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Sample records for cross-sectional multilevel analysis

  1. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra

    PubMed Central

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R.; Appiah Otoo, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water–sealed single-use plastic sleeves–has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa. PMID:23840643

  2. Subjective Health and Mental Well-Being of Adolescents and the Health Promoting School: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate; Inchley, Jo; Currie, Dorothy; Currie, Candace

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the health promoting school (HPS) on adolescent well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland were analysed using multilevel linear regression analyses for outcome measures: happiness, confidence,…

  3. Authoritative School Climate and High School Student Risk Behavior: A Cross-sectional Multi-level Analysis of Student Self-Reports.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Dewey; Huang, Francis

    2016-11-01

    Many adolescents engage in risk behaviors such as substance use and aggression that jeopardize their healthy development. This study tested the hypothesis that an authoritative school climate characterized by strict but fair discipline and supportive teacher-student relationships is conducive to lower risk behavior for high school students. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze cross-sectional, student-report survey data from a statewide sample of 47,888 students (50.6 % female) in 319 high schools. The students included ninth (26.6 %), tenth (25.5 %), eleventh (24.1 %) and twelfth (23.8 %) grade with a racial/ethnic breakdown of 52.2 % White, 18.0 % Black, 13.1 % Hispanic, 5.9 % Asian, and 10.8 % reporting another or two or more race/ethnicities. Schools with an authoritative school climate had lower levels of student-reported alcohol and marijuana use; bullying, fighting, and weapon carrying at school; interest in gang membership; and suicidal thoughts and behavior. These results controlled for demographic variables of student gender, race, grade, and parent education level as well as school size, percentage of minority students, and percentage of low income students. Overall, these findings add new evidence that an authoritative school climate is associated with positive student outcomes.

  4. Synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug prescribing variability in rheumatoid arthritis: a multilevel analysis of a cross-sectional national study.

    PubMed

    Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Sánchez-Alonso, Fernando; Martín-Martínez, María A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the variability in the prescription of csDMARDs for the treatment of RA between centers in Spain and to explore how this variability relates to demographic, disease, physician, and institutional characteristics. A cross-sectional nationwide study was carried out to examine data from 1352 patients. Multilevel logistic regression with two levels was performed to assess the relationships between individual and disease-related factors, as well as physician and hospital characteristics, vis-à-vis csDMARD prescription. Having three or more comorbidities (OR 0.353 [0.173-0.721]), disease duration (OR 0.321 [0.174-0.595]), and the existence of an early-arthritis unit (OR 0.552 [0.335-0.910]) were negatively associated with the prescription of one csDMARD versus nonprescription; contrary, the presence of rheumatoid factor (OR 1.909, 95 % CI [1.181-3.086]) was positively associated. On the other hand, while corticoid intake (OR 1.561 [1.088-2.240]), the maximum number of painful joints, and the presence of nursing consultation (OR 1.626 [1.078-2.452]) were positively associated with the prescription of multiple csDMARDs versus one csDMARD, patient's age (OR 0.984 [0.974-0.995]) and disease duration (OR 0.669 [0.462-0.968]) were negatively associated. Despite all these, variability in the prescription of csDMARDs between hospitals remained statistically significant after adjusting for these individual and hospital characteristics. Within the emAR II study, there was a marked variation in the number of csDMARDs prescribed between hospitals. The reasons for these variations remain unclear and cannot be solely related to disease or center characteristics.

  5. Does workplace social capital buffer the effects of job stress? A cross-sectional, multilevel analysis of cigarette smoking among U.S. manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Sapp, Amy L.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Sorensen, Glorian; LaMontagne, Anthony D.; Subramanian, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether workplace social capital buffers the association between job stress and smoking status. Methods As part of the Harvard Cancer Prevention Project’s Healthy Directions-Small Business Study, interviewer-administered questionnaires were completed by 1740 workers and 288 managers in 26 manufacturing firms (84% and 85% response). Social capital was assessed by multiple items measured at the individual-level among workers, and contextual-level among managers. Job stress was operationalized by the demand-control model. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate associations between job stressors and smoking, and test for effect modification by social capital measures. Results Workplace social capital (both summary measures) buffered associations between high job demands and smoking. One compositional item—worker trust in managers—buffered associations between job strain and smoking. Conclusion Workplace social capital may modify the effects of psychosocial working conditions on health behaviors. PMID:20595910

  6. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  7. Cross sections of deposited layers investigated by micronuclear reaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Petersson, P.; Bergsåker, H.; Possnert, G.; Coad, J. P.; Likonen, J.; Koivuranta, S.; Hakola, A.

    2011-08-01

    Cross sections of deposited layers from the divertor of the Joint European Torus (JET) have been investigated, microscopically and by ion microbeam analysis. The thickness of these layers on the studied samples varies between about 50 μm and 800 μm depending on the exposure time and poloidal location of the sample. For most of the thicker layers a laminar structure is observed. In some locations changes, such as gaps, are also observed along the laminar structure as well as more complex structures. The possibility to use the layers as historical reference was also investigated.

  8. Analysis of cross sections using various nuclear potential

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, Azni Abdul; Kassim, Hasan Abu; Yusof, Norhasliza; Muhammad Zamrun, F.

    2014-05-02

    The relevant astrophysical reaction rates which are derived from the reaction cross sections are necessary input to the reaction network. In this work, we analyse several theoretical models of the nuclear potential which give better prediction of the cross sections for some selected reactions.

  9. EGAF: Measurement and Analysis of Gamma-ray Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.; Abusaleem, K.; Basunia, M. S.; Bečvář, F.; Belgya, T.; Bernstein, L. A.; Choi, H. D.; Escher, J. E.; Genreith, C.; Hurst, A. M.; Krtička, M.; Renne, P. R.; Révay, Zs.; Rogers, A. M.; Rossbach, M.; Siem, S.; Sleaford, B.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; van Bibber, K.; Wiedeking, M.

    2014-05-01

    The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) is the result of a 2000-2007 IAEA Coordinated Research Project to develop a database of thermal, prompt γ-ray cross sections, σγ, for all elemental and selected radioactive targets. No previous database of this kind had existed. EGAF was originally based on measurements using guided neutron beams from the Budapest Reactor on all elemental targets from Z=1-82, 90 and 92, except for He and Pm. The EGAF σγ data were published in the Database of Prompt Gamma Rays from Slow Neutron Capture for Elemental Analysis [1]. An international collaboration has formed to continue the EGAF measurements with isotopically enriched targets, derive total radiative thermal neutron cross sections, σ0, extend the σγ data from thermal to 20 MeV neutrons, compile a completed activation data file, improve sections of the Reference Input Parameter Library (RIPL) with more complete and up to date level and γ-ray data, evaluate statistical γ-ray data from reaction studies, and determine recommended neutron separations energies, Sn, for atomic mass evaluations. A new guided neutron beam facility has become available at the Garching (Munich) FRM II Reactor, and high energy neutron experimental facilities are being developed by a Berkeley area collaboration where 5-33 MeV neutron beams are available at the LBNL 88” cyclotron, 2.5 and 14 MeV beams at the University of California, Berkeley neutron generator laboratory, and high flux, 10 nṡcmṡ-2 s-1, neutron pulses available from the LLNL National Ignition Facility (NIF).

  10. Experimental nuclear cross sections for spacecraft shield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peelle, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been performed to validate and to supplement the intranuclear cascade model as a method for estimating cross sections of importance to spacecraft shield design. The experimental situation is inconclusive particularly for neutron-producing reactions, but is relatively sound for reaction cross sections and for proton spectra at several hundred MeV at medium forward angles. Secondary photon contributions are imprecisely known.

  11. An evaluation of wind turbine blade cross section analysis techniques.

    SciTech Connect

    Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd; Laird, Daniel L.; Resor, Brian Ray

    2010-03-01

    The blades of a modern wind turbine are critical components central to capturing and transmitting most of the load experienced by the system. They are complex structural items composed of many layers of fiber and resin composite material and typically, one or more shear webs. Large turbine blades being developed today are beyond the point of effective trial-and-error design of the past and design for reliability is always extremely important. Section analysis tools are used to reduce the three-dimensional continuum blade structure to a simpler beam representation for use in system response calculations to support full system design and certification. One model simplification approach is to analyze the two-dimensional blade cross sections to determine the properties for the beam. Another technique is to determine beam properties using static deflections of a full three-dimensional finite element model of a blade. This paper provides insight into discrepancies observed in outputs from each approach. Simple two-dimensional geometries and three-dimensional blade models are analyzed in this investigation. Finally, a subset of computational and experimental section properties for a full turbine blade are compared.

  12. Cross section measurements via residual nuclear decays: Analysis methods

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Fengqun; Gao Lei; Li Kuohu; Song Yueli; Zhang Fang; Kong Xiangzhong; Luo Junhua

    2009-11-15

    We develop an approach to calculating the pure cross section of the ground state of artificial radioactive nuclides that subtracts the effect of an excited state on the ground state. We apply a formalism to obtaining pure cross sections by subtracting the effect of excited states in the reactions {sup 122}Te(n,2n){sup 121}Te{sup g} and {sup 128}Te(n,2n){sup 127}Te{sup g}, induced by neutrons of about 14 MeV. The cross sections are measured by an activation relative to the {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reaction and are compared with results that take into account the effect of the excited state. Measurements are carried out by {gamma} detection using a coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. As samples, spectroscopically pure Te powder is used. The fast neutrons are produced by the {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He reaction. The neutron energies in these measurements are determined using the method of cross-section ratios between the {sup 90}Zr(n,2n){sup 89}Zr{sup m+g} and {sup 93}Nb(n,2n){sup 92}Nb{sup m} reactions.

  13. Section Builder: A finite element tool for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, Uttam Kumar

    SectionBuilder is an innovative finite element based tool, developed for analysis and design of composite beam cross-sections. The tool can handle the cross-sections with parametric shapes and arbitrary configurations. It can also handle arbitrary lay-ups for predefined beam cross-section geometries in a consistent manner. The material properties for each layer of the cross-section can be defined on the basis of the design requirements. This tool is capable of dealing with multi-cell composite cross-sections with arbitrary lay-ups. It has also the benefit of handling the variation of thickness of skin and D-spars for beams such as rotor blades. A typical cross-section is considered as a collection of interconnected walls. Walls with arbitrary lay-ups based on predefined geometries and material properties are generated first. The complex composite beam cross-sections are developed by connecting the walls using various types of connectors. These connectors are compatible with the walls, i.e., the thickness of the layers of the walls must match with those of the connectors at the place of connection. Cross-sections are often reinforced by core material for constructing realistic rotor blade cross-sections. The tool has the ability to integrate core materials into the cross-sections. A mapped mesh is considered for meshing parametric shapes, walls and various connectors, whereas a free mesh is considered for meshing the core materials. A new algorithm based on the Delaunay refinement algorithm is developed for creating the best possible free mesh for core materials. After meshing the cross-section, the tool determines the sectional properties using finite element analysis. This tool computes sectional properties including stiffness matrix, compliance matrix, mass matrix, and principal axes. A visualization environment is integrated with the tool for visualizing the stress and strain distributions over the cross-section.

  14. Cross-sectional analysis of renal transplantation osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Parker, C R; Freemont, A J; Blackwell, P J; Grainge, M J; Hosking, D J

    1999-11-01

    We report a cross-sectional study of 54 adult female renal transplant recipients. We measured bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, femoral neck, total hip, and mid- and total radius, and 38 patients underwent transiliac crest bone biopsy. Osteopenia was widespread with 31/54 (57%) of patients osteoporotic at one or more sites. Seventeen out of 54 (32%) of the patients had a prevalent low-trauma fracture. There was a clear trend in BMD reduction across spine, hip and midradius, with the predominantly cortical midradial site showing the greatest loss. We found no relationship between BMD and body mass index, parathyroid hormone (PTH), dose of immunosuppressant, years since transplantation, age at menopause, or years since menopause. Histologically, abnormal biopsies could be classified into three categories: hyperparathyroid (n = 20), adynamic (n = 14), and osteomalacic (n = 2). Mean PTH was lower (p = NS) and mean cumulative prednisolone dose was higher (p = 0.04) in the adynamic group compared with the hyperparathyroid group, but because of overlap between groups neither was an effective discriminator of histology. We suggest that bone biopsy is indicated in these patients to direct appropriate treatment. At the cellular level, there were significant negative correlations between osteoclast function (eroded surface, r = 0.47, p = 0.003) and osteoblast numbers (osteoblast surface, r = -0.40, p = 0.01) and cumulative exposure to prednisolone. We postulate that suppression of osteoblast function by prednisolone with unopposed bone resorption may result in relative hypercalcaemia and low PTH. This progressive reduction in bone turnover may promote or prolong the adynamic state.

  15. Covariance of Neutron Cross Sections for {sup 16}O through R-matrix Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kunieda, S.; Kawano, T.; Paris, M.; Hale, G.M.; Shibata, K.; Fukahori, T.

    2015-01-15

    Through the R-matrix analysis, neutron cross sections as well as the covariance are estimated for {sup 16}O in the resolved resonance range. Although we consider the current results are still preliminary, we present the summary of the cross section analysis and the results of data uncertainty/covariance, including those for the differential cross sections. It is found that the values obtained highlight consequences of nature in the theory as well as knowledge from measurements, which gives a realistic quantification of evaluated nuclear data covariances.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Impact of Rehabilitation Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Gaughan, Suzanne M.

    1975-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of the data, stratified by length of time between case closure and follow-up, supported the conclusion that rehabilitation counseling has a lasting impact on the work adjustment of the client. (Author)

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of National Dental Residency Match Data.

    PubMed

    Prakasam, Sivaraman; Brady, Patrick; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Rampa, Sankeerth; Shin, Kyungsup; Nalliah, Romesh; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2017-03-01

    The Dental Residency Match (DRM) program provides an ethical and unbiased selection process for applicants to postdoctoral dental programs, based on mutual interests of applicants and programs. The aims of this study were to conduct a descriptive analysis of DRM metrics for the years 2008 to 2015 and to test the hypothesis that there was a difference in number of ranks submitted between programs that filled all their offered positions and those that did not. DRM metrics data from years 2008 to 2015 were obtained from the National Matching Service. Trend analyses and panel data assessments were made. Six types of postdoctoral dental programs (GPR, AEGD, oral and maxillofacial surgery, pediatric dentistry, orthodontics, and dental anesthesiology) participate in the DRM program. The results showed that the number of programs participating and number of residency positions offered increased over the study period. The programs that filled all their positions ranked more applicants than the programs that did not fill their positions (p<0.05). The number of acceptable applicants increased over the study period for all programs except those in dental anesthesiology. These results suggest that participation in DRM is increasing, most programs are able to fill their positions with acceptable applicants, and programs seeking to fill all their positions need to submit a large number of ranks.

  18. Buckling and vibration analysis of a simply supported column with a piecewise constant cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lake, Mark S.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis and sample results for the lateral buckling and vibration of a compressively loaded column is presented whose cross section is piecewise constant along its length. The column is symmetric about its mid-span and consists of three sections, the center section having a stiffer cross section than the two identical end sections. Buckling and vibration characteristics of the column are determined from numerical solution of the exact eigenvalue problems. Parametric structural efficiency analyses are performed using a nondimensionalized set of governing equations to determine the optimum ratio between the lengths of the center section and the outer sections based on both buckling load and vibration frequency requirements. In these analyses, two relationships exist. One is between cross-sectional mass and the cross section, and the other is a high-efficiency scheme. The effect of axial load on vibration frequency is also examined and compared with that of a uniform column.

  19. Multidimensional analysis of fast-spectrum material replacement measurements for systematic estimation of cross section uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klann, P. G.; Lantz, E.; Mayo, W. T.

    1973-01-01

    A series of central core and core-reflector interface sample replacement experiments for 16 materials performed in the NASA heavy-metal-reflected, fast spectrum critical assembly (NCA) were analyzed in four and 13 groups using the GAM 2 cross-section set. The individual worths obtained by TDSN and DOT multidimensional transport theory calculations showed significant differences from the experimental results. These were attributed to cross-section uncertainties in the GAM 2 cross sections. Simultaneous analysis of the measured and calculated sample worths permitted separation of the worths into capture and scattering components which systematically provided fast spectrum averaged correction factors to the magnitudes of the GAM 2 absorption and scattering cross sections. Several Los Alamos clean critical assemblies containing Oy, Ta, and Mo as well as one of the NCA compositions were reanalyzed using the corrected cross sections. In all cases the eigenvalues were significantly improved and were recomputed to within 1 percent of the experimental eigenvalue. A comparable procedure may be used for ENDF cross sections when these are available.

  20. Effective inelastic scattering cross-sections for background analysis in HAXPES of deeply buried layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risterucci, P.; Renault, O.; Zborowski, C.; Bertrand, D.; Torres, A.; Rueff, J.-P.; Ceolin, D.; Grenet, G.; Tougaard, S.

    2017-04-01

    Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard's practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25-40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.

  1. Comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution uncertainty analysis for a fusion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; LaBauve, R.J.; Young, P.G.

    1980-05-01

    On the example of General Atomic's well-documented Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR) design, this report exercises a comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainty analysis. The LASL sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code SENSIT is used to calculate reaction cross-section sensitivity profiles and integral SED sensitivity coefficients. These are then folded with covariance matrices and integral SED uncertainties to obtain the resulting uncertainties of three calculated neutronics design parameters: two critical radiation damage rates and a nuclear heating rate. The report documents the first sensitivity-based data uncertainty analysis, which incorporates a quantitative treatment of the effects of SED uncertainties. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ENDF/B-V cross-section data files for C, H, and O, including their SED data, are fully adequate for this design application, while the data for Fe and Ni are at best marginally adequate because they give rise to response uncertainties up to 25%. Much higher response uncertainties are caused by cross-section and SED data uncertainties in Cu (26 to 45%), tungsten (24 to 54%), and Cr (up to 98%). Specific recommendations are given for re-evaluations of certain reaction cross-sections, secondary energy distributions, and uncertainty estimates.

  2. Analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. E.; Fadin, V. S.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.

  3. Analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, R. E. Fadin, V. S.

    2015-01-15

    An analysis of approximations used in calculations of radiative corrections to electron-proton scattering cross section is presented. We investigate the difference between the relatively recent Maximon and Tjon result and the Mo and Tsai result, which was used in the analysis of experimental data. We also discuss the proton form factors ratio dependence on the way we take into account radiative corrections.

  4. Optimization of multi-group cross sections for fast reactor analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, M. R.; Manalo, K. L.; Edgar, C. A.; Paul, J. N.; Molinar, M. P.; Redd, E. M.; Yi, C.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-07-01

    The selection of the number of broad energy groups, collapsed broad energy group boundaries, and their associated evaluation into collapsed macroscopic cross sections from a general 238-group ENDF/B-VII library dramatically impacted the k eigenvalue for fast reactor analysis. An analysis was undertaken to assess the minimum number of energy groups that would preserve problem physics; this involved studies using the 3D deterministic transport parallel code PENTRAN, the 2D deterministic transport code SCALE6.1, the Monte Carlo based MCNP5 code, and the YGROUP cross section collapsing tool on a spatially discretized MOX fuel pin comprised of 21% PUO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} with sodium coolant. The various cases resulted in a few hundred pcm difference between cross section libraries that included the 238 multi-group reference, and cross sections rendered using various reaction and adjoint weighted cross sections rendered by the YGROUP tool, and a reference continuous energy MCNP case. Particular emphasis was placed on the higher energies characteristic of fission neutrons in a fast spectrum; adjoint computations were performed to determine the average per-group adjoint fission importance for the MOX fuel pin. This study concluded that at least 10 energy groups for neutron transport calculations are required to accurately predict the eigenvalue for a fast reactor system to within 250 pcm of the 238 group case. In addition, the cross section collapsing/weighting schemes within YGROUP that provided a collapsed library rendering eigenvalues closest to the reference were the contribution collapsed, reaction rate weighted scheme. A brief analysis on homogenization of the MOX fuel pin is also provided, although more work is in progress in this area. (authors)

  5. Medium effects in K+ nucleus interaction from consistent analysis of integral and differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    1997-02-01

    Self-consistency in the analysis of transmission measurements for K+ on several nuclei in the momentum range of 500-700 MeV/c is achieved with a `teff(ρ)ρ' potential and new results are derived for total cross sections. The imaginary part of the teff amplitude is found to increase linearly with the average nuclear density in excess of a threshold value of 0.088+/-0.004 fm-3. This phenomenological density dependence of the K+ nucleus optical potential also gives rise to good agreement with recent measurements of differential cross sections for elastic scattering of 715 MeV/c K+ by 6Li and C.

  6. Slow Wave Vane Structure with Elliptical Cross-Section Slots, an Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmahl, Henry G.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical analysis of the wave equation in cylinders with elliptical cross-section slots was performed. Compared to slow wave structures with rectangular slots higher impedance and lower power dissipation losses are evident. These features could lead to improved designs of traveling wave magnetrons and gigahertz backward-wave oscillators as well as linear traveling wave tubes with relatively shallow slots.

  7. Unified nonlinear analysis for nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with closed cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atilgan, Ali R.; Hodges, Dewey H.

    1991-01-01

    A unified methodology for geometrically nonlinear analysis of nonhomogeneous, anisotropic beams is presented. A 2D cross-sectional analysis and a nonlinear 1D global deformation analysis are derived from the common framework of a 3D, geometrically nonlinear theory of elasticity. The only restrictions are that the strain and local rotation are small compared to unity and that warping displacements are small relative to the cross-sectional dimensions. It is concluded that the warping solutions can be affected by large deformation and that this could alter the incremental stiffnes of the section. It is shown that sectional constants derived from the published, linear analysis can be used in the present nonlinear, 1D analysis governing the global deformation of the beam, which is based on intrinsic equations for nonlinear beam behavior. Excellent correlation is obtained with published experimental results for both isotropic and anisotropic beams undergoing large deflections.

  8. DIFFERENTIAL CROSS SECTION ANALYSIS IN KAON PHOTOPRODUCTION USING ASSOCIATED LEGENDRE POLYNOMIALS

    SciTech Connect

    P. T. P. HUTAURUK, D. G. IRELAND, G. ROSNER

    2009-04-01

    Angular distributions of differential cross sections from the latest CLAS data sets,6 for the reaction γ + p→K+ + Λ have been analyzed using associated Legendre polynomials. This analysis is based upon theoretical calculations in Ref. 1 where all sixteen observables in kaon photoproduction can be classified into four Legendre classes. Each observable can be described by an expansion of associated Legendre polynomial functions. One of the questions to be addressed is how many associated Legendre polynomials are required to describe the data. In this preliminary analysis, we used data models with different numbers of associated Legendre polynomials. We then compared these models by calculating posterior probabilities of the models. We found that the CLAS data set needs no more than four associated Legendre polynomials to describe the differential cross section data. In addition, we also show the extracted coefficients of the best model.

  9. Autism Symptoms across Adulthood in Men with Fragile X Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Wheeler, Anne C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Raspa, Melissa; Mihaila, Iulia; Bishop, Ellen; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional analysis was used to examine age-related differences in ASD symptoms and corresponding differences in disruptive behavior and social skills in 281 adult men with fragile X syndrome. Four age groups were created: 18-21, 22-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years. The 18-21 year-old group was reported to have more impairments in verbal…

  10. Cross sections for n+{sup 14}N from an R-matrix analysis of the {sup 15}N system

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, G.M.; Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki Dose Reevaluation Program, a new evaluation of the neutron cross sections for {sup 14}N was made for ENDF/B-VI, based at energies below 2.5 MeV on a multichannel R-matrix analysis of reactions in the {sup 15}N system. The types of data used in the analysis, and the resulting cross sections and resonance structure for {sup 15}N are briefly described. The resonant features of the neutron cross sections were especially well determined by including precise, high-resolution neutron total cross section measurements from ORNL. While the new evaluated cross section appear to be significant improvements over the earlier ones, they still need to be tested more extensively against recent measurements of the differential elastic cross section from Oak Ridge.

  11. Theoretical and computational analysis of the quantum radar cross section for simple geometrical targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Lanzagorta, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The concept of the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) has generated interest due to its promising feature of enhanced side lobe target visibility in comparison to the classical radar cross section. Researchers have simulated the QRCS for very limited geometries and even developed approximations to reduce the computational complexity of the simulations. This paper develops an alternate theoretical framework for calculating the QRCS. This new framework yields an alternative form of the QRCS expression in terms of Fourier transforms. This formulation is much easier to work with mathematically and allows one to derive analytical solutions for various geometries, which provides an explanation for the aforementioned sidelobe advantage. We also verify the resulting equations by comparing with numerical simulations, as well as provide an error analysis of these simulations to ensure the accuracy of the results. Comparison of our simulation results with the analytical solutions reveal that they agree with one another extremely well.

  12. Multilevel Correlates of Non-Adherence in Kidney Transplant Patients Benefitting from Full Cost Coverage for Immunosuppressives: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsicano, Elisa Oliveira; Fernandes, Neimar Silva; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Fernandes, Natalia Maria Silva; De Geest, Sabina; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady

    2015-01-01

    Background Adherence is the result of the interaction of the macro, meso, micro, and patient level factors. The macro level includes full coverage of immunosuppressive medications as is the case in Brazil. We studied the correlates of immunosuppressive non-adherence in post kidney transplant patients in the Brazilian health care system. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, adherence to immunosuppressives was assessed in a sample of 100 kidney transplant patients using a composite non-adherence score consisting of three methods (self-report [i.e., The Basel Adherence Scale for Assessment of Immunossupressives–BAASIS], collateral report, and immunosuppressive blood levels). Multilevel correlations of non-adherence were assessed (macro, meso, micro and patient level). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess the correlates of non-adherence. Results Our sample consisted primarily of male (65%), Caucasians (72%) with a mean age of 45.0 ± 13.5 years old, who received grafts from a living donor (89%), with a mean time after transplantation of 72.3 ± 44.4 months. Prevalence of non-adherence was 51%. Family income higher than five reference wages (21.6 vs. 4%; OR 6.46 [1.35–30.89], p = 0.009; patient level), and having access to private health insurance (35.3% vs. 18.4%; OR 2.42 [0.96–6.10], p = 0.04; meso level) were associated with non-adherence in univariate analysis. Only the higher family income variable was retained in the multiple logistic regression model (OR 5.0; IC: 1.01–25.14; p = 0.04). Conclusions Higher family income was the only factor that was associated with immunosuppressive non-adherence. In Brazil, lower income recipients benefit from better access to care and coverage of health care costs after transplantation. This is supposed to result in a better immunosuppressive adherence compared to high-income patients who have experienced these benefits continuously. PMID:26619070

  13. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code. [In FORTRAN for CDC-7600, IBM 360

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE.

  14. Three-dimensional vibration analysis of a torus with circular cross section.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Au, F T K; Lo, S H; Cheung, Y K

    2002-12-01

    The free vibration characteristics of a torus with a circular cross section are studied by using the three-dimensional, small-strain, elasticity theory. A set of three-dimensional orthogonal coordinates system, comprising the polar coordinate (r, theta) at each circular cross section and the circumferential coordinate phi around the ring, is developed. Each of the displacement components u(r), v(theta), and w(phi) in the r, theta, and phi directions, respectively, is taken as a product of the Chebyshev polynomials in the r direction and the trigonometric functions in the theta and phi directions. Eigenfrequencies and vibration mode shapes have been obtained via a three-dimensional displacement-based extremum energy principle. Upper bound convergence of the first seven eigenfrequencies accurate to at least six significant figures is obtained by using only a few terms of the admissible functions. The eigenfrequency responses due to variation of the ratio of the radius of the ring centroidal axis to the cross-sectional radius are investigated in detail. Very accurate eigenfrequencies and deformed mode shapes of the three-dimensional vibration are presented. All major modes such as flexural thickness-shear modes, in-plane stretching modes, and torsional modes are included in the analysis. The results may serve as a benchmark reference for validating other computational techniques for the problem.

  15. R-matrix analysis of Cl neutron cross sections up to 1.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Rauscher, T.

    2006-04-15

    We have analyzed and evaluated {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, and {sup nat}Cl neutron cross section data in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Energies and widths were determined for 388 resonances in the range 0.2 to 1200 keV. New J assignments were made for 33 resonances, and parities were assigned for 15 of these resonances. Neutron strength functions were calculated for both s and p waves; our results include the first reported p-wave values for Cl. Resonance analyses were carried out with the computer code SAMMY, which utilizes Bayes' method, a generalized least-squares technique. Because SAMMY now has the ability to calculate charged-particle penetrabilities, it was possible to include a proton exit channel in the analysis and to deduce proton widths for several resonances. Our resonance parameter representation describes the data much better than previous evaluations, and it should lead to improved criticality safety calculations for systems where Cl is present.

  16. Retinal microaneurysm detection through local rotating cross-section profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Istvan; Hajdu, Andras

    2013-02-01

    A method for the automatic detection of microaneurysms (MAs) in color retinal images is proposed in this paper. The recognition of MAs is an essential step in the diagnosis and grading of diabetic retinopathy. The proposed method realizes MA detection through the analysis of directional cross-section profiles centered on the local maximum pixels of the preprocessed image. Peak detection is applied on each profile, and a set of attributes regarding the size, height, and shape of the peak are calculated subsequently. The statistical measures of these attribute values as the orientation of the cross-section changes constitute the feature set that is used in a naïve Bayes classification to exclude spurious candidates. We give a formula for the final score of the remaining candidates, which can be thresholded further for a binary output. The proposed method has been tested in the Retinopathy Online Challenge, where it proved to be competitive with the state-of-the-art approaches. We also present the experimental results for a private image set using the same classifier setup.

  17. Temperature Analysis of Coronal Loop Cross-Sections: Monolithic vs. Nanoflare Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, P.

    2011-05-01

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in 6 filters in a temperature range of T ≈ 0.5-16 MK, and 4 different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of σlog(T) ≤ 0.11±0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from TRACE by Aschwanden and Nightingale (2005) and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. (2008) or Tripathi et al. (2009). We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line-of-sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 [[Unable to Display Character: Ǻ

  18. Does habituation differ in chronic low back pain subjects compared to pain-free controls? A cross-sectional pain rating ERP study reanalyzed with the ERFIA multilevel method.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Catherine J; Vossen, Helen G M; Joosten, Engelbert A; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity.In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity.Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed.In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue.

  19. Does Habituation Differ in Chronic Low Back Pain Subjects Compared to Pain-Free Controls? A Cross-Sectional Pain Rating ERP Study Reanalyzed with the ERFIA Multilevel Method

    PubMed Central

    Vossen, Catherine J.; Vossen, Helen G.M.; Joosten, Engelbert A.; van Os, Jim; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to investigate cortical differences between chronic low back pain (CLBP) subjects and pain-free controls with respect to habituation and processing of stimulus intensity. The use of a novel event-related fixed-interval areas (ERFIA) multilevel technique enables the analysis of event-related electroencephalogram (EEG) of the whole post stimulus range at a single trial level. This technique makes it possible to disentangle the cortical processes of habituation and stimulus intensity. In a cross-sectional study, 78 individuals with CLBP and 85 pain-free controls underwent a rating paradigm of 150 nonpainful and painful somatosensory electrical stimuli. For each trial, the entire epoch was partitioned into 20-ms ERFIAs, which acted as dependent variables in a multilevel analysis. The variability of each consecutive ERFIA period was modeled with a set of predictor variables, including 3 forms of habituation and stimulus intensity. Seventy-six pain-free controls and 65 CLBP subjects were eligible for analysis. CLBP subjects showed a significantly decreased linear habituation at 340 to 460 ms in the midline electrodes and C3 (Ps < .05) and had a significantly more pronounced dishabituation for the regions of 400 to 460 ms and 800 to 820 ms for all electrodes, except for T3 and T4 (Ps < .05). No significant group differences for stimulus intensity processing were observed. In this study, group differences with respect to linear habituation and dishabituation were demonstrated. By means of the ERFIA multilevel technique, habituation effects were found in a broad post stimulus range and were not solely limited to peaks. This study suggests that habituation may be a key mechanism involved in the transition process to chronic pain. Future studies with a longitudinal design are required to solve this issue. PMID:25984683

  20. Analysis of influential factors on a space target's laser radar cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi; Sun, Huayan; Guo, Huichao

    2014-03-01

    This paper utilises the idea of theoretical analysis to introduce a fast and visual laser radar cross-section (LRCS) calculation method for space targets that is implemented with OpenGL. We chose the cube, cylinder and cone as targets based on the general characteristics of satellite shapes. The four-parameter mono-station BRDF is used, and we assume the surface materials are either purely diffuse, purely specular or mixed. The degree of influence on a target's total LRCS of the target's shape and size and the surface materials' BRDF are described. We describe the general laws governing influential factors by comparing simulated results. These conclusions can provide a reference for new research directions and methods to determine a target's laser scattering characteristics.

  1. Principal-components analysis of fluorescence cross-section spectra from pathogenic and simulant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaton, Harold I.

    2005-10-01

    Principal-components analysis of a new set of highly resolved (<1 nm) fluorescence cross-section spectra excited at 354.7 nm over the 370 646 nm band has been used to demonstrate the potential ability of UV standoff lidars to discriminate among particular biological warfare agents and simulants over short ranges. The remapped spectra produced by this technique from Bacillus globigii (Bg) and Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores were sufficiently different to allow them to be cleanly separated, and the Ba spectra obtained from Sterne and Ames strain spores were distinguishable. These patterns persisted as the spectral resolution was subsequently degraded in processing from ˜1 to 34 nm. This is to the author's knowledge the first time that resolved fluorescence spectra from biological warfare agents have been speciated or shown to be distinguishably different from those normally used surrogates by optical spectroscopy.

  2. Trends in binge drinking in Canada from 1996 to 2013: a repeated cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bulloch, Andrew G.M.; Williams, Jeanne V.A.; Lavorato, Dina H.; Patten, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heavy drinking is a major factor in morbidity and mortality worldwide. Little information is available on trends in Canada regarding alcohol abuse. We sought to estimate abstinence, binge drinking and alcohol intake exceeding low-risk drinking guidelines in the Canadian population from 1996 to 2013. Methods: The data sources for this analysis were a series of cross-sectional national health surveys of the Canadian population carried out by Statistics Canada between 1996 and 2013. These were cross-sectional files from the National Population Health Surveys of 1996 and 1998, plus the Canadian Community Health Surveys from 2000 to 2013. Respondents were aged 18 years and older. Results: The proportion of binge drinkers increased steadily from 13.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.2%-14.2%) in 1996 to 19.7% (95% CI 19.1%-20.3%) in 2013. The corresponding proportions for men were 20.8% (95% CI 19.9%-21.7%) in 1996, and 25.7% (95% CI 24.7%-26.6%) in 2013; for women, these proportions were 6.9% (95% CI 6.4%-7.5%) in 1996, and 13.8% (95% CI 13.1%-14.5%) in 2013. No significant increases were seen in the proportion of people who exceeded low-risk drinking guidelines or of abstainers during the same period. Interpretation: The rate of self-reported binge drinking in Canada has increased from 1996 to 2013, relatively more so among women than among men. No evidence of an increase in the proportion of people exceeding low-risk drinking guidelines or of abstainers was seen during the same period. These results suggest that binge drinking is of particular concern regarding intervention strategies aimed at improvement of public health. PMID:28018872

  3. Capture cross section measurement analysis in the Californium-252 spectrum with the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Manojlovič, Stanko; Trkov, Andrej; Žerovnik, Gašper; Snoj, Luka

    2015-07-01

    Absolute average capture cross sections of gold, thorium, tantalum, molybdenum, copper and strontium in (252)Cf spontaneous fission neutron spectrum were simulated for two types of experiment setups preformed by Z. Dezso and J. Csikai and by L. Green. The experiments were simulated with MCNP5 using cross section data from the ENDF/B-VII.0 library. The determination of neutron backscattering was calculated with the use of neutron flagging. Correction factors to experimentally measured values were determined to obtain average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spontaneous fission spectrum. Influence of concrete wall thickness, air moisture and room size on the average cross section was analyzed. Correction factors amounted to about 30%. Corrected values corresponding to average cross sections in a pure (252)Cf spectrum were calculated for (197)Au, (232)Th, (181)Ta, (98)Mo, (65)Cu and (84)Sr. Average cross sections were also calculated with the RR_UNC software using IRDFF-v.1.05 and ENDF/B-VII.0 libraries. The revised average radiative capture cross sections are 75.5±0.1 mb for (197)Au, 87.0±1.6 mb for (232)Th , 98.0±4.5 mb for (181)Ta, 21.2±0.5 mb for (98)Mo, 10.3±0.3 mb for (63)Cu, and 34.9±6.5 mb for (84)Sr.

  4. Cross-section Effects in the Super-Kamiokande Tau Appearance Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Christopher

    2011-11-23

    In this talk, I explain the search for tau neutrino appearance in the atmospheric neutrino flux at Super-Kamiokande with a particular emphasis on the effect deep inelastic cross section uncertainties have on interpreting the result. In particular, I explain why the normalization of the DIS cross-section also needs to be treated as a parameter in the fit of tau normalization, and show how a neural net based on event parameters can separate various cross-section modes in the background sample.

  5. Older patients’ perceived burdens of their health problems: a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices

    PubMed Central

    Junius-Walker, Ulrike; Wiese, Birgitt; Klaaßen-Mielke, Renate; Theile, Gudrun; Müller, Christiane Annette; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Older patients often experience the burden of multiple health problems. Physicians need to consider them to arrive at a holistic treatment plan. Yet, it has not been systematically investigated as to which personal burdens ensue from certain health conditions. Objective The objective of this study is to examine older patients’ perceived burden of their health problems. Patients and methods The study presents a cross-sectional analysis in 74 German general practices; 836 patients, 72 years and older (mean 79±4.4), rated the burden of each health problem disclosed by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Patients rated each burden using three components: importance, emotional impact, and impact on daily activities. Cluster analyses were performed to define patterns in the rating of these components of burden. In a multilevel logistic regression analysis, independent factors that predict high and low burden were explored. Results Patients had a median of eleven health problems and rated the burden of altogether 8,900 health problems. Four clusters provided a good clustering structure. Two clusters describe a high burden, and a further two, a low burden. Patients attributed a high burden to social and psychological health problems (especially being a caregiver: odds ratio [OR] 10.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4–24.4), to specific symptoms (eg, claudication: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0; pain: OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.6–3.1), and physical disabilities. Patients rated a comparatively low burden for most of their medical findings, for cognitive impairment, and lifestyle issues (eg, hypertension: OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2–0.3). Conclusion The patients experienced a relatively greater burden for physical disabilities, mood, or social issues than for diseases themselves. Physicians should interpret these burdens in the individual context and consider them in their treatment planning. PMID:26124648

  6. Measurement and analysis of the Am243 neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Guerrero, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Balibrea, J.; Baumann, P.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lo Meo, S.; Lopes, I.; Lossito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.; n TOF Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Background: The design of new nuclear reactors and transmutation devices requires to reduce the present neutron cross section uncertainties of minor actinides. Purpose: Improvement of the Am243(n,γ) cross section uncertainty. Method: The Am243(n,γ) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with a BaF2 total absorption calorimeter, in the energy range between 0.7 eV and 2.5 keV. Results: The Am243(n ,γ) cross section has been successfully measured in the mentioned energy range. The resolved resonance region has been extended from 250 eV up to 400 eV. In the unresolved resonance region our results are compatible with one of the two incompatible capture data sets available below 2.5 keV. The data available in EXFOR and in the literature have been used to perform a simple analysis above 2.5 keV. Conclusions: The results of this measurement contribute to reduce the Am243(n,γ) cross section uncertainty and suggest that this cross section is underestimated up to 25% in the neutron energy range between 50 eV and a few keV in the present evaluated data libraries.

  7. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  8. Clinical Relevance of Sleep Duration: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis Using NHANES

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, M. Soledad; Stang, Paul; Blacketer, Clair; Kent, Justine M.; Wittenberg, Gayle M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the clinical relevance of sleep duration, hours slept were compared by health status, presence of insomnia, and presence of depression, and the association of sleep duration with BMI and cardiovascular risk was quantified. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of subjects in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys using adjusted linear and logistic regressions. Results: A total of 22,281 adults were included, 37% slept ≤ 6 hours, 36% were obese, and 45% reported cardiovascular conditions. Mean sleep duration was 6.87 hours. Better health was associated with more hours of sleep. Subjects with poor health reported sleeping 46 min, (95% CI −56.85 to −35.67) less than subjects with excellent health. Individuals with depression (vs. not depressed) reported 40 min less sleep, (95% CI −47.14 to −32.85). Individuals with insomnia (vs. without insomnia) reported 39 min less sleep, (95% CI −56.24 to −22.45). Duration of sleep was inversely related to BMI; for every additional hour of sleep, there was a decrease of 0.18 kg/m2 in BMI, (95% CI −0.30 to −0.06). The odds of reporting cardiovascular problems were 6.0% lower for every hour of sleep (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91 to 0.97]). Compared with subjects who slept ≤ 6 h, subjects who slept more had lower odds of reporting cardiovascular problems, with the exception of subjects ≥ 55 years old who slept ≥ 9 hours. Conclusions: Long sleep duration is associated with better health. The fewer the hours of sleep, the greater the BMI and reported cardiovascular disease. A difference of 30 minutes of sleep is associated with substantive impact on clinical well-being. Citation: Cepeda MS, Stang P, Blacketer C, Kent JM, Wittenberg GM. Clinical relevance of sleep duration: results from a cross-sectional analysis using NHANES. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(6):813–819. PMID:26951419

  9. Scanning electron microscopical and cross-sectional analysis of extraterrestrial carbonaceous nanoglobules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvie, Laurence A. J.; Baumgardner, Grant; Buseck, Peter R.

    2008-05-01

    Carbonaceous nanoglobules are ubiquitous in carbonaceous chondrite (CC) meteorites. The Tagish Lake (C2) meteorite is particularly intriguing in containing an abundance of nanoglobules, with a wider range of forms and sizes than encountered in other CC meteorites. Previous studies by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have provided a wealth of information on chemistry and structure. In this study low voltage scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the globule forms and external structures. The internal structure of the globules was investigated after sectioning by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The FIB-SEM analysis shows that the globules range from solid to hollow. Some hollow globules show a central open core, with adjoining smaller cores. The FIB with an SEM is a valuable tool for the analysis of extraterrestrial materials, even of sub-micron-sized "soft" carbonaceous particles. The rapid site-specific cross-sectioning capabilities of the FIB allow the preservation of the internal morphology of the nanoglobules, with minimal damage or alteration of the unsectioned areas.

  10. Analysis of Ku-band cross section at low incidence angles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapron, B.; Vandemark, D.

    1993-01-01

    This study is using airborne Ku-band data to address questions which have implications for both model function development and for advancing our physical understanding of the sea surface. Concurrent measurements of ocean directional spectra, significant wave height, and mean surface roughness are made using the capabilities of the radar ocean wave spectrometer (ROWS). The NASA/GSFC's ROWS is a 15 GHz pulse compressed radar which is a radar sensor designed to measure the direction of the long wave components using spectral analysis of the tilt induced reflectively modulation. The ROWS are modified to cycle at 50 Hz for the scanning spectrometer antenna and a wide beamwidth nadir altimeter mode. This change allows the sensor to simultaneously measure directional wave spectra, wave height, mean square slope parameter, and small scale surface roughness. The surface stress caused by the wind is widely believed to be the predominant quantity related to the Ku-band radar cross section for a wide range of incidence angles. The complete coverage in the quasi specular region provided by one sensor is essential to understand the uncertainties between the scattering model and what is happening on the surface. For this presentation, special attention is devoted to sort out some measurement of the anisotropy associated with the band of high frequencies. Using the other geophysical parameters, comparisons are then made with the classic spectral form currentlyused to describe the wind impact on the sea surface.

  11. Parametrizations and dynamical analysis of angle-integrated cross sections for double photoionization including nondipole effects

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, Andrei Y.; Starace, Anthony F.; Manakov, N. L.; Meremianin, A. V.; Kheifets, A. S.; Bray, Igor

    2005-11-15

    Similarly to differential cross sections for one-electron photoionization, the doubly differential cross section for double photoionization (DPI) may be conveniently described by four parameters: the singly differential (with respect to energy sharing) cross section ({sigma}{sub 0}), the dipole asymmetry parameter ({beta}), and two nondipole asymmetry parameters ({gamma} and {delta}). Here we derive two model-independent representations for these parameters for DPI from a {sup 1}S{sub 0} atomic bound state: (i) in terms of one-dimensional integrals of the polarization-invariant DPI amplitudes and (ii) in terms of the exact two-electron reduced matrix elements. For DPI of He at excess energies, E{sub exc}, of 100 eV, 450 eV, and 1 keV, we present numerical results for the asymmetry parameters within the framework of the convergent close-coupling theory and compare them with results of lowest-order (in the interelectron interaction) perturbation theory (LOPT). The results for E{sub exc}=1 keV exhibit a nondipole asymmetry that is large enough to be easily measured experimentally. We find excellent agreement between our LOPT results and other theoretical predictions and experimental data for total cross sections and ratios of double to single ionization cross sections for K-shell DPI from several multielectron atoms.

  12. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 55Mn from Reich-Moore Analysis of Recent Experimental Neutron Transmission and Capture Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M; Guber, Klaus H; Wiarda, Dorothea; Arbanas, Goran

    2008-01-01

    High-resolution neutron capture cross section measurements of 55Mn were recently performed at GELINA by Schillebeeckx et al. (2005) and at ORELA by Guber et al. (2007). The analysis of the experimental data was performed with the computer code SAMMY using the Bayesian approach in the resonance parameters representation of the cross sections. The neutron transmission data taken in 1988 by Harvey et al. (2007) and not analyzed before were added to the SAMMY experimental data base. More than 95% of the s-wave resonances and more than 85% of the p-wave resonances were identified in the energy range up to 125 keV, leading to the neutron strength functions S0 = (3.90 0.78) x 10-4 and S1 = (0.45 0.08) x 10-4. About 25% of the d-wave resonances were identified with a possible strength function of S2 = 1.0 x 10-4. The capture cross section calculated at 0.0253 eV is 13.27 b, and the capture resonance integral is 13.52 0.30 b. In the energy range 15 to 120 keV, the average capture cross section is 12% lower than Lerigoleur value and 25% smaller than Macklin value. GELINA and ORELA experimental capture cross sections show a background cross section not described by the Reich-Moore resonance parameters. Part of this background could be due to a direct capture component and/or to the missing d-wave resonances. The uncertainty of 10% on the average capture cross section above 20 keV is mainly due to the inaccuracy in the calculation of the background components.

  13. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    PubMed

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment.

  14. Implementation of chronic illness care in German primary care practices – how do multimorbid older patients view routine care? A cross-sectional study using multilevel hierarchical modeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In primary care, patients with multiple chronic conditions are the rule rather than the exception. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an evidence-based framework for improving chronic illness care, but little is known about the extent to which it has been implemented in routine primary care. The aim of this study was to describe how multimorbid older patients assess the routine chronic care they receive in primary care practices in Germany, and to explore the extent to which factors at both the practice and patient level determine their views. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from an observational cohort study involving 158 general practitioners (GP) and 3189 multimorbid patients. Standardized questionnaires were employed to collect data, and the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) questionnaire used to assess the quality of care received. Multilevel hierarchical modeling was used to identify any existing association between the dependent variable, PACIC, and independent variables at the patient level (socio-economic factors, weighted count of chronic conditions, instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life, graded chronic pain, no. of contacts with GP, existence of a disease management program (DMP) disease, self-efficacy, and social support) and the practice level (age and sex of GP, years in current practice, size and type of practice). Results The overall mean PACIC score was 2.4 (SD 0.8), with the mean subscale scores ranging from 2.0 (SD 1.0, subscale goal setting/tailoring) to 3.5 (SD 0.7, delivery system design). At the patient level, higher PACIC scores were associated with a DMP disease, more frequent GP contacts, higher social support, and higher autonomy of past occupation. At the practice level, solo practices were associated with higher PACIC values than other types of practice. Conclusions This study shows that from the perspective of multimorbid patients receiving care in German

  15. Reaction cross sections for two direct simulation Monte Carlo models: Accuracy and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysong, Ingrid; Gimelshein, Sergey; Gimelshein, Natalia; McKeon, William; Esposito, Fabrizio

    2012-04-01

    The quantum kinetic chemical reaction model proposed by Bird for the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is based on collision kinetics with no assumed Arrhenius-related parameters. It demonstrates an excellent agreement with the best estimates for thermal reaction rates coefficients and with two-temperature nonequilibrium rate coefficients for high-temperature air reactions. This paper investigates this model further, concentrating on the non-thermal reaction cross sections as a function of collision energy, and compares its predictions with those of the earlier total collision energy model, also by Bird, as well as with available quasi-classical trajectory cross section predictions (this paper also publishes for the first time a table of these computed reaction cross sections). A rarefied hypersonic flow over a cylinder is used to examine the sensitivity of the number of exchange reactions to the differences in the two models under a strongly nonequilibrium velocity distribution.

  16. Factor analysis of self-treatment in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-treatment is a treatment of oneself without professional help, which may cause health-related consequences. This investigation examined the self-treatment behaviors in patients with diabetes mellitus in Iran/kashan. Methods The patients who referred to the clinic of diabetes and those who were admitted to the General hospital in the city of Kashan due to diabetes mellitus were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. For data collection, The 25 item questionnaire of Likert scale type with four scales was used. Factor analysis was performed to define the patterns of self-treatment. Results 398 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 54.9 ± 12.9 years. The majority (97%) had type 2 diabetes. 50% of patients reported self- treatment. The self-treatment score was 45.8 ± 8.8 (25-100). Female gender, lower education and co-morbid illnesses of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiac disease had significant relationship with self-treatment. The factor analysis procedure revealed seven factors that explained the 43% of variation in the self-treatment. These seven factors were categorized as knowledge, deficiencies of formal treatments, available self-treatment methods, physician related factors, the tendency to use herbal remedies, underlying factors such as gender and factors related to diabetes. Conclusions There is a medium tendency for self-treatment in diabetic patients. The assessment of self-treatment practices must be an essential part of patients' management in diabetes care. PMID:21970577

  17. An X-Ray Analysis Database of Photoionization Cross Sections Including Variable Ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ping; Cohen, David H.; MacFarlane, Joseph J.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.

    1997-01-01

    Results of research efforts in the following areas are discussed: review of the major theoretical and experimental data of subshell photoionization cross sections and ionization edges of atomic ions to assess the accuracy of the data, and to compile the most reliable of these data in our own database; detailed atomic physics calculations to complement the database for all ions of 17 cosmically abundant elements; reconciling the data from various sources and our own calculations; and fitting cross sections with functional approximations and incorporating these functions into a compact computer code.Also, efforts included adapting an ionization equilibrium code, tabulating results, and incorporating them into the overall program and testing the code (both ionization equilibrium and opacity codes) with existing observational data. The background and scientific applications of this work are discussed. Atomic physics cross section models and calculations are described. Calculation results are compared with available experimental data and other theoretical data. The functional approximations used for fitting cross sections are outlined and applications of the database are discussed.

  18. A Theoretical Analysis of the Radar Cross Section of the Biconical Corner Reflector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    of normal incidence on a symmetrical reflector are corrected. Approved for Public Release POSTAL ADDRESS: Chief Superintendent, Electronics Research... CODE : Electronic Research Laboratory 01 34-TR____________________ 10 rIMPRINT (Publishing organisation) I I COMPUTER PROGRAM(S) Defence Research Centre...limitation. 141 DESCRIPTORS: Radar cross section I COSATI CODES a. EIC Thesaurus Biconical corner reflectors Terms Reference targets b. Non-Thesaurus

  19. Practice of Physical Activity among Future Doctors: A Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chythra R; Darshan, BB; Das, Nairita; Rajan, Vinaya; Bhogun, Meemansha; Gupta, Aditya

    2012-01-01

    Background: Non communicable diseases (NCD) will account for 73% of deaths and 60% of the global disease burden by 2020. Physical activity plays a major role in the prevention of these non-communicable diseases. The stress involved in meeting responsibilities of becoming a physician may adversely affect the exercise habits of students. So, the current study aimed to study the practice of physical activity among undergraduate medical students. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 240 undergraduate medical students. Quota sampling method was used to identify 60 students from each of the four even semesters. A pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16 was used for data entry and analysis and results are expressed as percentages and proportions. Results: In our study, 55% were 20 to 22 years old. Over half of the students were utilizing the sports facilities provided by the university in the campus. Majority of students 165 (69%) had normal body mass index (BMI), (51) 21% were overweight, while 7 (3%) were obese. Of the 62% who were currently exercising, the practice of physical activity was more among boys as compared to girls (62% v/s 38%). Lack of time 46 (60.5%), laziness (61.8%), and exhaustion from academic activities (42%) were identified as important hindering factors among medical students who did not exercise. Conclusion: A longitudinal study to follow-up student behavior throughout their academic life is needed to identify the factors promoting the practice of physical activity among students. PMID:22708033

  20. Non-publication of large randomized clinical trials: cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Handler, Lara; Crowell, Karen E; Keil, Lukas G; Weaver, Mark A; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency with which results of large randomized clinical trials registered with ClinicalTrials.gov are not available to the public. Design Cross sectional analysis Setting Trials with at least 500 participants that were prospectively registered with ClinicalTrials.gov and completed prior to January 2009. Data sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and Embase were searched to identify published manuscripts containing trial results. The final literature search occurred in November 2012. Registry entries for unpublished trials were reviewed to determine whether results for these studies were available in the ClinicalTrials.gov results database. Main outcome measures The frequency of non-publication of trial results and, among unpublished studies, the frequency with which results are unavailable in the ClinicalTrials.gov database. Results Of 585 registered trials, 171 (29%) remained unpublished. These 171 unpublished trials had an estimated total enrollment of 299 763 study participants. The median time between study completion and the final literature search was 60 months for unpublished trials. Non-publication was more common among trials that received industry funding (150/468, 32%) than those that did not (21/117, 18%), P=0.003. Of the 171 unpublished trials, 133 (78%) had no results available in ClinicalTrials.gov. Conclusions Among this group of large clinical trials, non-publication of results was common and the availability of results in the ClinicalTrials.gov database was limited. A substantial number of study participants were exposed to the risks of trial participation without the societal benefits that accompany the dissemination of trial results. PMID:24169943

  1. Do socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary between different Spanish cities? a pooled cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between deprivation and mortality in urban settings is well established. This relationship has been found for several causes of death in Spanish cities in independent analyses (the MEDEA project). However, no joint analysis which pools the strength of this relationship across several cities has ever been undertaken. Such an analysis would determine, if appropriate, a joint relationship by linking the associations found. Methods A pooled cross-sectional analysis of the data from the MEDEA project has been carried out for each of the causes of death studied. Specifically, a meta-analysis has been carried out to pool the relative risks in eleven Spanish cities. Different deprivation-mortality relationships across the cities are considered in the analysis (fixed and random effects models). The size of the cities is also considered as a possible factor explaining differences between cities. Results Twenty studies have been carried out for different combinations of sex and causes of death. For nine of them (men: prostate cancer, diabetes, mental illnesses, Alzheimer’s disease, cerebrovascular disease; women: diabetes, mental illnesses, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis) no differences were found between cities in the effect of deprivation on mortality; in four cases (men: respiratory diseases, all causes of mortality; women: breast cancer, Alzheimer’s disease) differences not associated with the size of the city have been determined; in two cases (men: cirrhosis; women: lung cancer) differences strictly linked to the size of the city have been determined, and in five cases (men: lung cancer, ischaemic heart disease; women: ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, all causes of mortality) both kinds of differences have been found. Except for lung cancer in women, every significant relationship between deprivation and mortality goes in the same direction: deprivation increases mortality. Variability in the relative risks across

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  3. Prevalence of Smokeless Tobacco among Low Socioeconomic Populations: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Mohammad Nurul; Shahjahan, Mohammad; Yeasmin, Mahbuba; Ahmed, Nasar U.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cost, social acceptability and non-stringent regulations pertaining to smokeless tobacco (SLT) product sales have made people choose and continue using SLT. If disaggregated data on smokeless forms and smoked practices of tobacco are reviewed, the incidence of SLT remains static. There is a strong positive correlation of SLT intake with the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular disease, particularly in the low socioeconomic populations. Aims To investigate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco, its initiation influence and risk factors associated with the practice among lower socioeconomic populations of Bangladesh. In this study, we explore the utilization of SLT among lower socioeconomic populations in industrialized zone of Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using both quantitative and categorical approaches was employed. Using systematic random sampling method, four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted and 459 participants were interviewed. Multiple logistic regression model was applied to distinguish the significant factors among the SLT users. Results Almost fifty percent of the respondents initiated SLT usage at the age of 15–24 years and another 22 percent respondents were smoking and using SLT concurrently. The bulk of the women respondents used SLT during their pregnancy. Nearly twenty five percent of the respondents tried to quit the practice of SLT and one-quarter had a plan to quit SLT in the future. More than twenty percent respondents were suffering from dental decay. A noteworthy correlation was found by gender (p<0.01), sufferings from SLT related disease (p<0.05). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that, males were 2.7 times more knowledgeable than that of females (p<0.01) about the adversative health condition of SLT usage. The respondents suffering from SLT related diseases were 3.7 times as more knowledgeable about the effect of the practice of SLT than the respondents without diseases (p<0

  4. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  5. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ({sup 14}N{sub 7}, {sup 15}N{sub 7}, {sup 16}O{sub 8}, {sup 154Eu}{sub 63}, and {sup 155}Eu{sub 63}). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections.

  6. The use of cross-section warping functions in composite rotor blade analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the contracted period, our research was concentrated into three areas. The first was the development of an accurate and a computationally efficient method for predicting the cross-section warping functions in an arbitrary cross-section composed of isotropic and/or anisotropic materials. The second area of research was the development of a general higher-order one-dimensional theory for anisotropic beams. The third area of research was the development of an analytical model for assessing the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with initial twist. In the remaining six chapters of this report, the three different research areas and associated sub-research areas are covered independently including separate introductions, theoretical developments, numerical results, and references.

  7. Predicting Children's Media Use in the USA: Differences in Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sook-Jung; Bartolic, Silvia; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of children's media use in the USA, comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Data come from Waves 1 and 2 of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-I; CDS-II), a nationally representative sample of American children aged 0-12 in 1997 and 5-18 in 2002. Twenty-four hour time use…

  8. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn. PMID:27965962

  9. Supplier-induced demand: re-examining identification and misspecification in cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stuart J; Richardson, Jeffrey R J

    2007-09-01

    This paper re-examines criticisms of cross-sectional methods used to test for supplier-induced demand (SID) and re-evaluates the empirical evidence using data from Australian medical services. Cross-sectional studies of SID have been criticised on two grounds. First, and most important, the inclusion of the doctor supply in the demand equation leads to an identification problem. This criticism is shown to be invalid, as the doctor supply variable is stochastic and depends upon a variety of other variables including the desirability of the location. Second, cross-sectional studies of SID fail diagnostic tests and produce artefactual findings due to model misspecification. Contrary to this, the re-evaluation of cross-sectional Australian data indicate that demand equations that do not include the doctor supply are misspecified. Empirical evidence from the re-evaluation of Australian medical services data supports the notion of SID. Demand and supply equations are well specified and have very good explanatory power. The demand equation is identified and the desirability of a location is an important predictor of the doctor supply. Results show an average price elasticity of demand of 0.22 and an average elasticity of demand with respect to the doctor supply of 0.46, with the impact of SID becoming stronger as the doctor supply rises. The conclusion we draw from this paper is that two of the main criticisms of the empirical evidence supporting the SID hypothesis have been inappropriately levelled at the methods used. More importantly, SID provides a satisfactory, and robust, explanation of the empirical data on the demand for medical services in Australia.

  10. Caffeine Consumption and General Health in Secondary School Children: A Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Analysis.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gareth; Smith, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Although caffeine is sometimes associated with beneficial effects in adults, the substance may be dangerous if intake is too high. This concern is particularly relevant in regards to children and adolescents, as consumption of energy drinks may be particularly high in such populations. For this reason, the current study examined data from the Cornish Academies Project to determine whether caffeine intake in secondary school children was related to responses to a single-item measure of general health. Two cross-sections of data were available: questionnaires were completed by 2030 at baseline, by 2307 at 6-month follow-up, and by 1660 at both time-points. Relationships were, therefore, explored both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. High caffeine consumption (i.e., 1000 mg/week) was associated with low general health in both cross-sections of data, and analyses of individual caffeine sources suggested that the effects related specifically to cola and energy drinks. However, after controlling for additional aspects of diet, demography, and lifestyle, total weekly intake only remained significantly associated with general health at the latter time-point. Further to this, null findings from cross-lag and change-score analyses suggest that caffeine and general health were unlikely to be causally linked in this sample. However, due to methodological limitations, such as the two cross-sections of data being collected only 6 months apart, it is suggested that further longitudinal and intervention studies are required in order for firm conclusions to be drawn.

  11. Reaction Cross Sections for Two DSMC Models: Accuracy and Sensitivity Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-15

    trajectory (QCT) cross sections for N2+N dissociation and for N2+O endothermic exchange pro- vide a good test case. A DSMC simulation of a simple... endothermic reactions considered here, we have made the common simplifying assumption that Ea is equal to the heat of reaction. However, since some reactions...especially exothermic ones) have a non- negligible energy barrier, the QK model (like all others) in these cases would have to use an adjustable input

  12. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel, A.; Alharbi, T.

    2017-01-01

    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyüz-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions 16 O + 70 Ge and 28 Si + 100 Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data.

  13. Medication safety and chronic kidney disease in older adults prescribed metformin: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication safety in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a growing concern. This is particularly relevant in older adults due to underlying CKD. Metformin use is contraindicated in patients with abnormal kidney function; however, many patients are potentially prescribed metformin inappropriately. We evaluated the prevalence of CKD among older adults prescribed metformin for type 2 diabetes mellitus using available equations to estimate kidney function and examined demographic characteristics of patients who were potentially inappropriately prescribed metformin. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of older adults aged ≥65 years prescribed metformin from March 2008-March 2009 at an urban tertiary-care facility in Seattle, Washington, USA. CKD was defined using National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative criteria. Creatinine clearance was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation; estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and CKD-Epidemiology (EPI) Collaboration equations. Regression analyses were used to determine the associations between demographic characteristics and prevalent CKD. Results Among 356 subjects (median age 69 years, 52.5% female, 39.4% non-Hispanic black), prevalence of stage 3 or greater CKD calculated by any of the equations was 31.4%. The Cockcroft-Gault equation identified more subjects as having CKD (23.7%) than the abbreviated MDRD (21.1%) or CKD-EPI (21.7%) equations (P < 0.001). Older age (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.08-1.19) and female sex (OR = 2.51, 95% CI 1.44-4.38) were associated with increased odds of potentially inappropriate metformin prescription due to CKD; non-Hispanic black race was associated with decreased odds of potentially inappropriate metformin prescription due to CKD (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.23-0.71). Conclusions CKD is common in older adults prescribed metformin for type 2

  14. Work and family roles of Soviet women: historical trends and cross-section analysis.

    PubMed

    Ofer, G; Vinokur, A

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the way of life of USSR women over the last 2 generations are very similar to those experienced by women in most industrialized and industializing societies. The rate of participation of women in the labor force increased substantially, and this movement was accompanied by a marked rise in the level of women's general and professional education. As a result, women occupy more white collar positions than they did in older generations, but these developments have created a double burden for most women who complain that increased resonsibilities outside the home have not been synchronized with an adequate increase in men's sharing household responsibilities. Historical explanations for changes in women's role particularly emphasize the nature of relationships between participation, wages, incomes, fertility, education and labor market conditions. The long term changes of these major variables, since the 1920s, along with an investigation based on an income survey of 1000 immigrant families, are studied in this paper. Cross sectional analysis examines a longer life cycle, participation decisions, and relates them to decisions on fertility and education. Fertility rates among the Jewish immigrants are much higher and labor participation rates of women much lower than for the rest of the population. Some of the main features of the long trends since 1926 are: 1) of the overall measures of participation of women, only those in the 15-54 and 20-54 age ranges show some increase over the 1926-1980 period, 2) sharp rises in specific participation rates for 25-44 and 45-54 age groups since 1950, and for urban women overall, 3) only a small fraction of the total increase in participation can be attributed to the increase in the proportion of single women, and 4) by 1980 the overall female participation figure rose to 80%--and 88% for the 20-54 age group--the difference reflecting the sharp decline in 15-19 age group participation. While the short run decision about

  15. Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aggarwal, R.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Arneodo, M.; Arslan, O.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Bachynska, O.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A. N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Bartel, W.; Bartosik, N.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Blohm, C.; Bokhonov, V.; Bondarenko, K.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bołd, T.; Brümmer, N.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J. B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R. K.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R. C. E.; De Pasquale, S.; De Wolf, E. A.; del Peso, J.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dolinska, G.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A. T.; Drugakov, V.; Durkin, L. S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P. F.; Eskreys, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M. I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gogota, O.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Göttlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bołd, I.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hüttmann, A.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J. C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K. H.; Hladký, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.-P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jones, T. W.; Jönsson, L.; Jüngst, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I. I.; Kaur, P.; Kaur, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L. A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J. Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kötz, U.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, I.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotański, A.; Kowalski, H.; Krämer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krüger, K.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T. Y.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Löhr, B.; Lohmann, W.; Lohrmann, E.; Long, K. R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukina, O. Y.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Martin, J. F.; Martyn, H.-U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Mattingly, M. C. K.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Morris, J. D.; Mujkic, K.; Müller, K.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A. E.; Oh, B. Y.; Okazaki, N.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Y.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J. M.; Pawlik, B.; Pelfer, P. G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlański, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Pluciński, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Przybycień, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D. D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y. D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J. E.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Šálek, D.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A. A.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schönberg, V.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Smith, W. H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T. P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, J.; Szuba, D.; Tapper, A. D.; Tassi, E.; Terrón, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, P. D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T. H.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Trusov, V.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Vázquez, M.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Vlasov, N. N.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J. J.; Wichmann, K.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wünsch, E.; Yagües-Molina, A. G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zabiegalov, O.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zenaiev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Zichichi, A.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolkapli, Z.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2013-02-01

    Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections σ_red^{cbar{c}} for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5≤ Q 2≤2000 GeV2 and Bjorken scaling variable 3ṡ10-5≤ x≤5ṡ10-2. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W ± and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.

  16. Determinants of the range of drugs prescribed in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Bakker, Dinny H; Coffie, Dayline SV; Heerdink, Eibert R; van Dijk, Liset; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Background Current health policies assume that prescribing is more efficient and rational when general practitioners (GPs) work with a formulary or restricted drugs lists and thus with a limited range of drugs. Therefore we studied determinants of the range of drugs prescribed by general practitioners, distinguishing general GP-characteristics, characteristics of the practice setting, characteristics of the patient population and information sources used by GPs. Methods Secondary analysis was carried out on data from the Second Dutch Survey in General Practice. Data were available for 138 GPs working in 93 practices. ATC-coded prescription data from electronic medical records, census data and data from GP/practice questionnaires were analyzed with multilevel techniques. Results The average GP writes prescriptions for 233 different drugs, i.e. 30% of the available drugs on the market within one year. There is considerable variation between ATC main groups and subgroups and between GPs. GPs with larger patient lists, GPs with higher prescribing volumes and GPs who frequently receive representatives from the pharmaceutical industry have a broader range when controlled for other variables. Conclusion The range of drugs prescribed is a useful instrument for analysing GPs' prescribing behaviour. It shows both variation between GPs and between therapeutic groups. Statistically significant relationships found were in line with the hypotheses formulated, like the one concerning the influence of the industry. Further research should be done into the relationship between the range and quality of prescribing and the reasons why some GPs prescribe a greater number of different drugs than others. PMID:17711593

  17. Statistical model analysis of α -induced reaction cross sections of 64Zn at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, P.; Gyürky, Gy.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2017-01-01

    Background: α -nucleus potentials play an essential role in the calculation of α -induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model. Uncertainties of these calculations are related to ambiguities in the adjustment of the potential parameters to experimental elastic scattering angular distributions (typically at higher energies) and to the energy dependence of the effective α -nucleus potentials. Purpose: The present work studies cross sections of α -induced reactions for 64Zn at low energies and their dependence on the chosen input parameters of the statistical model calculations. The new experimental data from the recent Atomki experiments allow for a χ2-based estimate of the uncertainties of calculated cross sections at very low energies. Method: Recently measured data for the (α ,γ ), (α ,n ), and (α ,p ) reactions on 64Zn are compared to calculations in the statistical model. A survey of the parameter space of the widely used computer code talys is given, and the properties of the obtained χ2 landscape are discussed. Results: The best fit to the experimental data at low energies shows χ2/F ≈7.7 per data point, which corresponds to an average deviation of about 30% between the best fit and the experimental data. Several combinations of the various ingredients of the statistical model are able to reach a reasonably small χ2/F , not exceeding the best-fit result by more than a factor of 2. Conclusions: The present experimental data for 64Zn in combination with the statistical model calculations allow us to constrain the astrophysical reaction rate within about a factor of 2. However, the significant excess of χ2/F of the best fit from unity demands further improvement of the statistical model calculations and, in particular, the α -nucleus potential.

  18. Estimating Transitional Probabilities with Cross-Sectional Data to Assess Smoking Behavior Progression: A Validation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Lin, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective New analytical tools are needed to advance tobacco research, tobacco control planning and tobacco use prevention practice. In this study, we validated a method to extract information from cross-sectional survey for quantifying population dynamics of adolescent smoking behavior progression. Methods With a 3-stage 7-path model, probabilities of smoking behavior progression were estimated employing the Probabilistic Discrete Event System (PDES) method and the cross-sectional data from 1997-2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Validity of the PDES method was assessed using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and trends in smoking transition covering the period during which funding for tobacco control was cut substantively in 2003 in the United States. Results Probabilities for all seven smoking progression paths were successfully estimated with the PDES method and the NSDUH data. The absolute difference in the estimated probabilities between the two approaches varied from 0.002 to 0.076 (p>0.05 for all) and were highly correlated with each other (R2=0.998, p<0.01). Changes in the estimated transitional probabilities across the 1997-2006 reflected the 2003 funding cut for tobacco control. Conclusions The PDES method has validity in quantifying population dynamics of smoking behavior progression with cross-sectional survey data. The estimated transitional probabilities add new evidence supporting more advanced tobacco research, tobacco control planning and tobacco use prevention practice. This method can be easily extended to study other health risk behaviors. PMID:25279247

  19. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  20. K+ nucleus reaction and total cross sections: New analysis of transmission experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Weiss, R.; Aclander, J.; Alster, J.; Mardor, I.; Mardor, Y.; May-Tal Beck, S.; Piasetzky, E.; Yavin, A. I.; Bart, S.; Chrien, R. E.; Pile, P. H.; Sawafta, R.; Sutter, R. J.; Barakat, M.; Johnston, K.; Krauss, R. A.; Seyfarth, H.; Stearns, R. L.

    1997-03-01

    The attenuation cross sections measured in transmission experiments at the alternating-gradient synchrotron for K+ on 6Li, C, Si, and Ca at pL = 488, 531, 656, and 714 MeV/c are reanalyzed in order to derive total (σT) and reaction (σR) cross sections. The effect of plural (Molière) scattering is properly accounted for, leading to revised values of σT. We demonstrate the model dependence of these values, primarily due to the choice of K+ nuclear optical potential used to generate the necessary Coulomb-nuclear and nuclear elastic corrections. Values of σR are also derived, for the first time, from the same data and exhibit a remarkable degree of model independence. The derived values of σT and σR exceed those calculated by the first-order tρ optical potential for C, Si, and Ca, but not for 6Li, particularly at 656 and 714 MeV/c where the excess is 10-25%. Relative to 6Li, this excess is found to be nearly energy independent and its magnitude of 15-25% is not reproduced by any nuclear medium effect studied so far.

  1. Sensitivity analysis of neutron total and absorption cross sections within the optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigni, M. T.; Herman, M.; Obložinský, P.; Dietrich, F. S.

    2011-02-01

    Distinct maxima and minima in neutron total and absorption cross-section uncertainties when optical-model parameters are varied have been observed in large-scale covariance calculations. These features were seen over a wide mass range (20-210) and for energies up to 20 MeV. Here we investigate the physical origin of the observed patterns over an extended energy range (1 keV to 200 MeV). We have calculated the sensitivity of the cross sections for a specific nucleus (Fe56) to variations of the 15 parameters of a standard global optical potential parametrization, and have also carried out calculations for alternative global optical potentials over the original wide mass and energy ranges. We find that simple physical descriptions can be found in two energy ranges. Below approximately 100 keV, the patterns arise from the interplay of the s- and p-wave single-particle resonances. Above approximately 4 MeV, a single-phase-shift approximation (the Ramsauer model) describes the observed behavior. We discuss the potential importance of such sensitivity studies for further development of optical potentials.

  2. Measurement and resonance analysis of the 237Np neutron capture cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, C.; Cano-Ott, D.; Mendoza, E.; Abbondanno, U.; Aerts, G.; Álvarez-Velarde, F.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Audouin, L.; Badurek, G.; Baumann, P.; Becvár, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Capote, R.; Carrapiço, C.; Carrillo de Albornoz, A.; Cennini, P.; Chepel, V.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortes, G.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; Dahlfors, M.; David, S.; Dillmann, I.; Dolfini, R.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dridi, W.; Duran, I.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Embid-Segura, M.; Ferrant, L.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Frais-Koelbl, H.; Fujii, K.; Furman, W.; Goncalves, I.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Heil, M.; Herrera-Martinez, A.; Igashira, M.; Isaev, S.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Karamanis, D.; Ketlerov, V.; Kerveno, M.; Koehler, P.; Konovalov, V.; Kossionides, E.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Leeb, H.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Lossito, R.; Lozano, M.; Lukic, S.; Marganiec, J.; Marques, L.; Marrone, S.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Moreau, C.; Mosconi, M.; Neves, F.; Oberhummer, H.; O'Brien, S.; Oshima, M.; Pancin, J.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Papadopoulos, C.; Paradela, C.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Perrot, L.; Pigni, M. T.; Plag, R.; Plompen, A.; Plukis, A.; Poch, A.; Praena, J.; Pretel, C.; Quesada, J.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rosetti, M.; Rubbia, C.; Rudolf, G.; Rullhusen, P.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Sarchiapone, L.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tavora, L.; Terlizzi, R.; Vannini, G.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Villamarin, D.; Vicente, M. C.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wendler, H.; Wiescher, M.; Wisshak, K.

    2012-04-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 237Np was measured between 0.7 and 500 eV at the CERN n_TOF facility using the 4π BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. The experimental capture yield was extracted minimizing all the systematic uncertainties and was analyzed together with the most reliable transmission data available using the sammy code. The result is a complete set of individual as well as average resonance parameters [D0=0.56(2) eV, <Γγ>=40.9(18) meV, 104S0=0.98(6), R'=9.8(6) fm]. The capture cross section obtained in this work is in overall agreement with the evaluations and the data of Weston and Todd [Nucl. Sci. Eng. 79, 184 (1981)], thus showing sizable differences with respect to previous data from Scherbakov [J. Nucl. Sci. Technol. 42, 135 (2005)] and large discrepancies with data Kobayashi [J. Nucl. Sci. Technol.JNSTAX0022-313110.3327/jnst.39.111 39, 111 (2002)]. The results indicate that a new evaluation combining the present capture data with reliable transmission data would allow reaching an accuracy better than 4%, in line with the uncertainty requirements of the nuclear data community for the design and operation of current and future nuclear devices.

  3. Three-Dimensional Blood Vessel Segmentation and Centerline Extraction based on Two-Dimensional Cross-Section Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul Prasanna; Albregtsen, Fritz; Reimers, Martin; Edwin, Bjørn; Langø, Thomas; Elle, Ole Jakob

    2015-05-01

    The segmentation of tubular tree structures like vessel systems in volumetric datasets is of vital interest for many medical applications. In this paper we present a novel, semi-automatic method for blood vessel segmentation and centerline extraction, by tracking the blood vessel tree from a user-initiated seed point to the ends of the blood vessel tree. The novelty of our method is in performing only two-dimensional cross-section analysis for segmentation of the connected blood vessels. The cross-section analysis is done by our novel single-scale or multi-scale circle enhancement filter, used at the blood vessel trunk or bifurcation, respectively. The method was validated for both synthetic and medical images. Our validation has shown that the cross-sectional centerline error for our method is below 0.8 pixels and the Dice coefficient for our segmentation is 80% ± 2.7%. On combining our method with an optional active contour post-processing, the Dice coefficient for the resulting segmentation is found to be 94% ± 2.4%. Furthermore, by restricting the image analysis to the regions of interest and converting most of the three-dimensional calculations to two-dimensional calculations, the processing was found to be more than 18 times faster than Frangi vesselness with thinning, 8 times faster than user-initiated active contour segmentation with thinning and 7 times faster than our previous method.

  4. Heavy ion induced mutations in mammalian cells: Cross sections and molecular analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoll, U.; Schmidt, P.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.

    1994-01-01

    Our investigations of heavy ion-induced mutations in mammalian cells, which had been begun a few years ago, were systematically continued. For the first time, it was possible to cover a large LET range with a few kinds of ions. To do this, both UNILAC and SIS were used to yield comparable data for a large energy range. This is a necessary condition for a comprehensive description of the influence of such ion parameters as energy and LET. In these experiments, the induced resistance against the poison 6-thioguanin (6-TG), which is linked to the HPRT locus on the genome, is being used as mutation system. In addition to the mutation-induction cross-section measurements, the molecular changes of the DNA are being investigated by means of Multiplex PCR ('Polymerase Chain Reaction') gene amplification. From these experiments we expect further elucidation of the mutation-inducing mechanisms composing the biological action of heavy-ion radiation.

  5. Retrodeformable cross sections for 3-dimensional structural analysis, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. E.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental tectonic problem is how deformation proceeds from hinterland to foreland in a fold and thrust belt (FTB). Wedge models explain many of the first-order observations found in most FTBs such as the internal deformation of material, thickening of hinterland, presence of a basal décollement, and an overall wedge shape that tapers to the foreland. These models currently have not been tested at the scale of the individual folds and faults. Moreover, most of the data available on, for instance, the sequence of events is best dated in the syntectonic sediments. Timing of uplift and motion of interior structures are not clear when using dates from these syntectonic sediments to some extent because an absolute connection between them is lacking. The purpose of this project is to develop a model for the evolution of the Ouachita orogen through the construction of a series of retrodeformable cross sections. A novel aspect of these cross sections is the combination of new and published thermal (i.e., illite ‘crystallinity’) and thermochronologic (i.e., zircon fission track) data collected at a variety of stratigraphic depths along the lines of section. These data will help to determine the cessation of thrust motion as well as the initial depth from which the thrust sheet emerged. An Ordovician Mazarn sample in the eastern exposed orogenic core has zircon grains with 55% reset fission track ages, whereas an overlying Ordovician Blakely sample about ~30 km to the southwest along strike has 15% being reset. Illite ‘crystallinity’ (IC) values indicate maximum burial metamorphism temperatures of anchizone (~250-350°C) coinciding with the location of the Ordovician Mazarn sample. Regionally, IC decreases from the culmination of the Benton Uplift and to the southwest along regional strike for samples that have similar stratigraphic age. These new timing and thermal constraints on an improved kinematic model are the necessary first steps in testing wedge models

  6. Tracing Developmental Changes through Conversation Analysis: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yo-An; Hellermann, John

    2014-01-01

    The descriptive focus of conversation analysis (CA) has not been considered optimal for second language (L2) acquisition research. Recently, however, some CA researchers have addressed the developmental agenda by examining longitudinal data (e.g., Brouwer, C., 2004; Ishida, M., 2009; Markee, N., 2008; Pekarek-Doehler, S., 2010). The present…

  7. VELM61 and VELM22: Multigroup cross-section libraries for sodium-cooled reactor shield analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Ingersoll, D.T.

    1987-04-01

    Two coupled neutron and photon multigroup cross-section libraries, derived from ENDF/B-V nuclear data, are described. The energy group structures, 61n/23..gamma.. and 22n/10..gamma.., are subsets of the Vitamin-E 174n/38..gamma.. group structure, and are tailored to the iron and sodium resonances, windows, and capture gamma-ray spectra. Each of the two libraries are available in two formats, the AMPX master format and the ANISN format. Cross sections for all materials in the Vitamin-E library were collapsed using a standard energy weighting function, and in addition, several cross-section sets for each of the major constituents of commercial grade sodium, stainless steel (types 304 and 316), and carbon steel were derived using several problem-dependent weighting functions for averaging the fine groups. Effects of various group structures and weighting functions on the accuracy of the broad group libraries are studied by ANISN analysis of a typical sodium-iron shield configuration.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Nuclear Cross Sections in Monte Carlo Methods for Medical Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Chris; Kirk, Bernadette Lugue; Leal, Luiz C

    2007-01-01

    The data used in two Monte Carlo (MC) codes, EGSnrc and MCNPX were compared and a majority of the data used in MCNPX was imported into EGSnrc. The effects of merging the data of the two codes were then examined. MCNPX was run using the ITS electron step algorithm and the default data libraries mcplib04 and el03. Two runs are made with EGSnrc. The first simulation uses the default PEGS cross section library. The second simulation utilizes the data imported from MCNPX. All energy threshold values and physics options are made to be identical. A simple case was created in both EGSnrc and MCNPX that calculates the radial depth dose from an isotropically radiating disc in water for various incident, monoenergetic photon and electron energies. Initial results show that much less central processing unit (cpu) time is required by the EGSnrc code for simulations involving large numbers of particles, primarily electrons, when compared to MCNPX. The detailed particle history files - ptrac and iwatch - are investigated to compare the number and types of events being simulated in order to determine the reasons for the run time differences

  9. Plasma selenium levels and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Yan, Chonghuai; Liu, Gang; Niu, Yixin; Zhang, Weiwei; Lu, Shuai; Li, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Hongmei; Ning, Guang; Fan, Jiangao; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Selenium exposure can induce liver insulin resistance and increased liver triglyceride concentrations in animals, which may link to an increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, epidemiological studies investigating the association between elevated plasma selenium levels and NAFLD were not available. We aimed to investigate the association of selenium levels with the prevalence of NAFLD in Chinese adults. This was a cross-sectional study of 8550 Chinese adults aged 40 yr or older in Shanghai, China. A questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and laboratory tests were conducted. NAFLD was diagnosed by hepatic ultrasound after the exclusion of alcohol abuse and other liver diseases. Plasma selenium concentration was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The median concentration of plasma selenium was 213.0 μg/L. Elevated plasma selenium levels were associated with higher triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, post-loading plasma glucose, A1c, HOMA-IR, as well as ALT, AST and γ-GT (all P < 0.05). The odds ratios were substantially higher for NAFLD (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.13–2.18) in the highest selenium quartile compared with those in the lowest quartile, after adjustment for potential cofounder. The results of this study provided epidemiological evidence that increased plasma selenium level is associated with elevated prevalence of NAFLD. PMID:27853246

  10. International nurse recruitment and NHS vacancies: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Batata, Amber S

    2005-04-22

    BACKGROUND: Foreign-trained nurse recruits exceeded the number of new British-trained recruits on the UK nurse register for the first time in 2001. As the nursing shortage continues, health care service providers rely increasingly on overseas nurses to fill the void. Which areas benefit the most? And where would the NHS be without them? METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the 2004 Nursing and Midwifery Council register, nurse resident postcodes are mapped to Strategic Health Authorities to see where foreign recruits locate and how they affect nurse shortages throughout the UK. RESULTS: Areas with the highest vacancy rates also have the highest representation of foreign recruits, with 24% of foreign-trained nurses in the UK residing in the London area and another 16% in the SouthEast (comparable numbers for British-trained nurses are 11% and 13%, respectively). Without foreign recruitment, vacancy rates could be up to five times higher (three times higher if only Filipino recruits remained). CONCLUSION: The UK heavily relies on foreign recruitment to fill vacancies, without which the staffing crisis would be far worse, particularly in high vacancy areas.

  11. Analysis and testing of a bistatic radar cross section measurement capability for the AFIT anechoic chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCool, Timothy D.

    1990-12-01

    This research effort examined the feasibility of performing bistatic radar cross section (RCS) measurements in the AFIT anechoic chamber. The capability was established to measure the bistatic RCS of a target versus frequency and versus target azimuth angle. In either case, one of three bistatic angles (angle between transmit and receive antennas) is available: 45, 90, and 135 degrees. Accurate bistatic RCS measurements were obtained using a CW radar and utilizing background subtraction, bistatic calibration, and software range gating. Simple targets were selected for validation purposes since their bistatic RCS could be predicted. These consisted of spheres and flat plates (square, triangle, and five sided). Several computer codes were utilized for system validation. Two codes based on the uniform theory of diffraction were used to predict the scattering from the flat plates. A program using a Mie series solution provided the exact scattering from the flat plates. A program using a Mie series solution provided the exact scattering for the spheres, which were used for both RCS predictions and system calibrations.

  12. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors), defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78) were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62) and Mature (5.60) mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p < 0.05). Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school. PMID:20109240

  13. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Tze; Yang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Yu-Wen; Sun, Hung-Yu; Lin, I-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide disorder and also the major risk factor of several systemic diseases. Evidence identifying the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis is lacking, especially in Taiwan. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. Design and setting This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Health Examination Department of a medical center in Changhua, Taiwan, from January 2010 to December 2010. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who had visited the Health Examination Center of Changhua Christian Hospital in 2010. A total of 3,886 individuals were enrolled. According to the exclusion criteria, those with an age <20 years and an abnormal renal function were excluded. A total of 3,793 subjects were included. All P-values are two tailed, and P<0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Results The results showed a correlation between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of metabolic syndrome for nephrolithiasis was 1.318 (1.083–1.604), with a P-value of 0.006. Larger waist circumference (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.338; 95% CI 1.098–1.631; P=0.004), higher blood pressure (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.106–1.607; P=0.003), and increased fasting glucose (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.276; 95% CI 1.054–1.546; P=0.01) were associated with nephrolithiasis. Conclusion This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis. The mechanism is controversial, and several hypotheses are offered. Adequate lifestyle modification and proper treatment in metabolic syndrome management may both contribute to nephrolithiasis prevention. PMID:28123300

  14. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion and dietary intake: a cross-sectional analysis in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Padrão, Patrícia; Pinho, Olívia; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Santos, Rute; Moreira, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertension is the leading cause for heart disease and stroke, for mortality and morbidity worldwide, and a high sodium-to-potassium intake ratio is considered a stronger risk factor for hypertension than sodium alone. Objective This study aims to evaluate sodium and potassium urinary excretion, and assess the food sources of these nutrients in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study with a sample of 250 Portuguese adolescents. Sodium and potassium excretion were measured by one 24-h urinary collection, and the coefficient of creatinine was used to validate completeness of urine collections. Dietary sources of sodium and potassium were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Results Valid urine collections were provided by 200 adolescents (118 girls) with a median age of 14.0 in both sexes (p=0.295). Regarding sodium, the mean urinary excretion was 3,725 mg/day in boys and 3,062 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 9.8% of boys and 22% of girls met the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for sodium intake. Concerning potassium, the mean urinary excretion was 2,237 mg/day in boys and 1,904 mg/day in girls (p<0.01), and 6.1% of boys and 1.7% of girls met the WHO recommendations for potassium intake. Major dietary sources for sodium intake were cereal and cereal products (41%), meat products (16%), and milk and milk products (11%); and for potassium intake, main sources were milk and milk products (21%), meat products (17%), and vegetables (15%). Conclusions Adolescents had a high-sodium and low-potassium diet, well above the WHO recommendations. Health promotion interventions are needed in order to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake. PMID:27072344

  15. 2005 cross section analysis and recommendations for further studies at Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to discuss the recent (Phase III) environmental studies performed by Argonne at Everest, Kansas, and to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. Argonne distributed a brief Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) to the CCC/USDA and the KDHE before the meeting to facilitate the intended pre-CAS discussions. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, for further assistance in identifying and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions include the following: (1) Construction of one or more additional, strategically located interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility. (2) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. (3) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. This report presents an update on efforts of the CCC/USDA and Argonne to address the KDHE concerns, and it proposes several additional actions for consideration.

  16. Cross-sectional analysis of patient phone calls to an inflammatory bowel disease clinic

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Yarur, Andres J.; Diaz, Liege; Simmons, Okeefe L.; Sussman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require close follow up and frequently utilize healthcare services. We aimed to identify the main reasons that prompted patient calls to gastroenterology providers and further characterize the “frequent callers”. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study included all phone calls registered in medical records of IBD patients during 2012. Predictive variables included demographics, psychiatric history, IBD phenotype, disease complications and medical therapies. Primary outcome was the reason for call (symptoms, medication refill, procedures and appointment issues). Secondary outcome was the frequency of changes in management prompted by the call. Results 209 patients participated in 526 calls. The mean number of calls per patient was 2.5 (range 0-27); 49 (23.4%) patients met the criterion of “frequent caller”. Frequent callers made or received 75.9% of all calls. Crohn’s disease, anxiety, extra-intestinal manifestations and high sedimentation rate were significantly associated with higher call volume. 85.7% of frequent callers had at least one call that prompted a therapeutic intervention, compared to 18.9% of non-frequent callers (P<0.001). The most common interventions were ordering laboratory or imaging studies (15.4%), dose adjustments (12.1%), changes in medication class (8.4%), and expediting clinic visits (8.4%). Conclusion Most phone calls originated from a minority of patients. Repeated calling by the same patient and new onset of gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms were important factors predicting the order of diagnostic modalities or therapeutic changes in care. Triaging calls to IBD healthcare providers for patients more likely to require a change in management may improve healthcare delivery. PMID:26126710

  17. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  18. Brief Report: Multilevel Analysis of School Smoking Policy and Pupil Smoking Behaviour in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Burgess, Stephen; Moore, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    A multilevel analysis of cross-sectional data from a survey involving 1941 pupils (in grades 10 and 11) and policy indicators developed from interviews with staff from 45 secondary schools in Wales examined the hypotheses that pupil smoking prevalence would be associated with: restrictive staff and pupil smoking policies; dissemination of school…

  19. A one- and two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path of the AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) modular code system

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    AARE, a code package to perform Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering, is a linked modular system for fission reactor core and shielding, as well as fusion blanket, analysis. Its cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path presently includes the cross-section processing and reformatting code TRAMIX, cross-section homogenization and library reformatting code MIXIT, the 1-dimensional transport code ONEDANT, the 2-dimensional transport code TRISM, and the 1- and 2- dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty code SENSIBL. IN the present work, a short description of the whole AARE system is given, followed by a detailed description of the cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty path. 23 refs., 2 figs.

  20. R-MATRIX ANALYSIS of 232Th NEUTRON TRANSMISSIONS and CAPTURE CROSS SECTIONS in the ENERGY RANGE THERMAL to 4 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2008-01-01

    Neutron resonance parameters of 232Th were obtained from the Reich-Moore SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) by Olsen in 1981, along with the high-resolution neutron capture measurements performed in 2005 at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA, Belgium) by Schillebeeckx and at the n-TOF facility (CERN, Switzerland) by Aerts. The ORELA data were analyzed previously by Olsen with the Breit-Wigner multilevel code SIOB, and the results were used in the ENDF/B-VI evaluation. In the new analysis of the Olsen neutron transmissions by the modern computer code SAMMY, better accuracy is obtained for the resonance parameters by including in the experimental data base the recent experimental neutron capture data. The experimental data base and the method of analysis are described in the report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared to the experimental values. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters. The new evaluation results in a decrease in the capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks.

  1. The multi-dimensional neighbourhood and health: a cross-sectional analysis of the Scottish Household Survey, 2001.

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Kearns, Ade

    2006-03-01

    Neighbourhoods may influence the health of individual residents in different ways: via the social and physical environment, as well as through facilities and services. Not all factors may be equally important for all population subgroups. A cross-sectional analysis of the Scottish Household Survey 2001 examined a range of neighbourhood factors for links with three health outcomes and two health-related behaviours. The results support the hypothesis that the neighbourhood has a multi-dimensional impact on health. There was also some evidence that the relationship between neighbourhood factors and health varied according to the population subgroup, although not in a consistent manner.

  2. Second premolar agenesis is associated with mandibular form: a geometric morphometric analysis of mandibular cross-sections

    PubMed Central

    Bertl, Michael H; Bertl, Kristina; Wagner, Manuel; Gahleitner, André; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare mandibular form (i.e., size and shape) between patients with agenesis of the lower second premolar (P2) and a control group with no agenesis. Three hypotheses were tested: (H1) agenesis causes a change in mandibular morphology because of inadequate alveolar ridge development in the area of the missing tooth (mandibular plasticity); (H2) agenesis is caused by spatial limitations within the mandible (dental plasticity); and (H3) common genetic/epigenetic factors cause agenesis and affect mandibular form (pleiotropy). A geometric morphometric analysis was applied to cross-sectional images of computed tomography (CT) scans of three matched groups (n=50 each): (1) regularly erupted P2; (2) agenesis of P2 and the primary second molar in situ; and (3) agenesis of P2 and the primary second molar missing for >3 months. Cross-sections of the three areas of interest (first premolar, P2, first molar) were digitized with 23 landmarks and superimposed by a generalized Procrustes analysis. On average, the mandibular cross-sections were narrower and shorter in patients with P2 agenesis compared with that in the control group. Both agenesis groups featured a pronounced submandibular fossa. These differences extended at least one tooth beyond the agenesis-affected region. Taken together with the large interindividual variation that resulted in massively overlapping group distributions, these findings support genetic and/or epigenetic pleiotropy (H3) as the most likely origin of the observed covariation between mandibular form and odontogenesis. Clinically, reduced dimensions and greater variability of mandibular form, as well as a pronounced submandibular fossa, should be expected during the treatment planning of patients with P2 agenesis. PMID:27857074

  3. Second premolar agenesis is associated with mandibular form: a geometric morphometric analysis of mandibular cross-sections.

    PubMed

    Bertl, Michael H; Bertl, Kristina; Wagner, Manuel; Gahleitner, André; Stavropoulos, Andreas; Ulm, Christian; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2016-12-16

    The aim of this study was to compare mandibular form (i.e., size and shape) between patients with agenesis of the lower second premolar (P2) and a control group with no agenesis. Three hypotheses were tested: (H1) agenesis causes a change in mandibular morphology because of inadequate alveolar ridge development in the area of the missing tooth (mandibular plasticity); (H2) agenesis is caused by spatial limitations within the mandible (dental plasticity); and (H3) common genetic/epigenetic factors cause agenesis and affect mandibular form (pleiotropy). A geometric morphometric analysis was applied to cross-sectional images of computed tomography (CT) scans of three matched groups (n=50 each): (1) regularly erupted P2; (2) agenesis of P2 and the primary second molar in situ; and (3) agenesis of P2 and the primary second molar missing for >3 months. Cross-sections of the three areas of interest (first premolar, P2, first molar) were digitized with 23 landmarks and superimposed by a generalized Procrustes analysis. On average, the mandibular cross-sections were narrower and shorter in patients with P2 agenesis compared with that in the control group. Both agenesis groups featured a pronounced submandibular fossa. These differences extended at least one tooth beyond the agenesis-affected region. Taken together with the large interindividual variation that resulted in massively overlapping group distributions, these findings support genetic and/or epigenetic pleiotropy (H3) as the most likely origin of the observed covariation between mandibular form and odontogenesis. Clinically, reduced dimensions and greater variability of mandibular form, as well as a pronounced submandibular fossa, should be expected during the treatment planning of patients with P2 agenesis.

  4. Exploring the Potential of a School Impact on Pupil Weight Status: Exploratory Factor Analysis and Repeat Cross-Sectional Study of the National Child Measurement Programme

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew James; Wyatt, Katrina M.; Williams, Craig A.; Logan, Stuart; Henley, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Schools are common sites for obesity prevention interventions. Although many theories suggest that the school context influences weight status, there has been little empirical research. The objective of this study was to explore whether features of the school context were consistently and meaningfully associated with pupil weight status (overweight or obese). Exploratory factor analysis of routinely collected data on 319 primary schools in Devon, England, was used to identify possible school-based contextual factors. Repeated cross-sectional multilevel analysis of five years (2006/07-2010/11) of data from the National Child Measurement Programme was then used to test for consistent and meaningful associations. Four school-based contextual factors were derived which ranked schools according to deprivation, location, resource and prioritisation of physical activity. None of which were meaningfully and consistently associated with pupil weight status, across the five years. The lack of consistent associations between the factors and pupil weight status suggests that the school context is not inherently obesogenic. In contrast, incorporating findings from education research indicates that schools may be equalising weight status, and obesity prevention research, policy and practice might need to address what is happening outside schools and particularly during the school holidays. PMID:26700027

  5. Improvement of Modeling HTGR Neutron Physics by Uncertainty Analysis with the Use of Cross-Section Covariance Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Grol, A. V.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Ternovykh, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at improvement of HTGR neutron physics design calculations by application of uncertainty analysis with the use of cross-section covariance information. Methodology and codes for preparation of multigroup libraries of covariance information for individual isotopes from the basic 44-group library of SCALE-6 code system were developed. A 69-group library of covariance information in a special format for main isotopes and elements typical for high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) was generated. This library can be used for estimation of uncertainties, associated with nuclear data, in analysis of HTGR neutron physics with design codes. As an example, calculations of one-group cross-section uncertainties for fission and capture reactions for main isotopes of the MHTGR-350 benchmark, as well as uncertainties of the multiplication factor (k∞) for the MHTGR-350 fuel compact cell model and fuel block model were performed. These uncertainties were estimated by the developed technology with the use of WIMS-D code and modules of SCALE-6 code system, namely, by TSUNAMI, KENO-VI and SAMS. Eight most important reactions on isotopes for MHTGR-350 benchmark were identified, namely: 10B(capt), 238U(n,γ), ν5, 235U(n,γ), 238U(el), natC(el), 235U(fiss)-235U(n,γ), 235U(fiss).

  6. Analysis of Collisional Cross Sections of Rydberg nS and nD States of Ultracold Caesium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhigang; Miao, Jingyuan; Zhao, Kejia; Li, Difei; Yang, Zhijun; Wu, Fan; Wu, Zhaochun; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2016-05-01

    We present a simple analytical formula derived from an existing theoretical model and a detailed theoretical investigation of effects of the van der Waals interaction and dipole-dipole interaction on collisional cross sections as functions of various parameters. We analyze the main mechanism leading to large collisional cross sections on the basis of our previous experimental results using the present formula and also analyze the effects of some other factors on collisional cross sections.

  7. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  8. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  9. Migration, age, and education: a cross-sectional analysis of geographic labor mobility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoki, T; Suruga, T

    1981-11-01

    "This paper presents some new empirical evidence on the determinants of prefecture-to-city migration in Japan, using a model based on the human capital-search theoretic approach." Several hypotheses relating the rate of migration to age, education, distance moved, and earnings are tested, and the applicability of the theoretical framework to the analysis of labor migration in Japan is evaluated. Data are from the 1970 census and the 1968 Employment Status Survey.

  10. Policies on Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Guideline Development: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morciano, Cristina; Basevi, Vittorio; Faralli, Carla; Hilton Boon, Michele; Tonon, Sabina; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether organisations that develop health care guidelines have conflict of interest (COI) policies and to review the content of the available COI policies. Methods Survey and content analysis of COI policies available in English, French, Spanish, and Italian conducted between September 2014 and June 2015. A 24-item data abstraction instrument was created on the basis of guideline development standards. Results The survey identified 29 organisations from 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. From these organisations, 19 policies were eligible for inclusion in the content analysis. Over one-third of the policies (7/19, 37%) did not report or did not clearly report whether disclosure was a prerequisite for membership of the guideline panel. Strategies for the prevention of COI such as divestment were mentioned by only two organisations. Only 21% of policies (4/19) used criteria to determine whether an interest constitutes a COI and to assess the severity of the risk imposed. Conclusions The finding that some organisations, in contradiction of widely available standards, still do not have COI policies publicly available is concerning. Also troubling were the findings that some policies did not clearly report critical steps in obtaining, managing and communicating disclosure of relationships of interest. This in addition to the variability encountered in content and accessibility of COI policies may cause confusion and distrust among guideline users. It is in the interest of guideline users and developers to design an agreed-upon, comprehensive, clear, and accessible COI policy. PMID:27846255

  11. Electromyography and sonomyography analysis of the tibialis anterior: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Foot dorsiflexion plays an essential role in both controlling balance and human gait. Electromyography (EMG) and sonomyography (SMG) can provide information on several aspects of muscle function. The aim was to establish the relationship between the EMG and SMG variables during isotonic contractions of foot dorsiflexors. Methods Twenty-seven healthy young adults performed the foot dorsiflexion test on a device designed ad hoc. EMG variables were maximum peak and area under the curve. Muscular architecture variables were muscle thickness and pennation angle. Descriptive statistical analysis, inferential analysis and a multivariate linear regression model were carried out. The confidence level was established with a statistically significant p-value of less than 0.05. Results The correlation between EMG variables and SMG variables was r = 0.462 (p < 0.05). The linear regression model to the dependent variable “peak normalized tibialis anterior (TA)” from the independent variables “pennation angle and thickness”, was significant (p = 0.002) with an explained variance of R2 = 0.693 and SEE = 0.16. Conclusions There is a significant relationship and degree of contribution between EMG and SMG variables during isotonic contractions of the TA muscle. Our results suggest that EMG and SMG can be feasible tools for monitoring and assessment of foot dorsiflexors. TA muscle parameterization and assessment is relevant in order to know that increased strength accelerates the recovery of lower limb injuries. PMID:24507748

  12. Fast interactive integration of cross-sectional image datasets and surface data for morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Meruvia-Pastor, Oscar; Soh, Jung; Xiao, Mei; Schmidt, Eric; Logan, Cairine; Boughner, Julia C; Jones, Nicholas; Osborn, David; Santiago, Johanna; Gittleman, Julian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Sensen, Christoph W

    2009-01-01

    To investigate external facial morphology and cell proliferation patterns and their relationship with cleft lip malformation in mice, we need to compare samples of mice tissue photographs and surface reconstructions from micro-CT scans obtained from mouse embryos. Tissue samples obtained through digital photography are typically misaligned with respect to each other, which prevents further analysis. We have developed a system for fast interactive alignment of these image stacks for volume reconstruction and data visualization and analysis in 3D. The system is designed to work in multiprocessor environments and can utilize an arbitrary number of processors, cutting down significantly the turnaround time and allowing users to quickly process sets of hundreds of high resolution images using a combination of automated and interactive tools. Additional modules are used to reconstruct the shape of the original subject. Our system is interactive, fully scalable and can be applied to any photographic sliced dataset, regardless of subject and reduces significantly the processing time for stack alignment.

  13. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate), utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being frail included women (OR

  14. Creating normograms of dural sinuses in healthy persons using computer-assisted detection for analysis and comparison of cross-section dural sinuses in the brain.

    PubMed

    Anconina, Reut; Zur, Dinah; Kesler, Anat; Lublinsky, Svetlana; Toledano, Ronen; Novack, Victor; Benkobich, Elya; Novoa, Rosa; Novic, Evelyne Farkash; Shelef, Ilan

    2017-03-09

    Dural sinuses vary in size and shape in many pathological conditions with abnormal intracranial pressure. Size and shape normograms of dural brain sinuses are not available. The creation of such normograms may enable computer-assisted comparison to pathologic exams and facilitate diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate normal magnetic resonance venography (MRV) studies in order to create normograms of dural sinuses using a computerized algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. This was a retrospective analysis of MRV studies of 30 healthy persons. Data were analyzed using a specially developed Matlab algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis. The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated to create normograms. Mean cross-sectional size was 53.27±13.31 for the right transverse sinus (TS), 46.87+12.57 for the left TS (p=0.089) and 36.65+12.38 for the superior sagittal sinus. Normograms were created. The distribution of cross-sectional areas along the vessels showed distinct patterns and a parallel course for the median, 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles. In conclusion, using a novel computerized method for vessel cross-sectional analysis we were able to quantitatively characterize dural sinuses of healthy persons and create normograms.

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion. PMID:22985407

  16. A cross-sectional content analysis of Android applications for asthma.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-03-03

    Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.

  17. Dental treatment needs in the Canadian population: analysis of a nationwide cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nationally representative clinical data on the oral health needs of Canadians has not been available since the 1970s. The purpose of this study was to determine the normative treatment needs of a nationally representative sample of Canadians and describe how these needs were distributed. Methods A secondary analysis of data collected through the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) was undertaken. Sampling and bootstrap weights were applied to make the data nationally representative. Descriptive frequencies were used to examine the sample characteristics and to examine the treatment type(s) needed by the population. Bivariate logistic regressions were used to see if any characteristics were predictive of having an unmet dental treatment need, and of having specific treatment needs. Lastly, multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the strongest predictors of having an unmet dental treatment need. Results Most of the population had no treatment needs and of the 34.2% who did, most needed restorative (20.4%) and preventive (13.7%) care. The strongest predictors of need were having poor oral health, reporting a self-perceived need for treatment and visiting the dentist infrequently. Conclusions It is estimated that roughly 12 million Canadians have at least one unmet dental treatment need. Policymakers now have information by which to assess if programs match the dental treatment needs of Canadians and of particular subgroups experiencing excess risk. PMID:23102263

  18. An Odontometric Approach for Estimation of Stature in Indians: Cross- Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sumit Kumar; Kedia, Neal Bharat; Singh, Abhinav Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Height/stature is one of the useful anthropometric parameter for individual identification. Correlation of stature to long bones, even fragmentary bones is frequently reported among various populations. As teeth have the advantage of being composed largely of hard tissue which is relatively indestructible, the careful study of these can enable reliable determination of stature of the person in life. Aim The present study was designed to elucidate the anthropometric correlation of tooth dimensions with stature and also devises regression formulae. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on 361 Indian students (151 males and 210 females) in the age range of 21- 45 years to estimate stature using odontometry. Stature and tooth measurements were taken on each partcipant following standard methods and techniques. Karl Pearson’s correlation co-efficient and linear regression was used to estimate stature. Results Regression analysis showed that the canine width can aid in estimation of stature as an adjunct when only teeth are available for identification. Conclusion Tooth dimensions can be used only as a supplementary approach for the estimation of stature but with caution. PMID:27134995

  19. Cross sectional analysis of mortality by country of birth in England and Wales, 1970-92.

    PubMed Central

    Wild, S.; McKeigue, P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare mortalities for selected groups of immigrants with the national average. DESIGN: Analysis of mortality for adults aged 20-69 in 1970-2 and 1989-92 using population data from 1971 and 1991 censuses. Mortality of Scottish and Irish immigrants aged 25-74 was also compared with mortality in Scotland and Ireland for 1991. SETTING: England and Wales. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Standardised mortality ratios for deaths from all causes, ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, lung cancer, and breast cancer. RESULTS: In 1989-92 mortality from all causes was higher than the national average for Scottish immigrants, by 32% for men and 36% for women; for Irish immigrants it was higher by 39% for men and 20% for women; and for Caribbean born men it was lower by 23%. Ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer accounted for 30-40% of the excess mortality in Scottish and Irish immigrants. For south Asians, excess mortality from circulatory disease was balanced by lower mortality from cancer. Standardised mortality ratios for cerebrovascular disease in 1989-92 were highest for west African immigrants (271 for men and 181 for women). CONCLUSIONS: Widening differences in mortality ratios for migrants compared with the general population were not simply due to socioeconomic inequalities. The low mortality from all causes for Caribbean immigrants could largely be attributed to low mortality from ischaemic heart disease, which is unexplained. The excess mortality from cerebrovascular and hypertensive diseases in migrants from both west Africa and the Caribbean suggests that genetic factors underlie the susceptibility to hypertension in people of black African descent. PMID:9116545

  20. [Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Health and Social Structure in Germany].

    PubMed

    Wittmann, N; Meinlschmidt, G; Czaja, M

    2016-12-14

    This research was conducted to find out if there are differences in health and social structure and, thus, living conditions within Germany on a federal state level. So far, research projects have mainly focused on either more aggregate or more small-scale, regional planning areas. However, due to the political, governmental, and institutional structures prevalent in Germany, it seems necessary to conduct health and social structure analyses not only on the macro and micro but also on the meso level. This would enable meeting the specific information requirements of all existing German political spheres and public health planning levels comprehensively. A set of 53 indicators taken from official German statistics was used to conduct a factor analysis. The latter revealed that the health and social structures could be thoroughly depicted by a total of 3 factors (indices) that, in total, explain roughly 80% of the total variance. In this case, the first index accounts for about 38%, the second for about 31%, and the third index explain roughly 11%. Testing the results through hierarchical as well k-Means cluster analyses provided additional confirmation. Overall, the results show great differences in health and social structures in Germany on a federal state level. In addition, a more in-depth look at the nature of the results shows that one needs to distinguish between 4, or rather even a total of 8 subregions. Most importantly, these findings reveal that the frequently and widely discussed East-West discrepancies do not enable an adequately differentiated approach to this issue. Rather, aside from aspects such as federal city state and state area differences, structures in Germany show several different and highly significant types of North-South divides.

  1. A cross-sectional analysis of reported corporate environmental sustainability practices.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Dopart, Pamela; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Merryman, Kimberly; Gaffney, Shannon; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainability evolved throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but was formally described by the 27 principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in 1992. Despite the passage of nearly 20years, to date there are no uniform set of federal rules, regulations, or guidelines specifically governing the environmental aspects of sustainability practices or related requirements in the United States. In this benchmark analysis, we have collected information on the sustainability programs of the five largest US companies in each of the 26 industrial sectors [based on the Forbes Global 2000 through 2009 (n=130)]. For each company, we reviewed the most recent corporate sustainability, citizenship, or responsibility report, limiting our scope to environmental components, if available. Ten criteria were identified and analyzed, including leadership, reporting, external review, certification, and individual components of environmental sustainability programs. With respect to the prevalence of sustainability components between various business sectors, we found that the Drugs and Biotechnology (87%), Household and Personal Products (87%) and Oil and Gas Operations (87%) industries had the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. Using the nine components of environmental sustainability as a benchmark, we identified four key components as the characteristics of the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. These were (1) empowering leadership with a commitment to sustainability (80%), (2) standardized reporting (87%), (3) third-party evaluation of the sustainability programs (73%), and (4) obtaining ISO 14001 certification (73%). We found that many firms shaped their own definition of sustainability and developed their associated sustainability programs based on their sector, stakeholder interests, products or services, and business model. We noted an emerging area that we have called product sustainability - one in which

  2. Self-reported quality of life of adolescents with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colver, Allan; Rapp, Marion; Eisemann, Nora; Ehlinger, Virginie; Thyen, Ute; Dickinson, Heather O; Parkes, Jackie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Nystrand, Malin; Fauconnier, Jérôme; Marcelli, Marco; Michelsen, Susan I; Arnaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Children with cerebral palsy who can self-report have similar quality of life (QoL) to their able-bodied peers. Is this similarity also found in adolescence? We examined how self-reported QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy varies with impairment and compares with the general population, and how factors in childhood predict adolescent QoL. Methods We report QoL outcomes in a longitudinal follow-up and cross-sectional analysis of individuals included in the SPARCLE1 (childhood) and SPARCLE2 (adolescent) studies. In 2004 (SPARCLE1), a cohort of 818 children aged 8–12 years were randomly selected from population-based cerebral palsy registers in nine European regions. We gathered data from 500 participants about QoL with KIDSCREEN (ten domains); frequency of pain; child psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire); and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index). At follow-up in 2009 (SPARCLE2), 355 (71%) adolescents aged 13–17 years remained in the study and self-reported QoL (longitudinal sample). 76 additional adolescents self-reported QoL in 2009, providing data for 431 adolescents in the cross-sectional sample. Researchers gathered data at home visits. We compared QoL against matched controls in the general population. We used multivariable regression to relate QoL of adolescents with cerebral palsy to impairments (cross-sectional analysis) and to childhood QoL, pain, psychological problems, and parenting stress (longitudinal analysis). Findings Severity of impairment was significantly associated (p<0·01) with reduced adolescent QoL on only three domains (Moods and emotions, Autonomy, and Social support and peers); average differences in QoL between the least and most able groups were generally less than 0·5 SD. Adolescents with cerebral palsy had significantly lower QoL than did those in the general population in only one domain (Social support and peers; mean difference −2·7 [0·25 SD], 95% CI −4·3 to −1·4

  3. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) experiments at LOTUS

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li/sub 2/O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from /sup 1/H, /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, /sup nat/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 23/Na, /sup 27/Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Bifactor analysis and construct validity of the HADS: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study in fibromyalgia patients.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Juan V; Barrada, Juan R; Aguado, Jaume; Osma, Jorge; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-06-01

    The dimensionality of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a current source of controversy among experts. The present study integrates a solid theoretical framework (Clark & Watson's, 1991, tripartite theory) and a fine-grained methodological approach (structural equation modeling; SEM) to examine the dimensionality and construct validity of the HADS in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Using the HADS data of 269 Spanish patients with FM, we estimated the cross-sectional and, for the first time, longitudinal fit (autoregressive model) of 2 competing models (oblique 2-factor vs. bifactor) via confirmatory factor analysis. The pattern of relationships between the HADS latent dimensions and positive and negative affect (PA and NA) was analyzed using SEM. HADS reliability was assessed by computing the omega and omega hierarchical coefficients. The bifactor model, which accounted for the covariance among HADS items with regard to 1 general factor (psychological distress) and 2 specific factors (depression and anxiety), described the HADS structure better than the original oblique 2-factor model during both study periods. All latent dimensions of the bifactor model were temporally stable. The SEM analysis revealed a significant link between psychological distress and NA as well as between depression and low PA. Only the general factor of psychological distress showed adequate reliability. In conclusion, the HADS shows a clear bifactor structure among FM patients. Our results indicate that it is not recommendable to compute anxiety and depression scores separately because anxiety variance is tapped primarily by the broader construct of psychological distress, and both specific dimensions show low reliability.

  5. Coping and back problems: analysis of multiple data sources on an entire cross-sectional cohort of Swedish military recruits

    PubMed Central

    Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Larsen, Kristian; Ahlstrand, Ingvar; Volinn, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    Background As the literature now stands, a bewildering number and variety of biological, psychological and social factors are, apparently, implicated in back problems. However, if and how these have a direct influence on back problems is not clear. Obesity, for example, has in many studies been shown to be associated with back problems but there is no evidence for a causal link. This could be explained by a dearth of suitably designed studies but also because obesity may be but a proxy for some other, truly explanatory variable. Coping has been linked with, particularly, persistent back problems as well as with health in general. The question is, whether coping could be the explanatory link between, for example, these two variables. A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the Swedish Army, consisting of the entire cohort of males (N = 48,502) summoned in 1998 to serve in the military. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between five independent variables and two dependent variables ("outcome variables"). The independent variables were two anthropomorphic variables (height and body mass index), two psychological variables (intellectual capacity and coping in relation to stress), and one social variable (type of education). The two outcome variables were back problems and ill health. In particular, we wanted to determine whether controlling for coping would affect the associations between the other four independent variables and the two outcome variables. Methods Data for the analysis come from a battery of standardized examinations, including medical examinations, a test of intellectual capacity, and a test of coping in relation to stress. Each of these examinations was conducted independently of the others. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated for the outcome variables of back problems and ill health. Results The associations between height, body mass index, intellectual capacity, type of education and the two

  6. Study of 3D metrology techniques as an alternative to cross-sectional analysis at the R&D level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foucher, Johann; Miller, Kirk

    2004-05-01

    The decrease in critical dimension (CD) of integrated circuits (IC) always challenges metrology tools capabilities. In less than ten years we will reach the limit of CMOS technology with typical printed gate length less than 20 nm and physical gate length of less than 15nm. Advanced R&D departments must already address today all the issues related to so small devices otherwise the roadmap requirements would not be fulfilled. Indeed most of the issues are directly related to metrology capabilities such as precise control of the shape of etched features, sidewall roughness, wafer CD uniformity, and mask inspection (. . .). All these parameters will represent a bottleneck for advanced patterning if metrology tools are unable to measure them with a precision better than few nanometers. In this paper we show that 3D metrology is mandatory to succeed in reaching future roadmap requirements. We address in details the CD AFM technique capabilities which is a potential candidate for advanced patterning metrology. The experimental data are compared with today"s reference: cross-sectional analysis (X-SEM). We also discuss on other techniques such as scatterometry and top view CD-SEM which are also candidates for 3D metrology.

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    PubMed Central

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenya; Kudo, Mitsuhiro; Arito, Heihachiro; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Takata, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician's interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects.

  9. No preventive effect of dietary fiber against colon cancer in the Japanese population: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Wada, Seiko; Sugawara, Kazuo; Tokunaga, Shoji; MacAuley, Domhnall; Baxter, David

    2003-01-01

    The report of Fuchs et al. in 1999 on the protective effects of dietary fiber (DF) against colon carcinogenesis has led many researchers to question the benefits of DF. We analyzed the relationship between dietary intake and mortality from colon cancer in Japan cross-sectionally. Dietary data were taken from the National Nutrition Survey. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated using data from "Vital Statistics" and "the Population Census in Japan." Multiple regression analysis (stepwise variable selection method) was performed with the SMR of colon cancer as the objective variable and intake of DF, nutrients, and food groups in 1966 as the explanatory variables. The beta regression coefficient was significantly positive for intakes of fat, protein, and vitamin C and significantly negative for intakes of calcium and vitamin A to the SMR of colon cancer. However, no significant correlation was observed for DF or for any of the various food groups analyzed. In conclusion, our data do not demonstrate any protective effect of DF on colon cancer in subjects with a low fat intake (Japanese subjects), which supports Fuchs' findings in subjects with high fat intake (U.S. subjects).

  10. Differential collision cross-sections for atomic oxygen: Analysis of space flight instruments for solar terrestrial physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the status of the Cross-section Facility at MSFC is presented. A facility was designed, fabricated, assembled, tested, and operated for measurement of differential scattering cross sections important to understand the induced environment for a vehicle (e.g., Space Station) in low earth orbit. A user's manual for the facility is also presented. The performance of the facility was evaluated and found to be satisfactory in all the essential areas. Differential scattering cross sections were measured and results for the scattering measurements are included. Input to the development of the Ultraviolet Imager Optical System is also discussed. Design, fabrication, and evaluation of UV filters using a four-layer aluminum base are reported.

  11. Employees' Willingness to Participate in Work-Related Learning: A Multilevel Analysis of Employees' Learning Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyndt, Eva; Onghena, Patrick; Smet, Kelly; Dochy, Filip

    2014-01-01

    The current study focuses on employees' learning intentions, or the willingness to undertake formal work-related learning. This cross-sectional survey study included a sample of 1,243 employees that are nested within 21 organisations. The results of the multilevel analysis show that self-directedness in career processes, time management,…

  12. Analysis of colliding nuclear matter in terms of symmetry energy and cross-section using computational method

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Arun Bharti, Arun; Gautam, Sakshi

    2015-08-28

    Here we perform a systematic study to extract the information for colliding nuclear matter via symmetry energy and nucleon-nucleon cross section in the fragmentation of some asymmetric colliding nuclei (O{sup 16}+Br{sup 80,} {sup 84,} {sup 92}) in the energy range between 50-200 MeV/nucleon. The simulations are carried out using isospin-dependent quantum-molecular dynamics (IQMD) computational approach for central collisions. Our study reveals that fragmentation pattern of neutron-rich colliding nuclei is sensitive to symmetry energy at lower incident energies, whereas isospin dependence of nucleon-nucleon cross section becomes dominant for reactions at higher incident energies.

  13. Decision-tree analysis of clinical data to aid diagnostic reasoning for equine laminitis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Shaw, D J; Verheyen, K L P; Newton, J R

    2016-04-23

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the prevalence of selected clinical signs in laminitis cases and non-laminitic but lame controls to evaluate their capability to discriminate laminitis from other causes of lameness. Participating veterinary practitioners completed a checklist of laminitis-associated clinical signs identified by literature review. Cases were defined as horses/ponies with veterinary-diagnosed, clinically apparent laminitis; controls were horses/ponies with any lameness other than laminitis. Associations were tested by logistic regression with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals, with veterinary practice as an a priori fixed effect. Multivariable analysis using graphical classification tree-based statistical models linked laminitis prevalence with specific combinations of clinical signs. Data were collected for 588 cases and 201 controls. Five clinical signs had a difference in prevalence of greater than +50 per cent: 'reluctance to walk' (OR 4.4), 'short, stilted gait at walk' (OR 9.4), 'difficulty turning' (OR 16.9), 'shifting weight' (OR 17.7) and 'increased digital pulse' (OR 13.2) (all P<0.001). 'Bilateral forelimb lameness' was the best discriminator; 92 per cent of animals with this clinical sign had laminitis (OR 40.5, P<0.001). If, in addition, horses/ponies had an 'increased digital pulse', 99 per cent were identified as laminitis. 'Presence of a flat/convex sole' also significantly enhanced clinical diagnosis discrimination (OR 15.5, P<0.001). This is the first epidemiological laminitis study to use decision-tree analysis, providing the first evidence base for evaluating clinical signs to differentially diagnose laminitis from other causes of lameness. Improved evaluation of the clinical signs displayed by laminitic animals examined by first-opinion practitioners will lead to equine welfare improvements.

  14. Social class, marginality and self-assessed health: a cross-sectional analysis of the health gradient in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Adolfo Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Background Examining the association between social inequality and health is not new. However, there is little empirical evidence of this association in the Latin American literature, much less from the Mexican scholars. Its research, including the one conducted in Mexico, has mostly followed a theoretical approach and has not been able to provide strong empirical evidence of their important theoretical and conceptual contributions, mainly because reliable, complete and valid data are unavailable. Methods To empirically examine the gradient effect of social class on self-rated health in Mexico, a secondary cross-sectional mixed-level analysis was designed. Using individual level data from the Second National Health Survey (ENSA II), social class categories were specified following a stratification approach according to the occupation and education indicators available from ENSA II. Two types of categories were made, one for t urban and one for the rural labor force. Two indicators of perceived health status were used as health outcomes: self-assessed health and reported morbidity. Furthermore, the marginality index, an indicator of relative deprivation was used to examine its contextual effect at the state and regional level. The analysis was conducted using logistic multivariate models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed a gradient effect of social class for good assessed-health. Relative to the low urban class, the odds ratio (OR) for a good perception of health for individuals belonging to the high urban class was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–3.9). The OR for the middle high class was 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.4–3.4), while the OR for the middle low class was 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.6–2.1). However, for the rural labour force an OR of 1.5 was only significant between the high class who considered their health as good relative to the low class (95% confidence interval: 1.02–2.2). At the aggregate level, the results also showed

  15. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  16. Pattern Generalization with Graphs and Words: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis of Middle School Students' Representational Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.; Kim, Sunae

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from students as they advance through the middle school years (grades 6-8) reveal insights into the development of students' pattern generalization abilities. As expected, students show a preference for lower-level tasks such as "reading the data," over more distant predictions and generation of abstractions.…

  17. Transport analysis of measured neutron leakage spectra from spheres as tests of evaluated high energy cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogart, D. D.; Shook, D. F.; Fieno, D.

    1973-01-01

    Integral tests of evaluated ENDF/B high-energy cross sections have been made by comparing measured and calculated neutron leakage flux spectra from spheres of various materials. An Am-Be (alpha,n) source was used to provide fast neutrons at the center of the test spheres of Be, CH2, Pb, Nb, Mo, Ta, and W. The absolute leakage flux spectra were measured in the energy range 0.5 to 12 MeV using a calibrated NE213 liquid scintillator neutron spectrometer. Absolute calculations of the spectra were made using version 3 ENDF/B cross sections and an S sub n discrete ordinates multigroup transport code. Generally excellent agreement was obtained for Be, CH2, Pb, and Mo, and good agreement was observed for Nb although discrepancies were observed for some energy ranges. Poor comparative results, obtained for Ta and W, are attributed to unsatisfactory nonelastic cross sections. The experimental sphere leakage flux spectra are tabulated and serve as possible benchmarks for these elements against which reevaluated cross sections may be tested.

  18. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  19. Analysis of nucleon-induced fission cross sections of lead and bismuth at energies from 45 to 500 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Prokofyev, A.V.; Mashnik, S.G.; Sierk, A.J.

    1998-08-01

    In order to investigate the applicability of the Cascade-Exciton model (CEM) of nuclear reactions to fission cross sections and hoping to learn more about intermediate-energy fission, the authors use an extended version of the CEM, as realized in the code CEM95 to perform a detailed analysis of proton- and neutron-induced fission cross sections of {sup 209}Bi and {sup 208}Pb nuclei and of the linear momentum transfer to the fissioning nuclei in the 45--500 meV energy range.

  20. Who has undiagnosed dementia? A cross-sectional analysis of participants of the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Savva, George M.; Arthur, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Background: delays in diagnosing dementia may lead to suboptimal care, yet around half of those with dementia are undiagnosed. Any strategy for case finding should be informed by understanding the characteristics of the undiagnosed population. We used cross-sectional data from a population-based sample with dementia aged 71 years and older in the United States to describe the undiagnosed population and identify factors associated with non-diagnosis. Methods: the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) Wave A participants (N = 856) each underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric investigation. Informants were asked whether the participant had ever received a doctor's diagnosis of dementia. We used multiple logistic regression to identify factors associated with informant report of a prior dementia diagnosis among those with a study diagnosis of dementia. Results: of those with a study diagnosis of dementia (n = 307), a prior diagnosis of dementia was reported by 121 informants (weighted proportion = 42%). Prior diagnosis was associated with greater clinical dementia rating (CDR), from 26% (CDR = 1) to 83% (CDR = 5). In multivariate analysis, those aged 90 years or older were less likely to be diagnosed (P = 0.008), but prior diagnosis was more common among married women (P = 0.038) and those who had spent more than 9 years in full-time education (P = 0.043). Conclusions: people with dementia who are undiagnosed are older, have fewer years in education, are more likely to be unmarried, male and have less severe dementia than those with a diagnosis. Policymakers and clinicians should be mindful of the variation in diagnosis rates among subgroups of the population with dementia. PMID:25758406

  1. Missed diagnosis of stroke in the emergency department: a cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based sample

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Ernest; Valente, Ernest; Coffey, Rosanna; Hines, Anika L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Some cerebrovascular events are not diagnosed promptly, potentially resulting in death or disability from missed treatments. We sought to estimate the frequency of missed stroke and examine associations with patient, emergency department (ED), and hospital characteristics. Methods Cross-sectional analysis using linked inpatient discharge and ED visit records from the 2009 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases and 2008–2009 State ED Databases across nine US states. We identified adult patients admitted for stroke with a treat-and-release ED visit in the prior 30 days, considering those given a non-cerebrovascular diagnosis as probable (benign headache or dizziness diagnosis) or potential (any other diagnosis) missed strokes. Results There were 23,809 potential and 2243 probable missed strokes representing 12.7% and 1.2% of stroke admissions, respectively. Missed hemorrhages (n = 406) were linked to headache while missed ischemic strokes (n = 1435) and transient ischemic attacks (n = 402) were linked to headache or dizziness. Odds of a probable misdiagnosis were lower among men (OR 0.75), older individuals (18–44 years [base]; 45–64:OR 0.43; 65–74:OR 0.28; ≥ 75:OR 0.19), and Medicare (OR 0.66) or Medicaid (OR 0.70) recipients compared to privately insured patients. Odds were higher among Blacks (OR 1.18), Asian/Pacific Islanders (OR 1.29), and Hispanics (OR 1.30). Odds were higher in non-teaching hospitals (OR 1.45) and low-volume hospitals (OR 1.57). Conclusions We estimate 15,000–165,000 misdiagnosed cerebrovascular events annually in US EDs, disproportionately presenting with headache or dizziness. Physicians evaluating these symptoms should be particularly attuned to the possibility of stroke in younger, female, and non-White patients.

  2. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Katherine A.; Proctor, David N.; Chow, Mosuk; Troy, Lisa M.; Wang, Na; Vita, Joseph A.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Jacques, Paul F.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; West, Sheila G.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early predictors of cardiovascular disease. Intervention studies suggest that diet is related to vascular health, but most prior studies tested individual foods or nutrients and relied on small samples of younger adults. The purpose of this study was to examine relations between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and vascular health in a large, cross-sectional analysis. In 5887 adults in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts, diet quality was quantified with the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Index (DGAI-2010). Endothelial function was assessed via brachial artery ultrasound and arterial stiffness via arterial tonometry. In age-, sex-, and cohort-adjusted analyses, higher DGAI-2010 score (greater adherence) was modestly associated with lower resting flow velocity, hyperemic response, mean arterial pressure, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index, but not associated with resting arterial diameter or flow-mediated dilation. In multivariable models adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors, only the association of higher DGAI-2010 with lower baseline flow and augmentation index persisted (β=−0.002, P=0.003 and β=−0.05 ± 0.02, P<0.001, respectively). Age-stratified multivariate-adjusted analyses suggested that the relation of higher DGAI-2010 scores with lower mean arterial pressure, pulse wave velocity, and augmentation index was more pronounced among adults younger than 50 years. Better adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, particularly in younger adults, is associated with lower peripheral blood flow velocity and arterial wave reflection but not flow-mediated dilation. Our results suggest a link between adherence to the Dietary Guidelines and favorable vascular health. PMID:25885520

  3. The collision cross sections of iodide salt cluster ions in air via differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Oberreit, Derek R; Hogan, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    To date, most collision cross section (CCS) predictions have invoked gas molecule impingement-reemission rules in which specular and elastic scattering of spherical gas molecules from rigid polyatomic surfaces are assumed. Although such predictions have been shown to agree well with CCSs measured in helium bath gas, a number of studies reveal that these predictions do not agree with CCSs for ions in diatomic gases, namely, air and molecular nitrogen. To further examine the validity of specular-elastic versus diffuse-inelastic scattering models, we measured the CCSs of positively charged metal iodide cluster ions of the form [MI]n[M(+)]z, where M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, n = 1 - 25, and z = 1 - 2. Measurements were made in air via differential mobility analysis mass spectrometry (DMA-MS). The CCSs measured are compared with specular-elastic as well as diffuse-inelastic scattering model predictions with candidate ion structures determined from density functional theory. It is found that predictions from diffuse-inelastic collision models agree well (within 5%) with measurements from sodium iodide cluster ions, while specular-elastic collision model predictions are in better agreement with cesium iodide cluster ion measurements. The agreement with diffuse-inelastic and specular-elastic predictions decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cation mass. However, even when diffuse-inelastic cluster ion predictions disagree with measurements, the disagreement is of a near-constant factor for all ions, indicating that a simple linear rescaling collapses predictions to measurements. Conversely, rescaling cannot be used to collapse specular-elastic predictions to measurements; hence, although the precise impingement reemission rules remain ambiguous, they are not specular-elastic.

  4. Distinct impact of education and income on habitual exercise: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural city in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Mori, Katsumi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Education and income are important socioeconomic indicators that reflect different aspects of social hierarchy. However, only a few studies have explicitly examined how different the relationship between education and health behaviour is from that between income and health behaviour. According to the human capital theory of health investment, education would reflect knowledge assets that allow an efficient investment in health, while income would relate to the value of healthy days and/or the time cost of health investment. Since time cost and the relative price of health would differ across age strata, we examined the significance of effect modification by age strata to distinguish the effects of education on habitual exercise from the effects of income. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire in a rural city in northern Japan in January 2007 (n = 3385). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of educational attainment and household income with habitual exercise. Interaction terms of these socioeconomic indicators with age strata (<60 years versus ≥60 years) were included to test the distinctive association across age, followed by a stratified analysis. As theoretically predicted, higher income was significantly associated with habitual exercise among those aged 25-59 years, while the association was null or negative among those aged 60 and above. Education was significantly associated with habitual exercise regardless of the age groups. These results suggest that the effects of socioeconomic factors on health behaviours vary according to which socioeconomic indicators are analysed, and which age group is selected. We conclude that studies on the socioeconomic disparity of health behaviours should carefully choose socioeconomic indicators to explain specific health behaviours to reveal underlying mechanisms and provide relevant policy implications, based on explicit behavioural models.

  5. The Collision Cross Sections of Iodide Salt Cluster Ions in Air via Differential Mobility Analysis-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Hui; Larriba-Andaluz, Carlos; Oberreit, Derek R.; Hogan, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    To date, most collision cross section (CCS) predictions have invoked gas molecule impingement-reemission rules in which specular and elastic scattering of spherical gas molecules from rigid polyatomic surfaces are assumed. Although such predictions have been shown to agree well with CCSs measured in helium bath gas, a number of studies reveal that these predictions do not agree with CCSs for ions in diatomic gases, namely, air and molecular nitrogen. To further examine the validity of specular-elastic versus diffuse-inelastic scattering models, we measured the CCSs of positively charged metal iodide cluster ions of the form [MI]n[M+]z, where M = Na, K, Rb, or Cs, n = 1 - 25, and z = 1 - 2. Measurements were made in air via differential mobility analysis mass spectrometry (DMA-MS). The CCSs measured are compared with specular-elastic as well as diffuse-inelastic scattering model predictions with candidate ion structures determined from density functional theory. It is found that predictions from diffuse-inelastic collision models agree well (within 5 %) with measurements from sodium iodide cluster ions, while specular-elastic collision model predictions are in better agreement with cesium iodide cluster ion measurements. The agreement with diffuse-inelastic and specular-elastic predictions decreases and increases, respectively, with increasing cation mass. However, even when diffuse-inelastic cluster ion predictions disagree with measurements, the disagreement is of a near-constant factor for all ions, indicating that a simple linear rescaling collapses predictions to measurements. Conversely, rescaling cannot be used to collapse specular-elastic predictions to measurements; hence, although the precise impingement reemission rules remain ambiguous, they are not specular-elastic.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  7. Isolation Facilities for Highly Infectious Diseases in Europe – A Cross-Sectional Analysis in 16 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Stefan; Fusco, Francesco Maria; De Iaco, Giuseppina; Bannister, Barbara; Maltezou, Helena C.; Carson, Gail; Gottschalk, Rene; Brodt, Hans-Reinhard; Brouqui, Philippe; Puro, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs) are (i) easily transmissible form person to person; (ii) cause a life-threatening illness with no or few treatment options; and (iii) pose a threat for both personnel and the public. Hence, even suspected HID cases should be managed in specialised facilities minimizing infection risks but allowing state-of-the-art critical care. Consensus statements on the operational management of isolation facilities have been published recently. The study presented was set up to compare the operational management, resources, and technical equipment among European isolation facilities. Due to differences in geography, population density, and national response plans it was hypothesized that adherence to recommendations will vary. Methods and Findings Until mid of 2010 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a cross-sectional analysis of isolation facilities in Europe, recruiting 48 isolation facilities in 16 countries. Three checklists were disseminated, assessing 44 items and 148 specific questions. The median feedback rate for specific questions was 97.9% (n = 47/48) (range: n = 7/48 (14.6%) to n = 48/48 (100%). Although all facilities enrolled were nominated specialised facilities' serving countries or regions, their design, equipment and personnel management varied. Eighteen facilities fulfilled the definition of a High Level Isolation Unit'. In contrast, 24 facilities could not operate independently from their co-located hospital, and five could not ensure access to equipment essential for infection control. Data presented are not representative for the EU in general, as only 16/27 (59.3%) of all Member States agreed to participate. Another limitation of this study is the time elapsed between data collection and publication; e.g. in Germany one additional facility opened in the meantime. Conclusion There are disparities both within and between European countries regarding the design and equipment

  8. Participation and Performance Trends in Triple Iron Ultra-triathlon – a Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) the changes in participation and performance and (ii) the gender difference in Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling and 126.6 km running) across years from 1988 to 2011. Methods For the cross-sectional data analysis, the association between with overall race times and split times was investigated using simple linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. For the longitudinal data analysis, the changes in race times for the five men and women with the highest number of participations were analysed using simple linear regression analyses. Results During the studied period, the number of finishers were 824 (71.4%) for men and 80 (78.4%) for women. Participation increased for men (r 2=0.27, P<0.01) while it remained stable for women (8%). Total race times were 2,146 ± 127.3 min for men and 2,615 ± 327.2 min for women (P<0.001). Total race time decreased for men (r 2=0.17; P=0.043), while it increased for women (r 2=0.49; P=0.001) across years. The gender difference in overall race time for winners increased from 10% in 1992 to 42% in 2011 (r 2=0.63; P<0.001). The longitudinal analysis of the five women and five men with the highest number of participations showed that performance decreased in one female (r 2=0.45; P=0.01). The four other women as well as all five men showed no change in overall race times across years. Conclusions Participation increased and performance improved for male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes while participation remained unchanged and performance decreased for females between 1988 and 2011. The reasons for the increase of the gap between female and male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes need further investigations. PMID:23012633

  9. New Arsenic Cross Section Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kawano, Toshihiko

    2015-03-04

    This report presents calculations for the new arsenic cross section. Cross sections for 73,74,75 As above the resonance range were calculated with a newly developed Hauser-Feshbach code, CoH3.

  10. Differential cross section measurements of the 19F(d,d0) elastic scattering for Ion Beam Analysis purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foteinou, V.; Provatas, G.; Aslanoglou, X.; Axiotis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Misaelides, P.; Ntemou, E.; Patronis, N.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.

    2017-04-01

    The differential cross sections of the 19F(d,d0) elastic scattering were determined at five backward angles from 125° to 170°. Two independent experiments were performed, one for the determination of the cross sections and one for the validation of the obtained results. In the first experiment, a thin natLiF target was bombarded with deuterons in the energy region from 0.94 to 2.0 MeV. In the benchmarking experiment, a thick ZnF2 pellet was irradiated with deuterons at Ed,lab = 1.11, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8and 2.0MeV .

  11. Calculation and analysis of cross-sections for p+184W reactions up to 200 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Zheng-Jun; Han, Yin-Lu

    2015-08-01

    A set of optimal proton optical potential parameters for p+ 184W reactions are obtained at incident proton energy up to 250 MeV. Based on these parameters, the reaction cross-sections, elastic scattering angular distributions, energy spectra and double differential cross sections of proton-induced reactions on 184W are calculated and analyzed by using theoretical models which integrate the optical model, distorted Born wave approximation theory, intra-nuclear cascade model, exciton model, Hauser-Feshbach theory and evaporation model. The calculated results are compared with existing experimental data and good agreement is achieved. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China, Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical System for Nuclear Waste Transmutation (2007CB209903) and Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Nuclear Energy System (XDA02010100)

  12. Quantitative Microstructural Analysis of Unidirectional Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites. Part 1. Microstructural Characterization of Composite Cross Section

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOSITE CROSS SECTION 7. AUTIIHOR() S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) John J. Ricca and Rebecca M. Jurta s. PERFORING ORG~ANVTOe NAM...Dep for Sci & Tech 1 D. Rose 1 Dr. J. R. Sculley , SARD I AMSTA-RKA 1 AMSTA-UL, Technical Library Deputy Chief of Staff, Research, Development, and 1...Gerstle, Div 5814 The John Hopkins University, Department of Civil Engineering/ Materials Science and Engineering, Baltimore, MD 28218 1 ATTN: Dr. R

  13. Analysis of the low- and high-energy fusion cross sections: the case of 58Ni+54Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.

    2017-04-01

    The importance of the saturation effect of cold nuclear matter (NM) on describing the fusion hindrance phenomenon at extremely low incident energies is investigated for the medium-heavy mass system of 58Ni+54Fe. From the theoretical viewpoint, for considering the mentioned property during the fusion process one can use the double-folding (DF) model which is modified through the repulsive core effects as a basic heavy ion–ion potential. The theoretical calculations of the fusion cross sections are performed using the coupled-channel technique, including couplings to the low-lying {2}+ and {3}- states in target and projectile. It is shown that the corrective effects of the cold NM provide an appropriate description for the energy-dependent behavior of the measured fusion cross sections at extremely low incident energies. Moreover, we find that the calculated results of the astrophysical S factor and the logarithmic derivative based on the modified form of the DF model are in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data at these energies. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present sudden approach for the behavior of the fusion cross sections at high incident energies. The obtained results reveal that this behavior depends on the nuclear structure of the reacting nuclei.

  14. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. Methods A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women’s medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. Results 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. Discussion The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations. PMID:22586442

  15. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    .0%). Conclusions Data suggests that T. gondii infections continue to decline in the United States, but the overall infection rate remains substantial at nearly 7%. Despite the limitations in the Continuous NHANES cross-sectional survey, the association between well water use and T. gondii infection warrants further research. PMID:25012250

  16. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. Methods A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. Results In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03–1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01–1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07–1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18–2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Conclusion Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  18. Outdoor artificial light at night, obesity, and sleep health: Cross-sectional analysis in the KoGES study.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yong Seo; Song, Jin-Young; Joo, Eun-Yeon; Lee, Heon-Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Sang-kun; Jung, Ki-Young

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a common disorder with many complications. Although chronodisruption plays a role in obesity, few epidemiological studies have investigated the association between artificial light at night (ALAN) and obesity. Since sleep health is related to both obesity and ALAN, we investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity after adjusting for sleep health. We also investigated the association between outdoor ALAN and sleep health. This cross-sectional survey included 8526 adults, 39-70 years of age, who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Outdoor ALAN data were obtained from satellite images provided by the US Defense Meteorological Satellite Program. We obtained individual data regarding outdoor ALAN; body mass index; depression; and sleep health including sleep duration, mid-sleep time, and insomnia; and other demographic data including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking status and consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between outdoor ALAN and obesity. The prevalence of obesity differed significantly according to sex (women 47% versus men 39%, p < 0.001) and outdoor ALAN (high 55% versus low 40%, p < 0.001). Univariate logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between high outdoor ALAN and obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-1.35, p < 0.001). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that high outdoor ALAN was significantly associated with obesity after adjusting for age and sex (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.14-1.37, p < 0.001) and even after controlling for various other confounding factors including age, sex, educational level, type of residential building, monthly household income, alcohol consumption, smoking, consumption of caffeine or alcohol before sleep, delayed sleep pattern, short sleep duration and

  19. Measurement and QCD analysis of double-differential inclusive jet cross sections in pp collisions at s=8$$ \\sqrt{s}=8 $$ TeV and cross section ratios to 2.76 and 7 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2017-03-01

    A measurement of the double-differential inclusive jet cross section as a function of the jet transverse momentum pT and the absolute jet rapidity abs(y) is presented. Data from LHC proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 inverse femtobarns, have been collected with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-kT clustering algorithm with a size parameter of 0.7 in a phase space region covering jet pT from 74 GeV up to 2.5 TeV and jet absolute rapidity up to abs(y) = 3.0. The low-pT jet range between 21 and 74 GeV ismore » also studied up to abs(y) = 4.7, using a dedicated data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 inverse picobarns. The measured jet cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared with the predictions from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order (NLO) using various sets of parton distribution functions (PDF). Cross section ratios to the corresponding measurements performed at 2.76 and 7 TeV are presented. From the measured double-differential jet cross section, the value of the strong coupling constant evaluated at the Z mass is alpha[S(M[Z]) = 0.1164 +0.0060 -0.0043, where the errors include the PDF, scale, nonperturbative effects and experimental uncertainties, using the CT10 NLO PDFs. Improved constraints on PDFs based on the inclusive jet cross section measurement are presented.« less

  20. Out-of-pocket Cost Burden in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Cross-sectional Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sin, Aaron T.; Damman, Jennifer L.; Ziring, David A.; Gleghorn, Elizabeth E.; Garcia-Careaga, Manuel G.; Gugig, Roberto R.; Hunter, Anna K.; Burgis, Jennifer C.; Bass, Dorsey M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), can result in significant morbidity requiring frequent health care utilization. Although it is known that the overall financial impact of pediatric IBD is significant, the direct out-of-pocket (OOP) cost burden on the parents of children with IBD has not been explored. We hypothesized that affected children with a more relapsing disease course and families in lower income strata, ineligible for need-based assistance programs, disparately absorb ongoing financial stress. Methods: We completed a cross-sectional analysis among parents of children with IBD residing in California using an online HIPAA-secure Qualtrics survey. Multicenter recruitment occurred between December 4, 2013 and September 18, 2014 at the point-of-care from site investigators, informational flyers distributed at regional CCFA conferences, and social media campaigns equally targeting Northern, Central, and Southern California. IBD-, patient-, and family-specific information were collected from the parents of pediatric patients with IBD patients younger than 18 years of age at time of study, carry a confirmed diagnosis of CD or UC, reside in and receive pediatric gastroenterology care in California, and do not have other chronic diseases requiring ongoing medical care. Results: We collected 150 unique surveys from parents of children with IBD (67 CD; 83 UC). The median patient age was 14 years for both CD and UC, with an overall 3.7 years (SD 2.8 yr) difference between survey completion and time of IBD diagnosis. Annually, 63.6%, 28.6%, and 5.3% of families had an OOP cost burden >$500, >$1000, and >5000, respectively. Approximately one-third (36.0%) of patients had emergency department (ED) visits over the past year, with 59.2% of these patients spending >$500 on emergency department copays, including 11.1% who spent >$5000. Although 43.3% contributed <$500 on procedure and test

  1. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Joshua; Laga, Hamid; Huang, Chun Yuan; Heuer, Sigrid; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image’s background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy. PMID:26398501

  2. Analysis of normalized radar cross section (sigma-O) signature of Amazon rain forest using SEASAT scatterometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracalente, E. M.; Sweet, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The normalized radar cross section (NRCS) signature of the Amazon rain forest was SEASAT scatterometer data. Statistics of the measured (NRCS) values were determined from multiple orbit passes for three local time periods. Plots of mean normalized radar cross section, dB against incidence angle as a function of beam and polarization show that less than 0.3 dB relative bias exists between all beams over a range of incidence angle from 30 deg to 53 deg. The backscattered measurements analyzed show the Amazon rain forest to be relatively homogeneous, azimuthally isotropic and insensitive to polarization. The return from the rain forest target appears relatively consistent and stable, except for the small diurnal variation (0.75 dB) that occurs at sunrise. Because of the relative stability of the rain forest target and the scatterometer instrument, the response of versus incidence angle was able to detect errors in the estimated yaw altitude angle. Also, small instrument gain biases in some of the processing channels were detected. This led to the development of an improved NRCS algorithm, which uses a more accurate method for estimating the system noise power.

  3. Astrophysical analysis of the measurement of (α,γ) and (α,n) cross sections of 169Tm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Fülöp, Zs.; Fröhlich, C.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Somorjai, E.

    2012-07-01

    Reaction cross sections of 169Tm(α,γ)173Lu and 169Tm(α,n)172Lu have been measured in the energy range 12.6≤Eα≤17.5 MeV and 11.5≤Eα≤17.5 MeV, respectively, using the recently introduced method of combining activation with x-ray counting. Improved shielding made it possible to measure the (α,γ) to lower energy than previously possible. The combination of (α,γ) and (α,n) data made it possible to study the energy dependence of the α width. While absolute value and energy dependence are perfectly reproduced by theory at the energies above 14 MeV, the observed change in energy dependence at energies below 14 MeV requires a modification of the predicted α width. Using an effective, energy-dependent, local optical α+nucleus potential it is possible to reproduce the data but the astrophysical rate is still not well constrained at γ-process temperatures. The additional uncertainty stemming from a possible modification of the compound formation cross section is discussed. Including the remaining uncertainties, the recommended range of astrophysical reaction rate values at 2 GK is higher than the previously used values by factors of 2-37.

  4. Reporting of euthanasia in medical practice in Flanders, Belgium: cross sectional analysis of reported and unreported cases

    PubMed Central

    Bilsen, Johan; Cohen, Joachim; Rurup, Mette L; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the rate of reporting of euthanasia cases to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee and to compare the characteristics of reported and unreported cases of euthanasia. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Flanders, Belgium. Participants A stratified at random sample was drawn of people who died between 1 June 2007 and 30 November 2007. The certifying physician of each death was sent a questionnaire on end of life decision making in the death concerned. Main outcome measures The rate of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee; physicians’ reasons for not reporting cases of euthanasia; the relation between reporting and non-reporting and the characteristics of the physician and patient; the time by which life was shortened according to the physician; the labelling of the end of life decision by the physician involved; and differences in characteristics of due care between reported and unreported euthanasia cases. Results The survey response rate was 58.4% (3623/6202 eligible cases). The estimated total number of cases of euthanasia in Flanders in 2007 was 1040 (95% CI 970 to 1109), thus the incidence of euthanasia was estimated as 1.9% of all deaths (95% CI 1.6% to 2.3%). Approximately half (549/1040 (52.8%, 95% CI 43.9% to 60.5%)) of all estimated cases of euthanasia were reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee. Physicians who perceived their case as euthanasia reported it in 93.1% (67/72) of cases. Cases of euthanasia were reported less often when the time by which life was shortened was less than one week compared with when the perceived life shortening was greater (37.3% v 74.1%; P<0.001). Unreported cases were generally dealt with less carefully than reported cases: a written request for euthanasia was more often absent (87.7% v 17.6% verbal request only; P<0.001), other physicians and caregivers specialised in palliative care were consulted less often (54.6% v 97.5%; 33.0% v 63

  5. R-matrix analysis of the {sup 240}Pu neutron cross sections in the thermal to 5700 eV energy range

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Bouland, O.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-08-01

    Resonance analysis of high resolution neutron transmission data and of fission cross sections were performed in the neutron energy range from the thermal regions to 5,700 eV by using the Reich-Moore Bayesian code SAMMY. The experimental data base is described and the method of analysis is given. The experimental data were carefully examined in order to identify more resonances than those found in the current evaluated data files. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are given. A new set of the average values of the parameters is proposed, which could be used for calculation of the average cross sections in the unresolved resonance region. The resonance parameters are available IN ENDF-6 format at the national or international data centers.

  6. R-Matrix Analysis of 238U High Resolution Neutron Transmissions and Capture Cross Sections in the Energy Range 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, Herve; Leal, Luiz C; Larson, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    The neutron resonance parameters of 238U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990 and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 to 200 pcm.

  7. R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of {sup 235}U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which {sup 235}U is present.

  8. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  9. Monolayer-by-monolayer compositional analysis of InAs/InAsSb superlattices with cross-sectional STM

    DOE PAGES

    Wood, M. R.; Kanedy, K.; Lopez, F.; ...

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, we use cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to reconstruct the monolayer-by-monolayer composition profile across a representative subset of MBE-grown InAs/InAsSb superlattice layers and find that antimony segregation frustrates the intended compositional discontinuities across both antimonide-on-arsenide and arsenide-on-antimonide heterojunctions. Graded, rather than abrupt, interfaces are formed in either case. We likewise find that the incorporated antimony per superlattice period varies measurably from beginning to end of the multilayer stack. Finally, although the intended antimony discontinuities predict significant discrepancies with respect to the experimentally observed high-resolution x-ray diffraction spectrum, dynamical simulations based on the STM-derived profiles provide an excellentmore » quantitative match to all important aspects of the x-ray data.« less

  10. Relationships among social support, professional empowerment, and nursing career development of male nurses: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Fu, Chou-Mei; Li, Ren-Hau; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Yu, Hsing-Yi

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships among social support, professional empowerment, and nursing career development and to identify the significant factors that affect nursing career development among male nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used with 314 male nurses in Taiwan. Social support and professional empowerment were significantly and positively correlated with nursing career development among male nurses. Social support, professional empowerment, salary, type of institution, type of clinical level, and nursing discipline were identified as factors that significantly influenced nursing career development. Together, they accounted for 55.9% of the total variation. Professional empowerment was the most critical predictor of nursing career development and accounted for 47.7% of the variation. Nursing managers should follow male nurses' empowerment with interest and specifically address professional empowerment to promote male nurses' career development.

  11. Monolayer-by-monolayer compositional analysis of InAs/InAsSb superlattices with cross-sectional STM

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M. R.; Kanedy, K.; Lopez, F.; Weimer, M.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Shaner, E. A.; Kim, J. K.

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, we use cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to reconstruct the monolayer-by-monolayer composition profile across a representative subset of MBE-grown InAs/InAsSb superlattice layers and find that antimony segregation frustrates the intended compositional discontinuities across both antimonide-on-arsenide and arsenide-on-antimonide heterojunctions. Graded, rather than abrupt, interfaces are formed in either case. We likewise find that the incorporated antimony per superlattice period varies measurably from beginning to end of the multilayer stack. Finally, although the intended antimony discontinuities predict significant discrepancies with respect to the experimentally observed high-resolution x-ray diffraction spectrum, dynamical simulations based on the STM-derived profiles provide an excellent quantitative match to all important aspects of the x-ray data.

  12. Frontal-subcortical circuitry in social attachment and relationships: A cross-sectional fMRI ALE meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Hui; Walker, Zachary M; Hale, James B; Chen, S H Annabel

    2017-02-22

    Researchers have explored the concept of attachment in multiple ways, from animal studies examining imprinting to abnormal attachment in psychopathology. However, until recently, few have considered how neural circuitry develops the effective social bonds that are subsequently replicated in relationships across the lifespan. This current cross-sectional study undertook a fMRI Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analyses to examine the neurocircuitry that governs emotional and behavioural functions critical for building effective social relationships in children and adults. Results suggest that dissociable dorsal cognitive ("cool") and ventral - affective ("hot") frontal-subcortical circuits (FSC) work together to govern social relationships, with repeated social consequences leading to potentially adaptive - or maladaptive - relationships that can become routinized in the cerebellum. Implications for forming stable, functional, social bonds are considered, followed by recommendations for those who struggle with cool and hot FSC functioning that can hinder the development of adaptive prosocial relationships.

  13. X-ray analysis of residual stress gradients in TiN coatings by a Laplace space approach and cross-sectional nanodiffraction: a critical comparison.

    PubMed

    Stefenelli, Mario; Todt, Juraj; Riedl, Angelika; Ecker, Werner; Müller, Thomas; Daniel, Rostislav; Burghammer, Manfred; Keckes, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    Novel scanning synchrotron cross-sectional nanobeam and conventional laboratory as well as synchrotron Laplace X-ray diffraction methods are used to characterize residual stresses in exemplary 11.5 µm-thick TiN coatings. Both real and Laplace space approaches reveal a homogeneous tensile stress state and a very pronounced compressive stress gradient in as-deposited and blasted coatings, respectively. The unique capabilities of the cross-sectional approach operating with a beam size of 100 nm in diameter allow the analysis of stress variation with sub-micrometre resolution at arbitrary depths and the correlation of the stress evolution with the local coating microstructure. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are extensively discussed.

  14. Two-photon absorption cross section determination for fluorene derivatives: analysis of the methodology and elucidation of the origin of the absorption processes.

    PubMed

    Belfield, Kevin D; Bondar, Mykhailo V; Hernandez, Florencio E; Przhonska, Olga V; Yao, Sheng

    2007-11-08

    A comprehensive analysis of the well-known open aperture Z-scan method, using a modified equation for the change in transmittance, is presented and accounts for discrepancies in two-photon absorption (2PA) cross sections between picosecond and femtosecond excitation. This new approach takes into account excited-state absorption and stimulated emission of the molecules studied. The two-photon absorption cross-section spectra of a series of six fluorene-based derivatives, determined using picosecond pulses, over a broad spectral range (500-900 nm), and this approach using a modified fitting procedure in the open aperture Z-scan is reported. We demonstrate that the fluorene derivatives exhibit two-photon absorption cross-section values between 700 and 5000 GM, when excited into the two-photon allowed electronic state. Excitation anisotropy spectra, measured to investigate the nature of the observed linear and nonlinear absorption bands, are presented and provide insight into the 2PA process.

  15. Z-dependence analysis of M x-ray production cross sections for heavy elements with 60≤Z≤90 by protons impact

    SciTech Connect

    Deghfel, B.; Kahoul, A.; Nekkab, M.

    2015-03-30

    Motivated by the large deviation between the experiment and the predictions of the most often used model of ionization process by a charged particle, namely ECPSSR model, a large database of experimental M-shell X-ray production cross-sections by protons energies varying from 0.1 to 4.0 MeV for elements with atomic number 60 ≤ Z ≤ 90, is collected from various sources published from 1980 till 2009 to deduce an empirical M x-ray production cross section. This latter is then deduced from the available experimental data as a function of the scaled velocity parameter by using the whole range of elements (collective analysis) or by introducing the dependence of these cross sections on the atomic number of the target, noted as “Z-dependence analysis” in addition to the collective one. The corresponding results and their deviation from the experimental data are presented for selected elements. Also, a comparison is made for selected elements between our results and other theoretical as well as experimental works.

  16. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  17. Immunity status against poliomyelitis in childbearing women in a province of northern Italy. A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, L; Affanni, P; Verrotti di Pianella, C; Colucci, M E; Tanzi, M L

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional seroprevalence study was carried out in 2007 to estimate the immunological status associated with poliomyelitis among fertile women , according to demographic changes. We consecutively enrolled 493 healthy mothers at the time of delivery in order to assess immunity against poliomyelitis by a neutralisation inhibition test. Despite the lack of seronegative subjects, our investigation showed low GMTs, which confirmed a reduction in the "booster effect". The GMTs against poliovirus 1, poliovirus 2 and poliovirus 3 were 25.20, 14.79 and 8.80, respectively. The data that emerged from our survey showed that GMTs have decreased significantly since 1983 and reached low-to-medium values over the past 25 years. The serum prevalence studies, together with the vaccination coverage estimates, are useful and are strongly recommended in order to highlight and identify the possible scenarios in which susceptible subject groups may be present simultaneously as well the possibility of the reintroduction of wild virus in an area that was previously free of polio.

  18. Evaluation of dipstick analysis among elderly residents to detect bacteriuria: a cross-sectional study in 32 nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Sundvall, Pär-Daniel; Gunnarsson, Ronny K

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated dipstick urinalysis for elderly and practically none present confidence intervals. Furthermore, most previous studies combine all bacteria species in a "positive culture". Thus, their evaluation may be inappropriate due to Yule-Simpson's paradox. The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of dipstick urinalysis for the elderly in nursing homes. Methods In this cross-sectional study voided urine specimens were collected from 651 elderly individuals in nursing homes. Dipstick urinalysis for nitrite, leukocyte esterase and urine culture were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Visual readings were compared to readings with a urine chemistry analyzer. Results 207/651 (32%) of urine cultures showed growth of a potentially pathogenic bacterium. Combining the two dipsticks improved test characteristics slightly compared to using only one of the dipsticks. When both dipsticks are negative, presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria can be ruled out with a negative predictive value of 88 (84–92)%. Visual and analyzer readings had acceptable agreement. Conclusion When investigating for bacteriuria in elderly people at nursing homes we suggest nitrite and leukocyte esterase dipstick be combined. There are no clinically relevant differences between visual and analyzer dipstick readings. When dipstick urinalysis for nitrite and leukocyte esterase are both negative it is unlikely that the urine culture will show growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and in a patient with an uncomplicated illness further testing is unnecessary. PMID:19635163

  19. Association between cannabis use and schizotypal dimensions--a meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Szoke, Andrei; Galliot, Anne-Marie; Richard, Jean-Romain; Ferchiou, Aziz; Baudin, Grégoire; Leboyer, Marion; Schürhoff, Franck

    2014-09-30

    Cannabis consumption can cause abuse and dependence and increase risk of developing psychiatric and somatic disorders. Several literature reviews explored the link between cannabis consumption and schizophrenia but none summarized the rich literature on cannabis and psychometric schizotypy. The aim of our review is to synthesize data from studies that explored the association between cannabis consumption and schizoptypal dimensions. A systematic review of the literature and, when needed, contact with the authors, allowed us to gather data from 29 cross-sectional studies. We compared schizotypy scores between subjects that never used cannabis and subjects that used it at least once ("never vs. ever") and between current users and subjects that do not use cannabis currently ("current vs. other"). We conducted separate analyses for total schizotypy score and each of the three classical schizotypal dimensions (positive, negative, disorganized). For all eight comparisons, the cannabis group ("ever" or "current") had higher schizotypy scores. Differences were in the small or medium range and, with the exception of the negative score in the current vs. other comparison, statistically significant. Cannabis consumption is associated with increased schizotypal traits. More research, using different approaches (e.g. longitudinal studies) is needed to explore the cause of this association.

  20. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late-Life Cardiovascular Factors and Their Relation to Clinically Defined Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Dugger, Brittany N; Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Monsell, Sarah E; Kukull, Walter A; Woodruff, Bryan K; Reiman, Eric M; Beach, Thomas G; Wilson, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated associations between cardiovascular factors and Alzheimer disease (AD) with minimal focus on other neurodegenerative diseases. Utilizing cross-sectional data from 17,532 individuals in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center, Uniform Data Set, we compared the presence of cardiovascular factors [body mass index (BMI), atrial fibrillation, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes] in individuals carrying a diagnosis of Probable AD (ProbAD), Possible AD, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, or corticobasal degeneration, with that of normals. Generalized linear mixed models were fitted with age at visit, gender, and cardiovascular factors as fixed effects and Alzheimer's Disease Centers as random effects. In late life, only BMI of ProbAD and DLB patients was statistically significantly lower than that in normals (P-values <0.001). When accounting for colinearity within cardiovascular factors, a low BMI was a comorbidity of certain dementia etiologies as compared with normals. These data support a concept of disease-specific associations with certain cardiovascular factors.

  1. Analysis of Electron Evolution in Air using Updated Cross Section Data (LA-UR-14-25207)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusateri, Elise; Morris, Heidi; Ji, Wei

    2014-10-01

    For the purpose of modeling the time evolution of electron temperature in an Electromagnetic Pulse, a swarm model has been developed. This code uses an adaptive time step and solves a system of coupled differential equations for the electric field, electron temperature, electron number density, and drift velocity. Our comparisons with microwave and DC breakdown measurements have revealed that, for high values of E/p, the swarm model underestimates the equilibrium temperature that is achieved in experiments. Our initial work used energy and momentum transfer collision frequencies that were reported in Higgins, Longmire, and O'Dell (1973). We have updated the electron-air cross sections using those reported in the LXcat database as a part of the Plasma Data Exchange Project. New momentum and energy transfer collision frequencies, defined over a broader energy range, have been calculated using a two-term Boltzmann Equation solver, BOLSIG +. We report on the use of these updated collision frequencies in the swarm code and show the improvement in our calculation by comparing the results with experimental data.

  2. Actinide neutron induced cross-sections; analysis of the OSMOSE LWR-UO{sub 2} experiment in MINERVE

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard, D.; Litaize, O.; Santamarina, A.; Antony, M.; Hudelot, J. P.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the interpretation of the first phase of the OSMOSE experimental program. The OSMOSE experiment began in 2005 in the MINERVE French facility and will continue until 2008. It consists in reactivity worth measurements of separated actinides by an oscillation technique. First results are obtained in a standard LWR neutron spectrum (UO{sub 2} lattice). The present study focuses on the following isotopes: {sup 234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 239,242}Pu. The comparison between APOLLO2 accurate deterministic calculations and experiments shows the reliability of the latest JEFF-3.1 European nuclear data library for all oscillated isotopes, except {sup 237}Np. The obtained (C/E-1){+-}({delta}E/E) values are the following: {sup 234}U: -5%{+-}2% {sup 237}Np: -11%{+-}2% {sup 239}Pu: +1%{+-}2% {sup 242}Pu: +2%{+-}2% An energetic decomposition of the reactivity worth is carried out using Standard Perturbation Theory that underlines the underestimation of the {sup 237}Np(n, {gamma}) thermal and resonant capture cross-section. (authors)

  3. The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: an econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Yoffe, Paula; Hills, Nancy; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    While experimental and observational studies suggest that sugar intake is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes, independent of its role in obesity, it is unclear whether alterations in sugar intake can account for differences in diabetes prevalence among overall populations. Using econometric models of repeated cross-sectional data on diabetes and nutritional components of food from 175 countries, we found that every 150 kcal/person/day increase in sugar availability (about one can of soda/day) was associated with increased diabetes prevalence by 1.1% (p <0.001) after testing for potential selection biases and controlling for other food types (including fibers, meats, fruits, oils, cereals), total calories, overweight and obesity, period-effects, and several socioeconomic variables such as aging, urbanization and income. No other food types yielded significant individual associations with diabetes prevalence after controlling for obesity and other confounders. The impact of sugar on diabetes was independent of sedentary behavior and alcohol use, and the effect was modified but not confounded by obesity or overweight. Duration and degree of sugar exposure correlated significantly with diabetes prevalence in a dose-dependent manner, while declines in sugar exposure correlated with significant subsequent declines in diabetes rates independently of other socioeconomic, dietary and obesity prevalence changes. Differences in sugar availability statistically explain variations in diabetes prevalence rates at a population level that are not explained by physical activity, overweight or obesity.

  4. The influence of the built environment on outcomes from a “walking school bus study”: a cross-sectional analysis using geographical information systems

    PubMed Central

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M.; Blossom, Jeff; Robinson, Alyssa I.; Chen, Minghua L.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Mendoza, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting to school increases children’s daily physical activity. The built environment is associated with children’s physical activity levels in cross-sectional studies. This study examined the role of the built environment on the outcomes of a “walking school bus” study. Geographical information systems was used to map out and compare the built environments around schools participating in a pilot walking school bus randomised controlled trial, as well as along school routes. Multi-level modelling was used to determine the built environment attributes associated with the outcomes of active commuting to school and accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MPVA). There were no differences in the surrounding built environments of control (n = 4) and intervention (n = 4) schools participating in the walking school bus study. Among school walking routes, park space was inversely associated with active commuting to school (β = −0.008, SE = 0.004, P = 0.03), while mixed-land use was positively associated with daily MPVA (β = 60.0, SE = 24.3, P = 0.02). There was effect modification such that high traffic volume and high street connectivity were associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The results of this study suggest that the built environment may play a role in active school commuting outcomes and daily physical activity. PMID:25545924

  5. Family Structure, Mother-Child Communication, Father-Child Communication, and Adolescent Life Satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate A.; Currie, Candace

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between mother-child and father-child communication and children's life satisfaction, and the moderating effect of communication with stepparents. Design/methodology/approach: Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO-collaborative Study in Scotland…

  6. Analysis of variation in charges and prices paid for vaginal and caesarean section births: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Weber, Ellerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the between-hospital variation of charges and discounted prices for uncomplicated vaginal and caesarean section deliveries, and to determine the institutional and market-level characteristics that influence adjusted charges. Design, setting and participants Using data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD), we conducted a cross-sectional study of all privately insured patients admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for uncomplicated vaginal delivery (diagnosis-related group (DRG) 775) or uncomplicated caesarean section (DRG 766). Outcome measures Hospital charges and discounted prices adjusted for each patient's clinical and demographic characteristics. Results We analysed 76 766 vaginal deliveries and 32 660 caesarean sections in California in 2011. After adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, we found that the average California woman could be charged as little as US$3296 or as much as US$37 227 for a vaginal delivery, and US$8312–US$70 908 for a caesarean section depending on which hospital she was admitted to. The discounted prices were, on an average, 37% of the charges. We found that hospitals in markets with middling competition had significantly lower adjusted charges for vaginal deliveries, while hospitals with higher wage indices and casemixes, as well as for-profit hospitals, had higher adjusted charges. Hospitals in markets with higher uninsurance rates charged significantly less for caesarean sections, while for-profit hospitals and hospitals with higher wage indices charged more. However, the institutional and market-level factors included in our models explained only 35–36% of the between-hospital variation in charges. Conclusions These results indicate that charges and discounted prices for two common, relatively homogeneous diagnosis groups—uncomplicated vaginal delivery and caesarean section—vary widely between hospitals and are not well

  7. Four-year analysis of cataract surgery rates in Shanghai, China: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cataract surgery rate (CSR) is a critical index used to show that cataract blindness is being eliminated. It is considered to be tightly connected to social economic development; however, it is still extremely low in developing countries such as China. Although Shanghai is the most economically developed city in China, its CSR and the obstacles for increasing its CSR have not been previously evaluated. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted. By analyzing the data in the “Shanghai Cataract Operations Database” from 2006 to 2009, the CSR in Shanghai was calculated. The numbers of cataract surgeries between urban and suburban districts as well as among various medical institutions were compared. Results The CSR in Shanghai increased from 1741 in 2006 to 2210 in 2009, reflecting a 26.94% improvement. Phacoemulsification was the most frequent surgical choice for cataract removal, accounting for 94.93% of total cataract surgeries by 2009. In addition, by 2009, the CSR in urban districts had reached 5468, but only 532 in the suburbs. During 2009, cataract surgery records in 68 district hospitals, 23 medical centers, and 6 private hospitals comprised 32.05%, 52.33%, and 15.62%, respectively, of the total. There was a nearly 3.3-fold increase in the number of surgeries performed in private hospitals in the past four years. Furthermore, the average number of cataract surgeries per doctor that took place in private hospitals per year reached 207, which exceeded the average of 145 that took place in medical centers. Conclusions Until 2009, the CSR in Shanghai remained below the rates of social development and fell short of targets suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). Furthermore, increasing the CSR in the suburbs as well as in district hospitals is an important issue that needs to be addressed. PMID:24410915

  8. The effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Lee M; Wong, Wing S

    2011-06-01

    The negative association of insomnia and internet addiction with mental health is widely documented in the literature, yet little is known about their inter-relationships. The primary aim of this study was to examine the inter-relationships between insomnia, internet addiction and depression. A total of 719 Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong participated in this school-based cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS), the 12-item version of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and questions assessing internet use pattern and sociodemographic characteristics. The classification of internet addiction and insomnia was based on the CIAS cutoff global score >63 and PSQI cutoff global score >5, respectively. Multiple regression analyses tested the effects of insomnia and internet addiction on depression. Among students with internet addiction (17.2%), 51.7% were also identified as insomniacs. Internet addicts scored significantly poorer on all PSQI components, except sleep duration, than their non-addicted counterparts. After adjustment for gender and internet use time, both internet addiction (β=0.05; Sobel test Z=6.50, P<0.001) and insomnia (β=0.59; Sobel test Z=4.49, P<0.001) demonstrated a significant association with depression. Overall, there is high comorbidity between internet addiction and insomnia. Both insomnia and internet addiction emerged as significant explanatory factors, but they exerted differential effects on depression. Future research should be directed at determining the causal relationship between internet addiction and insomnia, and its underlying mechanism with depression.

  9. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Amy P; Perry, Ivan J; Phillips, Catherine M

    2017-03-05

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15-2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14-3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28-3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being.

  10. Risk factors for premature births: a cross-sectional analysis of hospital records in a Cameroonian health facility.

    PubMed

    Chiabi, Andreas; Mah, Evelyn M; Mvondo, Nicole; Nguefack, Seraphin; Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Kamga, Karen K; Zhang, Shiyuan; Mboudou, Emile; Tchokoteu, Pierre F; Mbond, Elie

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for preterm births in the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital in Cameroon, and to describe their outcomes. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study of hospital records over eight years. The incidence of prematurity was 26.5 % of admissions over a period of 7 years 7 months. After controlling for confounding factors, we identified attending antenatal care visits in a health centre (Odds ratio [OR] 6.19; 95% Confidence interval [CI] 1.15 - 33.22; p = 0.033), having a urinary tract infection (OR 39.04; 95% CI 17.19 - 88.62; p < 0.001), multiple gestation (OR 3.82; 95% CI 2.68 - 5.43; p <0.001) and congenital malformations (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.24 - 6.22; p = 0.013) increased the odds of preterm birth. On the other hand being a student mother (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.20 - 0.98; p = 0.047), being married (OR 0.40 95% CI 0.19 - 0.84; p = 0.016) and more antenatal visits (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.15 - 0.35; p <0.001) reduced the odds of preterm birth Neonatal mortality in these preterm neonates was 36.6%, in which 69% occurred in the early neonatal period. The main causes of death were neonatal infections (27.6%), neonatal asphyxia (11.9%) and congenital malformations (10.3%). We recommend enhanced prenatal care and management of pathologies which arise during pregnancy.

  11. Drug use during early pregnancy: Cross-sectional analysis from the Childbirth and Health Study in Primary Care in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdsson, Emil L.; Gudmundsdottir, Anna M.; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To analyse drug use in early pregnancy with special focus on socio-demographic factors associated with psychotropic and analgesic drug use. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting and subjects. A total of 1765 women were invited via their local health care centres, and 1111 participated at 11–16 weeks of pregnancy by filling out a postal questionnaire concerning socio-demographic and obstetric background, stressful life events, and drug use. Main outcome measures. Drug use prior to and early on in pregnancy, socio-demographic factors, smoking, and adverse life events were investigated. Drug categories screened for were psychotropics (collective term for antidepressants, relaxants, and sleep medication), analgesics, hormones, nicotine, vitamins/minerals, and homeopathic medicine. Results. Drug use from the aforementioned drug categories, excluding vitamins/minerals and homeopathic medicine, was reduced by 18% during early pregnancy, compared with six months prior to conception (49% vs. 60%). Psychotropic drug use during early pregnancy was associated with elementary maternal education (p < 0.5), being unemployed (p < 0.001), being single/divorced/separated (p < 0.01), smoking prior to or during pregnancy (p < 0.01), forced to change job/move house (p < 0.001), and psychotropic drug use six months prior to pregnancy (p < 0.001). No items on the stressful life events scale were associated with increased analgesic use, which increased only with multiparity. Conclusions. Use of analgesics and psychotropic drugs seems common in pregnancy. Our results indicate that lack of a support network, stressful life events, and lower status in society may predispose women to more drug use. GPs and midwives responsible for maternity care could take this into account when evaluating risk and gain for women and foetuses in the primary care setting. PMID:25299613

  12. The Association between Dietary Quality and Dietary Guideline Adherence with Mental Health Outcomes in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meegan, Amy P.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of adverse mental health outcomes in adults is increasing. Although beneficial effects of selected micronutrients and foods on mental health have been reported, they do not reflect the impact of the habitual diet on mental health. Therefore, our objective is to examine potential associations between dietary quality, dietary composition and compliance with food pyramid recommendations with depressive symptoms, anxiety and well-being (assessed using CES-D, HADS-A and WHO-5 screening tools) in a cross-sectional sample of 2047 middle-aged adults. Diet was assessed using a self-completed FFQ. Chi-square tests, t-tests and logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between dietary components and mental health outcomes. Dietary quality, but not dietary composition or guideline adherence, was associated with well-being. Those with high dietary quality were more likely to report well-being (OR =1.67, 95% CI 1.15–2.44, p = 0.007) relative to those with low dietary quality. This remained significant among females (OR = 1.92, (95% CI 1.14–3.23, p = 0.014) and non-obese individuals (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.28–3.20, p = 0.003). No associations between any dietary measures with anxiety or depressive symptoms were observed. These novel results highlight the importance of dietary quality in maintaining optimal psychological well-being. Better understanding of the relationship between dietary quality and mental health may provide insight into potential therapeutic or intervention strategies to improve mental health and well-being. PMID:28273871

  13. Association Between Falls and Brain Subvolumes: Results from a Cross-Sectional Analysis in Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Barden, John; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Chester, Victoria L; Szturm, Tony; Grenier, Sébastien; Léonard, Guillaume; Bherer, Louis; Annweiler, Cédric; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    Falls are a consequence of gait instability. Cortical and subcortical abnormalities have been associated with gait instability but not yet with falls. This study aims to compare the global and regional brain subvolumes between healthy older fallers and non-fallers. A total of 77 healthy older individuals (23 fallers and 54 non-fallers, 69.8 ± 3.5 years; 45.5 % female) were included in this study using a cross-sectional design. Based on an a priori hypothesis, the following brain subvolumes were quantified from three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI using FreeSurfer software: total white matter abnormalities, total white matter, total cortical and subcortical gray matter, hippocampus, motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex volumes. Gait performances were also recorded. Age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, use of psychoactive drugs, far-distance visual acuity, lower-limb proprioception, depressive symptoms and cognitive scores (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery) were used as covariates. Fallers have more frequently depressive symptoms (P = 0.048), a lower far distance visual acuity (P = 0.026) and a higher coefficient of variation of stride time (P = 0.008) compared to non-fallers. There was a trend to greater subvolumes for the somatosensory cortex (P = 0.093) and the hippocampus (P = 0.060) in the falls group. Multiple logistic regressions showed that subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and the hippocampus (P < 0.042) were increased in fallers compared to non-fallers, even after adjustment for clinical and brain characteristics. The greater subvolumes of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus reported in fallers compared to non-fallers suggests a possible brain compensatory mechanism involving spatial navigation and integration of sensory information.

  14. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  15. Radar cross section studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The ultimate goal is to generate experimental techniques and computer codes of rather general capability that would enable the aerospace industry to evaluate the scattering properties of aerodynamic shapes. Another goal involves developing an understanding of scattering mechanisms so that modification of the vehicular structure could be introduced within constraints set by aerodynamics. The development of indoor scattering measurement systems with special attention given to the compact range is another goal. There has been considerable progress in advancing state-of-the-art scattering measurements and control and analysis of the electromagnetic scattering from general targets.

  16. Single-Level and Multilevel Mediation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tofighi, Davood; Thoemmes, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a statistical approach used to examine how the effect of an independent variable on an outcome is transmitted through an intervening variable (mediator). In this article, we provide a gentle introduction to single-level and multilevel mediation analyses. Using single-level data, we demonstrate an application of structural…

  17. Temporal Dynamics of Religion as a Determinant of HIV Infection in East Zimbabwe: A Serial Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manzou, Rumbidzai; Schumacher, Christina; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Religion is an important underlying determinant of HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about how religion influences changes in HIV prevalence and associated sexual behaviours over time. Objectives To compare changes in HIV prevalence between major religious groups in eastern Zimbabwe during a period of substantial HIV risk reduction (1998–2005) and to investigate whether variations observed can be explained by differences in behaviour change. Methods We analysed serial cross-sectional data from two rounds of a longitudinal population survey in eastern Zimbabwe. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were developed to compare differences in sexual behaviour and HIV prevalence between religious groups and to investigate changes over time controlling for potential confounders. Results Christian churches were the most popular religious grouping. Over time, Spiritualist churches increased in popularity and, for men, Traditional religion and no religion became less and more common, respectively. At baseline (1998–2000), HIV prevalence was higher in Traditionalists and in those with no religion than in people in Christian churches (men 26.7% and 23.8% vs. 17.5%, women: 35.4% and 37.5% vs. 24.1%). These effects were explained by differences in socio-demographic characteristics (for Traditional and men with no religion) or sexual behaviour (women with no religion). Spiritualist men (but not women) had lower HIV prevalence than Christians, after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics (14.4% vs. 17.5%, aOR = 0.8), due to safer behaviour. HIV prevalence had fallen in all religious groups at follow-up (2003–2005). Odds of infection in Christians reduced relative to those in other religious groups for both sexes, effects that were mediated largely by greater reductions in sexual-risk behaviour and, possibly, for women, by patterns of conversion between churches. Conclusion Variation in behavioural responses to

  18. Smoking and serum vitamin D in older Chinese people: cross-sectional analysis based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C Q; Chan, Y H; Xu, L; Jin, Y L; Zhu, T; Zhang, W S; Cheng, K K; Lam, T H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies on serum vitamin D in smokers showed conflicting results. We examined the association of smoking status with serum vitamin D in older Chinese men, taking advantage of a community-based sample with natural exposure to vitamin D. Design Cross-sectional study based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS). Setting Community-based sample from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Participants 612 male participants aged 50+years recruited from 2009 to 2011. Results The mean (SD) of vitamin D concentration was 58.3 (17.2), 57.0 (15.0) and 54.7 (15.4) nmol/L for never, former and current smokers, respectively. Adjusted for multiple confounders, vitamin D decreased from never to former, then to current smokers (P for trend 0.02). Compared to never smokers, current smokers had lower serum concentrations of vitamin D, and the concentrations decreased with the increasing number of cigarettes per day (−3.11 (95% CI −9.05 to 2.82), −3.29 (−8.3 to 1.72) and −4.61 (−8.89 to −0.33) for 1–9, 10–19 and 20+cigarettes per day, respectively; p for trend 0.01), duration of smoking (−1.39 (−6.09 to 3.30) and −5.39 (−9.42 to −1.35) for 1–39 and 40+years, respectively; p for trend 0.008) as well as pack-years (−2.89 (−6.78 to 1.01) and −5.58 (−10.48 to −0.67) for 1–39 and 40+pack-years, respectively; p for trend 0.009). Longer duration of quitting smoking was associated with higher vitamin D than was current smoking (P for trend 0.04). Conclusions Current smokers had lower vitamin D than never smokers, and the association showed a dose–response pattern. PMID:27338881

  19. Residents of highly walkable neighbourhoods in Canadian urban areas do substantially more physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Thielman, Justin; Manson, Heather; Chiu, Maria; Copes, Ray; Rosella, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that neighbourhood walkability is associated with small differences in physical activity; however, the health impacts of these small differences have been questioned. We examined the size of the association of walkability with accelerometer-measured physical activity in a large, national-level Canadian population, and compared results to physical activity levels recommended in international guidelines. Our primary objective was to investigate the direction and size of the differences in physical activity that were related to walkability, and whether these differences depended on age. Methods: Participants were included from among respondents to the 2007-2011 Canadian Health Measures Surveys who lived in urban areas and were aged 6-79 years. The Canadian Health Measures Surveys are ongoing cross-sectional surveys of a Canada-wide population. Respondents were divided into quintiles based on Street Smart Walk Score® values of their census dissemination areas. For all respondents and age subgroups, we used covariate-adjusted generalized linear models to estimate differences between quintiles in accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Results: We included 7180 respondents. Differences in participant MVPA between highest and lowest Street Smart Walk Score quintiles were 3.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] -3.2 to 9.6) minutes/day for ages 6-11 years, 11.4 (95% CI 5.3 to 17.4) minutes/day for ages 12-17 years, 9.9 (95% CI 2.4 to 17.4) minutes/day for ages 18-29 years, 14.9 (95% CI 10.2 to 19.6) minutes/day for ages 30-44 years, 11.5 (95% CI 6.7 to 16.3) minutes/day for ages 45-64 years and 6.9 (95% CI 3.1 to 10.8) minutes/day for ages 65-79 years. There were no significant differences in sedentary time in any age group. Interpretation: In all groups except the youngest, participants in the most walkable areas did significantly more MVPA than those in the least walkable areas. For several age

  20. Comparison of IUPAC k0 Values and Neutron Cross Sections to Determine a Self-consistent Set of Data for Neutron Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Revay, Zsolt

    2009-12-01

    Independent databases of nuclear constants for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been independently maintained by the physics and chemistry communities for many year. They contain thermal neturon cross sections s0, standardization values k0, and transition probabilities Pg. Chemistry databases tend to rely upon direct measurements of the nuclear constants k0 and Pg which are often published in chemistry journals while the physics databases typically include evaluated s0 and Pg data from a variety of experiments published mainly in physics journals. The IAEA/LBNL Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation File (EGAF) also contains prompt and delayed g-ray cross sections sg from Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) measurements that can also be used to determine k0 and s0 values. As a result several independent databases of fundamental constants for NAA have evolved containing slightly different and sometimes discrepant results. An IAEA CRP for a Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis was established to compare these databases and investigate the possibilitiy of producing a self-consistent set of s0, k0, sg, and Pg values for NAA and other applications. Preliminary results of this IAEA CRP comparison are given in this paper.

  1. Association Between Internet Use and Body Dissatisfaction Among Young Females: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Canadian Community Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, Jamie I; Kaida, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests Internet exposure, including Facebook use, is positively correlated with body dissatisfaction, especially among girls and young women. Canada has one of the highest Internet access rates in the world, yet no previous study has examined this relationship using nationally representative data. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between Internet use and body dissatisfaction among a national, population-based sample of Canadian females 12-29 years of age. Methods We used cross-sectional data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2011-2012. Body dissatisfaction was measured using a 5-point Likert scale and defined as “very dissatisfied/dissatisfied” with one’s body. The explanatory variable was time spent using the Internet per week in the past 3 months, ranging from none/<1 hour to >20 hours. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate whether greater Internet use was associated with increasing odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, neutral, or satisfied with one’s body, using very satisfied as the referent. Probability survey sampling weights were applied to all analyses. Results Of 2983 included participants, sampled to represent 940,786 young Canadian females, most were 20-29 years old (61.98%) and living in households with an annual income Can $80,000 or more (44.61%). The prevalence of body dissatisfaction was 14.70%, and 25- to 29-year-olds were more likely than 12- to 14-year-olds to be very dissatisfied or dissatisfied with their body (20.76% vs 6.34%). Few (5.01%) reported none/<1 hour of Internet use, over half (56.93%) reported 1-10 hours, and one-fifth (19.52%) reported spending >20 hours online per week. Adjusting for age and income, the odds of being very dissatisfied/dissatisfied, relative to very satisfied, were greater in the highest versus lowest Internet use group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.03, 95% CI 1.19-7.70). The AORs for this level of body dissatisfaction

  2. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  3. Combination of measurements of inclusive deep inelastic {e^{± }p} scattering cross sections and QCD analysis of HERA data. H1 and ZEUS Collaborations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antunović, B.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt Dubak, A.; Behrens, U.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E. G.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brook, N. H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Buniatyan, A.; Bussey, P. J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A. J.; Cantun Avila, K. B.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C. D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Contreras, J. G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Daum, K.; Dementiev, R. K.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dolinska, G.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Figiel, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L. K.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henkenjohann, P.; Hladkỳ, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N. Z.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I. A.; Kostka, P.; Kotański, A.; Kötz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krücker, D.; Krüger, K.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levchenko, B. B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Löhr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O. Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Morozov, A.; Muhammad Nasir, N.; Müller, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, R. J.; Olsson, J. E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Paul, E.; Perez, E.; Perlański, W.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N. S.; Polifka, R.; Przybycień, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Šálek, D.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Saxon, D. H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shushkevich, S.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I. O.; Słomiński, W.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stanco, L.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Thompson, P. D.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Traynor, D.; Trofymov, A.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Wegener, D.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Wünsch, E.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Žáček, J.; Zakharchuk, N.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B. O.; Zhmak, N.; Žlebčík, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    A combination is presented of all inclusive deep inelastic cross sections previously published by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at HERA for neutral and charged current e^{± }p scattering for zero beam polarisation. The data were taken at proton beam energies of 920, 820, 575 and 460 GeV and an electron beam energy of 27.5 GeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb^{-1} and span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q^2, and Bjorken x. The correlations of the systematic uncertainties were evaluated and taken into account for the combination. The combined cross sections were input to QCD analyses at leading order, next-to-leading order and at next-to-next-to-leading order, providing a new set of parton distribution functions, called HERAPDF2.0. In addition to the experimental uncertainties, model and parameterisation uncertainties were assessed for these parton distribution functions. Variants of HERAPDF2.0 with an alternative gluon parameterisation, HERAPDF2.0AG, and using fixed-flavour-number schemes, HERAPDF2.0FF, are presented. The analysis was extended by including HERA data on charm and jet production, resulting in the variant HERAPDF2.0Jets. The inclusion of jet-production cross sections made a simultaneous determination of these parton distributions and the strong coupling constant possible, resulting in α _s(M_Z^2)=0.1183 ± 0.0009 (exp) ± 0.0005(model/parameterisation) ± 0.0012(hadronisation) ^{+0.0037}_{-0.0030}(scale). An extraction of xF_3^{γ Z} and results on electroweak unification and scaling violations are also presented.

  4. The environmental correlates of overall and neighborhood based recreational walking (a cross-sectional analysis of the RECORD Study)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Preliminary evidence suggests that recreational walking has different environmental determinants than utilitarian walking. However, previous studies are limited in their assessment of environmental exposures and recreational walking and in the applied modeling strategies. Accounting for individual sociodemographic profiles and weather over the walking assessment period, the study examined whether numerous street network-based neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service, social-interactional, and symbolic environments were associated with overall recreational walking and recreational walking in one’s residential neighborhood and could explain their spatial distribution. Methods Based on the RECORD Cohort Study (Paris region, France, n = 7105, 2007–2008 data), multilevel-spatial regression analyses were conducted to investigate environmental factors associated with recreational walking (evaluated by questionnaire at baseline). A risk score approach was applied to quantify the overall disparities in recreational walking that were predicted by the environmental determinants. Results Sixty-nine percent of the participants reported recreational walking over the past 7 days. Their mean reported recreational walking time was 3h31mn. After individual-level adjustment, a higher neighborhood education, a higher density of destinations, green and open spaces of quality, and the absence of exposure to air traffic were associated with higher odds of recreational walking and/or a higher recreational walking time in one’s residential neighborhood. As the overall disparities that were predicted by these environmental factors, the odds of reporting recreational walking and the odds of a higher recreational walking time in one’s neighborhood were, respectively, 1.59 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56, 1.62] times and 1.81 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.87) times higher in the most vs. the least supportive environments (based on the

  5. Analysis Techniques to Measure Charged Current Inclusive Water Cross Section and to Constrain Neutrino Oscillation Parameters using the Near Detector (ND280) of the T2K Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajarshi

    2014-03-01

    The Tokai to Kamioka (T2K) Experiment is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment located in Japan with the primary goal to precisely measure multiple neutrino flavor oscillation parameters. An off-axis muon neutrino beam with an energy that peaks at 600 MeV is generated at the JPARC facility and directed towards the kiloton Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector located 295 km away. The rates of electron neutrino and muon neutrino interactions are measured at SK and compared with expected model values. This yields a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters sinq and sinq. Measurements from a Near Detector that is 280 m downstream of the neutrino beam target are used to constrain uncertainties in the beam flux prediction and neutrino interaction rates. We present a measurement of inclusive charged current neutrino interactions on water. We used several sub-detectors in the ND280 complex, including a Pi-Zero detector (P0D) that has alternating planes of plastic scintillator and water bag layers, a time projection chamber (TPC) and fine-grained detector (FGD) to detect and reconstruct muons from neutrino charged current events. Finally, we describe a ``forward-fitting'' technique that is used to constrain the beam flux and cross section as an input for the neutrino oscillation analysis and also to extract a flux-averaged inclusive charged current cross section on water.

  6. Basin analysis of Upper Cretaceous strata of the Washakie and Red Desert basins, southwestern Wyoming, employing computer-generated maps and cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kohles, K.M.; Potts, J. ); Reid, F.S.

    1991-03-01

    The Washakie and Red Desert basins comprise the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basins of southwestern Wyoming. Stratigraphically the basins are dominated by a thick package of Cretaceous clastic sediments, as much as 16,000 ft thick, which resulted from several major transgressive-regressive cycles. Upper Cretaceous strata deposited during the latest cycle contain extensive deposits of commercial hydrocarbons, particularly gas. Much of the present structural configuration of the area is the result of the Laramide Orogeny in Late Cretaceous time. To facilitate a comprehensive geological analysis of the area a computerized subsurface data base was constructed from available well logs for approximately 3,000 wells in the Washakie and Red Desert basins. This data base contains correlated tops for most of the major Upper Cretaceous stratigraphic units, including selected subdivisions and net sand thickness values. Consistent correlations were achieved through the use of a tight, loop-tied cross section and key well network containing over 400 correlated well-logs. A complete suite of structure contour maps on all correlated horizons was generated from the data base with commercially available software. These maps, along with selected computer-generated structural cross sections, reveal a detailed subsurface picture of the Washakie and Red Desert basins. Isopachous maps of selected intervals were also produced to illustrate the Late Cretaceous depositional history of the area.

  7. Limits to dark matter annihilation cross-section from a combined analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf satellite galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    MAGIC Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present the first joint analysis of gamma-ray data from the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) to search for gamma-ray signals from dark matter annihilation in dwarf satellite galaxies. We combine 158 hours of Segue 1 observations with MAGIC with 6-year observations of 15 dwarf satellite galaxies by the Fermi-LAT. We obtain limits on the annihilation cross-section for dark matter particle masses between 10 GeV and 100 TeV—the widest mass range ever explored by a single gamma-ray analysis. These limits improve on previously published Fermi-LAT and MAGIC results by up to a factor of two at certain masses. Our new inclusive analysis approach is completely generic and can be used to perform a global, sensitivity-optimized dark matter search by combining data from present and future gamma-ray and neutrino detectors.

  8. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  9. Measurement and isobar-model analysis of the doubly differential cross section for the. pi. /sup +/ produced in. pi. /sup -/p. -->. pi. /sup +/. pi. /sup -/n

    SciTech Connect

    Manley, D.M.

    1981-11-01

    The doubly differential cross section d/sup 2/sigma/d..cap omega..dT for ..pi../sup +/ mesons produced in the reaction ..pi../sup -/p ..-->.. ..pi../sup +/..pi../sup -/n was measured at 203, 230, 256, and 358 MeV with a single-arm magnetic spectrometer. A set of five previous measurements at 254, 280, 292, 331, and 356 MeV was reanalyzed with the new measurements. Integrated cross sections were calculated for the combined data set with unprecedented accuracy for this energy range. The chiral-symmetry-breaking parameter was determined to be epsilon = -0.03 +- 0.26 by extrapolating the mean square modulus of the matrix element to threshold and comparing the threshold matrix element with the prediction of soft-pion theory. This value of epsilon is consistent with zero as required by the Weinberg Lagrangian. Measurements at the three highest energies were compared with the results of an isobar-model analysis of bubble-chamber events by an LBL-SLAC collaboration. After allowing for an overall normalization difference, the measurements at 331 and 358 MeV were in excellent agreement with the results of their analysis. The measurement at 292 MeV required variation of the PS11(epsilonN) amplitude, as well as the overall normalization, which could be due to the limited number of bubble-chamber events available for the LBL-SLAC analysis at this energy. A partial-wave analysis of the measurements was also carried out with the VPI isobar model. Within this model, the matrix element contains a background term calculated from a phenomenological ..pi..N Lagrangian that is consistent with the hypotheses of current algebra and PCAC. The reaction was found to be dominated by the initial P11 wave. Production of the ..delta.. isobar from initial D waves was found to be significant at the two highest energies.

  10. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  11. Photoneutron cross sections for Au

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, O.; Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Kondo, T.; Kamata, M.; Toyokawa, H.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Nair, C.; Lui, Y.-W.

    2011-10-28

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for Au in the entire energy range of the ({gamma},n) channel based on a direct neutron-counting technique with quasimonochromatic {gamma} rays produced in inverse Compton-scattering of laser photons with relativistic electrons. We present results of the measurement in comparison with the past data.

  12. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  13. A novel computer algorithm allows for volumetric and cross-sectional area analysis of indirect decompression following transpsoas lumbar arthrodesis despite variations in MRI technique.

    PubMed

    Gates, Timothy A; Vasudevan, Ram R; Miller, Kai J; Stamatopoulou, Vasiliki; Mindea, Stefan A

    2014-03-01

    Many patients present for neurosurgical spine evaluation with MRI studies conducted at facilities outside of the treating medical center. These images often vary widely in technique, for example, variation in slice thickness, number of slices, and gantry angle. While these images may be sufficient in conjunction with a physical exam to make surgical evaluations, we have found they are often incapable of being used for objective post-operative volumetric comparisons. In order to overcome this, we created a computer program that compensates for these variations in MRI technique. For this study, we examined patients who had undergone outside MRI pre-operatively and were deemed appropriate for a lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas lumbar interbody arthrodesis procedure. Volumetric analysis was performed on sagittal and axial T2-weighted pre- and post-operative MRI. The percentage change of central canal volume and foraminal area was calculated for each level. The authors identified five levels with MRI sufficient for volumetric analysis and eight levels (16 foramina) sufficient for foraminal cross-sectional analysis. Through use of our computer algorithm, average central canal volume and foraminal cross-sectional area was calculated to increase by 32.8% and 67.6% respectively following the procedure. These results are consistent with previous study findings and support the idea that restoration of the anterior column via a lateral approach can result in significant indirect decompression of the neural elements. Additionally, the novel algorithm created and used for this study suggests that it can achieve quick measurement and comparison of MRI studies despite variations in pre- and post-operative technique.

  14. Generalized multilevel function-on-scalar regression and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, Jeff; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Schrack, Jennifer

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript considers regression models for generalized, multilevel functional responses: functions are generalized in that they follow an exponential family distribution and multilevel in that they are clustered within groups or subjects. This data structure is increasingly common across scientific domains and is exemplified by our motivating example, in which binary curves indicating physical activity or inactivity are observed for nearly 600 subjects over 5 days. We use a generalized linear model to incorporate scalar covariates into the mean structure, and decompose subject-specific and subject-day-specific deviations using multilevel functional principal components analysis. Thus, functional fixed effects are estimated while accounting for within-function and within-subject correlations, and major directions of variability within and between subjects are identified. Fixed effect coefficient functions and principal component basis functions are estimated using penalized splines; model parameters are estimated in a Bayesian framework using Stan, a programming language that implements a Hamiltonian Monte Carlo sampler. Simulations designed to mimic the application have good estimation and inferential properties with reasonable computation times for moderate datasets, in both cross-sectional and multilevel scenarios; code is publicly available. In the application we identify effects of age and BMI on the time-specific change in probability of being active over a 24-hour period; in addition, the principal components analysis identifies the patterns of activity that distinguish subjects and days within subjects.

  15. Full-wave analysis using a tangential vector finite-element formulation of arbitrary cross-section transmission lines for millimeter and microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helal, M.; Legier, J. F.; Pribetich, P.; Kennis, P.

    1994-06-01

    A tangential vector finite-element formulation is implemented to deal with arbitrary cross section and metallic strip shape. Classical planar transmission lines as well as nonconventional cross-section waveguides such as the new microshield line are treated. Effects on propagation characteristics for these lines are studied when the metallization shape is approximated by a lossy trapezoid area.

  16. An algorithm for the analysis of inductive antennas of arbitrary cross-section for heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    The application of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating to near ignited plasmas will require launching structures that will be capable of withstanding the harsh plasma environment. The recessed antenna configuration is expected to provide sufficient protection for the structure, but to date no analysis has been done to determine if adequate coupling can be achieved in such a configuration. In this work we present a method for determining the current distribution for the antenna in the direction transverse to current flow and predict antenna loading in the presence of plasma. Antennas of arbitrary cross section are analyzed above ground planes of arbitrary shape. Results from ANDES, the ANtenna DESign code, are presented and compared to experimental results.

  17. Geometric morphometric analysis of craniofacial variation, ontogeny and modularity in a cross-sectional sample of modern humans

    PubMed Central

    Wellens, H L L; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Halazonetis, D J

    2013-01-01

    This investigation aimed to quantify craniofacial variation in a sample of modern humans. In all, 187 consecutive orthodontic patients were collected, of which 79 were male (mean age 13.3, SD 3.7, range 7.5–40.8) and 99 were female (mean age 12.3, SD 1.9, range 8.7–19.1). The male and female subgroups were tested for differences in mean shapes and ontogenetic trajectories, and shape variability was characterized using principal component analysis. The hypothesis of modularity was tested for six different modularity scenarios. The results showed that there were subtle but significant differences in the male and female Procrustes mean shapes. Males were significantly larger. Mild sexual ontogenetic allometric divergence was noted. Principal component analysis indicated that, of the four retained biologically interpretable components, the two most important sources of variability were (i) vertical shape variation (i.e. dolichofacial vs. brachyfacial growth patterns) and (ii) sagittal relationships (maxillary prognatism vs. mandibular retrognathism, and vice versa). The mandible and maxilla were found to constitute one module, independent of the skull base. Additionally, we were able to confirm the presence of an anterior and posterior craniofacial columnar module, separated by the pterygomaxillary plane, as proposed by Enlow. These modules can be further subdivided into four sub-modules, involving the posterior skull base, the ethmomaxillary complex, a pharyngeal module, and the anterior part of the jaws. PMID:23425043

  18. Dimensional and morphological analysis of various rugae patterns in Kerala (South India) sample population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Selvamani, Manickam; Hosallimath, Shilpa; Madhushankari; Basandi, Praveen Shivappa; Yamunadevi, Andamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Analysis of palatal rugae patterns, which are similar to fingerprints, is one of the techniques used in forensic sciences for human identification. As palatal rugae patterns are genetically determined, they can also be used in population differentiation and gender determination. Hence, we aimed to record the distribution of the predominant rugae pattern in Kerala population. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 maxillary study models (40 males and 60 females) recorded from Kerala population within the age group of 17-25 years were analyzed. The dental casts were examined for the interpretation of the total number, length, shape, location and unification of rugae. Chi-square test and unpaired t-test were employed for statistical analysis. Result: The total number of rugae was significantly (P < 0.001) greater in females than males. Regarding the shape, wavy pattern predominated in both males and females, followed by curve, straight, divergent, convergent and circular pattern. Circular pattern was more in males than females. The rugae patterns were located more in between mesial aspect of first premolar to mesial aspect of second premolar. Conclusion: The palatal rugae and their features of an individual may be considered as a reliable guide for identification purpose, provided antemortem casts are available. Nevertheless, gender differentiation is evident in terms of number and shape of rugae. PMID:26283818

  19. Clinical Features and Outcome of Sporadic Colorectal Carcinoma in Young Patients: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Early onset colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is rare and has been hypothesized to be a biologically and clinically distinct entity personifying aggressive disease and worse survival. Methods. Data for 131 patients was collected by retrospective chart review. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compute prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Early onset sporadic CRC accounted for 32% of all CRC treated in the specified time period. The mean age was 33.3 ± 7.9 years and the male to female ratio was 2 : 1. Colon and rectal cancers accounted for 55% and 45% of patients, respectively. 96% of rectal carcinoma patients received appropriate therapy as opposed to 65% of colon cancers. On multivariable analysis, appropriate reception of therapy (PR 4.99; 95% CI, 1.21–20.6) and signet ring morphology (PR 2.40; 95% CI, 1.33–4.32) were significantly associated with rectal cancers as opposed to colon cancer. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a trend towards inferior survival for rectal carcinoma 2 years after diagnosis. Conclusion.A high prevalence of early onset CRC was noted in the study. A trend towards inferior survival was seen in patients with rectal cancer. This finding raises the possibility of rectal carcinoma being an aggressive subset of young CRC. PMID:25006505

  20. Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

  1. Factors Influencing Communication with Doctors via the Internet: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of 2014 HINTS Survey.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-02-01

    Based on Street's (2003) ecological framework of communication in medical encounters, this study examined personal, interpersonal, and media factors that could influence patients' use of the Internet to communicate with doctors. Results from data analysis of responses from the 2014 Health Information National Trends Survey showed that patient activation and ease of Internet access were two positive predictors of online doctor-patient communication. In addition, patients' trust in doctors positively moderated the relationships between patient activation and online doctor-patient communication, and between perceived health status and online doctor-patient communication. Finally, the quality of patients' past experiences communicating with doctors had a positive moderation effect on the association between health information seeking behavior and online doctor-patient communication. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  2. Cross sectional TEM analysis of duplex HIPIMS and DC magnetron sputtered Mo and W doped carbon coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J.; Castillo Muller, I.; Mandal, P.; Abbas, A.; West, G.; Rainforth, W. M.; Ehiasarian, A.; Hovsepian, P.

    2015-10-01

    A FIB lift-out sample was made from a wear-resistant carbon coating deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) with Mo and W. TEM analysis found columnar grains extending the whole ∼1800 nm thick film. Within the grains, the carbon was found to be organised into clusters showing some onion-like structure, with amorphous material between them; energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) found these clusters to be Mo- and W-rich in a later, thinner sample of the same material. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) showed no difference in C-K edge, implying the bonding type to be the same in cluster and matrix. These clusters were arranged into stripes parallel to the film plane, of spacing 7-8 nm; there was a modulation in spacing between clusters within these stripes that produced a second, coarser set of striations of spacing ∼37 nm.

  3. Early Indication of Noise-induced Hearing Loss from PMP Use in Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colon, Diana C.; Verdugo-Raab, Ulla; Alvarez, Carmelo P.; Steffens, Thomas; Marcrum, Steven C.; Kolb, Stefanie; Herr, Caroline; Twardella, Dorothee

    2016-01-01

    Context: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) may indicate preclinical noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in adolescents from unsafe personal music player (PMP) use. Aims: The objective, therefore, was to observe preclinical signs of NIHL in 9th grade adolescents with clinically normal hearing by comparing DPOAE signals between different levels of A-weighted equivalent PMP exposure. Settings and Design: Subjects were recruited from all secondary-level schools located in the city of Regensburg, Germany during two academic years 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. Subjects and Methods: A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels (SPLs) for a 40-hour work week (LAeq,40h) were estimated from questionnaire responses on output and duration of PMP use of the previous week. Subjects were then categorized into four levels of exposure: <80, 80–85, >85 to <90, and ≥90 A-weighted Decibel [dB(A)]. DPOAE signals were collected by trained audiological staff, applying a standard optimized protocol, at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of the University Hospital Regensburg. Statistical Analysis Used: Mean DPOAE signals were compared between levels by unpaired t test. Novel linear regression models adjusting for other leisure noise exposures and with outcome variables DPoutcome and 4 kilo Hertz (kHz) DPOAEs estimated effects between levels. Results: A total of 1468 subjects (56% female, mostly aged 15 or 16 years) were available for analysis. Comparison of DPOAE means by PMP exposure typically showed no greater than 1 dB difference between groups. In fact, comparisons between ≥90 dB(A) and <80 dB(A) presented the least differences in magnitude. Both DPoutcome and 4 kHz linear regression models presented a weak association with the 4-level PMP exposure variable. An expected dose-response to PMP exposure was not observed in any analyses. Conclusions: DPOAE signal strength alone cannot indicate preclinical NIHL in adolescents. PMID:27991459

  4. Pathologic Analysis of Control Plans for Air Pollution Management in Tehran Metropolis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Salehi Shahrabi, Narges; Pourezzat, Aliasghar; Mobaraki, Hossein; Mafimoradi, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The centralization of human activities is associated with different pollutants which enter into environment easily and cause the urban environment more vulnerable. Regarding the importance of air pollution issue for Tehran metropolis, many plans and regulations have been developed. However, most of them failed to decline the pollution. The purpose of this study was to pathologically analyze air-pollution control plans to offer effective solutions for Tehran metropolis. Methods A Qualitative content analysis in addition to a semi-structured interview with 14 practicing professional were used to identify 1) key sources of Tehran’s air pollution, 2) recognize challenges towards effective performance of pertinent plans and 3), offer effective solutions. Results Related challenges to air-pollution control plans can be divided into two major categories including lack of integrated and organized stewardship and PEST challenges. Conclusion For controlling the air pollution of Tehran effectively, various controlling alternatives were identified as systematization of plan preparation process, standardization and utilization of new technologies & experts, infrastructural development, realization of social justice, developing coordination mechanisms, improving citizens’ participatory capacity and focusing on effective management of fuel and energy. Controlling air pollution in Tehran needs a serious attention of policymakers to make enforcements through applying a systemic cycle of preparation comprehensive plans. Further, implement the enforcements and evaluate the environmental impact of the plans through involving all stakeholders. PMID:26171340

  5. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data.

    PubMed

    Smith, Catherine M; Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28-3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23-5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96-7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission.

  6. Physical Activity and Self-Reported Cardiovascular Comorbidities in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Fernhall, Bo; McAuley, Edward; Cutter, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Background This study examined the possibility of a linear, inverse association between physical activity and the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods The sample included 561 persons with MS who completed demographic, cardiovascular comorbidity, disability status, and physical activity self-report assessments, and then wore an accelerometer for 7 days. The data were analyzed using bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Results Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there were statistically significant, inverse associations between the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities and objectively measured (r = −0.192, p = 0.0001) and self-reported (r = −0.151, p = 0.0001) physical activity. The first multiple linear regression indicated that objectively measured physical activity was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.003, SE B = 0.001, β = −0.128), even after controlling for confounding variables. The second multiple linear regression indicated that self-reported physical activity, too, was significantly associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities (B = −0.011, SE B = 0.004, β = −0.114), even after controlling for confounding variables. Conclusion Physical activity was associated with the number of self-reported cardiovascular comorbidities, independent of disability status and other possible confounding variables, in persons with MS. PMID:21597305

  7. Multiple large clusters of tuberculosis in London: a cross-sectional analysis of molecular and spatial data

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Helen; Anderson, Charlotte; Macdonald, Neil; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Large outbreaks of tuberculosis (TB) represent a particular threat to disease control because they reflect multiple instances of active transmission. The extent to which long chains of transmission contribute to high TB incidence in London is unknown. We aimed to estimate the contribution of large clusters to the burden of TB in London and identify risk factors. We identified TB patients resident in London notified between 2010 and 2014, and used 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units–variable number tandem repeat strain typing data to classify cases according to molecular cluster size. We used spatial scan statistics to test for spatial clustering and analysed risk factors through multinomial logistic regression. TB isolates from 7458 patients were included in the analysis. There were 20 large molecular clusters (with n>20 cases), comprising 795 (11%) of all cases; 18 (90%) large clusters exhibited significant spatial clustering. Cases in large clusters were more likely to be UK born (adjusted odds ratio 2.93, 95% CI 2.28–3.77), of black-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio 3.64, 95% CI 2.23–5.94) and have multiple social risk factors (adjusted odds ratio 3.75, 95% CI 1.96–7.16). Large clusters of cases contribute substantially to the burden of TB in London. Targeting interventions such as screening in deprived areas and social risk groups, including those of black ethnicities and born in the UK, should be a priority for reducing transmission. PMID:28149918

  8. Association Between Renal Function and Cognitive Ability Domains in the Einstein Aging Study: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mindy J.; Lai, Jennifer Y.; Zimmerman, Molly E.; Bitzer, Markus; Lipton, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The relationships between renal function and specific domains of cognitive function have rarely been explored in representative, community-based samples of older adults. We assessed the association between renal and cognitive function based on an extensive battery of neurocognitive tests. Methods. In a sample of Einstein Aging Study participants (n = 649, age = 70+ years) we calculated estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. We predefined three groups based on eGFR units of mL/min/1.73 m2 as low (<45), medium (45–59), and high (≥60). Thirteen neurocognitive tests were subjected to principle component analysis revealing three components: a global component, an episodic memory component, and a frontal-executive component. We first examined the relationship of eGFR group to cognitive performance in each domain and then examined subtests for the domains which proved to be statistically significant. Results. The sample (mean = 79.2, 61% = female) was distributed among eGFR categories as follows: low (n = 67), medium (n = 151), and high (n = 431). The frontal-executive domain was significantly associated with poor cognitive performance in the low eGFR group (p <.001). When we examined the neuropsychological test components for frontal-executive domain, performance was lower on two of four contributing tests (Trail Making Test Part B and the Digit Symbol Substitution test). Other domains of cognitive function were not associated with eGFR. Conclusions. Low eGFR is associated with reduced performance on executive function. Individuals with poor renal function should be assessed for cognitive impairment. Potential mechanisms are discussed. PMID:25394616

  9. Socioeconomic status, urbanicity and risk behaviors in Mexican youth: an analysis of three cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between urbanicity and adolescent health is a critical issue for which little empirical evidence has been reported. Although an association has been suggested, a dichotomous rural versus urban comparison may not succeed in identifying differences between adolescent contexts. This study aims to assess the influence of locality size on risk behaviors in a national sample of young Mexicans living in low-income households, while considering the moderating effect of socioeconomic status (SES). Methods This is a secondary analysis of three national surveys of low-income households in Mexico in different settings: rural, semi-urban and urban areas. We analyzed risk behaviors in 15-21-year-olds and their potential relation to urbanicity. The risk behaviors explored were: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual initiation and condom use. The adolescents' localities of residence were classified according to the number of inhabitants in each locality. We used a logistical model to identify an association between locality size and risk behaviors, including an interaction term with SES. Results The final sample included 17,974 adolescents from 704 localities in Mexico. Locality size was associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption, showing a similar effect throughout all SES levels: the larger the size of the locality, the lower the risk of consuming tobacco or alcohol compared with rural settings. The effect of locality size on sexual behavior was more complex. The odds of adolescent condom use were higher in larger localities only among adolescents in the lowest SES levels. We found no statically significant association between locality size and sexual initiation. Conclusions The results suggest that in this sample of adolescents from low-income areas in Mexico, risk behaviors are related to locality size (number of inhabitants). Furthermore, for condom use, this relation is moderated by SES. Such heterogeneity suggests the need for more

  10. Personality and Gastric Cancer Screening Attendance: 
A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the Miyagi Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shizuha; Nakaya, Naoki; Kakizaki, Masako; Ohmori-Matsuda, Kaori; Shimazu, Taichi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Fukao, Akira; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the associations between personality subscales and attendance at gastric cancer screenings in Japan. Methods A total of 21,911 residents in rural Japan who completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) and a questionnaire on various health habits including the number of gastric cancer screenings attended were included in the primary analysis. We defined gastric cancer screening compliance as attendance at gastric cancer screening every year for the previous 5 years; all other patterns of attendance were defined as non-compliance. We defined gastric cancer screening visiting as attendance at 1 or more screenings during the previous 5 years; lack of attendance was defined as non-visiting. We used logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of gastric cancer screening compliance and visiting according to 4 score levels that corresponded to the 4 EPQ-R subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie). Result Extraversion had a significant linear, positive association with both compliance and visiting (trend, P < 0.001 for both). Neuroticism had a significant linear, inverse association with compliance (trend, P = 0.047), but not with visiting (trend, P = 0.21). Psychoticism had a significant linear, inverse association with both compliance and visiting (trend, P < 0.001 for both). Lie had no association with either compliance or visiting. Conclusion The personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were significantly associated with gastric cancer screening attendance. A better understanding of the association between personality and attendance could lead to the establishment of effective campaigns to motivate people to attend cancer screenings. PMID:19164872

  11. Why do patients with Parkinson’s disease fall? A cross-sectional analysis of possible causes of falls

    PubMed Central

    Schrag, Anette; Choudhury, Mahbuba; Kaski, Diego; Gallagher, David A

    2017-01-01

    Background Falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are associated with significant injury, disability, hospitalization, and reduced quality of life. Aims To identify modifiable medical causes of falls in a cohort of PD patients. Methods Eighty seven PD patients were interviewed and examined using validated scales assessing motor and nonmotor aspects of PD, comorbidities and medication use. The frequency of falls in the last month was the primary outcome measure. Falls were hypothesized to be associated with increasing age, advanced motor severity, particularly axial features (e.g., freezing and postural instability), and dyskinesia. Nonmotor features hypothesized to be associated with falls included; cognitive impairment, psychosis, sleep disorders, cardiovascular dysfunction, and ophthalmological and medical comorbidities. Results Fallers had longer disease duration, higher Levodopa-equivalent doses, greater ‘On’ time with dyskinesia (all P < 0.005), and higher scores on some Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale items, particularly axial scores. However, patients with falls did not differ from non-fallers in age or overall motor UPDRS scores. Severity of psychosis, executive cognitive impairment, autonomic (particularly cardiovascular) dysfunction and sleep disturbances (particularly REM sleep behavioral disorder) were significantly associated with falls (all P < 0.005). Fallers more frequently reported use of antidepressants (both tricyclics and SSRIs) and neuroleptics (P < 0.001), but not hypnotics. There was no difference in medical comorbidities, ophthalmological assessments, fatigue, and apathy scores between the groups. In logistic regression analysis, cardiovascular dysfunction, antidepressant use, and REM sleep behavioral disorder were significantly associated with falls. Conclusions The causes of falls in PD are multifactorial and extend beyond motor impairment and dyskinesia; addressing these in patients already treated

  12. Thirty Years of Orphan Drug Legislation and the Development of Drugs to Treat Rare Seizure Conditions: A Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Georg F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epilepsy is a serious chronic health condition with a high morbidity impairing the life of patients and afflicted families. Many epileptic conditions, especially those affecting children, are rare disorders generating an urgent medical need for more efficacious therapy options. Therefore, we assessed the output of the US and European orphan drug legislations. Methods Quantitative analysis of the FDA and EMA databases for orphan drug designations according to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Results Within the US Orphan Drug Act 40 designations were granted delivering nine approvals, i.e. clobazam, diazepam viscous solution for rectal administration, felbamate, fosphenytoin, lamotrigine, repository corticotropin, rufinamide, topiramate, and vigabatrin. Since 2000 the EMA granted six orphan drug designations whereof two compounds were approved, i.e. rufinamide and stiripentol. In the US, two orphan drug designations were withdrawn. Orphan drugs were approved for conditions including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and status epilepticus. Comparing time to approval for rufinamide, which was approved in the US and the EU to treat rare seizure conditions, the process seems faster in the EU (2.2 years) than in the US (4.3 years). Conclusion Orphan drug development in the US and in the EU delivered only few molecular entities to treat rare seizure disorders. The development programs focused on already approved antiepileptic drugs or alternative pharmaceutical formulations. Most orphan drugs approved in the US are not approved in the EU to treat rare seizures although some were introduced after 2000 when the EU adopted the Orphan Drug Regulation. PMID:27557111

  13. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  14. Clinical and computed tomographic predictors of chronic bronchitis in COPD: a cross sectional analysis of the COPDGene study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic bronchitis (CB) has been related to poor outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). From a clinical standpoint, we have shown that subjects with CB in a group with moderate to severe airflow obstruction were younger, more likely to be current smokers, male, Caucasian, had worse health related quality of life, more dyspnea, and increased exacerbation history compared to those without CB. We sought to further refine our clinical characterization of chronic bronchitics in a larger cohort and analyze the CT correlates of CB in COPD subjects. We hypothesized that COPD patients with CB would have thicker airways and a greater history of smoking, acute bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and occupational exposures compared to those without CB. Methods We divided 2703 GOLD 1–4 subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene®) Study into two groups based on symptoms: chronic bronchitis (CB+, n = 663, 24.5%) and no chronic bronchitis (CB-, n = 2040, 75.5%). Subjects underwent extensive clinical characterization, and quantitative CT analysis to calculate mean wall area percent (WA%) of 6 segmental airways was performed using VIDA PW2 (http://www.vidadiagnostics.com). Square roots of the wall areas of bronchi with internal perimeters 10 mm and 15 mm (Pi10 and Pi15, respectively), % emphysema, %gas trapping, were calculated using 3D Slicer (http://www.slicer.org). Results There were no differences in % emphysema (11.4 ± 12.0 vs. 12.0 ± 12.6%, p = 0.347) or % gas trapping (35.3 ± 21.2 vs. 36.3 ± 20.6%, p = 0.272) between groups. Mean segmental WA% (63.0 ± 3.2 vs. 62.0 ± 3.1%, p < 0.0001), Pi10 (3.72 ± 0.15 vs. 3.69 ± 0.14 mm, p < 0.0001), and Pi15 (5.24 ± 0.22 vs. 5.17 ± 0.20, p < 0.0001) were greater in the CB + group. Greater percentages of gastroesophageal reflux, allergic rhinitis, histories of asthma and acute bronchitis, exposures to dusts and

  15. Time Trends in Blood Pressure, Body Mass Index and Smoking in the Vietnamese Population: A Meta-Analysis from Multiple Cross-Sectional Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Pham, Son Thai; Nguyen, Viet Lan; Weinehall, Lars; Bonita, Ruth; Byass, Peter; Wall, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Data for trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are needed to set priorities and evaluate intervention programmes in the community. We estimated time trends in blood pressure (BP), anthropometric variables and smoking in the Vietnamese population and highlighted the differences between men and women or between rural and urban areas. Methods A dataset of 23,563 adults aged 25–74 from 5 cross-sectional surveys undertaken within Vietnam from 2001 to 2009 by the Vietnam National Heart Institute was used to estimate mean BP, weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), the prevalence of hypertension, adiposity or smoking, which were standardised to the national age structure of 2009. Multilevel mixed linear models were used to estimate annual changes in the variables of interest, adjusted by age, sex, residential area, with random variations for age and surveyed provinces. Findings Among the adult population, the age-standardised mean systolic and diastolic BP increased by 0.8 and 0.3 mmHg in women, 1.1 and 0.4 mmHg in men, while the mean BMI increased by 0.1 kgm−2 in women, 0.2 kgm−2 in men per year. Consequently, the prevalence of hypertension and adiposity increased by 0.9 and 0.3% in women, 1.1 and 0.9% in men with similar time trends in both rural and urban areas, while smoking prevalence only increased in women by 0.3% per year. A U-shaped association was found between age-adjusted BP and BMI in both sexes and in both areas. Conclusions From 2001 to 2009, mean BP, weight and WC significantly increased in the Vietnamese population, leading to an increased prevalence of hypertension and adiposity, suggesting the need for the development of multi-sectoral cost-effective population-based interventions to improve CVD management and prevention. The U-shaped relationship between BP and BMI highlighted the hypertension burden in the underweight population, which is usually neglected in CVD interventions. PMID:22912747

  16. Cross Sections for Planetary Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tully, C.

    2001-05-01

    Energetic charged-particle bombardment, dissociative recombination and photodissociation processes produce energetic recoil atoms which heat the thermosphere and can lead to escape from a planet affecting the evolution of the atmosphere. In describing these processes by Monte Carlo methods, many of the critical cross sections are not available in the energy range of interest, a few eV to 1 keV. Here we present our recent results for elastic collision and collisional dissociation cross sections relevant to Titan, Triton, Europa and the terrestrial planets [1,2]. Elastic and diffusion cross sections were calculated using both quantum mechanical techniques and the semiclassical JWKB approximation for the collision of ground state oxygen atoms in the energy range 1-10eV [2]. This involved calculation of phase shifts for each of the 18 molecular energy states of O2 which separate to two ground state O atoms. For an O thermosphere the total elastic cross section is close to that typically assumed but the escape depths are shown to be larger than those typically used. Dissociation cross sections of N + N2 were calculated using a semiclassical method, in the energy range 0-30eV. This required treating the vibrational motion quantum mechanically while the rotational and the relative translational motion were treated classically. The evolution of the system was calculated by simultaneous propagation of the classical as well as the quantal degrees of freedom. The solution to the classical part was carried out by solving Hamilton equations of motion using an effective London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato potential energy surface, calculated by Laganá et al [3]. Propagation of the quantal wavefunction was carried out by solving the time dependent Schrödinger equation using the split operator technique with the help of the fast fourier transform which was used to calculate the second derivatives arising from the kinetic energy operator. This work was supported by NASA's Planetary

  17. A cross-sectional analysis of HIV and hepatitis C clinical trials 2007 to 2010: the relationship between industry sponsorship and randomized study design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The proportion of clinical research sponsored by industry will likely continue to expand as federal funds for academic research decreases, particularly in the fields of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C (HCV). While HIV and HCV continue to burden the US population, insufficient data exists as to how industry sponsorship affects clinical trials involving these infectious diseases. Debate exists about whether pharmaceutical companies undertake more market-driven research practices to promote therapeutics, or instead conduct more rigorous trials than their non-industry counterparts because of increased resources and scrutiny. The ClinicalTrials.gov registry, which allows investigators to fulfill a federal mandate for public trial registration, provides an opportunity for critical evaluation of study designs for industry-sponsored trials, independent of publication status. As part of a large public policy effort, the Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) recently transformed the ClinicalTrials.gov registry into a searchable dataset to facilitate research on clinical trials themselves. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 477 HIV and HCV drug treatment trials, registered with ClinicalTrials.gov from 1 October 2007 to 27 September 2010, to study the relationship of study sponsorship with randomized study design. The likelihood of using randomization given industry (versus non-industry) sponsorship was reported with prevalence ratios (PR). PRs were estimated using crude and stratified tabular analysis and Poisson regression adjusting for presence of a data monitoring committee, enrollment size, study phase, number of study sites, inclusion of foreign study sites, exclusion of persons older than age 65, and disease condition. Results The crude PR was 1.17 (95% CI 0.94, 1.45). Adjusted Poisson models produced a PR of 1.13 (95% CI 0.82, 1.56). There was a trend toward mild effect measure modification by study phase, but this was not statistically

  18. Limits to dark matter annihilation cross-section from a combined analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf satellite galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahnen, M. L.

    2016-02-16

    Here, we present the first joint analysis of gamma-ray data from the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) to search for gamma-ray signals from dark matter annihilation in dwarf satellite galaxies. We combine 158 hours of Segue 1 observations with MAGIC with 6-year observations of 15 dwarf satellite galaxies by the Fermi-LAT. We obtain limits on the annihilation cross-section for dark matter particle masses between 10 GeV and 100 TeV - the widest mass range ever explored by a single gamma-ray analysis. These limits improve on previously published Fermi-LAT and MAGIC results by up to a factor of two at certain masses. Our new inclusive analysis approach is completely generic and can be used to perform a global, sensitivity-optimized dark matter search by combining data from present and future gamma-ray and neutrino detectors.

  19. Limits to dark matter annihilation cross-section from a combined analysis of MAGIC and Fermi-LAT observations of dwarf satellite galaxies

    DOE PAGES

    Ahnen, M. L.

    2016-02-16

    Here, we present the first joint analysis of gamma-ray data from the MAGIC Cherenkov telescopes and the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) to search for gamma-ray signals from dark matter annihilation in dwarf satellite galaxies. We combine 158 hours of Segue 1 observations with MAGIC with 6-year observations of 15 dwarf satellite galaxies by the Fermi-LAT. We obtain limits on the annihilation cross-section for dark matter particle masses between 10 GeV and 100 TeV - the widest mass range ever explored by a single gamma-ray analysis. These limits improve on previously published Fermi-LAT and MAGIC results by up to amore » factor of two at certain masses. Our new inclusive analysis approach is completely generic and can be used to perform a global, sensitivity-optimized dark matter search by combining data from present and future gamma-ray and neutrino detectors.« less

  20. New Resonance Parameter Evaluation of Cl Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Guber, K.H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.

    2005-05-24

    Better measurements and evaluations are needed for many elements where the existing evaluations or the underlying nuclear cross-section data are not sufficiently accurate for reliable calculation of criticality safety margins. Deficiencies in the existing ENDF/B-VI data evaluation for Cl led to our resonance parameter evaluation of Cl neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Our evaluation takes advantage of recent high-resolution capture and transmission measurements at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) as well as older total cross-section measurements at Karlsruhe (KFK) to extend the resolved resonance energy range to 1.2 MeV with much more accurate representation of the data than previous evaluations.

  1. Genetic parameters for image analysis traits on M. longissimus thoracis and M. trapezius of carcass cross section in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Osawa, T; Kuchida, K; Hidaka, S; Kato, T

    2008-01-01

    In Japan, the degree of marbling in ribeye (M. longissimus thoracis) is evaluated in the beef meat grading process. However, other muscles (e.g., M. trapezius) are also important in determining the meat quality and carcass market prices. The purpose of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for M. longissimus thoracis (M-LONG) and M. trapezius (M-TRAP) of carcass cross section of Japanese Black steers by computer image analysis. The number of records of Japanese Black steers and the number of pedigree records were 2,925 and 10,889, respectively. Digital images of the carcass cross section were taken between the sixth and seventh ribs by photographing equipment. Muscle area (MA), fat area ratio (FAR), overall coarseness of marbling particles (OCM), and coarseness of maximum marbling particle (MMC) in M-LONG and M-TRAP were calculated by image analysis. Genetic parameters for these traits were estimated using the AIREMLF90 program with an animal model. Fixed effects that were included in the model were dates of arrival at the carcass market and slaughter age (mo), and random effects of fattening farms, additive genetic effects and residuals were included in the model. For M-LONG, heritability estimates (+/-SE) were 0.46 +/- 0.06, 0.59 +/- 0.06, 0.47 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.05 for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC, respectively. Heritability estimates (+/-SE) in M-TRAP were 0.47 +/- 0.06, 0.57 +/- 0.07, 0.49 +/- 0.07, and 0.13 +/- 0.04 for the same traits. Genetic correlations between subcutaneous fat thickness and FAR for M-LONG and M-TRAP were negative (-0.21 and -0.19, respectively). Those correlations between M-LONG and M-TRAP were moderate to high for MA, FAR, OCM, and MMC (0.38, 0.52, 0.39, and 0.60, respectively). These results indicate that other muscles including M-LONG should be evaluated for more efficient genetic improvement.

  2. Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. Objectives We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Methods In this cross-sectional study of 57,053 middle-aged people, height, weight, waist circumference, and bioelectrical impedance were measured at enrollment (1993–1997). Body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (BFMI), and lean body mass index (LBMI) were calculated. Residential exposure to road and railway traffic noise exposure was calculated using the Nordic prediction method. Associations between traffic noise and anthropometric measures at enrollment were analyzed using general linear models and logistic regression adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. Results Linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic factors showed that 5-year mean road traffic noise exposure preceding enrollment was associated with a 0.35-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.21, 0.50) and a 0.18-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.12, 0.23) per 10 dB. Small, significant increases were also found for BFMI and LBMI. All associations followed linear exposure–response relationships. Exposure to railway noise was not linearly associated with adiposity measures. However, exposure > 60 dB was associated with a 0.71-cm wider waist circumference (95% CI: 0.23, 1.19) and a 0.19-point higher BMI (95% CI: 0.0072, 0.37) compared with unexposed participants (0–20 dB). Conclusions The present study finds positive associations between residential exposure to road traffic and railway noise and adiposity. Citation Christensen JS, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, Nordsborg RB, Ketzel M, Sørensen TI, Sørensen M. 2016. Road traffic and railway noise exposures and adiposity in adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the Danish Diet

  3. Current Analysis Status for the Inclusive Neutral Current π0 Production Cross section Measurement with the NOvA Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Daisy; Brunetti, Giulia

    2017-01-01

    NOvA (NuMI Off-axis νe Appearance) experiment is designed to study long-baseline neutrino oscillations. It uses two detectors, the Near Detector (ND) at Fermilab and the Far Detector (FD) at a distance 810 km in Northern Minnesota. NOvA looks for the νe appearance at the FD using a narrow band νμ beam peaked at 2 GeV in energy. Neutral Current (NC) interactions with a π0 in the final state represents the main background in the νe appearance measurement. The π0 decay into two photons can fake the νe appearance either due to merging of two photon showers or one of the two photons escaping the detection. Therefore, a complete understanding of νμ induced NC interactions with a π0 in the final state is very important. It will also help in reducing the background uncertainties for current and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. We will present the status of the analysis related to the inclusive NC π0 production cross section measurement with the NOvA ND.

  4. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  5. Conjoint analysis to understand preferences of patients with multiple sclerosis for disease-modifying therapy attributes in Spain: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Rafael; Sempere, Angel P; Ruiz-Beato, Elena; Prefasi, Daniel; Carreño, Agata; Roset, Montse; Maurino, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess patients’ preferences for a range of disease-modifying therapy (DMT) attributes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting The data reported were from 17 MS units throughout Spain. Participants Adult patients with relapsing-remitting MS. Main outcome A conjoint analysis was applied to assess preferences. A total of 221 patients completed a survey with 10 hypothetical DMT profiles developed using an orthogonal design and rating preferences from 1 (most acceptable) to 10 (least acceptable). Medication attributes included preventing relapse, preventing disease progression, side effect risk, route and frequency of administration. Results Patients placed the greatest relative importance on the side effect risk domain (32.9%), followed by route of administration (26.1%), frequency of administration (22.7%), prevention of disease progression (10.0%) and prevention of relapse (8.3%). These results were independent of the Expanded Disability Status Scale score. The importance assigned to side effect risk was highest for patients with a recent diagnosis. Patients who had previously received more than one DMT gave a higher importance to relapse rate reduction than patients receiving their first DMT. Conclusions Patient DMT preferences were mainly driven by risk minimisation, route of administration and treatment schedule. The risk–benefit spectrum of available DMT for MS is becoming increasingly complicated. Understanding which treatment characteristics are meaningful to patients may help to tailor information for them and facilitate shared decision-making in clinical practice. PMID:28274968

  6. The 181Ta(7Li,5n)183Os reaction: Measurement and analysis of the excitation function and isomeric cross-section ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, M.; Sharma, R. P.; Rashid, M. H.

    1998-03-01

    Excitation function and isomeric cross-section ratios for the production of 183Osm,g by 7Li-induced reactions on 181Ta are obtained from the measurements of the residual activities by the conventional stacked-foils technique from threshold to 50 MeV. The excitation function and isomeric cross-section ratios for nuclear reaction 181Ta(7Li,5n)183Osm,g are compared with the theoretical statistical model calculation by using the ALICE/91, STAPRE, and CASCADE codes. In the energy range of the present measurement the excitation functions are fitted fairly well by both the geometry dependent hybrid (GDH) model and the hybrid model of Blann with initial exciton number n0=7 (nn=4, np=3, nh=0) using the ALICE/91 code. The experimental isomeric cross-section ratios are also reproduced fairly well by the calculation using the STAPRE code. However, the CASCADE code calculations slightly underpredict the cross section but reproduce the shape. In general, the statistical model under a suitable set of global assumptions, can reproduce the excitation function as well as isomeric cross-section ratios.

  7. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  8. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Aims Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Results Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females’ age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling’s T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Conclusion Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI. PMID:28187148

  9. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Llovet, Xavier; Powell, Cedric J.; Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  10. Associations of blood pressure with common factors among left-behind farmers in rural China: a cross-sectional study using quantile regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xingrong; Li, Kaichun; Chen, Penglai; Feng, Rui; Liang, Han; Tong, Guixian; Chen, Jing; Chai, Jing; Shi, Yong; Xie, Shaoyu; Wang, Debin

    2015-01-01

    The whole range of blood pressure (BP) has important implications. Yet, published studies focus primarily on hypertension and hypotension, the two extremes of BP continuum. This study aims at exploring quantile-specific associations of BP with common factors. The study used cross-sectional survey, collected information about gender, age, education, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake, diet risk behavior, life event index, physical activity, fasting capillary glucose (FCG), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) from farmers living in 18 villages from rural Anhui, China, and performed descriptive and multivariate and quantile regression (QR) analysis of associations of SBP, DBP, or PP with the 9 factors surveyed. A total of 4040 (86.3%) eligible farmers completed the survey. Average hypertension prevalence rate and SBP, DBP, and PP values estimated 43.20 ± 0.50% and 141.37 ± 21.98, 87.76 ± 12.23, and 53.63 ± 15.72 mm Hg, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that all the 9 factors were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with one or more of SBP, DBP, and PP. QR coefficients of SBP, DBP, or PP with different factors demonstrated divergent patterns and age, BMI, FCG, and life event index showed substantial trends along the quantile axis. Hypertension prevalence rate was high among the farmers. QR modeling provided more detailed view on associations of SBP, DBP, or PP with different factors and uncovered apparent quantile-related patterns for part of the factors. Both the population group studied and the trends in QR coefficients identified merit specific attention.

  11. Relationship between diabetic nephropathy and depression: a cross-sectional analysis using the Diabetes Study from the Center of Tokyo Women's Medical University (DIACET)

    PubMed Central

    Takasaki, Keiko; Babazono, Tetsuya; Ishizawa, Kaya; Miura, Junnosuke; Uchigata, Yasuko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between stage of diabetic nephropathy and likelihood or severity of depression in patients with diabetes. Research design and methods We studied 2212 patients with diabetes (mean age 60.9 years; 928 women; 1838 patients with type 2 diabetes). Presence and severity of depression was examined using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Patients were classified into 5 stages of nephropathy, according to albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); patients in stage 5 undergoing dialysis and kidney transplantation were analyzed separately (stages 5D and 5T). The relationship between stage of nephropathy and depression was examined using analysis of covariance and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Both least square mean PHQ-9 scores and prevalence of patients with PHQ-9 scores ≥5 points (mild depression) and ≥10 points (moderate or severe depression) increased from stage 1 to 5D, and then declined in stage 5T. Multivariate ORs for mild or greater depression increased in patients in stages 3, 4, and 5D in reference to those in stage 1, which declined in patients in stage 5T. Albuminuria was significantly, but eGFR was not, associated with higher PHQ-9 scores and the PHQ-9 scores ≥5 or ≥10 after adjustment for clinical findings. Conclusions In patients with diabetes, progression of nephropathy is likely to be associated with increased risk and severity of depression, which may be reduced after successful kidney transplantation. Albuminuria may be more strongly associated with depression than eGFR. PMID:28074142

  12. Neutron cross sections: Book of curves

    SciTech Connect

    McLane, V.; Dunford, C.L.; Rose, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    Neuton Cross Sections: Book of Curves represents the fourth edition of what was previously known as BNL-325, Neutron Cross Sections, Volume 2, CURVES. Data is presented only for (i.e., intergrated) reaction cross sections (and related fission parameters) as a function of incident-neutron energy for the energy range 0.01 eV to 200 MeV. For the first time, isometric state production cross sections have been included. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  14. Analysis of the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis within a local clinical system: a cross-sectional observational pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Chieko; Shin, Wee Soo; Minabe, Masato; Harai, Kazuo; Kato, Kai; Seino, Hiroaki; Goke, Eiji; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Fujino, Takemasa; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Pearce, Youko Onuki; Taira, Masato; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shogo

    2015-09-01

    It has been revealed that atherosclerosis and periodontal disease may have a common mechanism of "chronic inflammation". Several reports have indicated that periodontal infection is related to atherosclerosis, but none have yet reported such an investigation through the cooperation of local clinics. This study was performed in local Japanese clinics to examine the relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis under collaborative medical and dental care. A pilot multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 medical patients with lifestyle-related diseases under consultation in participating medical clinics, and 79 periodontal patients not undergoing medical treatment but who were seen by participating dental clinics. Systemic examination and periodontal examination were performed at baseline, and the relationships between periodontal and atherosclerosis-related clinical markers were analyzed. There was a positive correlation between LDL-C level and plasma IgG antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis. According to the analysis under adjusted age, at a cut-off value of 5.04 for plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis, the IgG titer was significantly correlated with the level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study suggested that infection with periodontal bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis) is associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. Plasma IgG titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis may be useful as the clinical risk marker for atherosclerosis related to periodontal disease. Moreover, the application of the blood examination as a medical check may lead to the development of collaborative medical and dental care within the local medical clinical system for the purpose of preventing the lifestyle-related disease.

  15. Autonomic Dysfunction in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from Power Spectral Analysis of Heart Rate Variability in a Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Paola; Ciulla, Michele M.; Malfatto, Gabriella; Abbate, Carlo; Mari, Daniela; Rossi, Paolo D.; Pettenuzzo, Emanuela; Magrini, Fabio; Consonni, Dario; Lombardi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is set to become a major health problem with the exponential ageing of the world's population. The association between MCI and autonomic dysfunction, supported by indirect evidence and rich with clinical implications in terms of progression to dementia and increased risk of mortality and falls, has never been specifically demonstrated. Aim To conduct a comprehensive assessment of autonomic function in subjects with MCI by means of power spectral analysis (PSA) of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and during provocative manoeuvres. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 80 older outpatients (aged ≥65) consecutively referred to a geriatric unit and diagnosed with MCI or normal cognition (controls) based on neuropsychological testing. PSA was performed on 5-minute electrocardiographic recordings under three conditions—supine rest with free breathing (baseline), supine rest with paced breathing at 12 breaths/minute (parasympathetic stimulation), and active standing (orthosympathetic stimulation)—with particular focus on the changes from baseline to stimulation of indices of sympathovagal balance: normalized low frequency (LFn) and high frequency (HFn) powers and the LF/HF ratio. Blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and during standing. Given its exploratory nature in a clinical population the study included subjects on medications with a potential to affect HRV. Results There were no significant differences in HRV indices between the two groups at baseline. MCI subjects exhibited smaller physiological changes in all three HRV indices during active standing, consistently with a dysfunction of the orthosympathetic system. Systolic BP after 10 minutes of standing was lower in MCI subjects, suggesting dysautonomia-related orthostatic BP dysregulation. Conclusions Our study is novel in providing evidence of autonomic dysfunction in MCI. This is associated with orthostatic BP dysregulation and the ongoing

  16. Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Appleby, Paul N.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Subjects and Methods A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. Results In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329–351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306–324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300–318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294–312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234–247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231–242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224–236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221–233 µmol/l). Conclusion Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid. PMID:23418557

  17. Understanding the drive to escort: a cross-sectional analysis examining parental attitudes towards children’s school travel and independent mobility

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The declining prevalence of Active School Transportation (AST) has been accompanied by a decrease in independent mobility internationally. The objective of this study was to compare family demographics and AST related perceptions of parents who let their children walk unescorted to/from school to those parents who escort (walk and drive) their children to/from school. By comparing these groups, insight was gained into how we may encourage greater AST and independent mobility in youth living in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area, Canada. Methods This study involved a cross-sectional design, using data from a self-reported questionnaire (n =1,016) that examined parental perceptions and attitudes regarding AST. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to explore the differences between households where children travelled independently to school or were escorted. Results Findings revealed that unescorted children were: significantly older, the families spoke predominantly English at home, more likely to live within one kilometer from school, and their parents agreed to a greater extent that they chose to reside in the current neighborhood in order for their child to walk to/from school. The parents of the escorted children worried significantly more about strangers and bullies approaching their child as well as the traffic volume around school. Conclusions From both a policy and research perspective, this study highlights the value of distinguishing between mode (i.e., walking or driving) and travel independence. For policy, our findings highlight the need for planning decisions about the siting of elementary schools to include considerations of the impact of catchment size on how children get to/from school. Given the importance of age, distance, and safety issues as significant correlates of independent mobility, research and practice should focus on the development and sustainability of non-infrastructure programs that alleviate parental

  18. How do authors of systematic reviews deal with research malpractice and misconduct in original studies? A cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Nadia; von Elm, Erik; Chatagner, Alexandra; Pöpping, Daniel M; Tramèr, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study whether systematic reviewers apply procedures to counter-balance some common forms of research malpractice such as not publishing completed research, duplicate publications, or selective reporting of outcomes, and to see whether they identify and report misconduct. Design Cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors. Participants 118 systematic reviews published in four journals (Ann Int Med, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet), and the Cochrane Library, in 2013. Main outcomes and measures Number (%) of reviews that applied procedures to reduce the impact of: (1) publication bias (through searching of unpublished trials), (2) selective outcome reporting (by contacting the authors of the original studies), (3) duplicate publications, (4) sponsors’ and (5) authors’ conflicts of interest, on the conclusions of the review, and (6) looked for ethical approval of the studies. Number (%) of reviewers who suspected misconduct are reported. The procedures applied were compared across journals. Results 80 (68%) reviewers confirmed their data. 59 (50%) reviews applied three or more procedures; 11 (9%) applied none. Unpublished trials were searched in 79 (66%) reviews. Authors of original studies were contacted in 73 (62%). Duplicate publications were searched in 81 (69%). 27 reviews (23%) reported sponsors of the included studies; 6 (5%) analysed their impact on the conclusions of the review. Five reviews (4%) looked at conflicts of interest of study authors; none of them analysed their impact. Three reviews (2.5%) looked at ethical approval of the studies. Seven reviews (6%) suspected misconduct; only 2 (2%) reported it explicitly. Procedures applied differed across the journals. Conclusions Only half of the systematic reviews applied three or more of the six procedures examined. Sponsors, conflicts of interest of authors and ethical approval remain overlooked. Research misconduct is sometimes identified, but rarely reported. Guidance on

  19. Fewer adults add salt at the table after initiation of a national salt campaign in the UK: a repeated cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Jennifer; Edwards, Phil; Shankar, Bhavani; Dangour, Alan D

    2013-08-28

    In 2003, the UK Food Standards Agency and the Department of Health began attempts to reduce national salt intakes via reformulation of processed foods and a consumer awareness campaign on the negative impacts of salt on health. The present study uses large nationally representative samples of households in England to assess whether discretionary salt use was affected by the national salt reduction campaign. Large cross-sectional datasets from the Health Survey for England were used to analyse trends in adults adding salt at the table between 1997 and 2007. Since 1997, there has been a steady decline in salt use at the table. Ordinal logistic regression analysis controlling for age, sex, total household income, region, ethnicity and background trends revealed that the reduction in salt use was significantly greater after the campaign (OR 0·58; 95% CI 0·54, 0·63). Women (OR 0·71; 95% CI 0·68, 0·74), non-white ethnic groups (OR 0·69; 95% CI 0·62, 0·77), high-income households (OR 0·75; 95% CI 0·69, 0·82), middle-income households (OR 0·79; 95% CI 0·75, 0·84) and households in central (OR 0·90; 95% CI 0·84, 0·98) or the south of England (OR 0·82; 95% CI 0·77, 0·88) were less likely to add salt at the table. The results extend previous evidence of a beneficial response to the salt campaign by demonstrating the effect on salt use at the table. Future programmatic and research efforts may benefit from targeting specific population groups and improving the evidence base for evaluating the impact of the campaign.

  20. Cost-related nonadherence to prescribed medicines among older Canadians in 2014: a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Augustine; Morgan, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Background: Canadians receive universal coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, but pharmaceutical coverage is incomplete. We sought to assess the effects of cost on access to medicines among older Canadians using data from a large survey conducted in 2014. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Commonwealth Fund's 2014 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. Our primary outcome variable was self-reported cost-related nonadherence in the form of either not filling a prescription or skipping doses within the last 12 months because of out-of-pocket costs. We computed sample-weighted estimates of the population prevalence of cost-related nonadherence and conducted logistic regression analyses to determine associated factors. Results: We estimate that the prevalence of cost-related nonadherence in 2014 among Canadians aged 55 years and older was 8.3% (about 1 in 12). The population prevalence and adjusted odds of cost-related nonadherence was significantly higher among Canadians who were younger, in worse health, poorer or without private health insurance. Regional differences in population prevalence of cost-related nonadherence were not significant. The only provincial or regional difference in the adjusted odds of cost-related nonadherence was that residents of Quebec aged 55-64 years were about half as likely to report nonadherence as similarly aged residents of Ontario, our reference province (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.82). Interpretation: The financial accessibility of prescription medicines still is a substantial public health issue in Canada that affects 1 in 12 Canadians older than 55 years of age. Older Canadians at greatest risk of cost-related nonadherence to prescribed treatments are those with low incomes and those without private insurance to cover costs not covered by public programs.

  1. High Sodium Intake Is Associated With Self-Reported Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Cross Sectional and Case Control Analysis Within the SUN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Eva; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; de Irala, Jokin; Carmona, Loreto; Gómez-Reino, Juan J

    2015-09-01

    Sodium intake is a potential environmental factor for immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of sodium intake with rheumatoid arthritis. We performed a cross-sectional study nested in a highly educated cohort investigating dietary habits as determinants of disease. Daily sodium intake in grams per day was estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire. We identified prevalent self-reported cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio for rheumatoid arthritis by sodium intake adjusting for confounders. Linear trend tests and interactions between variables were explored. Sensitivity analyses included age- and sex-matched case-control study, logistic multivariate model adjusted by residuals, and analysis excluding individuals with prevalent diabetes or cardiovascular disease. The effective sample size was 18,555 individuals (mean age 38-years old, 60% women) including 392 self-reported rheumatoid arthritis. Median daily sodium intake (estimated from foods plus added salt) was 3.47 (P25-75: 2.63-4.55) grams. Total sodium intake in the fourth quartile showed a significant association with rheumatoid arthritis (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.1, P for trend = 0.02). Never smokers with high sodium intake had higher association than ever smokers with high sodium intake (P for interaction = 0.007). Dose-dependent association was replicated in the case-control study. High sodium intake may be associated with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. This confirms previous clinical and experimental research.

  2. Early socioeconomic position and self-rated health among civil servants in Brazil: a cross-sectional analysis from the Pró-Saúde cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Joanna Miguez Nery; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Faerstein, Eduardo; Lopes, Claudia S; Chor, Dora

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although there is evidence that socioeconomic conditions in adulthood are associated with worse self-rated health, the putative effect of early adverse life circumstances on adult self-rated health is not consistent. Besides, little is known on this subject in the context of middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the association between indicators of socioeconomic position in early life and self-rated health in adulthood, taking into account the influence of current socioeconomic position. Design Cross-sectional. Participants 3339 civil servants (44.5% male) working at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, participants of the Pró-Saúde cohort study. Measurements Through a lifecourse approach, we evaluated if seven indicators of participants’ socioeconomic position earlier in life were associated with worse self-rated health in adulthood. Ordinal logistic regression analysis with a proportional odds model was used. Results After adjusting for socioeconomic position in adulthood (education and income), the indicators of early socioeconomic position associated with poor self-rated health were as follows: not eating at home due to lack of money at the age of 12 (OR=1.29 95% CI 1.06 to 1.57) and having lived in a small city or rural area at the age of 12 (OR=1.51 95% CI 1.21 to 1.89). Conclusions Self-rated health was associated with two indicators of remarkable experiences of poverty in early life, even when socioeconomic conditions improved throughout life. Our findings have shown a long-term impact of extreme socioeconomic hardship during childhood and/or adolescence on the development of social inequalities in health. In terms of implications for public health, our work emphasises that health policies, usually focused on adult lifestyle interventions, should be complemented by initiatives aimed at reducing socioeconomic inequalities during the earliest stages of development, such as childhood and adolescence. PMID:25416056

  3. Florbetapir PET analysis of amyloid-β deposition in the presenilin 1 E280A autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease kindred: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Fleisher, Adam S; Chen, Kewei; Quiroz, Yakeel T; Jakimovich, Laura J; Gomez, Madelyn Gutierrez; Langois, Carolyn M; Langbaum, Jessica B S; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Roontiva, Auttawut; Thiyyagura, Pradeep; Lee, Wendy; Mo, Hua; Lopez, Liliana; Moreno, Sonia; Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Giraldo, Margarita; Garcia, Gloria; Reiman, Rebecca A; Huentelman, Matthew J; Kosik, Kenneth S; Tariot, Pierre N; Lopera, Francisco; Reiman, Eric M

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Fibrillar amyloid-β (Aβ) is thought to begin accumulating in the brain many years before the onset of clinical impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. By assessing the accumulation of Aβ in people at risk of genetic forms of Alzheimer’s disease, we can identify how early preclinical changes start in individuals certain to develop dementia later in life. We sought to characterise the age-related accumulation of Aβ deposition in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) E280A mutation carriers across the spectrum of preclinical disease. Methods Between Aug 1 and Dec 6, 2011, members of the familial Alzheimer’s disease Colombian kindred aged 18–60 years were recruited from the Alzheimer’s Prevention Initiative’s registry at the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. Cross-sectional assessment using florbetapir PET was done in symptomatic mutation carriers with mild cognitive impairment or mild dementia, asymptomatic carriers, and asymptomatic non-carriers. These assessments were done at the Banner Alzheimer’s Institute in Phoenix, AZ, USA. A cortical grey matter mask consisting of six predefined regions. was used to measure mean cortical florbetapir PET binding. Cortical-to-pontine standard-uptake value ratios were used to characterise the cross-sectional accumulation of fibrillar Aβ deposition in carriers and non-carriers with regression analysis and to estimate the trajectories of fibrillar Aβ deposition. Findings We enrolled a cohort of 11 symptomatic individuals, 19 presymptomatic mutation carriers, and 20 asymptomatic non-carriers, ranging in age from 20 to 56 years. There was greater florbetapir binding in asymptomatic PSEN1 E280A mutation carriers than in age matched non-carriers. Fibrillar Aβ began to accumulate in PSEN 1E280A mutation carriers at a mean age of 28·2 years (95% CI 27·3–33·4), about 16 years and 21 years before the predicted median ages at mild cognitive impairment and dementia onset, respectively. 18F

  4. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  5. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  6. The relationship between external contact and unmarried adolescents’ and young adults’ traditional beliefs in three East Asian cities: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yan; Lou, Chaohua; Gao, Ersheng; Zabin, Laurie S.; Emerson, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is growing contact with the outside world among adolescents and young adults in the three Asian cities of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei due to the open policies implemented by the national governments of each of these cities. Because these policies were enacted at different points in time, their concomitant social impact has not been simultaneous, with the result that these societies are at different stages of change. The goal of this current analysis is to examine the dimensions of external contact and respondent’s departure from Confucian values – for example, embracing individualism, a woman’s taking the initiative in expressing affection to a man, and permissiveness towards premarital sex – among unmarried adolescents and young adults in these three cities and the potential relationship between them. This will contribute to our understanding of contemporary Asian adolescents’ and young adults’ attitudes during different social transition periods, attitudes which are frequently contrary to traditional Confucian principles. Method This is a cross-sectional study. The multi-center survey of 17,016 male and female adolescents and young adults aged 15–24 years old from three cities with Confucian-influenced cultures – Shanghai, Hanoi and Taipei – was conducted from May 2006 to January 2007 through face-to-face interviews coupled with computer-assisted self-interviews for sensitive questions; 16,554 unmarried respondents were included in this analysis. Binary Logistic Regression and General Linear Model were used to explore the associations between respondents’ external contact and their non-traditional attitudes. All the analyses were done through SAS 9.1. Results There were significant differences in the positive association of respondents’ external contact and non-Confucian values between the three cities. More respondents in Taipei and Shanghai had external contact and identified with non-traditional values than those in Hanoi

  7. Comparison of standard and nonstandard helmets and variants influencing the choice of helmets: A preliminary report of cross-sectional prospective analysis of 100 cases

    PubMed Central

    Amirjamshidi, Abbas; Ardalan, Ali; Nainei, Kourosh Holakouie; Sadeghi, Sadegh; Pahlevani, Mehrdad; Zarei, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background: The literature does not offer the rate of protection provided by different types of helmets used, especially as it applies to developing countries. We hypothesize that standard versus nonstandard types of helmets might differ in the rate of complications of head and neck trauma occurring in victims of motorcycle accidents. Here we report the rate of occurrence, the type of injuries and differences thereof in standard and nonstandard helmet bearers, and its relevance to protection from serious injury. Methods: The data were gathered from a data set of motorcycle accident victims admitted to the emergency department of Sina Hospital (Teheran/Iran). A cross-sectional study was designed for a 6-month period of time, June to December 2007. Variants analyzed included: demographics, types of helmets used, level of education of the victims (as in: being trained for using helmets and status of holding a valid driving license). The latter variants were evaluated for possibly influencing the outcome of the injured motorcyclists using either kind of helmets. Results: Among a total of 576 injured motorcyclists who had head, face, or neck injuries, 432 (75%) were using some kind of helmet. A total of 144 (25%) of the injured patients were admitted to the neurosurgical emergency service. There were 100 patients whose data sheets contained all variables which could be included in the pilot analysis of this cohort. Discussion: All 100 subjects were male patients with the age range of 32 ± 11 years. Twenty-five percent were using standard helmets at the time of accident, 43% had no cranio-facio-cervical injury except very mild skin abrasions, and 23% had facial injury, including skin lacerations needing sutures, two nasal bone fractures, and no maxillofacial damage. Among the patients using standard helmets, 44% had head injuries which needed to be taken care of (mostly nonoperatively), while 61% using nonstandard helmets had head trauma (P > 0.05). The other variables

  8. NEUTRON TOTAL CROSS SECTIONS OF 235U FROM TRANSMISSION MEASUREMENTS IN THE ENERGY RANGE 2 keV to 300 keV AND STATISTICAL MODEL ANALYSIS OF THE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.

    2000-05-22

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample. The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al. in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and {alpha} data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  9. Neutron Total Cross Sections of {sup 235}U From Transmission Measurements in the Energy Range 2 keV to 300 keV and Statistical Model Analysis of the Data

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H.; Harvey, J.A.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Wright, R.Q.

    2000-05-01

    The average {sup 235}U neutron total cross sections were obtained in the energy range 2 keV to 330 keV from high-resolution transmission measurements of a 0.033 atom/b sample.1 The experimental data were corrected for the contribution of isotope impurities and for resonance self-shielding effects in the sample. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data of Poenitz et al.4 in the energy range 40 keV to 330 keV and are the only available accurate experimental data in the energy range 2 keV to 40 keV. ENDF/B-VI evaluated data are 1.7% larger. The SAMMY/FITACS code 2 was used for a statistical model analysis of the total cross section, selected fission cross sections and data in the energy range 2 keV to 200 keV. SAMMY/FITACS is an extended version of SAMMY which allows consistent analysis of the experimental data in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The Reich-Moore resonance parameters were obtained 3 from a SAMMY Bayesian fits of high resolution experimental neutron transmission and partial cross section data below 2.25 keV, and the corresponding average parameters and covariance data were used in the present work as input for the statistical model analysis of the high energy range of the experimental data. The result of the analysis shows that the average resonance parameters obtained from the analysis of the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those obtained in the resolved energy region. Another important result is that ENDF/B-VI capture cross section could be too small by more than 10% in the energy range 10 keV to 200 keV.

  10. Associations of HIV infection with insulin and glucose levels in antiretroviral-naïve Rwandan women: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dusingize, Jean Claude; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Mutimura, Eugene; Kiefer, Elizabeth; Anastos, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of these analyses was to determine the associations of HIV infection and related immune dysfunction with a glucose homeostasis in the population of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women. We hypothesise that insulin resistance and its consequences in the developing countries may be further elevated with HIV infection itself regardless of antiretroviral therapy. Study design Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort. Setting Community-based women's associations. Participants In 2005, 710 HIV-infected (HIV positive) antiretroviral naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV negative) women were enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA). Clinical and demographic parameters, CD4 count, fasting insulin and glucose levels, anthropometric measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) were obtained. Linear models were fit to log-transformed Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) with results exponentiated back to a multiplicative effect on the original scale. Primary outcome measures The outcome, insulin resistance, was measured by the HOMA, calculated as fasting insulin (μU/mL)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)⁄22.5. Results In adjusted models, HIV-positive women were less insulin resistant than HIV-negative; an HIV-positive woman tended to have 0.728 times as much (95% CI 0.681 to 0.861) HOMA than a comparable HIV-negative woman. Among the HIV-positive women, those with CD4 <200 cells/µL tended to have 0.741 times as much HOMA (95% CI 0.601 to 0.912) as did comparable women with CD4 >350 cells/µL. The older age was independently associated with a lower HOMA insulin resistance. After adjusting for body mass index, fat and fat-free mass were not independently associated with HOMA. Conclusions This study found that HIV infection and more advanced HIV infection (CD4 counts <200 cells/µL) were associated with greater insulin sensitivity in antiretroviral naïve African women. These

  11. Microscopic model analysis of the 6He, 6Li+28Si total reaction cross sections at the energy range 5-50 A MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, K. V.; Kukhtina, I. N.; Lukyanov, V. K.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.

    2007-05-22

    The existing and some preliminary experimental data on the total cross sections of the 4,6He, 6,7Li+28Si reactions at energies E=5-50 A MeV are demonstrated. The data on 6Li,6He+28Si are analyzed in the framework of the microscopic optical potential with real and imaginary parts obtained with a help of the double-folding procedure and by using the current models of densities of the projectile nuclei. Besides, the microscopic double-folding Coulomb potential is calculated and its effect on cross sections is compared with that when one applies the traditional Coulomb potential of the uniform charge distribution. The semi-microscopic potentials are constructed from both the renormalized microscopic potentials and their derivatives to take into account collective motion effect and to improve an agreement with experimental data.

  12. DWBA analysis of {sup 12}C(d,p){sup 13}C cross section data below 300 keV deuteron energy

    SciTech Connect

    Naqvi, A.A.; Ayer, Z.; Ludwig, E. ||

    1994-12-31

    {sup 12}C(d,p){sup 13}T differential cross section data at 200, 220, 250, 280 and 300 keV deuteron energies has been analyzed using finite range DWBA codes PTOLEMY and TWOFNR. It was observed that shape and magnitude of the cross section data at 300, 280 keV energies can be fitted well but the shape of 250, 220 and 200 keV data cannot be fitted. However 250, 220 and 200 keV data shape can be fitted by changing the optical model parameters at each energy. This indicates a very strong energy dependence of the optical model parameters data of the entrance channel over such a small energy range which is not observed in the presently available elastic scattering data of the entrance channel.

  13. Automating the Modeling of the SEE Cross Section's Angular Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Edmonds, L. D.

    2003-01-01

    An algorithm that automates the application of the alpha law in any SEE analysis is presented. This automation is essential for the widespread acceptance of the sophisticated cross section angular dependence model.

  14. Cross-section adjustment techniques for BWR adaptive simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessee, Matthew Anderson

    energy resonance self-shielding effects, the multi-group cross-section covariance matrix has been reformulated to include the uncertainty in resonance correction factors, or self-shielding factors, which are used to calculate the self-shielded multi-group cross-sections used in the lattice physics neutron transport model. This is shown to change the U-238 capture cross-section uncertainty contribution to Beginning-of-Life (BOL) lattice k-infinity by 14% (i.e. 0.291% relative standard deviation in k-infinity (self-shielded) compared to 0.255% (infinitely-dilute)). Using the reformulated multi-group cross-section covariance matrix, Efficient Subspace Methods (ESM) are used to propagate multi-group cross-section uncertainty through the lattice physics calculation. ESM algorithms have been developed by H. S. Abdel-Khalik and P. J. Turinsky to calculate low-rank approximations to large, dense sensitivity and covariance matrices used in data adjustment and uncertainty propagation applications. Using ESM, the singular value spectrum of the multi-group cross-section covariance matrix reveals an effective rank of the order of 103. Using this singular value decomposition of the multigroup cross-section covariance matrix reduces the number of lattice physics calculations per lattice from ˜107 to ˜10 3. In addition, a BOL sensitivity analysis using generalized perturbation theory at the lattice physics level is shown to further reduce the rank by a factor of 5.

  15. Association between physical activity and body fat percentage, with adjustment for BMI: a large cross-sectional analysis of UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wenji; Armstrong, Miranda E G; Key, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to examine if, in the general population, physically active adults have less body fat after taking body mass index (BMI) into account. Design A cross-sectional analysis of participants recruited into UK Biobank in 2006–2010. Setting UK Biobank assessment centres throughout the UK. Participants 119 230 men and 140 578 women aged 40–69 years, with complete physical activity information, and without a self-reported long-term illness, disability or infirmity. Exposures Physical activity measured as excess metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week, estimated from a combination of walking, and moderate and vigorous physical activity. BMI from measured height and weight. Main outcome measure Body fat percentage estimated from bioimpedance. Results BMI and body fat percentage were highly correlated (r=0.85 in women; r=0.79 in men), and both were inversely associated with physical activity. Compared with <5 excess MET-hours/week at baseline, ≥100 excess MET-hours/week were associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 lower BMI (27.1 vs 28.2 kg/m2) and 2.8 percentage points lower body fat (23.4% vs 26.3%) in men, and 2.2 kg/m2 lower BMI (25.6 vs 27.7 kg/m2) and 4.0 percentage points lower body fat (33.9% vs 37.9%) in women. For a given BMI, greater physical activity was associated with lower average body fat percentage (for a BMI of 22.5–24.99 kg/m2: 2.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.2), percentage points lower body fat in men and 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0) percentage points lower body fat in women, comparing ≥100 excess MET-hours per week with <5 excess MET-hours/week). Conclusions In this sample of middle-aged adults, drawn from the general population, physical activity was inversely associated with BMI and body fat percentage. For people with the same BMI, those who were more active had a lower body fat percentage. PMID:28341684

  16. Clinical trial registration, reporting, publication and FDAAA compliance: a cross-sectional analysis and ranking of new drugs approved by the FDA in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jennifer E; Korn, David; Ross, Joseph S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical trial registration, reporting and publication rates for new drugs by: (1) legal requirements and (2) the ethical standard that all human subjects research should be publicly accessible to contribute to generalisable knowledge. Design Cross-sectional analysis of all clinical trials submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for drugs approved in 2012, sponsored by large biopharmaceutical companies. Data sources Information from Drugs@FDA, ClinicalTrials.gov, MEDLINE-indexed journals and drug company communications. Main outcome measures Clinical trial registration and results reporting in ClinicalTrials.gov, publication in the medical literature, and compliance with the 2007 FDA Amendments Acts (FDAAA), analysed on the drug level. Results The FDA approved 15 drugs sponsored by 10 large companies in 2012. We identified 318 relevant trials involving 99 599 research participants. Per drug, a median of 57% (IQR 32–83%) of trials were registered, 20% (IQR 12–28%) reported results in ClinicalTrials.gov, 56% (IQR 41–83%) were published, and 65% (IQR 41–83%) were either published or reported results. Almost half of all reviewed drugs had at least one undisclosed phase II or III trial. Per drug, a median of 17% (IQR 8–20%) of trials supporting FDA approvals were subject to FDAAA mandated public disclosure; of these, a median of 67% (IQR 0–100%) were FDAAA-compliant. 68% of research participants (67 629 of 99 599) participated in FDAAA-subject trials, with 51% (33 405 of 67 629) enrolled in non-compliant trials. Transparency varied widely among companies. Conclusions Trial disclosures for new drugs remain below legal and ethics standards, with wide variation in practices among drugs and their sponsors. Best practices are emerging. 2 of our 10 reviewed companies disclosed all trials and complied with legal disclosure requirements for their 2012 approved drugs. Ranking new drugs on transparency criteria may improve

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in coverage of full immunisation among children of adolescent mothers in India, 1990–2006: a repeated cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Chandan; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky; Rai, Rajesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies have highlighted that children of adolescent (aged 15–19 years) mothers are likely to receive relatively poor healthcare. With an unacceptably high adolescent birth rate, India houses the highest number of adolescent mothers globally, putting children at risk of inadequate vaccination. This paper assesses trends and extent of socioeconomic disparities in the coverage of full immunisation among children of adolescent mothers in India. Design Repeated cross-sectional analytical study. Data sources 3 consecutive rounds of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) conducted during 1992–1993, 1998–1999 and 2005–2006 were used. Besides, the required information is also extracted from the 2011 Indian Census. Participants Children (aged 12–23 months) of adolescent (aged 15–19 years) mothers. Sample inclusion criteria involved the last child of the adolescent eligible to avail full immunisation. Setting Nationally representative sample. Data analysis The Cochran-Armitage test, χ2 test and binary logistic regression methods were applied to attain the study objective. Results Between 1990 and 2006, a non-significant increase of 4 percentage points in full immunisation of children of adolescent mothers was estimated. During the same period, a large difference between the probability of children of adolescent mothers receiving full immunisation belonging to the least (predicted probability (PP): 0.196 in 1990–1993, and PP: 0.213 in 2003–2006) and the most (PP: 0.589 in 1990–1993, and PP: 0.645 in 2003–2006) socioeconomically privileged group was estimated, and this disparity persisted over the survey period. Conclusions During 1990–2006, an insufficient improvement in provision of full immunisation to children born to adolescent mothers was recorded. The study underscored the suboptimum immunisation of rural, illiterate and poor children of adolescent women. The programme and policymakers could focus on district-wise concentration

  18. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Methods: Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. Results: For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Conclusions: Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Implications: Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional

  19. Comparison of self-perceived cardiovascular disease risk among smokers with Framingham and PROCAM scores: a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Desgraz, Benoît; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Rodondi, Nicolas; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies suggest that smokers have a misperception of their 10-year cardiovascular risk. We aimed to compare 10-year cardiovascular risk self-perception and calculated risk among smokers willing to quit and assess the determinants of a possible misperception. Design Cross-sectional secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomised controlled trial of smoking cessation. Participants 514 participants, mean age 51.1 years, 46% women, 98% Caucasian. Eligible participants were regular smokers, aged between 40 and 70 years, with a consumption of at least 10 cigarettes per day for at least a year. None of them had experienced cardiovascular disease before. Exclusion criteria comprised a history of myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, carotid atherosclerosis or cardiac arrhythmia. Participants with renal or liver failure, psychiatric disorders, substance and alcohol abuse and with smoking cessation therapies were excluded. Interventions Participants were asked to estimate their 10-year cardiovascular risk using a 3-item scale corresponding to high-risk, moderate-risk and low-risk categories. We compared their risk perception with Framingham and Prospective Cardiovascular Munster Study (PROCAM) scores. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models to determine characteristics of participants who underestimate their risk versus those who correctly estimate or overestimate it. Results Between 38% and 42% of smokers correctly perceived their 10-year cardiovascular risk, and 39–50% overestimated their 10-year cardiovascular risk while 12–19% underestimated it compared with their calculated 10-year cardiovascular risk depending on the score used. Underestimation of 10-year cardiovascular risk was associated with male gender (OR 8.16; CI 3.83 to 17.36), older age (OR 1.06; CI 1.02 to 1.09), and the presence of hyperlipidaemia (OR 2.71; CI 1.47 to 5.01) and diabetes mellitus

  20. A mathematical model of Bloch NMR equations for quantitative analysis of blood flow in blood vessels of changing cross-section-PART II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awojoyogbe, O. B.

    2003-05-01

    function of the rF B1 field for the fluid particle to be located in the non-classical region. These models can be invaluable to understand the basic Physics of extracting the relevant flow parameters by which velocity quantification can be made in Blood vessels with changing cross-section.

  1. Concrete resource analysis of the quantum linear-system algorithm used to compute the electromagnetic scattering cross section of a 2D target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Artur; Valiron, Benoît; Mau, Siun-Chuon; Alexander, Scott; van den Berg, Eric; Chapuran, Thomas E.

    2017-03-01

    We provide a detailed estimate for the logical resource requirements of the quantum linear-system algorithm (Harrow et al. in Phys Rev Lett 103:150502, 2009) including the recently described elaborations and application to computing the electromagnetic scattering cross section of a metallic target (Clader et al. in Phys Rev Lett 110:250504, 2013). Our resource estimates are based on the standard quantum-circuit model of quantum computation; they comprise circuit width (related to parallelism), circuit depth (total number of steps), the number of qubits and ancilla qubits employed, and the overall number of elementary quantum gate operations as well as more specific gate counts for each elementary fault-tolerant gate from the standard set { X, Y, Z, H, S, T, { CNOT } }. In order to perform these estimates, we used an approach that combines manual analysis with automated estimates generated via the Quipper quantum programming language and compiler. Our estimates pertain to the explicit example problem size N=332{,}020{,}680 beyond which, according to a crude big-O complexity comparison, the quantum linear-system algorithm is expected to run faster than the best known classical linear-system solving algorithm. For this problem size, a desired calculation accuracy ɛ =0.01 requires an approximate circuit width 340 and circuit depth of order 10^{25} if oracle costs are excluded, and a circuit width and circuit depth of order 10^8 and 10^{29}, respectively, if the resource requirements of oracles are included, indicating that the commonly ignored oracle resources are considerable. In addition to providing detailed logical resource estimates, it is also the purpose of this paper to demonstrate explicitly (using a fine-grained approach rather than relying on coarse big-O asymptotic approximations) how these impressively large numbers arise with an actual circuit implementation of a quantum algorithm. While our estimates may prove to be conservative as more efficient

  2. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1039 U.S. Physicians Reported to the National Practitioner Data Bank for Sexual Misconduct, 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    AbuDagga, Azza

    2016-01-01

    Background Little information exists on U.S. physicians who have been disciplined with licensure or restriction-of-clinical-privileges actions or have had malpractice payments because of sexual misconduct. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the number of these physicians and compare their age groups’ distribution with that of the general U.S. physician population; (2) compare the type of disciplinary actions taken against these physicians with actions taken against physicians disciplined for other offenses; (3) compare the characteristics and type of injury among victims of these physicians with those of victims in reports for physicians with other offenses in malpractice-payment reports; and (4) determine the percentages of physicians with clinical-privileges or malpractice-payment reports due to sexual misconduct who were not disciplined by medical boards. Methods and Results We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of physician reports submitted to the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB) from January 1, 2003, through September 30, 2013. A total of 1039 physicians had ≥ 1 sexual-misconduct–related reports. The majority (75.6%) had only licensure reports, and 90.1% were 40 or older. For victims in malpractice-payment reports, 87.4% were female, and “emotional injury only” was the predominant type of injury. We found a higher percentage of serious licensure actions and clinical-privileges revocations in sexual-misconduct–related reports than in reports for other offenses (89.0% vs 68.1%, P = < .001, and 29.3% vs 18.8%, P = .002, respectively). Seventy percent of the physicians with a clinical-privileges or malpractice-payment report due to sexual misconduct were not disciplined by medical boards for this problem. Conclusions A small number of physicians were reported to the NPDB because of sexual misconduct. It is concerning that a majority of the physicians with a clinical-privileges action or malpractice-payment report due to sexual misconduct

  3. Relationship between Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Early Adult Life: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Nested in Two Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P.; Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight/obesity has been reported to worsen pulmonary function (PF). This study aimed to examine the association between PF and several body composition (BC) measures in two population-based cohorts. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals aged 18 and 30 years from two Pelotas Birth Cohorts in southern Brazil. PF was assessed by spirometry. Body measures that were collected included body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness, percentages of total and segmented (trunk, arms and legs) fat mass (FM) and total fat-free mass (FFM). FM and FFM were measured by air-displacement plethysmography (BODPOD) and by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Associations were verified through linear regressions stratified by sex, and adjusted for weight, height, skin color, and socioeconomic, behavioral, and perinatal variables. Results A total of 7347 individuals were included in the analyses (3438 and 3909 at 30 and 18 years, respectively). Most BC measures showed a significant positive association between PF and FFM, and a negative association with FM. For each additional percentage point of FM, measured by BOD POD, the forced vital capacity regression coefficient adjusted by height, weight and skin color, at 18 years, was −33 mL (95% CI −38, −29) and −26 mL (95% CI −30, −22), and −30 mL (95% CI −35, −25) and −19 mL (95% CI −23, −14) at 30 years, in men and women, respectively. All the BOD POD regression coefficients for FFM were the same as for the FM coefficients, but in a positive trend (p<0.001 for all associations). Conclusions All measures that distinguish FM from FFM (skinfold thickness–FM estimation–BOD POD, total and segmental DXA measures–FM and FFM proportions) showed negative trends in the association of FM with PF for both ages and sexes. On the other hand, FFM showed a positive association with PF. PMID:27682232

  4. Neodymium neutron cross section measurements.

    PubMed

    Barry, D P; Trbovich, M J; Danon, Y; Block, R C; Slovacek, R E; Leinweber, G; Burke, J A; Drindak, N J

    2005-01-01

    Neutron capture and transmission measurements were performed by the time-of-flight technique at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute LINAC using metallic neodymium samples. The capture measurements were made at the 25-m-long flight station with a 16-segment NaI(Tl) multiplicity detector, and the transmission measurements were performed at 15 and 25 m flight stations with a 6Li glass scintillation detector. After the data were collected and reduced, resonance parameters were determined by simultaneously fitting the transmission and capture data with the multilevel R-matrix Bayesian code SAMMY. The resonance parameters for all naturally occurring neodymium isotopes lie within the energy range of 1.0-500 eV. The resulting resonance parameters were used to calculate the capture resonance integral with this energy region and were compared to calculations obtained when using the resonance parameters from ENDF-B/VI. The RPI parameters gave a resonance integral value of 32 +/- 0.5 b that is approximately 7% lower than that obtained with the ENDF-B/VI parameters. The current measurements significantly reduce the statistical uncertainties on the resonance parameters when compared with previously published parameters.

  5. Cross Section Sensitivity and Propagated Errors in HZE Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinbockel, John H.; Wilson, John W.; Blatnig, Steve R.; Qualls, Garry D.; Badavi, Francis F.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been recognized that galactic cosmic rays are of such high energy that they tend to pass through available shielding materials resulting in exposure of astronauts and equipment within space vehicles and habitats. Any protection provided by shielding materials result not so much from stopping such particles but by changing their physical character in interaction with shielding material nuclei forming, hopefully, less dangerous species. Clearly, the fidelity of the nuclear cross-sections is essential to correct specification of shield design and sensitivity to cross-section error is important in guiding experimental validation of cross-section models and database. We examine the Boltzmann transport equation which is used to calculate dose equivalent during solar minimum, with units (cSv/yr), associated with various depths of shielding materials. The dose equivalent is a weighted sum of contributions from neutrons, protons, light ions, medium ions and heavy ions. We investigate the sensitivity of dose equivalent calculations due to errors in nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. We do this error analysis for all possible projectile-fragment combinations (14,365 such combinations) to estimate the sensitivity of the shielding calculations to errors in the nuclear fragmentation cross-sections. Numerical differentiation with respect to the cross-sections will be evaluated in a broad class of materials including polyethylene, aluminum and copper. We will identify the most important cross-sections for further experimental study and evaluate their impact on propagated errors in shielding estimates.

  6. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  7. Absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capurro, O. A.

    1993-11-01

    The program SEEF is a Fortran IV computer code for the extraction of absolute cross sections of compound nucleus reactions. When the evaporation residue is fed by its parents, only cumulative cross sections will be obtained from off-line gamma ray measurements. But, if one has the parent excitation function (experimental or calculated), this code will make it possible to determine absolute cross sections of any exit channel.

  8. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  9. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Mi-Young; Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with the acetylene (HCCH) molecule. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2016.

  10. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  11. Measurement of double differential charged-particle emission cross sections for reactions induced by 26 MeV protons and FKK model analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Y.; Aoto, A.; Kashimoto, H.

    1994-06-01

    Double differential charged-particle emission cross sections of proton-induced reactions have been measured for {sup nat}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup nat}Si, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 106}Pd, {sup 159}Tb and {sup 181}Ta at energies around 26 MeV. Several (p,p{prime}) and (p,n) data for {sup 98}Mo and {sup 106}Pd in the incident energy range from 12 to 26 MeV are analysed in terms of the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin model, in order to study preequilibrium nucleon emission from nucleon-induced reactions.

  12. Partial wave analysis of scattering with the nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm effect and the anomalous cross section induced by quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, D.-H.

    2004-05-01

    Partial wave theory of a three dimensional scattering problem for an arbitrary short range potential and a nonlocal Aharonov-Bohm magnetic flux is established. The scattering process of a 'hard sphere'-like potential and the magnetic flux is examined. An anomalous total cross section is revealed at the specific quantized magnetic flux at low energy which helps explain the composite fermion and boson model in the fractional quantum Hall effect. Since the nonlocal quantum interference of magnetic flux on the charged particles is universal, the nonlocal effect is expected to appear in a quite general potential system and will be useful in understanding some other phenomena in mesoscopic physics.

  13. Neutron capture cross section of 102Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, C. L.; Krane, K. S.

    2005-05-01

    The cross sections for radiative neutron capture by 102Pd have been deduced from a measurement of the γ rays emitted by 17.0-d 103Pd. The thermal cross section has been determined to be σ=1.82±0.20 b, and the effective resonance integral is I=23±4 b. We also report thermal and resonance capture cross sections for 108Pd and note possible inconsistencies with the presently accepted values of the 110Pd cross sections.

  14. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    DOE PAGES

    Seestrom, Susan Joyce; Adamek, Evan R.; Barlow, Dave; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, we have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n-butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He. The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to ourmore » previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.« less

  15. Total cross sections for ultracold neutrons scattered from gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, S. J.; Adamek, E. R.; Barlow, D.; Blatnik, M.; Broussard, L. J.; Callahan, N. B.; Clayton, S. M.; Cude-Woods, C.; Currie, S.; Dees, E. B.; Fox, W.; Hoffbauer, M.; Hickerson, K. P.; Holley, A. T.; Liu, C.-Y.; Makela, M.; Medina, J.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Pattie, R. W.; Ramsey, J.; Roberts, A.; Salvat, D. J.; Saunders, A.; Sharapov, E. I.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Slaughter, B. A.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wang, Z.; Wexler, J.; Womack, T. L.; Young, A. R.; Vanderwerp, J.; Zeck, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    We have followed up on our previous measurements of upscattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) from a series of gases by making measurements of total cross sections on the following gases hydrogen, ethane, methane, isobutene, n -butane, ethylene, water vapor, propane, neopentane, isopropyl alcohol, and 3He . The values of these cross sections are important for estimating the loss rate of trapped neutrons due to residual gas and are relevant to neutron lifetime measurements using UCNs. The effects of the UCN velocity and path-length distributions were accounted for in the analysis using a Monte Carlo transport code. Results are compared to our previous measurements and with the known absorption cross section for 3He scaled to our UCN energy. We find that the total cross sections for the hydrocarbon gases are reasonably described by a function linear in the number of hydrogen atoms in the molecule.

  16. Topographic relationship between root apex of mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate: cross-sectional analysis using CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmiao; He, Xiaotong; Wang, Yanling; Zhou, Guangchao; Sun, Chao; Yang, Lianfeng; Bai, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Wu, Yunong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the topographic relationship between root apex of the mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate of mandible. The original cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 364 teeth from 223 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate on cross-sectional CBCT images was classified as non-contact (99), contact (145) and perforation (120). The cross-sectional morphology of lingual plate at the level of root apex was defined as parallel (28), undercut (38), slanted (29) and round (4). The distribution of topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate significantly associated with gender, impaction depth, root number and lingual plate morphology. Moreover, the average bone thickness of lingual cortex and distance between root apex and the outer surface of lingual plate were 1.02 and 1.39 mm, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses identified impaction depth and lingual plate morphology as the risk factors for the contact and perforation subtypes between root apex and lingual plate. Collectively, our findings reveal the topographic proximity of root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the lingual plate, which might be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications during tooth extraction. PMID:27991572

  17. Topographic relationship between root apex of mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate: cross-sectional analysis using CBCT.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongmiao; He, Xiaotong; Wang, Yanling; Zhou, Guangchao; Sun, Chao; Yang, Lianfeng; Bai, Jianling; Gao, Jun; Wu, Yunong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-12-19

    The present study was aimed to determine the topographic relationship between root apex of the mesially and horizontally impacted mandibular third molar and lingual plate of mandible. The original cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) data of 364 teeth from 223 patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate on cross-sectional CBCT images was classified as non-contact (99), contact (145) and perforation (120). The cross-sectional morphology of lingual plate at the level of root apex was defined as parallel (28), undercut (38), slanted (29) and round (4). The distribution of topographic relationship between root apex and lingual plate significantly associated with gender, impaction depth, root number and lingual plate morphology. Moreover, the average bone thickness of lingual cortex and distance between root apex and the outer surface of lingual plate were 1.02 and 1.39 mm, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate regression analyses identified impaction depth and lingual plate morphology as the risk factors for the contact and perforation subtypes between root apex and lingual plate. Collectively, our findings reveal the topographic proximity of root apex of impacted mandibular third molar to the lingual plate, which might be associated with intraoperative and postoperative complications during tooth extraction.

  18. Risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in hospital admissions: A cross-sectional, retrospective, case series analysis in valencia, spain

    PubMed Central

    Marco, José Luis; Amariles, Pedro; Boscá, Beatriz; Castelló, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background NSAIDs are a significant cause of drug-related hospital admissions and deaths. The therapeutic effects of NSAIDs have been associated with the risk for developing adverse events, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives The focus of this study was to identify the most common risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) resulting in hospital admissions. A secondary end point was the relationship between use of gastroprotective treatment and relevant risk factors to NSAID-induced UGIB in the selected population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective, case-series analysis of NSAID-induced UGIB resulting in hospital admission to the Requena General Hospital, Valencia, Spain, occurring from 1997 to 2005. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify UGIB admissions associated with NSAIDs. To estimate the probability of association between UGIB and the use of NSAIDs, the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability was used. Patients were categorized as high-risk to develop UGIB if they met ≥1 of the following risk criteria (relevant risk factors): aged ≥65 years (age risk factor); peptic ulcer disease or NSAID gastropathy occurring in the year before their hospital admission (history risk factor); and concomitant use of other NSAIDs, systemic corticoids, oral anticoagulants, or platelet aggregation inhibitors (concomitant medication risk factor). Patients were categorized as candidates to use gastroprotections if they met ≥1 of the relevant risk factors. Patients were categorized as users of gastroprotective treatment if they used proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, or misoprostol at hospital admission. Results This study comprised 209 cases of NSAID-induced UGIB (129 men, 80 women: mean [SD] age, 71.5 [13.8] years; 128 [61.2%] receiving acetyl salicylic acid [ASA], with 72 [34.4%] receiving low

  19. Neutrino Cross Sections at Solar Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigari, Louis

    2017-01-01

    I will review neutrino nucleus cross section measurements and uncertainties for energies applicable to solar neutrinos. I will discuss how these cross sections are important for interpreting solar neutrino experimental data, and highlight the most important neutrino-nucleus interactions that will be relevant for forthcoming dark matter direct detection experiments. NSF PHY-1522717.

  20. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  1. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  2. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  3. Neutron Resonance Parameters of 238U and the Calculated Cross Sections from the Reich-Moore Analysis of Experimental Data in the Neutron Energy Range from 0 keV to 20 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Derrien, H

    2005-12-05

    The neutron resonance parameters of {sup 238}U were obtained from a SAMMY analysis of high-resolution neutron transmission measurements and high-resolution capture cross section measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in the years 1970-1990, and from more recent transmission and capture cross section measurements performed at the Geel Linear Accelerator (GELINA). Compared with previous evaluations, the energy range for this resonance analysis was extended from 10 to 20 keV, taking advantage of the high resolution of the most recent ORELA transmission measurements. The experimental database and the method of analysis are described in this report. The neutron transmissions and the capture cross sections calculated with the resonance parameters are compared with the experimental data. A description is given of the statistical properties of the resonance parameters and of the recommended values of the average parameters. The new evaluation results in a slight decrease of the effective capture resonance integral and improves the prediction of integral thermal benchmarks by 70 pcm to 200 pcm.

  4. A genetic algorithm to reduce stream channel cross section data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, C.

    2006-01-01

    A genetic algorithm (GA) was used to reduce cross section data for a hypothetical example consisting of 41 data points and for 10 cross sections on the Kootenai River. The number of data points for the Kootenai River cross sections ranged from about 500 to more than 2,500. The GA was applied to reduce the number of data points to a manageable dataset because most models and other software require fewer than 100 data points for management, manipulation, and analysis. Results indicated that the program successfully reduced the data. Fitness values from the genetic algorithm were lower (better) than those in a previous study that used standard procedures of reducing the cross section data. On average, fitnesses were 29 percent lower, and several were about 50 percent lower. Results also showed that cross sections produced by the genetic algorithm were representative of the original section and that near-optimal results could be obtained in a single run, even for large problems. Other data also can be reduced in a method similar to that for cross section data.

  5. Semiclassical analysis of angular differential cross sections for single-electron capture in 250-eV H++H collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frémont, F.

    2015-05-01

    A classical model based on the resolution of Hamilton equations of motion is used to determine the angular distribution of H projectiles following single-electron capture in H++H collisions at an incident projectile energy of 250 eV. At such low energies, the experimental charge-exchange probability and angular differential cross sections exhibit oscillatory structures that are classically related to the number of swaps the electron experiences between the target and the projectile during the collision. These oscillations are well reproduced by models based on quantum mechanics. In the present paper, the angular distribution of H projectiles is determined classically, at angles varying from 0.1° up to 7°. The variation in intensity due to interferences caused by the indiscernibility between different trajectories is calculated, and the role of these interferences is discussed.

  6. Sexual Network Profiles and Risk Factors for STIs Among African-American Sexual Minorities in Mississippi: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Sarah; Mena, Leandro; Chan, Philip A; Rose, Jennifer; Simmons, Dantrell; Riggins, Reginald; Hoffmann, Michael; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Chamberlain, Nicholas; Nunn, Amy

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence, socio-demographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behaviors, and sexual network profiles among African American sexual minorities in Jackson, Mississippi. Bivariate chi-square tests and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models explored individual and partner-related factors. Compared to their heterosexual counterparts, male African American sexual minorities reported fewer sex partners (odds ratios [OR] 0.33, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.16-0.65) and lower concurrency levels (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.24-0.72). African American sexual minority women reported greater substance abuse, more sex partners (OR 2.54, 95%CI 1.47-4.38), higher concurrency levels (OR 1.81, 95%CI 1.24-2.64), and more transactional sex (OR 2.52, 95%CI 1.25-5.11). These results highlight the need for nuanced STI interventions tailored to African American sexual minorities in Mississippi.

  7. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework.

  8. Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Page, Lisa; Morgan, Oliver; Pinder, Richard J; Riley, Paul; Hatch, Stephani; Maguire, Helen; Catchpole, Mike; Simpson, John; Wessely, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To identify public perceptions of the risk to health after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 (210Po) in London and to assess the impact of public health communications. Design Cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative interviews. Setting London, United Kingdom. Participants 1000 people completed the cross sectional survey and 86 potentially exposed people completed the qualitative interviews. Main outcome measures Perception of risk to personal health after the 210Po incident. Qualitative interviews were analysed with an emphasis on information needs. Results 11.7% of the survey sample (n=117) perceived their health to be at risk. Aside from personal variables the main predictors of perceived risk to health were believing that the incident was related to terrorism (odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 4.6) rather than to espionage, that it was targeted at the wider public rather than one person (5.9, 3.2 to 10.9), and that it could affect people who had not been in the contaminated area (3.2, 2.1 to 5.1). Participants in the qualitative interviews were generally satisfied with the information they had received, although they would have preferred more information about their individual risk of exposure, the results of their urine tests, and the health implications of the incident. Conclusions Perceptions of the public that the 210Po incident in London in 2006 was related to espionage helped to reassure them that the risks to personal health were low. In the event of future incidents it is important to ensure that detailed, comprehensible information about the risks of any exposure is available. PMID:17975252

  9. A coupled SAFE-2.5D BEM approach for the dispersion analysis of damped leaky guided waves in embedded waveguides of arbitrary cross-section.

    PubMed

    Mazzotti, M; Bartoli, I; Marzani, A; Viola, E

    2013-09-01

    The paper presents a Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) formulation coupled with a 2.5D Boundary Element Method (BEM) for the computation of the dispersion properties of viscoelastic waveguides with arbitrary cross-section and embedded in unbounded isotropic viscoelastic media. Attenuation of guided modes is described through the imaginary component of the axial wavenumber, which accounts for material damping, introduced via linear viscoelastic constitutive relations, as well as energy loss due to radiation of bulk waves in the surrounding media. Energy radiation is accounted in the SAFE model by introducing an equivalent dynamic stiffness matrix for the surrounding medium, which is derived from a regularized 2.5D boundary element formulation. The resulting dispersive wave equation is configured as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem in the complex axial wavenumber. The eigenvalue problem is reduced to a linear one inside a chosen contour in the complex plane of the axial wavenumber by using a contour integral method. Poles of leaky and evanescent modes are obtained by choosing appropriately the phase of the wavenumbers normal to the interface in compliance with the nature of the waves in the surrounding medium. Finally, the obtained eigensolutions are post-processed to compute the energy velocity and the radiated wavefield in the surrounding domain. The reliability of the method is first validated on existing results for waveguides of circular cross sections embedded in elastic and viscoelastic media. Next, the potential of the proposed numerical framework is shown by computing the dispersion properties for a square steel bar embedded in grout and for an H-shaped steel pile embedded in soil.

  10. Biological and clinical manifestations of Huntington’s disease in the longitudinal TRACK-HD study: cross-sectional analysis of baseline data

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizi, Sarah J; Langbehn, Douglas R; Leavitt, Blair R; Roos, Raymund A C; Durr, Alexandra; Craufurd, David; Kennard, Christopher; Hicks, Stephen L; Fox, Nick C; Scahill, Rachael I; Borowsky, Beth; Tobin, Allan J; Rosas, H Diana; Johnson, Hans; Reilmann, Ralf; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Stout, Julie C

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, fully penetrant, neurodegenerative disease that most commonly affects adults in mid-life. Our aim was to identify sensitive and reliable biomarkers in premanifest carriers of mutated HTT and in individuals with early HD that could provide essential methodology for the assessment of therapeutic interventions. Methods This multicentre study uses an extensive battery of novel assessments, including multi-site 3T MRI, clinical, cognitive, quantitative motor, oculomotor, and neuropsychiatric measures. Blinded analyses were done on the baseline cross-sectional data from 366 individuals: 123 controls, 120 premanifest (pre-HD) individuals, and 123 patients with early HD. Findings The first participant was enrolled in January, 2008, and all assessments were completed by August, 2008. Cross-sectional analyses identified significant changes in whole-brain volume, regional grey and white matter differences, impairment in a range of voluntary neurophysiological motor, and oculomotor tasks, and cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction in premanifest HD gene carriers with normal motor scores through to early clinical stage 2 disease. Interpretation We show the feasibility of rapid data acquisition and the use of multi-site 3T MRI and neurophysiological motor measures in a large multicentre study. Our results provide evidence for quantifiable biological and clinical alterations in HTT expansion carriers compared with age-matched controls. Many parameters differ from age-matched controls in a graded fashion and show changes of increasing magnitude across our cohort, who range from about 16 years from predicted disease diagnosis to early HD. These findings might help to define novel quantifiable endpoints and methods for rapid and reliable data acquisition, which could aid the design of therapeutic trials. Funding CHDI/High Q Foundation. PMID:19646924

  11. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  12. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Chyzh, A.; Couture, A.; Henderson, R.; Jandel, M.; Kwan, E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-05-01

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) has been used to measure the 239Pu(n,γ) cross section from 10 eV to the keV region. Three experimental run conditions were used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum across the entire energy regime, measure the cross section in the resolved resonance region, and obtain necessary count rate well into the keV region. The preliminary cross sections are in good agreement with current evaluations from 10 eV to 80 keV.

  13. K-shell photoionization cross-sections.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daltabuit, E.; Cox, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    Approximate values for the threshold energies, threshold cross sections, and energy dependence of the cross sections for K-shell photoionization are tabulated for H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and S in all stages of ionization. The approximation of these data is based on the assumptions that the threshold energy is a simple function of the nuclear charge and the number of electrons present in the atom, and that the threshold values and energy dependence of the cross sections are determined only by the threshold energy.

  14. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations.

  15. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  16. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Rosique-Esteban, Nuria; Díaz-López, Andrés; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Corella, Dolores; Goday, Albert; Martínez, J Alfredo; Romaguera, Dora; Vioque, Jesus; Arós, Fernando; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco; Estruch, Ramon; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luís; Pinto, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Vidal, Josep; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Daimiel, Lidia; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and

  17. A Monte Carlo based nodal diffusion model for criticality analysis, and, Application of high-order cross section homogenization method to two-group nodal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilas, Germina

    In the first part, an accurate and fast computational method is presented as an alternative to the Monte Carlo or deterministic transport theory codes currently used to determine the subcriticality of spent fuel storage lattices. The method is capable of analyzing storage configurations with simple or complex lattice cell geometry. It is developed based on two-group nodal diffusion theory, with the nodal cross sections and discontinuity factors determined from continuous-energy Monte Carlo simulations of each unique node (spent fuel assembly type). Three different approaches are developed to estimate the node-averaged diffusion coefficient. The applicability and the accuracy of the nodal method are assessed in two-dimensional geometry through several benchmark configurations typical at Savannah River Site. It is shown that the multiplication constant of the analyzed configurations is within 1% of the MCNP results. In the second part, the high-order cross section homogenization method, recently developed by McKinley and Rahnema, is implemented in the context of two-group nodal diffusion theory. The method corrects the generalized equivalence theory homogenization parameters for the effect of the core environment. The reconstructed fine-mesh (fuel pin) flux and power distributions are a natural byproduct of this method. The method was not tested for multigroup problems, where it was assumed that the multigroup flux expansion in terms of the perturbation parameter is a convergent series. Here the applicability of the method to two-group problems is studied, and it is shown that the perturbation expansion series converges for the multigroup case. A two-group nodal diffusion code with a bilinear intra-nodal flux shape is developed for the implementation of the high-order homogenization method in the context of the generalized equivalence theory. The method is tested by using as a benchmark a core configuration typical of a BWR in slab geometry, which has large

  18. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosique-Esteban, Nuria; Díaz-López, Andrés; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Corella, Dolores; Goday, Albert; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Romaguera, Dora; Vioque, Jesus; Arós, Fernando; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco; Estruch, Ramon; Fernández-García, José Carlos; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Luís; Pinto, Xavier; Tur, Josep A.; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Vidal, Josep; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Daimiel, Lidia; Vázquez, Clotilde; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women) with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design), higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01). Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05). For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05). Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity, T2D, and

  19. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-01-01

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93–3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33–3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support. PMID:28282958

  20. Investigation of risk factors for porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a multiple regression analysis of a cross-sectional study in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Widdowson, M A; Cook, A J; Williams, J J; Argaes, F; Rodriguez, I; Dominguez, J L; Rodriguez, R

    2000-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey for seropositivity to cysticercosis of pigs in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, was carried out in 1996 together with a standardized questionnaire on predetermined individual pig and household risk factors for porcine infection. Serum samples from 697 pigs were analysed by immunoblot for antibodies to Taenia solium cysticercosis and questionnaires from 227 households in 18 villages were collected. All the data were analysed using multivariate analytical techniques taking household clustering into account. The overall porcine seroprevalence in the area was found to be 29%. The most important risk factors for seropositivity in pigs were presence versus absence of a toilet (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] 2.37, P = 0.005), crowded households (adj. OR 1.75, P = 0.034) and both corralling (adj. OR 2.14, P = 0.017) and letting pigs loose (adj. OR 2.32, P = 0.035) versus tying them up. There was evidence of clustering at household level and that possible risk factors at municipal or village level may also interact with higher risk management practices such as allowing pigs to run loose.

  1. Newcomers' cognitive development of social identification: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of self-anchoring and self-stereotyping.

    PubMed

    van Veelen, Ruth; Hansen, Nina; Otten, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Upon joining a new social category, group members strive to establish and maintain high social identification. Thus far, we know relatively little about the cognitive underpinnings of social identification when developing from a new to a well-established group member. This research investigates the differential impact of newcomers' self-stereotyping (i.e., assimilation of the self to group stereotypes) and self-anchoring (i.e., projection of self-attributes onto the ingroup) on the development of social identification over time. Across two time points during the academic year, first year psychology students (N = 123) filled in a questionnaire on their perceptions about the self, psychology students, and social identification. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses confirmed our hypotheses that self-anchoring instigated new group members' social identification, while self-stereotyping instigated social identification once group membership was more well-established. This research emphasizes the interactive role of the personal and social self in the development of social identification.

  2. Perceived Stigma of Sudden Bereavement as a Risk Factor for Suicidal Thoughts and Suicide Attempt: Analysis of British Cross-Sectional Survey Data on 3387 Young Bereaved Adults.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexandra; Rantell, Khadija; Marston, Louise; King, Michael; Osborn, David

    2017-03-09

    The sudden death of a friend or relative, particularly by suicide, is a risk factor for suicide. People who experience sudden bereavement report feeling highly stigmatised by the loss, potentially influencing access to support. We assessed whether perceived stigma following sudden bereavement is associated with suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt. We analysed cross-sectional survey data on 3387 young adults bereaved by the sudden death of a close contact. We tested the association of high versus low perceived stigma (on the stigma sub-scale of the Grief Experience Questionnaire) with post-bereavement suicidal ideation and suicide attempt, using random effects logistic regression, adjusting for socio-demographic factors, pre-bereavement psychopathology, and mode of sudden bereavement (natural causes/unnatural causes/suicide). Subjects with high perceived stigma scores were significantly more likely to report post-bereavement suicidal thoughts (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.93-3.89) and suicide attempt (AOR = 2.73; 95% CI = 2.33-3.18) than those with low stigma scores. People who feel highly stigmatised by a sudden bereavement are at increased risk of suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt, even taking into account prior suicidal behaviour. General practitioners, bereavement counsellors, and others who support people bereaved suddenly, should consider inquiring about perceived stigma, mental wellbeing, and suicidal thoughts, and directing them to appropriate sources of support.

  3. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-08-13

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269-0.798), 0.639 (0.383-1.065), and 0.614 (0.365-1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498-1.200), 0.602 (0.382-0.947), and 0.603 (0.381-0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes.

  4. Dental utilization of active duty/previous active duty US military: a cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sambamoorthi, Usha; Jurevic, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to understand dental utilization of 1) individuals serving/having served in active duty in the U.S. military as compared with the general public and 2) individuals who are currently serving as compared with individuals who are no longer active duty, but have been in active duty within the previous year. Methods The Behavior and Risk Surveillance Survey, 2010, was used in cross-sectional analyses to determine the comparisons. Chi square and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. Results 70.7% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental visit within the previous 12 months; 69.9% of the general public reported a dental visit (p = 0.0265). 69.8% of participants who had served/currently serving had a dental hygiene visit within the previous 12 months and 68.1% of the general public reported a dental hygiene visit (p <0.0001). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for participants who had served/currently serving vs. the general public was 1.10 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.05, 1.16; p<0.0001) for dental visits and 1.11 (95%CI 1.05, 1.17; p<0.0001) for dental hygiene visits. Conclusion Participants who are serving or have served were more likely to have any dental visit and dental hygiene visit than the general public; but the results were not substantively important. PMID:26086028

  5. The role of appraisal and coping style in relation with societal participation in fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional multiple mediator analysis.

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Lizanne Eva; Beckerman, Heleen; Collette, Emma Hubertine; Bleijenberg, Gijs; Dekker, Joost; Knoop, Hans; de Groot, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    To determine the relationship between appraisal and societal participation in fatigued patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and whether this relation is mediated by coping styles. 265 severely-fatigued MS patients. Appraisal, a latent construct, was created from the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the helplessness and acceptance subscales of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire. Coping styles were assessed using the Coping Inventory Stressful Situations (CISS21) and societal participation was assessed using the Impact on Participation and Autonomy. A multiple mediator model was developed and tested by structural equation modeling on cross-sectional data. We corrected for confounding by disease-related factors. Mediation was determined using a product-of-coefficients approach. A significant relationship existed between appraisal and participation (β = 0.21, 95 % CI 0.04-0.39). The pathways via coping styles were not significant. In patients with severe MS-related fatigue, appraisal and societal participation show a positive relationship that is not mediated by coping styles.

  6. A comparative analysis of biopharmaceutics classification system and biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system: a cross-sectional survey with 500 bioequivalence studies.

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Chiann, Chang; Dressman, Jennifer B; Storpirtis, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    Although policies of waiving bioequivalence studies are part of the legal framework of various regulatory agencies, there is no harmonization with regard to extension of the biowaiver to drugs other than those with high solubility and high permeability, nor is there any consensus or official endorsement of the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS). To better understand the applicability of the biowaiver, we carried out a cross-sectional survey to estimate the relative risk of obtaining nonbioequivalent (non-BE) or bioinequivalent (BIE) results for drug products containing drugs belonging to each of the biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) and BDDCS classes. Five hundred bioequivalence studies were randomly sampled from a database of the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The drugs were classified according to the BCS and BDDCS, to evaluate how characteristics related to drug and dosage form influence the outcome of bioequivalence studies. The relative risk of obtaining a non-BE result was approximately four times lower for drugs in classes 1 and 3 of BCS or BDDCS when compared with class 2 drugs. Thus, it seems that the final outcome of a bioequivalence study is strongly influenced by the solubility of the drug, but not by its intestinal permeability or extent of metabolism.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies examining the relationship between mobility and cognition in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Demnitz, Naiara; Esser, Patrick; Dawes, Helen; Valkanova, Vyara; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Sexton, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Ageing is associated with declines in cognitive function and mobility. The extent to which this relationship encompasses the subdomains of cognition and mobility remains unclear, however. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for cross-sectional studies examining the association between objective mobility measures (gait, lower-extremity function, balance) and cognitive function (global, executive function, memory, processing speed) in healthy older adults. Of the 642 studies identified, 26 studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 26,355 participants. For each feature of physical mobility, the relation to each aspect of cognition was reviewed. In the context of each association, we summarised the results to date and performed random-effects meta-analyses of published data. Reviewed findings suggest that individuals with better mobility perform better on assessments of global cognition, executive function, memory and processing speed. Not all measures of mobility were equally associated with cognitive function, however. Although there was a larger number of gait and lower-extremity function studies, and this may have driven findings, most studies examining balance and cognition measures reported no significant results. Meta-analyses on reported associations supported results by revealing significant, albeit small, effect sizes in favour of a positive association between performance on mobility measures and cognitive assessments. Future research should aim to establish the mechanisms driving this relationship, as this may identify predictors of age-related impairments.

  8. Benchmark cross sections for bottom quark production

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.L.

    1988-01-07

    A summary is presented of theoretical expectations for the total cross sections for bottom quark production, for longitudinal and transverse momentum distributions, and for b, /bar b/ momentum correlations at Fermilab fixed target and collider energies.

  9. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  10. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  12. Energy dependence of fusion cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bang, J.M.; Ferreira, L.S.; Maglione, E.; Hansteen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Observed enhancements of fusion cross sections at low energies are explained as caused by an underestimate of beam energy due to an overestimate of the stopping energy loss. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  13. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  14. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (monostatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness, and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff-type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner will be shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks, and perfect conductivity. It will also be shown that the solution can be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff-type approximation without additional assumptions.

  15. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  16. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Becker, ANL

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and to modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.

  17. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  18. Daytime cold exposure and salt intake based on nocturnal urinary sodium excretion: A cross-sectional analysis of the HEIJO-KYO study.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Keigo; Obayashi, Kenji; Tone, Nobuhiro; Kurumatani, Norio

    2015-12-01

    Increased cardiovascular incidence in winter is partly explained by higher blood pressure due to cold exposure. Although higher salt intake induced by cold exposure has been reported in mice, the association remains unclear in humans. To investigate the association between salt intake and cold exposure in winter, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 860 elderly subjects (mean ± standard deviation: 72.0 ± 7.1 years). We determined ambient temperature at every 10 min according to indoor temperature measured in the subjects' home, outdoor temperature, and self-administered diary logging time spent outdoors. Salt intake was estimated by nocturnal sodium excretion rate of overnight urine collection. A 1°C lower daytime ambient temperature was significantly associated with a higher urinary sodium excretion rate by 0.07 mmol/h in the subsequent night independent of age, sex, body weight, alcohol intake, calcium channel blocker use, diabetes, household income, estimated glomerular filtration rate, daytime physical activity (p=0.02). After further adjustment for outdoor temperature and day length, the lowest tertile groups of ambient daytime temperature (10.1 ± 2.3°C) showed the nocturnal urinary sodium excretion rate was higher by 14.2% (7.62 vs. 6.54 mmol/h) compared with the highest tertile group (19.3 ± 1.8°C). Higher sodium excretion rate was associated with higher nighttime ambulatory blood pressure (p<0.01) and its lower nocturnal dipping (p<0.01). Significant association between higher salt intake and daytime cold exposure partly explain the mechanism of higher blood pressure in winter, and suggest that a reduction of cold exposure might be effective to decrease salt intake.

  19. The Association Between Self-Rated Mental Health Status and Total Health Care Expenditure: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Muoi T; Chan, Winnie Y; Keeler, Courtney

    2015-09-01

    Both clinical diagnoses and self-rated measures of mental illness are associated with a variety of outcomes, including physical well-being, health utilization, and expenditure. However, much of current literature primarily utilizes clinically diagnosed data.This cross-sectional study explores the impact of mental illness and health care expenditure using 2 self-rated measures: self-rated measured of perceived mental health status (SRMH) and Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6).Data from the 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, a nationally representative sample of noninstitutionalized individuals (n = 18,295), were analyzed using bivariate χ tests and a 2-part model (logistics regression and generalized linear model regression for the first and second stages, respectively).Although predictive of any health expenditure, SRMH alone was not highly predictive of the dollar value of that health expenditure conditional on any spending. By comparison, the K6 measure was significantly and positively associated with the probability of any health expenditure as well as the dollar value of that spending. Taken together, both the K6 and SRMH measures suggest a positive relationship between poor mental health and the probability of any health expenditure and total expenditure conditional on any spending, even when adjusting for other confounding factors such as race/ethnicity, sex, age, educational attainment, insurance status, and some regional characteristics.Our results suggest that psychological distress and SRMH may represent potential pathways linking poor mental health to increased health care expenditure. Further research exploring the nuances of these relationships may aid researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in addressing issues of inflated health care expenditure in populations at risk for poor mental health.

  20. Data analysis techniques, differential cross sections, and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp →ϕp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Bellis, M.; Williams, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moriya, K.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp →ϕp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s ) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the ϕ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the ϕ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged- (ϕ →K+K-) and neutral- (ϕ →KS0KL0) KK ¯ decay modes of the ϕ. Further, for the charged mode, we differentiate between the cases where the final K- track is directly detected or its momentum reconstructed as the total missing momentum in the event. The two charged-mode topologies and the neutral-mode have different resolutions and are calibrated against each other. Extensive usage is made of kinematic fitting to improve the reconstructed ϕ mass resolution. Our final results are reported in 10- and mostly 30-MeV-wide √s bins for the charged- and the neutral-modes, respectively. Possible effects from K+Λ* channels with pKK ¯ final states are discussed. These present results constitute the most precise and extensive ϕ photoproduction measurements to date and in conjunction with the ω photoproduction results recently published by CLAS, will greatly improve our understanding of low energy vector meson photoproduction.

  1. Severely impaired health status at diagnosis of Pompe disease: a cross-sectional analysis to explore the potential utility of neonatal screening.

    PubMed

    Rigter, Tessel; Weinreich, Stephanie S; van El, Carla G; de Vries, Juna M; van Gelder, Carin M; Güngör, Deniz; Reuser, Arnold J J; Hagemans, Marloes L C; Cornel, Martina C; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2012-11-01

    Since the introduction of enzyme replacement therapy for Pompe disease, awareness and early diagnosis have gained importance. Because the therapy is most effective when started early and methods for dried bloodspot screening for Pompe disease are currently being explored, neonatal screening is getting increased attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the gains that might be achieved with earlier diagnosis by neonatal screening. For this purpose we analyzed the health and functional status of non-screened patients with Pompe disease at the time of diagnosis. Previously collected clinical data and results of an international patient-reported questionnaire were used. Cross-sectional data of 53 patients with Pompe disease diagnosed between 1999 and 2009 (aged 0-64 years) were analyzed. According to the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the following domains are described: body function, activity, participation and contextual factors. In all patients with classic infantile Pompe disease cardiac function, hearing, muscle strength and motor development were considerably impaired at the time of clinical diagnosis. The use of oxygen and/or nasogastric tube-feeding was reported in more than 70% of these cases. Most children, adolescents and adults had advanced muscle weakness and impaired respiratory function at the time of their diagnosis, causing varying degrees of handicap. About 12% of them used a walking device and/or respiratory support at the time of diagnosis. The severely impaired health status reported here provides a strong argument for earlier diagnosis and to further explore the potential of neonatal screening for Pompe disease.

  2. Anti-Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor and Anti-Endothelial Cell Antibodies: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Pathological Findings in Allograft Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Philogene, Mary Carmelle; Bagnasco, Serena; Kraus, Edward S.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Dragun, Duska; Leffell, Mary S.; Zachary, Andrea A.; Jackson, Annette M.

    2017-01-01

    Background This is a cross-sectional study designed to evaluate the histologic characteristics of graft injury in the presence of anti-angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibody (AT1R-Ab) and anti-endothelial cell antibody (AECA). Methods Non-HLA antibody testing was included in the posttransplant evaluation for 70 kidney recipients. Biopsies were performed for cause for 47 patients and as protocol for the remaining 23 patients. Biopsy-proven rejection was defined according to the Banff 2009-2013 criteria. AT1R-Ab was measured on an ELISA platform. Patients were divided into 3 groups based on AT1R-Ab levels (>17, 10-17, and <10 U/ml). AECA was evaluated using an endothelial cell crossmatch (ECXM) in patients whose HLA antibody level was insufficient to cause a positive flow cytometric crossmatch. Results AT1R-Ab levels were higher in patients diagnosed with antibody mediated rejection compared to those with no rejection (P = 0.004). Glomerulitis (g) and peritubular capillaritis (ptc) scores were independently correlated with increased AT1R-Ab concentrations in the presence or absence of HLA-DSA (P = 0.007 and 0.03 for g scores; p = 0.005 and 0.03 for ptc scores). Patients with a positive ECXM had higher AT1R-Ab levels compared to those with a negative ECXM (P = 0.005). Microcirculation inflammation (MCI = g + ptc score) was higher in patients with a positive ECXM and with AT1R-Ab >17 U/ml, although this did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.07). Conclusions The data show an association between non-HLA antibodies detected in the ECXM and AT1R ELISA and microvascular injury observed in antibody mediated rejection. PMID:27222934

  3. The relationship between social support and self-reported health status in immigrants: an adjusted analysis in the Madrid Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support is an important factor in the adaptation process of immigrants, helping for their integration in a new environment. The lack of social support may influence on well-being and health status. The aim of this study is to describe the social support of immigrant and native population and study the possible association between immigration and lack social support after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, income, stress and self-reported health status. Methods Cross-sectional population based study of immigrants and national patients without mental disorders of 15 urban primary health centers in the north-eastern area of Madrid. Participants provided information on social support, stress level, perceived health status and socio-economic characteristics. Descriptive and multiple logistic regression were conducted. Results The proportion of the global perception of social support among immigrants and natives was 79.2% and 94.2%, respectively. The lack of global social support adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) of immigrant was 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.81-4.09), showing a significant association with being male (PR = 2.26), having monthly income below 500 euros (PR = 3.81) and suffering stress (PR = 1.94). For the dimensions of lack of social support the higher association was being an immigrant and suffering stress. Conclusions We conclude that with regardless of the level of monthly income, stress level, self-reported health status, and gender, immigrant status is directly associated with lack social support. The variable most strongly associated with lack social support has been monthly income below 500 euros. PMID:21651759

  4. Data analysis techniques, differential cross sections, and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp → Φp

    DOE PAGES

    Dey, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Bellis, M.; ...

    2014-05-27

    High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γ p → Φp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the Φ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the Φ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged- (Φ → K⁺K⁻) and neutral- (Φ → K0SK0L)more » $$K\\bar{K}$$ decay modes of the Φ. Further, for the charged mode, we differentiate between the cases where the final K⁻ track is directly detected or its momentum reconstructed as the total missing momentum in the event. The two charged-mode topologies and the neutral-mode have different resolutions and are calibrated against each other. Extensive usage is made of kinematic fitting to improve the reconstructed Φ mass resolution. Our final results are reported in 10- and mostly 30-MeV-wide √s bins for the charged- and the neutral-mode, respectively. Possible effects from K⁺Λ* channels with p$$K\\bar{K}$$ final-states are discussed. These present results constitute the most precise and extensive Φ photoproduction measurements to date and in conjunction with the ω photoproduction results recently published by CLAS, will greatly improve our understanding of low energy vector meson photoproduction.« less

  5. A Retrospective Cross-sectional Analysis of Health Education Disparities in Patients With Diabetes Using Data From the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey.

    PubMed

    Branoff, Janelle D; Jiroutek, Michael R; Kelly, Chloe R; Huma, Sadia; Sutton, Beth S

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an association between receipt of diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight loss education in adult patients with a primary diagnosis of diabetes with various demographic and socioeconomic variables using data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) for the years 2008 to 2011. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional, observational study design included patients ≥ 18 years of age with diabetes in the NAMCS between 2008 and 2011, inclusive. A series of weighted multivariable logistic regression models was constructed to evaluate predictors of diet/nutrition, exercise, and weight loss education. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. Results Among patients included in this study (n = 3027), 35.6% received diet/nutrition education, 21.8% received exercise education, and 13.6% received weight loss education. From the multivariable analyses, visits using "other" payment type, visits with Medicaid, and visits occurring in non-Metropolitan Statistical Areas were significantly less likely to receive diet/nutrition education; visits using other payment type, visits in non-Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and visits by those ≥ 65 and 45-64 years of age were significantly less likely to receive exercise education. No significant disparities in the receipt of weight loss education were found. Conclusion These findings indicate that although only approximately one third or fewer patients diagnosed with diabetes were receiving diet/nutrition, exercise, or weight loss education, there appeared to be limited disparities among the groups studied. Education rates appear to be trending upward over time, to be slightly improved as compared with previous studies, and to include fewer disparities.

  6. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis of mammographic patterns in assessing breast cancer risk related to HRT treated population: a longitudinal and cross-sectional study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karemore, Gopal; Nielsen, Mads

    2009-02-01

    Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and Lacunarity contribute to asses breast cancer risk. FD represents the complexity while the Lacunarity characterize the gappiness of a fractal. Our cross-sectional case-control study includes mammograms of 50 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the subsequent 2-4 years and 50 matched controls. The longitudinal double blind placebo controlled HRT study includes 39 placebo and 36 HRT treated volunteers for two years. ROIs with same dimension (250*150 pixels) were created behind the nipple region on these radiographs. Box counting method was used to calculate the fractal dimension (FD) and the Lacunarity. Paired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were calculated. It was found that there were no differences between cancer and control group for FD (P=0.8) and Lacunarity (P=0.8) in crosssectional study whereas earlier published heterogeneity examination of radiographs (BC-HER) breast cancer risk score separated groups (p=0.002). In the longitudinal study, FD decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the HRT treated population while Lacunarity remained insignificant (P=0.2). FD is negatively correlated to Lacunarity (-0.74, P<0.001), BIRADS (-0.34, P<0.001) and Percentage Density (-0.41, P<0.001). FD is invariant to the mammographic texture change from control to cancer population but marginally varying in HRT treated population. This study yields no evidence that lacunarity or FD are suitable surrogate markers of mammographic heterogeneity as they neither pick up breast cancer risk, nor show good sensitivity to HRT.

  7. The Benefit of Bone Health by Drinking Coffee among Korean Postmenopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Min; Shin, Doosup; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Cho, Eunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although the concern about coffee-associated health problems is increasing, the effect of coffee on osteoporosis is still conflicting. This study aimed to determine the relationship between coffee consumption and bone health in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed using a nationally representative sample of the Korean general population. All 4,066 postmenopausal women (mean age 62.6 years) from the fourth and fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2011), who completed the questionnaire about coffee consumption and had data of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using DXA at the femoral neck and lumbar spine and osteoporosis was defined by World Health Organization T-score criteria in addition to self-report of current anti-osteoporotic medication use. Results After adjusting for various demographic and lifestyle confounders (including hormonal factors), subjects in the highest quartile of coffee intake had 36% lower odds for osteoporosis compared to those in the lowest quartile (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43–0.95; P for trend = 0.015). This trend was consistent in osteoporosis of lumbar spine and femoral neck (aOR = 0.65 and 0.55; P for trend = 0.026 and 0.003, respectively). In addition, age- and body mass index (BMI)-adjusted BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine increased with higher coffee intake (P for trend = 0.019 and 0.051, respectively). Conclusions Coffee consumption may have protective benefits on bone health in Korean postmenopausal women in moderate amount. Further, prospective studies are required to confirm this association. PMID:26816211

  8. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  9. U.S. military service and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: Findings from a cross-sectional analysis of the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study, 1979-2013.

    PubMed

    Janak, Jud C; Pérez, Adriana; Alamgir, Hasanat; Orman, Jean A; Cooper, Sharon P; Shuval, Kerem; DeFina, Laura; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2017-02-01

    U.S. military service confers both health benefits and risks potentially associated with a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors called metabolic syndrome. However, the association between prior military service and metabolic syndrome has not sufficiently been examined. The purpose of the study was to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome by prior military service status. Among 42,370 men (887 with prior military service) examined from 1979 to 2013 at the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX), we used a cross-sectional study design to examine the association between military service and metabolic syndrome. First, an unadjusted log binomial regression model was performed by regressing the prevalence of metabolic syndrome on prior service. This was followed by performing Kleinbaum's modeling strategy for assessing confounding. The same methodology was used to explore the association between individual metabolic syndrome risk factors and prior service. Prior military service was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (PR=0.98, 0.89-1.07). None of the variables explored were identified as confounders. Participants with prior military service had lower prevalence of both elevated levels of triglycerides (PR=0.89, 0.80-0.99) and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (PR=0.78, 0.70-0.88). They had a higher prevalence of elevated resting systolic blood pressure (PR=1.23, 1.12-1.35). However, none of these associations were significant after adjusting for identified confounders: age; cardiorespiratory fitness; and exam year. Study findings indicate that military service was not independently associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Future research is warranted longitudinally assessing the impact of military service on long-term outcomes.

  10. A gender-based dynamic multidimensional longitudinal analysis of resilience and mortality in the old-old in Israel: the cross-sectional and longitudinal aging study (CALAS).

    PubMed

    Walter-Ginzburg, Adrian; Shmotkin, Dov; Blumstein, Tzvia; Shorek, Aviva

    2005-04-01

    The objective was to examine gender differences and similarities in health, function, familial and non-familial social networks; longitudinal resilience in those factors; and their association with risk of mortality in Israeli men and women aged 75-94. We used the Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study (CALAS), a stratified random sample of 960 Israeli Jews aged 75-94, drawn on January 1, 1989 from National Population Registry, stratified by gender, age (75-79, 80-84, 85-89, 90-94), and place of birth (Europe/America, Middle East/North Africa, Israel), interviewed twice (Wave 1, 1989-1992; Wave 2, 1993-1995); Wave 1 values and longitudinal resilience predicted the 1999 mortality risk for those alive at both waves. Gender differences and similarities were found at Wave 1 in longitudinal resilience and in risk factors for mortality, partially supporting a gender paradox. Men were more physically active, had better cognition, gave more help to children, relied less on paid caretakers, and attended synagogue more than women, factors associated with better health and functioning. Women had poorer health and functional status and more help from children. More physical activity, synagogue attendance, and resilience in activities of daily living (ADL) were associated with lower risk of mortality for both genders. Women's risk of mortality was reduced by smoking reduction and higher cognitive vitality, and men's by emotional support and solitary leisure activity. Both men and women were resilient, yet there were differences. Gender-neutral mortality reduction programs would include physical activity, religious services, maintenance and improvement of ADL, and engaging in solitary leisure activities; for women, smoking cessation and cognitively challenging activities; and for men, maintaining or increasing emotional ties.

  11. Data analysis techniques, differential cross sections, and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γp → Φp

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Bellis, M.; Williams, M.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adikaram, D.; Aghasyan, M.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dugger, M.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fleming, J. A.; Garçon, M.; Gevorgyan, N.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Goetz, J. T.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Hafidi, K.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Ho, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H.; MacGregor, I. J.D.; Markov, N.; Mayer, M.; McCracken, M. E.; McKinnon, B.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moriya, K.; Moutarde, H.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peng, P.; Phillips, J. J.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Senderovich, I.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Smith, E. S.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Stoler, P.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Tkachenko, S.; Ungaro, M.; Vernarsky, B.; Vlassov, A. V.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.

    2014-05-27

    High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction γ p → Φp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the Φ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the Φ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged- (Φ → K⁺K⁻) and neutral- (Φ → K0SK0L) $K\\bar{K}$ decay modes of the Φ. Further, for the charged mode, we differentiate between the cases where the final K⁻ track is directly detected or its momentum reconstructed as the total missing momentum in the event. The two charged-mode topologies and the neutral-mode have different resolutions and are calibrated against each other. Extensive usage is made of kinematic fitting to improve the reconstructed Φ mass resolution. Our final results are reported in 10- and mostly 30-MeV-wide √s bins for the charged- and the neutral-mode, respectively. Possible effects from K⁺Λ* channels with p$K\\bar{K}$ final-states are discussed. These present results constitute the most precise and extensive Φ photoproduction measurements to date and in conjunction with the ω photoproduction results recently published by CLAS, will greatly improve our understanding of low energy vector meson photoproduction.

  12. Cost-related non-adherence to prescribed medicines among older adults: a cross-sectional analysis of a survey in 11 developed countries

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Augustine

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of costs on access to medicines in 11 developed countries offering different levels of prescription drug coverage for their populations. Design Cross-sectional study of data from the Commonwealth Fund 2014 International Health Policy Survey of Older Adults. Setting Telephone survey conducted in 11 high-income countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the USA. Participants 22 532 adults aged 55 and older and living in the community in studied countries. Primary outcome measure Self-reported cost-related non-adherence (CRNA) in the form of either not filling a prescription or skipping doses within the last 12 months because of out-of-pocket costs. Results Estimated prevalence of CRNA among all older adults varied from <3% in the France, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK to 16.8% in the USA. Canada had the second highest national prevalence of CRNA (8.3%), followed by Australia (6.8%). Older adults in the USA were approximately six times more likely to report CRNA than older adults in the UK (adjusted OR=6.09; 95% CI 3.60 to 10.20). Older adults in Australia and Canada were also statistically significantly more likely to report CRNA than older adults in the UK. Across most countries, the prevalence of CRNA was higher among lower income residents and lower among residents over age 65. Conclusions Observed differences in national prevalence of CRNA appear to follow lines of availability of prescription drug coverage and the extent of direct patient charges for prescriptions under available drug plans. PMID:28143838

  13. Associations of Serum Manganese Levels with Prediabetes and Diabetes among ≥60-Year-Old Chinese Adults: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Mingyue; Lui, Guang; Chang, Hong; Zhang, Meilin; Liu, Wei; Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yixin; Huang, Guowei

    2016-01-01

    Older adults can experience glucose metabolism dysfunction, and although manganese may help regulate glucose metabolism, there is little information regarding this association among older people. This cross-sectional study included 2402 Chinese adults who were ≥60 years old in 2013 (Tianjin, China), and evaluated the associations of serum manganese with prediabetes and diabetes. Serum manganese levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the sex-specific associations of manganese levels with diabetes and prediabetes after adjusting for confounding factors (age, sex, life style factors, and health status). Based on the WHO criteria, prediabetes was observed in 15.1% of men and 13.4% of women, while diabetes was observed in 30.0% of men and 34.4% of women. In the final model, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for prediabetes according to manganese quartile were 1.000, 0.463 (0.269–0.798), 0.639 (0.383–1.065), and 0.614 (0.365–1.031) among men and 1.000, 0.773 (0.498–1.200), 0.602 (0.382–0.947), and 0.603 (0.381–0.953) among women (p for trend = 0.134 and 0.015, respectively). The lowest prevalence of diabetes among men occurred at a moderate range of serum manganese (p < 0.05). Therefore, appropriate serum manganese levels may help prevent and control prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27529280

  14. A Tutorial on Centering in Cross-Sectional Two-Level Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Nicholas D.; Brincks, Ahnalee M.; Beauchamp, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this tutorial is to succinctly review some options for, and consequences of, centering Level 1 predictors in commonly applied cross-sectional two-level models. It is geared toward both practitioners and researchers. A general understanding of multilevel modeling is necessary prior to understanding the subtleties of centering…

  15. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  16. Help Seeking in Online Collaborative Groupwork: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2015-01-01

    This study examined predictive models for students' help seeking in the context of online collaborative groupwork. Results from multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance in help seeking was at the individual student level, and multiple variables at the individual level were predictive of help-seeking behaviour. Help seeking was…

  17. Illustration of a Multilevel Model for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Camilli, Gregory; Vargas, Sadako; Vernon, R. Fox

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a multilevel (or hierarchical linear) model that illustrates issues in the application of the model to data from meta-analytic studies. In doing so, several issues are discussed that typically arise in the course of a meta-analysis. These include the presence of non-zero between-study variability, how multiple…

  18. Photoabsorption cross section of acetylene in the EUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    The measurement of the absolute photoabsorption cross sections of C2H2 in the 175-740 A region by means of a double ionization chamber is reported. The continuum background source is the synchrotron radiation emitted by the Wisconsin 240 MeV electron storage ring. It is found that the cross sections range from 2 to a maximum of 36 Mb. Two new Rydberg series are identified and the cross section data are applied in the analysis of various sum rules. From the rules, it is shown that the data of C2H2 in the 580-1088 A range may be too low, while the measured ionization transition moment may be too high.

  19. Phenomenological barrier parameters for total reaction cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phookan, C. K.; Kalita, K.

    2016-01-01

    A phenomenological formula for total reaction cross section is introduced for reactions induced by three types of projectiles. The formula is based on Wong's formula in which, the barrier parameters are calculated from the Bass, Aage Winther and the Akyuz Winther potentials. For the reactions studied, we find that a uniform correction of the barrier parameters can account for the total reaction cross section satisfactorily. An unusually large deviation of the barrier parameters is noticed for the reaction {}8{B} + {}^{58}{Ni}. Arguments are given that most likely the radius of the proton halo nucleus {}8{B} is not well accounted by the above potentials and hence, an increase in the effective radius of {}^8{B} is proposed. Analysis is also presented for the reaction {}^{11}{Li} + {}^{208}{Pb} by making the assumption that its reduced total reaction cross section lies on the same trajectory as that for other halo reactions.

  20. Large cross sections for transitions with a small energy difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, J. H.; Shakov, Kh. Kh.

    2009-05-01

    Cross sections for transitions between states with small differences in energy can be quite large. An example is the 1s-2p transition in atomic hydrogen caused by the impact of a fast charged particle [1] or a photon [3]. In such cases the actual cross section may become much larger than the simple geometric cross section. Such transitions are often difficult to observe in the laboratory. However, they can be evaluated numerically. This effect can be significant in analysis of astrophysical data, as pointed out by T. Nandi [2]. I discuss a few examples of calculations and give a physical explanation for this effect. [4pt] [1] J.H. McGuire, D. J. Land, J. G. Brennan and G. Basbas, Phys. Rev. A19, 2180 (1979).[0pt] [2] Kh.Kh. Shakov and J.H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. A67 033405 (2003). [0pt] [3] T. Nandi, private communication, 2008.

  1. Associations of reallocating sitting time into standing or stepping with glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity: a cross-sectional analysis of adults at risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Edwardson, Charlotte L; Henson, Joe; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Bakrania, Kishan; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Yates, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Objective To quantify associations between sitting time and glucose, insulin and insulin sensitivity by considering reallocation of time into standing or stepping. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Leicestershire, UK, 2013. Participants Adults aged 30–75 years at high risk of impaired glucose regulation (IGR) or type 2 diabetes. 435 adults (age 66.8±7.4 years; 61.7% male; 89.2% white European) were included. Methods Participants wore an activPAL3 monitor 24 hours/day for 7 days to capture time spent sitting, standing and stepping. Fasting and 2-hour postchallenge glucose and insulin were assessed; insulin sensitivity was calculated by Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Secretion (HOMA-IS) and Matsuda-Insulin Sensitivity Index (Matsuda-ISI). Isotemporal substitution regression modelling was used to quantify associations of substituting 30 min of waking sitting time (accumulated in prolonged (≥30 min) or short (<30 min) bouts) for standing or stepping on glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity. Interaction terms were fitted to assess whether the associations with measures of glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity was modified by sex or IGR status. Results After adjustment for confounders, including waist circumference, reallocation of prolonged sitting to short sitting time and to standing was associated with 4% lower fasting insulin and 4% higher HOMA-IS; reallocation of prolonged sitting to standing was also associated with a 5% higher Matsuda-ISI. Reallocation to stepping was associated with 5% lower 2-hour glucose, 7% lower fasting insulin, 13% lower 2-hour insulin and a 9% and 16% higher HOMA-IS and Matsuda-ISI, respectively. Reallocation of short sitting time to stepping was associated with 5% and 10% lower 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin and 12% higher Matsuda-ISI. Results were not modified by IGR status or sex. Conclusions Reallocating a small amount of short or prolonged sitting time with standing or stepping may improve 2-hour

  2. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes, assessment of HPV 16 and 18 viral load and anal related lesions in HIV positive patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamalet, Catherine; Obry-Roguet, Veronique; Ressiot, Emmanuelle; Bregigeon, Sylvie; Del Grande, Jean; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    Natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer is not fully understood. Factors associated with cytological abnormalities and predictors of progression to high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia still deserve investigation. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of HPV types, the relationship between HPV genotypes, HPV 16/18 viral load and cytological abnormalities in male and female HIV-infected patients. One hundred and twenty-two (72.6%) patients were infected with HPV, 75 (61%) had multiple HPV infection, and 94 (77%) had high-risk HPV infection. The most frequently identified HPV types were HPV 16 (64%), HPV 6 (39%), HPV 18 (31%), HPV 53 (14.7%), HPV 33 (10.6%), HPV 11 (8.2%), HPV 70 (5.7%), and HPV 61 (4.9%). The HPV types which were most frequently found in combination were HPV 6 + 16 (9.8%), 6 + 16 + 18 (8.2%), 16 + 18 (6.6%), 6 + 18 (4.9%), 16 + 33 (3.3%), 16 + 53 (3.3%). Median HPV16 and 18 viral loads were 6.1 log10 copies/10(6) cells [IQR 5.0-7.3] and 6.1 log10 copies/10(6) cells [IQR 5.7-6.0], respectively. Male gender (P = 0.03, OR: 1.2 [1.0-1.4]) and homo/bisexual transmission routes (P = 0.044, OR: 1.4 [1.0-1.9]) were associated with HPV 16 infection. An HPV 16 viral load cut-off ≥5.3 log10 copies/10(6) cells and a CD4+ cell count ≤200/µl were independent factors associated with abnormal cytology. In the absence of national consensus guidelines, a strict regular follow-up at shorter intervals is recommended for HIV-infected patients with abnormal cytology, especially low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, an HPV 16 viral load ≥5.3 log/10(6) cells and a CD4+ cell count ≤200/µl.

  3. Clinical characteristics of synthetic cannabinoid-induced psychosis in relation to schizophrenia: a single-center cross-sectional analysis of concurrently hospitalized patients

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Merih; Inanc, Leman; Oruc, Gamze Akcay; Arpacioglu, Selim; Gulec, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate synthetic cannabinoid (SC)-induced psychosis in terms of patient profile and clinical characteristics with reference to concurrently hospitalized schizophrenic patients. Methods A total of 81 male patients diagnosed with psychotic disorder induced by the use of SCs (n=50; mean (standard deviation [SD]) age: 25.9 (5.5) years) or with schizophrenia (n=31, mean (SD) age: 42.9 (11.6) years) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, diagnosis criteria who were concurrently hospitalized at Erenköy Mental and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital were included in this cross-sectional study. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) were recorded in all the patients. Results Mean (SD) age at disease onset in SC-induced psychosis patients was 22.3 (5.6) years; 26.0% had suicidal ideation and 58.4% were hospitalized involuntarily. Marijuana was the most common first used substance (72.0%), and solitary use of SC was noted in 38.0% of patients. SC-induced psychosis patients had similar PANSS positive, BPRS, HRSD, and FAB scores and significantly lower PANSS negative scores (18.0 [6.5] vs 22.3 [6.0], P=0.004) than patients with schizophrenia, while they had similar HAM-A scores (17.8 [10.3] vs 21.6 [5.5], P=0.085) as young schizophrenics. Age at onset for SC (r=0.364, P=0.05) or substance (r=0.395, P=0.01) use was correlated positively with total FAB scores. Conclusion In conclusion, our findings revealed SC-induced psychosis to influence young individuals and be associated with remarkable rates of suicidal ideation and involuntary hospitalization as well as similar clinical picture with schizophrenia in terms of PANSS positive, BPRS, HRSD, HAM-A, and FAB scores. Younger age at

  4. Impact of Noncommunicable Disease Multimorbidity on Healthcare Utilisation and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Middle-Income Countries: Cross Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, John Tayu; Hamid, Fozia; Pati, Sanghamitra; Atun, Rifat; Millett, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background The burden of non-communicable disease (NCDs) has grown rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where populations are ageing, with rising prevalence of multimorbidity (more than two co-existing chronic conditions) that will significantly increase pressure on already stretched health systems. We assess the impact of NCD multimorbidity on healthcare utilisation and out-of-pocket expenditures in six middle-income countries: China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa. Methods Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from adult participants (>18 years) in the WHO Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) 2007–2010. We used multiple logistic regression to determine socio-demographic correlates of multimorbidity. Association between the number of NCDs and healthcare utilisation as well as out-of-pocket spending was assessed using logistic, negative binominal and log-linear models. Results The prevalence of multimorbidity in the adult population varied from 3∙9% in Ghana to 33∙6% in Russia. Number of visits to doctors in primary and secondary care rose substantially for persons with increasing numbers of co-existing NCDs. Multimorbidity was associated with more outpatient visits in China (coefficient for number of NCD = 0∙56, 95% CI = 0∙46, 0∙66), a higher likelihood of being hospitalised in India (AOR = 1∙59, 95% CI = 1∙45, 1∙75), higher out-of-pocket expenditures for outpatient visits in India and China, and higher expenditures for hospital visits in Russia. Medicines constituted the largest proportion of out-of-pocket expenditures in persons with multimorbidity (88∙3% for outpatient, 55∙9% for inpatient visit in China) in most countries. Conclusion Multimorbidity is associated with higher levels of healthcare utilisation and greater financial burden for individuals in middle-income countries. Our study supports the WHO call for universal health insurance and health service coverage in LMICs, particularly for

  5. FUNCTIONAL HOP TESTS AND TUCK JUMP ASSESSMENT SCORES BETWEEN FEMALE DIVISION I COLLEGIATE ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN HIGH VERSUS LOW ACL INJURY PRONE SPORTS: A CROSS SECTIONAL ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Hoog, Philipp; Warren, Meghan; Smith, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although functional tests including the single leg hop (SLH), triple hop (TH), cross over hop (COH) for distance, and the tuck jump assessment (TJA) are used for return to play (RTP) criteria for post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, sport-specific baseline measurements are limited. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine differences in SLH, TH, and COH distance and limb symmetry index (LSI), as well as total scores, number of jumps, and individual flaws of the TJA in 97 injury-free Division I (DI) collegiate female student athletes participating in ACL injury prone vs. non ACL injury prone sports. The hypothesis was that significant mean differences and asymmetries (LSI) would exist between the two groups in SLH, TH, COH and TJA. Study Design Cross sectional. Methods Due to research suggesting inherent ACL injury risk associated with specific sport involvement, participants were grouped into high (HR, n=57) and low (LR, n=40) ACL injury risk based on participating in a sport with high or low ACL injury rates. The HR group was composed of athletes participating in soccer, basketball, and volleyball, while the LR group athletes participated in diving, cross country, and track and field. Participants performed all standard functional tests (SFT) and side-to-side differences for each participant as well as between group differences were assessed for the hop tests. The LSI, a ratio frequently used to gauge athletes’ readiness for RTP post injury, was also assessed for between group differences. The TJA was compared between the groups on individual flaws, overall scores, and number of jumps performed. Results No between group differences for hop distances were found, with medium to large effect sizes for SLH, TH, and COH. The HR group had a higher TJA score, number of jumps, and higher proportion of the flaw of ‘foot placement not shoulder width apart’. Conclusion Although most SFT's showed no significant differences between athlete

  6. Knee Pain and Low Back Pain Additively Disturb Sleep in the General Population: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Ito, Hiromu; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Muro, Shigeo; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Shuichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Chin, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Association of knee and low back pain with sleep disturbance is poorly understood. We aimed to clarify the independent and combined effects of these orthopedic symptoms on sleep in a large-scale general population. Methods Cross-sectional data about sleep and knee/low back pain were collected for 9,611 community residents (53±14 years old) by a structured questionnaire. Sleep duration less than 6 h/d was defined as short sleep. Sleep quality and the presence of knee and low back pain were evaluated by dichotomous questions. Subjects who complained about knee or low back pains were graded by tertiles of a numerical response scale (NRS) score and a Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RDQ) score respectively. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine the correlates of short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Results Frequency of participants who complained of the orthopedic symptoms was as follows; knee pain, 29.0%; low back pain, 42.0% and both knee and low back pain 17.6%. Both knee and low back pain were significantly and independently associated with short sleep duration (knee pain: odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, p<0.01; low back pain: OR = 1.13, p = 0.01) and poor sleep quality (knee pain: OR = 1.22, p<0.01; low back pain; OR = 1.57, p<0.01). The group in the highest tertile of the NRS or RDQ score had the highest risk for short sleep duration and poor sleep quality except for the relationship between the highest tertile of the RDQ score and short sleep duration.(the highest tertile of the NRS: OR for short sleep duration = 1.31, p<0.01; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.47, p<0.01; the highest tertile of the RDQ: OR for short sleep duration = 1.11, p = 0.12; OR for poor sleep quality = 1.81, p<0.01) Further, coincident knee and low back pain raised the odds ratios for short sleep duration (either of knee or low back pain: OR = 1.10, p = 0.06; both knee and low back pain: OR = 1.40, p<0.01) and poor sleep quality (either of knee or

  7. Prevalence and predictors of kaposi sarcoma herpes virus seropositivity: a cross-sectional analysis of HIV-infected adults initiating ART in Johannesburg, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is the most common AIDS-defining tumour in HIV-infected individuals in Africa. Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) infection precedes development of KS. KSHV co-infection may be associated with worse outcomes in HIV disease and elevated KSHV viral load may be an early marker for advanced HIV disease among untreated patients. We examined the prevalence of KSHV among adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and compared immunological, demographic and clinical factors between patients seropositive and seronegative for KSHV. Results We analyzed cross-sectional data collected from 404 HIV-infected treatment-naïve adults initiating ART at the Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa between November 2008 and March 2009. Subjects were screened at ART initiation for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens. Seropositivity to KSHV was defined as positive to either lytic KSHV K8.1 or latent KSHV Orf73 antibodies. KSHV viremia was determined by quantitative PCR and CD3, 4 and 8 lymphocyte counts were determined with flow cytometry. Of the 404 participants, 193 (48%) tested positive for KSHV at ART initiation; with 76 (39%) reactive to lytic K8.1, 35 (18%) to latent Orf73 and 82 (42%) to both. One individual presented with clinical KS at ART initiation. The KSHV infected group was similar to those without KSHV in terms of age, race, gender, ethnicity, smoking and alcohol use. KSHV infected individuals presented with slightly higher median CD3 (817 vs. 726 cells/mm3) and CD4 (90 vs. 80 cells/mm3) counts than KSHV negative subjects. We found no associations between KSHV seropositivity and body mass index, tuberculosis status, WHO stage, HIV RNA levels, full blood count or liver function tests at initiation. Those with detectable KSHV viremia (n = 19), however, appeared to present with signs of more advanced HIV disease including anemia and WHO stage 3 or 4 defining conditions compared to those in whom the virus was

  8. Analysis of a sample of type 2 diabetic patients with obesity or overweight and at cardiovascular risk: a cross sectional study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The multifactorial control of diabetes relies on interventions that provide patients with the best knowledge and resources available. The objective of this research was to analyze the clinical characteristics of a sample of people with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, and establish possible links between disease control, family history and lifestyle, to improve the quality of interventions. Family history, lifestyle habits, blood pressure, anthropometric data and laboratory tests were analyzed in this descriptive and comparative cross-sectional study. Results All patients had a pathological body mass index (BMI), and in those patients with a family history of diabetes, the disease was more serious and onset was earlier. Overall, 70.9% were taking drugs for arterial blood pressure management, with mean values within recommended limits; 87.1% were taking antihyperlipidemic drugs and had mean values for blood lipids within reference range; 93.5% were receiving oral antidiabetic drugs and/or insulin and had blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values higher than recommended limit; and 87% were taking antiplatelet drugs and had fibrinogen and ultrasensitive C-reactive protein higher than the normal range. High HbA1c values were found in a high proportion of our sample who were not following a tailored diet (84.2%), and better BMIs were associated with moderate physical activity. Coexistence of somatic disorders (97.4% of the sample with musculoskeletal diseases) could lead to the lack of physical activity. Conclusions This sample of patients with type 2 diabetes and at high cardiovascular risk, had acceptable metabolic control, facilitated by drug therapy. Family history of diabetes was associated with earlier disease onset and worse disease progression. Patients who were not following a tailored diet had worse HbA1c values compared with those who were. Individuals who practiced moderate physical activity in line with international

  9. Spectroscopy and Photoabsorption Cross Sections of FNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, J. D.; Miller, C. E.; Johnston, H. S.

    1993-04-01

    The spectroscopy and photoabsorption cross sections of nitrosyl fluoride are investigated in the spectral region 350-180 nm. Results for 350-250 nm are in good agreement with the initial measurements of Johnston and Bertin and later measurements from Solgadi and Flament and Huber et al. The spectrum is assigned to a series of vibrational progressions which arise from (0, 0, 0)″ and involve excitation of the ν' 1 mode. Excitations to ( n, 0, 0)' and ( n, 0, 1)' make up the bulk of the spectrum, with promotions to ( n, 1, 0)', ( n, 0, 2)', and ( n, 1, 2)' becoming dominant at higher energies. Analysis of the spectrum results in values of ν' 1 = 1096 cm -1, ν' 2 = 480cm -1 and ν' 3 = 349 cm -1 for the excited state FNO frequencies. The experimental basis for the assignment of ν' 1 and ν' 3 is distinctly stronger than that for ν' 2. Below 250 nm, a broad, featureless continuum absorption is observed, which rises in intensity from σ = 1.77 × 10 -20cm 2 at 245 nm to 5.24 × 10 -19cm 2 at 180 nm.

  10. Neutron removal cross section as a measure of neutron skin

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, D. Q.; Ma, Y. G.; Cai, X. Z.; Tian, W. D.; Wang, H. W.

    2010-04-15

    We study the relation between neutron removal cross section (sigma{sub -N}) and neutron skin thickness for finite neutron-rich nuclei using the statistical abrasion ablation model. Different sizes of neutron skin are obtained by adjusting the diffuseness parameter of neutrons in the Fermi distribution. It is demonstrated that there is a good linear correlation between sigma{sub -N} and the neutron skin thickness for neutron-rich nuclei. Further analysis suggests that the relative increase of neutron removal cross section could be used as a quantitative measure for neutron skin thickness in neutron-rich nuclei.

  11. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  12. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  13. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  14. Total reaction cross sections in CEM and MCNP6 at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Kerby, Leslie M.; Mashnik, Stepan G.

    2015-05-14

    Accurate total reaction cross section models are important to achieving reliable predictions from spallation and transport codes. The latest version of the Cascade Exciton Model (CEM) as incorporated in the code CEM03.03, and the Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP6), both developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), each use such cross sections. Having accurate total reaction cross section models in the intermediate energy region (50 MeV to 5 GeV) is very important for different applications, including analysis of space environments, use in medical physics, and accelerator design, to name just a few. The current inverse cross sections used in the preequilibrium and evaporation stages of CEM are based on the Dostrovsky et al. model, published in 1959. Better cross section models are now available. Implementing better cross section models in CEM and MCNP6 should yield improved predictions for particle spectra and total production cross sections, among other results.

  15. Cross-sectional geometry of the dentary in bats.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Elizabeth R; Nicolay, Christopher W

    2006-01-01

    Bats exhibit remarkable diversity in dietary habits, with species specializing on insects, fruit, nectar, vertebrates and blood. Studies of larger mammals have shown that structural differences in dentary cross-sectional properties exist among species with different diets. Unfortunately, few of these studies have considered the role of phylogeny in shaping these apparent form-function associations. Here we ask whether a relationship exists between diet and dentary structure in bats when phylogenetic history is factored into the analysis. To answer this question, we compared results from phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) and traditional (nonphylogenetic) regression analyses of dentary cross-sectional shape in frugivorous, nectarivorous, and insectivorous bats (253 individuals representing 72 species). Cross-sectional moments of inertia of the dentary between M(1) and M(2) were computed from bone densitometry scans of skeletal specimens. Traditional regressions of cross-sectional parameters against dentary length detected significant departures from isometry among frugivores. In contrast, PGLS analyses indicated that cross-sectional variables for each dietary group scaled with isometry. Thus, the allometric patterns illuminated by traditional statistics are linked to the phylogenetic structure of the sample. Identical patterns of significant differences in slopes and intercepts between frugivores and nectarivores emerged from both traditional and PGLS analyses. As predicted, the cross-sectional shape of the dentary in frugivores is consistent with increased resistance to torsion and bending, while that of nectarivores suggested a less resistant dentary. Although traditional and PGLS analyses yielded some similar results, the phylogenetic structure of a sample can drive apparent patterns of scaling and should be considered in comparative functional analyses.

  16. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Ba isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, F.; Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Käppeler, F.; Reffo, G.

    1994-11-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba were measured in the energy range from 5 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the 7Li (p,n)7 Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector. The cross section ratios were determined with an overall uncertainty of ~3%, an improvement by factors of 5 to 8 compared to existing data. Severe discrepancies were found with respect to previous results. As a new possibility in time of flight experiments, isomeric cross section ratios could be determined for 135Ba, 136Ba, and 137Ba. Maxwellian averaged neutron capture cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between kT=10 keV and 100 keV. These stellar cross sections were used in an s-process analysis. For the s-only isotopes 134Ba and 136Ba the Ns<σ> ratio was determined to 0.875+/-0.025. Hence, a significant branching of the s-process path at 134Cs can be claimed for the first time, in contrast to predictions from the classical approach. This branching yields information on the s-process temperature, indicating values around T8=2. The new cross sections are also important for the interpretation of barium isotopic anomalies, which were recently discovered in SiC grains of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Together with the results from previous experiments on tellurium and samarium, a general improvement of the Ns<σ> systematics in the mass range A=120-150 is achieved. This yields a more reliable separation of s- and r-process contributions for comparison with stellar observations, but reveals a 20% discrepancy with respect to the solar barium abundance.

  17. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  18. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Our prior nuclear absorption cross sections model is extended for light systems (A less than or equal to 4) where either both projectile and target are light particles or one is a light particle and the other is a medium or heavy nucleus. The agreement with experiment is excellent for these cases as well. Present work in combination with our original model provides a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for light, medium, and heavy systems, a very valuable input for radiation protection studies.

  19. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  20. Total cross sections for +/-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gien, T. T.

    1987-03-01

    The total cross sections for electron and positron scatterings by lithium, sodium, and potassium in the intermediate energy range from 40 to 1000 eV are calculated using the modified Glauber and second Born approximations. A model potential approach is developed to enable an exact inclusion of the core-interaction effects. Within this approach, the positron cross sections are predicted to be somewhat smaller than those of electron scattering. Calculations have also been performed with the consideration of the inert-core and frozen-core assumption and the use of the Clementi wave function to represent the target electrons. Comparison to existing experimental data is made.

  1. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  2. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  3. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  4. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  5. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  6. Predictive Factors of Hospital Mortality Due to Myocardial Infarction: A Multilevel Analysis of Iran's National Data

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Etemad, Koorosh; Sajjadi, Homeira; Sadeghi, Mehraban

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regarding failure to establish the statistical presuppositions for analysis of the data by conventional approaches, hierarchical structure of the data as well as the effect of higher-level variables, this study was conducted to determine the factors independently associated with hospital mortality due to myocardial infarction (MI) in Iran using a multilevel analysis. Methods: This study was a national, hospital-based, and cross-sectional study. In this study, the data of 20750 new MI patients between April, 2012 and March, 2013 in Iran were used. The hospital mortality due to MI was considered as the dependent variable. The demographic data, clinical and behavioral risk factors at the individual level and environmental data were gathered. Multilevel logistic regression models with Stata software were used to analyze the data. Results: Within 1-year of study, the frequency (%) of hospital mortality within 30 days of admission was derived 2511 (12.1%) patients. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of mortality with (95% confidence interval [CI]) was derived 2.07 (95% CI: 1.5–2.8) for right bundle branch block, 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3–1.7) for ST-segment elevation MI, 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1–1.4) for female gender, and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1–1.3) for humidity, all of which were considered as risk factors of mortality. But, OR of mortality was 0.7 for precipitation (95% CI: 0.7–0.8) and 0.5 for angioplasty (95% CI: 0.4–0.6) were considered as protective factors of mortality. Conclusions: Individual risk factors had independent effects on the hospital mortality due to MI. Variables in the province level had no significant effect on the outcome of MI. Increasing access and quality to treatment could reduce the mortality due to MI. PMID:26730342

  7. Sex and age-related differences in performance in a 24-hour ultra-cycling draft-legal event – a cross-sectional data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the sex and age-related differences in performance in a draft-legal ultra-cycling event. Methods Age-related changes in performance across years were investigated in the 24-hour draft-legal cycling event held in Schötz, Switzerland, between 2000 and 2011 using multi-level regression analyses including age, repeated participation and environmental temperatures as co-variables. Results For all finishers, the age of peak cycling performance decreased significantly (β = −0.273, p = 0.036) from 38 ± 10 to 35 ± 6 years in females but remained unchanged (β = −0.035, p = 0.906) at 41.0 ± 10.3 years in males. For the annual fastest females and males, the age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged at 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years, respectively. For all female and male finishers, males improved significantly (β = 7.010, p = 0.006) the cycling distance from 497.8 ± 219.6 km to 546.7 ± 205.0 km whereas females (β = −0.085, p = 0.987) showed an unchanged performance of 593.7 ± 132.3 km. The mean cycling distance achieved by the male winners of 960.5 ± 51.9 km was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than the distance covered by the female winners with 769.7 ± 65.7 km but was not different between the sexes (p > 0.05). The sex difference in performance for the annual winners of 19.7 ± 7.8% remained unchanged across years (p > 0.05). The achieved cycling distance decreased in a curvilinear manner with advancing age. There was a significant age effect (F = 28.4, p < 0.0001) for cycling performance where the fastest cyclists were in age group 35–39 years. Conclusion In this 24-h cycling draft-legal event, performance in females remained unchanged while their age of peak cycling performance decreased and performance in males improved while their age of peak cycling performance remained unchanged. The annual fastest females and males were 37.3 ± 8.5 and 38.3 ± 5.4 years old, respectively. The sex

  8. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  9. Pion Charge Exchange Cross Section on Liquid Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Kevin; LArIAT (FNAL T-1034) Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The observation of neutrino oscillations allows charge parity violation to be probed in the neutrino sector. Detectors with high calorimetric energy resolution and high spatial resolution will provide precise measurements of neutrino oscillations. By measuring small π+/- cross sections for individual interaction channels, specifically charge exchange, we will make a measurement in the first of its kind on liquid Argon and demonstrate the physics capabilities of a relatively new detector technology: the Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC). This analysis will report on the thin slab cross section measurement technique and the Monte Carlo cross section measurements in the energy range of 0.2 - 1.0 GeV. This analysis is the first iteration in classifying charge exchange events from a sample of incident pions, and it aims to identify events in which a π0 was produced without any charged pions leaving the interaction vertex. We will also report on the methodology and efficiency of this algorithm in identifying particles and their interactions in liquid argon. This analysis will inform a future measurement of the π+/- charge exchange cross section on liquid argon. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1359364.

  10. The 237U(n,f) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-03-03

    The purpose of this note is to combine existing information on the {sup 237}U(n,f) cross section to determine if some consistency can be obtained for the neutron induced fission excitation of {sup 237}U. The neutron induced fission cross section of the 6.8 day {sup 237}U was measured directly by McNally et al. in 1968 using the Pommard nuclear device test. At the same time critical assembly measurements were done at Los Alamos using the Flattop assembly. A previous measurement was also made at LASL in 1954 with two different neutron sources, each peaked near 200 keV. The results were 0.66 {+-} 0.10 b and 0.70 {+-} 0.07 b for the (n,f) cross section. More recently Younes and Britt have reanalyzed direct reaction charged particle data of Cramer and Britt that had determined the fission probability of the {sup 238}U compound nucleus as a function of nuclear excitation energy. They have combined fission probabilities with calculated neutron absorption cross sections, including corrections for the differences in angular momentum between the direct and neutron induced reactions. From this analysis they have extracted equivalent {sup 237}U(n,f) cross sections. The technique for extracting surrogate (n,f) cross sections from (t,pf) data has been demonstrated in a recent publication for the test case {sup 235}U(n,f). In addition to this experimental information, Lynn and Hayes have recently done a new theoretical study of the fission cross sections for a series of isotopes in this region. A summary plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Below 0.5 MeV the McNally, Cowan, and Younes-Britt results are in reasonable agreement. The average cross section in the Younes-Britt results, for En = 0.1 to 0.4 MeV, is 0.80 times the McNally values which is well within the errors of the McNally experiment. Above 0.5 MeV the McNally results diverge toward higher values. It should be noted that this divergence begins approximately at the {sup 237}Np threshold and that {sup 237}Np is the

  11. Cotton fibre cross-section properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From a structural perspective the cotton fibre is a singularly discrete, elongated plant cell with no junctions or inter-cellular boundaries. Its form in nature is essentially unadulterated from the field to the spinning mill where its cross-section properties, as for any textile fibre, are central ...

  12. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  13. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  14. Neutron capture cross section of Am241

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Bond, E. M.; Chadwick, M. B.; Clement, R. R.; Couture, A.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Haight, R. C.; Kawano, T.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Parker, W. E.; Wu, C. Y.; Becker, J. A.

    2008-09-01

    The neutron capture cross section of Am241 for incident neutrons from 0.02 eV to 320 keV has been measured with the detector for advanced neutron capture experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The thermal neutron capture cross section was determined to be 665±33 b. Our result is in good agreement with other recent measurements. Resonance parameters for En<12 eV were obtained using an R-matrix fit to the measured cross section. The results are compared with values from the ENDF/B-VII.0, Mughabghab, JENDL-3.3, and JEFF-3.1 evaluations. Γn neutron widths for the first three resonances are systematically larger by 5-15% than the ENDF/B-VII.0 values. The resonance integral above 0.5 eV was determined to be 1553±7 b. Cross sections in the resolved and unresolved energy regions above 12 eV were calculated using the Hauser-Feshbach theory incorporating the width-fluctuation correction of Moldauer. The calculated results agree well with the measured data, and the extracted averaged resonance parameters in the unresolved resonance region are consistent with those for the resolved resonances.

  15. Reaction cross section of 22C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togano, Yasuhiro; Samurai Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    Reaction cross section of 22C on a carbon target at an energy of 240 MeV/nucleon have been measured by using the transmission method. The most neutron-rich carbon isotopes 22C is a candidate of a two-neutron halo nucleus. Tanaka et al. [1] measured the reaction cross section of 22C on a hydrogen target at 40 MeV/nucleon. It is showed 22C to have a large matter radius of 5 . 9 +/- 0 . 9 fm, which is much larger than the ones of carbon isotopes with N <= 14 , suggesting 22C is the halo nucleus. This reported radius has a large uncertainty due to a lack of statistics. To deduce a more accurate matter radius of 22C, the measurement of reaction cross section with higher statistics at a higher beam energy are required. The experiment was performed by using the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIBF. The 22C beam at 240 MeV/nucleon was impinged on a carbon target, and the reaction product was identified by using SAMURAI spectrometer. In the present talk, the extracted reaction cross section and derived matter density distribution of 22C will be presented.

  16. Assessing the context of health care utilization in Ecuador: A spatial and multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There are few studies that have analyzed the context of health care utilization, particularly in Latin America. This study examines the context of utilization of health services in Ecuador; focusing on the relationship between provision of services and use of both preventive and curative services. Methods This study is cross-sectional and analyzes data from the 2004 National Demographic and Maternal & Child Health dataset. Provider variables come from the Ecuadorian System of Social Indicators (SIISE). Global Moran's I statistic is used to assess spatial autocorrelation of the provider variables. Multilevel modeling is used for the simultaneous analysis of provision of services at the province-level with use of services at the individual level. Results Spatial analysis indicates no significant differences in the density of health care providers among Ecuadorian provinces. After adjusting for various predisposing, enabling, need factors and interaction terms, density of public practice health personnel was positively associated with use of preventive care, particularly among rural households. On the other hand, density of private practice physicians was positively associated with use of curative care, particularly among urban households. Conclusions There are significant public/private, urban/rural gaps in provision of services in Ecuador; which in turn affect people's use of services. It is necessary to strengthen the public health care delivery system (which includes addressing distribution of health workers) and national health information systems. These efforts could improve access to health care, and inform the civil society and policymakers on the advances of health care reform. PMID:20222988

  17. Reliability estimation in a multilevel confirmatory factor analysis framework.

    PubMed

    Geldhof, G John; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zyphur, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Scales with varying degrees of measurement reliability are often used in the context of multistage sampling, where variance exists at multiple levels of analysis (e.g., individual and group). Because methodological guidance on assessing and reporting reliability at multiple levels of analysis is currently lacking, we discuss the importance of examining level-specific reliability. We present a simulation study and an applied example showing different methods for estimating multilevel reliability using multilevel confirmatory factor analysis and provide supporting Mplus program code. We conclude that (a) single-level estimates will not reflect a scale's actual reliability unless reliability is identical at each level of analysis, (b) 2-level alpha and composite reliability (omega) perform relatively well in most settings, (c) estimates of maximal reliability (H) were more biased when estimated using multilevel data than either alpha or omega, and (d) small cluster size can lead to overestimates of reliability at the between level of analysis. We also show that Monte Carlo confidence intervals and Bayesian credible intervals closely reflect the sampling distribution of reliability estimates under most conditions. We discuss the estimation of credible intervals using Mplus and provide R code for computing Monte Carlo confidence intervals.

  18. Analysis of excitation mechanisms of Ho3+ upconversion luminescence in Ho3+:LiYbF4 (0.2 at %) crystal via photographs of its longitudinal cross sections and via spectral and kinetic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakov, B. N.; Mikheev, A. V.; Goriev, O. G.; Korableva, S. L.; Semashko, V. V.

    2016-10-01

    The results of a complex analysis of the excitation mechanisms of the up conversion luminescence of Ho3+:LiYbF4 (0.2 at %) crystal are presented. The spatial distribution of the upconversion luminescence intensity is studied by the photographs of longitudinal cross sections at different positions of the laser beam waist with respect to the sample. The surface power density of the pump laser diode radiation (0.755 W, λ = 933 nm) was changed by focusing the beam (similar to Z-scanning). The dependences of the longitudinal luminescence cross sections, as well as of the spectral and kinetic characteristics of Ho3+ and Yb3+ luminescence, on the position of the laser beam waist are determined. It is found that there exist two different mechanisms of the population of the energy levels of Ho3+ ions from which green and red luminescence occur, namely, cooperative sensitization of luminescence and absorption of induced photon groups (JETP Letters, 102 (5), 279 (2015)). It is shown that the contributions of these mechanisms vary both in time and over the crystal volume. All the observed spatial, spectral, and temporal specific features of the upconversion luminescence of Ho3+:LiYbF4 (0.2 at %) crystal are qualitatively explained.

  19. Fission, total and neutron capture cross section measurements at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Spencer, R.R.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, D.C.; Dos Santos, G.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1998-08-01

    In support of the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program established in response to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of the fission cross sections of {sup 233}U in the neutron energy range from 0.36 eV to several hundred keV have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). Also total and capture cross sections of Al, Cl, and K in the energy range from about 100 eV to several hundred keV have been measured or are under way. The goal is to derive accurate cross section representations for the materials involved in criticality calculations of fuel storage, transportation, etc., configurations. Additional high-resolution measurements of the total cross sections of {sup 233}U below a few keV neutron energy are being planned for 1998, as well as for the other involved material. Evaluated data files in ENDF-6 format will be processed into formats for use in criticality analysis and utilized in benchmark data testing. Finally the data will be submitted for inclusion in ENDF/B.

  20. Measurement of proton inelastic scattering cross sections on fluorine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, M.; Caciolli, A.; Calzolai, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.

    2016-10-01

    Differential cross-sections for proton inelastic scattering on fluorine, 19F(p,p')19F, from the first five excited levels of 19F at 110, 197, 1346, 1459 and 1554 keV were measured for beam energies from 3 to 7 MeV at a scattering angle of 150° using a LiF thin target (50 μg/cm2) evaporated on a self-supporting C thin film (30 μg/cm2). Absolute differential cross-sections were calculated with a method not dependent on the absolute values of collected beam charge and detector solid angle. The validity of the measured inelastic scattering cross sections was then tested by successfully reproducing EBS spectra collected from a thick Teflon (CF2) target. As a practical application of these measured inelastic scattering cross sections in elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS), the feasibility of quantitative light element (C, N and O) analysis in aerosol particulate matter samples collected on Teflon by EBS measurements and spectra simulation is demonstrated.

  1. Model-independent analysis of Airy structures in the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C and {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O elastic scattering differential cross sections at 13-22 MeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Korda, V. Yu.; Molev, A. S.; Klepikov, V. F.; Korda, L. P.

    2009-02-15

    We present the results of the model-independent analysis of Airy structures in the {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C and {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O elastic scattering differential cross sections at 13-22 MeV/nucleon. The analysis has been performed with help of a procedure based on the application of the evolutionary algorithm, which enables us to extract the nuclear part of the scattering matrix S{sub N}(l) as a complex function of angular momentum directly from the scattering data. Contrary to the commonly used model approaches, our procedure gives the better fits and leads to the S{sub N}(l) representations defined by the moduli and the nuclear phases exhibiting smooth monotonic dependencies on l.

  2. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  3. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  4. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  5. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  6. Multilevel selection analysis of a microbial social trait

    PubMed Central

    de Vargas Roditi, Laura; Boyle, Kerry E; Xavier, Joao B

    2013-01-01

    The study of microbial communities often leads to arguments for the evolution of cooperation due to group benefits. However, multilevel selection models caution against the uncritical assumption that group benefits will lead to the evolution of cooperation. We analyze a microbial social trait to precisely define the conditions favoring cooperation. We combine the multilevel partition of the Price equation with a laboratory model system: swarming in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We parameterize a population dynamics model using competition experiments where we manipulate expression, and therefore the cost-to-benefit ratio of swarming cooperation. Our analysis shows that multilevel selection can favor costly swarming cooperation because it causes population expansion. However, due to high costs and diminishing returns constitutive cooperation can only be favored by natural selection when relatedness is high. Regulated expression of cooperative genes is a more robust strategy because it provides the benefits of swarming expansion without the high cost or the diminishing returns. Our analysis supports the key prediction that strong group selection does not necessarily mean that microbial cooperation will always emerge. PMID:23959025

  7. Proton Pair Production Cross Sections at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaorong

    Using data samples collected with the BESIII detector at the BEPCII collider, the Born cross section of e + e - to pbar{p} at 12 center-of-mass energies from 2232.4 to 3671.0 MeV is provided. The corresponding effective electromagnetic form factor of the proton is deduced under the assumption that the electric and magnetic form factors are equal. In addition, the ratio of electric to magnetic form factors are extracted for the data samples with larger statistics. The measured cross sections are in agreement with recent results from BaBar, improving the overall uncertainty by about 30%. The |GE/GM| ratios are close to unity and consistent with BaBar results in the same q2 region.

  8. Extinction cross section of a dielectric strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowerah, Subratananda; Chakrabarti, Aloknath

    1988-05-01

    The problem of scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a dielectric strip is formulated in terms of an uncoupled system of three-part Wiener-Hopf equations by using a set of approximate boundary conditions derived and utilized recently. The resulting Wiener-Hopf problems are solved approximately for sufficiently large values of the width of the strip by using Jones' method (1964). An analytical formula is derived for the excitation cross section of the strip under consideration from which numerical values are obtained in specific situations and the results are presented graphically. The radar cross section of the strip is also computed for several special circumstances and these are presented separately.

  9. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  10. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  11. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections.

    PubMed

    Friese, Daniel H; Beerepoot, Maarten T P; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  12. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  13. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  14. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  15. Fusion cross sections and the new dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The prediction of the need for an extra push over the interaction barrier in order to make the heavier nuclei fuse is made the basis of a simple algebraic theory for the energy-dependence of the fusion cross-section. A comparison with recent experiments promises to provide a quantitative test of the New Dynamics (the theory of macroscopic nuclear shape evolutions based on the one-body dissipation concept).

  16. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  17. Classification of Wood Pulp Fibre Cross-Sectional Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Asuka; Chinga-Carrasco, Gary

    This work presents a comparison of two statistical approaches for automatic classification of fibre shapes, i.e. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and Mahalanobis Discriminant Analysis (MLDA). The discriminant analyses were applied to identify and classify several fibre cross-sectional shapes, including e.g. intact, collapsed, touching and fibrillated fibres. The discriminant analyses perform differently, giving clear indications of their suitability for classifying a given group of fibre elements. Compared to CDA, MLDA was more reliable and relatively stable.

  18. Long-Term Exposure to Primary Traffic Pollutants and Lung Function in Children: Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barone-Adesi, Francesco; Dent, Jennifer E.; Dajnak, David; Beevers, Sean; Anderson, H Ross; Kelly, Frank J.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is widespread concern about the possible health effects of traffic-related air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a convenient marker of primary pollution. We investigated the associations between lung function and current residential exposure to a range of air pollutants (particularly NO2, NO, NOx and particulate matter) in London children. Moreover, we placed the results for NO2 in context with a meta-analysis of published estimates of the association. Methods and Findings Associations between primary traffic pollutants and lung function were investigated in 4884 children aged 9–10 years who participated in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE). A systematic literature search identified 13 studies eligible for inclusion in a meta-analysis. We combined results from the meta-analysis with the distribution of the values of FEV1 in CHASE to estimate the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function (FEV1<80% of predicted value) expected under different scenarios of NO2 exposure. In CHASE, there were non-significant inverse associations between all pollutants except ozone and both FEV1 and FVC. In the meta-analysis, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 was associated with an 8 ml lower FEV1 (95% CI: -14 to -1 ml; p: 0.016). The observed effect was not modified by a reported asthma diagnosis. On the basis of these results, a 10 μg/m3 increase in NO2 level would translate into a 7% (95% CI: 4% to 12%) increase of the prevalence of children with abnormal lung function. Conclusions Exposure to traffic pollution may cause a small overall reduction in lung function and increase the prevalence of children with clinically relevant declines in lung function. PMID:26619227

  19. Is sarcomere lattice geometry optimal? Analysis of several potential virtual polygon cross-sectional patterns for actin and myosin myofilaments in muscle.

    PubMed

    Kepner, Gordon R

    2014-09-01

    The hexagonal arrangement of actin filaments in skeletal muscle is not the fundamental geometrical or functioning myofilament unit. This analysis of several possible sarcomere lattice geometries for the arrangement of the actin and myosin filaments identifies several geometrical constraints that can be compared for their effect on muscle sarcomere functioning and efficiency. Three distinct virtual polygons, with myosins at their vertices and that tessellate the plane, are compared for both centered actin and perimeter actin arrangements. The analysis evaluates the optimal ratio of myosin to actin filaments, the packing density, and the effect on new myofilament formation in muscle hypertrophy for the various lattice geometries. The results support the view that no single measure of geometrical effectiveness can evaluate definitively the efficiency of any particular arrangement of the myofilaments. The analysis provides quantitative measures of several parameters that, taken overall, support the effectiveness of the myofilament arrangement in Nature. It provides a new definition of the fundamental myofilament unit (FMU). It is possible to calculate the number of actin and myosin myofilaments that need to be added to each polygon arrangement of the myofilaments to create a new FMU for that specific geometry. This leads to useful conclusions about the biochemical efficiency involved in where such units arise in the course of muscle hypertrophy. It supports the idea that the evolutionary endpoint for optimizing muscle's force-generating function can be better understood via the concepts of a FMU and the polygon arrangement of the sarcomere lattice geometry.

  20. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  1. Distinct risk factors of atrial fibrillation in patients with and without coronary artery disease: a cross-sectional analysis of the BOREAS-CAG Registry data

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Naoto; Tanno, Masaya; Kokubu, Nobuaki; Nishida, Junichi; Nagano, Nobutaka; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Miki, Takayuki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general population have been characterised, their impacts on patients with specific diseases are unclear. Our aim was to determine whether risk factors of AF are different in patients with and those without coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We enrolled 1871 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography for evaluation of symptoms suggestive of CAD in the BOREAS-CAG Registry between August 2014 and January 2015. After exclusion of patients with valvular heart disease or a history of PCI/cardiac surgery, 1150 patients contributed to multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors of AF. We also retrieved data for 361 consecutive patients with CAD admitted to Sapporo Medical University Hospital between April 2013 and July 2014 and analysed data for 166 patients using the same inclusion and exclusion criteria as those in the BOREAS-CAG Registry. Results Unexpectedly, CAD was independently associated with the absence of AF. The patients were then divided into a non-CAD group (n=576) and a CAD group (n=574) for further analysis. The brain natriuretic peptide level showed a strong association with AF regardless of the presence or absence of CAD. In the non-CAD group, lack of statin use was independently associated with AF, whereas high serum uric acid level was an independent explanatory variable of AF in the CAD group. The association of AF with uric acid was confirmed in a separate group of patients (n=166) enrolled in the CAD cohort in Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Conclusions Major risk factors of AF are different in patients with CAD and those without CAD. Patients with CAD are more likely to develop AF when the serum uric acid level is high, whereas no statin administration predicts development of AF in patients without CAD. PMID:28123767

  2. Inclusion of the female condom in a male condom-only intervention in the sex industry in China: a cross-sectional analysis of pre- and post-intervention surveys in three study sites

    PubMed Central

    Liao, S.; Weeks, M.R.; Wang, Y.; Li, N.; Li, F.; Zhou, Y.; Zeng, X.; Jiang, J.; He, B.; Li, J.; Dunn, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives To describe female condom (FC) use, male condom (MC) use and overall levels of protected sex before, during and after FC education and promotion (using the original prototype FC) combined with MC promotion among female sex workers in three rural or small urban settings in southern China. Study design The 1-year FC intervention was conducted by local health workers through outreach to establishments where sex work is conducted. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted in each study town before, during and after the intervention along with process documentation throughout the intervention period. Methods Cross-sectional data from pre-intervention (baseline) and 6-month and 12-month post-intervention surveys from three study sites are used in a descriptive comparison of the context of the sex industry, outreach in two phases of intervention, and FC adoption after the intensive intervention phase in each site. Results Approximately 75–80% of eligible women working in sex establishments, varying from 74 to 155 participants for each survey, were recruited from three study sites. After introduction and promotion of the FC along with the MC during the community public health intervention, between one-fifth and one-half of the study participants had tried the FC in the three study sites by the time of the 6-month and 12-month cross-sectional surveys. Among them, 10–30% had used the FC more than once. FC awareness increased following the intervention with much less variation across the three study sites. At baseline, 31–54% of participants across the three sites reported 100% protected sex in the last 30 days with all types of partners. At one of the sites with relatively low MC use before the intervention, the proportion of women reporting 100% protected sex in the last 30 days increased by 15%, and the proportion reporting nil protected sex in the last 30 days decreased by 13% between baseline and 12-month post-intervention surveys. More

  3. Geographical Inequalities in Use of Improved Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation across Sub-Saharan Africa: Mapping and Spatial Analysis of Cross-sectional Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L.; Freeman, Matthew C.; Gething, Peter W.; Brooker, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding geographic inequalities in coverage of drinking-water supply and sanitation (WSS) will help track progress towards universal coverage of water and sanitation by identifying marginalized populations, thus helping to control a large number of infectious diseases. This paper uses household survey data to develop comprehensive maps of WSS coverage at high spatial resolution for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Analysis is extended to investigate geographic heterogeneity and relative geographic inequality within countries. Methods and Findings Cluster-level data on household reported use of improved drinking-water supply, sanitation, and open defecation were abstracted from 138 national surveys undertaken from 1991–2012 in 41 countries. Spatially explicit logistic regression models were developed and fitted within a Bayesian framework, and used to predict coverage at the second administrative level (admin2, e.g., district) across SSA for 2012. Results reveal substantial geographical inequalities in predicted use of water and sanitation that exceed urban-rural disparities. The average range in coverage seen between admin2 within countries was 55% for improved drinking water, 54% for use of improved sanitation, and 59% for dependence upon open defecation. There was also some evidence that countries with higher levels of inequality relative to coverage in use of an improved drinking-water source also experienced higher levels of inequality in use of improved sanitation (rural populations r = 0.47, p = 0.002; urban populations r = 0.39, p = 0.01). Results are limited by the quantity of WSS data available, which varies considerably by country, and by the reliability and utility of available indicators. Conclusions This study identifies important geographic inequalities in use of WSS previously hidden within national statistics, confirming the necessity for targeted policies and metrics that reach the most marginalized populations. The

  4. Level and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior in patients with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2

    PubMed Central

    Balducci, Stefano; D’Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Sacchetti, Massimo; Orlando, Giorgio; Cardelli, Patrizia; Di Biase, Nicolina; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco; Zanuso, Silvano; Nicolucci, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with type 2 diabetes usually show reduced physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary (SED)-time, though to a varying extent, especially for low-intensity PA (LPA), a major determinant of daily energy expenditure that is not accurately captured by questionnaires. This study assessed the level and correlates of PA and SED-time in patients from the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study_2 (IDES_2). Methods Three-hundred physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the IDES_2 to be randomized to an intervention group, receiving theoretical and practical exercise counseling, and a control group, receiving standard care. At baseline, LPA, moderate-to-vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), and SED-time were measured by accelerometer. Physical fitness and cardiovascular risk factors and scores were also assessed. Results LPA was 3.93±1.35 hours∙day-1, MVPA was 12.4±4.6 min∙day-1, and SED-time was 11.6±1.2 hours∙day-1, with a large range of values (0.89–7.11 hours∙day-1, 0.6–21.0 min∙day-1, and 9.14–15.28 hours∙day-1, respectively). At bivariate analysis, LPA and MVPA correlated with better cardiovascular risk profile and fitness parameters, whereas the opposite was observed for SED-time. Likewise, values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time falling in the best tertile were associated with optimal or acceptable levels of cardiovascular risk factors and scores. At multivariate analysis, age, female gender, HbA1c, BMI or waist circumference, and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (for LPA and SED-time only) were negatively associated with LPA and MPA and positively associated with SED-time in an independent manner. Conclusions Physically inactive and sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes from the IDES_2 show a low level of PA, though values of LPA, MVPA, and SED-time vary largely. Furthermore, there is a strong correlation of these measures with glycemic control, adiposity and inflammation, thus suggesting that even

  5. Influencing Factors on the Overestimation of Self-Reported Physical Activity: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Controls.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Andrea; Rudolf, Kevin; Dejonghe, Lea; Grieben, Christopher; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of the present study was to determine the closeness of agreement between a self-reported and an objective measure of physical activity in low back pain patients and healthy controls. Beyond, influencing factors on overestimation were identified. Methods. 27 low back pain patients and 53 healthy controls wore an accelerometer (objective measure) for seven consecutive days and answered a questionnaire on physical activity (self-report) over the same period of time. Differences between self-reported and objective data were tested by Wilcoxon test. Bland-Altman analysis was conducted for describing the closeness of agreement. Linear regression models were calculated to identify the influence of age, sex, and body mass index on the overestimation by self-report. Results. Participants overestimated self-reported moderate activity in average by 42 min/day (p = 0.003) and vigorous activity by 39 min/day (p < 0.001). Self-reported sedentary time was underestimated by 122 min/day (p < 0.001). No individual-related variables influenced the overestimation of physical activity. Low back pain patients were more likely to underestimate sedentary time compared to healthy controls. Discussion. In rehabilitation and health promotion, the application-oriented measurement of physical activity remains a challenge. The present results contradict other studies that had identified an influence of age, sex, and body mass index on the overestimation of physical activity.

  6. Immunoblot analysis of IgE and IgG antibodies to honey bee venom: cross sectional and sequential studies in bee sensitive subjects.

    PubMed

    Roberts-Thomson, P J; Koh, S; Shepherd, K; Kupa, A; Heddle, R J

    1991-12-01

    To investigate the specific IgE and IgG immune response to honey bee venom (bv), we performed immunoblot analysis of sera from 47 bee sensitive subjects and followed the response during and after venom immunotherapy in 15 of these subjects. Fifteen venom proteins varying in molecular size from 20 to 105 kDa were identified as being antigenic and consisted of a high molecular weight (HMW) group (5 to 105 kDa, containing the previously identified allergens B and C) and a low molecular weight group (LMW) containing hyaluronidase and phospholipase A. In general for a given individual the anti-venom IgE and IgG response was qualitatively similar although some variation between individuals was apparent. Reactivity with hyaluronidase and phospholipase A appeared only in those subjects showing reactivity with HMW components. During immunotherapy specific anti-venom IgG and IgE responses tended to be linked. Increased responses being seen against all components in 4 of 12 subjects, reductions in 3 and unchanged responses in the remainder. Following immunotherapy (mean 4.0 years), spontaneous reduction of IgE and IgG was seen in 5 of 5 subjects. Loss of reactivity with the LMW components was prominent in these sera.

  7. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  8. Disparity in maternal, newborn and child health services in high focus states in India: a district-level cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Ashish; Pandey, C M; Chauhan, Rajesh K; Singh, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the level and trend in the coverage gap of a set of interventions of maternal and child health services using a summary index and to assess the disparity in usage of maternal and child health services in the districts of high focus states of India. Design Data for the present study are taken from the Annual Health Survey (AHS), 2010–2013 and Census of India, 2011. Settings This study used secondary data from states having higher mortality and fertility rates, termed as high focus states in India. Participants District-level information regarding children aged 12–23 months and ever married women aged 15–49 years has been extracted from the AHS (2010–2013), and household amenities, female literacy and main workforce information has been obtained from the Census of India 2011. Measures 2 summary indexes were calculated first for maternal and child health services and another for socioeconomic and development status, using data from AHS and Census. Cronbach's α was used to assess the internal consistency of the items used in the index. Results The result shows that the coverage gap is highest in Uttar Pradesh (37%) and lowest in Madhya Pradesh (21%). Converge gap and socioeconomic development are negatively correlated (r=−0.49, p=0.01). The average coverage gap was highest in the lowest quintile of socioeconomic development. There was an absolute change of 1.5% per year in coverage gap during 2009–2013. In regression analysis, the coefficient of determination was 0.24, β=−30.05, p=0.01 for a negative relationship between socioeconomic development and coverage gap. Conclusions There is a significant disparity in the usage of maternal and child healthcare services in the districts of India. Resource-rich people (urban residents and richest quintile) are way ahead of marginalised people (rural residents and poorest quintile) in the usage of healthcare services. PMID:27496225

  9. Birmingham COPD Cohort: a cross-sectional analysis of the factors associated with the likelihood of being in paid employment among people with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Kiran K; Jordan, Rachel E; Siebert, W Stanley; Sadhra, Steven S; Fitzmaurice, David A; Sitch, Alice J; Ayres, Jon G; Adab, Peymané

    2017-01-01

    Background Employment rates among those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are lower than those without COPD, but little is known about the factors that affect COPD patients’ ability to work. Methods Multivariable analysis of the Birmingham COPD Cohort Study baseline data was used to assess the associations between lifestyle, clinical, and occupational characteristics and likelihood of being in paid employment among working-age COPD patients. Results In total, 608 of 1,889 COPD participants were of working age, of whom 248 (40.8%) were in work. Older age (60–64 years vs 30–49 years: odds ratio [OR] =0.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.12–0.65), lower educational level (no formal qualification vs degree/higher level: OR =0.43; 95% CI =0.19–0.97), poorer prognostic score (highest vs lowest quartile of modified body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise (BODE) score: OR =0.10; 95% CI =0.03–0.33), and history of high occupational exposure to vapors, gases, dusts, or fumes (VGDF; high VGDF vs no VGDF exposure: OR =0.32; 95% CI =0.12–0.85) were associated with a lower probability of being employed. Only the degree of breathlessness of BODE was significantly associated with employment. Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the characteristics associated with employment in a community sample of people with COPD. Future interventions should focus on managing breathlessness and reducing occupational exposures to VGDF to improve the work capability among those with COPD. PMID:28138233

  10. The when and how of male circumcision and the risk of HIV: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of two HIV surveys from Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dlama Nggida; Wejse, Christian; Larsen, Olav; Da Silva, Zacarias; Aaby, Peter; Sodemann, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Male circumcision (MC) reduces the risk of HIV, and this risk reduction may be modified by socio-cultural factors such as the timing and method (medical and traditional) of circumcision. Understanding regional variations in circumcision practices and their relationship to HIV is crucial and can increase insight into the HIV epidemic in Africa. Methods We used data from two retrospective HIV surveys conducted in Guinea-Bissau from 1993 to 1996 (1996 cohort) and from 2004 to 2007 (2006 cohort). Multivariate logistical models were used to investigate the relationships between HIV risk and circumcision status, timing, method of circumcision, and socio-demographic factors. Results MC was protective against HIV infection in both cohorts, with adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.66) and 0.30 (95% CI 0.09-0.93), respectively. We observed that post-pubertal (≥13 years) circumcision provided the highest level of HIV risk reduction in both cohorts compared to non-circumcised. However, the difference between pre-pubertal (≤12 years) and post-pubertal (≥13 years) circumcision was not significant in the multivariate analysis. Seventy-six percent (678/888) of circumcised males in the 2006 cohort were circumcised traditionally, and 7.7% of those males were HIV-infected compared to 1.9% of males circumcised medically, with AOR of 2.7 (95% CI 0.91-8.12). Conclusion MC is highly prevalent in Guinea-Bissau, but ethnic variations in method and timing may affect its protection against HIV. Our findings suggest that sexual risk behaviour and traditional circumcision may increases HIV risk. The relationship between circumcision age, sexual behaviour and HIV status remains unclear and warrants further research. PMID:27200126

  11. Mobile Phone Ownership and Endorsement of "mHealth" Among People With Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies.

    PubMed

    Firth, Joseph; Cotter, Jack; Torous, John; Bucci, Sandra; Firth, Josh A; Yung, Alison R

    2016-03-01

    There is currently growing interest in using mobile phones to support the treatment of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. However, the widespread implementation of these interventions will ultimately depend upon patients' access to mobile devices and their willingness to engage with mobile health ("mHealth"). Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess mobile phone ownership and interest in mHealth among patients with psychosis. An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, AMED, Health Technology Assessment Database, and Health Management Information Consortium Database was conducted, using search terms synonymous with mobile phones and psychotic disorders. The initial literature search yielded 2572 results. Fifteen studies matched eligibility criteria, reporting data from 12 independent samples of psychiatric patients (n = 3227). Data pertaining to mobile phone ownership, usage, and opinions on mHealth among patients with psychotic disorders were extracted from these studies, and meta-analytic techniques were applied. The overall mobile phone ownership rate was 66.4% (95% CI = 54.1%-77.6%). However, we found strong statistical evidence that mobile phone ownership has been significantly increasing since 2007, and the rate among patients surveyed in the last 2 years was 81.4% (n = 454). Furthermore, in surveys of mHealth acceptability, the majority of patients responded in favor of using mobile phones to enhance contact with services and support self-management. Considering the increasing availability of mobile phones and the broad acceptability of mHealth among patients, there is now a need to develop and evaluate mHealth interventions to enhance healthcare services for people with psychosis.

  12. Do weight perceptions among obese adults in Great Britain match clinical definitions? Analysis of cross-sectional surveys from 2007 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Fiona; Beeken, Rebecca J; Croker, Helen; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the proportion of the adult obese population in Great Britain who would describe their weight using the terms ‘obese’ and ‘very overweight’ in 2007 and 2012, and identify factors associated with more accurate weight perceptions. Design Analysis of weight perception data from two population-based surveys. Setting Population surveys conducted in Great Britain. Participants Survey respondents (N=657) whose self-reported weight and height placed them in the obese category: body mass index (BMI) ≥30. Primary outcome measure Self-identification using the terms ‘obese’ and ‘very overweight’. Results The proportion of obese adults selecting the term ‘obese’ to describe their body size was very low in both women (13% in 2007 and 11% in 2012) and men (4% in 2007 and 7% in 2012) and did not change significantly. Recognition of a substantial degree of overweight (as indexed by endorsement of either of the terms ‘obese’ or ‘very overweight’) declined substantially in women, from 50% in 2007 to 34% in 2012. It was not significantly changed in men (27% in 2007 and 23% in 2012). Having a higher BMI, and being able to identify the BMI threshold for obesity were associated with self-identifying as obese or very overweight. Conclusions The majority of the adult obese population of Great Britain do not identify themselves as either ‘obese’ or even ‘very overweight’. Public health initiatives to tackle obesity are likely to be hampered by this lack of recognition of weight status. It is important to understand whether moves to increase personal awareness of weight status in the obese population can facilitate beneficial behaviour change, and what role health professionals can play in increasing awareness of weight status in obese patients. PMID:25394816

  13. Health-Related Research Projects in Fiji and Papua New Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Fiji and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portals.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Kannan; Gowri, S

    2016-06-10

    Evidence-based medicine and evidence-based public health rely on the best available evidence generated in a specific area for it to be implemented in healthcare practice. This study assesses the range of research studies conducted in Fiji and Papua New Guinea (PNG) islands by reviewing the types of studies now registered with the respective health research registry portals. We assessed all studies registered on the Fiji Health Research Portal (FHRP) and Papua New Guinea Health Research Portal (PNGHRP) since 2014 for the following details: year of registration; study type and participants; field of research; basic statistical analyses; and multicentric or single center study. A total of 99 studies were registered in the FHRP and 6 in PNGHRP during the period under review. Nearly, one fourth of the studies from Fiji and one third from PNG islands are studies evaluating various health policies without involving or collecting data from human subjects. All the registered studies in both the islands were observational (rather than experimental). A total of 58.2% of the registered studies in FHRP and 66.7% in PNGHRP were performed as student projects. A geographic scope of 21.2% of the proposed studies in FHRP and 33.3% in PNGHRP was limited to the respective islands. We conclude from the present analysis that there is a clear need for conducting more high-quality research in both Fiji and PNG in order to meet the health needs of the respective nations. More research focusing on health needs and contributing factors to both communicable and noncommunicable diseases are the need of the hour in both of these south Pacific islands.

  14. A survey on air bubble detector placement in the CPB circuit: a 2011 cross-sectional analysis of the practice of Certified Clinical Perfusionists.

    PubMed

    Kelting, T; Searles, B; Darling, E

    2012-07-01

    The ideal location of air bubble detector (ABD) placement on the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit is debatable. There is, however, very little data characterizing the prevalence of specific ABD placement preferences by perfusionists. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey the perfusion community to collect data describing the primary locations of air bubble detector placement on the CPB circuit. In June 2011, an 18-question on-line survey was conducted. Completed surveys were received from 627 participants. Of these, analysis of the responses from the 559 certified clinical perfusionists (CCP) was performed. The routine use of ABD during CPB was reported by 96.8% of CCPs. Of this group, specific placement of the bubble detector is as follows: distal to the venous reservoir outlet (35.6%), between the arterial pump and oxygenator (3.8%), between the oxygenator and arterial line filter (35.1%), distal to the arterial line filter (ALF) (23.6%), and other (1.8%). Those placing the ABD distal to the venous reservoir predominately argued that an emptied venous reservoir was the most likely place to introduce air into the circuit. Those who placed the ABD between the oxygenator and the arterial line filter commonly reasoned that this placement protects against air exiting the membrane. Those placing the ABD distal to the ALF (23.6%) cited that this location protects from all possible entry points of air. A recent false alarm event from an ABD during a case was reported by 36.1% of CCPs. This study demonstrates that the majority of CCPs use an ABD during the conduct of CPB. The placement of the ABD on the circuit, however, is highly variable across the perfusion community. A strong rationale for the various ABD placements suggests that the adoption of multiple ABD may offer the greatest comprehensive protection against air emboli.

  15. Comparison of perceived and modelled geographical access to accident and emergency departments: a cross-sectional analysis from the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Study

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David L; Christie, Stephen; Lester, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Assessment of the spatial accessibility of hospital accident and emergency departments as perceived by local residents has not previously been investigated. Perceived accessibility may affect where, when, and whether potential patients attend for treatment. Using data on 11,853 respondents to a population survey in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK, we present an analysis comparing the accessibility of accident and emergency departments as reported by local residents and drive-time to the nearest accident and emergency department modelled using a geographical information system (GIS). Results Median drive-times were significantly shorter in the lowest perceived access category and longer in the best perceived access category (p < 0.001). The perceived access and GIS modelled drive-time variables were positively correlated (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, r = 0.38, p < 0.01). The strongest correlation was found for respondents living in areas in which nearly all households had a car or van (r = 0.47, p < 0.01). Correlations were stronger among respondents reporting good access to public transport and among those reporting a recent accident and emergency attendance for injury treatment compared to other respondents. Correlation coefficients did not vary substantially by levels of household income. Drive-time, road distance and straight-line distance were highly inter-correlated and substituting road distance or straight-line distance as the GIS modelled spatial accessibility measure only marginally decreased the magnitude of the correlations between perceived and GIS modelled access. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the accessibility of hospital-based health care services as perceived by local residents is related to measures of spatial accessibility modelled using GIS. For studies that aim to model geographical separation in a way that correlates well with the perception of local residents, there may be minimal advantage in using

  16. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kamkuemah, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Background Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI) and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs) in MSM in Cape Town. Methods MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection. Results 200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26–39.5). Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2–20). 155/200 (78%) reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23%) reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39%) reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44%) were HIV positive and 8/112 (7%) initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24%) screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16%) infected with NG and 7 (3.5%) of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total). Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12%) infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17%) were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19%) versus 9/200 (5%) respectively (p<0.001). The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60–5.62), ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16–5.62) and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13–4.79) but

  17. Injury Severity and Mortality of Adult Zebra Crosswalk and Non-Zebra Crosswalk Road Crossing Accidents: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pfortmueller, Carmen A.; Marti, Mariana; Kunz, Mirco; Lindner, Gregor; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K.

    2014-01-01

    Principals Over a million people worldwide die each year from road traffic injuries and more than 10 million sustain permanent disabilities. Many of these victims are pedestrians. The present retrospective study analyzes the severity and mortality of injuries suffered by adult pedestrians, depending on whether they used a zebra crosswalk. Methods Our retrospective data analysis covered adult patients admitted to our emergency department (ED) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2012 after being hit by a vehicle while crossing the road as a pedestrian. Patients were identified by using a string term. Medical, police and ambulance records were reviewed for data extraction. Results A total of 347 patients were eligible for study inclusion. Two hundred and three (203; 58.5%) patients were on a zebra crosswalk and 144 (41.5%) were not. The mean ISS (injury Severity Score) was 12.1 (SD 14.7, range 1-75). The vehicles were faster in non-zebra crosswalk accidents (47.7 km/n, versus 41.4 km/h, p<0.027). The mean ISS score was higher in patients with non-zebra crosswalk accidents; 14.4 (SD 16.5, range 1–75) versus 10.5 (SD13.14, range 1–75) (p<0.019). Zebra crosswalk accidents were associated with less risk of severe injury (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38–0.98, p<0.042). Accidents involving a truck were associated with increased risk of severe injury (OR 3.53, 95%CI 1.21–10.26, p<0.02). Conclusion Accidents on zebra crosswalks are more common than those not on zebra crosswalks. The injury severity of non-zebra crosswalk accidents is significantly higher than in patients with zebra crosswalk accidents. Accidents involving large vehicles are associated with increased risk of severe injury. Further prospective studies are needed, with detailed assessment of motor vehicle types and speed. PMID:24595100

  18. Demographic and socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of emergency hospital admission for violence: cross-sectional analysis of a national database in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David; Gartner, Andrea; Bellis, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the risk of emergency hospital admissions for violence (EHAV) associated with demographic and socioeconomic factors in Wales between 2007/2008 and 2013/2014, and to describe the site of injury causing admission. Design Database analysis of 7 years’ hospital admissions using the Patient Episode Database for Wales (PEDW). Setting and participants Wales, UK, successive annual populations ∼2.8 million aged 0–74 years. Primary outcome The first emergency admission for violence in each year of the study, defined by the International Classification of Diseases V.10 (ICD-10) codes for assaults (X85-X99, Y00-Y09) in any coding position. Results A total of 11 033 admissions for assault. The majority of admissions resulted from head injuries. The overall crude admission rate declined over the study period, from 69.9 per 100 000 to 43.2 per 100 000, with the largest decrease in the most deprived quintile of deprivation. A generalised linear count model with a negative binomial log link, adjusted for year, age group, gender, deprivation quintile and settlement type, showed the relative risk was highest in age group 18–19 years (RR=6.75, 95% CI 5.88 to 7.75) compared with the reference category aged 10–14 years. The risk decreased with age after 25 years. Risk of admission was substantially higher in males (RR=4.55, 95% CI 4.31 to 4.81), for residents of the most deprived areas of Wales (RR=3.60, 95% CI 3.32 to 3.90) compared with the least deprived, and higher in cities (RR=1.37, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.49) and towns (RR=1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.45) compared with villages. Conclusions Despite identifying a narrowing in the gap between prevalence of violence in richer and poorer communities, violence remains strongly associated with young men living in areas of socioeconomic deprivation. There is potential for a greater reduction, given that violence is mostly preventable. Recommendations for reducing inequalities in the risk of

  19. Performance Analysis of Multilevel Parallel Applications on Shared Memory Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, Gabriele; Jin, Haoqiang; Labarta, Jesus; Gimenez, Judit; Caubet, Jordi; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe how to apply powerful performance analysis techniques to understand the behavior of multilevel parallel applications. We use the Paraver/OMPItrace performance analysis system for our study. This system consists of two major components: The OMPItrace dynamic instrumentation mechanism, which allows the tracing of processes and threads and the Paraver graphical user interface for inspection and analyses of the generated traces. We describe how to use the system to conduct a detailed comparative study of a benchmark code implemented in five different programming paradigms applicable for shared memory

  20. Multilevel analysis of sports video sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jungong; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a fully automatic and flexible framework for analysis and summarization of tennis broadcast video sequences, using visual features and specific game-context knowledge. Our framework can analyze a tennis video sequence at three levels, which provides a broad range of different analysis results. The proposed framework includes novel pixel-level and object-level tennis video processing algorithms, such as a moving-player detection taking both the color and the court (playing-field) information into account, and a player-position tracking algorithm based on a 3-D camera model. Additionally, we employ scene-level models for detecting events, like service, base-line rally and net-approach, based on a number real-world visual features. The system can summarize three forms of information: (1) all court-view playing frames in a game, (2) the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as relative position between the player and the court, (3) the semantic event segments in a game. The proposed framework is flexible in choosing the level of analysis that is desired. It is effective because the framework makes use of several visual cues obtained from the real-world domain to model important events like service, thereby increasing the accuracy of the scene-level analysis. The paper presents attractive experimental results highlighting the system efficiency and analysis capabilities.

  1. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  2. Nuclear interaction cross sections for proton radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, M. B.; Jones, D. T. L.; Arendse, G. J.; Cowley, A. A.; Richter, W. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Newman, R. T.; Pilcher, J. V.; Smit, F. D.; Steyn, G. F.; Koen, JW; Stander, JA

    Model calculations of proton-induced nuclear reaction cross sections are described for biologically-important targets. Measurements made at the National Accelerator Centre are presented for double-differential proton, deuteron, triton, helium-3 and alpha particle spectra, for 150 and 200 MeV protons incident on C, N, and O. These data are needed for Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport and absorbed dose in proton therapy. Data relevant to the use of positron emission tomography to locate the Bragg peak are also described.

  3. Critical behavior of cross sections at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dremin, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recent experimental data on elastic scattering of high energy protons show that the critical regime has been reached at LHC energies. The approach to criticality is demonstrated by increase of the ratio of elastic to total cross sections from ISR to LHC energies. At LHC it reaches the value which can result in principal change of the character of proton interactions. The treatment of new physics of hollowed toroid-like hadrons requires usage of another branch of the unitarity condition. Its further fate is speculated and interpreted with the help of the unitarity condition in combination with present experimental data. The gedanken experiments to distinguish between different possibilities are proposed.

  4. Neutron absorption cross section of uranium-236

    SciTech Connect

    Macklin, R.L.; Alexander, C.W.

    1988-11-01

    U-236 neutron absorption was measured as a function of neutron time-of-flight from 20 eV to 1 MeV. The neutron flux was monitored with a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator. Average cross sections from 3 keV to 1 MeV were derived. Estimated uncertainties were less than 5% below 600 keV and increased to 9.5% at 1 MeV. Resonance parametrization from 20 eV to a few keV remains to be done. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Evaluation of Neutron Resonance Cross Section Data at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Emiliani, F.; Guber, K.; Heyse, J.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Massimi, C.; Mondelaers, W.; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pronyaev, V.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Trkov, A.; Volev, K.; Zerovnik, G.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade, the EC-JRC-IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonance region with uncertainties better than 0.5 % and 2 %, respectively, can be produced together with evaluated data files for both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The methodology to produce full ENDF compatible files, including covariances, is illustrated by the production of resolved resonance parameter files for 241Am, Cd and W and an evaluation for 197Au in the unresolved resonance region.

  6. Activation Cross Sections Improvements needed for IFE Power Reactors Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, A; Cabellos, O; Sanz, J; FalQuina, R; Latkowski, J; Reyes, S

    2003-10-02

    Uncertainties in the prediction of the neutron induced long-lived activity in the natural elements from H to Bi due to activation cross section uncertainties are estimated assuming as neutron environment those of the HYLIFE-II and Sombrero vessel structures. The latest available activation cross section data are employed. The random variables used in the uncertainty analysis have been the concentration limits (CL's) corresponding to hands-on recycling, remote recycling and shallow land burial, quantities typically considered in ranking elements under waste management considerations. The CL standard value (CL{sub nom}), i.e. without uncertainties, is compared with the 95th percentile CL value (CL95). The results of the analysis are very helpful in assessing the quality of the current activation data for IFE applications, providing a rational basis for programmatic priority assignments for new cross sections measurements or evaluations. The HYLIFE-II results shown that a significant error is estimated in predicting the activation of several elements. The estimated errors in the Sombrero case are much less important.

  7. International students' enrollment in IPTA by using multilevel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Karim, Samsul Ariffin Abdul

    2012-09-01

    The increases of demand on knowledge-based and production-based market force the growth of higher education. International students' enrollment contributes to economic growth and increase country's income, university reputation and name; promote the competitive of education and training markets. This paper used multilevel analysis to study the international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university. Student's background variables and institution background variables were study in this paper and the relationship among them also been investigated. Result shows that institution type is a significance factor on international students' enrollment in Malaysia public university.

  8. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-23

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0.46(22)fm2, with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμn → μ-p)|Ev=1GeV = 10.1(0.9)×10-39cm2. The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. Furthermore, these techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  9. Three Dimensional Cross-Sectional Properties From Bone Densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone in a single scan plane. Using three non-coplanar scans, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area Moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each cross-section along the length of the scan. Various 5 aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of mass distribution. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the included angle of the 3 scans, and Imin/Imax ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within 3.1% and principal angles were within 1 deg. of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 deg. and 90 deg. at the higher X-ray photon energy. Low standard deviations in error also 10 indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 deg. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (Imin/Imax) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  10. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; Hill, Richard J.

    2016-06-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2=0.46 (22 ) fm2 , with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ (νμn →μ-p )|Eν=1GeV=10.1 (0.9 )×10-39 cm2 . The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. These techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  11. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Richard; Meyer, Aaron; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2) , which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0 . 46(22) fm2 , with a much larger uncertainty than determined in the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμ n ->μ- p) |Eν = 1GeV = 10 . 1(0 . 9) ×10-39cm2 . The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. These techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.

  12. Deuterium target data for precision neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, Aaron S.; Betancourt, Minerba; Gran, Richard; ...

    2016-06-23

    Amplitudes derived from scattering data on elementary targets are basic inputs to neutrino-nucleus cross section predictions. A prominent example is the isovector axial nucleon form factor, FA(q2), which controls charged current signal processes at accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiments. Previous extractions of FA from neutrino-deuteron scattering data rely on a dipole shape assumption that introduces an unquantified error. A new analysis of world data for neutrino-deuteron scattering is performed using a model-independent, and systematically improvable, representation of FA. A complete error budget for the nucleon isovector axial radius leads to rA2 = 0.46(22)fm2, with a much larger uncertainty than determined inmore » the original analyses. The quasielastic neutrino-neutron cross section is determined as σ(νμn → μ-p)|Ev=1GeV = 10.1(0.9)×10-39cm2. The propagation of nucleon-level constraints and uncertainties to nuclear cross sections is illustrated using MINERvA data and the GENIE event generator. Furthermore, these techniques can be readily extended to other amplitudes and processes.« less

  13. Upscattering Cross Sections for Ultra Cold Neutrons from Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seestrom, Susan J.; UCNτ Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The scattering of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) to energies above the escape potential of a trap is called upscattering. Upscattering due to interaction with residual gases is a potential loss mechanism for UCNs stored in a trap that can impact the extracted neutron lifetime. We have developed a method for measuring the cross sections for UCN upscattering from gases stored in a small measurement cell. Upscattered neutrons are measured directly in a 3He ionization chamber and transmitted UCN strike a 10B-coated surface at the edges of the measurement cell. The transmitted UCNs are then counted with a HPGe gamma-ray detector that counts 478 keV γ-rays from the 10B(n , αγ) 7Li reaction. The analysis was guided by Monte Carlo descriptions of the LANL UCN source output. We will present cross sections measured for various noble and polyatomic gases, compare these results to calculated cross sections based on models of gas scattering kernels, and use these to estimate the impact of gas upscattering on the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  14. Extension of the Bgl Broad Group Cross Section Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirilova, Desislava; Belousov, Sergey; Ilieva, Krassimira

    2009-08-01

    The broad group cross-section libraries BUGLE and BGL are applied for reactor shielding calculation using the DOORS package based on discrete ordinates method and multigroup approximation of the neutron cross-sections. BUGLE and BGL libraries are problem oriented for PWR or VVER type of reactors respectively. They had been generated by collapsing the problem independent fine group library VITAMIN-B6 applying PWR and VVER one-dimensional radial model of the reactor middle plane using the SCALE software package. The surveillance assemblies (SA) of VVER-1000/320 are located on the baffle above the reactor core upper edge in a region where geometry and materials differ from those of the middle plane and the neutron field gradient is very high which would result in a different neutron spectrum. That is why the application of the fore-mentioned libraries for the neutron fluence calculation in the region of SA could lead to an additional inaccuracy. This was the main reason to study the necessity for an extension of the BGL library with cross-sections appropriate for the SA region. Comparative analysis of the neutron spectra of the SA region calculated by the VITAMIN-B6 and BGL libraries using the two-dimensional code DORT have been done with purpose to evaluate the BGL applicability for SA calculation.

  15. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  16. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II — neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-06-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from ˜ 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  17. POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.E.; Greene, N.M.

    2000-12-01

    POLIDENT (Point Libraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.

  18. POLIDENT: A Module for Generating Continuous-Energy Cross Sections from ENDF Resonance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.E.

    2000-10-20

    POLIDENT (POint LIbraries of Data from ENDF/B Tapes) is an AMPX module that accesses the resonance parameters from File 2 of an ENDF/B library and constructs the continuous-energy cross sections in the resonance energy region. The cross sections in the resonance range are subsequently combined with the File 3 background data to construct the cross-section representation over the complete energy range. POLIDENT has the capability to process all resonance reactions that are identified in File 2 of the ENDF/B library. In addition, the code has the capability to process the single- and multi-level Breit-Wigner, Reich-Moore and Adler-Adler resonance formalisms that are identified in File 2. POLIDENT uses a robust energy-mesh-generation scheme that determines the minimum, maximum and points of inflection in the cross-section function in the resolved-resonance region. Furthermore, POLIDENT processes all continuous-energy cross-section reactions that are identified in File 3 of the ENDF/B library and outputs all reactions in an ENDF/B TAB1 format that can be accessed by other AMPX modules.

  19. Conducting Three-Level Cross-Sectional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peugh, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Applied early adolescent researchers often sample students (Level 1) from within classrooms (Level 2) that are nested within schools (Level 3), resulting in data that requires multilevel modeling analysis to avoid Type 1 errors. Although several articles have been published to assist researchers with analyzing sample data nested at two levels, few…

  20. Antiviral Resistance and Correlates of Virologic Failure in the first Cohort of HIV-Infected Children Gaining Access to Structured Antiretroviral Therapy in Lima, Peru: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of extended use of ART in developing countries has been enormous. A thorough understanding of all factors contributing to the success of antiretroviral therapy is required. The current study aims to investigate the value of cross-sectional drug resistance monitoring using DNA and RNA oligonucleotide ligation assays (OLA) in treatment cohorts in low-resource settings. The study was conducted in the first cohort of children gaining access to structured ART in Peru. Methods Between 2002–5, 46 eligible children started the standard regimen of AZT, 3TC and NFV Patients had a median age of 5.6 years (range: 0.7-14y), a median viral load of 1.7·105 RNA/ml (range: 2.1·103 – 1.2·106), and a median CD4-count of 232 cells/μL (range: 1–1591). Of these, 20 patients were classified as CDC clinical category C and 31/46 as CDC immune category 3. At the time of cross-sectional analysis in 2005, adherence questionnaires were administered. DNA OLAs and RNA OLAs were performed from frozen PBMC and plasma, RNA genotyping from dried blood spots. Results During the first year of ART, 44% of children experienced virologic failure, with an additional 9% failing by the end of the second year. Virologic failure was significantly associated with the number of resistance mutations detected by DNA-OLA (p < 0.001) during cross-sectional analysis, but also with low immunologic CDC-scores at baseline (p < 0.001). Children who had been exposed to unsupervised short-term antiretrovirals before starting structured ART showed significantly higher numbers of resistance mutations by DNA-OLA (p = 0.01). Detection of M184V (3TC resistance) by RNA-OLA and DNA-OLA demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.93 and 0.86 and specificity of 0.67 and 0.7, respectively, for the identification of virologic failure. The RT mutations N88D and L90M (NFV resistance) detected by DNA-OLA correlated with virologic failure, whereas mutations at RT position 215 (AZT resistance) were not associated with

  1. Neutrino Cross Sections at Supernova Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Neutrinos with energies between a few and a few tens of MeV are relevant for a number of physics topics. Notably, this is the energy range corresponding to emission of neutrinos from supernovae. In addition, it is relevant for studies of solar, reactor and atmospheric neutrinos, as well as for physics using accelerator-produced neutrinos from pions or radioactive nuclei decaying at rest. Surprisingly, with the exception of interactions on electrons and protons, the interactions of neutrinos with matter in this energy range are quite poorly understood, both theoretically and experimentally. This talk will describe neutrino physics and astrophysics in the supernova-neutrino energy range, the state of knowledge of cross sections on relevant nuclei, and initiatives for experimental measurements.

  2. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  3. Angle-averaged Compton cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Nickel, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of a photon by an individual free electron is characterized by six quantities: ..cap alpha.. = initial photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..cap alpha../sub s/ = scattered photon energy in units of m/sub 0/c/sup 2/; ..beta.. = initial electron velocity in units of c; phi = angle between photon direction and electron direction in the laboratory frame (LF); theta = polar angle change due to Compton scattering, measured in the electron rest frame (ERF); and tau = azimuthal angle change in the ERF. We present an analytic expression for the average of the Compton cross section over phi, theta, and tau. The lowest order approximation to this equation is reasonably accurate for photons and electrons with energies of many keV.

  4. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  5. R-Matrix Evaluation of {sup 16}O neutron cross sections up to 6.3 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, R.O.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M.; Spencer, R.R.; and Wright, R.Q.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper the authors describe an evaluation of {sup 16}O neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region with the multilevel Reich-Moore R-matrix formalism. Resonance analyses were performed with the computer code SAMMY [LA98] which utilizes Bayes' method, a generalized least squares technique.

  6. Estimating population prevalence of potential airflow obstruction using different spirometric criteria: a pooled cross-sectional analysis of persons aged 40–95 years in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Scholes, Shaun; Moody, Alison; Mindell, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Consistent estimation of the burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been hindered by differences in methods, including different spirometric cut-offs for impaired lung function. The impact of different definitions on the prevalence of potential airflow obstruction, and its associations with key risk factors, is evaluated using cross-sectional data from two nationally representative population surveys. Design Pooled cross-sectional analysis of Wave 2 of the UK Household Longitudinal Survey and the Health Survey for England 2010, including 7879 participants, aged 40–95 years, who lived in England and Wales, without diagnosed asthma and with good-quality spirometry data. Potential airflow obstruction was defined using self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD; a fixed threshold (FT) forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio <0.7 and an age-specific, sex-specific, height-specific and ethnic-specific lower limit of normal (LLN). Standardised questions elicited self-reported information on demography, smoking history, ethnicity, occupation, respiratory symptoms and cardiovascular disease. Results Consistent across definitions, participants classed with obstructed airflow were more likely to be older, currently smoke, have higher pack-years of smoking and be engaged in routine occupations. The prevalence of airflow obstruction was 2.8% (95% CI 2.3% to 3.2%), 22.2% (21.2% to 23.2%) and 13.1% (12.2% to 13.9%) according to diagnosed COPD, FT and LLN, respectively. The gap in prevalence between FT and LLN increased in older age groups. Sex differences in the risk of obstruction, after adjustment for key risk factors, was sensitive to the choice of spirometric cut-off, being significantly higher in men when using FT, compared with no significant difference using LLN. Conclusions Applying FT or LLN spirometric cut-offs gives a different picture of the size and distribution of the disease burden. Longitudinal studies

  7. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  8. Total and ionization cross sections of electron scattering by fluorocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, B. K.; Joshipura, K. N.; Mason, N. J.

    2005-02-01

    Electron impact total cross sections (50-2000 eV) and total ionization cross sections (threshold to 2000 eV) are calculated for typical plasma etching molecules CF4, C2F4, C2F6, C3F8 and CF3I and the CFx (x = 1-3) radicals. The total elastic and inelastic cross sections are determined in the spherical complex potential formalism. The sum of the two gives the total cross section and the total inelastic cross section is used to calculate the total ionization cross sections. The present total and ionization cross sections are found to be consistent with other theories and experimental measurements, where they exist. Our total cross section results for CFx (x = 1-3) radicals presented here are first estimates on these species.

  9. Neutron-induced fission-cross-section measurements and calculations of selected transplutonic isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.; Browne, J.C.

    1982-08-27

    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of /sup 242m/Am and /sup 245/Cm have been measured over an energy range of 10/sup -4/ eV to approx. 20 MeV in a series of experiments at three facilities during the past several years. The combined results of these measurements, in which only sub-milligram quantities of enriched isotopes were used, yield cross sections with uncertainties of approximately 5% below 10 MeV relative to the /sup 235/U standard cross section used to normalize the data. We summarize the resonance analysis of the /sup 242m/Am(n,f) cross section in the eV region. Hauser-Feshbach statistical calculations of the detailed fission cross sections of /sup 235/U and /sup 245/Cm have been carried out over the energy region from 0.1 to 5 MeV and these results are compared with our experimental data.

  10. Factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination of the elderly in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project Pi12/02079 Working Group

    2016-07-02

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community.

  11. Association between low-grade albuminuria and frailty among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people: a cross-sectional analysis from I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Chin; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Ting-Yung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Liu, Li-Kuo; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Frailty is characterized by decreased physiological reserve and increased vulnerability to atherosclerosis and subsequent mortality. Recently, low-grade albuminuria has been proposed as an atherosclerotic risk factor. We aimed to investigate the relationship between low-grade albuminuria and frailty by using cross-sectional data among community-dwelling middle-aged and older people. Totally, 1,441 inhabitants of I-Lan County with normal urinary albumin excretion (urine albumin to urine creatinine ratio [UACR] <30 mg/g) were enrolled (677 men; mean age 63 ± 9 years, range from 50 to 91 years old). Assessment of frailty was based on the ‘Fried frailty phenotype’ criteria, including weight loss, grip strength, exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. The study population was stratified into quartiles according to UACR levels. Age, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting glucose and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels were increased with the increment of UACR (P for trend <0.05). The prevalence of prefrailty/frailty and its components increased across the UACR quartiles. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that UACR was independently associated with the likelihood of prefrailty/frailty (odds ratio 1.13, 95% CI 1.01–1.27). In conclusion, low-grade albuminuria is associated with the increased prevalence of prefrailty/frailty. PMID:28000719

  12. Monte Carlo Neutronics and Thermal Hydraulics Analysis of Reactor Cores with Multilevel Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernnat, W.; Mattes, M.; Guilliard, N.; Lapins, J.; Zwermann, W.; Pasichnyk, I.; Velkov, K.

    2014-06-01

    Power reactors are composed of assemblies with fuel pin lattices or other repeated structures with several grid levels, which can be modeled in detail by Monte Carlo neutronics codes such as MCNP6 using corresponding lattice options, even for large cores. Except for fresh cores at beginning of life, there is a varying material distribution due to burnup in the different fuel pins. Additionally, for power states the fuel and moderator temperatures and moderator densities vary according to the power distribution and cooling conditions. Therefore, a coupling of the neutronics code with a thermal hydraulics code is necessary. Depending on the level of detail of the analysis, a very large number of cells with different materials and temperatures must be regarded. The assignment of different material properties to all elements of a multilevel grid is very elaborate and may exceed program limits if the standard input procedure is used. Therefore, an internal assignment is used which overrides uniform input parameters. The temperature dependency of continuous energy cross sections, probability tables for the unresolved resonance region and thermal neutron scattering laws is taken into account by interpolation, requiring only a limited number of data sets generated for different temperatures. The method is applied with MCNP6 and proven for several full core reactor models. For the coupling of MCNP6 with thermal hydraulics appropriate interfaces were developed for the GRS system code ATHLET for liquid coolant and the IKE thermal hydraulics code ATTICA-3D for gaseous coolant. Examples will be shown for different applications for PWRs with square and hexagonal lattices, fast reactors (SFR) with hexagonal lattices and HTRs with pebble bed and prismatic lattices.

  13. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  14. Lung nodule classification with multilevel patch-based context analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Lee, Min-Zhao; Zhou, Yun; Huang, Heng; Shan, Shimin; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, Dagan D

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel classification method for the four types of lung nodules, i.e., well-circumscribed, vascularized, juxta-pleural, and pleural-tail, in low dose computed tomography scans. The proposed method is based on contextual analysis by combining the lung nodule and surrounding anatomical structures, and has three main stages: an adaptive patch-based division is used to construct concentric multilevel partition; then, a new feature set is designed to incorporate intensity, texture, and gradient information for image patch feature description, and then a contextual latent semantic analysis-based classifier is designed to calculate the probabilistic estimations for the relevant images. Our proposed method was evaluated on a publicly available dataset and clearly demonstrated promising classification performance.

  15. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  16. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  17. Cross-sectional imaging in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Akira; Saotome, Takao; Yamasaki, Michio; Maeda, Kiyosumi; Nitta, Norihisa; Takahashi, Masashi; Tsujikawa, Tomoyuki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Murata, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast agent prior to examination and scanning with intravenous contrast material injection are necessary. Both CT and MR imaging are reported to have a sensitivity of over 95% for the detection of Crohn disease; however, they may not allow early diagnosis. Colonoscopy and conventional enteroclysis studies are indicated for patients with early-stage disease. At more advanced stages, CT and MR imaging can help identify and characterize pathologically altered bowel segments as well as extraluminal lesions (eg, fistulas, abscesses, fibrofatty proliferation, increased vascularity of the vasa recta, mesenteric lymphadenopathy). These modalities can also clearly depict inflammatory lesion activity and conditions that require elective gastrointestinal surgery, thereby aiding in treatment planning. In the clinical setting, CT is currently the imaging modality of choice at most institutions; however, it is expected that MR imaging will soon play a comparable role. CT or MR imaging should be included in a comprehensive evaluation of patients with Crohn disease, along with conventional imaging and clinical and laboratory tests.

  18. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  20. Parton distributions with the combined HERA charm production cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Valerio; Rojo, Juan

    2013-04-15

    Heavy quark structure functions from HERA provide a direct handle on the medium and small-x gluon PDF. In this contribution, we discuss ongoing progress on the implementation of the FONLL General-Mass scheme with running heavy quark masses, and of its benchmarking with the HOPPET and OpenQCDrad codes, and then present the impact of the recently released combined HERA charm production cross sections in the NNPDF 2.3 analysis. We find that the combined charm data contribute to constraining the gluon and quarks at small values of Bjorken-x.

  1. Nuclear matter radii determined by interaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, A.

    2005-10-19

    Experimental studies on nuclear matter radii determined by the interaction cross sections ({sigma}I) are reviewed. In particular, the procedure to determine the root-mean square matter radii from the measured {sigma}I by Galuber model analysis is described. Future {sigma}I measurements at the RI beam factory (RIBF) in RIKEN are introduced. As new calculations, the sensitivity of the skin is discussed in the case with a proton target based on Glauber-model calculations. In the energy region of RIBF, {sigma}I is sensitive for the skin; however, measurements with high accuracies are needed.

  2. SCAMPI: A code package for cross-section processing

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Petrie, L.M.; Bowman, S.M.; Broadhead, B.L.; Greene, N.M.; White, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The SCAMPI code package consists of a set of SCALE and AMPX modules that have been assembled to facilitate user needs for preparation of problem-specific, multigroup cross-section libraries. The function of each module contained in the SCANTI code package is discussed, along with illustrations of their use in practical analyses. Ideas are presented for future work that can enable one-step processing from a fine-group, problem-independent library to a broad-group, problem-specific library ready for a shielding analysis.

  3. Differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic electron scattering by neon - 5 to 100 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.

    1984-01-01

    Relative elastic-scattering differential cross sections were measured in the 5-100-eV impact energy and 10-145 deg angular ranges. Normalization of these cross sections was achieved by utilizing accurate total electron-scattering cross sections. A phase-shift analysis of the angular distributions in terms of real phase shifts has been carried out. From the differential cross sections, momentum-transfer cross sections were obtained and the values of the critical energy and angle were established (associated with the lowest value of the differential cross section) as 62.5 + or - 2.5 eV and 101.7 deg + or - 1.5 deg, respectively. The present phase shifts, the critical parameters, and differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared to previous experimental and theoretical results. The error associated with the present data is about 10 percent.

  4. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  5. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  6. Graphs of the cross sections in the recommended Monte Carlo cross-section library at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; Seamon, R.E.

    1980-05-01

    Graphs of all neutron cross sections and photon production cross sections on the Recommended Monte Carlo Cross Section (RMCCS) library have been plotted along with local neutron heating numbers. Values for anti ..nu.., the average number of neutrons per fission, are also given.

  7. Alternatives to Multilevel Modeling for the Analysis of Clustered Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling has grown in use over the years as a way to deal with the nonindependent nature of observations found in clustered data. However, other alternatives to multilevel modeling are available that can account for observations nested within clusters, including the use of Taylor series linearization for variance estimation, the design…

  8. Neutron Cross Section Covariances for Structural Materials and Fission Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoblit, S.; Cho, Y.-S.; Herman, M.; Mattoon, C. M.; Mughabghab, S. F.; Obložinský, P.; Pigni, M. T.; Sonzogni, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    We describe neutron cross section covariances for 78 structural materials and fission products produced for the new US evaluated nuclear reaction library ENDF/B-VII.1. Neutron incident energies cover full range from 10 eV to 20 MeV and covariances are primarily provided for capture, elastic and inelastic scattering as well as (n,2n). The list of materials follows priorities defined by the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, the major application being data adjustment for advanced fast reactor systems. Thus, in addition to 28 structural materials and 49 fission products, the list includes also 23Na which is important fast reactor coolant. Due to extensive amount of materials, we adopted a variety of methodologies depending on the priority of a specific material. In the resolved resonance region we primarily used resonance parameter uncertainties given in Atlas of Neutron Resonances and either applied the kernel approximation to propagate these uncertainties into cross section uncertainties or resorted to simplified estimates based on integral quantities. For several priority materials we adopted MF32 covariances produced by SAMMY at