military and medical training environment, and thus represent a group at risk for development of depression.

  17. Metabolic syndrome correlates poorly with cognitive performance in stroke-free community-dwelling older adults: a population-based, cross-sectional study in rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    Studies investigating a possible correlation between metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline have been inconsistent. To determine whether metabolic syndrome or each of its components correlate with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults in rural Ecuador. Stroke-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Cognition was evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multivariate logistic regression models estimated the association between metabolic syndrome and each of its components with cognitive performance. A total of 212 persons (mean age: 69.2 ± 7.2 years, 64 % women) were enrolled. Of these, 120 (57 %) had metabolic syndrome. Mean scores in the MoCA were 18.2 ± 4.6 for persons with and 19 ± 4.7 for those without metabolic syndrome. In fully adjusted logistic models, MoCA scores were not associated with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.101). After testing individual components of metabolic syndrome with the MoCA score, we found that only hypertriglyceridemia was independently associated with the MoCA score (p = 0.009). This population-based study showed a poor correlation of metabolic syndrome with cognitive performance after adjusting for relevant confounders. Of the individual components of metabolic syndrome, only hypertriglyceridemia correlated with worse cognitive performance.

  18. CAT correlates positively with respiratory rate and is a significant predictor of the impact of COPD on daily life of patients: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Becker, Cíntia; Schäfer, Janaína; Carvalho, Lisiane L; Vitiello, Isabel P; da Silva, Andréa Lg

    2014-01-01

    The pathophysiological changes of COPD tend to worsen with progression, triggering limiting symptoms and implying the decrease in the activities of daily living and quality of life. The COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is a questionnaire designed to measure the impact of COPD on the health status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the disease through the CAT in a Brazilian sample of COPD patients and to correlate symptoms at rest with the CAT score in these patients. Study of cases with COPD patients was conducted by pulmonary rehabilitation program (RP). Respiratory rate (RR) and symptoms (dyspnea by Modified Borg Scale Dyspnea Index; symptoms by CAT) were analyzed at the beginning of the RP. The study analyzed 28 COPD patients, both genders, age 65.93 ± 7.84 years and many patients ranging from severe and very severe disease. The majority of patients were rated by CAT with low impact-disease (n = 13/46, 4%);medium (n = 11/39, 3%) and the high impact-diseases were observed in a few subjects (n = 4/14.3%). The difference between all CAT scores was significant, p = 0.000. There was a positive correlation between respiratory rate and CAT scores impact-level (r = 0.585, p = 0.001). The results obtained by the Borg Scale revealed a high presence of symptoms in these COPD patients but no association with CAT. The CAT is a sensitive tool to assess the current health status of COPD patients, and in Southern Brazil it is positively correlated with respiratory rate.

  19. Pattern, correlates and implications of non-communicable disease multimorbidity among older adults in selected Indian states: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mini, G K; Thankappan, K R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the present study was to estimate the proportion of older adults with non-communicable disease (NCD) multimorbidity, its correlates and implications in selected Indian states. Methods The study used data of 9852 older adults (≥60 years) (men 47%, mean age 68 years) collected by the United Nations Population Fund from seven selected Indian states. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the correlates of NCD multimorbidity and hospitalisation. Results NCD multimorbidity was reported by 30.7% (95% CI 29.8 to 31.7). Those in the highest wealth group, aged ≥70 years, alcohol users, women and tobacco users were more likely to report NCD multimorbidity compared to those without any NCD and single NCD. Those with multimorbidity, the wealthiest, ever tobacco users and those who had formal education were more likely to be hospitalised compared to their counterparts after adjusting for age, sex and ever use of alcohol. Conclusions Multimorbidity needs to be considered for planning NCD healthcare services provision particularly inpatient facilities focusing on alcohol users, tobacco users and women. Further studies are required to find out reasons for higher rates of multimorbidity among the wealthier group other than higher healthcare services usage and detection rates. PMID:28274966

  20. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross Sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Deep-Singh-Nanda, Kanwar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of the relative amounts of mutans streptococcus in both saliva and plaque and to study its correlation with dental caries in children. Study Design: The study comprised of 60 children aged 3-8 years divided into 2 groups (30 children in each): Group A- Children with more than 4 carious teeth and Group B- Children without caries. Saliva and plaque was collected from children of both the groups with the help of Dentocult SM strip test kit (Orion Diagnostic). Following incubation, mutans streptococcus scores (from 0 to 3) in each individual was evaluated and compared between both the groups. Results: On comparing the two groups, mean ± SD of saliva score and plaque score was 2.40 ± 0.675 and 2.40 ± 0.621 respectively in group A, whereas it was 0.60 ± 0.498 and 0.83 ± 0.531 in children of group B showing a significant correlation (p = < 0.001) between mutans streptococci scores in both saliva and plaque and dental caries experience. Conclusions: There is a direct and strong co-relation between the salivary and plaque mutans streptococcus counts and caries activity in children aged 3-8 years. Key words:Mutans streptococci, dentocult, dental caries. PMID:25810821

  1. Correlation of E-selectin concentrations with carotid intima-media thickness and cardio-metabolic profile of mixed ancestry South Africans: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zemlin, Annalise E; Matsha, Tandi E; Kengne, Andre P; Hon, Gloudina M; Erasmus, Rajiv T

    2017-01-01

    Background E-selectin, an adhesion molecule, is a specific marker of endothelial dysfunction. High concentrations have been reported in type 2 diabetes and disorders with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of early atherosclerosis. We examined the relationship between E-selectin concentrations, CIMT and cardio-metabolic traits in normo- and hyperglycaemic mixed ancestry South Africans. Methods E-selectin concentrations were determined in 308 subjects from the Cape Town Bellville South Community-based study on a mixed ancestry population. Their correlation with CIMT and cardio-metabolic profile used robust correlations and linear regression models. Results E-selectin concentrations were significantly higher in the hyperglycaemic (median 139.8 µg/L) compared to the normoglycaemic group (median 118.8 µg/L), ( p = 0.0007). Significant differences between the two groups were found for markers of glycaemia and adiposity, but not for CIMT. Significant correlations were found between E-selectin and age, markers of glycaemia and inflammation, central obesity and lipid variables. Associations remained significant only with age, hyperglycaemia and C-reactive protein in robust linear regression models. In similar regressions models, age and gender were the main predictors of CIMT, which was not associated with E-selectin. Conclusions E-selectin concentrations in this study were associated with hyperglycaemia, possibly reflecting early endothelial damage. However, E-selectin was not useful to assess CIMT, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis, which appeared to be determined by ageing and male gender.

  2. HIV-related risk behaviours and the correlates among rickshaw pullers of Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study using probability sampling.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Hafiz Ehsanul; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Kihara, Masahiro

    2009-03-11

    National HIV serological and behavioural surveillance of Bangladesh repeatedly demonstrated a very high proportion of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, having sex with female sex workers (FSWs) and using illicit substances. However, no study has been conducted to identify the correlates of having sex with FSWs among this population. This study aimed to describe behavioural profile of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city using probability samples and to identify the correlates for having sex with FSWs in order to focus HIV prevention intervention. Six hundred rickshaw pullers were randomly selected from rickshaw garages in the Kamrangirchar area, the single largest slum cluster of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during March-April 2008 using the Proportion Probability to Size method. Participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 99.2% (n = 595), using a structured questionnaire and asked about illicit substance use, sexual behaviour and risk perception for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Independent predictors of having sex with FSWs were analysed by multivariate analysis. A qualitative study was subsequently conducted with 30 rickshaw pullers to supplement the findings of the initial survey. The proportion of survey respondents who had sex with FSWs and those who used illicit substances in the previous 12 months period were 7.9% and 24.9%, respectively, much lower than the results achieved in the 2003-04 behavioural surveillance (72.8% and 89.9%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed the characteristics of younger age, being never married, living alone with family remaining in other districts and using illicit substances in the previous 12 months were significantly associated with having sex with FSWs. HIV-related risk behaviour of our study population of the rickshaw pullers was lower than what has been suggested by the results of behavioural surveillance. While this discrepancy should be addressed in further studies, our study emphasizes the importance of

  3. Cross-sectional study examining the prevalence, correlates and sequencing of electronic cigarette and tobacco use among 11–16-year olds in schools in Wales

    PubMed Central

    de Lacy, Elen; Fletcher, Adam; Hewitt, Gillian; Murphy, Simon; Moore, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence and frequency of electronic (e)-cigarette use among young people in Wales, associations with socio-demographic characteristics, smoking and other substances and the sequencing of e-cigarette and tobacco use. Design A cross-sectional survey of school students in Wales undertaken in 2015. Setting 87 secondary schools in Wales. Participants Students aged 11–16 (n=32 479). Results Overall, students were nearly twice as likely to report ever using e-cigarettes (18.5%) as smoking tobacco (10.5%). Use of e-cigarettes at least weekly was 2.7% in the whole sample, rising to 5.7% among those aged 15–16. Almost half (41.8%) of daily smokers reported being regular e-cigarette users. Regular e-cigarette use was more prevalent among current cannabis users (relative risk ratio (RRR)=41.82; 95% CI 33.48 to 52.25)), binge drinkers (RRR=47.88; 95% CI 35.77 to 64.11), users of mephedrone (RRR=32.38; 95% CI 23.05 to 45.52) and laughing gas users (RRR=3.71; 95% CI 3.04 to 4.51). Multivariate analysis combining demographics and smoking status showed that only gender (being male) and tobacco use independently predicted regular use of e-cigarettes (p<0.001). Among weekly smokers who had tried tobacco and e-cigarettes (n=877), the vast majority reported that they tried tobacco before using an e-cigarette (n=727; 82.9%). Conclusions Since 2013, youth experimentation with e-cigarettes has grown rapidly in Wales and is now almost twice as common as experimentation with tobacco. Regular use has almost doubled, and is increasing among never and non-smokers. These data suggest that e-cigarette use among youth is an emerging public health issue, even though there remains no evidence that it represents a new pathway into smoking. Mixed methods longitudinal research is needed to explore why young people use e-cigarettes, and to develop interventions to prevent further increases in use. PMID:28159848

  4. Correlates of depression in self-neglecting older adults: A cross-sectional study examining the role of alcohol abuse and pain in increasing vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Marissa C; Flores, David V; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated, severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n = 96) 65 years of age and older with Adult Protective Services-substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional, and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults.

  5. Correlates of Depression in Self-Neglecting Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study Examining the Role of Alcohol Abuse and Pain in Increasing Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Marissa C.; Flores, David V.; Coverdale, John; Burnett, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Self-neglect among older adults results in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Depression is strongly linked to self-neglect and when untreated severely complicates management of health and functional outcomes. The study aims to identify factors correlated with depression to inform approaches to service recruitment and retention that improve long-term outcomes. Methods The sample included urban community-dwelling older adults (n=96), 65-years of age and older with Adult Protective Services substantiated self-neglect. All participants completed a range of validated cognitive, functional and self-report demographic and clinical measures around health and mental health functioning. Results A secondary data analysis using multivariable logistic regression revealed that a positive screen for alcohol abuse, low self-rated health, and higher self-reported pain were associated with significantly higher odds of self-reported depression. Implications Further research is needed to understand the temporality between these correlates and depression and to inform prevention and intervention practices for self-neglecting older adults. PMID:26716386

  6. A cross-sectional study of male and female C57BL/6Nia mice suggests lifespan and healthspan are not necessarily correlated

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Kathleen E.; Hoffman, Jessica M.; Sloane, Lauren B.; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Soto, Vanessa Y.; Richardson, Arlan G.; Austad, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Lifespan provides a discrete metric that is intuitively appealing and the assumption has been that healthspan is extended concomitant with lifespan. Medicine has been more successful at extending life than preserving health during aging. Interventions that extend lifespan in model organisms do not always result in a corresponding increase in healthspan, suggesting that lifespan and healthspan may be uncoupled. To understand how interventions that extend life affect healthspan, we need measures that distinguish between young and old animals. Here we measured age-related changes in healthspan in male and female C57BL/6JNia mice assessed at 4 distinct ages (4 months, 20 months, 28 months and 32 months). Correlations between health parameters and age varied. Some parameters show consistent patterns with age across studies and in both sexes, others changed in one sex only and others showed no significant differences in mice of different ages. Few correlations existed among health assays, suggesting that physiological function in domains we assessed change independently in aging mice. With one exception, health parameters were not significantly associated with an increased probability of premature death. Our results show the need for more robust measures of murine health and suggest a potential disconnect between health and lifespan in mice. PMID:27705904

  7. A cross-sectional study of male and female C57BL/6Nia mice suggests lifespan and healthspan are not necessarily correlated.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kathleen E; Hoffman, Jessica M; Sloane, Lauren B; Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Soto, Vanessa Y; Richardson, Arlan G; Austad, Steven N

    2016-10-02

    Lifespan provides a discrete metric that is intuitively appealing and the assumption has been that healthspan is extended concomitant with lifespan. Medicine has been more successful at extending life than preserving health during aging. Interventions that extend lifespan in model organisms do not always result in a corresponding increase in healthspan, suggesting that lifespan and healthspan may be uncoupled. To understand how interventions that extend life affect healthspan, we need measures that distinguish between young and old animals. Here we measured age-related changes in healthspan in male and female C57BL/6JNia mice assessed at 4 distinct ages (4 months, 20 months, 28 months and 32 months). Correlations between health parameters and age varied. Some parameters show consistent patterns with age across studies and in both sexes, others changed in one sex only and others showed no significant differences in mice of different ages. Few correlations existed among health assays, suggesting that physiological function in domains we assessed change independently in aging mice. With one exception, health parameters were not significantly associated with an increased probability of premature death. Our results show the need for more robust measures of murine health and suggest a potential disconnect between health and lifespan in mice.

  8. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  9. Both pelvic radiography and lateral abdominal radiography correlate well with coronary artery calcification measured by computed tomography in hemodialysis patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Daqing; Ruan, Yizhe; Pu, Lei; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Yue; Deng, Fei; Yang, Hongling; Li, Guisen; Wang, Li

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Lateral abdominal radiograph is suggested as an alternative to coronary artery computed tomography (CT) in evaluating vascular calcification. Simple scoring systems including pelvic radiograph scoring and abdominal scoring system were utilized to study their correlation with coronary artery calcification. Methods In 106 MHD patients, coronary artery CT, lateral abdominal, and pelvic radiograph were taken. The Agatston scoring system was applied to evaluate the degree of coronary artery calcification which was categorized according to Agatston coronary artery calcification score (CACS) ≥ 30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000. Abdominal aortic calcification was scored by 4-scored and 24-scored systems. Pelvic artery calcification was scored by a 4-scored system. Sensitivities and specificities of abdominal aortic calcification scores and pelvic artery calcification scores to predict different categories of coronary artery calcification were analyzed. We studied the diagnostic capability of abdominal aorta calcification and pelvic artery calcification to predict different CACS categories by calculating likelihood ratios. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the area under the curve for each of these testing procedures. Findings The prevalence was 48(45.3%), 15 (14.2%), 11 (10.4%), 11 (10.4%), and 11 (10.4%) for CACs > 0, ≥30, ≥100, ≥400, and ≥1000, respectively. The degree of CACs was positively correlated with patient age, prevalence of diabetes, abdominal aorta scores, and pelvic calcification scores. The areas under the curves for different CACS by all X-ray scoring systems were above 0.70 except pelvic 4-scored system for diagnosing CACS ≥30, without significant difference (P > 0.05). Discussion Both lateral abdominal and pelvic plain radiographs were demonstrated as acceptable alternatives to CT in evaluating vascular calcification. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. HIV-related risk behaviours and the correlates among rickshaw pullers of Kamrangirchar, Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study using probability sampling

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Md Hafiz Ehsanul; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Zamani, Saman; Ravari, Shahrzad Mortazavi; Kihara, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    Background National HIV serological and behavioural surveillance of Bangladesh repeatedly demonstrated a very high proportion of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city, having sex with female sex workers (FSWs) and using illicit substances. However, no study has been conducted to identify the correlates of having sex with FSWs among this population. This study aimed to describe behavioural profile of rickshaw pullers in Dhaka city using probability samples and to identify the correlates for having sex with FSWs in order to focus HIV prevention intervention. Methods Six hundred rickshaw pullers were randomly selected from rickshaw garages in the Kamrangirchar area, the single largest slum cluster of Dhaka, Bangladesh, during March–April 2008 using the Proportion Probability to Size method. Participants were interviewed, with a response rate of 99.2% (n = 595), using a structured questionnaire and asked about illicit substance use, sexual behaviour and risk perception for HIV and sexually transmitted diseases. Independent predictors of having sex with FSWs were analysed by multivariate analysis. A qualitative study was subsequently conducted with 30 rickshaw pullers to supplement the findings of the initial survey. Results The proportion of survey respondents who had sex with FSWs and those who used illicit substances in the previous 12 months period were 7.9% and 24.9%, respectively, much lower than the results achieved in the 2003–04 behavioural surveillance (72.8% and 89.9%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed the characteristics of younger age, being never married, living alone with family remaining in other districts and using illicit substances in the previous 12 months were significantly associated with having sex with FSWs. Conclusion HIV-related risk behaviour of our study population of the rickshaw pullers was lower than what has been suggested by the results of behavioural surveillance. While this discrepancy should be addressed in further studies

  11. Prevalence and correlations with depression, anxiety, and other features in outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in China: a cross-sectional case control study.

    PubMed

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2012-09-10

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often experience depression and anxiety, but little information is available regarding Chinese patients with these conditions. The present study assessed depression and anxiety in Chinese patients with COPD. A case-controlled study was designed with 1100 patients with COPD enrolled in the case group and1100 residents without COPD and respiratory symptoms selected as the control group. Anxiety and depression in both groups were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The body mass index,degree of airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE ) index was used to assess COPD severity. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the association between anxiety and depression. The patients with COPD were more likely than controls to experience depression (cases, HADS 10.5 ± 3.6, prevalence 35.7%; controls, HADS 8.7 ± 2.7, prevalence 7.2%) and anxiety (cases, HADS 10.4 ± 3.1, prevalence 18.3%; controls, HADS 8.6 ± 2.1, prevalence 5.3%). Subjects with anxious and depressive symptoms had poorer health outcomes including a higher BODE index, a shorter 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), more dyspnea, and a higher St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ) score. The prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms increased with increasing BODE scores. On the basis of binary logistic regression, the BODE index was significantly correlated with anxiety (OR = 1.47, p < 0.001) and depression (OR = 1.51, p < 0.001). Anxious and depressive symptoms were also associated with several factors including younger age, female sex, higher education level, lower household income and history of smoking. This study confirmed the high prevalence of anxiety and depression in Chinese outpatients with COPD. Patients with COPD who had anxiety and/or depression had a poorer health-related quality of life. Chinese Clinical Trials Registration(ChiCTR-TRC-12001958).

  12. High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bazazi, Alexander R.; Zelenev, Alexei; Fu, Jeannia J.; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. Methods In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9–16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI 0.5–0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI 1.9–3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI 1.1–4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI 1.3–4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI 1.5–5.9). Conclusion This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the

  13. High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Zelenev, Alexei; Fu, Jeannia J; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI: 0.5-0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI: 1.9-3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.9). This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the risk environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  14. Prevalence, Patterns, and Correlates of Physical Activity Among the Adult Population in Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study.

    PubMed

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35 to 74 years from 4 midsized cities in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form. The questionnaire asked about frequency (days per week) and duration (minutes per day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in 3 different domains: work, leisure time, and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels of ≥600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes per week was considered sufficiently active. Odds ratios for associations of sufficiently active status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Almost 65%) of the participants reported ≥600 MET minutes per week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0%), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%), and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women--unemployed and homemakers--and of active transportation for those performing office or

  15. Prevalence, Patterns and Correlates of Physical Activity among the Adult Population of the Southern Cone of Latin America: Cross-Sectional Results from the CESCAS I Study

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Rosana; Serón, Pamela; Calandrelli, Matías; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Mores, Nora; Matta, María G; Gutierrez, Laura; Chung-Shiuan, Chen; Lanas, Fernando; He, Jiang; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Bazzano, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Objective Few data are available on population level regarding domain-specific correlates of physical activity (PA) in Latin America. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PA patterns and their main sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America. Methods CESCAS I is a population-based prospective cohort study with a 4-stage stratified sampling of a general population of 7,524 adults aged 35–74 years from four mid-sized cities in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay. PA was assessed using the transcultural adaptation of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long form (IPAQ). The questionnaire asked about frequency (days/week) and duration (minutes/day) of moderate and vigorous intensity activities in three different domains: work, leisure time and active transportation (walking and bicycling). PA levels ≥ 600 metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) minutes/week was considered sufficiently active (SA). Odds ratios for associations of SA status with sociodemographic determinants and cardiovascular risk factors were obtained using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. Results Almost sixty five percent (64.8%) of the participants reported ≥ 600 MET minutes/week. The lowest prevalence of sufficiently active individuals was seen in Temuco, Chile (58.0 %), among women (58.7%), older individuals (55.4%), those with higher educational level (61.6%) and homemakers (53.4%). Approximately 22.8% of the population reported no PA. In multivariable analysis, PA levels were lower among women, individuals who were older, obese, university educated, with clerical work, retired/unemployed or homemakers, and those with physical limitations. Conclusions Future interventions to increase PA levels in the Southern Cone of Latin America must take into account disparities by gender and socioeconomic status. The promotion of PA during leisure time in women –unemployed and homemakers– and of active

  16. Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains—work, travel and leisure—in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. Methods Adult participants (n = 640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states. Results The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4–47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide

  17. The influence of aerobic fitness on obesity and its parent-offspring correlations in a cross-sectional study among German families.

    PubMed

    Foraita, Ronja; Brandes, Mirko; Günther, Frauke; Bammann, Karin; Pigeot, Iris; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2015-07-11

    Overweight/obesity is an important public health burden worldwide, increasing the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases or the metabolic syndrome. This risk may be reduced by a good aerobic fitness (AF) that can be improved by physical activity but is also influenced by genetic factors. The aim of this study was to test for familial aggregation of AF measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and to estimate its heritability. Furthermore, an exploratory analysis of the association between overweight/obesity and AF was performed. In contrast to previous studies, all analyses were adjusted for additional environmental and behavioral factors, in particular for objectively measured physical activity (PA) in addition to body mass index (BMI). 79 families (157 parents, 132 children) performed a maximum exercise test (spiroergometry) to assess maximum oxygen uptake. PA was measured by accelerometry. Familial aggregation of AF was determined using a two-step design: AF was adjusted for age, sex and age*sex using linear regression. Afterwards, the residuals were used to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) by ANOVA. Heritability and associations were estimated by generalized linear mixed models. Familial aggregation of AF (ICC = 0.22, p < 0.001) was significant but decreased when adjusted for PA or BMI. Its heritability was estimated as 40% (adjusted for PA) using the mid-parent-offspring design. Relative to the middle quintile of AF residuals, the odds of being overweight/obese were three- to tenfold reduced in the upper quintile (adjusted for age, sex, age*sex, PA). AF clustered in families after controlling for PA, BMI and parental smoking. Heritability was stronger for mother-child pairs as compared to father-child pairs after controlling for PA and BMI. Above average AF was negatively associated with overweight/obesity.

  18. Correlates of self-report chronic insomnia disorders with 1-6 month and 6-month durations in home-dwelling urban older adults - the Shih-Pai Sleep Study in Taiwan: a cross-sectional community study.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Jing-Hui; Chen, Hsi-Chung; Chen, Kuang-Hung; Chou, Pesus

    2016-06-03

    To examine the correlates of insomnia disorder with different durations in home-dwelling older adults. A cross-sectional survey in the Shih-Pai area of Taipei City, Taiwan (The Shih-Pai Sleep Study). A total 4047 subjects over the age of 65 years completed the study (2259 men and 1788 women). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the duration of insomnia symptoms were used to identify DSM-IV 1-6 month and 6-month insomnia disorders. The prevalence of DSM-IV defined insomnia disorder was 5.8 %; two-thirds of these case lasted for ≥6 months. The shared correlates for both 1-6 and 6-month insomnia disorders were gender (women), depression and moderate pain. Pulmonary diseases were exclusively associated with 1-6 month insomnia disorder (OR: 2.57, 95 % CI: 1.46-4.52). In contrast, heart disease (OR: 1.73, 95 % CI: 1.21-2.49) and severe pain (OR: 2.34, 95 % CI: 1.14-4.40) were associated with 6-month insomnia disorder. The prevalence of persistent insomnia disorder is higher than short-term insomnia disorder. Correlates for less persistent and more persistent insomnia disorder appears to be partially different. Duration quantifiers may be important in the identification of the etiology of insomnia and further studies with follow-ups are needed to examine the order of developing insomnia disorder and associated conditions.

  19. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    PubMed

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (P<.05). Specifically, for each year increase in age, participants were 3% less likely to use the Internet for CPI seeking (P=.011). Compared to college graduates, respondents who did not complete high school were 11.75 times less likely to cite the Internet as a CPI carrier (P<.001) and those with a high school education were 3 times (2.99, P=.015) less likely. In addition, the odds that a Spanish speaker would cite the Internet as a CPI carrier were one-fifth (22%) of non-Hispanic whites (P=.032) and about one-quarter (26%) of English-speaking Latinos (P=.036). Finally, with each one point increase on the prevention orientation scale, respondents

  20. IL-6 significantly correlates with p-STAT3 expression and presents high variceal bleeding with mortality in cirrhotic patients: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kao, Jung-Ta; Yu, Cheng-Ju; Feng, Chun-Lung; Tsai, Shu-Mei; Chen, Yao-Li; Wu, Yi-Ying

    2017-06-01

    Effective mediators activate downstream transducers regulating inflammation and angiogenesis. Correlation among mediators IL-6, IL-27, TNF-α, and VEGF with STAT proteins at diverse clinical-pathologic stages of cirrhotic patients remains limited. Plasma mediators were assayed from 158 naïve liver cirrhosis (LC-total group) and 144 non-LC individuals. The LC-total group included 69 hepatitis B virus-infected (LC-HBV) patients, 40 hepatitis C virus-infected (LC-HCV) patients, and 49 patients without HBV-/HCV- infection (LC-NBNC). Another 144 non-LC individuals comprised 54 healthy persons (HG) and 90 chronic hepatitis patients (CH-total) as the control group. To correlate with plasma mediators, 52 paired liver tissues (CH: 41 and LC: 11 cases) served for p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 immunostaining. Although IL-6, IL-27, TNF-α, and VEGF were expressed significantly in CH-total versus HG (p = 0.011, p < 0.001, p = 0.007, p = 0.004, respectively) and overall viral hepatitis patients versus HG (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively), only IL-6 presented the strongest correlation in cirrhotic patients than noncirrhotic patients (LC-HBV vs. HG, p < 0.001, vs. CH-HBV, p = 0.001; LC-HCV vs. HG, p = 0.001, vs. CH-HCV, p = 0.031; LC-NBNC vs. HG, p < 0.001). Over-expressed IL-6 linked with poorer liver function (albumin: r = -0.346, p < 0.001; bilirubin: r = 0.271, p = 0.001; INR: r = 0.308, p < 0.001; Child-Turcotte-Pugh Classification C vs. A or B, p = 0.001, p = 0.007, respectively), variceal severity (p = 0.045), and bleeding (p = 0.047), as well as patients' mortality (p = 0.005). Furthermore, plasma IL-6 significantly correlated with tissues p-STAT3 expression (r = 0.737, p = 0.010) (IL-27: r = 0.078, p = 0.820; TNF-α: r = -0.145, p = 0.670; VEGF: r = 0.142, p = 0.678) in cirrhotic patients than noncirrhotic patients. Over-expression of IL-6 reflects hepatic dysfunction and varices bleeding with

  1. Electron-atom bremsstrahlung: Double-differential cross section and polarization correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerokhin, Vladimir A.; Surzhykov, Andrey

    2010-12-01

    The leading-order electron-atom bremsstrahlung is investigated within the rigorous relativistic approach based on the partial-wave representation of the Dirac wave functions in the external atomic field. Approximating the atomic target by an effective local potential, we calculate the double-differential cross section and the polarization correlations in a wide range of the impact energies. Connection between the bremsstrahlung at the hard-photon end point of the spectrum and the continuum-threshold limit of the radiative recombination is studied. A detailed analysis of the screening effect and the energy dependence of the polarization correlations is presented, with the main focus on the high-impact-energy region.

  2. Revision 1 Size and position of the healthy meniscus, and its Correlation with sex, height, weight, and bone area- a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Meniscus extrusion or hypertrophy may occur in knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, currently no data are available on the position and size of the meniscus in asymptomatic men and women with normal meniscus integrity. Methods Three-dimensional coronal DESSwe MRIs were used to segment and quantitatively measure the size and position of the medial and lateral menisci, and their correlation with sex, height, weight, and tibial plateau area. 102 knees (40 male and 62 female) were drawn from the Osteoarthritis Initiative "non-exposed" reference cohort, including subjects without symptoms, radiographic signs, or risk factors for knee OA. Knees with MRI signs of meniscus lesions were excluded. Results The tibial plateau area was significantly larger (p < 0.001) in male knees than in female ones (+23% medially; +28% laterally), as was total meniscus surface area (p < 0.001, +20% medially; +26% laterally). Ipsi-compartimental tibial plateau area was more strongly correlated with total meniscus surface area in men (r = .72 medially; r = .62 laterally) and women (r = .67; r = .75) than contra-compartimental or total tibial plateau area, body height or weight. The ratio of meniscus versus tibial plateau area was similar between men and women (p = 0.22 medially; p = 0.72 laterally). Tibial coverage by the meniscus was similar between men and women (50% medially; 58% laterally), but "physiological" medial meniscal extrusion was greater in women (1.83 ± 1.06mm) than in men (1.24mm ± 1.18mm; p = 0.011). Conclusions These data suggest that meniscus surface area strongly scales with (ipsilateral) tibial plateau area across both sexes, and that tibial coverage by the meniscus is similar between men and women. PMID:22035074

  3. Modifiable correlates of physical symptoms and health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Heo, Seongkum; Moser, Debra K; Lennie, Terry A; Fischer, Mary; Smith, Eugene; Walsh, Mary N

    2014-11-01

    Heart failure is associated with high rates of hospitalization and mortality. The majority of patients with heart failure suffer from physical symptoms, and these symptoms are strongly associated with poor health-related quality of life. To improve physical symptoms and health-related quality of life, the modifiable factors associated with physical symptoms need to be examined. To examine modifiable psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with physical symptoms and health-related quality of life, and the mediator effects of physical symptoms on the relationships between the modifiable factors and health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure. Data on potential correlates of physical symptoms (i.e., depressive symptoms, perceived control, social support, medication adherence, sodium intake, and self-care management) were collected from 109 patients with heart failure (mean age 58 ± 14 years, 46% male, 89% New York Heart Association class II/III). Data on physical symptoms (Symptom Status Questionnaire-Heart Failure) and health-related quality of life (Minnesota Living with Heart Failure) also were collected. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Among the potential correlates, depressive symptoms and sodium intake were associated with physical symptoms (F=11.63, p<.001), and depressive symptoms and perceived control were associated with health-related quality of life (F=9.917, p<.001). Physical symptoms mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and health-related quality of life. Improving depressive symptoms and eating the appropriate amount of sodium may be primary intervention targets to improve physical symptoms. To improve health-related quality of life, depressive symptoms as well as physical symptoms need to be managed appropriately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of correlation between initial axis curvature and cross-section rotation on the beam static resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Valeš, Jan

    2015-03-10

    The paper deals with statistical analysis of the resistance of simply supported I-beams subjected to bending. The resistance was solved by applying the geometrically nonlinear solution. The influence of lateral-beam buckling on resistance is studied. Initial geometrical imperfections originating from the first eigenmode of lateral-beam buckling and from the cross section rotation at the stability lost were ascribed to the beams. These imperfections consist of initial axial lateral buckling and rotation of cross sections along the beam axis length. The correlation between the amplitudes of these imperfections is considered to be the parameter of solutions within the interval from -1 to 1. The influence of this correlation on the change of mean values and standard deviations of random resistance of beams with nondimensional slenderness close to 1 is studied. The imperfections mentioned were considered, together with geometrical and material characteristics of cross section and material characteristics of steel, to be random quantities.

  5. Correlation of Salivary pH, Incidence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Status in Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Seethalakshmi, C; Reddy, R C Jagat; Asifa, Nisha; Prabhu, S

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease affecting many parts of the body. A number of oral diseases have been associated with diabetes mellitus with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the salivary pH and incidence of dental caries and periodontal status in diabetes mellitus compared to that of the normal subjects. The study population consisted of 40 patients divided into 2 groups with group I comprising of 20 known diabetes mellitus patients and group II comprising of 20 non diabetic subjects as control group. The pH of the saliva was determined using a digital pH meter. Dental caries and periodontal status were assessed by DMFT and PDI indices respectively. There was a decrease in the mean salivary pH of 6.51 in the study group, compared to the normal mean salivary pH of 7.88 in the control group. The mean DMFT index was higher in the study group (8.10) when compared to that of control group (1.15). The mean PDI score was also higher in the study group (4.0) as compared to that of the control group (0.45). The results of the present study concluded that there was a significant relationship between the diabetes mellitus and increased incidence of dental caries and periodontitis and there was also a significant reduction in the salivary pH in diabetes mellitus patients, compared to that of non diabetic subjects.

  6. Studies of 54,56Fe Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Henderson, S. L.; Howard, T. J.; Pecha, R. L.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Liu, S.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    2015-05-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering differential cross sections and γ-ray production cross sections have been measured on 54,56Fe at several incident energies in the fast neutron region between 1.5 and 4.7 MeV. All measurements were completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. The facilities at UKAL allow the investigation of both elastic and inelastic scattering with nearly mono-energetic incident neutrons. Time-of-flight techniques were used to detect the scattered neutrons for the differential cross section measurements. The measured cross sections are important for fission reactor applications and also for testing global model calculations such as those found at ENDF, since describing both the elastic and inelastic scattering is important for determining the direct and compound components of the scattering mechanism. The γ-ray production cross sections are used to determine cross sections to unresolved levels in the neutron scattering experiments. Results from our measurements and comparisons to model calculations are presented.

  7. Combined Fruit and Vegetable Intake Is Correlated with Improved Inflammatory and Oxidant Status from a Cross-Sectional Study in a Community Setting

    PubMed Central

    Root, Martin M.; McGinn, Megan C.; Nieman, David C.; Henson, Dru A.; Heinz, Serena A.; Shanely, R. Andrew; Knab, Amy M.; Jin, Fuxia

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationship between specific nutrient and food intakes with limited markers of either inflammation or oxidant status. The objective of this study was to determine if an increase in combined self-reported fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake in a community setting was associated with improved multiple markers of inflammatory and oxidant status. A community group (N = 1000, age 18–85 years, 61% female) gave two fasted blood samples separated by 12 weeks. Blood inflammatory biomarkers included total leukocytes (WBC), plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and granulocyte colony stimulating factor. Measured oxidant status markers were ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and plasma F2-isoprostanes. The relation of markers across categories of F&V intake was examined. In analyses controlling for other important dietary and lifestyle factors, IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower across categories of increasing F&V intakes (p < 0.008). FRAP and ORAC were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.047 respectively) while F2-isoprostanes was significantly lower (p < 0.0001) across F&V categories. In a community study, several markers of both inflammation and oxidant status were associated in a putatively salutary direction by higher intake of combined F&V, supporting current guidelines suggesting increased F&V consumption for the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:22347616

  8. Occupation and metabolic syndrome: is there correlation? A cross sectional study in different work activity occupations of German firefighters and office workers.

    PubMed

    Strauß, Markus; Foshag, Peter; Przybylek, Bianca; Horlitz, Marc; Lucia, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Leischik, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently one of the major challenges in medicine. The impact of working conditions on metabolic risk has not been adequately studied. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of MetS and metabolic risk in two extremely different occupational groups: firefighters and office workers. A total of 143 male subjects (97 firefighters and 46 office workers) from Germany participated in the study. Anthropometric characteristics, metabolic risk parameters as well as laboratory parameters were collected. MetS was diagnosed according to criteria of the International Diabetes Federation. Sedentary occupation showed a significant tendency towards obesity. Abdominal waist circumference was significantly greater in office workers than in firefighters [5.08 CI (1.44-8.71), p = 0.007]. Concerning metabolic risk factors, abnormal HDL, triglycerides, BMI, blood pressure and waist circumference values were more frequently found in office workers than in firefighters. The MetS was detected in almost 33 % of office workers as compared with only 14 % in firefighters (p = 0.015). Regarding MetS in an international comparison, the prevalence of MetS in German office workers was high and in firefighters it was extremely low. Sedentary occupation as an office worker is associated with a high risk of MetS. Both groups need to be made aware of the metabolic risks, and health promoting concepts such as corporate sports activities or education in healthy nutrition need to be implemented to counteract the development of the MetS and cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. The economic burden of pediatric gastroenteritis to Bolivian families: a cross-sectional study of correlates of catastrophic cost and overall cost burden

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis causes substantial morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. In Bolivia, which has one of the lower GDPs in South America, 16% of child deaths can be attributed to diarrhea, and the costs associated with diarrhea can weigh heavily on patient families. To address this need, the study goal was to identify predictors of cost burden (diarrhea-related costs incurred as a percentage of annual income) and catastrophic cost (cost burden ≥ 1% of annual household income). Methods From 2007 to 2009, researchers interviewed caregivers (n = 1,107) of pediatric patients (<5 years old) seeking treatment for diarrhea in six Bolivian hospitals. Caregivers were surveyed on demographics, clinical symptoms, direct (e.g. medication, consult fees), and indirect (e.g. lost wages) costs. Multivariate regression models (n = 551) were used to assess relationships of covariates to the outcomes of cost burden (linear model) and catastrophic cost (logistic model). Results We determined that cost burden and catastrophic cost shared the same significant (p < 0.05) predictors. In the logistic model that also controlled for child sex, child age, household size, rural residence, transportations taken to the current visit, whether the child presented with complications, and whether this was the child’s first episode of diarrhea, significant predictors of catastrophic cost included outpatient status (OR 0.16, 95% CI [0.07, 0.37]); seeking care at a private hospital (OR 4.12, 95% CI [2.30, 7.41]); having previously sought treatment for this diarrheal episode (OR 3.92, 95% CI [1.64, 9.35]); and the number of days the child had diarrhea prior to the current visit (OR 1.14, 95% CI [1.05, 1.24]). Conclusions Our analysis highlights the economic impact of pediatric diarrhea from the familial perspective and provides insight into potential areas of intervention to reduce associated economic burden. PMID:24962128

  10. Prevalence and correlates of cancer survivors’ supportive care needs 6 months after diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the nature and magnitude of the impact of cancer is critical to planning how best to deliver supportive care to the growing population of cancer survivors whose need for care may span many years. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of and factors associated with moderate to high level unmet supportive care needs among adult cancer survivors six months after diagnosis. Methods A population-based sample of adult cancer survivors diagnosed with one of the eight most incident cancers in Australia was recruited from two state-based cancer registries. Data for 1323 survivors were obtained by self-report questionnaire and linkage with cancer registry data. Unmet needs were assessed by the 34-item Supportive Care Needs Survey (SCNS-SF34). The data were examined using chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 444 (37%) survivors reported at least one ‘moderate to high’ level unmet need and 496 (42%) reported ‘no need’ for help. Moderate to high level unmet needs were most commonly reported in the psychological (25%) and physical aspects of daily living (20%) domains. The five most frequently endorsed items of moderate to high unmet need were concerns about the worries of those close to them (15%), fears about the cancer spreading (14%), not being able to do the things they used to do (13%), uncertainty about the future (13%) and lack of energy/tiredness (12%). Survivors’ psychological characteristics were the strongest indicators of unmet need, particularly caseness for anxious preoccupation coping which was associated (OR = 2.2-5.9) with unmet need for help across all domains. Conclusions Unmet supportive care needs are prevalent among a subgroup of survivors transitioning from active treatment to survivorship, although lower than previously reported. In addition to coping support, valuable insight about how to prevent or address survivors’ unmet needs could be gained by examining the

  11. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  12. Exploring resilience in Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To explore the state of resilience and its predictors among nurses in mainland China. Resilience is considered as an important ability to influence the prevention of job dissatisfaction and burnout. There are few studies on resilience in Chinese nurses, particularly investigating the predictors of resilience. A cross-sectional survey was employed and 1061 nurses from six three-level hospitals in Hunan responded to participate in the study. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires. Nurses experienced moderate levels of resilience and self-efficacy and tended to use a positive coping style. Multiple linear regression showed that a high level of self-efficacy and education, having a positive coping style rather than a negative coping style, exercising regularly and not using cigarettes predicted a high level of resilience (P < 0.01). This study shows a moderate level of resilience among nurses and suggests that a high level of self-efficacy and education, as well as having a positive coping style and choosing a healthy lifestyle may increase nurses' resilience. Hospital administrators and nursing managers need to explore the resilience state among nurses and understand the predictors of resilience. Then, scientific and evidence-based interventions for improving resilience should be adopted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one's effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience.

  14. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  15. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  17. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. Results: The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Conclusions: Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, children, malocclusion. PMID:23986013

  18. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José-Manuel; Montiel-Company, José-María; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need.

  19. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable.

  20. Depression among Ethiopian Adults: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Molla, Getasew Legas; Sebhat, Haregwoin Mulat; Hussen, Zebiba Nasir; Mekonen, Amsalu Belete; Mersha, Wubalem Fekadu; Yimer, Tesfa Mekonen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders worldwide and is the second leading cause of disability and major contributor to suicide. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 779 adults residing in Northwest Ethiopia. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study participants. Depression was measured by Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Bivariate as well as multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors. p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result. The prevalence of depression was 17.5%, where 10.7% of patients were with mild depression, 4.2% were with moderate depression, 1.9% were with moderately severe depression, and 0.6% had severe depression. Being female, age of 55 years and above, poor social support, having a comorbidity medical illness, current tobacco smoking, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. Conclusion and Recommendation. The prevalence of depression in Ethiopia is as common as the other lower and middle income countries. Female gender, being currently not married, poor social support, low wealth index, tobacco smoking, older age, having comorbid illness, and living alone were significantly associated with depression. So, depression is a significant public health problem that requires a great emphasis and some factors like smoking habit are modifiable. PMID:27247932

  1. Cross-sectional study of violence in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Theories of emerging adulthood, the evolutionary perspective, and the presence of turning points in the lives of 19-25-year olds were examined in relation to serious perpetrated violence for a cross-sectional sample of men and women (n=14,098) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), Wave III. Perpetrated, self-reported violence included armed robbery, gang fighting, using a weapon in a fight, pulling a knife or gun on someone, or shooting or stabbing someone. Results showed that 11.3% of emergent adults had perpetrated at least one of these behaviors in the past year. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis partially supported the three theories for both men and women, beyond the contribution of violence in adolescence. The presence of Wave III violence was more likely given the unique contributions of unmarried status and economic risk. Moreover, and consistent with the theory of emerging adulthood, both sensation seeking and depression declined with age and contributed to the acknowledgement of Wave III violence, beyond the contribution of controls for Wave I violence (6 years earlier), demographics, age, gender, unmarried status, and economic risk. Findings of age-related declines and gender differences in prevalence rates were consistent with previous research on nationally representative samples, and with the predictions of the three theories.

  2. Swimming and spinal deformities: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Minnella, Salvatore; Negrini, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of spinal deformities and low back pain (LBP) in adolescent competitive swimmers and normal controls. This was a cross-sectional study with convenience sample of 112 adolescent competitive swimmers (62 females) compared with 217 students (106 females) of the same age (12.5 years). We designed a questionnaire to collect data on LBP and measured the angle of trunk rotation with a Bunnell scoliometer to screen for scoliosis, along with the plumbline distances for kyphosis and lordosis. Clinical cutoffs defined in the literature for detection of spinal deformities were applied. Analyses were performed using the t test and χ(2) test, and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Swimming was found to increase the risk of trunk asymmetries (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.08-3.20). Swimming also increased the risk of hyperkyphosis (OR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.77) and hyperlordosis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.06-4.73), and increased LBP in females by 2.1-fold (95% CI, 1.08-4.06). Swimming is associated with an increased risk of trunk asymmetries and hyperkyphosis. Although swimming has been considered a complete sport and a treatment option for scoliosis, our data contradict that approach, and also show a higher prevalence of LBP in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors affecting blood sample haemolysis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Ed B G; Potter, David L; Ayling, Ruth M; Higginson, Ian; Bailey, Andrew G; Smith, Jason E

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effect of blood sampling through an intravenous catheter compared with a needle in Emergency Department blood sampling. We undertook a prospective, cross-sectional study in a UK university teaching hospital Emergency Department. A convenience sample of 985 patients who required blood sampling via venepuncture was collected. A total of 844 complete sets of data were analysed. The median age was 63 years, and 57% of patients were male. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of haemolysis in blood samples obtained via a needle compared with samples obtained via an intravenous catheter. Secondary outcome measures defined the effect on sample haemolysis of the side of the patient the sample was obtained from, the anatomical location of sampling, the perceived difficulty in obtaining the sample, the order of sample tubes collected, estimated tourniquet time and bench time. Data were analysed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (95% confidence intervals; P-values). Blood samples obtained through an intravenous catheter were more likely to be haemolysed than those obtained via a needle, odds ratio 5.63 (95% confidence interval 2.49-12.73; P<0.001). Blood sampling via an intravenous catheter was significantly associated with an increase in the likelihood of sample haemolysis compared with sampling with a needle. Wherever practicable, blood samples should be obtained via a needle in preference to an intravenous catheter. Future research should include both an economic evaluation, and staff and patient satisfaction of separating blood sampling and intravenous catheter placement.

  4. Regulatory approval of new medical devices: cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Payne, Christopher J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Marcus, Adam P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2016-05-20

     To investigate the regulatory approval of new medical devices.  Cross sectional study of new medical devices reported in the biomedical literature.  PubMed was searched between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004 to identify clinical studies of new medical devices. The search was carried out during this period to allow time for regulatory approval.  Articles were included if they reported a clinical study of a new medical device and there was no evidence of a previous clinical study in the literature. We defined a medical device according to the US Food and Drug Administration as an "instrument, apparatus, implement, machine, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article."  Type of device, target specialty, and involvement of academia or of industry for each clinical study. The FDA medical databases were then searched for clearance or approval relevant to the device.  5574 titles and abstracts were screened, 493 full text articles assessed for eligibility, and 218 clinical studies of new medical devices included. In all, 99/218 (45%) of the devices described in clinical studies ultimately received regulatory clearance or approval. These included 510(k) clearance for devices determined to be "substantially equivalent" to another legally marketed device (78/99; 79%), premarket approval for high risk devices (17/99; 17%), and others (4/99; 4%). Of these, 43 devices (43/99; 43%) were actually cleared or approved before a clinical study was published.  We identified a multitude of new medical devices in clinical studies, almost half of which received regulatory clearance or approval. The 510(k) pathway was most commonly used, and clearance often preceded the first published clinical study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Correlation of firing pin impressions based on congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Song, John; Tong, Mingsi; Chu, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Comparison of firing pin impressions of cartridge cases is an important part of firearms evidence identification. However, compared with breach face impressions, there is only a limited surface area over which firing pin impressions can be compared. Furthermore, the curvature of firing pin impressions makes it difficult to perform automatic correlations of the surfaces. In this study, a new method and related algorithm named congruent matching cross-sections (CMX) are proposed. Each firing pin impression is sliced into layers and the resulting circular cross-sections are converted to two dimensional linear profiles by a polar coordinate transformation. The differential profile extraction method is used for extracting the high frequency micro-features, or the individual characteristics, for accurate correlation. Three parameters are proposed for determining whether these pairwise firing pin impressions are fired from the same firearm. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is used for quantifying similarity of the pairwise profiles which represent the two correlated firing pin images. If the correlated cartridge pair is fired from the same firearm, the maximum CCF value between each of the profile pairs from the reference and the correlated firing pin impressions will be high. The other two parameters relate to the horizontal (or angular) and vertical range of relative shifts that the profiles undergo to obtain the maximum CCF. These shifts are the phase angle θ which corresponds to a horizontal shift of the 2D profiles and the vertical shift distance of slice section, i.e. where the profiles match in the depth of the impression. These shift parameters are used to determine the congruency of the pairwise profile patterns. When these parameter values and their statistical distributions are collected for analysis, the CMX number is derived as a key parameter for a conclusive identification or exclusion. Validation tests using 40 cartridge cases of three different

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  7. Nursing Student Attitudes toward Euthanasia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Kazem; Rafiei, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Euthanasia is among the most common and controversial end-of-life care issues. Examining the attitudes of nursing students to this issue is important because they may well encounter these issues during the course of their clinical placements. Research aims: This study aims to examine the attitudes of a sample of Iranian nursing students towards euthanasia. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants and research context: Using convenience sampling, 382 Muslim nursing students were enrolled in this study. Data were collected using a demographic variables checklist and a self-administered questionnaire that included a definition of euthanasia and 11 closed questions that sought to record participants' level of agreement with euthanasia based on a Likert scale. Ethical consideration: Consent for participation was implicit, indicated by the participants having returned the completed questionnaires. Participants were assured that their data would remain anonymous, be kept confidential and be stored safely. Of the 382 participants, 61.5% were female, and the remainder were male. The mean age was 62.6 ± 14.1 years (range: 32-91 years). In total, 34.2%, 41.6% and 24% of students reported a negative, neutral and positive attitude to euthanasia, respectively. Most students with clinical experience, and 38.5% of students with no clinical experience, indicated their agreement with active euthanasia. There are a number of misconceptions among Iranian Muslim nursing students regarding the definition of euthanasia. Nonetheless, most students exhibit positive attitudes to euthanasia consistent with their clinical experiences. It is recommended to explore the factors that induced nursing students' tendency to euthanasia.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with tuberculosis at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, Cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duko, Bereket; Gebeyehu, Abebaw; Ayano, Getnet

    2015-09-14

    Anxiety and depression are frequently and highly occurring mental disorders in patients with tuberculosis. When depression and anxiety co-morbid with tuberculosis, it leads to poor adherence to anti TB medication, which is important barrier to global control of tuberculosis & increases the risk of morbidity and mortality due to TB. Cross sectional study was conducted to assess prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with TB at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014.A total of 417 TB patients, who had regular follow up at WolaitaSodo University Hospital and Sodo Health Center, WolaitaSodo, South Ethiopia, were recruited to assess depression and anxiety and its associated correlates. Depression and anxiety were assessed through face to face interviews by trained psychiatry nurses using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Correlates for depression and anxiety were assessed using a structured questionnaire, Oslo social support scale and TB stigma Scale. The prevalence of depression and anxiety among patients with TB were 43.4% (181) and 41.5% (173) respectively. When we adjusted for the effect of potential confounding variables, patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 5.90,(95% CI: 2.34,15.93)], poor social support [AOR = 18.06, (95% CI:11.21,25.45)] & perceived TB stigma [AOR = 10.86, (95% CI:10.26,23.47)] were more likely to have depression as compared to individuals who had no co-morbid HIV infection, good social support and no perceived TB stigma respectively. Patients who had co-morbid HIV infection [AOR = 9.61,(95% CI:3.56,25.96)], poor social support [AOR = 8.93,(95% CI: 5.01,15.94)], perceived TB stigma [AOR = 3.11,(95% CI:1.78,5.42)], being female [AOR = 1.72 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95)], current substance use[AOR = 4.88, (95% CI: 1.79, 13.28)] and being on intensive phase of TB treatment [AOR = 1.91, (95% CI: 1.08, 3

  9. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father's educational level (P < 0.045), mother's educational level (P < 0.021), and mother's occupation (P < 0.008). Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence

  10. Antihypertensive drugs for elderly patients: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Keat; Sivasampu, Sheamini; Khoo, Ee Ming

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension also increases. Although primary care is usually the patient’s first point of contact for healthcare, little is known about the management of hypertension among elderly patients at the primary care level. This study aimed to determine the antihypertensive prescription trend for elderly patients, the predictors of antihypertensive use and any inappropriate prescribing practices in both public and private primary care settings. METHODS Data on patient demographics, diagnosis, prescription pattern, payment mode and follow-up was extracted from a cross-sectional study involving 122 public primary care clinics and 652 private primary care clinics in Malaysia. Encounters with hypertensive patients aged ≥ 60 years were included. RESULTS A total of 1,017 antihypertensive medications were prescribed – calcium channel blockers (27.1%), beta blockers (25.5%), diuretics (23.3%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (14.9%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (6.3%). Out of the 614 patient encounters, 53.1% of the patients were prescribed monotherapy, 31.6% were prescribed dual therapy, 12.2% triple therapy, 2.8% quadruple therapy and 0.3% quintuple therapy. Type of primary care clinic and payment mode were significant predictors for the prescription of combination therapy and fixed-dose combination therapy, respectively. Four types of inappropriate prescriptions were identified. CONCLUSION Calcium channel blockers were the most common antihypertensive drug prescribed and more than half of the elderly patients were on monotherapy. Antihypertensive drug prescription was found to be associated with the type of primary care clinic and the payment mode, suggesting that prescription is influenced by the cost of the drug. PMID:25597751

  11. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  12. Adolescents and Body Image: A Cross Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mannat M; Ashok, Lena; Binu, V S; Parsekar, Shradha S; Bhumika, T V

    2015-12-01

    To assess proportion of adolescents perceiving their body image as normal and to study association between body shape, self-esteem and body mass index; each with body image perception. A cross sectional study was conducted among pre university college (PUC) students of Udupi taluk. A total of 550 students in the age group of 15-19y were randomly selected from 11 PUC's: four were taken from government and unaided strata respectively and three from aided. The PUC's were selected based on proportional allocation from a total of 48 PUC's. From each PUC a class was randomly chosen as a cluster; all students in the class were included. Body shape questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used to assess body shape concerns and self-esteem respectively. Height and weight was measured and body mass index was calculated. SPSS version 15 has been used for analysis. Results were tabulated using frequency distribution and proportions. Multinomial logistic regression was done. About 38 % of the respondents perceived their body image as normal. Body shape [OR = 0.48,95 % CI: 0.305, 0.76], self-esteem [OR = 6.12,95 % CI: 2.76, 13.9] and body mass index [OR = 4.65,95 % CI: 2.13,10.12] were found to be independently associated with body image perception. Educational institutes are a major component of adolescent's lives; the identified factors for body image perception should be taken into consideration and appropriate educational efforts to be incorporated into the routine curriculum.

  13. Acromegaly and aging: a comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Yuruyen, Mehmet; Keskin, Ela; Yavuzer, Hakan; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Doventas, Alper; Erdincler, Deniz Suna; Beger, Tanju; Kadioglu, Pinar; Gundogdu, Sadi

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive and functional geriatric assessment may change in acromegaly. Herein we aimed to determine at which points geriatric assessment of the cases with acromegaly differs from that of general elderly population. In this comparative cross-sectional study, a total of 30 cases with acromegaly (controlled n = 14, uncontrolled n = 16) and 30 gender and body-mass index-matched cases without acromegaly (control group, CG) above 60 years old were included. Cognitive functions were evaluated on the basis of the mini-mental state exam (MMSE). Affective status was determined using the geriatric depression scale. Activities of daily living (ADL) were ranked according to the Barthel index while instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were graded on the basis of the Lawton scale. Nutritional status was evaluated using the mini-nutritional assessment (MNA). Body composition was measured through bioimpedance analysis. Functional mobility was determined using the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) and muscle strength with the handgrip strength test. Scores on the MMSE were significantly lower in the elderly cases with acromegaly than in the cases without acromegaly (p < 0.001). Dementia was more frequent in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Total MNA scores were significantly lower in cases with acromegaly than in the CG (p = 0.006). More subjects in the acromegaly group (33%) were at greater risk of malnutrition than in the CG (3%) (p = 0.003). There was greater moderate functional impairment based on Barthel ADL in the acromegaly group than in the CG (p = 0.04). Acromegaly may impair cognitive functions, functional mobility and instrumental daily living activities in the geriatric population. With acromegaly, the risk of malnutrition may also increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy of the correlation method of the thermal neutron absorption cross-section determination for rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krynicka, Ewa

    1995-08-01

    The influence of various random errors on the accuracy of thermal neutron absorption cross-sections determined by a correlation method is discussed. It is considered either as an absolute accuracy, when all experimental errors arc taken into account, or as an experimental assay accuracy, when the reference moderator parameters are assumed as the invariant data fixed for all experiments. The estimated accuracy is compared with the accuracy of results obtained for the same rock sample by Czubek's measurement method.

  15. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, Radar Cross Section Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-03

    Section" (translated microstrip elements, to the extent possible. In order to by Ruan Yingzheng et al.), Electronics Industry Pub- reduce RCS further... ELECTRONICA SINICA] in Chinese Vol 18 No 6, difficult. There is a great deal of theoretical and experi- Nov 90 pp 92-96 [MS received Jul 89, revised Dec 89...34] 2. E. F. Knott, et al., "Radar Scattering Cross Section" [Excerpts] Abstract (Ruan Yingzheng, et al., editors), Electronics Industry Publishing

  16. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  17. Sarcopenia among hospitalized patients - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana S; Guerra, Rita S; Fonseca, Isabel; Pichel, Fernando; Amaral, Teresa F

    2015-12-01

    Data on the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized older patients are scarce and there is no available information on the burden of sarcopenia among younger patients. The present study aims to increase the knowledge about the frequency of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients and to evaluate the influence of different diagnostic criteria in these estimates. A cross-sectional study was conducted in hospitalized adult patients. Sarcopenia was defined, according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), as the presence of both low muscle mass, assessed by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA), adjusted for height, and low muscle function (hand grip strength). Two other criteria were applied, also using hand grip strength for evaluating muscle function, one that also assessed muscle mass by BIA, but adjusted for weight, and another which estimated muscle mass based on mid-arm muscle circumference. Nutritional status was evaluated by Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment. The degree of agreement between the different diagnostic criteria was assessed using kappa. Multivariable logistic regression models were used in order to identify factors associated with sarcopenia. 608 hospitalized adult patients aged ≥18 years composed the study sample. According to EWGSOP's criteria, 25.3% patients were sarcopenic. However, depending on age and on the applied criteria, frequency of sarcopenia varied from 5% to 41.1% for men and from 4.9% to 38.3% for women. There was 95.7% (k = 0.89) agreement between criteria that estimated muscle mass by BIA. According to EWGSOP criteria approximately 20% of the non-undernourished patients were sarcopenic. Furthermore, 29.5% of overweight and 18.7% of obese patients were sarcopenic. Factors associated with sarcopenia were male gender, age ≥65 years, moderate or severe dependence, being undernourished and admitted to a medical ward. Sarcopenia is frequent among hospitalized patients and varies widely

  18. Doctors' Attitude Towards Euthanasia: A Cross-sectional Study Experience.

    PubMed

    Subba, Sonu Hangma; Khullar, Varun; Latafat, Yusra; Chawla, Khushboo; Nirmal, Apoorva; Chaudhary, Tanvi

    2016-06-01

    Euthanasia is a controversial issue that puts doctors into a dilemma and can have the capacity to end the patients' sufferings. However, it is never an easy decision; hence, this study was planned to find the attitude of practicing doctors of medical colleges in a South Indian city of Mangalore towards euthanasia. A cross sectional study was conducted in March-April 2010 among the doctors practicing in the four medical colleges of Mangalore city. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 220 doctors after their informed consent. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. Mean age of the doctors was 37.9 years (SD=9. 4), most of them were males and belonging to the Hindu religion. Euthanasia was justified according to 46.8% of the doctors in order to curtail the sufferings of the patients or to ameliorate the emotional and financial burden. Another 41% said it should be legalized and 39% said that they would use it if it was legalized. Nevertheless 84.5% of them were concerned that it may be misused if legalized. More than half of them felt it was not justified in the face of moral obligations and legal complications. Religion and department were independently associated with the doctors feeling that euthanasia was justified with 69.4% of Muslim doctors saying it was justified as compared to 59.2% of Hindu doctors (OR=2.82; p=.001) and 59.3% of doctors from medical specialities said it was justified as opposed to 39.8% of doctors from surgical specialities (OR=2.3; p=.008). Despite the illegality of it, 25% of the doctors had received requests from patients and 22.3% from relatives for euthanasia. Though euthanasia is illegal in the country, there are doctors who feel it is justified in some situations, yet not without reservations. The fact that they had been requested for euthanasia by the patients and relatives show that even the public are being aware and accepting the practice. Yet, the law in our country has not changed and it

  19. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Binge Drinking among Young Adults Using Alcohol: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Carrà, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although binge drinking prevalence and correlates among young people have been extensively studied in the USA and Northern Europe, less is known for Southern Europe countries with relatively healthier drinking cultures. Objective. We aimed at analyzing prevalence and correlates of binge drinking in a representative sample of young adults in Italy. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among alcohol-consuming young adults. We carried out univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between recent binge drinking and candidate variables. Results. We selected 654 subjects, with 590 (mean age: 20.65 ± 1.90) meeting inclusion criteria. Prevalence for recent binge drinking was 38.0%, significantly higher for females than males. Multivariate analysis showed that high alcohol expectancies, large amount of money available during the weekend, interest for parties and discos, female gender, cannabis use, influence by peers, and electronic cigarettes smoking all were significantly associated with recent binge drinking, whereas living with parents appeared a significant protective factor. Conclusions. More than a third of young adults using alcohol are binge drinkers, and, in contrast with findings from Anglo-Saxon countries, females show higher risk as compared with males. These data suggest the increasing importance of primary and secondary prevention programmes for binge drinking. PMID:25101300

  1. Cross-sectional study of nutritional markers in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subhadra; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Yadav, Manisha; Usha, B. R.; Kumar, Sunesh; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To note the value of serum Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin in normal and high-risk pregnancies (HRPs) in patients attending antenatal clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 282 patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department at AIIMS, New Delhi, India were recruited. Among the 282 subjects, 251 were pregnant, and 31 were controls. The serum was tested for serum Vitamin B12, serum folic acid, and serum ferritin levels using Beckman Coulter Access 2 immunoassay. Results: The median value of serum folic acid level in pregnant women was 12 pg/ml with range being 2–20 pg/ml in contrast to 8 pg/ml with range being 3–20 pg/ml in nonpregnant female. This difference was statistically significant. (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum Vitamin B12 level was lower in the third trimester (127 pg/ml) than in first trimester (171 pg/ml) and the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.03). Serum ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the second trimester (16.4 pg/ml) than third trimester (24.55 pg/ml). Although the median serum folic acid level was lower in the first trimester (9.84 pg/ml) than in second trimester (10.8 pg/ml) and in the third trimester (13.18 pg/ml) but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in Vitamin B12 level in HRPs (median value 134 pg/ml) as compared to low-risk pregnancies (149.5 pg/ml). Conclusion: Serum folic acid levels are significantly higher during pregnancy as compared to nonpregnant state. However, there was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum folic acid level and ferritin level were significantly higher in HRPs compared to low-risk pregnancies. PMID:27867887

  2. Macular Pigment Optical Density and Measures of Macular Function: Test-Retest Variability, Cross-Sectional Correlations, and Findings from the Zeaxanthin Pilot Study of Response to Supplementation (ZEASTRESS-Pilot)

    PubMed Central

    Iannaccone, Alessandro; Carboni, Giovannella; Forma, Gina; Mutolo, Maria Giulia; Jennings, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the short-term test-retest baseline variability in macular function tests in ZEASTRESS-Pilot participants (n = 18), on their cross-sectional correlation with macular pigment optical density (MPOD), and on the effects of four months (FUV4) of 20 mg/day zeaxanthin (ZX), followed by a four-month washout (FUV8; n = 24, age 50–81 years old). Outcomes included: MPOD at 0.5 and 2.0 deg eccentricity (MPOD-0.5 and -2.0); contrast sensitivity (CS); pattern-reversal electroretinogram (PERG) amplitude; dark-adapted 650 nm foveal cone sensitivity (DA650-FCS); and 500 mn parafoveal rod sensitivity (DA500-PFRS). All measures of macular function showed close test-retest correlation (Pearson’s r range: 0.744–0.946) and low coefficients of variation (CV range: 1.13%–4.00%). MPOD correlated in a complex fashion with macular function. Following supplementation, MPOD-0.5 and MPOD-2.0 increased at both FUV4 and FUV8 (p ≤ 0.0001 for all measures). Continued, delayed MPOD increase and a small, but significant (p = 0.012), CS increase was seen at FUV8 only in females. PERGs increased significantly at FUV4 (p = 0.0006), followed by a partial decline at FUV8. In conclusion, following ZX supplementation, MPOD increased significantly. There was no effect on DA-650 FCS or DA-500 PFRS. Both CS and PERG amplitudes increased following supplementation, but the effect varied between males and females. Additional studies appear warranted to confirm and characterize further these inter-gender differences. PMID:28231126

  3. [Study for differential cross section of ring effect].

    PubMed

    Han, Dong; Chen, Liang-fu; Su, Lin; Tao, Jin-hua; Li, Shen-shen; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zi-feng

    2010-08-01

    The Ring effect is a significant limitation to the accuracy of the retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere, while using satellite data with differential optical absorption spectroscopy technique. The Ring effect refers to the filling in of Fraunhofer lines, known as solar absorption lines, caused almost entirely by rotational Raman scattering. The inelastic component of the molecular scattering results in a net increase in radiance in the line because more radiation is shifted to the wavelength of an absorption line than shifted from this wavelength to other wavelengths. The rotational Raman scattering by N2 and Oz in the atmosphere is the main factor that leads to Ring effect. Basically, the Ring effect is considered as a pseudo-absorption process in retrieval of trace gas constituents in atmosphere. The solar spectrum measured by OMI/AURA is convolved with rotational Raman cross sections of N2 and O2, divided by the original solar spectrum, with a cubic polynomial subtracted off, to create differential Ring spectrum. This method has been suggested in order to obtain an effective differential Ring cross-section for the DOAS fitting process. The differential Ring spectrum could be used to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of the trace gases concentration. The results in this paper have been in basic agreement with the corresponding results calculated with RTM, and the R2 Statistic is 0. 966 3.

  4. Study on cross section of high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguri, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao

    2007-01-01

    It is in particular of importance for HTS coils to secure a larger central magnetic field and/or a large stored energy with shorter length of HTS tapes. The critical current of an HTS tape depends on both the flux density and the flux angle against tapes. From this point, the performance improvement of HTS coils is taken into account with an analytical model. The minimum volume coil derived from the Fabry Factor constant curve is taken concerning the original coil shape, which is often employed in low temperature superconducting coils. The coil critical current was analyzed in consideration of the anisotropic properties of the tape. The electric field of HTS tapes in the coil was calculated at the coil critical current and the high electric field portion were cut out. The optimal coil cross section is obtained by iterating this calculation process. As a result, the critical current and the stored energy density of the coil were improved. The stored energy density increased about 17% and the central magnetic field was almost kept constant regardless of 19% reduction of HTS tapes, as compared with the original coil with the rectangular cross section.

  5. The duration of symptoms does not correlate with rotator cuff tear severity or other patient-related features: a cross-sectional study of patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Unruh, Kenneth P; Kuhn, John E; Sanders, Rosemary; An, Qi; Baumgarten, Keith M; Bishop, Julie Y; Brophy, Robert H; Carey, James L; Holloway, Brian G; Jones, Grant L; Ma, Benjamin C; Marx, Robert G; McCarty, Eric C; Poddar, Souray K; Smith, Matthew V; Spencer, Edwin E; Vidal, Armando F; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W; Dunn, Warren R

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine whether the duration of symptoms influences the features seen in patients with atraumatic, full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Our hypothesis is that an increasing duration of symptoms will correlate with more advanced findings of rotator cuff tear severity on magnetic resonance imaging, worse shoulder outcome scores, more pain, decreased range of motion, and less strength. We enrolled 450 patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in a prospective cohort study to assess the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment and factors predictive of success. The duration of patient symptoms was divided into 4 groups: 3 months or less, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 12 months, and greater than 12 months. Data collected at patient entry into the study included (1) demographic data, (2) history and physical examination data, (3) radiographic imaging data, and (4) validated patient-reported measures of shoulder status. Statistical analysis included a univariate analysis with the Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson test to identify statistically significant differences in these features for different durations of symptoms. A longer duration of symptoms does not correlate with more severe rotator cuff disease. The duration of symptoms was not related to weakness, limited range of motion, tear size, fatty atrophy, or validated patient-reported outcome measures. There is only a weak relationship between the duration of symptoms and features associated with rotator cuff disease. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), α-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  7. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  8. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  9. Fluid intake in Mexican adults; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Homero

    2014-05-01

    An adequate hydration is critical for a series of body functions, including proper regulation of core body temperature, elimination of waste metabolites by the kidney and maintenance of normal physical and cognitive functions. Some institutions have set recommendations for adequate intake of water, but these recommendations vary widely. To estimate the usual daily consumption of fluids (water and all other beverages) by a selective sample of Mexican population. Cross-sectional sample of 1,492 male and female adults between 18-65 years of age, drawn from 16 cities throughout Mexico. Self-reported fluid intake data collected over a 7-day consecutive period, recording intake of water, milk and derivatives, hot beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), alcoholic beverages and others. We found that 87.5% of adult males and 65.4% of adult females reported drinking below their recommended daily fluid intake (3 L for males and 2 L for females), and in 80% of the population SSB, not including hot beverages or milk and derivatives, accounted for a larger amount and proportion of fluid intake than plain water. Sixty-five percent of adult males and 66% of adult females consumed more than 10% of their estimated daily caloric intake from fluids. Fluid intake did not differ significantly by gender, but showed a declining trend with age. Our findings may have important implications for policy recommendations, as part of comprehensive strategies to promote the adoption of healthy life styles, in this case, promoting consumption of plain water while discouraging excessive consumption of caloric beverages. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Promoting oral health of adolescents is important for improvement of oral health globally. This study used baseline-data from LASH-project targeting secondary students to; 1) assess frequency of poor oral hygiene status and oral impacts on daily performances, OIDP, by socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics, 2) examine whether socio-economic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and OIDP differed by gender and 3) examine whether socio-demographic disparity in oral health was explained by oral health-related behaviours. Methods Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr) completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr) underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR) with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI). Results 44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females. Socio-behavioural factors associated with higher odds

  11. Makyoh-topography studies of the morphology of the cross sections of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Ferenc; Pramatarova, L. D.; Pramatarova, R.; Tóth, A. L.

    2002-11-01

    Makyoh topography is applied to study the morphology of mechanically polished cross sections of renal stones. The results are compared to roughness and height profile data obtained by white-light interferometry, and to microstructure studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that Makyoh topography is able to furnish qualitative information on the surface roughness and height profile. Correlation with compositional data obtained by X-ray diffraction are established and discussed in terms of mechanical properties. Potential application for the study of the inner structure of the renal stones and implications for shock wave lithotripsy are discussed.

  12. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  13. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  14. Toilet Training in Iranian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hooman, Nakysa; Safaii, Afshin; Valavi, Ehsan; Amini-Alavijeh, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is still controversy about the methods and the age of toilet training that are varied in different cultures. This is a survey of Iranian parents’ views about the appropriate age, the true age, the methods used for toilet training, and the association with voiding problems. Methods Questionnaires were filled-out containing items on demographic data, the parents’ view, the method applied, and the age at which toilet training was accomplished in children aged 2 months to 5 years. In addition, pediatric lower urinary tract scoring system questionnaires were distributed among 217 children aged 5-15 years with lower urinary tract symptoms between 2008 and 2010 in outpatient clinics. P<0.05 was considered significant. Findings 566 children (335 girls and 231 boys) were assigned to the study. In asymptomatic group, the majority of parents believed that the appropriate age to start toilet training was 1-2 years. The method used by the parents was intensive in 52% and child-oriented in 44%. There was strong reverse correlation between the level of education of father with applying punishment for training and direct correlation between toilet refusal and the later age of completing toilet training (LR: 6.3, P<0.05). The mean age of completing toilet training was about 23 months in asymptomatic and 23.7 months in symptomatic children (P>0.05). There was no correlation between wetting episodes at day or night and the age of toilet training. Conclusion Intensive approach was more popular and the age of toilet training had no influence on the lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:23724175

  15. Coherent correlation enhancement of outer shell photoionization cross sections of alkali-like ions

    SciTech Connect

    Amusia, M.Y.; Avdonina, B.; Pratt, R.H.

    1995-08-01

    An alkali-like ion interaction with inner electrons of an alkali-like ion leads to a significant increase in the photoionization cross section of the outer s electron. This occurs not only for ground-state ions with one s electron in the outer shell, but also when the outer s electron is in an excited state. The reason for this amplification, in addition to coherent enhancement in summing of the correlation amplitudes, is that the zero in the direct amplitude occurs below threshold. This leads to a constructive interference with the correlation amplitude above the photoionization threshold, in contrast to a destructive interference in the case of a neutral atom with the same electronic configuration, for which the zero occurs above threshold. Results of this research were published.

  16. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S]) and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]). Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, the severity of the disorder rated by a psychiatrist, and the difference between the objective rating and the subjective rating of the severity of the disorder. Conclusion Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, who have undergone a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, who dispose of a higher severity of the disorder and show a higher discrepancy between their rating of the severity and the psychiatric rating, showed a greater degree of self-stigma. The management of

  17. Maternal mortality: a cross-sectional study in global health.

    PubMed

    Sajedinejad, Sima; Majdzadeh, Reza; Vedadhir, AbouAli; Tabatabaei, Mahmoud Ghazi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-02-12

    Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = -0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = -0.316), and governance (std. B = -0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education

  18. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF LITHIUM ON GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE IN INDIAN SUBJECTS - A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Baljinder; Mittal, Bhagwant R.; Sud, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sharan, Pratap; Jindal, Surinder K.; Deodhar, Shridhar D.

    2000-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated in thirty patients on lithium and in thirty healthy prospective kidney donors by single compartment, multiple sample plasma clearance method using 99mTechnetium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (99mTC-DTPA). Normality test revealed that dose and treatment duration were skewed and the coefficient of skewness were 0.067 (p< 0.0001) and 1.41 (p< 0.0001) respectively. Age was marginally skewed (p =0.04) for the control group. At 5% significance level, dose and creatinine were negatively correlated (r=-0.030), whereas age and duration were positively correlated (r =+ 0.53) (single tailed only). Duration and GFR seems to be negatively correlated (r = -0.23), however this correlation did not reach statistically significance level. In the present cross sectional study no significant difference in mean GFR was observed in lithium treated affective disorder patients when compared with the age matched normal subjects. PMID:21407979

  19. Correlation among ultrasound, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the sciatic nerve: a review.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Nizar; van Geffen, Geert J; Bruhn, Jörgen; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2010-01-01

    Efficient identification of the sciatic nerve (SN) requires a thorough knowledge of its topography in relation to the surrounding structures. Anatomic cross sections in similar oblique planes as observed during SN ultrasonography are lacking. A survey of sonoanatomy matched with ultrasound views of the major SN block sites will be helpful in pattern recognition, especially when combined with images that show the internal architecture of the nerve. From 1 cadaver, consecutive parts of the upper leg corresponding to the 4 major blocks sites were sectioned and deeply frozen. Using cryomicrotomy, consecutive transverse sections were acquired and photographed at 78-microm intervals, along with histologic sections at 5-mm intervals. Multiplanar reformatting was done to reconstruct the optimal planes for an accurate comparison of ultrasonography and gross anatomy. The anatomic and histologic images were matched with ultrasound images that were obtained from 2 healthy volunteers. By simulating the exact position and angulation as in the ultrasonographic images, detailed anatomic overviews of SN and adjacent structures were reconstructed in the gluteal, subgluteal, midfemoral, and popliteal regions. Throughout its trajectory, SN contains numerous fascicles with connective and adipose tissues. In this study, we provide an optimal matching between histology, anatomic cross sections, and short-axis ultrasound images of SN. Reconstructing ultrasonographic planes with this high-resolution digitized anatomy not only enables an overview but also shows detailed views of the architecture of internal SN. The undulating course of the nerve fascicles within SN may explain its varying echogenic appearance during probe manipulation.

  20. Augmented Cross-Sectional Studies with Abbreviated Follow-up for Estimating HIV Incidence

    PubMed Central

    Claggett, B.; Lagakos, S.W.; Wang, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010) propose an augmented cross-sectional design which provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this paper, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF Estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF Estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. PMID:21668904

  1. Inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water: exchange and correlation effects.

    PubMed

    Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Kyriakou, Ioanna; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Abril, Isabel; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2013-11-01

    Low-energy electrons play a prominent role in radiation therapy and biology as they are the largest contributor to the absorbed dose. However, no tractable theory exists to describe the interaction of low-energy electrons with condensed media. This article presents a new approach to include exchange and correlation (XC) effects in inelastic electron scattering at low energies (below ∼10 keV) in the context of the dielectric theory. Specifically, an optical-data model of the dielectric response function of liquid water is developed that goes beyond the random phase approximation (RPA) by accounting for XC effects using the concept of the many-body local-field correction (LFC). It is shown that the experimental energy-loss-function of liquid water can be reproduced by including into the RPA dispersion relations XC effects (up to second order) calculated in the time-dependent local-density approximation with the addition of phonon-induced broadening in N. D. Mermin's relaxation-time approximation. Additional XC effects related to the incident and/or struck electrons are included by means of the vertex correction calculated by a modified Hubbard formula for the exchange-only LFC. Within the first Born approximation, the present XC corrections cause a significantly larger reduction (∼10-50%) to the inelastic cross section compared to the commonly used Mott and Ochkur approximations, while also yielding much better agreement with the recent experimental data for amorphous ice. The current work offers a manageable, yet rigorous, approach for including non-Born effects in the calculation of inelastic cross sections for low-energy electrons in liquid water, which due to its generality, can be easily extended to other condensed media.

  2. Radar cross section studies/compact range research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Achievements in advancing the state-of-the-art in the measurement, control, and analysis of electromagnetic scattering from general aerodynamic targets are summarized. The major topics associated with this study include: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of standard targets; and (7) antenna studies. Progress in each of these areas is reported and related publications are listed.

  3. Radar Cross Section Studies/Compact Range Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the achievements of NASA Grant NsG-1613 by Ohio State University from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of design studies; and (7) antenna studies. Major progress has been made in each of these areas as verified by the numerous publications produced.

  4. Muscle thickness correlates to muscle cross sectional area in the assessment of strength training induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Martino V; Longo, Stefano; Mallinson, Joanne; Quinlan, Jonathan I; Taylor, Tariq; Greenhaff, Paul L; Narici, Marco V

    2017-08-14

    Muscle thickness (MT) measured by ultrasound has been used to estimate cross-sectional area (measured by CT and MRI) at a single time-point. We tested whether MT could be used as a valid marker of MRI determined muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and volume changes following resistance training (RT). Nine healthy, young, male volunteers (24±2 y.o., BMI 24.1±2.8 kg/m(2) ) had vastus lateralis (VL) muscle volume (VOL) and ACSA mid (at 50% of femur length, FL) assessed by MRI, and VL MT measured by ultrasound at 50% FL. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of isokinetic RT. Differences between baseline and post-training were assessed by Student's paired t-test. The relationships between MRI and ultrasound measurements were tested by Pearson's correlation. After RT, MT increased by 7.5±6.1% (p<0.001), ACSAmid by 5.2±5% (p<0.001) and VOL by 5.0±6.9% (p<0.05) (values: means±S.D.). Positive correlations were found, at baseline and 12 weeks, between MT and ACSAmid (r=0.82, p<0.001 and r=0.73, p<0.001, respectively), and between MT and VOL (r=0.76, p < 0.001 and r=0.73, p < 0.001, respectively). The % change in MT with training was correlated with % change in ACSAmid (r=0.69, p = 0.01), but not % change in VOL (r= 0.33, p>0.05). These data support evidence that MT is a reliable index of muscle ACSAmid and VOL at a single time-point. MT changes following RT are associated with parallel changes in muscle ACSAmid but not with the changes in VOL, highlighting the impact of RT on regional hypertrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Internet Addiction among Junior Doctors: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    Background: The number of Internet users in India crossed 205 million in October 2013. Excessive internet use has been attributed to socio-occupational dysfunction, and this study is targeting the junior doctors on whom not many studies have been done till date. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyze the proportion of junior doctors with internet addiction and whether there is any relation between increased internet use and psychological distress, assessed using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Materials and Methods: One hundred postgraduate students and house surgeons were requested to fill out the specially prepared pro forma, Internet Addiction Test Questionnaire and GHQ, and the data were analyzed. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Among the 100 study participants, 13% were found to have moderate addiction and none were in severe addiction range. Internet addiction was more common among those from urban areas (P = 0.011). A significant association was found between GHQ score and internet addiction test score (P = 0.031). Conclusion: The Internet is a double-edged social revolution. Further studies are required to delineate the specific effects on human behavior. PMID:28852233

  6. CHOROIDAL THICKNESS IN UNILATERAL IDIOPATHIC MACULAR HOLE: A Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhou, Minwen; Wu, Ying; Lu, Bing; Li, Tong; Zhao, Jingke; Wang, Fenghua; Sun, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the choroidal thickness in unilateral idiopathic macular hole (IMH) eyes and compare them with normal control eyes using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). In this cross-sectional study, the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and choroidal thickness at 1 mm and 3 mm nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior to the fovea of IMH eyes and normal control eyes were measured using EDI-OCT. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between choroidal thickness at various locations and clinical factors. A meta-analysis was conducted using the Stata software package to calculate the summary of weighted mean differences (WMDs). Thirty-two unilateral IMH patients and 32 controls were enrolled in this study. The IMH eyes had a thinner choroid than the control eyes at all macular locations (all P < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis further showed that the choroidal thickness at any of the nine points was significantly thinner in association with the IMH diagnosis, as well as being somewhat thinner in association with age and axial length. The result of our cross-sectional study was consistent with the meta-analysis with a pooled WMD of -56.99 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -68.58 to -45.41) for subfoveal choroidal thickness. The study of Chinese unilateral IMH patients, along with the comprehensive meta-analysis, suggested that the choroidal thickness at all macular locations in unilateral IMH eyes significantly decreased relative to the control group.

  7. Historical Note about Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C.

    1985-01-01

    The article discusses a study by L. Terman in which results of the two methods can be compared. Both types of comparisons indicated that CMT (Concept Mastery Test) ability improves considerably with age. This multiple checking of several groups each time versus the same groups over time strengthens the conclusion. (Author/CL)

  8. Psychological autopsy of suicide—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farooq Ahmed; Anand, B.; Devi, M. Gowri; Murthy, K. Krishna

    2005-01-01

    Background: Psychological autopsy is the reconstruction of events leading to death. There are few studies on psychological autopsy. Aim: To understand the profile of suicide completers and find out ways of dealing with it. Methods: Fifty suicide cases were analysed. Using a semi-structured, self-designed questionnaire, the family, friends and relatives of the deceased were interviewed. Results: The presence of some type of psychiatric disorder and stressful life events are two important reasons for committing suicide. Conclusion: Psychological autopsy is a very important tool for assessing the causes and precipitants of suicide. More and more studies in this field are required with a larger sample size for the evaluation of suicides. PMID:20711285

  9. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-01

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al. [1], improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of 6He at the breakup threshold, EB = 0.973 MeV.

  10. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-04

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al., improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of {sup 6}He at the breakup threshold, E{sub B} = 0.973 MeV.

  11. Quantifying consumer portion control practices. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Spence, M; Lähteenmäki, L; Stefan, V; Livingstone, M B E; Gibney, E R; Dean, M

    2015-09-01

    The use of portion control practices has rarely been quantified. The present study aimed to: (1) explore which portion control practices are actually used by the general population and their association with cognitive restraint, demographic background and general health interest (GHI), and (2) examine how the usage of portion control practices predicts the estimated consumption of an energy dense food (i.e. pizza). Twenty-two portion control practices were rated in terms of their frequency of use from 'never' to 'very often' by a representative sample of 1012 consumers from the island of Ireland. Three factors were extracted and named: measurement-strategy scale, eating-strategy scale, and purchasing-strategy scale. The eating-strategy scale score was the highest, while the measurement-strategy scale carried the lowest frequency score. For each strategy scale score, the strongest predictor was GHI, followed by gender. Having higher GHI and being female were independently associated with more frequent portion control. Both the eating-strategy scale score and the purchasing-strategy scale score were negatively associated with pizza portion size consumption estimates. In conclusion, while this study demonstrates that the reported use of portion control practices is low, the findings provide preliminary evidence for their validity. Further studies are needed to explore how portion control practices are used in different kinds of portion size decisions and what their contribution is to the intake of food over an extended period of time. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner exposure.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Kitamura, Hiroko; Hata, Koichi; Ide, Reiko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Kakiuchi, Noriaki; Masuda, Masashi; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Osato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo; Kitahara, Kayo; Iwasaki, Akio; Yoshizumi, Koji; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kasai, Hiroshi; Murase, Tadashi; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    In this baseline study, part of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system, we surveyed 803 male toner workers and 802 referents with regard to their subjective respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray results. We also examined individual exposure history, current working conditions, and personal exposure levels to toner. There was a significantly higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" related complaints among toner-exposed workers in the 30 and 40-year age groups. The group with toner-exposure history showed a higher odds ratio, by logistic regression, in relation to all questions regarding coughing. Mild fibrotic changes were observed in the chest X-rays of four workers who had engaged in toner-exposure work for at least a decade or more, and all four had reported allergic disease. Although we observed a tendency of higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" in toner-exposed workers, the possibility of information bias cannot be eliminated. It should also be noted that this tendency did not exceed that of the general public. Further analysis is required in this ongoing 10-year cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system.

  13. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moen, BE; Hollund, BE; Riise, T

    2008-01-01

    Background Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. Methods All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). Results The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. Conclusion There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants

  14. Neurological symptoms among dental assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moen, Be; Hollund, Be; Riise, T

    2008-05-18

    Dental assistants help the dentist in preparing material for filling teeth. Amalgam was the filling material mostly commonly used in Norway before 1980, and declined to about 5% of all fillings in 2005. Amalgam is usually an alloy of silver, copper, tin and mercury. Copper amalgam, giving particularly high exposure to mercury was used in Norway until 1994. Metallic mercury is neurotoxic. Few studies of the health of dental assistants exist, despite their exposure to mercury. There are questions about the existence of possible chronic neurological symptoms today within this working group, due to this exposure. The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of neurological symptoms among dental assistants likely to be exposed to mercury from work with dental filling material, compared to similar health personnel with no such exposure. All dental assistants still at work and born before 1970 registered in the archives of a trade union in Hordaland county of Norway were invited to participate (response rate 68%, n = 41), as well as a similar number of randomly selected assistant nurses (response rate 87%, n = 64) in the same age group. The participants completed a self-administered, mailed questionnaire, with questions about demographic variables, life-style factors, musculoskeletal, neurological and psychosomatic symptoms (Euroquest). The dental assistants reported significant higher occurrence of neurological symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms, problems with memory, concentration, fatigue and sleep disturbance, but not for mood. This was found by analyses of variance, adjusting for age, education, alcohol consumption, smoking and personality traits. For each specific neurological symptom, adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed, showing that these symptoms were mainly from arms, hands, legs and balance organs. There is a possibility that the higher occurrence of neurological symptoms among the dental assistants may be related to their previous work

  15. The prevalence of childhood dysphonia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Carding, Paul N; Roulstone, Sue; Northstone, Kate

    2006-12-01

    There is only very limited information on the prevalence of voice disorders, particularly for the pediatric population. This study examined the prevalence of dysphonia in a large cohort of children (n = 7389) at 8 years of age. Data were collected within a large prospective epidemiological study and included a formal assessment by one of five research speech and language therapists as well as a parental report of their child's voice. Common risk factors that were also analyzed included sex, sibling numbers, asthma, regular conductive hearing loss, and frequent upper respiratory infection. The research clinicians identified a dysphonia prevalence of 6% compared with a parental report of 11%. Both measures suggested a significant risk of dysphonia for children with older siblings. Other measures were not in agreement between clinician and parental reports. The clinician judgments also suggested significant risk factors for sex (male) but not for any common respiratory or otolaryngological conditions that were analyzed. Parental report suggested significant risk factors with respect to asthma and tonsillectomy. These results are discussed in detail.

  16. TREATMENT OF TRAUMATIC GLENOHUMERAL DISLOCATION: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wajnsztejn, André; Sugawara Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Netto, Nicola Archetti; Belotti, João Carlos; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide; Faloppa, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate Brazilian orthopedists' opinions regarding the main aspects of the treatment of glenohumeral traumatic dislocation and compare these to literature's current concepts. Methods: Two hundred questionnaires containing 13 items were randomly distributed to orthopedists who were attending a Brazilian orthopedics congress; 158 were filled, in correctly and were considered in this study. Results: The preferred maneuver was traction-countertraction (60.8%). Among the respondents, 68.4% stated that glenohumeral dislocation reduction was achieved in the first attempt in 90% of the cases. The first attempt of reduction occurred mainly in the Emergency room (96.5%). Seventy-nine individuals (50%) reported that they do not use any analgesic prior to reduction. The majority of the participants immobilize their patients after the reduction (98.1%). 75.4% of them keep their patients immobilized from 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion: Generally, Brazilian orthopaedists perform tractioncountertraction maneuvers, achieving reduction in the first attempt in more than 90% of the cases in the Emergency room. No previous analgesic agent is used prior to reduction. Immobilization of the patient is made with a Velpeau dressing or a sling for 2 to 3 weeks. PMID:27004185

  17. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors related to venous ulceration. Patients with venous ulceration (278 patients) were compared with 1401 patients in other categories of clinical classification of venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiological [CEAP]). Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. According to multivariate analyses, risk factors for venous ulceration were age, male sex, personal history of superficial and deep venous thrombosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, skeletal or joint disease in the legs and emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher body mass index and physical inactivity, parental history of ankle ulcer as well as reflux in deep and perforator veins, deep obstruction, and combination of reflux and obstruction. It seems reasonable to pay special attention to patients in whom the postulated risk factors for venous ulceration are present.

  18. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications.

  19. Target correlation effects on neutron-nucleus total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Second order optical model solutions to the elastic scattering amplitude were used to evaluate total, absorption, and abrasion cross sections for neutron nucleus scattering. Improved agreement with experimental data for total and absorption cross sections is found when compared with first order (coherent approximation) solutions, especially below several hundred MeV. At higher energies, the first and second order solutions are similar. There are also large differences in abrasion cross section calculations; these differences indicate a crucial role for cluster knockout in the abrasion step.

  20. Eyebrow bleaching among females: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    AlGhamdi, Khalid M; Moussa, Noura A

    2011-06-01

    Eyebrow bleaching is a common practice among women with dark hair that allows for alterations in the eyebrows' shape without the use of hair removal. A literature search on this topic failed to reveal any extant studies. To explore the prevalence, associated motives, and side effects of eyebrow bleaching among women. Methods  A questionnaire about eyebrow bleaching was distributed randomly to female patients attending the outpatient clinics at a university hospital between June and August 2008. The response rate was 87.2%; with 567 of the 650 distributed questionnaires returned. The mean age was 32.01±10.17 years. 48.4% (253/522) of the participants reported having bleached their eyebrows. Of these individuals, 55.8% (101/181) experienced side effects related to eyebrow bleaching. These side effects included increased or decreased density of the eyebrow hair, and redness, itching, and scaling of the eyebrow skin. The motives behind eyebrow bleaching varied widely, but were primarily esthetic in nature. Younger women, students, and participants with higher monthly incomes reported bleaching their eyebrows a greater number of times than others (P<0.001, 0.04 and 0.003, respectively). In this sample of female patients, eyebrow bleaching was reported to be a common practice. Bleaching was associated with local side effects in over 50% of those who use the technique. Thus, there is a need to educate the public about these side effects. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Biosimilar uptake by British local formularies: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alnahar, Saja; Elliott, Rachel A; Smith, Murray D

    2017-09-04

    Background Biological medicines are starting to lose their patent protection, so similar, inexact copies (biosimilars) are being developed and licensed. The high acquisition costs of biologics for healthcare providers could be reduced by switching to biosimilars, thus alleviating budgetary pressures and increasing patient access. Therefore, the acceptance of biosimilars by prescribers in Great Britain (GB; England, Scotland, Wales) needs to be described and understood. Objective To determine uptake of the first wave of biosimilars (somatropin, epoetin, filgrastim) by local formularies (lists of preferred medicines for prescribing in local healthcare settings). Settings This study targeted local formularies in GB. Method In November 2014, local formularies (medicines formularies of Acute Trusts and Health Boards in GB) were screened for their approach to listing of biologics and their biosimilars as well as recommendations on usage of these pharmaceuticals. Main Outcomes Measures Listing frequencies of biosimilars. Results One hundred and forty-six British local formularies were screened. Amongst the 80% of formularies in which brand names were specified, biosimilar filgrastim was the most frequently listed when compared to the other targeted biosimilars. Biosimilars were listed in preference to reference biologic medicine in 49% of local formularies for filgrastim, 11% for somatropin and in only 6% for epoetin. Conclusion Although the market for biosimilars can act in parallel to the generic market, their uptake measured using local British formularies was less than what is expected given that the British market for medicines has a strong focus on generics. Finally, geographical variability within GB requires further investigation.

  2. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  3. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  4. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  5. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  6. Studying the Permian Cross-section (Volga Region) Using Chemical and Isotopic Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, B. I.; Batalin, G. A.; Nurgalieva, N. G.; Nourgaliev, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stagein the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). Ithas local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events.The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRFspectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includesthe analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretationof the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we usedIRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphyand paleogeography.The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity tosee small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process.The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of KazanFederal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state programin the field of scientific research.

  7. Correction of sampling bias in a cross-sectional study of post-surgical complications.

    PubMed

    Fluss, Ronen; Mandel, Micha; Freedman, Laurence S; Weiss, Inbal Salz; Zohar, Anat Ekka; Haklai, Ziona; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry; Simchen, Elisheva

    2013-06-30

    Cross-sectional designs are often used to monitor the proportion of infections and other post-surgical complications acquired in hospitals. However, conventional methods for estimating incidence proportions when applied to cross-sectional data may provide estimators that are highly biased, as cross-sectional designs tend to include a high proportion of patients with prolonged hospitalization. One common solution is to use sampling weights in the analysis, which adjust for the sampling bias inherent in a cross-sectional design. The current paper describes in detail a method to build weights for a national survey of post-surgical complications conducted in Israel. We use the weights to estimate the probability of surgical site infections following colon resection, and validate the results of the weighted analysis by comparing them with those obtained from a parallel study with a historically prospective design. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Quantitative CT Measurement of Cross-sectional Area of Small Pulmonary Vessel in COPD: Correlations with Emphysema and Airflow Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Shin; Washko, George R.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Estepar, Raul San Jose; Diaz, Alejandro; Silverman, Edwin K.; Patz, Samuel; Hatabu, Hiroto

    2009-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Pulmonary vascular alteration is one of the characteristic features of COPD. Recent studies suggest that vascular alteration is closely related to endothelial dysfunction, and may be further influenced by emphysema. However, the relationship between morphological alteration of small pulmonary vessels and the extent of emphysema has not been assessed in vivo. The objectives of this study are: 1) to evaluate the correlation of total cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessels with the extent of emphysema and airflow obstruction using CT scans, and 2) to assess the difference of total CSA between COPD phenotypes. Materials and Methods We measured CSA less than 5mm2 and 5–10 mm2, and calculated the percentage of the total CSA for the lung area (%CSA<5, and %CSA5-10, respectively) using CT scans in 191 subjects. The extent of emphysema (%LAA-950) was calculated, and the correlations of %CSA<5 and %CSA5-10 with %LAA-950 and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were evaluated. The differences in %CSA between COPD phenotypes were also assessed. Results %CSA<5 had significant negative correlations with %LAA-950 (r=−0.83, p<0.0001). There was a weak but statistically significant correlation of %CSA<5 with FEV1% predicted (r=0.29, p<0.0001) and FEV1/FVC (r=0.45, p<0.0001). %CSA5-10 had weak correlations with %LAA-950 and results of PFTs. %CSA<5 was significantly higher in bronchitis phenotype than emphysema phenotype (p<0.0001). Conclusions Total cross sectional area of small pulmonary vessels at sub-subsegmental levels strongly correlates with the extent of emphysema (%LAA-950), and reflects differences between COPD phenotypes. PMID:19796970

  9. Cross-Sectional Shape of Rat Mesenteric Arterioles at Branching Studied by Confocal Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Atushi; Minamiyama, Motomu; Niimi, Hideyuki

    This study was aimed to investigate the cross-sectional shape of mesenteric arterioles at branching, using confocal laser microscopy. Wistar rats (8 weeks, male) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital sodium. Blood flow and microvascular network in the mesentery were observed using video microscopy. The rat intestine with mesentery was extracted and the intestinal vasculature was perfused with Krebs-Ringer and then fixed with paraformaldehyde under a static pressure of 100mmHg. A section of mesentery was isolated from the intestine, and spread up to the in vivo geometry based on the intravital microscopic observation. The mesentery section was stained with tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-phalloidin. The samples were observed under a confocal laser microscope. The cross-sectional image was re-sliced to measure the cross-sectional area and major/minor axes of the best fitting ellipse. The aspect ratio was defined in terms of the minor/major diameter ratio. The extended focus image of mesenteric arterioles showed that the cross-sectional shape was not circular but elliptic-like. The cross-sectional area of the parent vessel decreased from proximal to distal positions. The mean aspect ratio of the parent vessel was approximately 0.5, while that of the branching vessel was approximately 0.8. The flattened shape and variation of the cross-sectional area of arterioles requires some correction of in vivo data of the two-dimensional mesenteric microvasculature obtained using intravital microscopy.

  10. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  11. Measurement of the Total Cross Section and Energy - Correlations for Electron-Positron Annihilation Into Hadrons at 29 GEV.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heltsley, Brian Keith

    This work describes measurements of the total cross section and the energy-energy correlation cross section for hadronic events produced in electron-positron annihilation at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV. The performance of the MAC detector at PEP, featuring total absorption calorimetry and charged particle tracking over nearly the full solid angle, is examined and found to meet the original design requirements. The unique and optimal features of MAC are fully exploited to reduce the systematics involved in both measurements, resulting in significant quantitative tests of the theory of quantum chromodynamics. Special attention is focussed on radiative corrections to the total cross section, which constitute a critical component of the acceptance determination, and for the first time the effects of higher order than (alpha)('3) QED processes are included. The total cross section measurement yields R = 3.91 with a total error of (+OR-)2.7%, an accuracy not previously attained by other experiments. For the energy-energy correlation cross section, the consequences of combining pure quantum chromodynamics with contrasting fragmentation models are explored and compared with the data, and result in different values for the strong coupling constant, (alpha)(,s) (TURNEQ) 0.13 (+OR-) 0.02 for incoherent jet formation and 0.24 (+OR-) 0.04 in the string model.

  12. A study of GEOS-3 terrain data with emphasis on radar cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priester, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Radar cross sections (RCS) of terrain are studied using GEOS 3 radar altimeter data. Maps of RCS for portions of four east coast states (U.S.A.) are presented and used to draw curves of RCS versus inland distance as measured from the land/sea interface. The results show RCS to decay approximately exponentially with inland distance. The GEOS 3 data are also used to develop curves of RCS seasonal variation for the same regions. Observed variations correlate strongly with local potential evaporation. Results also show that farming operations in the state of North Carolina are observable in the RCS data. A restricted method for determining surface roughness features from saturated average return waveforms for some types of terrain is developed. Sensor bias induced by receiver saturation for certain terrain returns is briefly discussed.

  13. Reference Charts for Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Height: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of 10605 Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cignini, Pietro; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Brutti, Pierpaolo; Mangiafico, Lucia; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish reference charts for fetal cerebellar vermis height in an unselected population. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study between September 2009 and December 2014 was carried out at ALTAMEDICA Fetal–Maternal Medical Centre, Rome, Italy. Of 25203 fetal biometric measurements, 12167 (48%) measurements of the cerebellar vermis were available. After excluding 1562 (12.8%) measurements, a total of 10605 (87.2%) fetuses were considered and analyzed once only. Parametric and nonparametric quantile regression models were used for the statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed reference charts regarding various distributional assumptions on the ultrasound measurements at hand, we compared the gestational age-specific reference curves we produced through the statistical methods used. Normal mean height based on parametric and nonparametric methods were defined for each week of gestation and the regression equation expressing the height of the cerebellar vermis as a function of gestational age was calculated. Finally the correlation between dimension/gestation was measured. Results The mean height of the cerebellar vermis was 12.7mm (SD, 1.6mm; 95% confidence interval, 12.7–12.8mm). The regression equation expressing the height of the CV as a function of the gestational age was: height (mm) = -4.85+0.78 x gestational age. The correlation between dimension/gestation was expressed by the coefficient r = 0.87. Conclusion This is the first prospective cross-sectional study on fetal cerebellar vermis biometry with such a large sample size reported in literature. It is a detailed statistical survey and contains new centile-based reference charts for fetal height of cerebellar vermis measurements. PMID:26812238

  14. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  15. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Du, Guo-Li; Su, Yin-Xia; Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-Xia; Su, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p < 0.05 respectively). Differences in metabolic risk factors by urban/rural residence included overweight or obesity, triglycerides (≥1.71mmol/l), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), alcohol intake, and physical inactivity (p < 0.01 respectively). There was significant difference regarding the prevalence of HbA1c >8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), physical inactivity and irregular eating habits (p = 0.035, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers.

  16. Metabolic Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Correlated Glycemic Control/Complications: A Cross-Sectional Study between Rural and Urban Uygur Residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hua; Zhu, Jun; Ma, Qi; Tuerdi, Ablikm; He, Xiao-dong; Wang, Li; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Xiao, Shan; Wang, Shu-xia; Su, Li-ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a major global public health problem driven by a high prevalence of metabolic risk factors. Objective To describe the differences of metabolic risk factors of type 2 diabetes, as well as glycemic control and complicated diabetic complications between rural and urban Uygur residents in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Methods This comparative cross-sectional study, conducted among 2879 urban and 918 rural participants in Xinjiang, China, assessed the metabolic risk factors of diabetes and related complications differences between urban and rural settlements. Results Compared to rural areas, urban participants had higher education level and more average income, little physical activity, less triglycerides and higher HDL-c (p < 0.05 respectively). Differences in metabolic risk factors by urban/rural residence included overweight or obesity, triglycerides (≥1.71mmol/l), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), alcohol intake, and physical inactivity (p < 0.01 respectively). There was significant difference regarding the prevalence of HbA1c >8% (48.1% versus 54.5%, p = 0.019) between rural and urban diabetic participants. No significant difference in the prevalence of type 2 diabetic complications between urban and rural participants (74.9% versus 72.2%; p = 0.263) was detected. Compared to rural participants, the most prevalent modifiable risk factors associated with diabetic complications in urban participants were obesity (BMI ≥ 28 Kg/m2), HDL-c (< 1.04 mmol/l), physical inactivity and irregular eating habits (p = 0.035, p = 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.013, respectively). Conclusions Urban settlers were significantly more likely to have metabolic risk factors highlighting the need for public health efforts to improve health outcomes for these vulnerable populations. Diabetes related complications risk factors were prevalent amongst rural and urban diabetes settlers. PMID:27622506

  17. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  18. Cross-section studies of important neutron and relativistic deuteron reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Herman, T.; Svoboda, O.; Geier, B.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Zavorka, L.; Vladimirova, N.; Bielewicz, M.; Kilim, S.; Szuta, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2014-09-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied by the means of activation method. The deuteron beams produced by JINR Nuclotron (Russia) with energies from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were used. Lack of such cross-sections prevents the usage of copper foils for beam integral monitoring. The copper monitors will help us to improve the beam integral determination during ADS studies. The yttrium samples are very suitable activation detectors for monitoring of neutron fields not only in the ADS studies. But experimental cross-section data for higher energy threshold neutron reactions are still missing. This situation is the reason why we have started to study neutron reactions on yttrium by the means of quasi mono-energetic neutron source based on NPI Řež cyclotron (Czech Republic).

  19. Studies of neutron cross-sections important for spallation experiments using the activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Suchopár, M.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.

    2014-09-01

    A series of experiments devoted to studies of neutron cross-sections by activation method was carried out. The cross-sections of various threshold reactions were studied by means of different quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources with energies from 14 MeV up to 100 MeV. Threshold reactions in various materials are among other used to measure fast neutron fields produced during accelerator driven system studies. For this reason our measurements of neutron cross-sections are crucial. At present, neither experimental nor evaluated data above 30 MeV are available for neutron threshold reactions in Au, I and In published in this proceedings. We studied materials in the form of thin foils and compared our data with the calculations preformed using the deterministic code TALYS 1.4.

  20. b-quark inclusive cross sections and b{bar b} correlations using dimuons from the D0 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Vititoe, D.L.; D0 Collaboration

    1996-11-01

    Using dimuons collected with the D{null} detector during the 1993- 1995 Tevatron collider run, we have measured the {ital b}-quark cross section and {ital b{anti b}} correlations as given by the difference in azimuthal angle between the two muons. Both measurements agree with the NLO QCD predictions within experimental and theoretical errors.

  1. Discordance between cross-sectional and longitudinal studies for the effect of dust on COPD: why?

    PubMed

    Hendrick, David J; Becklake, Margaret; Hanley, James A

    2005-12-01

    Regression analyses for the effect of an environmental agent on lung function often give discordant results when derived from cross-sectional compared with longitudinal studies. To evaluate why this occurs, a normal population was created by computer, and modeled to simulate functional change during life. Thus, factors known to influence lung function measurement (including those that may cause COPD) were manipulated experimentally so that their contributions to any discordance could be assessed. Regression analyses showed that significant discordance could be induced if the oldest birth cohort failed to reach the same maximal level of function as the youngest (a "cohort effect"). This distorted the cross-sectional (but not longitudinal) estimate for the dominating effect of age and additionally influenced cross-sectional estimates for the effects of partially collinear variables such as cumulative exposure to hazardous environmental dust. Discordance also occurred if regression coefficients became imprecise through random measurement/reporting error, between-subject variability, and differing susceptibility, but then the differences (sometimes marked) between cross-sectional and longitudinal estimates were not significant. We conclude that modeling a population with known characteristics can provide a useful means of demonstrating that cross-sectional versus longitudinal discordance may be fundamental and unavoidable (though explicable), or merely a consequence of imprecision.

  2. The role of cognitive schemata in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: results of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Bohdan; Szymczak, Wiesław

    2011-03-01

    There are two theories (by Horowitz and by Foa) which attempt at explaining the process of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) development by information dissonance. The purpose of the present study was to verify these theories via cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The study based on a cross-sectional design was performed on a representative group of Polish firefighters. The study using a longitudinal protocol was conducted among police officers. The level of PTSD was assessed using the Questionnaire for PTSD Measurement (K-PTSD). The sense of coherence (SOC) was measured with the Polish adaptation of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire by A. Antonovsky. In the cross-sectional study, the correlation coefficients between K-PTSD and SOC were -0.35 (p < 0.001) in the group of firefighters and -0.47 (p < 0.001) in that of police officers. In the longitudinal study, the relationship between SOC and PTSD symptoms appeared to be curvilinear and had the U-letter shape. Therefore, we used ANOVA for statistical analysis. Unfortunately, the F(2.31) = 1.900 and p > 0.05 indicated that the tendency we observed was not statistically significant. We would like to propose two possible explanations for the difference in the relationships between SOC and PTSD symptoms obtained in the studies employing the cross-sectional and the longitudinal protocols.

  3. Hypoxia and oxidative stress markers in pediatric patients undergoing hemodialysis: cross section study.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Enas A; El-Abaseri, Taghrid B; Mohamed, Amany O; Ahmed, Ahmed R; El-Metwally, Tarek H

    2012-10-13

    Tissue injury due to hypoxia and/or free radicals is common in a variety of disease processes. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effect of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) on hypoxia and oxidative stress biomarkers. Forty pediatric patients with CKD on HD and 20 healthy children were recruited. Plasma hypoxia induced factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were measured by specific ELISA kits while, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total peroxide (TPX), pyruvate and lactate by enzymatic/chemical colorimetric methods. Oxidative stress index (OSI) and lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio were calculated. TAC was significantly lower while TPX, OSI and VEGF were higher in patients at before- and after-dialysis session than controls. Lactate and HIF-1α levels were significantly higher at before-dialysis session than controls. Before dialysis, TAC and L/P ratio were lower than after-dialysis. In before-dialysis session, VEGF correlated positively with pyruvate, HIF-1α and OSI correlated positively with TPX, but, negatively with TAC. In after-dialysis session, HIF-1α correlated negatively with TPX and OSI; while, OSI correlated positively with TPX. CKD patients succumb considerable tissue hypoxia with oxidative stress. Hemodialysis ameliorated hypoxia but lowered antioxidants as evidenced by decreased levels of HIF-1α and TAC at before- compared to after-dialysis levels.

  4. The Development of Learning Patterns of Student Teachers: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donche, Vincent; Van Petegem, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Research on learning pattern development during pre-service teacher education is scarce. In a cross-sectional (study 1) and longitudinal study (study 2) the development of learning patterns of student teachers is analysed. Participants in study 1 were 646 first-year and 350 third-year student teachers enrolled in an initial pre-service teacher…

  5. TEM studies of oxidized NiAl and Ni3Al cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, J.; Ruhle, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cross sections of oxide scale/(Ni-Al) intermetallics were prepared by a new method and studied using primarily TEM. The cross sections were prepared by encasing an oxidized metal specimen sandwich in a low-melting-temperature zinc alloy. Observations of oxidized zirconium-doped beta-NiAl cross sections revealed crystallographic voids beneath an adherent Al2O3 scale. The oxide-metal interface was incoherent, but a high dislocation density in the metal near the interface suggested that a large tensile stress was induced by the attached oxide scale. A duplex Al2O3-NiAl2O4 scale formed on zirconium-doped and zirconium/boron-doped gamma-prime-Ni3Al alloys. Additional results are presented involving oxidation mechanisms and oxide-metal interface structures.

  6. Fission hindrance studies in {sup 200}Pb: Evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shidling, P. D.; Badiger, N. M.; Nath, S.; Kumar, R.; Jhingan, A.; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Sinha, A. K.; Pal, Santanu; Kailas, S.; Verma, S.; Kalita, K.; Mandal, S.; Singh, R.; Behera, B. R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2006-12-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions have been measured for {sup 200}Pb compound nucleus formed in {sup 16}O+{sup 184}W reaction at the laboratory beam energies of 84, 92, 100, 108, 116, and 120 MeV. The evaporation residues have been selected using the recoil mass spectrometer, HIRA and detected using a 2D position sensitive silicon detector. The evaporation residue spin distributions have been measured by detecting gamma rays with 14 element BGO multiplicity filter. Measured evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions are compared with the values predicted by a standard statistical model code. Comparison shows that, in the energy region studied, the nuclear viscosity parameter {gamma}=3 is required to explain total evaporation residue cross sections and evaporation residue spin distributions.

  7. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in

  8. Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Umesh R; Petzold, Max; Bondjers, Göran; Krettek, Alexandra

    2014-12-01

    Background Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal. Design We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility. Results The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95). Conclusions Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of

  9. Structural and Behavioral Correlates of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Country with a Highly Generalized HIV Epidemic: A Cross-Sectional Study with a Probability Sample of Antenatal Care Facilities in Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S. Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; El-saaidi, Christina; Haumba, Samson; Tagutanazvo, Oslinah Buru; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV disproportionately affects women in Sub-Saharan Africa. Swaziland bears the highest HIV prevalence of 41% among pregnant women in this region. This heightened HIV-epidemic reflects the importance of context-specific interventions. Apart from routine HIV surveillance, studies that examine structural and behavioral factors associated with HIV infection among women may facilitate the revitalization of existing programs and provide insights to inform context-specific HIV prevention interventions. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study employed a two-stage random cluster sampling in ten antenatal health care facilities in the Hhohho region of Swaziland in August and September 2015. Participants were eligible for the study if they were 18 years or older and had tested for HIV. Self-administered tablet-based questionnaires were used to assess HIV risk factors. Of all eligible pregnant women, 827 (92.4%) participated, out of which 297 (35.9%) were self-reportedly HIV positive. Among structural factors, family function was not significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status, while lower than high school educational attainment (AOR, 1.65; CI, 1.14–3.38; P = 0.008), and income below minimum wage (AOR, 1.81; CI, 1.09–3.01; P = 0.021) were significantly associated with self-reported HIV positive status. Behavioral factors significantly associated with reporting a positive HIV status included; ≥2 lifetime sexual partners (AOR, 3.16; CI, 2.00–5.00; P<0.001), and ever cohabited (AOR, 2.39; CI, 1.66–3.43; P = 0.00). The most cited reason for having multiple sexual partners was financial gain. HIV/AIDS-related knowledge level was high but not associated to self-reported HIV status (P = 0.319). Conclusions Structural and behavioral factors showed significant association with self-reported HIV infection among pregnant women in Swaziland while HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and family function did not. This suggests that HIV interventions

  10. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  12. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  13. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  14. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  15. The relationship between blood pressure, anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in adolescents: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dalili, Setila; Mohammadi, Hamid; Rezvany, Seyed Mahmood; Dadashi, Arsalan; Novin, Mohammad Hassan; Gholaminejad, Hajar; Medghalchi, Abdolreza; Mohtasham Amiri, Zahra; Dalili, Hossein; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood pressure, anthropometric indices and metabolic profile in adolescents. The present cross sectional study was conducted in 1005, 12-y-old junior students referred to 15 urban health centers of Rasht. Samples were recruited randomly and data were collected in a form which consisted of demographic characteristics, history of disease in samples and their immediate families, birth weight, physical examination and clinical examination including height, weight, blood pressure and body mass index. Also, metabolic profiles including fasting blood sugar (FBS), blood sugar (BS), cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin levels were measured. Data were analyzed in SPSS software, by descriptive and analytic statistics and p value 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Eight hundred fifty nine adolescents consisting of 550 (64 %) boys and 309 (34 %) girls participated in this study; 11.4 % (84/739 cases) of the participants had hypertension. The strongest correlation was seen between systolic blood pressure and weight, waist or hip circumferences and insulin levels. Also, FBS had very weak correlation with blood pressure. Thus, weight, waist and hip circumferences, insulin levels, high TG and low HDL have been indicated as the strongest correlating factors for high blood pressure.Thus, these factors should be investigated in high risk children and followed in hypertensive child to monitor cardiometabolic risk factors.

  16. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0–18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. Methods We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0–18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants <6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. Results We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Conclusions Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of

  17. Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenfang; Li, Xu; Li, Ying; Zhang, Shuiping; Liu, Liming; Wang, Xiang; Li, Weimin

    2012-12-29

    The first 18 months of life are the most important for long-term childhood well-being. Anemia and malnutrition occurring in this key period have serious implications for individuals and societies, especially in rural areas in developing country. We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. We randomly sampled 336 infants aged 0-18 months in 28 rural villages from 2 counties of Shaanxi province. Anthropometric measurements and household interviews were carried out by well-trained researchers. The hemoglobin concentration was measured for 336 infants and serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were measured for a stratified subsample of 55 infants. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization (WHO) standards combined with the Chinese standard for infants<6 months old. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for anemia with non-anemic group as a reference. We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. Anemia was significantly associated with malnutrition (underweight, OR: 2.42, 95%CI: 1.50-3.88; stunting, OR: 1.65, 95%CI: 1.05-2.61; wasting, OR: 2.89, 95%CI: 1.45-5.76). Low birth weight, more siblings, less maternal education, low family income, crowded living conditions, and inappropriate complementary food introduction significantly increased the risk for infant anemia. Serum concentrations of iron, zinc, and retinol (vitamin A) were significantly lower in anemic infants compared with non-anemic infants. Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. Health education focusing

  18. Estimation of ultrasound reference values for the ulnar nerve fascicular number and cross-sectional area in young males: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bedewi, Mohamed Abdelmohsen; Yousef, Ahmed M M; Abd-Elghany, Amr Adel; El-Sharkawy, Mohamed Sherif; Awad, Ezzat M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the reference values for the number of fascicles and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site by ultrasound in healthy young adult males.The demographic and physical characteristics of 50 adult male volunteers were evaluated and recorded. The subjects were positioned supine with the elbow flexed at 90° and the palm of the hand placed on a hard surface. The ulnar nerve was scanned bilaterally 1 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle in projection of the cubital tunnel. The number of fascicles and mean CSA of the ulnar nerve were identified. In addition, the side-to-side differences of the estimated reference values and their correlations with the age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated.The mean fascicular number was 5.66 ± 1.48, the mean ultrasound-estimated CSA of the ulnar nerve was 6.54 ± 1.67 mm and both sides were comparable in the mean CSA and fascicular number (6.43 ± 1.80 mm and 5.88 vs 6.64 ± 1.55 mm and 5.44, for right and left side, respectively). No significant correlations were observed between CSA and fascicles number and age, weight, height, or BMI of study subjects.The reference values for the number of fascicles number and the CSA of the ulnar nerve at a single predetermined site were identified. These values could be used for the sonographic diagnosis and follow-up of the ulnar nerve lesions.

  19. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  1. Work ability and health of security guards at a public University: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Marluce Rodrigues; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Greco, Rosangela Maria; Teixeira, Liliane Reis; Teixeira, Maria Teresa Bustamante

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the work ability and health status of security guards at a public University. a cross-sectional, descriptive, and analytical study was carried with 119 security guards. The following instruments were used: Work Ability Index (WAI), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), and Demand-Control-Support (DCS). Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study samples and the Spearman's coefficient correlation was performed to assess the WAI. Significance level was set at 5%. samples were composed by men; the mean age was 54.9 years (SD=5.7); 80% had partners, and 75% had basic education. The majority (95%) had only one job, the average length of service was 24.8 years (SD=11), ranging from 3 to 43 years. 88.9% worked ≤40 hours and 75% did not work at night shift or rotating shifts. The average score given to work ability was good (40.7 points), with significant correlation to social support at work (p-value=0.002), health conditions (p-value=0.094), and depression symptoms (p-value=0.054). this study showed that many characteristics might affect the work ability scores. Considering the results, we note that healthy life habits and a reorganization of work environments should be encouraged.

  2. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. Method A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. Results A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. Conclusion The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases. PMID:27103898

  3. Brain Ultrasonography Findings in Neonatal Seizure; a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Saeed; Partovi, Parinaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Screening of newborns with seizure, who have curable pathologic brain findings, might be able to improve their final outcome by accelerating treatment intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the brain ultrasonography findings of newborns hospitalized with complaint of seizure. Methods: The present cross-sectional study designed to evaluate brain ultrasonography findings of hospitalized newborns complaining seizure. Neonatal seizure was defined as presence of tonic, clonic, myoclonic, and subtle attacks in 1 - 28 day old newborns. Results: 100 newborns with the mean age of 5.82 ± 6.29 days were evaluated (58% male). Most newborns were in the < 10 days age range (76%), term (83%) and with normal birth weight (81%). 22 (22%) of the ultrasonography examinations showed a pathologic finding. A correlation was only found between birth age and probability of the presence of a pathologic problem in the brain as the frequency of these problems was significantly higher in pre-term newborns (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, frequency of pathologic findings in neonatal brain ultrasonography was 22%. Hemorrhage (12%) and hydrocephaly (7%) were the most common findings. The only factor correlating with increased probability of positive findings was the newborns being pre-term. PMID:28286848

  4. [Validation of the German version of the Oxford Elbow Score : A cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Marquardt, J; Schöttker-Königer, T; Schäfer, A

    2016-08-01

    Elbow complaints are complex problems leading to severe consequences for affected people and the healthcare system. The German version of the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is the first German-speaking instrument that specifically measures elbow complaints from the patient's perspective and changes of their health status. The aim of this study is the validation of the German version of the OES. In this context the internal consistency and the construct validity were investigated. 59 patients with elbow complaints completed the German version of the OES, the DASH and the SF-36 in a cross-sectional study. The internal consistency was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to confirm construct validity. Cronbach's alpha for pain, function and psychological subscales was 0.88, 0.81 and 0.90, respectively. The whole questionnaire presents a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.93. Convergent construct validity was confirmed with correlation coefficients containing values of -0.84, -0.77 and -0.82 compared to DASH and values ranging from 0.41 to 0.80 compared with the physical domains of the SF-36. The divergent construct validity presented values ranging from 0.07 to 0.20 with the SF-36 domains of "general health perception" and "mental health". The German OES is an internal consistent instrument with good convergent and divergent construct validity. Other aspects of the validity, the reliability and the responsiveness should be confirmed through further studies.

  5. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 348 children enrolled in grade 1 to grade 9 was done in Ongkhaluck province in Thailand. Demographic and anthropometric data were gathered. Blood tests were also performed to check for blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 4.0%. Metabolic syndrome was found in 0.7% of non-obese/non-overweight children and 17.6% of obese/overweight children. Participants with metabolic syndrome were found to be significantly older, heavier, and taller and to have higher parameters of adiposity when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Obesity was significantly correlated with every criterion of diagnosis of metabolic syndrome except Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children is consistent with other reports from across the world. PMID:24959487

  6. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  8. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  9. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  10. Request Strategies: Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian EFL Learners and Australian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional investigation into the request strategies used by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language and Australian native speakers of English. The sample involved 96 BA and MA Persian students and 10 native speakers of English. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was used to generate data related to the request…

  11. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  12. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prosodic Sensitivity and Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explore the relationship between prosodic sensitivity (suprasegmental phonology) and phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and investigate whether a group of poor readers display significant suprasegmental phonological deficits in comparison to chronological age-matched controls and younger, reading…

  15. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  16. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  17. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  18. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  19. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  20. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  1. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  2. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  3. Influence of the Visual Attention Span on Child Reading Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosse, Marie-Line; Valdois, Sylviane

    2009-01-01

    The visual attention (VA) span deficit hypothesis was found successfully to account for variability in developmental dyslexia (Bosse, Tainturier & Valdois, 2007). We conducted a cross-sectional study on 417 typically developing children from first, third and fifth grades examining the role of VA span on the development of reading skills. A battery…

  4. Lack of correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic emboli in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccheri, M; Castelli, G; Cecchi, F; Nannini, M; Santoro, G; Troiani, V; Zuppiroli, A; Dolara, A

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between intracavitary thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography and systemic embolism was studied in 126 consecutive patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were examined from January 1980 to September 1987. A total of 1041 serial echocardiograms were obtained with 3.5 and 5 MHz transducers. The mean follow up period was 41.2 months. The survival rate was 88% at two years and 56% at five years. Echocardiography showed intracavitary thrombi in 14 (11.1%) patients; 13 were mural and 11 were localised at the apex of the left ventricle. Twelve patients (8.4%) had systemic emboli; this corresponded to an incidence of new embolic events of 1.4 for 100 patient-years. Patients with intracavitary thrombi or systemic emboli were treated with oral anticoagulants, as were nine in functional class IV of the New York Heart Association, for 61 patient-years. The cumulative observation period for the whole population study was 418 patient-years. None of the patients with intracavitary thrombosis had embolic complications and none of those with embolism had intracavitary thrombi. Rates of intracavitary thrombosis and systemic embolism in this series were low and there was no overlap between the two events. This may have been because the patients did not have severe dilated cardiomyopathy, because echocardiography did not detect all the thrombi, or because patients were treated with oral anticoagulants. The presence of intracardiac thrombosis detected by cross sectional echocardiography is not predictive of systemic embolism in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Criteria for the use of the anticoagulant treatment remain largely empirical in these cases. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:2757871

  5. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  6. Association Between Sagittal Balance and Scoliosis in Patients with Parkinson Disease: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Bissolotti, Luciano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Gobbo, Massimiliano; Zaina, Fabio; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Negrini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between scoliosis and sagittal balance parameters in Parkinson disease patients. This is a cross-sectional study. Fifty percent of the cohort presented a scoliosis larger than 11 degrees; 84% of the patients with scoliosis presented a thoracolumbar curve, 10% presented a thoracic one, and 6% presented a lumbar one. The group with scoliosis curves presented a lower spinosacral angle (111.6 [21.9] degrees vs. 121.7 [9.8] degrees, P < 0.05), whereas thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, and spinopelvic angle were similar. Pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt, and sacral slope were not statistically different. In the scoliosis group, the authors found negative correlations for lumbar lordosis/spinopelvic angle, sacral slope/spinosacral angle, and lumbar lordosis/pelvic tilt. Moreover, the sacral slope/pelvic tilt correlation was positive in patients without scoliosis and negative in others. The two groups did not present differences regarding age, years of disease, Hoehn-Yahr score, and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-motor section. Pelvic parameters were similar in the two groups, whereas spinosacral angle was lower in patients with scoliosis. The prevalence of scoliosis in Parkinson disease was higher than what was previously described and the thoracolumbar spine was the mostly affected.

  7. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition.

  8. Experimental studies of partial photodetachment cross sections in K- below the K(7 2P) threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, A. O.; Rohlén, J.; Hultgren, H.; Kiyan, I. Yu.; Pegg, D. J.; Walter, C. W.; Hanstorp, D.

    2012-03-01

    A collinear beams apparatus has been used to determine photodetachment cross sections for K- in the photon energy range 4.250-4.360 eV. State-selective detection, utilizing a resonance ionization scheme, was applied to measure partial cross sections for those channels which leave the residual K atoms in the excited 72S, 52F, and 52G states. The energy region studied encompassed the openings of the aforementioned channels, as well as the channel that leaves the K atom in the 72P state. Two previously unobserved resonances were seen in all three partial cross sections between the K(52G) and K(72P) thresholds. It is shown that a more reliable determination of resonance parameters can be made if the same resonances are observed in several channels. In the region below the K(52F) threshold, three previously observed resonances were investigated [Kiyan , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.84.5979 84, 5979 (2000)]. A greatly increased modulation of the signal was obtained by detecting in the K(72S) channel instead of the K(52S) channel used in the previous study. Furthermore, the shapes of the cross sections in the threshold regions are discussed. A detailed description of the apparatus and the experimental procedure employed is presented in the paper.

  9. Effects of instructional strategies using cross sections on the recognition of anatomical structures in correlated CT and MR images.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohammed K; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E; Su, Yung K; Payer, Andrew F

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include: (1) cross-sectional images of the head that can be superimposed on radiological images, (2) transparent highlighting of anatomical structures in radiological images, and (3) cross-sectional images of the head with radiological images presented side-by-side. Data collected included: (1) time spent on instruction and on solving test questions, (2) mental effort during instruction and test, and (3) students' performance to identify anatomical structures in radiological images. Participants were 28 freshmen medical students (15 males and 13 females) and 208 biology students (190 females and 18 males). All studies used posttest-only control group design, and the collected data were analyzed by either t test or ANOVA. In self-directed computer-based environments, the strategies that used cross sections to improve students' ability to recognize anatomic structures in radiological images showed no significant positive effects. However, when increasing the complexity of the instructional materials, cross-sectional images imposed a higher cognitive load, as indicated by higher investment of mental effort. There is not enough evidence to claim that the simultaneous combination of cross sections and radiological images has no effect on the identification of anatomical structures in radiological images for novices. Further research that control for students' learning and cognitive style is needed to reach an informative conclusion.

  10. Croatian medical students see academic dishonesty as an acceptable behaviour: a cross-sectional multicampus study.

    PubMed

    Kukolja Taradi, Suncana; Taradi, Milan; Dogas, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    To provide insights into the students' attitude towards academic integrity and their perspective of academic honesty at Croatian medical schools. A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire containing 29 questions on frequency of cheating, perceived seriousness of cheating, perceptions on integrity atmosphere, cheating behaviour of peers and on willingness to report misconduct. Participants were third-year (preclinical) and fifth-year (clinical) students from all four Croatian Schools of Medicine. Outcome measures were descriptive statistical correlates and differences in students' self-reported educational dishonesty, perceptions of cheating behaviour and medical school integrity atmosphere. Of the 1074 students enrolled in the third and fifth year, 662 (62%) completed the questionnaire. A large proportion of the students (97%) admitted using some method of cheating and 78% admitted engaging in at least one form of misconduct. About 50% had a lenient attitude towards six acts of academic dishonesty. Only 2% reported another student for cheating. Risk factors for cheating were strongly correlated with students' perceptions of peer cheating behaviour, peer approval of cheating, low perception of seriousness of cheating and inappropriate severity level of exams and teaching materials. Cheating is prevalent in Croatian medical schools and academic dishonesty is seen as acceptable behaviour among numerous future Croatian doctors.

  11. Assessment of medical students' attitudes on social media use in medicine: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Avcı, Kadriye; Çelikden, Sevda Gerek; Eren, Semih; Aydenizöz, Doğukan

    2015-02-15

    Social media has created a revolution in health services. Information available on the Internet and via social media is now being used as reference guides for sensitive health issues by nonprofessionals, physicians, and medical students. When used by physicians and medical students, social media has the potential to raise issues such as the blurring of the line between professional and private lives, patient relations, and medical ethics. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of social media and attitudes toward its use in medicine among medical students. Medical students from Afyon Kocatepe University, Faculty of Medicine (Afyonkarahisar, Turkey) were asked to participate in a survey consisting of two sections, the first containing questions assessing the frequency of social media use and the second regarding attitudes toward the use of social media in medicine. Survey responses indicated that 93.4% of medical students used social media and 89.3% used social media for professional purposes. Factor analysis showed that attitudes toward social media are based on five factors: professional usefulness, popularity, ethics, barriers, and innovativeness. A structural equation model revealed the highest positive correlation between usefulness and innovativeness; ethics had a low but positive correlation with other factors. Although social media is being used extensively by medical students, they appear unaware of possible ethical issues. Therefore, social media guidelines should be developed.

  12. Neuroticism and Fatigue 3 Months After Ischemic Stroke: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lau, Chieh Grace; Tang, Wai Kwong; Liu, Xiang Xin; Liang, Hua Jun; Liang, Yan; Mok, Vincent; Wong, Adrian; Ungvari, Gabor S; Kutlubaev, Mansur A; Wong, Ka Sing

    2017-04-01

    To examine the relation between neuroticism and fatigue in Chinese patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. Acute stroke unit. Survivors of ischemic stroke (N=191) recruited from the acute stroke unit between May 1, 2010, and September 1, 2011. Not applicable. The personality trait of neuroticism was measured with the neuroticism subscale of the Chinese version of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The level of fatigue was measured with the Fatigue Assessment Scale. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Barthel Index, and Mini-Mental State Examination were administered to obtain demographic and clinical information. Fatigue severity 3 months after stroke positively correlated with Geriatric Depression Scale and NEO Five-Factor Inventory neuroticism scores and negatively correlated with the Barthel Index score. Neuroticism, independent of depressive symptoms, is a predictor of fatigue severity 3 months after stroke. Interventions such as psychological screening programs are warranted for early detection of patients at high risk of poststroke depression. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Do fathers' attitudes support breastfeeding? A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Perkar, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    The views of fathers have been shown to be important determinants of infant feeding decisions, but men's attitudes toward breastfeeding and formula feeding have rarely been explored. To explore the relationship between maternal and paternal infant feeding attitudes and their impact on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Prospective questionnaire-based cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care public hospital. From May 2009 to September 2010, a convenience sample of 238 parents of infants (>6 months to <1 year of age) were included. Each parent's attitude toward infant feeding was measured by the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS). Pearson's correlation test, independent samples t-test, and one-way analysis of variance were carried out for statistical significance. Only 83 (34.9%) mothers had exclusively breastfed their babies for 4-6 months. A mother's "total" infant feeding attitude score was significantly correlated with her husband's score (r=0.43, P<0.01). The couples shared similar "individual" infant feeding attitudes to all but four of the 17 items. These 13 "individual" attitudes favorable toward breastfeeding were related to its optimal nutritional value, convenience of administration, ease of digestibility, unique role in mother-infant bonding, acceptability of breastfeeding in public places, and long-term health benefits to babies. Only maternal attitudes played an influential role in achieving an exclusive breastfeeding period of 4-6 months. Fathers' attitudes do support breastfeeding, but do not influence the time duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

  14. [Study on temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitric oxide at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2007-07-01

    To study the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption characteristics of NO species in flue gas, the absorption cross sections of NO in the spectral region 200-230 nm at temperatures ranging from 285 to 410 K were measured using a grating monochromator with 0.2 nm resolution, a deuterium lamp and a specially-fabricated closed sample cell. The absorption spectrum of NO consists of discrete bands superimposed on a continuous base. Results indicated that discrete absorption bands were present with a fixed wavelength interval of roughly 10.5 nm. The peaks of discrete bands decreased first and started to increase later as the temperature rose from 285 to 410 K, with a maximum relative variation of 19.3%. Peak position and half width of the absorption peaks did not exhibit apparent change with the variation of temperature. Continuous absorption cross section increased monotonously with the temperature, and the variation gradient gradually decrease with wavelength red shift. The absorption cross section of NO should not be considered as constant when applied in online monitoring of NO concentration in flue gas. A compensation calculation of absorption cross section with respect to temperature effect is indispensable for the purpose of improving online measurement precision of NO concentration.

  15. Correlation of Intermediate Energy Proton- and Neutron-Induced Fission Cross Sections in the Lead-Bismuth Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, Andrey N.; Eismont, Vilen P.; Filatov, Nikolay P.; Kirillov, Sergey N.; Blomgren, Jan; Condé, Henri; Olsson, Nils; Duijvestijn, Marieke; Koning, Arjan

    2005-05-01

    Neutron- and proton-induced fission cross-sections of the lead isotopes 204,206-208Pb and 205Tl in the intermediate energy region have been measured at the Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, Sweden. Average fissilities of the composite nuclei and the dependence on the nucleon energy and the parameter Z2/A were determined. On this basis, the correlation between the proton- and neutron-induced fission cross sections has been established in the atomic mass region A ˜ 200 and for nucleon energies above 50 MeV, where shell effects do not play a very significant role. The correlation is discussed in the frame of results from calculations by the code TALYS.

  16. Vitamin and Mineral Deficiencies in Patients With Telogen Effluvium: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Evelyn J; Sink, Jacquelyn R; English Iii, Joseph C

    2016-10-01

    Telogen effluvium is one of the most common forms of non-scarring alopecia for which patients present to a dermatologist. It is a challenging disorder to treat and study, primarily owing to its multifactorial etiology which includes both physiologic and non-physiologic factors. Nutritional deficiency has been purported to contribute to hair shedding, and a patient's clinical history usually aids in directing laboratory evaluation. Many prior studies have either supported or failed to find a correlation between telogen effluvium and deficiencies in vitamins and minerals, in particular, vitamin D, ferritin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc. We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of patients with telogen effluvium in the greater Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area, and measured the rates of these deficiencies. Our results demonstrate that the prevalence of vitamin D, ferritin, and zinc deficiencies is non-trivial and therefore justifies including these laboratory studies in initial clinical evaluation.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1235-1237.

  17. Prevalence of Chronic Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases in Senegalese Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Guéye, Serigne; Tamba, Kéba; Ba, Issa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health threat, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the scarcity of reliable data on NCDs in the general population makes it difficult to develop efficient prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of 4 cardiometabolic NCDs among 402 private-sector workers in Dakar, Senegal: high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data for each worker during routine occupational health visits between September 1 and November 30, 2010. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with NCDs. Results Among the 402 study participants, 24.1% had HBP, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.7% were obese, and 22.4% had CKD. About half of participants (48.5%) were not aware of their diseases before the screening. Univariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and renal function. After adjusting for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was correlated with renal function, and physical inactivity was significantly associated with obesity. Conclusion Despite its small sample size, our study provides a perspective on the extent of cardiometabolic NCDs in Senegalese workers. Our study also suggests that targeted screening activities focusing on socio-professional groups may be helpful in the absence of national integrated prevention programs. PMID:23286359

  18. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  19. Prevalence of chronic cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in Senegalese workers: a cross-sectional study, 2010.

    PubMed

    Seck, Sidy Mohamed; Guéye, Serigne; Tamba, Kéba; Ba, Issa

    2013-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major public health threat, particularly in developing countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, the scarcity of reliable data on NCDs in the general population makes it difficult to develop efficient prevention strategies. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of 4 cardiometabolic NCDs among 402 private-sector workers in Dakar, Senegal: high blood pressure (HBP), diabetes, obesity, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data for each worker during routine occupational health visits between September 1 and November 30, 2010. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors associated with NCDs. Among the 402 study participants, 24.1% had HBP, 9.7% had diabetes, 16.7% were obese, and 22.4% had CKD. About half of participants (48.5%) were not aware of their diseases before the screening. Univariate analysis showed that age was significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and renal function. After adjusting for age and sex, systolic blood pressure was correlated with renal function, and physical inactivity was significantly associated with obesity. Despite its small sample size, our study provides a perspective on the extent of cardiometabolic NCDs in Senegalese workers. Our study also suggests that targeted screening activities focusing on socio-professional groups may be helpful in the absence of national integrated prevention programs.

  20. Association of premature hair graying with family history, smoking, and obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyoseung; Ryu, Hyeong Ho; Yoon, Junghee; Jo, Seongmoon; Jang, Sihyeok; Choi, Mira; Kwon, Ohsang; Jo, Seong Jin

    2015-02-01

    Many researchers have been concerned about the association of hair graying with systemic diseases. However, the common factors associated with hair graying and systemic diseases have not been elucidated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for premature hair graying (PHG) in young men. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires in young men. After a pilot study that included 1069 men, we surveyed 6390 men younger than 30 years about their gray hair status and various socioclinical characteristics. The age of participants in the main survey was 20.2 ± 1.3 years (mean ± SD). Of the 6390 participants, 1618 (25.3%) presented with PHG. Family history of PHG (odds ratio [OR], 12.82), obesity (OR, 2.61), and >5 pack-years history of smoking (OR, 1.61) were significantly associated with PHG. In the multivariate analysis, family history of PHG (OR, 2.63) and obesity (OR, 2.22) correlated with the severity of PHG. Owing to the use of questionnaires, the possibility of recall bias exists. Women were not evaluated in this study. Smoking, family history of PHG, and obesity are important factors associated with PHG. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The inter-arm blood pressure difference and peripheral vascular disease: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Clark, Christopher E; Campbell, John L; Powell, Roy J; Thompson, John F

    2007-10-01

    A blood pressure (BP) difference between the upper limbs is often encountered in primary care. Knowledge of its prevalence and importance in the accurate measurement of BP is poor, representing a source of error. Current hypertension guidelines do not emphasize this. To establish the prevalence of an inter-arm blood pressure difference (IAD) and explore its association with other indicators of peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in a hypertensive primary care population. This was a cross-sectional study. Primary care, one rural general practice, was the setting of the study. The methods were controlled simultaneous measurement of brachial BPs, ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) and tiptoe stress testing in 94 subjects. In all, 18 of 94 [19%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 11-27%] subjects had mean systolic inter-arm difference (sIAD) > or =10 mmHg and seven of 94 (7%, 95% CI 2-12%) had mean diastolic inter-arm difference (dIAD) > or =10 mmHg. Nineteen of 91 (20%, 95% CI 12-28%) had a reduced ABPI <0.9. There was negative correlation between systolic (Pearson's correlation coefficient - 0.378; P = 0.01) and diastolic (Pearson's correlation coefficient - 0.225; P = 0.05) magnitudes of IAD with ABPI. On tiptoe testing, 9/90 subjects (10%, 95% CI 4-16%) had a pressure drop > or =20%. An IAD and asymptomatic PVD are common in a primary care hypertensive population. Magnitude of the IAD is inversely correlated with ABPI, supporting the hypotheses that IADs are causally linked to PVD, and that IAD is a useful marker for the presence of PVD. Consequently, detection of an IAD should prompt the clinician to screen subjects for other signs of vascular disease and target them for aggressive cardiovascular risk factor modification.

  2. Prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia in Dubai and Northern Emirates: a cross-sectional hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Vela, Barbara Karin; Alhessi, Alaaeldin Y; Popović, Marko; Al-Shaqra, Maryam A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia and a specific correlation between lipid values and age, gender or ethnic origin in the study population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 311 subjects who had their lipid profiles checked for the first time in a private hospital in Dubai in a six month - period. The analysis shows an increased prevalence of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia with relatively higher Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) values in male subjects (p < 0.016) as well as with the Middle East ethnic origin group (p < 0.025), while desirable High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-c) was found among female subjects (p = 0). The discordance between the percentages of elevated LDL-c and Total cholesterol (T-c) signifies the role of the LDL-c/non-HDL-c as the main surrogate for dyslipidaemia as a risk for atherosclerosis, and as a primary target of therapy.

  3. Self-rated health in centenarians: a nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Xanthi; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is an inclusive measure of public health that is correlated with quality of life and subsequent mortality. Extensive literature has identified multiple determinants of SRH in different populations. However, such studies on centenarians are scarce and parsimonious. Our objective is to identify SRH determinants in centenarians. This is a nationwide cross-sectional study on 400 Greek centenarians that was carried out between 2007 and 2010. SRH was evaluated by a simple question with a 5-point scale. Three categories of SRH were formed (very good/good/poor), which served as the dependent variable in multinomial regression models. Various sociodemographic, disease-related, lifestyle and psychosocial variables were assessed as candidate determinants of SRH. According to our results, SRH ratings among centenarians were better than that expected according to previous studies showing worse SRH ratings with increasing age in Greece. The 22.4% of the variance in SRH among centenarians was predicted by gender, habitat region and status, financial problems, disease presence and autonomy. Among lifestyle and psychosocial variables, obesity, good relationships with children, lack of feelings of loneliness, high optimism, adaptability and an internal health locus of control profile were independently associated with good SRH. These results indicate that SRH in individuals of extreme longevity were related to specific personal psychosocial factors that contribute to healthy aging and thus support the biopsychosocial model of health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors related to falling in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kihun; Yu, Jaeho; Rhee, Hyeonsook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate a comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with falls in poststroke patients. [Subjects] Forty-eight stroke patients (22 males and 26 females; age 63.79 years) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. Fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)], balance function [Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI)], ADL performance level [Modified Barthel Index (MBI)] and cognitive function [Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatric Populations (LOTCA-G)] were assessed. [Results] Falls efficacy was moderately correlated with ADL performance, balance, and cognition. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ADL performance was the explanatory variable closely associated with falls efficacy in stroke patients. [Conclusion] ADL performance was the primary explanatory variable of falls efficacy according to regression analysis. Thus, we suggest that these results may be used as basic data for developing rehabilitation programs for prevention of falls in stroke patients. PMID:26180313

  5. Risk factors related to falling in stroke patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kihun; Yu, Jaeho; Rhee, Hyeonsook

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate a comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with falls in poststroke patients. [Subjects] Forty-eight stroke patients (22 males and 26 females; age 63.79 years) participated in this study. [Methods] This study applied a cross-sectional design. Fear of falling [Falls Efficacy Scale (FES)], balance function [Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and Modified Rivermead Mobility Index (MRMI)], ADL performance level [Modified Barthel Index (MBI)] and cognitive function [Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Geriatric Populations (LOTCA-G)] were assessed. [Results] Falls efficacy was moderately correlated with ADL performance, balance, and cognition. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that ADL performance was the explanatory variable closely associated with falls efficacy in stroke patients. [Conclusion] ADL performance was the primary explanatory variable of falls efficacy according to regression analysis. Thus, we suggest that these results may be used as basic data for developing rehabilitation programs for prevention of falls in stroke patients.

  6. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  7. Effects of Instructional Strategies Using Cross Sections on the Recognition of Anatomical Structures in Correlated CT and MR Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Paas, Fred; Johnson, Tristan E.; Su, Yung K.; Payer, Andrew F.

    2008-01-01

    This research is an effort to best utilize the interactive anatomical images for instructional purposes based on cognitive load theory. Three studies explored the differential effects of three computer-based instructional strategies that use anatomical cross-sections to enhance the interpretation of radiological images. These strategies include:…

  8. Validation of a family-centred outcome questionnaire for pinnaplasty: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Montgomery, J; James, H; Wynne, D M; MacGregor, F B; Clement, W A; Morrissey, M S C; Kubba, H

    2016-10-01

    Comparison of pinnaplasty techniques is difficult due to variation in the reporting of outcomes. We aimed to develop a family-centred outcome questionnaire for use after pinnaplasty and assess it for reliability and validity. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary referral paediatric otolaryngology centre. 20 prospective and 71 retrospective pinnaplasty patients and their parent(s). The Post-Operative Pinnaplasty Questionnaire (POPQ) was developed after semi-structured interview with families of children undergoing pinnaplasty. Children aged 4-16 were recruited. Three different ear measurements (auriculocephalic angle, helix-mastoid distance and Walker's ratio) were performed pre-operatively. Children were reviewed 3 months post-operatively and asked to complete a POPQ and Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory with their parent(s). Ear measurements were repeated and data collected on surgical technique and complications. 200 retrospective pinnaplasty patients were posted a POPQ and Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory and data collected on surgical technique, complication rate and Walker's angle. Validity and reliability of the POPQ. Age range was 4-16 (median 12). POPQ correlated well with Glasgow Children's Benefit Inventory (Spearman's rho = 0.776, P < 0.001). There was no correlation of POPQ scores with age, sex, complication or surgical technique. POPQ score was not associated with severe prominence pre-op nor change or degree of prominence post-op. POPQ displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.850) and ease-of-use scores. We have developed a family-focused outcome tool for pinnaplasty that displays good face validity, internal consistency and correlation with health-related quality of life and that is simple and easy to use. No correlation was seen with more traditional measures of outcome such as complications or ear measurements. Further refinement and testing of validity and reliability on a larger sample is planned. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Factors associated with Internet addiction: Cross-sectional study of Turkish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seyrek, Sezen; Cop, Esra; Sinir, Hayati; Ugurlu, Mehmet; Şenel, Saliha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA), and the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and IA in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional school-based study with a representative sample of 468 students aged 12-17 years at the first trimester of the 2013-2014 academic year. The students were assessed using Young's Internet Addiction Scale, Children's Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Conners' Teacher Rating Scale, Hollingshead-Redlich Scale, and the information form including characteristics of Internet use and socioeconomic status (SES). The relationship between these factors and Internet use was examined. Approximately 1.6% of students were identified as having IA, whereas 16.2% had possible IA. There were significant correlations between IA and depression, anxiety, attention disorder and hyperactivity symptoms in adolescents. Smoking was also related to IA. There was no significant relationship between IA and age, sex, body mass index, school type, and SES. Depression, anxiety, ADHD and smoking addiction are associated with PIU in adolescent students. Preventive public health policies targeting the psychological wellbeing of young people are needed. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The study shows inadequate levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention among newly-diagnosed TB patients in this setting, and underscores the need for implementing educational interventions in this population. PMID:24373517

  11. Association between walking, dysphoric mood and anxiety in late pregnancy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Danica; Perovic, Milan; Lazovic, Biljana; Pantic, Igor

    2016-12-30

    Relationship between physical activity and mental disorders in late pregnancy is unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that there is a significant association between the time spent on walking and symptoms of depression and anxiety in antenatal period. The cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 200 healthy women in 9th month of physiological pregnancy at Health center Kraljevo, Serbia during 2015. Each participant was given a questionnaire consisting of general questions regarding physical activity, pregnancy, and other parameters. Also, each participant completed a Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Zung anxiety scale (ZAS). There was a statistically significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the BDI score and the daily time spent on walking. There was also a strong positive connection between the daily time spent on walking and level of anxiety (p<0.01). To our knowledge this is the first study to jointly test the relationship between scores of Beck depression inventory and Zung anxiety scale, and time spent on walking as physical activity in antenatal period. The results represent the basis for further research in the field of gynecological psychology, psychiatry and behavioral physiology.

  12. Hypersomnolence and accidents in truck drivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Rachel S N; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco P; Bastos, João Paulo C; Maia, Werllen S; de Mello, Marco Túlio; de Bruin, Veralice M S; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe C

    2006-01-01

    Truck drivers are more likely to suffer severe injury and death due to certain truck driving characteristics. Identifying and preventing factors associated with accidents in this population is important to minimize damage and improve road safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major public health problem, leading to impaired cognitive function, reduced alertness, and increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypersomnolence (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score greater than 10) among truck drivers. Three hundred male truck drivers were studied. Quality of sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the association between demographic, clinical, and occupational data with excessive sleepiness was analyzed. The mean daily sleep duration was 5.6+/-1.3 h, and poor quality of sleep was found in 46.3% of the individuals. Hypersomnolence was found in 46% of the drivers and was associated with younger age, snoring, and working >10 h without rest. A positive correlation between hypersomnolence and previous accidents was detected (p=0.005). These results show that sleep deprivation and hypersomnolence are frequent among truck drivers. The treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and the implementation of educational programs, particularly targeting younger drivers and promoting increased awareness of the deleterious effects of sleep loss and work overload, may help to reduce hypersomnolence and accidents among truck drivers.

  13. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-09-01

    Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops.

  14. Awareness and Performance of Iranian Nurses with Regard to Health Economics: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Mazloom, Reza; Najar, Ali Vafaee; Bakhshi, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health costs have risen everywhere, worldwide, and nurses play a pivotal role in cost savings and in contributing to the financial stability of hospitals. Aim: This study evaluated the awareness and performance of Iranian nursing staff, with regard to health economics. Materials and Methods: A total of 175 nurses who worked in three teaching hospitals in Mashhad (Iran) were selected for this descriptive cross-sectional study, and data were gathered via a 27-item questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: A total of 78% (n = 39) of nurses did not have a good awareness of health economics. The overall mean score for economic awareness was 5.9 ± 2.1 (possible range, 0-16), and for economic performance was 26.6 ± 4 (possible range, 0-44). There was a significant relationship between the economic awareness and performance of nurses, and nurses in higher positions had a greater awareness of health economics. Conclusions: Considering the inadequacy of the health economics awareness and performance of nurses, it is essential that efforts are made to enhance their knowledge and behavior with regard to economic issues and cost saving in all the fields of nursing, through the use of continuing education courses and workshops. PMID:26605201

  15. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  16. Users' Attitudes Towards Personal Health Records: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Khaneghah, Peyman Azad; Miguel-Cruz, Antonio; Bentley, Pamela; Liu, Lili; Stroulia, Eleni; Ferguson-Pell, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and management of chronic conditions is a priority for many healthcare systems. Personal health records have been suggested to facilitate implementation of chronic care programs. However, patients' attitude towards personal health records (PHRs) can significantly affect the adoption rates and use of PHRs. to evaluate the attitude of patients with Type II diabetes towards using a PHR to manage their condition. We used a cross-sectional exploratory pilot study. Fifty-four (54) patients used a PHR to monitor and record their blood glucose levels, diet, and activities for 30 days, and to communicate with their clinicians. At the end of the study, patients responded to a survey based on three constructs borrowed from different technology acceptance frameworks: relative advantage, job fit, and perceived usefulness. A multivariate predictive model was formed using partial least squaring technique (PLS) and the effect of each construct on the patients' attitude towards system use was evaluated. Patients also participated in a semi-structured interview. We found a significant positive correlation between job fit and attitude (JF → ATT = +0.318, p<0.01). There was no statistical evidence of any moderating or mediating effect of other main constructs or any of the confounding factors (i.e., age, gender, time after diagnosed) on attitude. The attitude of patients towards using PHR in management of their diabetes was positive. Their attitude was mainly influenced by the extent to which the system helped them better perform activities and self-manage their condition.

  17. Prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in children with liver cirrhosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zareifar, Soheila; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Rahanjam, Najmeh; Farahmand Far, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26261697

  18. Job satisfaction of nurses in a Saudi Arabian university teaching hospital: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Al-Dossary, R; Vail, J; Macfarlane, F

    2012-09-01

    Saudi Arabia is developing very fast in all disciplines, especially in nursing and health. Only about five studies between 1990 and 2010 have been undertaken in Saudi Arabia concerning factors influencing job satisfaction of nurses, although a body of knowledge exists globally. The purpose of this research was to measure nurses' job satisfaction in Saudi Arabia in a university teaching hospital and to determine the influencing factors. A quantitative, cross sectional method, self-administered questionnaire was used for this study. A systematic sample of N=189 nurses was used to collect data. The SPSS version 16.0. was used to analyze the data. An independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used to test hypotheses concerning different groups, and correlation tests (the Pearson's and Spearman's rank tests) were used to examine relationships between variables. Overall, nurses were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with their jobs. However, nurses indicated satisfaction with supervision, co-workers and nature of work. The sources of dissatisfaction were with subscales such as pay, fringe benefits, contingent rewards and operating conditions. These findings indicate that there is a need to increase nurses' salaries and bonuses for extra duties. More training programmes and further education also should be encouraged for all nurses. Therefore, it is imperative that nursing managers and policy makers in Saudi Arabia consider these findings to improve nurses' job satisfaction. © 2012 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2012 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Factors influencing the satisfaction of rural physician assistants: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Anna A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine factors that attract physician assistants (PAs) to rural settings, and what they found satisfying about their practice and community. A cross-sectional survey design was used. All PAs who were practicing in both nonmetropolitan counties and rural communities in metropolitan counties, in a single midwestern US state, served as the population for the study. A total of 414 usable questionnaires were returned of the 1,072 distributed, a 39% response rate. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation analysis, and robust regression analyses were used. Statistical models were tested to identify antecedents of four job satisfaction factors (satisfaction with professional respect, satisfaction with supervising physician, satisfaction with authority/ autonomy, and satisfaction with workload/salary). The strongest predictor of all four job satisfaction factors was community satisfaction, followed by importance of job practice. Additionally, the four job satisfaction factors had some significant associations with importance of socialization, community importance, practice attributes (years of practice, years in current location, specialty, and facility type), job responsibilities (percentage of patient load not discussed with physician, weekly hours as PA, inpatient visits), and demographics (marital status, race, age, education).

  20. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in “feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers,” and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent’s highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  1. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-09-18

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20-35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  2. Sexual Anatomy and Function in Women With and Without Genital Mutilation: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Botsikas, Diomidis; Bolmont, Mylène; Bilancioni, Aline; Djema, Dahila Amal; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Yaron, Michal; Petignat, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), the partial or total removal of the external genitalia for non-medical reasons, can affect female sexuality. However, only few studies are available, and these have significant methodologic limitations. To understand the impact of FGM on the anatomy of the clitoris and bulbs using magnetic resonance imaging and on sexuality using psychometric instruments and to study whether differences in anatomy after FGM correlate with differences in sexual function, desire, and body image. A cross-sectional study on sexual function and sexual anatomy was performed in women with and without FGM. Fifteen women with FGM involving cutting of the clitoris and 15 uncut women as a control group matched by age and parity were prospectively recruited. Participants underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with vaginal opacification by ultrasound gel and completed validated questionnaires on desire (Sexual Desire Inventory), body image (Questionnaire d'Image Corporelle [Body Image Satisfaction Scale]), and sexual function (Female Sexual Function Index). Primary outcomes were clitoral and bulbar measurements on magnetic resonance images. Secondary outcomes were sexual function, desire, and body image scores. Women with FGM did not have significantly decreased clitoral glans width and body length but did have significantly smaller volume of the clitoris plus bulbs. They scored significantly lower on sexual function and desire than women without FGM. They did not score lower on Female Sexual Function Index sub-scores for orgasm, desire, and satisfaction and on the Questionnaire d'Image Corporelle but did report significantly more dyspareunia. A larger total volume of clitoris and bulbs did not correlate with higher Female Sexual Function Index and Sexual Desire Inventory scores in women with FGM compared with uncut women who had larger total volume that correlated with higher scores. Women with FGM have sexual erectile tissues for sexual arousal, orgasm

  3. Identifying Drivers of Overall Satisfaction in Patients Receiving HIV Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Bich N.; Westbrook, Robert A.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study seeks to understand the drivers of overall patient satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, ethnic-minority population of HIV primary care patients. The study’s primary aims were to determine 1) the component experiences which contribute to patients’ evaluations of their overall satisfaction with care received, and 2) the relative contribution of each component experience in explaining patients’ evaluation of overall satisfaction. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 489 adult patients receiving HIV primary care at two clinics in Houston, Texas, from January 13–April 21, 2011. The participation rate among eligible patients was 94%. The survey included 15 questions about various components of the care experience, 4 questions about the provider experience and 3 questions about overall care. To ensure that the survey was appropriately tailored to our clinic population and the list of component experiences reflected all aspects of the care experience salient to patients, we conducted in-depth interviews with key providers and clinic staff and pre-tested the survey instrument with patients. Results Patients’ evaluation of their provider correlated the strongest with their overall satisfaction (standardized β = 0.445, p<0.001) and accounted for almost half of the explained variance. Access and availability, like clinic hours and ease of calling the clinic, also correlated with overall satisfaction, but less strongly. Wait time and parking, despite receiving low patient ratings, did not correlate with overall satisfaction. Conclusions The patient-provider relationship far exceeds other component experiences of care in its association with overall satisfaction. Our study suggests that interventions to improve overall patient satisfaction should focus on improving patients’ evaluation of their provider. PMID:22912770

  4. Housing, income inequality and child injury mortality in Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sengoelge, M; Hasselberg, M; Ormandy, D; Laflamme, L

    2014-03-01

    Child poverty rates are compared throughout Europe to monitor how countries are caring for their children. Child poverty reduction measures need to consider the importance of safe living environments for all children. In this study we investigate how European country-level economic disparity and housing conditions relate to one another, and whether they differentially correlate with child injury mortality. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design of 26 European countries of which 20 high-income and 6 upper-middle-income. Compositional characteristics of the home and its surroundings were extracted from the 2006 European Union Income Social Inclusion and Living Conditions Database (n = 203,000). Mortality data of children aged 1-14 years were derived from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. The main outcome measure was age standardized cause-specific injury mortality rates analysed by income inequality and housing and neighbourhood conditions. Nine measures of housing and neighbourhood conditions highly differentiating European households at country level were clustered into three dimensions, labelled respectively housing, neighbourhood and economic household strain. Income inequality significantly and positively correlated with housing strain (r = 0.62, P = 0.001) and household economic strain (r = 0.42, P = 0.009) but not significantly with neighbourhood strain (r = 0.34, P = 0.087). Child injury mortality rates correlated strongly with both country-level income inequality and housing strain, with very small age-specific differences. In the European context housing, neighbourhood and household economic strains worsened with increasing levels of income inequality. Child injury mortality rates are strongly and positively associated with both income inequality and housing strain, suggesting that housing material conditions could play a role in the association between income inequality and child health. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Midwives' Professional Competencies for Preventing Maternal Mortality in Disasters: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Ziba; Khoshnam Rad, Mahsa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-08-31

    Maternal mortality may increase after a disaster. Because midwives are at the frontline of offering reproductive health care services in disasters, they should be competent. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study carried out in 2015 in Tehran. The sample consisted of 361 midwives selected by use of a cluster random sampling method. Data were collected by using a questionnaire on professional competency for preventing maternal mortality in disasters. The midwives' mean professional competency score was 177.74±31, which was an average level of professional competency. The level of knowledge and skills of the midwives was reported as inadequate for most items, particularly for the items of "managing mothers affected by chronic diseases," "physical trauma," "recognizing patients who needed to be referred," and "stabilizing mothers when referring them." Statistically significant relationships were observed between the midwives' competencies and age (P=0.001), work experience (P=0.054), educational level (P= 0.043), previous experience in a disaster (P=0.014), and workplace (P=0.006). These data were drawn by using Spearman's correlation, t-test, and ANOVA, respectively. Given the average scores for midwives' professional competency in disasters and the inadequacy of prior training courses, extra educational programs for midwives are recommended. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;page 1 of 7).

  6. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The relationship between ambulatory blood pressure variability and enlarged perivascular spaces: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuna; Qin, Wei; Yang, Lei; Fan, Huimin; Li, Yue; Yin, Jiangmei; Hu, Wenli

    2017-08-21

    Recent studies reported that 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure variability (ABPV) was associated with lacunar infarction and white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, the relationship between ABPV and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) has not been investigated. Thus, our study aimed to investigate whether ABPV is associated with EPVS by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). We conducted this study as a cross-sectional study. The study was based on patients who presented for physical examinations in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2016. Patients with both brain MRI scans and 24-hour ABPM were included and patients with acute stroke, a history of severe stroke and some other severe diseases were excluded. A total of 573 Chinese patients were prospectively enrolled in this study. EPVS in basal ganglia (BG) and white matter (WM) were identified on MRI and classified into three categories by the severity. WMH were scored by the Fazekas scale. Coefficient of variation (CV) and SD were considered as metrics of ABPV. Spearman correlation analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between ABPV and EPVS. There were statistical differences among the subgroups stratified by the severity of EPVS in BG in the following ABPV metrics: SD and CV of systolic blood pressure (SBP), CV of diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in 24 hours, daytime and nighttime and SD of DBP in nighttime. The above ABPV metrics were positively associated with the degree of EPVS. The association was unchanged after adjusting for confounders. Spearman correlation analysis showed ABPV was not related to the degree of EPVS in the WM. ABPV was independently associated with EPVS in BG after controlling for blood pressure, but not in the WM. Pathogenesis of EPVS in BG and WM might be different. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  8. Recruitment rate and retention of stroke subjects in cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Polese, Janaine Cunha; Faria-Fortini, Iza de; Basílio, Marluce Lopes; Faria, Giselle Silva E; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2017-01-01

    This article aimed to determine the recruitment rate of chronic stroke survivors to cross-sectional studies and to determine their retention at the two days of assessments. Participants after six months of a unilateral stroke were screened for eligibility and invited to participate in two cross-sectional studies, by telephone. The number of people who were screened, eligible, and successfully recruited was recorded. Retention at the two days of assessments was also recorded. From a list of 654 individuals, 87 were ineligible. Of the 567 left, 216 had wrong contact numbers, 144 refused to participate, and 12 had died. A total of 165 subjects participated in both studies. Out of the 56 who agreed to attend to the second day of assessment, eight did not return. The results showed that individuals with chronic stroke had low rates of recruitment and retention.

  9. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  10. Mn doped InSb studied at the atomic scale by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mauger, S. J. C.; Bocquel, J.; Koenraad, P. M.; Feeser, C. E.; Parashar, N. D.; Wessels, B. W.

    2015-11-30

    We present an atomically resolved study of metal-organic vapor epitaxy grown Mn doped InSb. Both topographic and spectroscopic measurements have been performed by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The measurements on the Mn doped InSb samples show a perfect crystal structure without any precipitates and reveal that Mn acts as a shallow acceptor. The Mn concentration of the order of ∼10{sup 20 }cm{sup −3} obtained from the cross-sectional STM data compare well with the intended doping concentration. While the pair correlation function of the Mn atoms showed that their local distribution is uncorrelated beyond the STM resolution for observing individual dopants, disorder in the Mn ion location giving rise to percolation pathways is clearly noted. The amount of clustering that we see is thus as expected for a fully randomly disordered distribution of the Mn atoms and no enhanced clustering or second phase material was observed.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  12. Association between adolescent suicide and sociodemographic factors in Chile: cross-sectional ecological study.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Cristóbal; Zitko, Pedro; Covarrubias, Trinidad; Hernandez, Dunia; Sade, Cristina; Klein, Carolina; Gomez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent suicide rates (ASR) are a matter of concern worldwide. Causes of this trend are not understood and could correspond to socioeconomic factors such as inequality. To investigate sociodemographic variables related to ASR, particularly the potential association with indicators of socioeconomic inequality. Cross-sectional ecological study analyzing data from 29 health districts with univariate and multivariable multilevel Poisson models. ASR were higher in male adolescents and at increasing age. No association was found between ASR and inequality (Gini coefficient and 20/20 ratio). Analysis revealed that living in a single-parent family is associated with ASR. The usual demographic patterns of adolescent suicide apply in Chile. An emerging variable of interest is single-parent family. No cross-sectional association between social inequality and ASR was found based on conflicting evidence. These results should be explored in future prospective population studies to further understand associated social factors.

  13. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchopár, M.; Wagner, V.; Svoboda, O.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Závorka, L.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the model spallation targets in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The irradiation of activation samples was performed by beams in the energy range from 1 to 8 GeV. Residual nuclides were measured by the gamma spectrometry. While the EXFOR database contains sets of data for relativistic proton reactions, data for deuteron reactions in this energy range are almost missing. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the use of copper foils from beam integral monitoring. For this reason our experiments focused on their measurement and completely new data were obtained in the energy region where no experimental data have been available so far. The copper monitors with their low sensitivity to fast neutrons will contribute to improvement of the beam integral determination during accelerator-driven system studies.

  14. What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.

  15. Hatha yoga and vascular function: results from cross-sectional and interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stacy D; Tarumi, Takashi; Dhindsa, Mandeep S; Nualnim, Nantinee; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of hatha yoga on arterial elasticity and endothelial function. First, a cross-sectional study was performed to determine whether yoga practitioners would demonstrate greater arterial compliance and endothelium-dependent vasodilation than their sedentary peers. Second, an intervention study involving 13 sedentary middle-aged and older adults (51 ± 7 years) was performed to determine whether 12 weeks of hatha yoga would elicit increases in arterial compliance and endothelial function. In the cross-sectional study involving a total of 34 subjects, there were no group differences in body fatness, blood lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, carotid artery compliance or brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Hemoglobin A1c was lower in yoga practitioners than in sedentary adults (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol and hemoglobin A1c decreased after the intervention (P < 0.05) while carotid artery compliance and brachial artery FMD did not change. The results of both cross-sectional and interventional studies indicate that regular practice of hatha yoga is not associated with improvements in vascular functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. Setting A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Participants Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. Primary and secondary outcome measures sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Results Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); p<0.001) and ever smoking cigarettes (aOR=1.80(1.44 to 2.26); p<0.001); friends’ and societal influence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (β=−1.09(−1.79 to −0.28); p<0.001), a behaviour that is considered more deleterious for health. Parents’ and friends’ disagreement with smoking had a protective effect on cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR<1; p<0.01), while thinking that idols and successful people smoke increased the risk of both cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR>1; p<0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, WP smoking and dependence are influenced by parents’ and friends’ opinions, and idols’ smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence. PMID:24531452

  17. Waterpipe dependence in university students and effect of normative beliefs: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salameh, P; Salamé, J; Waked, M; Barbour, B; Zeidan, N; Baldi, I

    2014-02-14

    The objective of this study was to measure the correlates, including normative beliefs, associated with waterpipe (WP) and cigarette smoking prevalence and dependence. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a proportionate cluster sample of Lebanese students in 17 public and private universities. Of the 4900 distributed questionnaires, 3384 (69.1%) were returned to the field worker. All available students during break times were approached, with no exclusion criteria. sociodemographic variables, detailed active and passive smoking, in addition to items of the tobacco dependence scales were all evaluated. Correlates to WP smoking were studying in a private university (adjusted OR, aOR=1.50 (1.26 to 1.79); p<0.001) and ever smoking cigarettes (aOR=1.80(1.44 to 2.26); p<0.001); friends' and societal influence were found on smoking behaviour and dependence. Although the role of parents was not visible in decreasing the risk of smoking WP, their protective influence seemed more important on WP dependence (β=-1.09(-1.79 to -0.28); p<0.001), a behaviour that is considered more deleterious for health. Parents' and friends' disagreement with smoking had a protective effect on cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR<1; p<0.01), while thinking that idols and successful people smoke increased the risk of both cigarette smoking and dependence (aOR>1; p<0.01). In conclusion, WP smoking and dependence are influenced by parents' and friends' opinions, and idols' smoking status. Future research is necessary to further improve our understanding of motives for WP smoking and dependence.

  18. Screening for Postpartum Depression and Associated Factors Among Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xinli; Zhang, Peichao; Wu, Haiyan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined what percentage of Chinese mothers during a three-year postpartum period were screened for postpartum depression and explored the correlation between postpartum depression and various socio-demographic, psychological, and cultural factors. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: A total of 506 mothers 23 years of age and older who were within three years postpartum completed the online survey. The survey collected information such as family economic status, a history of depression, preparation for pregnancy, relationships with husbands, and family members, adult attachment types (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS), and depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CESD). Results: Approximately 30% of mothers 1–3 years postpartum reported symptoms above the CESD cut-off score (≥16 scores) associated with the risk for depression (28.0% in the first year, 30.8% in the second year, and 31.8% in the third year). Factors significantly associated with depression in participants in the correlation analysis were education level; family income; preparation for pregnancy; a history of depression; amount of time spent with their husbands; relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a close, dependent, and/or anxious attachment style. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a history of depression; less preparation for pregnancy; poorer relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a more anxious attachment style were strongly related to a higher risk of postpartum depression. Conclusion: The overall percentage of mothers after delivery who were vulnerable to depression in China remains high. Various factors were significant predictors of postpartum depression. The research findings have several valuable implications for intervention practices. For example, attachment styles and depression history in the assessments of perinatal depression could improve screenings and the design of

  19. Positron Scattering from Molecules: An Experimental Cross Section Compilation for Positron Transport Studies and Benchmarking Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2017-06-01

    We present a compilation of recommended positron-molecule cross sections for a range of scattering processes including elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, discrete electronic-state excitation, positronium formation, ionization, and also for the grand total cross section. Where possible, in particular for possible application in positron transport simulations for a given molecule, we try and list data for energies in the range 0.1-1000 eV although in practice the actual energy is highly target-molecule and scattering process specific. Aside from being relevant to positron transport studies, through, for example, Monte Carlo simulations, the present compilation should also be germane for benchmarking the validity and accuracy of positron-molecule scattering calculations and, just as importantly, to allow a comparison with corresponding electron scattering results. That latter comparison can shed real light on the projectile-target interactions that underpin the scattering dynamics.

  20. Study of the protein distribution in the pig lens cross section by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R; Barbosa-García, O

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of proteins in the cross section of a normal pig lens was studied by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra were measured in the visual and equatorial axes of this cross section and the protein peak intensities were determined. It was found that along each axis the protein intensities fluctuate. They have a considerable increment along the visual axis with the exception of the C-N bond peak intensities at 1087.2 cm(-1), which decrease, and along the equatorial axis the increment is slight. This increment in protein distribution along the visual axis is related with the refractive gradient of the lens. The classification of pig lens spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Cross-validation shows an excellent group separation.

  1. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  2. Environmental determinants of outdoor play in children: a large-scale cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Marie-Jeanne; Wendel-Vos, Wanda; van Oers, Hans A M; van de Goor, Ien A M; Schuit, Albertine J

    2010-09-01

    Outdoor play is a cheap and natural way for children to be physically active. This study aims to identify physical as well as social correlates of outdoor play in the home and neighborhood environment among children of different age groups. Cross-sectional data were derived from 6470 parents of children from 42 primary schools in four Dutch cities by means of questionnaires (2007-2008). Multivariate sequential Poisson GEE analyses were conducted (2010) to quantify the correlation between physical and social home and neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among boys and girls aged 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years. This study showed that next to proximal (home) environmental characteristics such as parental education (RR=0.93-0.97); the importance parents pay to outdoor play (RR=1.32-1.75); and the presence of electronic devices in the child's own room (RR=1.04-1.15), several neighborhood characteristics were significantly associated with children's outdoor play. Neighborhood social cohesion was related to outdoor play in five of six subgroups (RR=1.01-1.02), whereas physical neighborhood characteristics (e.g., green neighborhood type, presence of water, diversity of routes) were associated with outdoor play in specific subgroups only. Neighborhood social cohesion was related to outdoor play among children of different age and gender, which makes it a promising point of action for policy development. Policies aimed at improving physical neighborhood characteristics in relation to outdoor play should take into account age and gender of the target population. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours: a cross sectional survey of adolescents in Imo State secondary schools.

    PubMed

    Nwoke, E A; Okafor, J O; Chukwuocha, U M; Nworuh, B O

    2011-03-01

    The study was designed to determine the socio-demographic correlates of sexual behaviours of the adolescents in Imo State secondary schools. Three objectives and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A cross sectional survey design was used and sample size was 3360 (2.2%) adolescents. A structured, validated and reliable questionnaire (r = 0.79) and focus group discussion were used as the instruments for data collection. Data analysis was done using mean and ANOVA statistics. The result generally, showed that the average sexual behaviours of the adolescents were below the decision mean of 2.50 and as such the adolescents were said to be sexually inactive. In Imo State secondary schools, various family sizes did not significantly influence the sexual behaviours of the adolescents (F-cal. 2.39, F-tab. 3.00 & P > 0.05), family structure significantly influenced their sexual behaviours (F-cal. 17.78, F-tab. 3.00 & P < 0.05) and different financial strengths influenced the adolescents sexual behaviours significantly (F-cal. 22.88, F-tab. 2.37 & P < 0.05. Of great worry is that unrestricted/uncontrolled adolescents sexual behaviours may expose them to sexually transmitted infections/HIV/AIDS, unwanted pregnancies, illegal abortion and dropping out of school. Thus comprehensive sex education was recommended.

  4. Adult criminal involvement: A cross-sectional inquiry into correlates and mechanisms over the life course

    PubMed Central

    DePadilla, Lara; Perkins, Molly M.; Elifson, Kirk W.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relative contribution of four domains of predictors that have been linked to adult criminal involvement: (1) socio-demographic characteristics, (2) family-of-origin factors, (3) proximal processes developed during adolescence, and (4) current lifestyle and situational factors. Cross-sectional data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 242 community-recruited adults. Data analysis involved negative binomial regression. Being male, family size, juvenile delinquency, aggression, living with someone involved in illegal activity and recent violent victimization were independently associated with non-violent criminal involvement. Aggression, association with deviant peers, and recent violent victimization were independently associated with violent criminal involvement. Juvenile delinquency and aggression mediated the affect of multiple family-of-origin characteristics on non-violent criminal involvement and aggression mediated the effect of childhood physical abuse on violent criminal involvement. The results emphasize the importance of investigating both antecedents and proximal risk factors predictive of different types of criminal involvement, which, in turn, will assist in developing risk-focused prevention and intervention programs. PMID:24307752

  5. SAFE-PML approach for modal study of waveguides with arbitrary cross sections immersed in inviscid fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Peng; Fan, Zheng

    2017-10-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave is an important non-destructive tool for large area inspections of immersed structures as well as fluid characterizations. In this paper, a numerical tool is developed for the modal study of immersed waveguides with arbitrary cross sections, by coupling the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method with Perfectly Matched Layer (PML). The model is first validated on waveguides with regular cross sections with analytical solutions. It is then applied to immersed waveguides with rectangular cross sections and L-shaped cross sections, showing the potential of guided waves for NDT applications and fluid characterizations.

  6. Association of alcohol consumption with specific biomarkers: a cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (± 30.0) and 23.3 (± 29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p ≤ 0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p ≤ 0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans.

  7. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin

    2017-01-01

    Background To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. Methods A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. Results The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). Conclusions The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion. PMID:28746400

  8. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  9. Solar Corona Loop Studies with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. I. Cross-sectional Temperature Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul

    2011-05-01

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in six filters in a temperature range of T ≈ 0.5-16 MK, and four different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of σlog (T) <= 0.11 ± 0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer by Aschwanden & Nightingale and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. or Tripathi et al. We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line of sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 Å filter, which needs to be boosted by a factor of q 94 = 6.7 ± 1.7 for temperatures at log (T) <~ 6.3. The main result of near-isothermal loop cross-sections is not consistent with the predictions of standard nanoflare scenarios, but can be explained by flare-like heating mechanisms that drive chromospheric evaporation and upflows of heated plasma coherently over loop cross-sections of w ≈ 2-4 Mm.

  10. Cross sections and low temperature rate coefficients for the H + CH+ reaction: a quasiclassical trajectory study.

    PubMed

    Halvick, Philippe; Stoecklin, Thierry; Larrégaray, Pascal; Bonnet, Laurent

    2007-02-07

    The H + CH(+) reaction is studied by quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) calculations, along with phase space theory (PST) and quantum rigid rotor calculations, employing a global single-valued potential energy surface recently derived by our group. We report QCT total cross sections for each of the three channels, for low collision energies and different reactant rotational quantum numbers. At the lowest collision energies, all cross sections exhibit a capture-like behaviour, as expected from a barrierless reaction. At higher energies, there are important dynamical effects coming from the opening of new channels in the inelastic and reactive exchange collisions. The inelastic cross sections turn out to largely increase, while the reactive abstraction cross sections are declining faster than predicted by the capture theory. A large value of the reactant rotational quantum number tends to suppress these dynamical effects. The QCT rate coefficients are reported for a temperature range from 1-700 K. Below 20 K, the abstraction and exchange QCT rate coefficients are almost constant, as predicted by the capture theory. Above this temperature, the abstraction rate coefficient declines, while the exchange and inelastic rate coefficients are increasing, due to the opening of new channels. A good agreement is observed between the experimental abstraction rate coefficient and the QCT and PST ones. The QCT inelastic results are also compared with those obtained from rigid rotor close coupling (CCRR) calculations in order to check the ability of this approach to provide a reliable estimate of the inelastic rate coefficients for a reactive system without a barrier. The laws of variation as a function of temperature are found to be very similar and the curves are parallel above 20 K. However, reaction is not allowed in the rigid rotor approximation, therefore the CCRR results are about twice as large as their QCT counterparts.

  11. Prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients in adult age-group undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery and correlation of intensity of pain and satisfaction with analgesic management: A cross-sectional single institute-based study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Saikia, Priyam; Lahakar, Mangala

    2016-10-01

    Considering the paucity of regional data, this study was designed to investigate the prevalence of post-operative pain and determine if there exists any correlation between the intensity of post-operative pain and patient's level of satisfaction with their pain management after inpatient abdominal surgery at an academic tertiary care government centre. Pain intensity was measured in 120 patients with numeric rating scale at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day. A questionnaire was used to measure the level of satisfaction with nurse's and doctor's response to their pain and overall pain management. The prevalence of post-operative pain was 84.17%, 92.5% and 96.66% at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day, respectively. Less number of patients experienced severe intensity pain on the third post-operative day (P = 0.00046), whereas the number of patients experiencing mild pain increased (P < 0.000) compared to the fifth post-operative hour. The number of patients with complete analgesia decreased on the third post-operative day (P = 0.001 compared to fifth post-operative day). The Spearman correlation coefficient between pain score on the third post-operative day and level of satisfaction with nurse's response, doctor's response to pain and the overall pain management was - 0.0218 (P = 0.8107), 0.1307 (P = 0.1553) and 0.0743 (P = 0.4195), respectively. There is a high prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery at our institute. There is a weak correlation between the intensity of pain and level of satisfaction with pain management.

  12. Prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients in adult age-group undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery and correlation of intensity of pain and satisfaction with analgesic management: A cross-sectional single institute-based study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Saikia, Priyam; Lahakar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Considering the paucity of regional data, this study was designed to investigate the prevalence of post-operative pain and determine if there exists any correlation between the intensity of post-operative pain and patient's level of satisfaction with their pain management after inpatient abdominal surgery at an academic tertiary care government centre. Methods: Pain intensity was measured in 120 patients with numeric rating scale at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day. A questionnaire was used to measure the level of satisfaction with nurse's and doctor's response to their pain and overall pain management. Results: The prevalence of post-operative pain was 84.17%, 92.5% and 96.66% at the fifth post-operative hour, second and third post-operative day, respectively. Less number of patients experienced severe intensity pain on the third post-operative day (P = 0.00046), whereas the number of patients experiencing mild pain increased (P < 0.000) compared to the fifth post-operative hour. The number of patients with complete analgesia decreased on the third post-operative day (P = 0.001 compared to fifth post-operative day). The Spearman correlation coefficient between pain score on the third post-operative day and level of satisfaction with nurse's response, doctor's response to pain and the overall pain management was − 0.0218 (P = 0.8107), 0.1307 (P = 0.1553) and 0.0743 (P = 0.4195), respectively. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of acute post-operative pain in patients undergoing inpatient abdominal surgery at our institute. There is a weak correlation between the intensity of pain and level of satisfaction with pain management. PMID:27761037

  13. Quantum and semiclassical studies on photodetachment cross sections of H- in a harmonic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Jun, Zhao; Wei-Long, Liu; Meng-Li, Du

    2016-03-01

    The photodetachment cross section of H- in a linear harmonic oscillator potential is investigated. This system provides a rare example that can be studied analytically by both quantum and semiclassical methods with some approximations. The formulas of the cross section for different laser polarization directions are explicitly derived by both the traditional quantum approach and closed-orbit theory. In the traditional quantum approach, we calculate the cross sections in coordinate representation and momentum representation, and get the same formulas. We compare the quantum formulas with closed-orbit theory formulas, and find that when the detachment electron energy is larger than , where ω is the frequency of the oscillator potential, the quantum results are shown to be in good agreement with the semiclassical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421063 and 11474079), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2009011004), and the Program for the Top Young Academic Leaders of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  14. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age = 15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age = 15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  15. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents--a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    DeSmet, Ann; Deforche, Benedicte; Hublet, Anne; Tanghe, Ann; Stremersch, Evi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2014-03-05

    Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents' risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age=15.32±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age=15.30±1.73). Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs.

  16. Students' readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Keshtkaran, Zahra; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rambod, Masoume

    2014-06-01

    Inter-professional education is a critical pedagogical approach aiming at preparing healthcare students for providing patient care in a collaborative team atmosphere. To investigate the readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning and their relationship among healthcare students. It was a correlational, cross-sectional study. Two hundred and fifty undergraduate medical, B.Sc. nursing, and B.Sc. science in surgical technology students participated in this study. The samples were selected from the colleges affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences using stratified random sampling. The Readiness for Inter-Professional Learning Scale (RIPLS) and Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale (IEPS) were used to measure the readiness for and perception of inter-professional leaning. The data were analyzed using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and independent sample T-test. The total mean scores of readiness for and perception of inter-professional learning were 82.40 (SD=23.16) and 74.04 (SD=14.26), respectively. Besides, the medical students' total mean score of readiness was significantly lower than that of the nursing and science in surgical technology students (F=76.73, P<0.0001). The results showed a significant difference between the current years of study regarding RIPLS and IEPS (P<0.0001). Also, a significant difference was demonstrated among the three fields concerning IEPS and its four subscales. Moreover, the total score of RIPLS was associated with that of IEPS (r=0.43, P<0.0001). This study indicated that the medical students had the lowest RIPLS. In addition, the nursing students reported the lowest IEPS; therefore, this group's curriculum is suggested to be revised. For evidence based practice, other studies are recommended to improve inter-professional learning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interest in nursing among academic degree holders in Israel: A cross-sectional quantitative study.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of nurses is a global problem. One strategy for producing more registered nurses worldwide and in Israel in particular is to offer graduate entry nursing programs for individuals with non-nursing academic degrees. In order to recruit academic degree holders into the nursing profession, it is important to identify factors that might attract them. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the perception of nurse characteristics by academic degree holders is associated with their interest in enrolling in a graduate entry nursing program or in recommending this program to a family member, and whether ethnic background, gender and interaction with a nurse have an effect on this interest. A cross-sectional quantitative study. The setting of the study was on the campus of Tel Aviv University. A convenience sample of 522 individuals with an academic education, men and women, aged 18-60 and equally distributed between Jewish and Arab Israelis, took part in the study. Participants completed a questionnaire based on the Porter Nursing Image Scale. A moderate positive correlation was found between perception of nurses and interest in nursing (r=0.32, p<0.01). Arab Israelis, women, and individuals who have or have had interactions with nurses, viewed nurses in a more positive light and had a higher interest in nursing than their counterparts. Efforts should be made to foster a positive public image of nursing among the population of people with an academic education. Recruitment strategies should be tailored to each of this population's subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-sectional validation study of EQ-5D among the Malaysian adult population.

    PubMed

    Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Liau, Siow Yen

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the EQ-5D instrument among the Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among Malaysian adults in three northern states of Malaysia. A pre-developed questionnaire consisting of both the EQ-5D and SF-12 items was used for data collection. Concurrent, convergent, and known group validity of EQ-5D were assessed against SF-12 and several known relationships with participants' demographic and illness characteristics. A total of 596 Malaysians participated in the study. The mean EQ-5D score was 0.93 (SD = 0.13), while the mean physical component score (PCS-12) and mental component score (MCS-12) scores were 48.9 (SD = 7.4) and 49.1 (SD = 8.0), respectively. Participants with a current medical problem had lower PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores and reported more problems with all of the EQ-5D dimensions; they also had lower EQ-5D and EQ-VAS scores (P < 0.05). Convergent validity was supported by a moderately positive correlation between EQ-5D and EQ-VAS with MCS-12 and PCS-12 scores; moreover, the stronger effect sizes between PCS-12 and the physical dimensions of EQ-5D as well as between MCS-12 with anxiety/depression scores further supported the convergent validity of EQ-5D. Responses to the EQ-5D dimensions only supported two of the four known group validity hypotheses of higher quality of life among individuals who are better educated and no medical problem. No association was found between income and gender with EQ-5D score. This study has demonstrated acceptable construct validity of the EQ-5D among the Malaysian population.

  19. Cardiopulmonary pathology among children resident at high altitude in Tintaya, Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis; Niermeyer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiac abnormalities related to high altitude have been reported previously. However, their true prevalence has not been systematically determined. We assessed clinical indicators of cardiovascular health or disease and correlated them with anatomic and physiologic cardiovascular features in preschool and schoolchildren living at 4000 m. We also estimated the prevalence of cardiovascular problems in the population, with emphasis on symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiopathies. Three hundred and twenty-six children residents of Tintaya, Peru, were cross-sectionally studied. Methods included structured interviews, anthropometry and physical examination, arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin determination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was 1.5%, with less than 1% possibly attributable to high altitude. All children with structural cardiac abnormalities were identified by a focused physical exam prior to echocardiography. None were identified by the health interview. No symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension was identified in the absence of underlying structural anomalies. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was consistent with data from sea level. Active monitoring of the health status of a pediatric population at high altitude is valuable in the timely detection of cardiac abnormalities. Although our study children enjoyed generally excellent health, comparative, longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the incidence of high altitude cardiopulmonary problems and to identify risk factors and early markers for later disorders associated to life at high altitude. Our findings are applicable to children with some degree of high altitude genetic background and high mobility patterns to lower altitudes and living in comparatively good nutritional and socioeconomic conditions.

  20. Relationship between Dyspnea Descriptors and Underlying Causes of the Symptom; a Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sajadi, Seyyed Mohammad Ali; Majidi, Alireza; Abdollahimajd, Fahimeh; Jalali, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    History taking and physical examination help clinicians identify the patient's problem and effectively treat it. This study aimed to evaluate the descriptors of dyspnea in patients presenting to emergency department (ED) with asthma, congestive heart failure (CHF), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This cross-sectional study was conducted on all patients presenting to ED with chief complaint of dyspnea, during 2 years. The patients were asked to describe their dyspnea by choosing three items from the valid and reliable questionnaire or articulating their sensation. The relationship between dyspnea descriptors and underlying cause of symptom was evaluated using SPSS version 16. 312 patients with the mean age of 60.96±17.01 years were evaluated (53.2% male). Most of the patients were > 65 years old (48.7%) and had basic level of education (76.9%). "My breath doesn't go out all the way" with 83.1%, "My chest feels tight " with 45.8%, and "I feel that my airway is obstructed" with 40.7%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in asthma patients. "My breathing requires work" with 46.3%, "I feel that I am suffocating" with 31.5%, and "My breath doesn't go out all the way" with 29.6%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in COPD patients. "My breathing is heavy" with 74.4%, "A hunger for more air" with 24.4%, and "I cannot get enough air" with 23.2%, were the most frequent dyspnea descriptors in CHF patients. Except for "My breath does not go in all the way", there was significant correlation between studied dyspnea descriptors and underlying disease (p = 0.001 for all analyses). It seems that dyspnea descriptors along with other findings from history and physical examination could be helpful in differentiating the causes of the symptom in patients presenting to ED suffering from dyspnea.

  1. Association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUO-ZHE; LI, YANG; ZHOU, XING-HU; GUO, XIAO-FAN; ZHANG, XIN-GANG; ZHENG, LI-QIANG; LI, YUAN; JIAO, YUN-DI; SUN, YING-XIAN

    2013-01-01

    Obesity exhibits a wide variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in adults, which often lead to cardiovascular events. However, there is currently no evidence of an association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to explore the associations between obesity and ECG intervals and axes in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional observational study of 5,556 students aged 5–18 years was performed. Anthropometric data, blood pressure and standard 12-lead ECGs were collected for each participant. ECG variables were measured manually based on the temporal alignment of simultaneous 12 leads using a CV200 ECG Work Station. Overweight and obese groups demonstrated significantly longer PR intervals, wider QRS durations and leftward shifts of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, while the obese group also demonstrated significantly higher heart rates, compared with normal weight groups within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Abdominal obesity was also associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal ECG axes compared with normal waist circumference (WC) within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Gender was a possible factor affecting the ECG variables. Furthermore, the ECG variables, including PR interval, QRS duration and frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, were significantly linearly correlated with body mass index, WC and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. However, there was no significant association between obesity and the corrected QT interval (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicate that in children and adolescents, general and abdominal obesity is associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, independent of age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. PMID:24255675

  2. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  3. Cross-sectional study of equol producer status and cognitive impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Igase, Michiya; Igase, Keiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2017-03-27

    It is well known that consumption of isoflavones reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the effectiveness of isoflavones in preventing dementia is controversial. A number of intervention studies have produced conflicting results. One possible reason is that the ability to produce equol, a metabolite of a soy isoflavone, differs greatly in individuals. In addition to existing data, we sought to confirm whether an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function is observed after soy consumption in equol producers compared with non-producers. The present study was a cross-sectional, observational study of 152 (male/female = 61/91, mean age 69.2 ± 9.2 years) individuals. Participants were divided into two groups according to equol production status, which was determined using urine samples collected after a soy challenge test. Cognitive function was assessed using two computer-based questionnaires (touch panel-type dementia assessment scale [TDAS] and mild cognitive impairment [MCI] screen). Overall, 60 (40%) of 152 participants were equol producers. Both TDAS and prevalence of MCI were significantly higher in the equol producer group than in the non-producer group. In univariate analyses, TDAS significantly correlated with age, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In multiple regression analysis using TDAS as a dependent variable, equol producer (β = 0.236, P = 0.005) was selected as an independent variable. In addition, multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the presence of MCI showed that being an equol producer was an independent risk factor for MCI (odds ratio 3.961). Compared with equol non-producers, equol producers showed an apparent beneficial effect in cognitive function after soy intake. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••-••. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, V. A.; Kristinsson, K. G.; Sigurdsson, J. A.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Mölstad, S.; Gudmundsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of antimicrobial consumption with the carriage rate of penicillin resistant and multiresistant pneumococci in children. DESIGN: Cross sectional and analytical prevalence study. SETTING: Five different communities in Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children aged under 7 years in relation to antibiotic use as determined by information from parents, patient's records, and total sales of antimicrobials from local pharmacies in four study areas. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial sales for children (6223 prescriptions) among the four areas for which data were available ranged from 9.6 to 23.2 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily (1.1 to 2.6 courses yearly per child). Children under 2 consumed twice as much as 2-6 year olds (20.5 v 10.9 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily). Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 919 children, representing 15-38% of the peer population groups in the different areas. Pneumococci were carried by 484 (52.7%) of the children, 47 (9.7%) of the isolates being resistant to penicillin or multiresistant. By multivariate analysis age (< 2 years), area (highest antimicrobial consumption), and individual use of antimicrobials significantly influenced the odds of carrying penicillin resistant pneumococci. By univariate analysis, recent antimicrobial use (two to seven weeks) and use of co-trimoxazole were also significantly associated with carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use, with regard to both individual use and total antimicrobial consumption in the community, is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children. Control measures to reduce the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci should include reducing the use of antimicrobials in community health care. PMID:8761224

  5. Public health services knowledge and utilization among immigrants in Greece: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Galanis, Petros; Sourtzi, Panayiota; Bellali, Thalia; Theodorou, Mamas; Karamitri, Ioanna; Siskou, Olga; Charalambous, Giorgos; Kaitelidou, Daphne

    2013-09-13

    During the 90s, Greece has been transformed to a host country for immigrants mostly from the Balkans and Eastern European Countries, who currently constitute approximately 9% of the total population. Despite the increasing number of the immigrants, little is known about their health status and their accessibility to healthcare services. This study aimed to explore the perceived barriers to access and utilization of healthcare services by immigrants in Greece. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2012 in Athens, Greece. The study population consisted of 191 immigrants who were living in Greece for less than 10 years. We developed a questionnaire that included information about sociodemographic characteristics, health status, public health services knowledge and utilization and difficulties in health services access. Statistical analysis included Pearson's ×2 test, ×2 test for trend, Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Only 20.4% of the participants reported that they had a good/very good degree of knowledge about public health services in Greece. A considerable percentage (62.3%) of the participants needed at least once to use health services but they could not afford it, during the last year, while 49.7% used public health services in the last 12 months in Greece. Among the most important problems were long waiting times in hospitals, difficulties in communication with health professionals and high cost of health care. Increased ability to speak Greek was associated with increased health services knowledge (p<0.001). Increased family monthly income was also associated with less difficulties in accessing health services (p<0.001). The empowerment and facilitation of health care access for immigrants in Greece is necessary. Depending on the needs of the migrant population, simple measures such as comprehensive information regarding the available health services and the terms for accessibility is

  6. Stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Alosaimi, Fahad D; Almufleh, Auroabah; Kazim, Sana; Aladwani, Bandar

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive stress-coping strategies have been linked to reduced quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and reduced work performance among residents or physicians. This study aimed to examine stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia and their association with stress levels and important personal characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2012. Residents of different specialties were recruited from a national database. Stress-coping strategies were assessed using the 28-item brief coping scale (BCS), while stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale (PSS). Nine hundred seventeen residents completed both BCS and PSS assessments. Almost 55% of participants were males, 88% were Saudi, 58% were married, and 15% had positive history of psychiatric disorders. The adaptive stress-coping strategy with the highest score was religion, followed by planning, acceptance, and active coping. The maladaptive stress-coping strategy with the highest score was self-blame, followed by self-distraction, and venting. Maladaptive stress-coping strategies were associated with high stress level, female gender, and history of psychiatric disorders. Stress-coping strategies were not correlated/associated with age, presence of major medical illnesses, or stress management education/training. Adaptive stress-coping strategies were more frequently used among a sample of residents in Saudi Arabia than maladaptive stress-coping strategies, with higher use of religion in coping than previously reported. To avoid potential negative impact on resident well-being, future studies among residents should aim to identify the type of stress management program that most positively impacts stress-coping skills.

  7. Treatment adherence and perception in patients on maintenance hemodialysis: a cross - sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Naalweh, Karam Sh; Barakat, Mohammad A; Sweileh, Moutaz W; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sweileh, Waleed M; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2017-05-30

    Adherence to diet recommendations, fluid restriction, prescribed medications, and attendance at hemodialysis (HD) sessions are essential for optimal and effective treatment of patients with end-stage renal disease. No data regarding this issue are available from Palestine. Therefore, this study was carried out to assess adherence to diet, fluid restriction, medications, and HD sessions. A cross-sectional study of HD patients at An-Najah National University Hospital was carried out during summer, 2016. Self-reported adherence behavior was obtained using a valid and reliable questionnaire (End-Stage Renal Disease Adherence Questionnaire: ESRD-AQ). Predialytic serum levels of potassium and phosphate were obtained as clinical indicator of diet and medication adherence respectively. In addition, interdialytic body weight (IDW) was also obtained from medical records and analyzed in relation to reported adherence of fluid restriction. A total of 220 patients answered all questions pertaining to ESRD-AQ. The mean age ± standard deviation of participants was 56.82 ± 14.51 years. Dietary adherence was observed in 24% while that of fluid restriction adherence was observed in 31% of studied patients. Reported adherence to HD sessions was 52% while that for medications was 81%. Overall, 122 (55.5%) patients had good adherence, 89 (40.5%) had moderate adherence, and 9 (4.1%) had poor adherence behavior. Male patients had significantly higher overall adherence scores than females (p = 0.034). A significant correlation between reported diet adherence and serum pre-HD potassium level (p < 0.01) was observed. A significant correlation between reported fluid restriction adherence and IDW (p < 0.01) was also found. However, no significant correlation between reported adherence and pre-HD phosphate level. There was significant correlation between overall perception and overall adherence score (p < 0.001). Counselling of patients regarding importance of adherence

  8. Study of the neon interaction cross section using the Glauber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Suhel; Chauhan, Deeksha; Usmani, A. A.; Khan, Z. A.

    2016-05-01

    Working within the framework of the Coulomb-modified correlation expansion for the Glauber model S-matrix, we calculate the interaction cross section (σI) of neon isotopes, 17-32Ne, on 12C at 240 MeV/nucleon. The calculations involve i) up to the two-body density term in the correlation expansion, and ii) the single Gaussian approximation for the nucleon-nucleon amplitude. The colliding nuclei are described with Slater determinants consisting of the harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions. The sole input of the density of each colliding nucleus, the oscillator constant, is fixed from the respective root-mean-square (rms) radius calculated using the relativistic mean-field approach. It is found that the calculated results for σI generally provide fairly good agreement with the experimental data except for 31Ne, for which the required rms neutron radius comes closer to the one obtained earlier using the extended (halo-like) neutron density distribution. This finding is also supported by our predicted differential cross section of 31Ne on 12C at 240 MeV/nucleon. However, as expected, the results of the present analysis are unable to discriminate between the halo and non-halo structure of 31Ne. In conclusion, our results suggest that the present calculations can be considered as a good starting point to predict the rms matter radii of exotic neutron-rich nuclei.

  9. Evaluation of lead and essential elements in whole blood during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Mao, X; Shi, J; Lu, Y; Liu, C

    2016-08-01

    Physiological concentrations of some elements fluctuate during pregnancy due to the increased requirements of growing fetus and changes in the maternal physiology. The aim of the study is to evaluate the distribution at different stages of pregnancy in healthy Chinese women and to show the association between trace elements and gestational age-specific reference intervals. A cross-sectional study was performed in 1089 pregnant women and 677 nonpregnant control women. Five element concentrations, including Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb in the blood were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman's rank correlation test was used to assess the relationship between weeks of gestation and blood element concentrations. The mean levels of Cu and Mg were 23.64 ± 4.69 μmol/L and 1.36 ± 0.12 mmol/L, respectively, in the control women. While 0.68 % of all pregnant women showed Cu levels below the normal ranges, the levels of Mg were comparable in different groups. Though the overall mean blood zinc and Ca concentrations (83.84 ± 17.50 μmol/L and 1.60 ± 0.15 mmol/L, respectively) increased gradually with the progress of gestation, the Zn and Ca deficiency levels (16.6 and 3.6 %, respectively) decreased with the advance of gestation. Compared with nonpregnant group, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, Pb during the different stages of pregnancy, as a whole, were significantly different. Positive correlations were observed between weeks of gestation and blood Cu, Ca, Pb concentrations (r = 0.301, 0.221, 0.223; P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation blood Mg concentrations and weeks of gestation (r = -0.321; P < 0.05). A weak positive correlation was noted between Zn concentrations and weeks of gestation (r = 0.125; P < 0.05). The importance of Cu and Mg deficiency and supplementation is well realized, but, Zn/Ca deficiency and Pb exposure is still exist; the overall deficiency of pregnant women was not so optimistic. During pregnancy, the

  10. Autonomic control of cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Neufeld, Irina W.; Kiselev, Anton R.; Karavaev, Antoly S.; Prokhorov, Mikhail D.; Gridnev, Vladimir I.; Ponomarenko, Vladimir I.; Bezruchko, Boris P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the features of autonomic control of the cardiovascular system in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and Methods We studied 185 postmenopausal women aged 59.3±8.5 years (mean±SD) and 104 premenopausal women aged 45.1±5.8 years. Standard indices of heart rate variability (HRV) (mean heart rate, coefficient of variation, standard deviation of the NN interval (the time elapsing between two consecutive R waves in the electrocardiogram with normal sinus rhythm) (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive NN intervals (RMSSD), proportion derived by dividing RR50, the number of interval differences of successive NN intervals greater than 50 ms, by the total number of NN intervals (PNN50), and power of low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands in absolute values and percentages of total spectral power) and index S of synchronization between the 0.1-Hz rhythms in heart rate and photoplethysmogram were compared between these two groups at rest. We assessed the following sex hormones: estradiol, follicle stimulating hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and testosterone. Results Mean heart rate and power of LF and HF bands were significantly different (p<0.05) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The autonomic indices were similar in women with natural and surgical menopause. Some indices (coefficient of variation, SDNN, RMSSD, PNN50, and power of LF and HF bands) showed weak correlation with menopause time in women with natural menopause. In women with surgical menopause, a moderate statistically significant correlation was observed only between menopause time and S index (r=−0.41, p=0.039). In premenopausal women, only testosterone correlated weakly with coefficient of variation, SDNN, PNN50, RMSSD, and power of HF band. In postmenopausal women, no correlations were found. We did not find any significant relationship between autonomic indices and hot flashes, assessed by hot

  11. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Brett D; Mansfield, Peter R; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Ward, Alison M

    2008-05-20

    Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the assessment of cardiovascular risk

  12. Do advertisements for antihypertensive drugs in Australia promote quality prescribing? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brett D; Mansfield, Peter R; Spurling, Geoffrey K; Ward, Alison M

    2008-01-01

    Background Antihypertensive medications are widely prescribed by doctors and heavily promoted by the pharmaceutical industry. Despite strong evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of thiazide diuretics, trends in both promotion and prescription of antihypertensive drugs favour newer, less cost-effective agents. Observational evidence shows correlations between exposure to pharmaceutical promotion and less ideal prescribing. Our study therefore aimed to determine whether print advertisements for antihypertensive medications promote quality prescribing in hypertension. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 113 advertisements for antihypertensive drugs from 4 general practice-oriented Australian medical publications in 2004. Advertisements were evaluated using a quality checklist based on a review of hypertension management guidelines. Main outcome measures included: frequency with which antihypertensive classes were advertised, promotion of thiazide class drugs as first line agents, use of statistical claims in advertisements, mention of harms and prices in the advertisements, promotion of assessment and treatment of cardiovascular risk, promotion of lifestyle modification, and targeting of particular patient subgroups. Results Thiazides were the most frequently advertised drug class (48.7% of advertisements), but were largely promoted in combination preparations. The only thiazide advertised as a single agent was the most expensive, indapamide. No advertisement specifically promoted any thiazide as a better first-line drug. Statistics in the advertisements tended to be expressed in relative rather than absolute terms. Drug costs were often reported, but without cost comparisons between drugs. Adverse effects were usually reported but largely confined to the advertisements' small print. Other than mentioning drug interactions with alcohol and salt, no advertisements promoted lifestyle modification. Few advertisements (2.7%) promoted the

  13. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  14. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed. PMID:24516280

  15. Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Shiely, Frances; Byrne, Michael; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is considerable evidence of a cultural shift towards heavier alcohol consumption among university students, especially women. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption (HAC) among university students with particular reference to gender and to compare different modes of data collection in this population. Setting A large Irish university. Design A cross-sectional study using a classroom distributed paper questionnaire. Participants A total of 2275 undergraduates completed the classroom survey, 84% of those in class and 51% of those registered for the relevant module. Main outcome measures Prevalence of HAC measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) and the proportion of university students reporting 1 or more of 13 adverse consequences linked to HAC. HAC was defined as an AUDIT-C score of 6 or more among males and 5 or more among females. Results In the classroom sample, 66.4% (95% CI 64.4 to 68.3) reported HAC (65.2% men and 67.3% women). In women, 57.4% met HAC thresholds for men. Similar patterns of adverse consequences were observed among men and women. Students with a hazardous consumption pattern were more likely to report smoking, illicit drug use and being sexually active. Conclusions The findings highlight the high prevalence of HAC among university students relative to the general population. Public policy measures require review to tackle the short-term and long-term risks to physical, mental and social health and well-being. PMID:25633284

  16. Hazardous alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Davoren, Martin P; Shiely, Frances; Byrne, Michael; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-01-29

    There is considerable evidence of a cultural shift towards heavier alcohol consumption among university students, especially women. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous alcohol consumption (HAC) among university students with particular reference to gender and to compare different modes of data collection in this population. A large Irish university. A cross-sectional study using a classroom distributed paper questionnaire. A total of 2275 undergraduates completed the classroom survey, 84% of those in class and 51% of those registered for the relevant module. Prevalence of HAC measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Consumption (AUDIT-C) and the proportion of university students reporting 1 or more of 13 adverse consequences linked to HAC. HAC was defined as an AUDIT-C score of 6 or more among males and 5 or more among females. In the classroom sample, 66.4% (95% CI 64.4 to 68.3) reported HAC (65.2% men and 67.3% women). In women, 57.4% met HAC thresholds for men. Similar patterns of adverse consequences were observed among men and women. Students with a hazardous consumption pattern were more likely to report smoking, illicit drug use and being sexually active. The findings highlight the high prevalence of HAC among university students relative to the general population. Public policy measures require review to tackle the short-term and long-term risks to physical, mental and social health and well-being. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Interpersonal Trust and Quality-of-Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Jimba, Masamine; Yanai, Haruo; Fujii, Seiji; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL) or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. Methodology and Principal Findings Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women), greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men), those aged 60–69 (vs. 20–29), or the high-income group (vs. low-income). Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. Conclusions and Significance Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL. PMID:19096704

  18. Dyspepsia among patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds Dyspepsia is a condition that affects 25% of the U.S. population, and, when associated with pyrosis, its prevalence reaches 40%. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency not only present higher circulating levels of gastrin and gastric dysmotilty, but also make use of a great amount of drugs for the treatment of their comorbidities. This situation increases the chances of developing gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the dyspeptic disease profile in patients undergoing hemodialysis, comparing them with chronic renal disease patients in conservative treatment and non-renal injury patients. Methods This is a cross sectional study performed at the Gastroenterology department at Faculdade de Medicina do ABC in São Paulo, Brazil. Three groups were set aside according to the renal function levels calculated using the simplified MDRD formula. They answered three questionnaires that evaluated the presence of dyspepsia, functional dyspepsia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with the performance of high digestive endoscopy. Results A significant difference between the groups was observed concerning the renal function evaluated by the rates of creatinine clearance, creatinine and urea (p < 0.001). The rate of dyspepsia in the control group was higher than in patients with renal function alterations (p = 0.014). There was no difference between groups when it came to the presence of functional dyspepsia and GERD. However, there was a higher use of proton pump inhibitors in the hemodialysis group than in the other groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion In the proposed model, there was no positive correlation between the worsening of the renal function and the presence of dyspepsia, functional dyspepsia and GERD. The longitudinal evaluation of hemodialysis patients is hampered by the high mortality rates in this group. There was a higher use of proton pump inhibitors, and it is believed that the dyspeptic

  19. Burnout and its association with resilience in nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Luo, Yuan-Hui; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Plummer, Virginia; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-07-05

    To investigate the prevalence and extent of burnout on nurses and its association with personal resilience. With the worldwide shortage of nurses, nurse burnout is considered one of the main contributing factors and has been the focus of studies in recent years. Given the well-documented high level of burnout among nurses, resilience is expected to be a significant predictor of nurse burnout. The association between burnout and resilience has not previously been investigated extensively. A cross-sectional survey design was selected. A total of 1,061 nurses from six separate three-level hospitals in Hunan Province, China, returned self-reported questionnaires from March-June 2015. Data were collected using a socio-demographic sheet, Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Nurses experienced severe burnout symptoms and showed a moderate level of resilience. Three metrics of burnout had significantly negative correlations with the total score and following variables of resilience. Linear regression analysis showed resilience, especially strength, demographic characteristics (exercise, alcohol use and marital status) and job characteristics (income per month, ratio of patients to nurses, shift work and professional rank) were the main predictors of the three metrics of burnout. The findings of this study may help nurse managers and hospital administrators to have a better understanding of nurse burnout and resilience. The significantly negative relationship between burnout symptoms and resilience has been demonstrated, and this informs the role of resilience in influencing burnout. Adaptable and effective interventions for improving resilience are needed to relieve nurses' burnout and reduce workplace stress. Moreover, nurse managers and hospital administrators should establish an effective management system to cultivate a healthy workplace and adopt positive attitudes and harmonious relationships. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Resilience and spirituality in patients with depression and their family members: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Chisa; Suzuki, Takefumi; Mizuno, Yuya; Tarumi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Kazunari; Fujii, Kazuhito; Hirano, Jinichi; Tani, Hideaki; Rubinstein, Ellen B; Mimura, Masaru; Uchida, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-01

    The degree and quality of resilience in patients with depression have never been investigated in the context of remission status, spirituality/religiosity, and family members' resilience levels, which was addressed in this study. This cross-sectional study recruited Japanese outpatients with depressive disorder according to ICD-10 and cohabitant family members who were free from psychiatric diagnoses. Resilience was assessed using the 25-item Resilience Scale (RS). Other assessments included the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT) and Kasen et al.'s (2012) scale for spirituality/religiosity; and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). One hundred outpatients with depression (mean±SD age, 50.8±14.5years; 44 men; MADRS total score 9.8±9.0) and 36 healthy family members (mean±SD age, 56.5±15.0years; 18 men) were included. Symptom severity, attendance at religious/spiritual services, and self-esteem were significantly associated with RS scores in the patient group. RS total scores were significantly higher in remitted patients compared to non-remitted patients (mean±SD, 112.3±17.1 vs. 84.8±27.7, p<0.001). No correlation was found in RS total scores between patients and their family members (p=0.265), regardless of patients' remission status. Resilience may be influenced by individual characteristics rather than familial environment; furthermore, self-esteem or spirituality/religiosity may represent reinforcing elements. While caution is necessary in extrapolating these findings to other patient populations, our results suggest that resilience may be considered a state marker in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.