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Sample records for cross-sectional serological study

  1. Gammaherpesvirus infection in semidomesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus): a cross-sectional serological study in northern Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a disease caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses that primarily affect domestic and wild ruminants. A serological study using cELISA was performed on a total of 3339 apparently healthy semi-domesticated reindeer (R. t. tarandus) from Finnmark County, Norway, sampl...

  2. Prevalence, incidence estimations, and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Germany: a representative, cross-sectional, serological study

    PubMed Central

    Wilking, Hendrik; Thamm, Michael; Stark, Klaus; Aebischer, Toni; Seeber, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Representative data on the extent of endemicity, burden, and risk of human toxoplasmosis are scarce. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity of Toxoplasma gondii among adult participants of a nationwide representative cross-sectional survey in Germany. Sera collected from a representative cohort of adults (age 18–79; n = 6,663) in Germany were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies. Interview-derived data were used to evaluate associated factors. Multivariable logistic regression was applied using sampling weights and accounting for survey design cluster effects. Seroprevalence increased from 20% (95%-CI:17–23%) in the 18–29 age group to 77% (95%-CI:73–81%) in the 70–79 age group. Male gender, keeping cats and BMI ≥30 were independent risk factors for seropositivity, while being vegetarian and high socio-economic status were negatively associated. Based on these data, we estimate 1.1% of adults and 1.3% of women aged 18–49 to seroconvert each year. This implies 6,393 seroconversions annually during pregnancies. We conclude that T. gondii infection in Germany is highly prevalent and that eating habits (consuming raw meat) appear to be of high epidemiological relevance. High numbers of seroconversions during pregnancies pose substantial risks for unborn children. Efforts to raise awareness of toxoplasmosis in public health programs targeting to T. gondii transmission control are therefore strongly advocated. PMID:26936108

  3. Serological and Progression Differences of Joint Destruction in the Wrist and the Feet in Rheumatoid Arthritis - A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Yosuke; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Hashimoto, Motomu; Fujii, Takao; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Yamakawa, Noriyuki; Terao, Chikashi; Azukizawa, Masayuki; Iwata, Takahiro; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical and radiological differences between joint destruction in the wrist and the feet in patients with RA. Methods A cross-sectional clinical study was conducted in an RA cohort at a single institution. Clinical data included age, sex and duration of disease. Laboratory data included sero-positivity for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibody and RF. Radiological measurements included Larsen grades and the modified Sharp/van der Heijde method (SHS) for the hands/wrists and the feet. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal—Wallis H-test, a dummy variable linear regression model and multivariate logistic regression analysis with 95% confidence interval and odds ratios. Results A total of 405 patients were enrolled, and 314 patients were analysed in this study. The duration of disease in the foot-dominant group was significantly less than that in the wrist-dominant group. When patients were subdivided by duration of disease, the Larsen grade of the feet was significantly higher than that of the wrist in the first quadrant subgroup, but this was reversed with increasing duration of disease. Anti-CCP status was a significant predictive factor for joint destruction in the wrist but not in the feet, while RF status was not predictive in either the wrist or the feet. Conclusions Joint destruction in the feet started earlier than in the wrist, but the latter progresses faster with increasing duration of disease. Anti-CCP status predicts joint destruction in the wrist better than in the feet. PMID:26317770

  4. Hepatitis E Virus: A Cross-Sectional Serological and Virological Study in Pigs and Humans at Zoonotic Risk within a High-Density Pig Farming Area.

    PubMed

    Caruso, C; Peletto, S; Rosamilia, A; Modesto, P; Chiavacci, L; Sona, B; Balsamelli, F; Ghisetti, V; Acutis, P L; Pezzoni, G; Brocchi, E; Vitale, N; Masoero, L

    2016-07-05

    An increase in autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections has been recorded in Italy suspected to be zoonotically transmitted from pigs; this study was carried out to determinate the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with hepatitis HEV exposition, both in swine and humans working in pig farms, located within a high-density pig farming area in Piedmont region, north-western Italy. The presence of viral RNA in human and swine samples was also evaluated, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on HEV-positive samples. Forty-two swine farms were sampled; 142 workers were enrolled in the study and classified into two groups: (i) 69 workers with occupational contact with swine (including veterinarians and farmers) recruited in the 42 sampled farms; (ii) 73 without occupational contact with swine. Forty-one of 42 (97%) swine farms resulted positive to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for HEV antibodies (Abs). Overall seroprevalence in swine was 50% (441/879), with seropositivity rate higher in sows (333/469, 71%). HEV RNA in stool samples was detected in animals from 13 of 42 tested farms (31%), and a higher positivity resulted in weaners (40/246, 16.3%). Phylogenetic analysis classified all HEV isolates within genotype 3 (subtypes 3f, 3e, 3c). All humans were negative for HEV viral genome in blood. Five of 142 sera were positive for IgG anti-HEV with an overall prevalence of 3.52% with no statistically significant differences in prevalence rates between workers at zoonotic risk and the control group (5.7% versus 1.3%). In contrast, a significant difference (OR 10.1) was observed within the subgroup including subjects exposed for short periods (veterinarians) compared with those who worked for long periods (farmers) suggesting a correlation between the time of exposure and the likelihood of HEV infection. Reporting HEV infection is not mandatory in Italy, but a constant epidemiological surveillance should be ensured to clarify the epidemiology of this

  5. A study of radar cross section measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, Malcolm W.

    1986-01-01

    Past, present, and proposed future technologies for the measurement of radar cross section were studied. The purpose was to determine which method(s) could most advantageously be implemented in the large microwave anechoic chamber facility which is operated at the antenna test range site. The progression toward performing radar cross section measurements of space vehicles with which the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle will be called upon to rendezvous and dock is a natural outgrowth of previous work conducted in recent years of developing a high accuracy range and velocity sensing radar system. The radar system was designed to support the rendezvous and docking of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle with various other space vehicles. The measurement of radar cross sections of space vehicles will be necessary in order to plan properly for Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle rendezvous and docking assignments. The methods which were studied include: standard far-field measurements; reflector-type compact range measurements; lens-type compact range measurement; near field/far field transformations; and computer predictive modeling. The feasibility of each approach is examined.

  6. Grit and Work Engagement: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asahi, Kentaro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Grit, defined as perseverance of effort and consistency of interest, has attracted attention as a predictor of success in various fields beyond IQ and the Big Five personality dimension of Conscientiousness. The purpose of the current study was to examine previously uninvestigated questions regarding grit using a cross-sectional design among a large number of working adults in Japan. First, we tested geographical generalizability of associations between grit and orientations towards happiness by comparing previous studies in the U.S. and the current study in Japan. It was confirmed that orientation towards meaning rather than orientation towards engagement had a stronger positive correlation with grit in our sample of Japanese people. This result is inconsistent with previous studies in the U.S. Furthermore, the Big Five dimension of Openness to Experience was newly confirmed as having a positive association with grit. Second, we examined the association between grit and work engagement, which is considered as an outcome indicator for work performance. In this analysis, grit was a strong predictor for work performance as well as academic performance. PMID:26335001

  7. Cross-sectional study of malocclusion in Spanish children

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Puertes-Fernández, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the orthodontic treatment need of the child population of the Valencia region of Spain, employing the DAI and the IOTN, to examine the relations between treatment need, socio-economic data and gender and to assess the diagnostic agreement between the two indices. Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a random representative sample of the schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain. The sample size was a total of 765 children aged 12 and 15 years at 39 schools. Results: The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the DAI was 21.7% at 12 years of age and 14.1% at 15 years. The orthodontic treatment need assessed by the IOTN DHC was 20.9% at 12 years of age and 12.7% at 15 years. The diagnostic agreement between the DAI and the modified IOTN was moderate, with Kappa scores of 0.426 at 12 years of age and 0.415 for the 15-year-old group. Conclusions: Approximately 20% of the children needed orthodontic treatment. Neither gender nor social class appeared to exert a significant influence on orthodontic treatment need. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, children, malocclusion. PMID:23986013

  8. Emergency Department Crowding Disparity: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated national differences in emergency department (ED) crowding to identify factors significantly associated with crowding in institutes and communities across Korea. This was a cross-sectional nationwide observational study using data abstracted from the National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS). We calculated mean occupancy rates to quantify ED crowding status and divided EDs into three groups according to their occupancy rates (cutoffs: 0.5 and 1.0). Factors potentially related to ED crowding were collected from the NEDIS. We performed a multivariate regression analysis to identify variables significantly associated with ED crowding. A total of 120 EDs were included in the final analysis. Of these, 73 were categorized as 'low crowded' (LC, occupancy rate < 0.50), 37 as 'middle crowded' (MC, 0.50 ≤ occupancy rate < 1.00), 10 EDs as 'high crowded' (HC, 1.00 ≤ occupancy rate). The mean ED occupancy rate varied widely, from 0.06 to 2.33. The median value was 0.39 with interquartile ranges (IQRs) from 0.20 to 0.71. Multivariate analysis revealed that after adjustment, ED crowding was significantly associated with the number of visits, percentage of patients referred, number of nurses, and ED disposition. This nationwide study observed significant variety in ED crowding. Several input, throughput, and output factors were associated with crowding. PMID:27478347

  9. Employee engagement within the NHS: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jeve, Yadava Bapurao; Oppenheimer, Christina; Konje, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Employee engagement is the emotional commitment of the employee towards the organisation. We aimed to analyse baseline work engagement using Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) at a teaching hospital. Methods: We have conducted a cross-sectional study within the National Health Service (NHS) Teaching Hospital in the UK. All participants were working age population from both genders directly employed by the hospital. UWES has three constituting dimensions of work engagement as vigor, dedication, and absorption. We conducted the study using UWES-9 tool. Outcome measures were mean score for each dimension of work engagement (vigor, dedication, absorption) and total score compared with control score from test manual. Results: We found that the score for vigor and dedication is significantly lower than comparison group (P< 0.0001 for both). The score for absorption was significantly higher than comparison group (P< 0.0001). However, total score is not significantly different. Conclusion: The study shows that work engagement level is below average within the NHS employees. Vigor and dedication are significantly lower, these are characterised by energy, mental resilience, the willingness to invest one’s effort, and persistence as well as a sense of significance, enthusiasm, inspiration, pride, and challenge. The NHS employees are immersed in work. Urgent need to explore strategies to improve work engagement as it is vital for improving productivity, safety and patient experience PMID:25674571

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Cognitive Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grippin, Pauline; And Others

    Students in grades K, 1, 3, and 5 were administered the Rod and Frame Test (RFT), the Matching Familiar Figures (MFF) Test, and the Piagetian tasks of Discontinuous Quantity, Class Inclusion, Multiplication of Classes, and Multiplication of Relations. Cross-sectional trends were found in all tasks with older children being less impulsive, more…

  11. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  12. Radar cross-sectional study using noise radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundorfer, A. P.; Siddiqui, J. Y.; Antar, Y. M. M.

    2015-05-01

    A noise radar system is proposed with capabilities to measure and acquire the radar cross-section (RCS) of targets. The proposed system can cover a noise bandwidth of near DC to 50 GHz. The noise radar RCS measurements were conducted for selective targets like spheres and carpenter squares with and without dielectric bodies for a noise band of 400MHz-5000MHz. The bandwidth of operation was limited by the multiplier and the antennae used.

  13. Gonorrhoea in inner London: results of a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Low, N.; Daker-White, G.; Barlow, D.; Pozniak, A. L.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate population based incidence rates of gonorrhoea in an inner London area and examine relations with age, ethnic group, and socioeconomic deprivation. DESIGN: Cross sectional study. SETTING: 11 departments of genitourinary medicine in south and central London. SUBJECTS: 1978 first episodes of gonorrhoea diagnosed in 1994 and 1995 in residents of 73 electoral wards in the boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham who attended any of the departments of genitourinary medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yearly age, sex, and ethnic group specific rates of gonorrhoea per 100,000 population aged 15-59 years; rate ratios for the effects of age and ethnic group on gonorrhoea rates in women and men before and after adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: Overall incidence rates of gonorrhoea in residents of Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham were 138.3 cases yearly per 100,000 women and 291.9 cases yearly per 100,000 men aged 15-59 years. At all ages gonorrhoea rates were higher in non-white minority ethnic groups. Rate ratios for the effect of age adjusted for ethnic group and underprivilege were 15.2 (95% confidence interval 11.6 to 19.7) for women and 2.0 (1.7 to 2.5) for men aged 15-19 years compared with those over 30. After deprivation score and age were taken into account, women from black minority groups were 10.5 (8.6 to 12.8) times as likely and men 11.0 (9.7 to 12.6) times as likely as white people to experience gonorrhoea. CONCLUSIONS: Gonorrhoea rates in Lambeth, Southwark, and Lewisham in 1994-5 were six to seven times higher than for England and Wales one year earlier. The presentation of national trends thus hides the disproportionate contribution of ongoing endemic transmission in the study area. Teenage women and young adult men, particularly those from black minority ethnic groups, are the most heavily affected, even when socioeconomic underprivilege is taken into account. There is urgent need for resources for culturally

  14. Cross-sectional study of nutritional markers in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Subhadra; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Yadav, Manisha; Usha, B. R.; Kumar, Sunesh; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To note the value of serum Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin in normal and high-risk pregnancies (HRPs) in patients attending antenatal clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS). Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 282 patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department at AIIMS, New Delhi, India were recruited. Among the 282 subjects, 251 were pregnant, and 31 were controls. The serum was tested for serum Vitamin B12, serum folic acid, and serum ferritin levels using Beckman Coulter Access 2 immunoassay. Results: The median value of serum folic acid level in pregnant women was 12 pg/ml with range being 2–20 pg/ml in contrast to 8 pg/ml with range being 3–20 pg/ml in nonpregnant female. This difference was statistically significant. (P = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum Vitamin B12 level was lower in the third trimester (127 pg/ml) than in first trimester (171 pg/ml) and the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.03). Serum ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the second trimester (16.4 pg/ml) than third trimester (24.55 pg/ml). Although the median serum folic acid level was lower in the first trimester (9.84 pg/ml) than in second trimester (10.8 pg/ml) and in the third trimester (13.18 pg/ml) but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in Vitamin B12 level in HRPs (median value 134 pg/ml) as compared to low-risk pregnancies (149.5 pg/ml). Conclusion: Serum folic acid levels are significantly higher during pregnancy as compared to nonpregnant state. However, there was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum folic acid level and ferritin level were significantly higher in HRPs compared to low-risk pregnancies. PMID:27867887

  15. Study on cross section of high temperature superconducting coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiguri, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi; Fukui, Satoshi; Ogawa, Jun; Sato, Takao

    2007-01-01

    It is in particular of importance for HTS coils to secure a larger central magnetic field and/or a large stored energy with shorter length of HTS tapes. The critical current of an HTS tape depends on both the flux density and the flux angle against tapes. From this point, the performance improvement of HTS coils is taken into account with an analytical model. The minimum volume coil derived from the Fabry Factor constant curve is taken concerning the original coil shape, which is often employed in low temperature superconducting coils. The coil critical current was analyzed in consideration of the anisotropic properties of the tape. The electric field of HTS tapes in the coil was calculated at the coil critical current and the high electric field portion were cut out. The optimal coil cross section is obtained by iterating this calculation process. As a result, the critical current and the stored energy density of the coil were improved. The stored energy density increased about 17% and the central magnetic field was almost kept constant regardless of 19% reduction of HTS tapes, as compared with the original coil with the rectangular cross section.

  16. Bovine trypanosomosis in the Upper West Region of Ghana: entomological, parasitological and serological cross-sectional surveys.

    PubMed

    Adam, Y; Marcotty, T; Cecchi, G; Mahama, C I; Solano, P; Bengaly, Z; Van den Bossche, P

    2012-06-01

    Baseline surveys were conducted in the Upper West Region of Ghana to assess the distribution and densities of tsetse species, as well as the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis. The entomological survey was designed to cover the suitable tsetse habitats along the three main rivers in the study area (i.e. Black Volta, Kulpawn and Sissili). Results indicated the presence of Glossina tachinoides in all three river basins, whilst Glossina palpalis gambiensis was only found close to the southern limit of the study area. A random sampling of 1800 cattle of the West African Short Horn, Sanga and Zebu breeds from 36 randomly selected grid cells covering the study area showed substantial differences between parasitological and serological prevalences. The average parasitological prevalence was estimated at 2.5% (95% CI: 1.06-5.77) with the majority of the infections due to Trypanosoma vivax. Most of the infected cattle were found close to the major river systems. The serological prevalence, measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), test was 19% (95% CI: 14.03-25.35). Cattle with anti-trypanosomal antibodies were also found throughout the study area.

  17. A cross-sectional epidemiological study of domestic animals related to human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Flores, Byron J; Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Fuertes, Héctor; Sheleby-Elías, Jessica; Múzquiz, José Luis; Jirón, William; Duttmann, Christianne; Halaihel, Nabil

    2017-02-28

    Leptospirosis is one of the most extended zoonosis worldwide and humans become infected most commonly through contact with the urine of carrier animals, either directly or via contaminated water or soil. The aim in this study was to analyse the epidemiological behaviour of Leptospira spp., from domestic animals around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua, from 2007 through 2013. We report the results of a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a non-probability sampling of blood (n=3050) and urine (n=299) from Domestic Animals (DA) around the sites of human leptospirosis cases in Nicaragua. We analysed data obtained through Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), in-vitro culture, real time PCR and sequencing of lfb1 locus. Frequencies of 30.31% (95% CI: 28.66-31.95) and 15.38% (95% CI: 11.12-19.64) were obtained from serological test and from in-vitro culture, respectively. Although similar frequencies from serology test (P≥0.05) were found in DA species, in-vitro culture frequencies were significantly higher from bovine, equine and sheep (P<0.05) in comparison with swine and canine species. Ten serogroups of pathogenic Leptospira spp. were encountered, with the highest presence of Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup 34.65% (95% CI: 29.35-39.94). We identified 7 samples homologous to L. interrogans species Pyrogenes serovar and 3 samples as L. noguchii Louisiana or Panama serovars by analysis of lfb1 sequences. We were able to establish a temporal and spatial correlation from DA and cumulative incidence of human cases. Therefore an effective epidemiological surveillance should be implemented with a specific control program toward DA in order to reduce human leptospirosis incidence.

  18. Cross-sectional study on risk factors of HIV among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, K.; Morio, S.; Mizushima, S.; Kitamura, K.; Tajima, K.; Ito, A.; Suyama, A.; Usuku, S.; Saphonn, V.; Heng, S.; Hor, L. B.; Tia, P.; Soda, K.

    2000-01-01

    To describe epidemiological features on HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs), a cross-sectional study on sexual behaviour and serological prevalence was carried out in Cambodia. The CSWs were interviewed on their demographic characters and behaviour and their blood samples were taken for testing on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. Associations between risk factors and HIV seropositivity were analysed. High seroprevalence of HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) was shown among the CSWs (54 and 81.7%, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed an association between HIV seropositivity and age, duration of prostitution, the number of clients per day and CT-IgG-Ab. Especially, high-titre chlamydial seropositivity showed a strong significant association with HIV prevalence. In multiple logistic regression analyses, CT-IgG-Ab with higher titre was significantly independently related to HIV infection. These suggest that existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly related to HIV prevalence. PMID:10722142

  19. Radar Cross Section Studies/Compact Range Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is given of the achievements of NASA Grant NsG-1613 by Ohio State University from May 1, 1987 to April 30, 1988. The major topics covered are as follows: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of design studies; and (7) antenna studies. Major progress has been made in each of these areas as verified by the numerous publications produced.

  20. Radar cross section studies/compact range research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, W. D.; Dominek, A. K.; Gupta, I. J.; Newman, E. H.; Pathak, P. H.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Achievements in advancing the state-of-the-art in the measurement, control, and analysis of electromagnetic scattering from general aerodynamic targets are summarized. The major topics associated with this study include: (1) electromagnetic scattering analysis; (2) indoor scattering measurement systems; (3) RCS control; (4) waveform processing techniques; (5) material scattering and design studies; (6) design and evaluation of standard targets; and (7) antenna studies. Progress in each of these areas is reported and related publications are listed.

  1. A study of the fusion and elastic cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárdenas, W. H. Z.

    2010-08-01

    This work is complementary to that of Canto et al. [1], improving the approximations made to obtain the local Polarization Potential (PP). We study the Trivially Equivalent Local Polarization Potential (TELPP) obtained directly from the two Coupled Channel Equations (CCE), with the help of Feshbach formalism. The inelastic channel has been associated with a nuclear monopole resonant state of 6He at the breakup threshold, EB = 0.973 MeV.

  2. Cross-sectional study on respiratory effect of toner exposure.

    PubMed

    Terunuma, Niina; Kurosaki, Shizuka; Kitamura, Hiroko; Hata, Koichi; Ide, Reiko; Kuga, Hiroaki; Kakiuchi, Noriaki; Masuda, Masashi; Totsuzaki, Takafumi; Osato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo; Kitahara, Kayo; Iwasaki, Akio; Yoshizumi, Koji; Morimoto, Yasuo; Kasai, Hiroshi; Murase, Tadashi; Higashi, Toshiaki

    2009-06-01

    In this baseline study, part of a cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system, we surveyed 803 male toner workers and 802 referents with regard to their subjective respiratory symptoms and chest X-ray results. We also examined individual exposure history, current working conditions, and personal exposure levels to toner. There was a significantly higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" related complaints among toner-exposed workers in the 30 and 40-year age groups. The group with toner-exposure history showed a higher odds ratio, by logistic regression, in relation to all questions regarding coughing. Mild fibrotic changes were observed in the chest X-rays of four workers who had engaged in toner-exposure work for at least a decade or more, and all four had reported allergic disease. Although we observed a tendency of higher prevalence of "coughing and sputum" in toner-exposed workers, the possibility of information bias cannot be eliminated. It should also be noted that this tendency did not exceed that of the general public. Further analysis is required in this ongoing 10-year cohort study to clarify the effect of toner exposure on the respiratory system.

  3. Maternal hormones during early pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tianhui; Lundin, Eva; Grankvist, Kjell; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Wulff, Marianne; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Schock, Helena; Johansson, Robert; Lenner, Per; Hallmans, Goran; Wadell, Goran; Toniolo, Paolo; Lukanova, Annekatrin

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about correlates of first trimester pregnancy hormones as in most studies maternal hormones have been measured later in gestation. We examined the associations of maternal characteristics and child sex with first trimester maternal concentrations of 4 hormones implicated in breast cancer: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), α-fetoprotein (AFP), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II. Methods 338 serum samples donated to the Northern Sweden Maternity Cohort (NSMC), 1975–2001, during the first trimester of uncomplicated pregnancies were analyzed for the hormones of interest as a part of a case-control study. The associations between maternal characteristics and child sex with hormone concentrations were investigated by correlation, general linear regression, and multivariate regression models. Results In the first trimester, greater maternal age was inversely correlated with IGF-I and IGF-II. In comparison with women carrying their first child, already parous women had higher IGF-I but lower hCG. Greater maternal weight and smoking were inversely correlated with hCG. No differences in hormone levels by child sex were observed. Conclusions Our analyses indicated that potentially modifiable maternal characteristics (maternal weight and smoking) influence first trimester pregnancy maternal hormone concentrations. PMID:20084544

  4. Factors related to venous ulceration: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Maksimovic, Milos; Radak, Djordje

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the factors related to venous ulceration. Patients with venous ulceration (278 patients) were compared with 1401 patients in other categories of clinical classification of venous disease (clinical, etiologic, anatomic, and pathophysiological [CEAP]). Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. According to multivariate analyses, risk factors for venous ulceration were age, male sex, personal history of superficial and deep venous thrombosis, diabetes, high blood pressure, skeletal or joint disease in the legs and emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, higher body mass index and physical inactivity, parental history of ankle ulcer as well as reflux in deep and perforator veins, deep obstruction, and combination of reflux and obstruction. It seems reasonable to pay special attention to patients in whom the postulated risk factors for venous ulceration are present.

  5. Cyberdrugs: a cross-sectional study of online pharmacies characteristics.

    PubMed

    Orizio, Grazia; Schulz, Peter; Domenighini, Serena; Caimi, Luigi; Rosati, Cristina; Rubinelli, Sara; Gelatti, Umberto

    2009-08-01

    As e-commerce and online pharmacies (OPs) arose, the potential impact of the Internet on the world of health shifted from merely the spread of information to a real opportunity to acquire health services directly. Aim of the study was to investigate the offer of prescription drugs in OPs, analysing their characteristics, using the content analysis method. The research performed using the Google search engine led to an analysis of 118 online pharmacies. Only 51 (43.2%) of them stated their precise location. Ninety-six (81.4%) online pharmacies did not require a medical prescription from the customer's physician. Online pharmacies rise complex issues in terms of patient-doctor relationship, consumer empowerment, drug quality, regulation and public health implications.

  6. Epilepsy and tobacco smoking: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Torriani, Omar; Vuilleumier, Frédéric; Perneger, Thomas; Despland, Paul-Andre; Maeder, Malin; Héritier-Barras, Anne-Chantal; Vulliemoz, Serge; Seeck, Margitta; Rossetti, Andrea O; Picard, Fabienne

    2016-10-01

    There is little data concerning the prevalence of smoking in the population of people with epilepsy. The present study addresses this aspect in a sample of 429 unselected adults with epilepsy living in French-speaking Switzerland. The criterion of at least one cigarette per day for the past 6 months was used to define the status of "current" smoker. The questionnaires included questions about the type of epilepsy and tobacco consumption and were prospectively filled by attending neurologists in the presence of their patient, ensuring a reliable diagnosis of epilepsy. Data were compared with those of the "Tabakmonitoring" data collection, which gives annually detailed information about tobacco use habits in the Switzerland's population according to the different linguistic regions. Among patients suffering from epilepsy, the prevalence of current smoking was 32.1 % (28.8 % among women and 35 % among men), while the prevalence of smoking was 19.0 % in the general population in French-speaking Switzerland in the same period [OR 2.0, confidence interval (CI) 1.6-2.5, p < 0.001]. The subgroup of patients with epilepsy suffering from idiopathic (genetic) generalized epilepsy had the highest prevalence of smoking: 44.3 versus 27.8 % in the other types of epilepsy-p = 0.03. Epilepsy appears significantly correlated to smoking. The possible causal relationship, such as common genetic susceptibility to epilepsy and to nicotine addiction, indirect comorbidity through stress or depression associated with epilepsy, beneficial effect of nicotine on epilepsy, still remains unclear and deserves further studies.

  7. Self-stigma and schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vrbova, Kristyna; Prasko, Jan; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Marackova, Marketa; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales; Slepecky, Milos; Zatkova, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of self-stigma in schizophrenia and its association with clinical and demographic factors. Patients and methods A total of 197 outpatients (54.3% females) diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder) according to International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition participated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 40.10±11.49 years. All individuals completed the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) scale and a demographic questionnaire. The disorder severity was assessed by both a psychiatrist (the objective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [objCGI-S]) and the patients (the subjective version of Clinical Global Impression – severity scale [subjCGI-S]). Treatment with antipsychotics stabilized the patients. Results The overall level of self-stigma measured by the total score of the ISMI was 63.32±13.59. The total score of the ISMI positively correlated with the severity of the disorder measured by the objCGI-S and subjCGI-S. In addition, self-stigma positively correlated with the treatment duration and the number of psychiatric hospitalizations. The backward stepwise regression was applied to identify the most significant factors connected to self-stigma. The regression analysis identified the following regressors as the most relevant to self-stigma: the number of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, the severity of the disorder rated by a psychiatrist, and the difference between the objective rating and the subjective rating of the severity of the disorder. Conclusion Outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, who have undergone a higher number of psychiatric hospitalizations, who dispose of a higher severity of the disorder and show a higher discrepancy between their rating of the severity and the psychiatric rating, showed a greater degree of self-stigma. The management of

  8. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  9. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. Methods In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. Findings We obtained 911 913 records of hospital visits, of which 324 906 came from 104 830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167 000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67 987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109 509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions – i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to – and apparently had no negative impacts on – the Thai health system and economy. Conclusion We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system. PMID:26769994

  10. Toilet Training in Iranian Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hooman, Nakysa; Safaii, Afshin; Valavi, Ehsan; Amini-Alavijeh, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Objective There is still controversy about the methods and the age of toilet training that are varied in different cultures. This is a survey of Iranian parents’ views about the appropriate age, the true age, the methods used for toilet training, and the association with voiding problems. Methods Questionnaires were filled-out containing items on demographic data, the parents’ view, the method applied, and the age at which toilet training was accomplished in children aged 2 months to 5 years. In addition, pediatric lower urinary tract scoring system questionnaires were distributed among 217 children aged 5-15 years with lower urinary tract symptoms between 2008 and 2010 in outpatient clinics. P<0.05 was considered significant. Findings 566 children (335 girls and 231 boys) were assigned to the study. In asymptomatic group, the majority of parents believed that the appropriate age to start toilet training was 1-2 years. The method used by the parents was intensive in 52% and child-oriented in 44%. There was strong reverse correlation between the level of education of father with applying punishment for training and direct correlation between toilet refusal and the later age of completing toilet training (LR: 6.3, P<0.05). The mean age of completing toilet training was about 23 months in asymptomatic and 23.7 months in symptomatic children (P>0.05). There was no correlation between wetting episodes at day or night and the age of toilet training. Conclusion Intensive approach was more popular and the age of toilet training had no influence on the lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:23724175

  11. Postural development in school children: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lafond, Danik; Descarreaux, Martin; Normand, Martin C; Harrison, Deed E

    2007-01-01

    Background Little information on quantitative sagittal plane postural alignment and evolution in children exists. The objectives of this study are to document the evolution of upright, static, sagittal posture in children and to identify possible critical phases of postural evolution (maturation). Methods A total of 1084 children (aged 4–12 years) received a sagittal postural evaluation with the Biotonix postural analysis system. Data were retrieved from the Biotonix internet database. Children were stratified and analyzed by years of age with n = 36 in the youngest age group (4 years) and n = 184 in the oldest age group (12 years). Children were analyzed in the neutral upright posture. Variables measured were sagittal translation distances in millimeters of: the knee relative to the tarsal joint, pelvis relative to the tarsal joint, shoulder relative to the tarsal joint, and head relative to the tarsal joint. A two-way factorial ANOVA was used to test for age and gender effects on posture, while polynomial trend analyses were used to test for increased postural displacements with years of age. Results Two-way ANOVA yielded a significant main effect of age for all 4 sagittal postural variables and gender for all variables except head translation. No age × gender interaction was found. Polynomial trend analyses showed a significant linear association between child age and all four postural variables: anterior head translation (p < 0.001), anterior shoulder translation (p < 0.001), anterior pelvic translation (p < 0.001), anterior knee translation (p < 0.001). Between the ages of 11 and 12 years, for anterior knee translation, T-test post hoc analysis revealed only one significant rough break in the continuity of the age related trend. Conclusion A significant linear trend for increasing sagittal plane postural translations of the head, thorax, pelvis, and knee was found as children age from 4 years to 12 years. These postural translations provide preliminary

  12. Cross-Sectional Shape of Rat Mesenteric Arterioles at Branching Studied by Confocal Laser Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Atushi; Minamiyama, Motomu; Niimi, Hideyuki

    This study was aimed to investigate the cross-sectional shape of mesenteric arterioles at branching, using confocal laser microscopy. Wistar rats (8 weeks, male) were anesthetized with thiobutabarbital sodium. Blood flow and microvascular network in the mesentery were observed using video microscopy. The rat intestine with mesentery was extracted and the intestinal vasculature was perfused with Krebs-Ringer and then fixed with paraformaldehyde under a static pressure of 100mmHg. A section of mesentery was isolated from the intestine, and spread up to the in vivo geometry based on the intravital microscopic observation. The mesentery section was stained with tetramethyl rhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-phalloidin. The samples were observed under a confocal laser microscope. The cross-sectional image was re-sliced to measure the cross-sectional area and major/minor axes of the best fitting ellipse. The aspect ratio was defined in terms of the minor/major diameter ratio. The extended focus image of mesenteric arterioles showed that the cross-sectional shape was not circular but elliptic-like. The cross-sectional area of the parent vessel decreased from proximal to distal positions. The mean aspect ratio of the parent vessel was approximately 0.5, while that of the branching vessel was approximately 0.8. The flattened shape and variation of the cross-sectional area of arterioles requires some correction of in vivo data of the two-dimensional mesenteric microvasculature obtained using intravital microscopy.

  13. Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries (ANSL-V): ENDF/B-V based multigroup cross-section libraries for advanced neutron source (ANS) reactor studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, W.E. III; Arwood, J.W.; Greene, N.M.; Moses, D.L.; Petrie, L.M.; Primm, R.T. III; Slater, C.O.; Westfall, R.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1990-09-01

    Pseudo-problem-independent, multigroup cross-section libraries were generated to support Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor design studies. The ANS is a proposed reactor which would be fueled with highly enriched uranium and cooled with heavy water. The libraries, designated ANSL-V (Advanced Neutron Source Cross Section Libraries based on ENDF/B-V), are data bases in AMPX master format for subsequent generation of problem-dependent cross-sections for use with codes such as KENO, ANISN, XSDRNPM, VENTURE, DOT, DORT, TORT, and MORSE. Included in ANSL-V are 99-group and 39-group neutron, 39-neutron-group 44-gamma-ray-group secondary gamma-ray production (SGRP), 44-group gamma-ray interaction (GRI), and coupled, 39-neutron group 44-gamma-ray group (CNG) cross-section libraries. The neutron and SGRP libraries were generated primarily from ENDF/B-V data; the GRI library was generated from DLC-99/HUGO data, which is recognized as the ENDF/B-V photon interaction data. Modules from the AMPX and NJOY systems were used to process the multigroup data. Validity of selected data from the fine- and broad-group neutron libraries was satisfactorily tested in performance parameter calculations.

  14. How to Use Benchmark and Cross-section Studies to Improve Data Libraries and Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Svoboda, O.; Tichý, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, S.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Vladimirovna, N.; Závorka, L.

    2016-06-01

    Improvements of the Monte Carlo transport codes and cross-section libraries are very important steps towards usage of the accelerator-driven transmutation systems. We have conducted a lot of benchmark experiments with different set-ups consisting of lead, natural uranium and moderator irradiated by relativistic protons and deuterons within framework of the collaboration “Energy and Transmutation of Radioactive Waste”. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the total or partial cross-sections of important reactions is insufficient. Due to this reason we have started extensive studies of different reaction cross-sections. We measure cross-sections of important neutron reactions by means of the quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources based on the cyclotrons at Nuclear Physics Institute in Řež and at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Measurements of partial cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions were the second direction of our studies. The new results obtained during last years will be shown. Possible use of these data for improvement of libraries, models and benchmark studies will be discussed.

  15. Cross-section studies of important neutron and relativistic deuteron reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Suchopár, M.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Herman, T.; Svoboda, O.; Geier, B.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunikov, S.; Zavorka, L.; Vladimirova, N.; Bielewicz, M.; Kilim, S.; Szuta, M.; Strugalska-Gola, E.

    2014-09-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied by the means of activation method. The deuteron beams produced by JINR Nuclotron (Russia) with energies from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were used. Lack of such cross-sections prevents the usage of copper foils for beam integral monitoring. The copper monitors will help us to improve the beam integral determination during ADS studies. The yttrium samples are very suitable activation detectors for monitoring of neutron fields not only in the ADS studies. But experimental cross-section data for higher energy threshold neutron reactions are still missing. This situation is the reason why we have started to study neutron reactions on yttrium by the means of quasi mono-energetic neutron source based on NPI Řež cyclotron (Czech Republic).

  16. Studies of neutron cross-sections important for spallation experiments using the activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Krása, A.; Majerle, M.; Suchopár, M.; Svoboda, O.; Wagner, V.

    2014-09-01

    A series of experiments devoted to studies of neutron cross-sections by activation method was carried out. The cross-sections of various threshold reactions were studied by means of different quasi-monoenergetic neutron sources with energies from 14 MeV up to 100 MeV. Threshold reactions in various materials are among other used to measure fast neutron fields produced during accelerator driven system studies. For this reason our measurements of neutron cross-sections are crucial. At present, neither experimental nor evaluated data above 30 MeV are available for neutron threshold reactions in Au, I and In published in this proceedings. We studied materials in the form of thin foils and compared our data with the calculations preformed using the deterministic code TALYS 1.4.

  17. Fission hindrance studies in {sup 200}Pb: Evaporation residue cross section and spin distribution measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Shidling, P. D.; Badiger, N. M.; Nath, S.; Kumar, R.; Jhingan, A.; Singh, R. P.; Sugathan, P.; Muralithar, S.; Madhavan, N.; Sinha, A. K.; Pal, Santanu; Kailas, S.; Verma, S.; Kalita, K.; Mandal, S.; Singh, R.; Behera, B. R.; Varier, K. M.; Radhakrishna, M. C.

    2006-12-15

    Evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions have been measured for {sup 200}Pb compound nucleus formed in {sup 16}O+{sup 184}W reaction at the laboratory beam energies of 84, 92, 100, 108, 116, and 120 MeV. The evaporation residues have been selected using the recoil mass spectrometer, HIRA and detected using a 2D position sensitive silicon detector. The evaporation residue spin distributions have been measured by detecting gamma rays with 14 element BGO multiplicity filter. Measured evaporation residue cross sections and spin distributions are compared with the values predicted by a standard statistical model code. Comparison shows that, in the energy region studied, the nuclear viscosity parameter {gamma}=3 is required to explain total evaporation residue cross sections and evaporation residue spin distributions.

  18. A Cross-Sectional Study of School Experiences of Boys with Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soim, Aida; Lamb, Molly; Campbell, Kimberly; Pandya, Shree; Peay, Holly; Howard, James F., Jr.; Fox, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate types of supportive school services received and factors related to provision of these services. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe the school experience of males with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies. Study subjects were identified through the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance,…

  19. Comparing Science Process Skills of Prospective Science Teachers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farsakoglu, Omer Faruk; Sahin, Cigdem; Karsli, Fethiye

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with the purpose of examining how Prospective Science Teachers' (PST) Science Process Skills (SPS) develop according to different grades. In this study, a cross-sectional research approach in the form of a case study was used. The sample group consisted of a total number of 102 undergraduate students who were selected from…

  20. Osteoporosis Knowledge and Attitudes: A Cross-Sectional Study among College-Age Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, M. Allison; Bass, Martha A.; Keathley, Roseanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to investigate the influence of knowledge of osteoporosis, attitudes regarding osteoporosis, and knowledge of dietary calcium on dairy product intake in both male and female college-age students. Participants: The authors conducted this cross-sectional study on 911 men and women enrolled in 2…

  1. Taenia hydatigena in pigs in Burkina Faso: A cross-sectional abattoir study.

    PubMed

    Dermauw, Veronique; Ganaba, Rasmané; Cissé, Assana; Ouedraogo, Boubacar; Millogo, Athanase; Tarnagda, Zékiba; Hul, Anke Van; Gabriël, Sarah; Carabin, Hélène; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-10-30

    Taenia hydatigena is a non-zoonotic cestode that has canines as definitive hosts and ruminants and pigs as intermediate hosts. In pigs, its presence causes cross-reactivity in serological testing for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Therefore, knowledge on the occurrence of T. hydatigena is paramount for validly estimating the seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs. In a cross-sectional abattoir study, we estimated the prevalence of T. hydatigena in pigs slaughtered in Koudougou, Burkina Faso. Carcasses of 452 pigs were examined by investigators for perceived and suspected T. hydatigena cysticercus lesions in the abdominal cavity or on the surface of abdominal organs. Routine meat inspection was performed by local inspectors to identify T. solium cysticerci. All lesions were subjected to PCR-RFLP analysis in order to differentiate Taenia spp. Additionally, individual blood samples were examined for the presence of circulating cysticercus antigens using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA. Perceived T. hydatigena cysticerci were found in 13 pigs, whereas meat inspectors found seven carcasses infected with T. solium cysticerci. All were confirmed by molecular analysis. Of pigs with other suspected lesions, mostly located in the liver, 27 and six were found to harbour T. hydatigena and T. solium cysticerci, respectively. Overall, 8.8% of pigs (40/452) were found infected with T. hydatigena and 2.9% (13/452) with T. solium. Of these positive pigs, one was found infected with both Taenia spp. (0.2%, 1/452). Blood samples of 48.5% of pigs (219/452) were positive in the Ag-ELISA. Pigs with confirmed cysts of T. hydatigena and T. solium had a positive Ag-ELISA result in 57.5% (23/40) and 61.5% (8/13) of cases, respectively. The observed T. hydatigena prevalence in this study is relatively high in comparison to other studies in Africa. Estimates of the occurrence of active porcine T. solium infection using the B158/B60 Ag-ELISA should therefore be adjusted for the presence of T

  2. Awareness about Autism among School Teachers in Oman: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Ouhtit, Allal; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Shafaee, Mohamed; Al-Farsi, Omar; Al-Khaduri, Maha; Al-Said, Mona F.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Children with special needs such as those with autism spectrum disorder have been recorded as ostracized and stigmatized in many parts of the world. Little is known about whether such negative views are present among mainstream teachers in Oman. A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate school teachers' awareness about autism spectrum…

  3. Description of alpha-nucleus interaction cross sections for cosmic ray shielding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear interactions of high-energy alpha particles with target nuclei important for cosmic ray studies are discussed. Models for elastic, quasi-elastic, and breakup reactions are presented and compared with experimental data. Energy-dependent interaction cross sections and secondary spectra are presented based on theoretical models and the limited experimental data base.

  4. Students' Needs, Teachers' Support, and Motivation for Doing Homework: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Idit; Kaplan, Avi; Gueta, Gila

    2010-01-01

    Self-determination theory provided the theoretical framework for a cross-sectional investigation of elementary and junior high school students' autonomous motivation for homework. More specifically, the study focused on the role of teachers' support of students' psychological needs in students' motivation for homework in the two school systems.…

  5. Factors Associated with Women's Antenatal Plans to Use a Baby Walker: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illingworth, Rachel; Kendrick, Denise; Collier, Jacqueline; Woods, Amanda; Wattse, Kim; Dewey, Michael; Chen, Chih-Mei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objective of these analyses was to explore maternal antenatal decisions about baby walker use, factors associated with these decisions and the relationship between antenatal plans to use a walker and postnatal walker use. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Mothers-to-be (n = 1174) participating in a cluster randomised…

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Prosodic Sensitivity and Reading Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2012-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explore the relationship between prosodic sensitivity (suprasegmental phonology) and phonological awareness (segmental phonology) and investigate whether a group of poor readers display significant suprasegmental phonological deficits in comparison to chronological age-matched controls and younger, reading…

  7. Request Strategies: Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian EFL Learners and Australian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional investigation into the request strategies used by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language and Australian native speakers of English. The sample involved 96 BA and MA Persian students and 10 native speakers of English. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was used to generate data related to the request…

  8. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  9. URINARY MUTAGENICITY IN CHARCOAL WORKERS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity in charcoal workers: a cross-sectional study in northeastern Brazil

    Charcoal production by wood carbonization is an ancient process that has changed little since the Bronze Age. Its production in large scale is necessary to sustain some steel and pig...

  10. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  11. PBL and Critical Thinking Disposition in Chinese Medical Students--A Randomized Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, XiangYun; Emmersen, Jeppe; Toft, Egon; Sun, Baozhi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL) and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT) and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU) were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the…

  12. A Cross-Sectional Study about Meaning Access Processes for Homographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievas, Francisco; Justicia, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the effect of meaning frequency, referred to as ''dominance'' in the semantic priming paradigm, where ambiguous words (primes) were processed in isolation. Participants made lexical decisions to target words that were associates of the more frequent (dominant) or less frequent (subordinate) meaning of a homograph…

  13. Cross-Sectional Study of Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Pig Farms in England.

    PubMed

    Limon, Georgina; Beauvais, Wendy; Dadios, Nikolaos; Villena, Isabelle; Cockle, Charlotte; Blaga, Radu; Guitian, Javier

    2017-02-10

    Ingestion of undercooked meat has been proposed as an important source of human Toxoplasma gondii infection. To ascertain the contribution of meat consumption to the risk of human infection, estimates of the prevalence of infection in meat-producing animals are required. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess T. gondii infection in pigs raised in England, to identify risk factors for infection, and to compare performance of two serological tests: modified agglutination test (MAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood samples from 2071 slaughter pigs originating from 131 farms were collected and 75 (3.6%) were found to be positive by MAT. Positive pigs originated from 24 farms. A subset of samples (n = 492) were tested using ELISA, and a significant disagreement (p < 0.001) was found between the two tests. An empirical Bayes approach was used to estimate the farm-level prevalence and the probability of each individual farm having at least one positive animal, considering the uncertainty arising from the sampling strategy and the imperfect test performance. The adjusted farm-level prevalence was 11.5% (95% credible interval of positive farms 8.4-16.0%). Two different criteria were used for classifying farms as infected: (1) ≥50% probability of having at least one infected pig (n = 5, 6.8%) and (2) ≥10% probability (n = 15, 20.5%). Data on putative risk factors were obtained for 73 farms. Using a 10% cutoff, the relative risk (RR) of infection was higher in farms where cats have direct access to pigs' food (RR = 2.6; p = 0.04), pigs have outdoor access (RR = 3.0; p = 0.04), and farms keeping ≤200 pigs (RR = 3.9; p = 0.02), with strong collinearity between the three variables. The findings suggest a low level of T. gondii infection in the farms studied, most of which are likely to send to slaughter batches comprising 100% uninfected pigs. These results provide key inputs to quantitatively assess the

  14. [Study on temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption cross sections of nitric oxide at high temperatures].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Shi-Liang; Chen, Xiao-Hu

    2007-07-01

    To study the temperature dependence of ultraviolet absorption characteristics of NO species in flue gas, the absorption cross sections of NO in the spectral region 200-230 nm at temperatures ranging from 285 to 410 K were measured using a grating monochromator with 0.2 nm resolution, a deuterium lamp and a specially-fabricated closed sample cell. The absorption spectrum of NO consists of discrete bands superimposed on a continuous base. Results indicated that discrete absorption bands were present with a fixed wavelength interval of roughly 10.5 nm. The peaks of discrete bands decreased first and started to increase later as the temperature rose from 285 to 410 K, with a maximum relative variation of 19.3%. Peak position and half width of the absorption peaks did not exhibit apparent change with the variation of temperature. Continuous absorption cross section increased monotonously with the temperature, and the variation gradient gradually decrease with wavelength red shift. The absorption cross section of NO should not be considered as constant when applied in online monitoring of NO concentration in flue gas. A compensation calculation of absorption cross section with respect to temperature effect is indispensable for the purpose of improving online measurement precision of NO concentration.

  15. Exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxocara canis, and Toxocara cati in Austria: a nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence study.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, W; Herkner, H; Tobudic, S; Faas, A; Mooseder, G; Burgmann, H; Auer, H

    2013-11-01

    Despite emerging risks for the spread of zoonotic diseases, data on human exposure to Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp., the causative parasites of the two most important helminthozoonoses in Central Europe, are limited. To investigate risk factors and exposure, we conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional serological study in 1046 healthy individuals, of which 425 were soldiers and 621 were civilians. Serum samples and information on possible risk factors for exposure, including previous foreign military assignments, residential area, animal contact, and regular outdoor activities, were obtained. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. were examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive in the ELISA for antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis were considered positive only after confirmation by western blot. Overall, 66 (6.3%) individuals tested positive in the serologic screening for Toxocara spp. Occupational animal contact was the only risk factor significantly associated with a higher risk for being seropositive. None of the individuals were positive for antibodies against Echinococcus multilocularis. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that exposure to Toxocara spp. is widespread in Austria and occupational animal contact is a risk factor for seropositivity.

  16. Recruitment rate and retention of stroke subjects in cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Polese, Janaine Cunha; Faria-Fortini, Iza de; Basílio, Marluce Lopes; Faria, Giselle Silva E; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2017-01-01

    This article aimed to determine the recruitment rate of chronic stroke survivors to cross-sectional studies and to determine their retention at the two days of assessments. Participants after six months of a unilateral stroke were screened for eligibility and invited to participate in two cross-sectional studies, by telephone. The number of people who were screened, eligible, and successfully recruited was recorded. Retention at the two days of assessments was also recorded. From a list of 654 individuals, 87 were ineligible. Of the 567 left, 216 had wrong contact numbers, 144 refused to participate, and 12 had died. A total of 165 subjects participated in both studies. Out of the 56 who agreed to attend to the second day of assessment, eight did not return. The results showed that individuals with chronic stroke had low rates of recruitment and retention.

  17. What leads children to adopt new strategies? A microgenetic/cross-sectional study of class inclusion.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Robert S; Svetina, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Learning of class inclusion by 5-year-olds in response to empirical and logical explanations of an adult's answers was examined. Contrary to the view that young children possess an empirical bias, 5-year-olds learned more, and continued learning for longer, when given logical explanations of correct answers than when given empirical explanations. Once children discovered how to solve the problems, they showed few regressions. Many children in the microgenetic experiment followed the path of change anticipated from previous cross-sectional studies, but children in the cross-sectional part of the study seemed to follow a different path. Reasons for the superior effectiveness of the logical explanations were discussed.

  18. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchopár, M.; Wagner, V.; Svoboda, O.; Vrzalová, J.; Chudoba, P.; Kugler, A.; Adam, J.; Závorka, L.; Baldin, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Tyutyunnikov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the model spallation targets in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The irradiation of activation samples was performed by beams in the energy range from 1 to 8 GeV. Residual nuclides were measured by the gamma spectrometry. While the EXFOR database contains sets of data for relativistic proton reactions, data for deuteron reactions in this energy range are almost missing. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the use of copper foils from beam integral monitoring. For this reason our experiments focused on their measurement and completely new data were obtained in the energy region where no experimental data have been available so far. The copper monitors with their low sensitivity to fast neutrons will contribute to improvement of the beam integral determination during accelerator-driven system studies.

  19. Study of the protein distribution in the pig lens cross section by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Frausto-Reyes, C; Quintanar-Stephano, J L; Sato-Berrú, R; Barbosa-García, O

    2004-06-01

    The distribution of proteins in the cross section of a normal pig lens was studied by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra were measured in the visual and equatorial axes of this cross section and the protein peak intensities were determined. It was found that along each axis the protein intensities fluctuate. They have a considerable increment along the visual axis with the exception of the C-N bond peak intensities at 1087.2 cm(-1), which decrease, and along the equatorial axis the increment is slight. This increment in protein distribution along the visual axis is related with the refractive gradient of the lens. The classification of pig lens spectra in these axes was performed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Cross-validation shows an excellent group separation.

  20. Joint spatial Bayesian modeling for studies combining longitudinal and cross-sectional data

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Andrew B; Carroll, Rachel; Castro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Design for intervention studies may combine longitudinal data collected from sampled locations over several survey rounds and cross-sectional data from other locations in the study area. In this case, modeling the impact of the intervention requires an approach that can accommodate both types of data, accounting for the dependence between individuals followed up over time. Inadequate modeling can mask intervention effects, with serious implications for policy making. In this paper we use data from a large-scale larviciding intervention for malaria control implemented in Dar es Salaam, United Republic of Tanzania, collected over a period of almost 5 years. We apply a longitudinal Bayesian spatial model to the Dar es Salaam data, combining follow-up and cross-sectional data, treating the correlation in longitudinal observations separately, and controlling for potential confounders. An innovative feature of this modeling is the use of Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process to model random time effects. We contrast the results with other Bayesian modeling formulations, including cross-sectional approaches that consider individual-level random effects to account for subjects followed up in two or more surveys. The longitudinal modeling approach indicates that the intervention significantly reduced the prevalence of malaria infection in Dar es Salaam by 20% whereas the joint model did not suggest significance within the results. Our results suggest that the longitudinal model is to be preferred when longitudinal information is available at the individual level. PMID:24713159

  1. SOLAR CORONA LOOP STUDIES WITH THE ATMOSPHERIC IMAGING ASSEMBLY. I. CROSS-SECTIONAL TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul

    2011-05-10

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in six filters in a temperature range of T {approx} 0.5-16 MK, and four different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of {sigma}{sub log(T)} {<=} 0.11 {+-} 0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer by Aschwanden and Nightingale and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. or Tripathi et al. We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line of sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 A filter, which needs to be boosted by a factor of q{sub 94} = 6.7 {+-} 1.7 for temperatures at log (T) {approx}< 6.3. The main result of near-isothermal loop cross-sections is not consistent with the predictions of standard nanoflare scenarios, but can be explained by flare-like heating mechanisms that drive chromospheric evaporation and upflows of heated plasma coherently over loop cross-sections of w {approx} 2-4 Mm.

  2. Solar Corona Loop Studies with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. I. Cross-sectional Temperature Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Boerner, Paul

    2011-05-01

    We present a first systematic study on the cross-sectional temperature structure of coronal loops using the six coronal temperature filters of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We analyze a sample of 100 loop snapshots measured at 10 different locations and 10 different times in active region NOAA 11089 on 2010 July 24, 21:00-22:00 UT. The cross-sectional flux profiles are measured and a cospatial background is subtracted in six filters in a temperature range of T ≈ 0.5-16 MK, and four different parameterizations of differential emission measure (DEM) distributions are fitted. We find that the reconstructed DEMs consist predominantly of narrowband peak temperature components with a thermal width of σlog (T) <= 0.11 ± 0.02, close to the temperature resolution limit of the instrument, consistent with earlier triple-filter analysis from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer by Aschwanden & Nightingale and from EIS/Hinode by Warren et al. or Tripathi et al. We find that 66% of the loops could be fitted with a narrowband single-Gaussian DEM model, and 19% with a DEM consisting of two narrowband Gaussians (which mostly result from pairs of intersecting loops along the same line of sight). The mostly isothermal loop DEMs allow us also to derive an improved empirical response function of the AIA 94 Å filter, which needs to be boosted by a factor of q 94 = 6.7 ± 1.7 for temperatures at log (T) <~ 6.3. The main result of near-isothermal loop cross-sections is not consistent with the predictions of standard nanoflare scenarios, but can be explained by flare-like heating mechanisms that drive chromospheric evaporation and upflows of heated plasma coherently over loop cross-sections of w ≈ 2-4 Mm.

  3. Quantum and semiclassical studies on photodetachment cross sections of H- in a harmonic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai-Jun, Zhao; Wei-Long, Liu; Meng-Li, Du

    2016-03-01

    The photodetachment cross section of H- in a linear harmonic oscillator potential is investigated. This system provides a rare example that can be studied analytically by both quantum and semiclassical methods with some approximations. The formulas of the cross section for different laser polarization directions are explicitly derived by both the traditional quantum approach and closed-orbit theory. In the traditional quantum approach, we calculate the cross sections in coordinate representation and momentum representation, and get the same formulas. We compare the quantum formulas with closed-orbit theory formulas, and find that when the detachment electron energy is larger than , where ω is the frequency of the oscillator potential, the quantum results are shown to be in good agreement with the semiclassical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421063 and 11474079), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2009011004), and the Program for the Top Young Academic Leaders of Higher Learning Institutions of Shanxi Province, China.

  4. Factors associated with dental fluorosis in school children in southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.

  5. Depression among the urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia: a community based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kok Leong; Yadav, Hematram

    2013-01-01

    This community based cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and factors associated with depression among urban poor in Peninsular Malaysia. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to determine the presence or absence of depression. The prevalence of depression among the urban poor was 12.3%. Factors significantly associated with depression included respondents under 25 years old, male gender, living in the area for less than four years and those who do not exercise regularly. It is important to identify individuals with depression and its associated factors early because depression can severely affect the quality of life.

  6. Parametric Study of the Absorption Cross-Section for a Moderately Conducting Thin Cylinder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan Peter

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section of a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 um. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  7. Parametric study of the absorption cross section for a moderately conducting thin cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurton, Kristan P.; Bruce, Charles W.

    1995-05-01

    A system has been developed to measure the absorption cross section for a single carbon fiber at 35 GHz as a function of length, orientation, and diameter. Typical lengths of the fibers considered ranged from 1 to 20 mm, and diameters ranged from 3 to 8 mu m. The results were compared with the modified integral equation calculations of Waterman and Pedersen that describe the scattering and absorption behavior for a wire of finite length and conductivity. Good agreement was found for all lengths, orientations, and diameters studied.

  8. Food buying habits of people who buy wine or beer: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Ditte; Friis, Karina; Skovenborg, Erik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether people who buy wine buy healthier food items than those who buy beer. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Supermarkets in Denmark. Data Information on number, type of item, and total charge from 3.5 million transactions over a period of six months. Results Wine buyers bought more olives, fruit and vegetables, poultry, cooking oil, and low fat cheese, milk, and meat than beer buyers. Beer buyers bought more ready cooked dishes, sugar, cold cuts, chips, pork, butter or margarine, sausages, lamb, and soft drinks than wine buyers. Conclusions Wine buyers made more purchases of healthy food items than people who buy beer. PMID:16428251

  9. Weaknesses in the reporting of cross-sectional studies according to the STROBE statement

    PubMed Central

    Malaga, German; Miranda, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inadequate reporting of cross-sectional studies, as in the case of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, could cause problems in the synthesis of new evidence and lead to errors in the formulation of public policies. Objective: To evaluate the reporting quality of the articles regarding metabolic syndrome prevalence in Peruvian adults using the STROBE recommendations. Methods: We conducted a thorough literature search with the terms "Metabolic Syndrome", "Sindrome Metabolico" and "Peru" in MEDLINE/PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, LIPECS and BVS-Peru until December 2014. We selected those who were population-based observational studies with randomized sampling that reported prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adults aged 18 or more of both sexes. Information was analysed through the STROBE score per item and recommendation. Results: Seventeen articles were included in this study. All articles met the recommendations related to the report of the study's rationale, design, and provision of summary measures. The recommendations with the lowest scores were those related to the sensitivity analysis (8%, n= 1/17), participant flowchart (18%, n= 3/17), missing data analysis (24%, n= 4/17), and number of participants in each study phase (24%, n= 4/17). Conclusion: Cross-sectional studies regarding the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in peruvian adults have an inadequate reporting on the methods and results sections. We identified a clear need to improve the quality of such studies. PMID:26848197

  10. Comorbidity of dementia: a cross-sectional study of primary care older patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiologic study of comorbidities of an index health problem represents a methodological challenge. This study cross-sectionally describes and analyzes the comorbidities associated with dementia in older patients and reviews the existing similarities and differences between identified comorbid diseases using the statistical methods most frequently applied in current research. Methods Cross-sectional study of 72,815 patients over 64 seen in 19 Spanish primary care centers during 2008. Chronic diseases were extracted from electronic health records and grouped into Expanded Diagnostic Clusters®. Three different statistical methods were applied (i.e., analysis of prevalence data, multiple regression and factor analysis), stratifying by sex. Results The two most frequent comorbidities both for men and women with dementia were hypertension and diabetes. Yet, logistic regression and factor analysis demonstrated that the comorbidities significantly associated with dementia were Parkinson’s disease, congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, cardiac arrhythmia, chronic skin ulcers, osteoporosis, thyroid disease, retinal disorders, prostatic hypertrophy, insomnia and anxiety and neurosis. Conclusions The analysis of the comorbidities associated with an index disease (e.g., dementia) must not be exclusively based on prevalence rates, but rather on methodologies that allow the discovery of non-random associations between diseases. A deep and reliable knowledge about how different diseases are grouped and associated around an index disease such as dementia may orient future longitudinal studies aimed at unraveling causal associations. PMID:24645776

  11. Prevalence of chronic itch and associated factors in haemodialysis patients: a representative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Tschulena, Ulrich; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Weisshaar, Elke

    2015-09-01

    Chronic itch is a common symptom in haemodialysis (HD) patients, which is often underestimated. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with chronic itch in HD patients. A total of 860 HD patients from a randomly selected cluster-sample of patients attending dialysis units in Germany were included. The patients' mean?±?SD age was 67.2?±?13.5 years, 57.2% were male. The point prevalence of chronic itch was 25.2% (95% CI 22.4-28.1), 12-month prevalence was 27.2% (95% CI 24.1-30.3) and lifetime prevalence was 35.2% (95% CI 31.9-38.3). Chronic itch was significantly less prevalent in patients with secondary glomerulonephritis as primary renal disease. A history of dry skin, eczema, and age cross-sectional study using a precise definition of chronic itch and using different prevalence estimates of chronic itch in HD patients. It demonstrates that chronic itch is a long-lasting burden significantly impairing patients' health.

  12. Studying the Permian cross-section (Volga region) using chemical and isotopic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gareev, Bulat; Georgii, Batalin; Nurgaliev, Danis; Nurgalieva, Nuriya

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a study of international important site: the cross-section of Permian system's Urzhumian Stage in the ravine "Pechischy". Outcrop is located on the right bank of the Volga River (about 10 km West of Kazan). It has local, regional and planetary correlation features and also footprints of different geographical scale events. The main objective in the research is the deep study of sediments using chemical and isotopic investigations. XRF spectrometer was used for chemical investigations of samples. Chemistry of carbonates and clastic rocks includes the analysis of chemical elements, compounds, petrochemical (lithogeochemical) modules for the interpretation of the genesis of lithotypes. For the review of the geochemistry of stable isotopes of carbon (oxygen) we used IRMS. The main objective is the nature of the isotope fractionation issues, to addressing the issues of stratigraphy and paleogeography. The measurements have shown the variability of chemical parameters in cross-section. It gives us opportunity to see small changes in sedimentation and recognize the factors that influence to the process. The work was carried out according to the Russian Government's Program of Competitive Growth of Kazan Federal University, supported by the grant provided to the Kazan State University for performing the state program in the field of scientific research.

  13. Paleomagnetic studies of upper Neopleistocene rocks from the El'tigen cross section, Kerch Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, O. V.; Trubikhin, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The upper part of the Neopleistocene El'tigen cross section was studied by the paleomagnetic method. The cross section is located in the Crimean Peninsula, on the shore of the Kerch Strait, and is composed of Surozhian deposits referring to the time interval of ~15-45 kyr B.P. Detailed ChRM angular element curves were obtained, and virtual geomagnetic pole migration curves were constructed. On the basis of these data, singular anomalous intervals (~23-25, ~33-35, and ~41-42 kyr B.P.) were distinguished. These anomalous intervals coincide in age with the periods of Mono Lake and Laschamp geomagnetic excursions. Despite the good time fit between the revealed anomalous horizons and the excursion periods, ChRM anomalies could be caused by other reasons. A continuous amplitude spectrum of variations in angular magnetization components was obtained, and periods of ~0.9, 1.4, 2.1, and 4.3 kyr are identified in it. The presence of general periods in the interval of 15-45 kyr B.P. and their coincidence with the periods studied by archeomagnetism provides grounds to suppose existence of characteristic periods of variations in geomagnetic field.

  14. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in the Portuguese population: comparison of three cross-sectional studies spanning three decades

    PubMed Central

    Gargaté, Maria João; Ferreira, Idalina; Vilares, Anabela; Martins, Susana; Cardoso, Carlos; Silva, Susana; Nunes, Baltazar; Gomes, João Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan infecting up to one-third of the world's population, constituting a life threat if transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy. In Portugal, there is a lack of knowledge of the current epidemiological situation, as the unique toxoplasmosis National Serological Survey was performed in 1979/1980. Methods We studied the seroprevalence trends in the Portuguese general population over the past 3 decades, by assessing chronological spread cross-sectional studies, with special focus on women of childbearing age, by age group, region and gender. Results The T. gondii overall seroprevalence decreased from 47% in 1979/1980 to 22% (95% CI 20% to 24%) in 2013. Generally, we observed that the prevalence of T. gondii IgG increased significantly with age and it decreased over time, both in the general population and in the childbearing women (18% prevalence in 2013). Conclusions The scenario observed for the latter indicates that more than 80% of childbearing women are susceptible to primary infection yielding a risk of congenital toxoplasmosis and respective sequelae. Since there is no vaccine to prevent human toxoplasmosis, the improvement of primary prevention constitutes a major tool to avoid infection in such susceptible groups. PMID:27707823

  15. The Ultimate Monte Carlo: Studying Cross-Sections With Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2007-01-01

    The high-energy physics community has been discussing for years the need to bring together the three principal disciplines that study hadron cross-section physics - ground-based accelerators, cosmic-ray experiments in space, and air shower research. Only recently have NASA investigators begun discussing the use of space-borne cosmic-ray payloads to bridge the gap between accelerator physics and air shower work using cosmic-ray measurements. The common tool used in these three realms of high-energy hadron physics is the Monte Carlo (MC). Yet the obvious has not been considered - using a single MC for simulating the entire relativistic energy range (GeV to EeV). The task is daunting due to large uncertainties in accelerator, space, and atmospheric cascade measurements. These include inclusive versus exclusive cross-section measurements, primary composition, interaction dynamics, and possible new physics beyond the standard model. However, the discussion of a common tool or ultimate MC might be the very thing that could begin to unify these independent groups into a common purpose. The Offline ALICE concept of a Virtual MC at CERN s Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be discussed as a rudimentary beginning of this idea, and as a possible forum for carrying it forward in the future as LHC data emerges.

  16. Systematic study of deformation effects on fusion cross-sections using various proximity potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajbongshi, Tapan; Kalita, Kushal

    2014-06-01

    The influence of static quadrupole and hexadecapole (positive & negative) deformation of targets are studied using eleven different versions of nuclear potentials. The height and position of the interaction barrier for the reactions induced by spherical projectile (16O) on the deformed targets such as 166Er, 154Sm and 176Yb have been estimated. It is found that the nucleus-nucleus potential strongly depends on the value of the deformation parameters and orientation of the target. The experimental fusion cross-section of the reactions 16O + 176Yb, 16O +166Er and 16O +154Sm are investigated by applyingWong's formula using various parameterizations of the proximity potential as well as an assessment of the results of a multi-dimensional barrier penetration model (BPM). The fusion cross-sections by Prox 77, Prox 88, Prox 00, Prox 00DP, Denisov DP, Bass 80, CW 76 and AW 95 potentials are found to be better than the rest in comparison to experimental data.

  17. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  18. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-02

    The cross sections of the {sup 162}Er(α,γ){sup 166}Yb and {sup 162,164,166}Er(α,n){sup 165,167,169}Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between E{sub c.m.} = 11.21 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T{sub 9} = 3 GK). The {sup 162}Er(α,n){sup 165}Yb, {sup 164}Er(α,n){sup 167}Yb and {sup 166}Er(α,n){sup 169}Yb reactions were studied between E{sub c.m.} = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, E{sub c.m.} = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and E{sub c.m.} = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  19. Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 96}Zr: A systematic experimental study of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture cross sections for zirconium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Utsunomiya, H.; Akimune, H.; Kondo, T.; Itoh, O.; Kamata, M.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Harada, H.; Kitatani, F.; Goko, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Yamada, K.; Lui, Y.-W.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A. J.

    2010-03-15

    Photoneutron cross sections were measured for {sup 96}Zr near neutron threshold with quasimonochromatic laser-Compton-scattering {gamma}-ray beams. A systematic analysis of photoneutron and radiative neutron capture data for zirconium isotopes within the statistical model calculation leads to a unified picture of low-energy {gamma}-ray strengths for zirconium isotopes that is described by the HFB + QRPA model of E1 strength supplemented with an extra {gamma} strength attributed to a giant M1 resonance. Results of the systematic analysis including radiative neutron capture cross sections for radioactive {sup 95}Zr and {sup 93}Zr nuclei are presented.

  20. The Status of Cross Section Measurements for Neutron-induced Reactions Needed for Cosmic Ray Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisterson, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Cosmic ray interactions with lunar rocks and meteorites produce small amounts of radionuclides and stable isotopes. Advances in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) allow production rates to be measured routinely in well-documented lunar rocks and meteorites. These measurements are analyzed using theoretical models to learn about the object itself and the history of the cosmic rays that fell on it. Good cross section measurements are essential input to the theoretical calculations. Most primary cosmic ray particles are protons so reliable cross sections for proton-induced reactions are essential. A cross section is deemed accurate if measurements made by different experimenters using different techniques result in consistent values. Most cross sections for proton induced reactions are now well measured. However, good cross section measurements for neutron-induced reactions are still needed. These cross sections are required to fully account for all galactic cosmic ray interactions at depth in an extraterrestrial object. When primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interact with an object many secondary neutrons are produced, which also initiate spallation reactions. Thus, the total GCR contribution to the overall cosmogenic nuclide archive has to include the contribution from the secondary neutron interactions. Few relevant cross section measurements have been reported for neutron-induced reactions at neutron energies greater than approximately 20 MeV. The status of the cross section measurements using quasi-monoenergetic neutron energies at iThemba LABS, South Africa and white neutron beams at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), Los Alamos are reported here.

  1. Does habitual physical activity prevent insomnia? A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sachiko; Yorifuji, Takashi; Sugiyama, Masumi; Ohta, Toshiki; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    Few epidemiological studies have examined the potential protective effects of physical activity on insomnia. The authors thus evaluated the association between physical activity and insomnia in a large population-based study in Shizuoka, Japan. Individual data were obtained from participants in an ongoing cohort study. A total of 14,001 older residents who completed questionnaires were followed for 3 yr. Of these, 10,211 and 3,697 participants were eligible for the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, respectively. The authors obtained information about the frequency of physical activity and insomnia. Then, the adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between physical activity and insomnia were estimated. Habitual physical activity was related to lower prevalence of insomnia. Frequent physical activity also reduced the incidence of insomnia, especially difficulty maintaining sleep. For elderly people with sufficient mobility and no preexisting disease, high-frequency physical activity (e.g., 5 or more days/wk) may help reduce insomnia.

  2. Nursing burnout: cross-sectional study at a large Army hospital.

    PubMed

    Lang, Gary Morris; Pfister, Elizabeth A; Siemens, Michelle J

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of burnout among U.S. Army and civilian nursing personnel assigned to a large military treatment facility. Using a cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of eligible participants (n = 364) completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory. T-test and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze data. Findings suggest that both groups were experiencing a moderate level of burnout. However, civilian nursing personnel demonstrated statistical lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Findings suggest that nursing personnel who worked the day shift, no more than 8 hours a day and had fewer patient care contacts with military personnel injured in Iraq or Afghanistan reported lower levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. This study provides ideas for policy changes at medical treatment facilities that are experiencing similar challenges.

  3. Social Media and Evidence-Based Maternity Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Rebecca L.; King, Sarah; Lester, Kara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to describe how people use social media to find and disseminate information about evidence-based maternity care. We used a cross-sectional Internet-based survey design in which 1,661 participants were recruited from childbirth-related blogs. Participants answered questions about how they find, use, and share evidence-based maternity information using social media. Overall, women in this study were highly engaged in using social media to find and share maternity information. Most respondents were very interested in reading evidence-based maternity care articles online. Most intend to use this information that they found, despite the fact that a substantial percentage had no intentions of discussing this information with their childbirth educators or physician. PMID:27445448

  4. Folate and MMA predict cognitive impairment in elderly stroke survivors: A cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michaela C; Linden, Thomas

    2016-09-30

    Elderly stroke survivors are at risk of malnutrition and long-term cognitive impairment. Vitamin B-related metabolites, folate and methylmalonic acid, have been implicated in cognitive function. We conducted a study exploring the relationship between blood folate, methylmalonic acid and post-stroke cognitive impairment. This is a cross sectional study of elderly Swedish patients (n=149) 20 months post-stroke, assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination, serum blood levels of methylmalonic acid and red blood cell levels of folate. Linear modeling indicated that low levels of blood folate and elevated methylmalonic acid significantly contributed to cognitive impairment in stroke survivors. Half of the stroke survivors were shown to have folate deficiency at 20 months after stroke. Folate deficiency is common long term after stroke and both low folate and elevated methylmalonic acid appear to be associated with long term cognitive impairment, in elderly Swedish stroke survivors.

  5. Double ionization of helium by bare ions: Theoretical study of the fully differential cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, S. D.; Garibotti, C. R.; Otranto, S.

    2011-06-15

    This work presents a theoretical study of fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for the double ionization of an He target by ion impact within a distorted wave model. The initial atomic system is described by two approximated wave functions of different accuracy proposed by Bonham and Kohl. For the final channel several models are considered based upon improvements and simplifications of the well-known three-body Coulomb (3C) model. The influence of the receding projectile on the resulting fragments is also studied by implementing a model with effective charges that depend on the momenta of the four particles. The FDCSs resulting for different electron energy sharing are discussed. The sensitivity of the FDCSs to the projectile charge sign and magnitude is explored over the energy range 700 keV/amu through 6 MeV/amu.

  6. Social Media and Evidence-Based Maternity Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Rebecca L; King, Sarah; Lester, Kara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how people use social media to find and disseminate information about evidence-based maternity care. We used a cross-sectional Internet-based survey design in which 1,661 participants were recruited from childbirth-related blogs. Participants answered questions about how they find, use, and share evidence-based maternity information using social media. Overall, women in this study were highly engaged in using social media to find and share maternity information. Most respondents were very interested in reading evidence-based maternity care articles online. Most intend to use this information that they found, despite the fact that a substantial percentage had no intentions of discussing this information with their childbirth educators or physician.

  7. Development of a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of cross-sectional studies (AXIS)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Martin J; Brennan, Marnie L; Williams, Hywel C; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop a critical appraisal (CA) tool that addressed study design and reporting quality as well as the risk of bias in cross-sectional studies (CSSs). In addition, the aim was to produce a help document to guide the non-expert user through the tool. Design An initial scoping review of the published literature and key epidemiological texts was undertaken prior to the formation of a Delphi panel to establish key components for a CA tool for CSSs. A consensus of 80% was required from the Delphi panel for any component to be included in the final tool. Results An initial list of 39 components was identified through examination of existing resources. An international Delphi panel of 18 medical and veterinary experts was established. After 3 rounds of the Delphi process, the Appraisal tool for Cross-Sectional Studies (AXIS tool) was developed by consensus and consisted of 20 components. A detailed explanatory document was also developed with the tool, giving expanded explanation of each question and providing simple interpretations and examples of the epidemiological concepts being examined in each question to aid non-expert users. Conclusions CA of the literature is a vital step in evidence synthesis and therefore evidence-based decision-making in a number of different disciplines. The AXIS tool is therefore unique and was developed in a way that it can be used across disciplines to aid the inclusion of CSSs in systematic reviews, guidelines and clinical decision-making. PMID:27932337

  8. Hearing loss in workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsiao-Yu; Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Epoxy adhesives contain organic solvents and are widely used in industry. The hazardous effects of epoxy adhesives remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to epoxy adhesives and noise. Design Cross-sectional study. Methods For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 182 stone workers who were exposed to both epoxy adhesives and noise, 89 stone workers who were exposed to noise only, and 43 workers from the administrative staff who had not been exposed to adhesives or noise. We obtained demographic data, occupational history and medical history through face-to-face interviews and arranged physical examinations and pure-tone audiometric tests. We also conducted walk-through surveys in the stone industry. A total of 40 representative noise assessments were conducted in 15 workplaces. Air sampling was conducted at 40 workplaces, and volatile organic compounds were analysed using the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) TO-15 method. Results The mean sound pressure level was 87.7 dBA (SD 9.9). The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was considerably increased in the stone workers exposed to epoxy adhesives (42%) compared with the stone workers who were not exposed to epoxy adhesives (21%) and the administrative staff group (9.3%). A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that exposure to epoxy adhesives significantly increased the risk of hearing loss between 2 and 6 kHz after adjusting for age. Significant interactions between epoxy adhesives and noise and hearing impairment were observed at 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Conclusions Epoxy adhesives exacerbate hearing impairment in noisy environments, with the main impacts occurring in the middle and high frequencies. PMID:26892792

  9. Amantadine use associated with impulse control disorders in Parkinson disease in cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Daniel; Sohr, Mandy; Potenza, Marc N; Siderowf, Andrew D; Stacy, Mark; Voon, Valerie; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Wunderlich, Glen R; Lang, Anthony E

    2010-12-01

    A recent controlled clinical trial suggested a role for amantadine as a treatment for pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Analyzing data from a large cross-sectional study of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in PD, amantadine use (n = 728), vs no amantadine use (n = 2,357), was positively associated with a diagnosis of any ICD (17.6% vs 12.4%, p < 0.001) and compulsive gambling specifically (7.4% vs 4.2%, p < 0.001). This amantadine association remained after controlling for covariates of amantadine use, including both dopamine agonist use and levodopa dosage. Further research, including larger clinical trials, is needed to assess the role of amantadine in the development and treatment of ICDs in PD.

  10. Causal attribution and illness perception: a cross-sectional study in Mexican patients with psychosis.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment.

  11. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy study on II-VI multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierts, A.; Ulloa, J. M.; ćelebi, C.; Koenraad, P. M.; Boukari, H.; Maingault, L.; André, R.; Mariette, H.

    2007-10-01

    Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy is used to study in the atomic scale the structural properties of ZnSeTe /ZnTe multiple quantum wells and N:ZnTe delta-doped structures. Some peculiar effects are found on the cleaved (110) ZnTe surface plane, which have not been observed in III-V semiconductors. In particular, cleavage induced monatomic wide vacancy chains are always present on the Te sublattice. Furthermore, the semiconductor surface is manipulated when certain positive voltages are applied to the sample. Regarding the heterostructures, the ZnSeTe /ZnTe quantum wells are found to have abrupt interfaces and the Se concentration is determined to be significantly larger than the nominal value.

  12. Bayesian methods of confidence interval construction for the population attributable risk from cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Pirikahu, Sarah; Jones, Geoffrey; Hazelton, Martin L; Heuer, Cord

    2016-08-15

    Population attributable risk measures the public health impact of the removal of a risk factor. To apply this concept to epidemiological data, the calculation of a confidence interval to quantify the uncertainty in the estimate is desirable. However, because perhaps of the confusion surrounding the attributable risk measures, there is no standard confidence interval or variance formula given in the literature. In this paper, we implement a fully Bayesian approach to confidence interval construction of the population attributable risk for cross-sectional studies. We show that, in comparison with a number of standard Frequentist methods for constructing confidence intervals (i.e. delta, jackknife and bootstrap methods), the Bayesian approach is superior in terms of percent coverage in all except a few cases. This paper also explores the effect of the chosen prior on the coverage and provides alternatives for particular situations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Vibration, back pain and physical exercise in high-risk professionals: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Valenti, M; Prosperini, V; Falzano, P; Hendel, M; Raimondi, P

    2004-01-01

    Repeated loads and vibration stress in professional settings are relevant risk factors for back pain. Aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate: a) the prevalence of back pain in two high-risk professional samples (helicopter pilots and bus drivers); b) the association between physical/sports exercise and back pain subjective perception across age. Prevalence of back pain is 94% in helicopter pilots and 74% in bus drivers; prevalence of back pain significantly increases with age. The positive effect of regular physical/sports exercise on subjective back pain significantly decreases with age. Physical or sports exercise adapted to structural characteristic of patients can result effective in diminishing personal impairment in subjects at professional risk.

  14. A study of GEOS-3 terrain data with emphasis on radar cross section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priester, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Radar cross sections (RCS) of terrain are studied using GEOS 3 radar altimeter data. Maps of RCS for portions of four east coast states (U.S.A.) are presented and used to draw curves of RCS versus inland distance as measured from the land/sea interface. The results show RCS to decay approximately exponentially with inland distance. The GEOS 3 data are also used to develop curves of RCS seasonal variation for the same regions. Observed variations correlate strongly with local potential evaporation. Results also show that farming operations in the state of North Carolina are observable in the RCS data. A restricted method for determining surface roughness features from saturated average return waveforms for some types of terrain is developed. Sensor bias induced by receiver saturation for certain terrain returns is briefly discussed.

  15. Causal Attribution and Illness Perception: A Cross-Sectional Study in Mexican Patients with Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-de-Regil, Lizzette

    2014-01-01

    Health psychology researchers have begun to focus greater attention on people's beliefs about health/illness since these beliefs can clearly affect behavior. This cross-sectional study aimed at (1) identifying the most common factors psychotic patients attribute their illness to and (2) assessing the association between causal attribution and illness perception (cognitive, emotional, and comprehensibility dimensions). Sixty-two patients (56.5% females) who had been treated for psychosis at a public psychiatric hospital in Mexico answered the Angermeyer and Klusmann Illness Attribution Scale and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire. Results showed that most patients attributed psychosis onset to social factors and that attribution to their personality might have an overwhelmingly negative effect on their lives. Acknowledging psychotic patient attributional beliefs and considering them in clinical practice could improve treatment efficacy and overall recovery success. This is particularly important in psychosis, since symptoms are often severe and/or persistent and require long-term treatment. PMID:25525628

  16. A Study of the Effects of Material Type and Configuration on Optical Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feirstine, K.; Yarbrough, J.; Sharples, R.; Crosher, C.; Bowers, D.; Wellems, D.; Jenkins, G.; Rosprim, D.; Duggin, M.; Vaughn, L.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment was designed to study the effects of material type and configuration on Optical Cross Section (OCS) and spectrum. The experiment was conducted at an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) far-field imaging facility, using different diffuse and specular materials and different configurations and/or combinations of each. It was hypothesized that the OCS of certain combinations of materials is dependent on the diffuseness or specularity of the materials used, but the spectrum is independent of these factors and does not change. The objective of the experiment is to capture both OCS and spectra of different material configurations using different combinations of diffuse and specular materials in the bi-static illumination condition. OCS was calculated relative to the scattering of a Spectralon material that was in the scene at all times. Results show the accurateness of the above hypothesis and illustrate other effects that material type and configuration have on OCS and spectra.

  17. Cross-Sectional Investigation of HEMS Activities in Europe: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Gava, Paolo; Truhlář, Anatolij; Sandberg, Mårten; Group, The Euphorea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To gather information on helicopter emergency medical services (HEMSs) activities across Europe. Methods. Cross-sectional data-collection on daily (15 November 2013) activities of a sample of European HEMSs. A web-based questionnaire with both open and closed questions was used, developed by experts of the European Prehospital Research Alliance (EUPHOREA). Results. We invited 143 bases from 11 countries; 85 (60%) reported base characteristics only and 73 (51%) sample-day data too. The variety of base characteristics was enormous; that is, the target population ranged from 94.000 to 4.500.000. Of 158 requested primary missions, 62 (0.82 per base) resulted in landing. Cardiac aetiology (36%) and trauma (36%) prevailed, mostly of life-threatening severity (43%, 0.64 per mission). Had HEMS been not dispatched, patients would have been attended by another physician in 67% of cases, by paramedics in 24%, and by nurses in 9%. On-board physicians estimated to have caused a major decrease of death risk in 47% of missions, possible decrease in 22%, minor benefit in 17%, no benefit in 11%, and damage in 3%. Earlier treatment and faster transport to hospital were the main reasons for benefit. The most frequent therapeutic procedure was drug administration (78% of missions); endotracheal intubation occurred in 25% of missions and was an option hardly offered by ground crews. Conclusions. The study proved feasible, establishing an embryonic network of European HEMS. The participation rate was low and limits the generalizability of the results. Fortunately, because of its cross-sectional characteristics and the handy availability of the web platform, the study is easily repeatable with an enhanced network. PMID:25538947

  18. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Nehra, Karan; Jayan, Balakrishna; Poonia, Anish; Bhattal, Hiteshwar

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: This cross-sectional retrospective study was designed to assess the relationships among breastfeeding duration, nonnutritive sucking habits, convex facial profile, nonspaced dentition, and distoclusion in the deciduous dentition. Materials and methods: A sample of 415 children (228 males, 187 females) aged 4 to 6 years from a mixed Indian population was clinically examined by two orthodontists. Information about breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits was obtained by written questionnaire which was answered by the parents. Results: Chi-square test did not indicate any significant association among breastfeeding duration, convex facial profile, and distoclusion. Statistically significant association was observed between breastfeeding duration and nonspaced dentition and also between breastfeeding duration and nonnutritive sucking habits. Nonnutritive sucking habits had a statistically significant association with distoclusion and convex facial profile (odds ratio 7.04 and 4.03 respectively). Nonnutritive sucking habits did not have a statistically significant association with nonspaced dentition. Conclusion: The children breastfed < 6 months had almost twofold increased probability for developing sucking habits and nonspaced dentition, respectively, than the children who had breastfeeding > 6 months duration. It can also be hypothesized that nonnutritive sucking habits may act as a dominant variable in the relationship between breastfeeding duration and occurrence of convex facial profile and distoclusion in deciduous dentition. How to cite this article: Agarwal SS, Sharma M, Nehra K, Jayan B, Poonia A, Bhattal H. Validation of Association between Breastfeeding Duration, Facial Profile, Occlusion, and Spacing: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):162-166. PMID:27365941

  19. Frequencies and Associations of Narcolepsy-Related Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Lenise Jihe; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho; Hirotsu, Camila; Araujo, Paula; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica Levy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Narcolepsy is a disabling disease with a delayed diagnosis. At least 3 years before the disorder identification, several comorbidities can be observed in patients with narcolepsy. The early recognition of narcolepsy symptoms may improve long-term prognosis of the patients. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of the symptoms associated with narcolepsy and its social and psychological association in a sample of Sao Paulo city inhabitants. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional evaluation with 1,008 individuals from the Sao Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study (EPISONO). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) was assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Volunteers were also asked about the occurrence of cataplectic-like, hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and sleep paralysis symptoms. The participants underwent a full-night polysomnography and completed questionnaires about psychological, demographic, and quality of life parameters. Results: We observed a prevalence of 39.2% of EDS, 15.0% of cataplectic-like symptom, 9.2% of hypnagogic or hypnopompic hallucinations, and 14.9% of sleep paralysis in Sao Paulo city inhabitants. A frequency of 6.9% was observed when EDS and cataplectic-like symptoms were grouped. The other associations were EDS + hallucinations (4.7%) and EDS + sleep paralysis (7.5%). Symptomatic participants were predominantly women and younger compared with patients without any narcolepsy symptom (n = 451). Narcolepsy symptomatology was also associated with a poor quality of life and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Conclusions: Narcolepsy-related symptoms are associated with poor quality of life and worse psychological parameters. Citation: Kim LJ, Coelho FM, Hirotsu C, Araujo P, Bittencourt L, Tufik S, Andersen ML. Frequencies and associations of narcolepsy-related symptoms: a cross-sectional study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(12):1377–1384. PMID:26235160

  20. Reference Charts for Fetal Cerebellar Vermis Height: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of 10605 Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Cignini, Pietro; Giorlandino, Maurizio; Brutti, Pierpaolo; Mangiafico, Lucia; Aloisi, Alessia; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish reference charts for fetal cerebellar vermis height in an unselected population. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study between September 2009 and December 2014 was carried out at ALTAMEDICA Fetal–Maternal Medical Centre, Rome, Italy. Of 25203 fetal biometric measurements, 12167 (48%) measurements of the cerebellar vermis were available. After excluding 1562 (12.8%) measurements, a total of 10605 (87.2%) fetuses were considered and analyzed once only. Parametric and nonparametric quantile regression models were used for the statistical analysis. In order to evaluate the robustness of the proposed reference charts regarding various distributional assumptions on the ultrasound measurements at hand, we compared the gestational age-specific reference curves we produced through the statistical methods used. Normal mean height based on parametric and nonparametric methods were defined for each week of gestation and the regression equation expressing the height of the cerebellar vermis as a function of gestational age was calculated. Finally the correlation between dimension/gestation was measured. Results The mean height of the cerebellar vermis was 12.7mm (SD, 1.6mm; 95% confidence interval, 12.7–12.8mm). The regression equation expressing the height of the CV as a function of the gestational age was: height (mm) = -4.85+0.78 x gestational age. The correlation between dimension/gestation was expressed by the coefficient r = 0.87. Conclusion This is the first prospective cross-sectional study on fetal cerebellar vermis biometry with such a large sample size reported in literature. It is a detailed statistical survey and contains new centile-based reference charts for fetal height of cerebellar vermis measurements. PMID:26812238

  1. Studies of the dependence of the microwave radar cross section on ocean surface variables during the FASINEX experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissman, D. A.; Li, Fuk

    1988-01-01

    The ability of theoretical radar cross section (RCS) models to predict the absolute magnitude of the ocean radar cross section under a wide variety of sea and atmospheric conditions was studied using experimental data from the FASINEX Experiment. This consists of RCS data from a Ku-band scatterometer mounted on an aircraft (10 separate flights were conducted), a wide variety of atmospheric measurements (including stress) and sea conditions. Theoretical models are tested. Where discrepancies are observed, revisions are hypothesized and evaluated.

  2. Study of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced reactions on rhodium up to 40 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditrói, F.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Hermanne, A.; Yamazaki, H.; Baba, M.; Mohammadi, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.

    2011-09-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of the activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions, excitation functions of the 103Rh(d,x) 100,101,103Pd, 100g,101m,101g,102m,102gRh and 103gRu reactions were determined up to 40 MeV. Cross-sections were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. Excitation functions of the contributing reactions were calculated using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-II and TALYS codes. From the measured cross-section data integral production yields were calculated and compared with experimental integral yield data reported in the literature. From the measured cross-sections and previous data, activation curves were deduced to support thin layer activation (TLA) on rhodium and Rh containing alloys.

  3. Family issues and family functioning of Japanese outpatients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies confirmed that the control of diabetes is related to family functioning, but the validity of the tools used to assess family functioning in these studies is questionable. Few studies have focused on family issues. In this study, we used a new assessment tool to evaluate family functioning and family issues of patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was given to outpatients with type 2 diabetes at a community hospital in Aichi, Japan, between August 2001 and March 2002. First, the patients were asked to answer FACESKGIV-16, which measures cohesion and adaptability, questions regarding family issues, daily lifestyle, and HAD. Physical and serological data were measured. Family functioning, family issues, and relationships between each parameter and family functioning or family issues were analyzed. Results Of the 133 participants, 121 (33.3%) had some sort of family issue. Family issues included “Health problems of family members” (40.9%), “Family life cycle issues” (22.7%), and others. The best fit multiple regression model (Adjusted R2: 0.494, p = 0.020) included Plasma Glucose as an independent variable, and the squared value of cohesion score, depression score of HAD, Total calorie intake, Exercise time, Housekeeping time, and BMI were dependent variables. The results show that extremes of family cohesion with either too many or too few issues related to family functioning are correlated with the plasma glucose level. Conclusions Family issues were common among patients with type 2 diabetes, and the extremes of family cohesion were associated with the glucose level, in contrast to the common wisdom that a well balanced family leads to good control of diabetes. PMID:23799927

  4. HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM: a cross-sectional comparison study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background. Internal migration plays a significant role in China’s HIV epidemic. However, few studies have directly compared migrant men who have sex with men (MSM) with local MSM with regard to HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risks. Methods. We conducted a study in Guangzhou, China, with the aim of understanding the differences in HIV/STIs risks between migrant MSM and local MSM. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 migrant MSM and 249 local MSM in Guangzhou, China. Their behavioral and serologic data on HIV/syphilis were collected and compared between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between HIV/STIs risks and migratory status. Results. Migrant MSM, compared to local MSM, have higher odds of reporting unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) (OR = 1.4; 95% CI [0.9–2.0]) and having multiple homosexual partners (OR = 1.2; 95% CI [0.8–1.8]). A lower rate of condom use at homosexual debut was reported in migrant MSM than in local MSM (OR = 0.7; 95% CI [0.5–0.9]). Migrant MSM have less odds of reporting HIV/STIs testing in the previous 6 months relative to local MSM (OR = 0.5; 95% CI [0.4–0.8]). In addition, migrant MSM demonstrated a lower level of HIV knowledge than local MSM (OR = 0.4; 95% CI [0.2–0.8]). Conclusion. Migrant MSM are more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviors, report a lower level of HIV knowledge and have less access to HIV/STIs testing. Further comprehensive interventions targeting migrant MSM are urged. PMID:27478695

  5. Epidemiology and Reporting Characteristics of Systematic Reviews of Biomedical Research: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Page, Matthew J.; Shamseer, Larissa; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Tricco, Andrea C.; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Li, Lun; Reid, Emma K.; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Moher, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews (SRs) can help decision makers interpret the deluge of published biomedical literature. However, a SR may be of limited use if the methods used to conduct the SR are flawed, and reporting of the SR is incomplete. To our knowledge, since 2004 there has been no cross-sectional study of the prevalence, focus, and completeness of reporting of SRs across different specialties. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a more recent cross-section of SRs. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE to identify potentially eligible SRs indexed during the month of February 2014. Citations were screened using prespecified eligibility criteria. Epidemiological and reporting characteristics of a random sample of 300 SRs were extracted by one reviewer, with a 10% sample extracted in duplicate. We compared characteristics of Cochrane versus non-Cochrane reviews, and the 2014 sample of SRs versus a 2004 sample of SRs. We identified 682 SRs, suggesting that more than 8,000 SRs are being indexed in MEDLINE annually, corresponding to a 3-fold increase over the last decade. The majority of SRs addressed a therapeutic question and were conducted by authors based in China, the UK, or the US; they included a median of 15 studies involving 2,072 participants. Meta-analysis was performed in 63% of SRs, mostly using standard pairwise methods. Study risk of bias/quality assessment was performed in 70% of SRs but was rarely incorporated into the analysis (16%). Few SRs (7%) searched sources of unpublished data, and the risk of publication bias was considered in less than half of SRs. Reporting quality was highly variable; at least a third of SRs did not report use of a SR protocol, eligibility criteria relating to publication status, years of coverage of the search, a full Boolean search logic for at least one database, methods for data extraction, methods for study risk of bias assessment, a primary

  6. Empathy in senior year and first year medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The importance of fostering the development of empathy in undergraduate students is continuously emphasized in international recommendations for medical education. Paradoxically, some studies in the North-American context using self-reported measures have found that empathy declines during undergraduate medical training. Empathy is also known to be gender dependent- (highest for female medical students) and related to specialty preference - (higher in patient-oriented than technology-oriented specialties). This factor has not been studied in Portuguese medical schools. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of undergraduate medical students on self-rated measures of empathy collected at entrance and at the conclusion of the medical degree, and on the association of empathy measures with gender and specialty preferences in one medical school in Portugal. Empathy was assessed using the Portuguese adaptation of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy-students version (JSPE-spv) among three cohorts of undergraduate medical students in the first (N = 356) and last (N = 120) year. The construct validity of JSPE-spv was cross-validated with Principal Component Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach' Alpha. Global JSPE-spv score differences were examined by year of medical school, gender and specialty preferences (people-oriented vs technology-oriented specialties). Results The empathy scores of students in the final year were higher as compared to first year students (F (1,387) = 19.33, p < .001, ɳ2p = 0.48; π = 0.99). Female students had higher empathy scores than male students (F (1,387) = 8.82, p < .01, ɳ 2p = 0.23; π = 0.84). Significant differences in empathy were not found between the students who prefer people-oriented specialties compared to those who favor the technology-oriented specialties (F (1,387) = 2.44, p = .12, ɳ 2p = 0.06; π = 0.06). Conclusions This cross-sectional study in one medical

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. METHODS A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. RESULTS The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. CONCLUSION A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and

  8. Cross-sectional, descriptive study of Chagas disease among citizens of Bolivian origin living in Munich, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Miriam; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Hohnerlein, Stefan; Seiringer, Peter; von Saldern, Charlotte; Garcia, Sarah; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Navaza, Bárbara; Shock, Jonathan; Bretzel, Gisela; Hoelscher, Michael; Löscher, Thomas; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Pritsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Chagas disease (CD) has become a global health issue mainly due to migration. Germany lacks surveillance data and is home to a large Latin American immigrant population. Recognising that Bolivia is the country with the highest CD prevalence in Latin America, this cross-sectional, descriptive pilot study investigated CD and associated factors among citizens of Bolivian origin living in Munich, Germany. Methods Participants completed a questionnaire in order to collect socioeconomic and health-related data. In addition, serology was performed. In case of positive serological tests, PCR diagnostic and clinical staging together with disease management was initiated. Qualitative research was conducted to identify personal and community barriers as well as strategies to increase CD awareness among the population at risk. Results Between June 2013 and June 2014, 43 people from Bolivia (or descendants) were enrolled. A total of 9.3% (4/43), of whom two women were of childbearing age, tested seropositive (ELISA and IFAT), and one also by PCR. For 2/4 positive participants, clinical evaluation was performed and the indeterminate form of CD was diagnosed. Knowledge about CD symptoms and ways of transmission were completely absent among 55.8% (24/43, 2/4 with CD) and 30.2% (13/43, 1/4 with CD) of participants, respectively. A total of 27.9% (12/43, 0/4 with CD) of participants had donated blood prior to the study, whereas 62.8% (27/43, 3/4 with CD) were motivated to donate blood in the future. The qualitative research identified lack of knowledge as well as stigma and fears related to CD. Conclusions Despite the small number of participants, the prevalence of CD as well as the potential risk of non-vectorial transmission was alarming. Campaigns adapted for Latin American migrants as well as control strategies should be developed and put in place in order to prevent non-vectorial transmission and actively detect cases of CD in Germany. PMID:28093440

  9. Sexual Dysfunction among Females Receiving Psychotropic Medication: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shetageri, Veda N.; Bhogale, Govind S.; Patil, N. M.; Nayak, R. B.; Chate, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a known adverse effect of psychotropic medications. Even though sexual difficulties are common among women; very few studies have been carried out in India. Objective: To study the prevalence and nature of SD among females receiving psychotropic medications and to compare the SD among female patients receiving antipsychotics and antidepressants. Materials and Methods: Female investigator conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study on female patients visiting the psychiatry outpatient department. Patients meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for SD disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Text Revision. SD severity was measured using Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scale. Results: The prevalence of SD in this study was 68.32%. There was more than one SD in 48 (47.52%). FSFI score was significantly low in patients with SD as compared to patients not having SD (P = 0.001). SD was more common in patients who were on combination of antidepressants and benzodiazepines than antidepressant alone or antipsychotic alone. Conclusion: SD was prevalent in more than 50% of female patients on psychotropic drugs. Number of patients on individual psychotropic drugs was so small that a definite conclusion could not be drawn. Study emphasizes the need to carry out similar study on larger number of patients to get better insight into this problem. PMID:27833229

  10. Sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sebo, Paul; Jackson, Yves; Haller, Dagmar M; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Wolff, Hans

    2011-06-01

    Undocumented migrants face major barriers in accessing prevention and health care. Whereas the association between low socioeconomic status and poor health is well documented only few studies have addressed specific health issues in undocumented migrants. The aim of the present study is to describe sexual and reproductive health behaviors of undocumented migrants in Geneva. This descriptive cross sectional study included consecutive undocumented migrants presenting from November 2007 to February 2008 to a health facility offering free access to health care to this population. Following informed consent, they completed a self administered questionnaire about their socio-demographic profile and sexual and reproductive health behaviors. A total of 384 patients were eligible for the study. 313 (82%) agreed to participate of which 77% (241 patients) completed the survey. Participants were mainly young, Latino-American, single, well-educated and currently working women. They had multiple partners and reported frequently engaging in sexual intercourse. Use of contraceptive methods and strategies of prevention against sexually transmitted infections (STI) were rare. Nearly half of the women had had at least one induced abortion and 40% had had an unplanned pregnancy. One in four participants reported a current or past STI or other genital infection. The results of our study suggest that undocumented migrants engage in frequent and high risk sexual intercourse with insufficient use of contraceptive methods and suboptimal strategies of prevention against STI. Our study underlines the real need for specific sexual and reproductive educational programs targeting this hard to reach population.

  11. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27–2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57–0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection. PMID:27573193

  12. Dietary Patterns are Associated with Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yang; Meng, Ge; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Wu, Hongmei; Shi, Hongbin; Bao, Xue; Su, Qian; Gu, Yeqing; Fang, Liyun; Yu, Fei; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Bin; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-08-30

    Previous studies indicated that food consumption was associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, but no study has yet investigated the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between Helicobacter pylori infection and dietary patterns in Tianjin, China. The final cross-sectional study population comprised 10407 participants. Dietary consumption of participants was assessed via food frequency questionnaire. Factor analysis was used to identify dietary patterns, and Helicobacter pylori infection status was diagnosis by H. pylori urease Immunogold Testing kit. Participants in the highest quartile of the high-carbohydrate/sweet pattern showed a multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.65 (1.27-2.17) for the prevalence of H. pylori infection compared with those in the lowest quartile. The multiple adjusted OR for scores of the extreme quartile of high-protein/cholesterol pattern was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57-0.98). This study demonstrated that a diet rich in carbohydrates and sweets was positively associated with the prevalence of H. pylori infection; interestingly, a diet characterized by high intake of animal offal, animal blood, fish, seafood, and poultry was associated with a reduction of prevalence of H. pylori infection.

  13. Polysomnographic Findings and Clinical Correlates in Huntington Disease: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Carla; Losurdo, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo; Solito, Marcella; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Cortelli, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the sleep pattern and the motor activity during sleep in a cohort of patients affected by Huntington disease (HD). Design: Cross-sectional cohort study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: Thirty HD patients, 16 women and 14 men (mean age 57.3 ± 12.2 y); 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 56.5 ± 11.8 y). Interventions: Subjective sleep evaluation: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Berlin's Questionnaire, interview for restless legs syndrome (RLS), questionnaire for REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Clinical evaluation: disease duration, clinical severity (unified Huntington disease motor rating scale [UHDMRS]), genetic tests. Laboratory-based full-night attended video-polysomnography (V-PSG). Measurements and Results: The duration of the disease was 9.4 ± 4.4 y, UHMDRS score was 55.5 ± 23.4, CAG repeats were 44.3 ± 4.1. Body mass index was 21.9 ± 4.0 kg/m2. No patients or caregivers reported poor sleep quality. Two patients reported symptoms of RLS. Eight patients had an ESS score ≥ 9. Eight patients had high risk of obstructive sleep apnea. At the RBD questionnaire, two patients had a pathological score. HD patients, compared to controls, showed shorter sleep, reduced sleep efficiency index, and increased arousals and awakenings. Four patients presented with sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Periodic limb movements (PLMs) during wake and sleep were observed in all patients. No episode of RBD was observed in the V-PSG recordings, and no patients showed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep without atonia. The disease duration correlated with ESS score (P < 0.02). UHMDRS correlated positively with the ESS score (P < 0.005), and negatively with the percentage of REM sleep. Conclusions: Patients with Huntington disease showed a severe sleep disruption and a high prevalence of periodic limb movements, but no evidence of sleep disordered breathing or REM sleep behavior disorder. Citation: Piano C, Losurdo A, Della Marca G, Solito M

  14. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Symptoms in Pediatric Narcolepsy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lecendreux, Michel; Lavault, Sophie; Lopez, Régis; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Konofal, Eric; Cortese, Samuele; Franco, Patricia; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the frequency, severity, and associations of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with narcolepsy with and without cataplexy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Four French national reference centers for narcolepsy. Patients: One hundred eight consecutively referred children aged younger than 18 y with narcolepsy, with (NwC, n = 86) or without cataplexy (NwoC, n = 22), and 67 healthy controls. Interventions: The participants, their families, and sleep specialists completed a structured interview and questionnaires about sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ADHD symptoms (ADHD-rating scale based upon Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision [DSM-IV-TR] symptoms), and use of psychostimulants for the treatment of narcolepsy (administered in 68.2%). Polysomnographic measures were collected. Measurements and Results: Clinically significant levels of ADHD symptoms were found in 4.8% of controls compared with 35.3% in patients with NwoC (P < 0.001) and 19.7% in patients with NwC (P < 0.01). Total ADHD scores were 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.5, 9.0) in controls compared with 14.2 (95% CI: 10.6, 18.9; P < 0.001), in patients with NwoC and 12.2 (95% CI: 9.8, 15.3; P < 0.01) in patients with NwC; subscores of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were also significantly higher in both narcolepsy groups compared with controls. No difference was found between the NwC and NwoC groups for any ADHD measure. ADHD symptom severity was associated with increased levels of sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia. Compared with the 34 untreated patients, the 73 patients treated with psychostimulants (modafinil in 91%) showed a trend toward lower narcolepsy symptoms but not lower ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Pediatric patients with narcolepsy have high levels of treatment-resistant attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. The optimal treatment for

  15. Family Context and Khat Chewing among Adult Yemeni Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    AL-abed, AL-abed Ali; Sutan, Rosnah; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Khat chewing is associated with unfavourable health outcomes and family dysfunction. Few studies have addressed the factors associated with khat chewing among Yemeni women. However, the family and husband effects on chewing khat by women have not been addressed. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of khat chewing among Yemeni women and its associated factors, particularly husbands and family factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 692 adult Yemeni women in the city of Sana'a in Yemen using structured “face to face” interviews. Mean (±SD) age of women was 27.3 years (±6.10). The prevalence of chewing khat by women was 29.6%. Factors associated with chewing khat among women were chewing khat by husbands (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.53), being married (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.37), frequent family social gatherings (OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.10), high family income (OR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.21), larger house (OR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.16, 2.31), and age of women (OR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.92). It is concluded that khat chewing by women in this study was significantly associated with family factors and with khat chewing by their husbands. Urgent action is needed to control khat chewing particularly among women. PMID:24982886

  16. Prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in Karnataka and Kerala population: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Savita, J. K.; Yathindra Kumar, B. N.; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Ranjitha, J.; Pujari, Ravi Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the incidence and prevalence of palatal rugae shapes in the male and female populations of Karnataka and Kerala. Materials and Methods: This study consisted of 100 plaster models of each group, which were equally distributed between both the genders, with an age range of 17–23 years. The rugae patterns were recorded by using Thomas and Kotze classification. Correlation between the rugae shape and population as well as the rugae shape and gender were analyzed using chi-square analysis and discriminant function analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 22 (IBM Corp). Results: Curved, straight, and wavy rugae patterns were the most common in both Kerala and Karnataka sample populations. Chi-square analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved pattern; discriminant function analysis showed significant differences between the populations for the curved and straight patterns. Significant gender differences were found in the curved pattern for Karnataka population and in unification patterns for both populations by Chi-square/Fischer exact test. Conclusions: The curved and straight rugae patterns were significantly more frequent in the Kerala population compared to the Karnataka population. Because of the limited sample size of this study, further cross-sectional studies are suggested. PMID:27382539

  17. Clergy-laity support and patients’ mood during serious illness: A cross-sectional epidemiologic study

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Judith C.; Wood, Laura; Steinhauser, Karen; Olson, Maren K.; Lindquist, Jennifer H.; Tulsky, James

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Religious participation is positively associated with mental health, but attendance at worship services declines during serious illness. This study assessed whether home visits by clergy or laity provide benefits to seriously ill patients who may have difficulty attending religious services. Design and sample A cross-sectional study design nested in an observational epidemiologic cohort study. The regionally-representative sample of patients had metastatic lung, colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer (n=70), Class III and IV congestive heart failure (n=70), or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with hypercapnea (n=70) and observed regarding clergy-laity support in their naturalistic environments. Measures Dependent variable: 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression scale. Independent variable: A one-item question measuring how much helpful support patients received from clergy or other persons from church, temple, synagogue, or mosque Covariates: demographic, health, social support, religiousness. Analysis Descriptive, bivariate, and general linear models Results Depressed mood was negatively associated with clergy-laity support in a non-linear pattern. Depressed mood was also positively associated with functional deficits and a lifetime history of difficulties related to religious involvement. Conclusions In lieu of worship attendance when people are sick, home visits by members of a patient’s religious community may bolster mood by providing continuity of instrumental, emotional, and spiritual support. PMID:21838948

  18. Internet use, Facebook intrusion, and depression: Results of a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Błachnio, A; Przepiórka, A; Pantic, I

    2015-09-01

    Facebook has become a very popular social networking platform today, particularly among adolescents and young adults, profoundly changing the way they communicate and interact. However, some reports have indicated that excessive Facebook use might have detrimental effects on mental health and be associated with certain psychological problems. Because previous findings on the relationship between Facebook addiction and depression were not unambiguous, further investigation was required. The main objective of our study was to examine the potential associations between Internet use, depression, and Facebook intrusion. A total of 672 Facebook users took part in the cross-sectional study. The Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used. For collecting the data, the snowball sampling procedure was used. We showed that depression can be a predictor of Facebook intrusion. Our results provides additional evidence that daily Internet use time in minutes, gender, and age are also predictors of Facebook intrusion: that Facebook intrusion can be predicted by being male, young age, and an extensive number of minutes spent online. On the basis of this study, it is possible to conclude that there are certain demographic - variables, such as age, gender, or time spent online - that may help in outlining the profile of a user who may be in danger of becoming addicted to Facebook. This piece of knowledge may serve for prevention purposes.

  19. A Cross-sectional Anthropometric Study of Cranial Capacity among Ukwuani People of South Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eboh, Dennis Erhisenebe; Okoro, Ewaen Churchill; Iteire, Kingsley Afoke

    2016-01-01

    Background Cranial capacity is used as a measure of brain volume and has a relationship with age and gender. The purpose of this study was to provide normative data and population-, age- and gender-specific regression formulae related to cranial capacity using head dimensions among the Ukwuani people of Nigeria. Methods This study included 605 subjects grouped according to age as follows: 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years. A cross-sectional study design using multistage sampling technique was adopted. Head length, head width, and auricular head height were measured in centimetres using a spreading caliper, and cranial capacity was calculated. The data were analysed using SPSS 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied. A t-test was used to identify significant gender differences. Regression analyses were performed to derive age-, gender- and population-specific models. P-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results In all the parameters, males had significantly higher values than females (P < 0.05). The mean (SD) cranial capacity values at 6–12 years, 13–19 years and ≥20 years were 1176.95 (98.35) cc, 1288.59 (113.21) cc and 1408.90 (116.44) cc, respectively. Conclusions All the parameters exhibited sexual dimorphism. Cranial capacity was found to increase with age. The models derived in this work will be relevant to population and growth studies as well as forensic anthropology. PMID:27904428

  20. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87–5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships. PMID:26402695

  1. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R.; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. Methods. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. Results. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41–55 dBA) and severely (71–90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). Conclusion. This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat. PMID:26904137

  2. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Prison Inmates in Ethiopia, a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Solomon; Haileamlak, Abraham; Wieser, Andreas; Pritsch, Michael; Heinrich, Norbert; Loscher, Thomas; Hoelscher, Michael; Rachow, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Setting Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major health problems in prisons. Objective This study was done to assess the prevalence and determinants of active tuberculosis in Ethiopian prisons. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to December 2013 in 13 zonal prisons. All incarcerated inmates underwent TB symptom screening according to WHO criteria. From identified TB-suspects two sputum samples were analyzed using smear microscopy and solid culture. A standardized questionnaire assessing TB risk factors was completed for each TB suspect. Results 765 (4.9%) TB suspects were identified among 15,495 inmates. 51 suspects were already on anti-TB treatment (6.67%) and 20 (2.8%) new culture-confirmed TB cases were identified in the study, resulting in an overall TB prevalence of 458.1/100,000 (95%CI: 350-560/100,000). Risk factors for active TB were alcohol consumption, contact with a TB case before incarceration and no window in prison cell. HIV prevalence was not different between TB suspects and active TB cases. Further, the TB burden in prisons increased with advancing distance from the capital Addis Ababa. Conclusions The overall TB prevalence in Ethiopian prisons was high and extremely variable among different prisons. TB risk factors related to conditions of prison facilities and the impact of implemented TB control measures need to be further studied in order to improve TB control among inmates. PMID:26641654

  3. Health Impact of Domestic Violence against Saudi Women: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Al Dosary, Ahmad Hamad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Domestic violence is a major public health problem. A wide range of health hazards result from violence against women directly, or from its long-term consequences. The objective of this study is to determine health related consequences of domestic violence against women. Method A community based cross-sectional study was carried through online survey; convenience sample was taken during the period between December 2013 and February 2014. 421 women completed the survey, who met the inclusion criteria and accepted willing to be a part of this study. The data was collected through online survey website. A validated Arabic version of NorVold Domestic Abuse Questionnaire (NOVAQ) was used as a tool to assess domestic violence among the study sample. Analysis was performed using SPSS, version 18.0. Results A total of 421 women participated in the survey. There was no significant correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and being abused or not. However, by further analysis we found more sexual abuse among non-working women P=0.048. There was significant correlation between abused women and general health status, doctor visits, depression, insomnia, and somatic symptoms. Conclusion The consequences of abuse are profound, extending beyond the health of individual to affect the well-being of entire community. So, we recommend to increase community awareness through national awareness campaign, national prevalence survey of domestic violence and well trained health professionals for assessing domestic violence cases. PMID:27103898

  4. Associations between Dietary Patterns and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meilin; Zhu, Yufeng; Li, Ping; Chang, Hong; Wang, Xuan; Liu, Weiqiao; Zhang, Yuwen; Huang, Guowei

    2015-09-21

    Few studies have examined the association between Asian dietary pattern and prediabetes, in particular, the Chinese diet. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify dietary patterns associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) which considered a state of prediabetes in Chinese men. The study included 1495 Chinese men aged 20 to 75 years. Information about diet was obtained using an 81-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and 21 predefined food groups were considered in a factor analysis. Three dietary patterns were generated by factor analysis: (1) a vegetables-fruits pattern; (2) an animal offal-dessert pattern; and (3) a white rice-red meat pattern. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of IFG for the highest tertile of the animal offal-dessert pattern in comparison with the lowest tertile was 3.15 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.87-5.30). The vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was negatively associated with the risk of IFG, but a significant association was observed only in the third tertile. There was no significant association between IFG and the white rice-red meat pattern. Our findings indicated that the vegetables-fruits dietary pattern was inversely associated with IFG, whereas the animal offal-dessert pattern was associated with an increased risk of IFG in Chinese men. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-prediabetes relationships.

  5. Cross-sectional study of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in human fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge on the normative spinal growth is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. The present study determines the height, transverse and sagittal diameters, cross sectional area, and volume of individual C1–S5 vertebral bodies. Material and methods Using the methods of computed tomography (CT), digital image analysis, and statistics, the size of C1–S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17–30 weeks was examined. Results All the 5 examined parameters changed significantly with gestational age (p < 0.01). The mean height of vertebral bodies revealed an increase from the atlas (2.39 ±0.54 mm) to L2 (4.62 ±0.97 mm), stabilized through L3–L4 (4.58 ±0.92 mm, 4.61 ±0.84 mm), and then was decreasing to S5 (0.43 ±1.06 mm). The mean transverse diameter of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (1.20 ±1.96 mm) to L1 (6.24 ±1.46 mm), so as to stabilize through L2–L3 (6.12 ±1.65, 6.12 ±1.61 mm), and finally was decreasing to S5 (0.26 ±0.96 mm). There was an increase in sagittal diameter of vertebral bodies from the atlas (0.82 ±1.34 mm) to T7 (4.76 ±0.85 mm), its stabilization for T8–L4 (4.73 ±0.86 mm, 4.71 ±1.02 mm), and then a decrease in values to S5 (0.21 ±0.75 mm) was observed. The values for cross-sectional area of vertebral bodies were increasing from the atlas (2.95 ±5.25 mm2) to L3 (24.92 ±11.07 mm2), and then started decreasing to S5 (0.48 ±2.09 mm2). The volumetric growth of vertebral bodies was increasing from the atlas (8.60 ±16.40 mm3) to L3 (122.16 ±74.73 mm3), and then was decreasing to S5 (1.60 ±7.00 mm3). Conclusions There is a sharp increase in size of fetal vertebral bodies between the atlas and the axis, and a sharp decrease in size within the sacral spine. In human fetuses the vertebral body growth is characterized by maximum values in sagittal diameter for T7, in transverse diameter for L1, in height for L2, and in both cross-sectional area and volume for

  6. Theoretical and experimental study on electron interactions with chlorobenzene: Shape resonances and differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Alessandra Souza; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Sanchez, Sergio d'A.; Ameixa, João; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Ferreira da Silva, Filipe; Bettega, Márcio H. F.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we report theoretical and experimental cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by chlorobenzene (ClB). The theoretical integral and differential cross sections (DCSs) were obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method implemented with pseudopotentials (SMCPP) and the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR). The calculations with the SMCPP method were done in the static-exchange (SE) approximation, for energies above 12 eV, and in the static-exchange plus polarization approximation, for energies up to 12 eV. The calculations with the IAM-SCAR method covered energies up to 500 eV. The experimental differential cross sections were obtained in the high resolution electron energy loss spectrometer VG-SEELS 400, in Lisbon, for electron energies from 8.0 eV to 50 eV and angular range from 7∘ to 110∘. From the present theoretical integral cross section (ICS) we discuss the low-energy shape-resonances present in chlorobenzene and compare our computed resonance spectra with available electron transmission spectroscopy data present in the literature. Since there is no other work in the literature reporting differential cross sections for this molecule, we compare our theoretical and experimental DCSs with experimental data available for the parent molecule benzene.

  7. Self-rated health in centenarians: a nation-wide cross-sectional Greek study.

    PubMed

    Tigani, Xanthi; Artemiadis, Artemios K; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Chrousos, George P; Darviri, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Self-rated health (SRH) is an inclusive measure of public health that is correlated with quality of life and subsequent mortality. Extensive literature has identified multiple determinants of SRH in different populations. However, such studies on centenarians are scarce and parsimonious. Our objective is to identify SRH determinants in centenarians. This is a nationwide cross-sectional study on 400 Greek centenarians that was carried out between 2007 and 2010. SRH was evaluated by a simple question with a 5-point scale. Three categories of SRH were formed (very good/good/poor), which served as the dependent variable in multinomial regression models. Various sociodemographic, disease-related, lifestyle and psychosocial variables were assessed as candidate determinants of SRH. According to our results, SRH ratings among centenarians were better than that expected according to previous studies showing worse SRH ratings with increasing age in Greece. The 22.4% of the variance in SRH among centenarians was predicted by gender, habitat region and status, financial problems, disease presence and autonomy. Among lifestyle and psychosocial variables, obesity, good relationships with children, lack of feelings of loneliness, high optimism, adaptability and an internal health locus of control profile were independently associated with good SRH. These results indicate that SRH in individuals of extreme longevity were related to specific personal psychosocial factors that contribute to healthy aging and thus support the biopsychosocial model of health promotion.

  8. A cross-sectional study on bovine tuberculosis in Hawassa town and its surroundings, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Tassew, Asmelash; Amenu, Kebede; Megersa, Bekele; Abunna, Fufa; Mekibib, Berhanu; Marcotty, Tanguy; Macrotty, Tanguy; Ameni, Gobena

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa town and its surroundings from October 2007 to May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) based on comparative interadermal tuberculin test (CIDT) and abattoir survey. Accordingly, 39 herds comprising 413 cattle were subjected to CIDT, and the herd and individual animal prevalence were 48.7% (19/39) and 11.6% (48/413), respectively. One of the 16 milk samples collected from tuberculin-positive cows was culture positive. The prevalence significantly differed among the age group (P = 0.001) and management system (P = 0.001). Thus, age group over four (OR = 7.9) and animal with poor management system (OR = 4.1) had a higher odds for tuberculin reactivity compared to those with age group under four and cattle with good management system, respectively. Of the total 1,023 cattle subjected to postmortem examination, 11 (1.1%) were found to be positive for gross tuberculous lesions. Larger proportion (50%) of TB lesion was recorded in the respiratory pathway followed by digestive system (28.6%) and prescapular lymph nodes (21.4%). Of 14 tissue specimens collected from the gross lesions, four (28.6%) were positive for histopathological TB lesions. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of BTB in the study area in particular and the region in general.

  9. Association between Social Relationship and Glycemic Control among Older Japanese: JAGES Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Nagamine, Yuiko; Tani, Yukako; Shirai, Kokoro; Tazuma, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Aim The present study examined whether social support, informal socializing and social participation are associated with glycemic control in older people. Methods Data for this population-based cross-sectional study was obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) 2010 linked to the annual health check-up data in Japan. We analyzed 9,554 individuals aged ≥65 years without the certification of needed long-term care. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of social support, informal socializing and social participations on glycemic control. The outcome measure was HbA1c ≥8.4%. Results 1.3% of the participants had a level of HbA1c over 8.4%. Better glycemic control was significantly associated with meeting with friends one to four times per month (odds ratio [OR] 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]0.30–0.89, compared to meeting with friends a few times per year or less) and participation in sports groups (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.26–0.97) even after adjusting for other variables. Meeting with friends more than twice per week, receiving social support, and being married were not associated with better control of diabetes. Conclusions Meeting with friends occasionally is associated with better glycemic control among older people. PMID:28060887

  10. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco; Huici, Omar; Lander, Flemming; Bælum, Jesper; Konradsen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution. PMID:16630337

  11. Associations between green space and health in English cities: an ecological, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bixby, Honor; Hodgson, Susan; Fortunato, Léa; Hansell, Anna; Fecht, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Green space has been identified as a modifiable feature of the urban environment and associations with physiological and psychological health have been reported at the local level. This study aims to assess whether these associations between health and green space are transferable to a larger scale, with English cities as the unit of analysis. We used an ecological, cross-sectional study design. We classified satellite-based land cover data to quantify green space coverage for the 50 largest cities in England. We assessed associations between city green space coverage with risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer and suicide between 2002 and 2009 using Poisson regression with random effect. After adjustment for age, income deprivation and air pollution, we found that at the city level the risk of death from all causes and a priori selected causes, for men and women, did not significantly differ between the greenest and least green cities. These findings suggest that the local health effects of urban green space observed at the neighbourhood level in some studies do not transfer to the city level. Further work is needed to establish how urban residents interact with local green space, in order to ascertain the most relevant measures of green space.

  12. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 348 children enrolled in grade 1 to grade 9 was done in Ongkhaluck province in Thailand. Demographic and anthropometric data were gathered. Blood tests were also performed to check for blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 4.0%. Metabolic syndrome was found in 0.7% of non-obese/non-overweight children and 17.6% of obese/overweight children. Participants with metabolic syndrome were found to be significantly older, heavier, and taller and to have higher parameters of adiposity when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Obesity was significantly correlated with every criterion of diagnosis of metabolic syndrome except Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children is consistent with other reports from across the world. PMID:24959487

  14. Knowledge, perceptions and use of generic drugs: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Oliveira, Jéssica Nathalia Soares; Andrade, Marília dos Santos; Vancini-Campanharo, Cássia Regina; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of knowledge, perceptions and usage profile for generic drugs among laypersons. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted with 278 volunteers (180 women and 98 men, aged 37.1±15.8 years). A questionnaire was drawn up with questions on their use, perceptions and knowledge of generic drugs. Results Most respondents (99.6%) knew that generic drugs exist, but only 48.6% were able to define them correctly, while 78.8% of the respondents had some information about generics. This information was obtained mainly through television (49.3%). In terms of generic drug characteristics, 79.1% stated that they were confident about their efficacy, 74.8% believed that generic drugs have the same effect as branded medications, 88.8% said that generics were priced lower than branded medications, and 80.2% stated that they bought generic drugs because of price. With regard to drugs prescribed by medical practitioners, 17.6% of the participants said that their doctors never prescribed generics and only 7.5% confirmed that their doctors always prescribed generics. Conclusion For the lay public, the sample in this study has sufficient knowledge of generic drugs in terms of definition, efficacy and cost. Consequently, the volunteers interviewed are very likely to use generics. Furthermore, the results of this study indicate that programs should be implemented in order to boost generic drug prescriptions by medical practitioners. PMID:25295444

  15. Burnout Syndrome and associated factors among medical students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliva Costa, Edméa Fontes; Santos, Shirley Andrade; de Abreu Santos, Ana Teresa Rodrigues; de Melo, Enaldo Vieira; de Andrade, Tarcísio Matos

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and levels of burnout syndrome among medical students at the Universidade Federal de Sergipe-Brazil and to identify associated factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed with randomly selected students in 2009. The Maslach Burnout Inventory/Student Survey (MBI-SS) and a structured questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, the educational process, and individual aspects were used. Statistical evaluation of multiple variables was performed through backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of burnout was 10.3% (n = 369). The prevalence was higher among those who did not have confidence in their clinical skills (Odds Ratio–OR = 6.47), those who felt uncomfortable with course activities (OR = 5.76), and those who did not see the coursework as a source of pleasure (OR = 4.68). CONCLUSION: There was a significant prevalence of burnout among the medical students studied. Three variables, in particular, were associated with burnout and were directly related to the medical education process. Preventive and intervention measures must be adopted, and longitudinal studies should be conducted. PMID:22760894

  16. Epidemiological Study of Sepsis in China: Protocol of a Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Xie, Jian-Feng; Yu, Kai-Jiang; Yao, Chen; Li, Jian-Guo; Guan, Xiang-Dong; Yan, Jing; Ma, Xiao-Chun; Kang, Yan; Yang, Cong-Shan; Yao, Xiao-Qing; Shang, Hong-Cai; Qiu, Hai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated. Conclusions: This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472. PMID:27958229

  17. Brain Ultrasonography Findings in Neonatal Seizure; a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Saeed; Partovi, Parinaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Screening of newborns with seizure, who have curable pathologic brain findings, might be able to improve their final outcome by accelerating treatment intervention. The present study aimed to evaluate the brain ultrasonography findings of newborns hospitalized with complaint of seizure. Methods: The present cross-sectional study designed to evaluate brain ultrasonography findings of hospitalized newborns complaining seizure. Neonatal seizure was defined as presence of tonic, clonic, myoclonic, and subtle attacks in 1 - 28 day old newborns. Results: 100 newborns with the mean age of 5.82 ± 6.29 days were evaluated (58% male). Most newborns were in the < 10 days age range (76%), term (83%) and with normal birth weight (81%). 22 (22%) of the ultrasonography examinations showed a pathologic finding. A correlation was only found between birth age and probability of the presence of a pathologic problem in the brain as the frequency of these problems was significantly higher in pre-term newborns (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, frequency of pathologic findings in neonatal brain ultrasonography was 22%. Hemorrhage (12%) and hydrocephaly (7%) were the most common findings. The only factor correlating with increased probability of positive findings was the newborns being pre-term. PMID:28286848

  18. Association between Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Control in Peruvian School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Uceda, Mónica; Ziegler, Otto; Lindo, Felipe; Herrera-Pérez, Eder

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are highly prevalent conditions that cause major illness worldwide. This study aimed to assess the association between allergic rhinitis and asthma control in Peruvian school children. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 256 children with asthma recruited in 5 schools from Lima and Callao cities. The outcome was asthma control assessed by the asthma control test. A score test for trend of odds was used to evaluate the association between allergic rhinitis severity and the prevalence of inadequate asthma control. A generalized linear regression model was used to estimate the adjusted prevalence ratios of inadequate asthma control. Results. Allergic rhinitis was present in 66.4% of the population with asthma. The trend analysis showed a positive association between allergic rhinitis and the probability of inadequate asthma control (P < 0.001). It was associated with an increased prevalence of inadequate asthma control, with adjusted prevalence ratios of 1.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.19−1.98). Conclusion. This study indicates that allergic rhinitis is associated with an inadequate level of asthma control, giving support to the recommendation of evaluating rhinitis to improve asthma control in children. PMID:23984414

  19. Factors related to taste sensitivity in elderly: cross-sectional findings from SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Uota, M; Ogawa, T; Ikebe, K; Arai, Y; Kamide, K; Gondo, Y; Masui, Y; Ishizaki, T; Inomata, C; Takeshita, H; Mihara, Y; Maeda, Y

    2016-12-01

    The sense of taste is important, as it allows for assessment of nutritional value, as well as safety and quality of foods, with several factors suggested to be associated with taste sensitivity. However, comprehensive variables regarding taste and related factors have not been utilised in previous studies for assessments of sensitivity. In the present study, we performed cross-sectional analyses of taste sensitivity and related factors in geriatric individuals who participated in the SONIC Study. We analysed 2 groups divided by age, 69-71 years (young-old, n = 687) and 79-81 years (old-old, n = 621), and performed a general health assessment, an oral examination and determination of taste sensitivity. Contributing variables were selected by univariate analysis and then subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. In both groups, females showed significantly better sensitivity for bitter and sour tastes. Additionally, higher cognitive scores for subjects with a fine taste for salty were commonly seen in both groups, while smoking, drinking, hypertension, number of teeth, stimulated salivary flow salt intake and years of education were also shown to be associated with taste sensitivity. We found gender and cognitive status to be major factors affecting taste sensitivity in geriatric individuals.

  20. Factors Affecting Happiness: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Iranian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdadi, Amir; Sadeghian, Shahnaz; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Happiness is one of the most important concepts in the mental health that has an impact on different aspects of young people. Aim The present study was conducted to identify the factors influencing on happiness among young persons in Liam, Iran during 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young population 15-29-year-old. Multistage cluster random sampling method was used to select the participants. Data were collected using two demographic and Oxford Happiness Inventory. SPSS software Package 14 was used to analyse the data. Results A total of 500 young people, including 272 men and 228 women were enrolled. The Mean ± SD of the participants’ age was 20 ± 2.18 years. There was a significant relationship between the happiness score and location in urban and rural, employment status and physical activity. There was not a significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with happiness score among participants. Conclusion The age groups, type of occupation, physical activity and place of residence were factors associated with happiness in young persons. However, there was not significant relationship between gender, marital status and education level with a happiness score among study participants. PMID:27437333

  1. Intrauterine growth standards: a cross-sectional study in a population of nigerian newborns.

    PubMed

    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Adesiyun, Omotayo O; Suleiman, Mohammed B; Bello, Mustapha

    2012-07-31

    The aim of the study was to define an intrauterine growth curve for a population of Nigerian newborn babies. A cross-sectional observational study design was adopted. Weight, length and head circumference were all measured in consecutive singleton deliveries at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a 3-year period. Gestational age (GA) of the babies was estimated from the last menstrual period or first trimester ultrasound. The estimates obtained were clinically validated using the Ballard score. Mean birth weights and percentiles of the weight, length and head circumferences for the respective GA were estimated using the SPSS 15 software package. A total of 5273 babies were recruited for the study with GA ranging from 25-44 weeks. Comparison of the mean birth weights of the various GA with the data from Denver, Colorado, showed that Nigerian babes tended to weigh less at the early GA, although these differences were not statistically significant. Between 26-36 weeks, the average weights of both sexes were similar; however, beyond this time point there was a consistent increase in the average weight of the males over the female babies. Growth curves for Nigerian newborn babies were generated and showed that the mean birth weight of Nigerian preterm babies was lighter than that of babies in Colorado. The impact of these differences on the classification of newborns will require further evaluation.

  2. Prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia in Dubai and Northern Emirates: a cross-sectional hospital based study.

    PubMed

    Vela, Barbara Karin; Alhessi, Alaaeldin Y; Popović, Marko; Al-Shaqra, Maryam A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of unrecognized dyslipidaemia and a specific correlation between lipid values and age, gender or ethnic origin in the study population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 311 subjects who had their lipid profiles checked for the first time in a private hospital in Dubai in a six month - period. The analysis shows an increased prevalence of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) hypercholesterolemia with relatively higher Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) values in male subjects (p < 0.016) as well as with the Middle East ethnic origin group (p < 0.025), while desirable High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-c) was found among female subjects (p = 0). The discordance between the percentages of elevated LDL-c and Total cholesterol (T-c) signifies the role of the LDL-c/non-HDL-c as the main surrogate for dyslipidaemia as a risk for atherosclerosis, and as a primary target of therapy.

  3. Psychological Violence in the Health Care Settings in Iran: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Najafi, Fereshteh; Ghazanfari, Nahid; Tamizi, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Hatam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence that can affect professional performance and job satisfaction of health care workers. Although several studies have been conducted in Iran, but there is no consensus regarding current status of such violence. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychological violence among healthcare workers employed at teaching hospitals in Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 5874 health professionals were selected using multistage random sampling. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire developed by the International Labor Organization, International Council of Nurses, World Health Organization, and Public Services International. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: It was found that 74.7% of the participants were subjected to psychological violence during the past 12 months. Totally, 64.5% of psychological violence was committed by patients’ families, but 50.9% of participants had not reported the violence, and 69.9% of them believed that reporting was useless. Conclusions: The results are indicative of high prevalence of psychological violence against healthcare workers. Considering non-reporting of violence in more than half of participants, use of an appropriate reporting system and providing training programs for health professionals in order to prevent and manage workplace violence are essential. PMID:25830157

  4. Factors Associated With Scoliosis in Schoolchildren: a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Baroni, Marina Pegoraro; Sanchis, Geronimo José Bouzas; de Assis, Sanderson José Costa; dos Santos, Rafael Gomes; Pereira, Silvana Alves; Sousa, Klayton Galante; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of scoliosis and to analyze the factors associated with scoliosis in schoolchildren aged between 7 and 17 years. Methods This is a cross-sectional and quantitative study with stratified random selection of public school students in the city of Santa Cruz, Brazil. The presence of scoliosis was examined, as well as the flexibility of the posterior muscle chain, socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometry, lifestyle habits, sexual maturation, and ergonomics of school furniture. In order to identify factors associated with scoliosis, the variables were divided in biological, socioeconomic, lifestyle, and ergonomic factors, and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) were estimated by means of Poisson regression analysis. Results Two hundred and twelve pupils participated in this study (mean age 11.61 years, 58% female). The prevalence of scoliosis was 58.1% (n = 123) and associated with female sex (PR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.33–4.86) and age between 13 and 15 years (PR 5.35; 95% CI, 2.17–13.21). Sleeping in a hammock was inversely associated with scoliosis (PR 0.44; 95% CI, 0.23–0.81). Conclusions Scoliosis seems to be positively associated with female sex and age between 13 and 15 years, whereas the habit of sleeping in a hammock is negatively associated with the onset of scoliosis. PMID:25716134

  5. Evaluation of prescriptions of medicines not included in Iran medicine list: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA) has the mission to regulate all aspects of pharmaceutical market including registration of the new medicines. Iran Drug Selection Committee has the responsibility to maintain and revise Iran Medicine List (IML). The National law has banned production, importation, distribution, and prescription of medicines not included in IML. Although, IFDA policy makers have created a mechanism to provide medicines not included in the list but might be essential for the treatment of specific patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on prescription of out of IML medicines during the year 2015. This study was conducted on a total of 1375 application forms received by Secretariat of Iran Drug Selection Committee for prescription of out of IML medicines. Findings: It has been shown that among 402 specialist physicians, the most out of IML medicine were prescribed by oncologist/hematologist. Antineoplastic and immunomodulating agents were the most frequently prescribed medicines both in terms of number and diversity. According to the collected data, more than 76% of all medicines were supplied by only 4 out of 25 pharmaceutical companies in 1 year. Conclusion: Results of this study show that despite its early intention this mechanism is easily abused by some pharmaceutical companies as an unethical way of induced demand and marketing of their products. Therefore, IFDA decision makers should revise this mechanism and decide based on its real benefits and harms both to the patients and Iran national health system. PMID:27843958

  6. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and risk of diabetes in Indian women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sutapa; Fledderjohann, Jasmine

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data from high-income countries suggest that women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are more likely to develop diabetes later in life. Objective We investigated the association between pre-eclampsia and eclampsia (PE&E) during pregnancy and the risk of diabetes in Indian women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting India. Methods Data from India's third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3, 2005–2006), a cross-sectional survey of women aged 15–49 years, are used. Self-reported symptoms suggestive of PE&E were obtained from 39 657 women who had a live birth in the 5 years preceding the survey. The association between PE&E and self-reported diabetes status was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for dietary intake, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, frequency of TV watching, sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Results The prevalence of symptoms suggestive of PE&E in women with diabetes was 1.8% (n=207; 95% CI 1.5 to 2.0; p<0.0001) and 2.1% (n=85; 95% CI 1.8 to 2.3; p<0.0001), respectively, compared with 1.1% (n=304; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.4) and 1.2% (n=426; 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5) in women who did not report any PE&E symptoms. In the multivariable analysis, PE&E was associated with 1.6 times (OR=1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.94; p<0.0001) and 1.4 times (OR=1.36; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.77; p=0.001) higher risk for self-reported diabetes even after controlling for dietary intake, BMI and sociodemographic characteristics. Conclusions HDP is strongly associated with the risk of diabetes in a large nationally representative sample of Indian women. These findings are important for a country which is already tackling the burden of young onset of diabetes in the population. However, longitudinal medical histories and a clinical measurement of diabetes are needed in this low-resource setting. PMID:27496230

  7. Peripheral regulatory cells immunophenotyping in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction IL-10--producing B cells, Foxp3-expressing T cells (Tregs) and the IDO-expressing dendritic cells (pDC) are able to modulate inflammatory processes, to induce immunological tolerance and, in turn, to inhibit the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease. The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral IL-10--producing B cells, Tregs and pDCregs in primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) patients in regard of their clinical and serologic activity. Methods Fifty pSS patients and 25 healthy individuals were included in the study. CD19+--expressing peripheral B lymphocytes were purified by positive selection. CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/IL-10--producing B cells, CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ and CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs, as well as CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, were quantitated by flow cytometry. Results Immature/transitional circulating IgA+ IL-10--producing B cells had higher levels in pSS patients versus control group, whereas CD19+/CD38hi/IgG+/IL-10+ cells had lower percentage versus control. Indeed CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD5+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD20+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+, and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CXCR7+/IL-10+ cells had higher frequency in clinical inactive pSS patients when compared with control group. Remarkably, only percentages of CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+ and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+ subsets were increased in pSS serologic inactive versus control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of IDO-expressing pDC cells was higher in pSS patients regardless of their clinical or serologic activity. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ Tregs between patient groups versus controls. Nonetheless, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs was found in inactive pSS patients versus controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of this exploratory study show that clinical inactive pSS patients have an increased frequency of IL-10--producing B cells

  8. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Psychological Needs of Adults Living with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Pakhale, Smita; Baron, Justine; Armstrong, Michael; Tasca, Georgio; Gaudet, Ena; Aaron, Shawn; Cameron, William; Balfour, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression and anxiety are prevalent in people with cystic fibrosis (CF), yet psychological services are rarely accessible in CF clinics. This cross-sectional single center study reports on a psychological needs assessment of people with CF. Methods We asked adults attending a CF clinic, without integrated psychological services, to complete a psychological needs assessment survey that included items on: a) past access to psychological services (via a CF referral service), b) concerns relevant to discuss with a psychologist, and c) their likelihood of accessing psychological services if available at the CF clinic, and standardized measures of depression (CES-D) and anxiety (GAD-7). Results We enrolled 49 participants and 45 (91.8%) completed the survey. Forty percent reported elevated symptoms of depression and 13% had elevated anxiety. A majority of individuals (72.2% and 83.3%, respectively) indicated they would be likely to use psychological services, if available at the clinic. Concerns considered most relevant to discuss with a psychologist were: 1) worries (51.1%), 2) mood (44.4%), 3) life stress (46.6%), 4) adjustment to CF (42.2%), 5) life transitions (42.2%) and 6) quality of life (42.2%). Conclusions This study highlights the rationale for screening adults with CF for depression and anxiety, and to facilitate provision of psychological services and preventative mental health interventions as an integral component of multi-disciplinary CF care. PMID:26102351

  9. The learning style preferences of chiropractic students: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Whillier, Stephney; Lystad, Reidar P.; Abi-Arrage, David; McPhie, Christopher; Johnston, Samara; Williams, Christopher; Rice, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aims of our study were to measure the learning style preferences of chiropractic students and to assess whether they differ across the 5 years of chiropractic study. Methods A total of 407 (41.4% females) full-degree, undergraduate, and postgraduate students enrolled in an Australian chiropractic program agreed to participate in a cross-sectional survey comprised of basic demographic information and the Visual, Aural, Read/Write, Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire, which identifies learning preferences on four different subscales: visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic. Multivariate analysis of variance and the χ2 test were used to check for differences in continuous (VARK scores) and categorical (VARK category preference) outcome variables. Results The majority of chiropractic students (56.0%) were found to be multimodal learners. Compared to the other learning styles preferences, kinesthetic learning was preferred by a significantly greater proportion of students (65.4%, p < .001) and received a significantly greater mean VARK score (5.66 ± 2.47, p < .001). Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time chiropractic students have been shown to be largely multimodal learners with a preference for kinesthetic learning. While this knowledge may be beneficial in the structuring of future curricula, more thorough research must be conducted to show any beneficial relationship between learning style preferences and teaching methods. PMID:24350945

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection is not correlated with subclinical thrombocytopenia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Samson, Annette D; Schipperus, Martin R; Langers, Alexandra M J; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2014-01-01

    In a small percentage of patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), H. pylori eradication has a positive effect on platelet counts. Whether H. pylori infection is associated with a lower thrombocyte count in persons without clinical ITP is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional study to compare thrombocyte count between H. pylori infected (n=108) and H. pylori non-infected patients (n=600) who underwent a diagnostic gastroscopy. The mean thrombocyte count in H. pylori negative patients was 257 × 10(9)/l, in H. pylori positive patients 252 × 10(9)/l (mean difference 5 × 10(9)/l, 95% CI: -23 to 14). Subgroup analysis did not show significant differences either. In the patient group without apparent comorbidity, there were no subjects with thrombocyte counts <120. In 36 H. pylori positive patients in whom data post-eradication was available, platelet counts pre- and post-eradication were similar. In conclusion, this study could not demonstrate a lower thrombocyte count in H. pylori infected patients or in subgroups of H. pylori infected patients compared to non-infected subjects.

  11. Distress among caregivers of phase I trial participants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Angela; Eckhardt, S. Gail; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Kilbourn, Kristin; Mauss, Iris B.; Bowles, Daniel W.; Hecker, Sharon; Fairclough, Diane L.; Kutner, Jean S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The number of patients with cancer enrolling in phase I trials is expected to increase as these trials incorporate patient selection and exhibit greater efficacy in the era of targeted therapies. Despite the fact that people with advanced cancer often require a caregiver, little is known about the experience of caregivers of people enrolling in oncology phase I clinical trials. We conducted a cross-sectional study assessing the distress and emotion regulation of caregivers of phase I trial participants to inform the design of future interventions targeting the unique needs of this population. Methods Caregivers of oncology patients were approached at the patient’s phase I clinical trial screening visit. Caregiver participants completed a one-time survey incorporating validated instruments to comprehensively assess distress and emotion regulation. Basic demographic information about both the caregiver and patient was collected. Results Caregivers exhibited greater distress than population norms. Emotion regulation was also moderately impaired. Respondents identified positive aspects of caregiving despite exhibiting moderate distress. Conclusion Enrollment of a patient in a phase I clinical trial is a time of stress for their caregivers. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of engaging caregivers of phase I trial participants and the need to better support them through this component of their caregiving experience. PMID:25120010

  12. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Mônica R. O. G. C. M.; Badaró, Ana Fátima V.; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents. PMID:25372002

  13. Injecting drug users and their health seeking behavior: a cross-sectional study in dhaka, bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27-38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior.

  14. Prevalence of Iron deficiency anemia in children with liver cirrhosis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zareifar, Soheila; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Rahanjam, Najmeh; Farahmand Far, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the many complications reported for cirrhosis, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) has attracted much attention. This type of anemia, in contrast to other types of anemia, is easy to treat prophylactically, but if left untreated can lead to a poor quality of life. The aim of this study was to estimate the hemoglobin and serum iron levels among patients with liver cirrhosis for the early diagnosis of IDA and to avoid unnecessary testing and iron supplementation. Subjects and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 88 children diagnosed with cirrhosis were included, and the values of hemoglobin, serum iron levels and relationship between serum iron (SI), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), prothrombine time (PT), international normalization ratio (INR), total and direct bilirubin and hepatic enzymes were estimated using paired t test, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Forty-six (52.3%) of 88 children were girls and 42 (47.7%) were boys. Forty-eight (54.5%) patients had anemia and 8 (9%) had iron deficiency anemia (5 boys, 5.6%, and 3 girls, 3.4%). No relationships were observed between iron deficiency anemia and the patient’s age or gender, whereas there was a relationship between iron deficiency and severity and duration of the disease, although the correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The high frequency of iron deficiency anemia in children with cirrhosis (9%) suggests that timely screening should be used for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26261697

  15. Sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among Brazilian dental students: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Tirsa-Costa, Débora; Guimarães, Flávia Helena; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of sleep bruxism, awake bruxism and sleep quality among dental students of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed including 183 Brazilian dental students aged from 17 to 46 years old. The complete course curriculum consists of 9 semesters. Students enrolled in the first semester, the middle semester and the final semester of the course participated in the survey. The PSQI-BR (the Brazilian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Questionnaire Index) was used for data collection. The PSQI-BR was distributed during lecture classes. Sleep bruxism and awake bruxism diagnosis was based on self-reported data. Descriptive analysis, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Poisson regression with robust estimator were the statistical tests used. Sleep bruxism prevalence was 21.5% and awake bruxism prevalence was 36.5%. Sleep duration components were associated with sleep bruxism (PR=1.540; 95% CI: 1.00-2.37) and awake bruxism (PR=1.344; 95% CI: 1,008-1,790). There was an association between awake bruxism and habitual sleep efficiency component (PR=1.323; 95% CI: 1.03-1.70). Sleep disturbance component and awake bruxism were associated (PR=1.533; 95% CI: 1.03-2.27). Poor sleep quality was an important factor among dental students, who reported sleep bruxism as well as among those who presented awake bruxism.

  16. Patients’ Dignity and Its Relationship with Contextual Variables: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zirak, Mohammad; Ghafourifard, Mansour; Aliafsari Mamaghani, Ebrahim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dignity is considered as fundamental human needs and recognized as one of the central concepts in nursing science. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which patients’ dignity is respected and to evalutae its relationship with contextual variables. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 256 hospitalized patients in the two teaching hospitals affiliated to Zanjan University of medical sciences, Iran. Data were collected by a questionnaire consist of two sections: (a) demographic characteristics, and (b) patient dignity including 32 questions. Data were analyzed by SPSS (ver.13) software using independent t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: The result showed that the mean (standard deviation) of total score of patient’s dignity was 108.17 (25.28). According to the result, the majority of the respondents (76.2%) were not aware of patient’s rights. There was a significant difference in mean scores of total dignity between single and married persons, living in city or village, and hospitalization in Moosavi and Valiasr hospital. Conclusion: Health care systems should take the provision of the patients' dignity into account through using a comprehensive educational program for informing of patient, family members, and health professionals about patients’ dignity. PMID:28299297

  17. Late Neurosyphilis and Tertiary Syphilis in Guangdong Province, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Chen, Lei; Yang, Ligang; Tucker, Joseph D.; Zheng, Heping; Yang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Due to challenges in diagnosis and the need for complex laboratory tests, misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis is common in China. We validated the diagnosis and examined the treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis in Guangdong Province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted to collect data from late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases reported between 2009 and 2014 in Guangdong, China. Descriptive analysis, bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the structural factors associated with correct diagnosis and standard treatment of late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis. Among the 3805 respondents (3805/3936, 96.7%), 1,837 (48.3%) met the misdiagnosed criteria. The misdiagnosis rate decreased over the study period (54.2% in 2009 and 41.8% in 2014). Only 27.1% and 24.9% of the correctly diagnosed late neurosyphilis and tertiary syphilis cases received standard treatment, respectively. Multiple logistic regression revealed that departments of dermatology or STDs [aOR = 3.24, 95% CI: 2.66–3.95], county or township level hospitals [aOR = 2.89, 95% CI: 2.14–3.89], and hospitals situated outside of Pearl River Delta area [aOR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.46–1.97] had higher likelihood in misdiagnosis of neurosyphilis, compared to the reference groups. Targeted trainings for physicians and expanded syphilis screening services are urgently needed. PMID:28338084

  18. Factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination of the elderly in Spain: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Godoy, Pere; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Castilla, Jesús; Mayoral, José María; Tamames, Sonia; Martín, Vicente; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Astray, Jenaro; Project Pi12/02079 Working Group

    2016-07-02

    Vaccination of the elderly is an important factor in limiting the impact of pneumonia in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients aged ≥ 65 years hospitalized for causes unrelated to pneumonia, acute respiratory disease, or influenza-like illness in Spain. We made a cross-sectional study during 2013-2014. A bivariate analysis was performed comparing vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, taking into account sociodemographic variables and risk medical conditions. A multivariate analysis was performed using multilevel regression models. 921 patients were included; 403 (43.8%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine (394 received the polysaccharide vaccine). Visiting the general practitioner ≥ 3 times during the last year (OR = 1.79; 95% CI 1.25-2.57); having received the influenza vaccination in the 2013-14 season (OR = 2.57; 95% CI 1.72-3.84) or in any of the 3 previous seasons (OR = 11.70; 95% CI 7.42-18.45) were associated with receiving the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. Pneumococcal vaccination coverage of hospitalized elderly people is low. The elderly need to be targeted about pneumococcal vaccination and activities that encourage healthcare workers to proactively propose vaccination might be useful. Educational campaigns aimed at the elderly could also help to increase vaccination coverages and reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease in the community.

  19. Health impact of chest binding among transgender adults: a community-engaged, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gardner, Ivy; Weinand, Jamie; Corbet, Alexandra; Acevedo, Kimberlynn

    2017-01-01

    Chest binding involves the compression of chest tissue for masculine gender expression among people assigned a female sex at birth, particularly transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. There are no peer-reviewed studies that directly assess the health impacts of chest binding, yet transgender community resources commonly discuss symptoms such as pain and scarring. A cross-sectional 32-item survey was administered online to an anonymous, non-random sample of adults who were assigned a female sex at birth and had had experience of binding (n = 1800). Multivariate regression models were used to identify practices associated with self-reported health outcomes. Of participants, 51.5% reported daily binding. Over 97% reported at least one of 28 negative outcomes attributed to binding. Frequency (days/week) was consistently associated with negative outcomes (22/28 outcomes). Compression methods associated with symptoms were commercial binders (20/28), elastic bandages (14/28) and duct tape or plastic wrap (13/28). Larger chest size was primarily associated with dermatological problems. Binding is a frequent activity for many transmasculine individuals, despite associated symptoms. Study findings offer evidence of how binding practices may enhance or reduce risk. Clinicians caring for transmasculine patients should assess binding practices and help patients manage risk.

  20. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guisen; Li, Yan; Teng, Xuelong; Wu, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Ren, Fengmei; Guo, Yuxia; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Han

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in Baotou, Inner Mongolia.A cross-sectional study was carried out. Multistage sampling was used to select samples. The visual acuity was estimated using LogMAR and corrected by pinhole as best-corrected visual acuity.There were 7000 samples selected and 5770 subjects included in this investigation. The overall bilateral prevalence rates of low vision and blindness were 3.66% (95% CI: 3.17-4.14) and 0.99% (95% CI: 0.73-1.24), respectively. The prevalence of bilateral low vision, blindness, and visual impairment increased with age and decreased with education level. The main leading cause of low vision and blindness was cataract. Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration were found to be the second leading causes of blindness in Baotou.The low vision and blindness were more prevalent in elderly people and subjects with low education level in Baotou. Cataract was the main cause for visual impairment and more attention should be paid to fundus diseases. In order to prevent blindness, much more eye care programs should be established.

  1. Injecting Drug Users and Their Health Seeking Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tuhin; Bhuiyan, Faiz Ahmed; Islam, Md. Serajul; Rahman, Mohammad Mizanur; Nessa, Hurun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aim. Injecting drug users (IDUs) are amongst the most vulnerable people to acquisition of HIV/AIDS. This study aims to collect information on IDUs and their health seeking behavior in Bangladesh. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 IDUs attending a drug rehabilitation center in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were collected on sociodemographics, drug use, health seeking behavior, knowledge of injecting drugs, and sexual behavior. Results. The mean ± SD and median (IQR) age of the participants were 32.5 ± 21.3 and 33 (27–38) years, respectively, with only 9.2% females. Injection buprenorphine was the drug of choice for 40% of participants, and 58% of the participants first started drug use with smoking cannabis. 73.3% of participants shared needles sometimes and 57.5% were willing to use the needle exchange programs. 60% of the participants had no knowledge about the diseases spread by injection. Condom use during the last intercourse with regular partners was 11.7% and with any partners 15.8%. Conclusion. IDUs in Bangladesh are a high-risk group for HIV/AIDS due to lack of knowledge and risky behaviors. Education and interventions specifically aimed at IDUs are needed, because traditional education may not reach IDUs or influence their behavior. PMID:25692067

  2. Domestic elder abuse in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Rezaeipandari, Hassan; Dehghani, Ali; Zeinali, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Social changes due to urbanism, acculturation, and fading of values have led to some challenges in family relationships, including domestic elder abuse. This study was conducted to determine elder abuse status in Yazd, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 elderly people over 60 years in Yazd in 2014-2015. Clustered random sampling was used to recruit the participants from 10 clusters in Yazd (25 individuals from each cluster). The data were gathered by the 49-item,Iranian Domestic Elder Abuse Questionnaire which was filled out through private interviews with the participants. Results: Mean score of elder abuse was 11.84 (SD: 12.70) of total 100. Of the participants,79.6% (95% CI: 74.5-84.6) experienced at least one type of abuse. Emotional neglect was the most reported abuse and physical abuse was the least reported. Abuse score was associated with age, education level, living status, and insurance status of elders. Further, those who reported history of gastrointestinal problems, dyslipidemia, respiratory diseases, sleep disorders, audiovisual problems, joints pain, hypertension, dental/oral problems, cardiovascular disease,urinary incontinence and disability, reported a statistically significant higher abuse score. Conclusion: Despite overall low rate of domestic elder abuse, its high prevalence indicates that some interventions are necessary to decrease domestic elder abuse. Emotional neglect of elders should be addressed more than other abuse types. PMID:27386426

  3. Smart phone usage and addiction among dental students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Elluru; Jemal, Mohammad Yousef Al; Samani, Abdullah Saleh Al

    2017-04-06

    Purpose The main aim of this research is to explore measures of smart phone usage, smart phone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behavior-related variables among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods A Cross sectional study involving sample of 205 dental students from Qaseem Private College were surveyed for smart phone use and addiction using the short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Results Smart phone addiction was seen in 136 (71.9%) of the 189 students. The findings from our study revealed that high stress levels, low physical activity, higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of smart phone usage, higher frequency of usage, shorter time period until first smart phone use in the morning and social networking sites (SNS) were associated significantly with the smart phone addiction. Conclusion The current research gives the information about the extent of smart phone over usage and addiction among the dental students in Saudi Arabia with indication of the predictors of addiction and the need for further research in the area with comprehensible interpretation to spread the awareness of the smart phone addiction.

  4. Association between walking, dysphoric mood and anxiety in late pregnancy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Danica; Perovic, Milan; Lazovic, Biljana; Pantic, Igor

    2016-12-30

    Relationship between physical activity and mental disorders in late pregnancy is unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that there is a significant association between the time spent on walking and symptoms of depression and anxiety in antenatal period. The cross-sectional study was done on a sample of 200 healthy women in 9th month of physiological pregnancy at Health center Kraljevo, Serbia during 2015. Each participant was given a questionnaire consisting of general questions regarding physical activity, pregnancy, and other parameters. Also, each participant completed a Beck depression inventory (BDI) and Zung anxiety scale (ZAS). There was a statistically significant negative correlation (p<0.05) between the BDI score and the daily time spent on walking. There was also a strong positive connection between the daily time spent on walking and level of anxiety (p<0.01). To our knowledge this is the first study to jointly test the relationship between scores of Beck depression inventory and Zung anxiety scale, and time spent on walking as physical activity in antenatal period. The results represent the basis for further research in the field of gynecological psychology, psychiatry and behavioral physiology.

  5. Emergency and trauma care in Pakistan: a cross-sectional study of healthcare levels

    PubMed Central

    Razzak, Junaid A; Baqir, Syed M; Khan, Uzma Rahim; Heller, David; Bhatti, Junaid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    Background The importance of emergency medical care for the successful functioning of health systems has been increasingly recognised. This study aimed to evaluate emergency and trauma care facilities in four districts of the province of Sindh, Pakistan. Method We conducted a cross-sectional health facility survey in four districts of the province of Sindh in Pakistan using a modified version of WHO’s Guidelines for essential trauma care. 93 public health facilities (81 primary care facilities, nine secondary care hospitals, three tertiary hospitals) and 12 large private hospitals were surveyed. Interviews of healthcare providers and visual inspections of essential equipment and supplies as per guidelines were performed. A total of 141 physicians providing various levels of care were tested for their knowledge of basic emergency care using a validated instrument. Results Only 4 (44%) public secondary, 3 (25%) private secondary hospitals and all three tertiary care hospitals had designated emergency rooms. The majority of primary care health facilities had less than 60% of all essential equipments overall. Most of the secondary level public hospitals (78%) had less than 60% of essential equipments, and none had 80% or more. A fourth of private secondary care facilities and all tertiary care hospitals (n=3; 100%) had 80% or more essential equipments. The average percentage score on the physician knowledge test was 30%. None of the physicians scored above 60% correct responses. Conclusions The study findings demonstrated a gap in both essential equipment and provider knowledge necessary for effective emergency and trauma care. PMID:24157684

  6. Iranian Nurses’ Views on Barriers and Facilitators in Patient Education: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanli, Somayeh; Jahromi, Zohreh Badiyepeymaie

    2015-01-01

    Background: As a major factor in patient-centered care, patient education has a great impact on the quality of care provided by nurses; however, clinical nurses’ performance with regard to patient education is not satisfactory. This study is an attempt to investigate barriers and facilitators in patient education from nurses’ point of view. Methods: 122 nurses at Jahrom University of Medical Sciences participated in this descriptive-cross sectional study. Sampling was based on the census method. The questionnaire used to collect data included questions about nurses’ demography, barriers (10 questions), and facilitators (10 questions) in patient education. The questionnaire was designed to be completed independently. To analyze the data, the researchers used descriptive statistics, including frequency, mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest scores related to barriers to patient education were: nurses’ insufficient knowledge, patients’ physical and emotional unpreparedness, and lack of a proper environment for education. The most important facilitators, on the other hand, were: enhancement of instructing nurses’ knowledge and skills, motivating nurses, and a step-by-step approach to patient education. Conclusion: It is important that nurses be prepared and motivated to train their patients. By satisfactory patient education on the part of nurses, patients will be more willing to cooperate in the treatment process. PMID:26156926

  7. Prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in Fabry disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Samuel; Auboire, Laurent; Jaussaud, Roland; Lidove, Olivier; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; Triclin, Nathalie; Imbert, Bernard; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2015-05-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal disorder leading to progressive systemic involvement, including microvascular damage that leads to neurological and cardiovascular disorders. We hypothesize that the latter could be documented at an early stage by performing a microcirculation study with nailfold capillaroscopy and evaluation of Raynaud phenomenon.The objective was to measure the prevalence of Raynaud phenomenon and nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities in FD.This cross-sectional study included a standardized questionnaire and a nailfold capillaroscopy that assessed previously reported patterns in FD (dystrophic and giant capillaries, avascular fields, irregular architecture, dilatation and density of capillaries, hemorrhage), and was conducted on 32 Fabry patients and 39 controls. Capillaroscopic photographs were reviewed by 2 independent blinded investigators.Twelve Fabry patients (38%) suffered from Raynaud phenomenon, 5 were males (ie, 50% of male Fabry patients), compared with 2 controls (13%) (P < 0.001), of whom none were males (P < 0.001). Raynaud phenomenon was concomitant or before the occurrence of pain in the extremities in 42% of Fabry patients.More ramified capillaries were significantly observed in Fabry patients (12/32, 38%) than in controls (5/39, 13%, P = 0.016).Secondary Raynaud phenomenon should lead to screening for FD, especially in men. By extension, in high-risk populations for FD, the presence of Raynaud phenomenon and ramified capillaries should be assessed.

  8. Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain. Design setting and participants We carried out an observational cross-sectional study in 2011. We selected a systematic sample of 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads regulated by traffic lights in all 10 districts of Barcelona. We calculated the prevalence rates and 95% CIs of smoking and SHS exposure in cars, and the corresponding ORs adjusting for the potential confounding variables. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.5% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.4%) and was greater for commercial vehicles (9.8%; 95% CI 7.1% to 12.5%). The prevalence of SHS exposure was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) of passengers under 14 years of age were exposed to SHS in vehicles. Conclusions This study highlights the need to promote public health measures aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in vehicles, especially in the presence of children, as well as enforcement of the current Spanish law against smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis. PMID:22119753

  9. Noise Annoyance in Urban Children: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Grelat, Natacha; Houot, Hélène; Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Acoustical and non-acoustical factors influencing noise annoyance in adults have been well-documented in recent years; however, similar knowledge is lacking in children. The aim of this study was to quantify the annoyance caused by chronic ambient noise at home in children and to assess the relationship between these children′s noise annoyance level and individual and contextual factors in the surrounding urban area. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted including 517 children attending primary school in a European city. Noise annoyance was measured using a self-report questionnaire adapted for children. Six noise exposure level indicators were built at different locations at increasing distances from the child′s bedroom window using a validated strategic noise map. Multilevel logistic models were constructed to investigate factors associated with noise annoyance in children. Noise indicators in front of the child′s bedroom (p ≤ 0.01), family residential satisfaction (p ≤ 0.03) and socioeconomic characteristics of the individuals and their neighbourhood (p ≤ 0.05) remained associated with child annoyance. These findings illustrate the complex relationships between our environment, how we may perceive it, social factors and health. Better understanding of these relationships will undoubtedly allow us to more effectively quantify the actual effect of noise on human health. PMID:27801858

  10. Exploring Health Literacy in Medical University Students of Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Huang, Wenjie; Lu, Lu; Bai, Ruixue; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Health literacy is important in public health and healthcare, particularly in effective communication between patients and health professionals. Although most medical students will eventually work as health professionals after graduation, research on health literacy of medical students is scarce. This study aimed to assess the health literacy level of medical students in Chongqing, China, and its influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted and 1,275 participants (250 males and 1,022 females) who majored in five different disciplines were involved. The Health Literacy Questionnaire was used as the survey tool. The junior students obtained the highest scores, whereas the freshman students had the lowest scores on each scale. The average score of males was higher than that of females except in “feeling understood and supported by healthcare providers,” and the average score of students who reside in urban areas was higher than that of students in rural areas. Moreover, the average score of engineering students was higher than that of medical or health sciences students. Multiple linear regression models (Radj2 = 0.435, P = 0.000) showed that the grade, socioeconomic status, and parent’s highest level of education were positively correlated with health literacy. In conclusion, the health literacy levels of the medical students are insufficient and need improvement. PMID:27050169

  11. Burn Injury-Specific Home Safety Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Arshi, Shahnam; Bazargani, Homayoun Sadeghi; Mohammadi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of injury specific home safety investigation and to examine the home safety status focused on burn related safety in a rural population in the North-West of Iran. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 265 rural households of rural Meshkinshahr, Iran. Cluster sampling method was used in 38 clusters with 7 households in each cluster. Clusters were selected on a probability proportional to size (PPS) basis using the available health census database called D-Tarh. Data were analyzed using the statistical software package STATA 8. Results Possible risks were explored in fields of house structure; cooking and eating attitudes and behaviors; cooking appliances, specific appliances such as picnic gas burners, valors (traditional heaters), samovars (traditional water boilers), and air-heating appliances. Many safety concerns were explored needing to draw the attention of researchers and public health policy makers. Conclusion Injury specific home safety surveys are useful and may provide useful information for safety promotion interventions. PMID:23209574

  12. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  13. Public support for tobacco control policy extensions in Western Australia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Michael; Wood, Lisa; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Policy makers seeking to introduce new tobacco control measures need to anticipate community support to assist them in planning appropriate implementation strategies. This study assessed community support for plain packaging and smoking bans in outdoor locations in Australia. Design Analytical cross-sectional survey. Setting and participants 2005 Western Australian adults participated in a computer-assisted telephone interview. Random household telephone numbers were used to obtain a representative sample. Outcome measures Support for plain packaging of cigarettes and smoking bans at outdoor venues by demographic characteristics. Results Around half of the survey respondents supported plain packaging and almost a further quarter reported being neutral on the issue. Only one in three smokers disagreed with the introduction of a plain packaging policy. A majority of respondents supported smoking bans at five of the six nominated venues, with support being strongest among those with children under the age of 15 years. The venues with the highest levels of support were those where smoke-free policies had already been voluntarily introduced by the venue managers, where children were most likely to be in attendance, and that were more limited in size. Conclusions The study results demonstrate community support for new tobacco control policies. This evidence can be used by public policy makers in their deliberations relating to the introduction of more extensive tobacco control regulations. PMID:22382124

  14. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis.

  15. Depression, Anxiety and Symptoms of Stress among Hong Kong Nurses: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Teris; Yip, Paul S.F.

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological data suggests 13.3% of Hong Kong residents suffered from Common Mental Disorders, most frequently mixed anxiety and depressive disorder. This study examines the weighted prevalence and associated risk factors of depression, anxiety and stress among Hong Kong nurses. A total of 850 nurses were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 and multiple logistic regression was used to determine significant relationships between variables. Chronic past-year illness and poor self-perceived mental health were significant correlates of past-week depression, anxiety and stress. It confirmed further positive correlations between depression and divorce, widowhood and separation, job dissatisfaction, disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity levels and sleep problems. Marital status; general medicine; sleep problems, and a lack of leisure significantly correlated with anxiety. Stress was significantly associated with younger age, clinical inexperience, past-year disturbance with colleagues, low physical activity, no leisure and drinking alcohol. Nurses were more depressed, anxious and stressed than the local general population, with over one-third of our respondents classified as subject to these disorders. PMID:26371020

  16. Oral mixing ability and cognition in elderly persons with dementia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weijenberg, R A F; Lobbezoo, F; Visscher, C M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-07-01

    Masticatory performance has been positively associated with cognitive ability in both animals and healthy humans. We hypothesised that there would also be a positive correlation between masticatory performance and cognition in older persons suffering from dementia. Older persons suffering from dementia (n = 114) and receiving institutionalised care were studied in a cross-sectional design. The assessments included masticatory performance, which was measured objectively with a two-colour gum mixing ability test, and cognition, which was assessed with a multidomain neuropsychological test battery. Significant relationships were observed between masticatory performance and general cognition and between masticatory performance and verbal fluency. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the correlation with general cognition was influenced by the scores for dependency in activities of daily living. The association between verbal fluency and masticatory performance was not significantly affected by secondary variables. An unexpected limitation of this study was the high dropout rate for the mixing ability test. The clinical implications of these findings are profound; care professionals should endeavour to maintain and stimulate mastication in older persons with dementia in an attempt to preserve cognition.

  17. Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mônica R O G C M; Badaró, Ana Fátima V; Dall'Agnol, Marinel M

    2014-10-10

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents.

  18. Dental pain in the medical emergency department: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Currie, C C; Stone, S J; Connolly, J; Durham, J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the number of patients attending a medical emergency department (MED) with dental problems over a three-year period. This cross-sectional study was carried out as part of a service evaluation. Data were collected via a database search of patient attendances at the MED using free text and the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) for oral and dental diagnoses. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-squared tests. Over the three-year period, there were 2504 visits to the MED for dental-related complaints, accounting for 0·7% of all attendances. The majority of patients were male (53·9%), with a mean age of 29 (s.d. 19·4) years for men, and 32 (s.d. 19·7) years for females. The mean index of multiple deprivation per cent rank was 35·0%. The most common diagnosis was unspecified dental disorder. Ten per cent of dental attendances to MED were repeat attendances by the same patients. In conclusion, patient attendances at MED for dental problems account for 0.7% of all attendances. MED may not be the most appropriate place for these patients to attend, in terms of care pathways, and also for economic reasons. The reasons why patients attend MED for dental problems clearly warrant further research.

  19. Drug use, mental health and problems related to crime and violence: cross-sectional study1

    PubMed Central

    Claro, Heloísa Garcia; de Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira; Bourdreaux, Janet Titus; Fernandes, Ivan Filipe de Almeida Lopes; Pinho, Paula Hayasi; Tarifa, Rosana Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the correlation between disorders related to the use of alcohol and other drugs and symptoms of mental disorders, problems related to crime and violence and to age and gender. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study carried out with 128 users of a Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and other Drugs, in the city of São Paulo, interviewed by means of the instrument entitled Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Short Screener. Univariate and multiple linear regression models were used to verify the correlation between the variables. Results: using univariate regression models, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and problems related to crime/violence proved significant and were included in the multiple model, in which only the internalizing symptoms and problems related to crime and violence remained significant. Conclusions: there is a correlation between the severity of problems related to alcohol use and severity of mental health symptoms and crime and violence in the study sample. The results emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary and intersectional character of attention to users of alcohol and other drugs, since they live in a socially vulnerable environment. PMID:26626010

  20. Working and Environmental Factors on Job Burnout: A Cross-sectional Study Among Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Galletta, Maura; Portoghese, Igor; Ciuffi, Marta; Sancassiani, Federica; Aloja, Ernesto D'; Campagna, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout is a problem that impacts on the staff management costs and on the patient care quality. Objective: This work aimed to investigate some psychosocial factors related to burnout. Specifically, we explored the sample characteristics for moderate/high emotional exhaustion, cynicism and professional inefficacy, as well as the relationship between both working and environmental variables and burnout. Method: A cross-sectional study involving 307 nurses from one Italian hospital was carried out. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data. Data analysis was performed by using SPSS 19.0. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between nurses with low and moderate/high burnout in all the three components in almost all the examined organizational variables. In addition, we found that the aspects of working life had a significant impact on the three dimensions of burnout. Conclusions: The findings of this study not only can provide useful basis for future research in the field, but also can offer practical suggestions for improving nursing practice and promote effective workplace, thus reducing the risk burnout among nurses. PMID:27990173

  1. Electronic Cigarette Use and Smoking Abstinence in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study of Quitting Methods

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Tomoyasu; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Nakahara, Rika; Kunugita, Naoki; Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Yumiko

    2017-01-01

    The benefit of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in smoking cessation remains controversial. Recently, e-cigarettes have been gaining popularity in Japan, without evidence of efficacy on quitting cigarettes. We conducted an online survey to collect information on tobacco use, difficulties in smoking cessation, socio-demographic factors, and health-related factors in Japan. Among the total participants (n = 9055), 798 eligible persons aged 20–69 years who smoked within the previous five years were analyzed to assess the relationship between the outcome of smoking cessation and quitting methods used, including e-cigarettes, smoking cessation therapy, and unassisted. E-cigarette use was negatively associated with smoking cessation (odds ratio (OR) = 0.632; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.414–0.964) after adjusting for gender, age, health-related factors, and other quitting methods. Conversely, smoking cessation therapy (i.e., varenicline) was significantly associated with smoking cessation (OR = 1.885; 95% CI = 1.018–3.492) in the same model. For effective smoking cessation, e-cigarette use appears to have low efficacy among smokers in Japan. Allowing for the fact that this study is limited by its cross-sectional design, follow-up studies are needed to assess the prospective association between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation. PMID:28218695

  2. Hypersomnolence and accidents in truck drivers: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Rachel S N; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco P; Bastos, João Paulo C; Maia, Werllen S; de Mello, Marco Túlio; de Bruin, Veralice M S; de Bruin, Pedro Felipe C

    2006-01-01

    Truck drivers are more likely to suffer severe injury and death due to certain truck driving characteristics. Identifying and preventing factors associated with accidents in this population is important to minimize damage and improve road safety. Excessive daytime sleepiness is a major public health problem, leading to impaired cognitive function, reduced alertness, and increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypersomnolence (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score greater than 10) among truck drivers. Three hundred male truck drivers were studied. Quality of sleep was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the association between demographic, clinical, and occupational data with excessive sleepiness was analyzed. The mean daily sleep duration was 5.6+/-1.3 h, and poor quality of sleep was found in 46.3% of the individuals. Hypersomnolence was found in 46% of the drivers and was associated with younger age, snoring, and working >10 h without rest. A positive correlation between hypersomnolence and previous accidents was detected (p=0.005). These results show that sleep deprivation and hypersomnolence are frequent among truck drivers. The treatment of sleep-disordered breathing and the implementation of educational programs, particularly targeting younger drivers and promoting increased awareness of the deleterious effects of sleep loss and work overload, may help to reduce hypersomnolence and accidents among truck drivers.

  3. The emotional intelligence of pediatric residents – a descriptive cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Scott A.; Sonnenberg, Lyn K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a type of social intelligence. Excellent scores are achieved by displaying high levels of empathy in interpersonal relationships, strong skills in managing stressful situations as well as other personal competencies. Many of the social competencies that EI describes may have a direct impact on patient care. The objective of this study was to describe EI of pediatric residents and to identify if there are EI skills that should be selected for targeted intervention. Methods This was a cross-sectional study administering the EQ-i 2.0© psychometric instrument to pediatric residents at the University of Alberta. Results Thirty-five residents completed the EQ-i 2.0© (100% response rate). Their overall EI score was not significantly different than a normative group of college-educated professionals. Residents had relative strengths in the subcategories of Emotional expression, Interpersonal Relationships, Empathy, and Impulse Control (all p<0.05). Areas of relative weakness were in the subcategories of Stress Tolerance, Assertiveness, Independence, and Problem Solving (all p<0.05). Conclusion The EI of pediatric residents is consistent with that of other professionals. Educational interventions may be useful in the areas of weakness to enhance the physician-patient relationship. PMID:28344715

  4. Attitudes of Australian chiropractic students toward whole body donation: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michelle; Marten, Mathew; Stewart, Ella; Serafin, Stanley; Štrkalj, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Cadavers play an important role in anatomy education. In Australia, bodies for anatomy education are acquired only through donations. To gain insight into educational dynamics in an anatomy laboratory as well as to facilitate body donation programs and thanksgiving ceremonies, it is important to understand students' attitudes toward body donation. In this cross-sectional study, the attitudes of Macquarie University's first, second, and fifth year chiropractic students toward body donation were investigated. Macquarie University chiropractic students have a four semester long anatomy program, which includes cadaver-based instruction on prosected specimens. A questionnaire was used to record respondents' demographics and attitudes toward body donation: personal, by a relative, and by a stranger. It was found that ethnicity and religion affect attitudes toward body donation, with Australian students being more willing to donate a stranger's body and atheists and agnostics being more willing to donate in general. Furthermore, willingness to donate one's own or a family member's body decreases as year of study increases, suggesting a possible negative impact of exposure to cadavers in the anatomy laboratory. This was only true, however, after controlling for age. Thus, the impact of viewing and handling prosected specimens, which is the norm in anatomy classes in Australia, may not be as strong as dissecting cadavers. It is suggested that anatomists and educators prepare students for cadaver-based instruction as well as exhibit sensitivity to cultural differences in how students approach working with cadavers, when informing different communities about body donation programs and in devising thanksgiving ceremonies.

  5. Knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission among recently diagnosed tuberculosis patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with Tuberculosis (TB) are a vulnerable group for acquiring HIV infection. Therefore, countries with a concentrated HIV epidemic and high prevalence of TB should provide adequate information about HIV prevention to TB patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the level of knowledge on HIV prevention and transmission among newly diagnosed TB patients in Lima, Peru. The survey evaluated knowledge about HIV infection and prevention and was administered before HIV counseling and blood sampling for HIV testing were performed. Results A total of 171 TB patients were enrolled; mean age was 31.1 years, 101 (59%) were male. The overall mean level of knowledge of HIV was 59%; but the specific mean level of knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention was only 33.3% and 41.5%, respectively. Age and level of education correlated with overall level of knowledge in the multivariate model (P-value: 0.02 and <0.001 respectively). Conclusions The study shows inadequate levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention among newly-diagnosed TB patients in this setting, and underscores the need for implementing educational interventions in this population. PMID:24373517

  6. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service.

  7. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Del Prado-Lu, Jinky Leilanie

    2007-09-18

    This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV), with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102) randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52%) and most belonged to the 20-35 age group (45%). Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%), easy fatigability (46.1%) and cough (40.2%). Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02), and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008). number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022), use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033), incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041), sex (p = 0.002) and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005) were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037) and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029). The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  8. Nativity and serum concentrations of antioxidants in Mexican American children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Koenig, Mary Dawn; Persky, Victoria; Chavez, Noel

    2014-04-16

    There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988-1994), on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4-16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  9. Mental health status and its predictors among call center employees: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyunjin; Park, Heyeon; Boo, Sunjoo

    2017-03-15

    In this study, we assessed the mental health of Korean call center employees and investigated the potential predictors of their mental health status. A cross-sectional study using self-completing questionnaire was conducted for employees working for a credit card call center. A total of 306 call center employees completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Emotion Labor Scale, and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. The results showed that more than half of the participants reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the total scores on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were predicted by perceived health, job satisfaction, job demands, organizational injustice, and emotional dissonance suggesting that, in the interest of improving the mental health of call center employees, their job demands and emotional dissonance should be reduced and the work environment be improved. Consideration should be given to providing routine assessments of mental health, including depression, anxiety, and stress, and the corresponding need for the development of an intervention program and other work-related policies that would protect employees from the risk of poor mental health outcomes.

  10. Job Demands, Job Resources, and Job Performance in Japanese Workers: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    NAKAGAWA, Yuko; INOUE, Akiomi; KAWAKAMI, Norito; TSUNO, Kanami; TOMIOKA, Kimiko; NAKANISHI, Mayuko; MAFUNE, Kosuke; HIRO, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (β=−0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees. PMID:25016948

  11. Phonological recoding in error detection: a cross-sectional study in beginning readers of Dutch.

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Eva; Duyck, Wouter; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated the development of phonological recoding in beginning readers of Dutch, using a proofreading task with pseudohomophones and control misspellings. In Experiment 1, children in grades 1 to 3 rejected fewer pseudohomophones (e.g., wein, sounding like wijn 'wine') as spelling errors than control misspellings (e.g., wijg). The size of this pseudohomophone effect was larger in grade 1 than in grade 2 and did not differ between grades 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, we replicated the pseudohomophone effect in beginning readers and we tested how orthographic knowledge may modulate this effect. Children in grades 2 to 4 again detected fewer pseudohomophones than control misspellings and this effect decreased between grades 2 and 3 and between grades 3 and 4. The magnitude of the pseudohomophone effect was modulated by the development of orthographic knowledge: its magnitude decreased much more between grades 2 and 3 for more advanced spellers, than for less advanced spellers. The persistence of the pseudohomophone effect across all grades illustrates the importance of phonological recoding in Dutch readers. At the same time, the decreasing pseudohomophone effect across grades indicates the increasing influence of orthographic knowledge as reading develops.

  12. Spatial inequalities in life expectancy within postindustrial regions of Europe: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Taulbut, Martin; Walsh, David; McCartney, Gerry; Parcell, Sophie; Hartmann, Anja; Poirier, Gilles; Strniskova, Dana; Hanlon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare spatial inequalities in life expectancy (LE) in West Central Scotland (WCS) with nine other postindustrial European regions. Design A cross-sectional observational study. Setting WCS and nine other postindustrial regions across Europe. Participants Data for WCS and nine other comparably deindustrialised European regions were analysed. Male and female LEs at birth were obtained or calculated for the mid-2000s for 160 districts within selected regions. Districts were stratified into two groups: small (populations of between 141 000 and 185 000 people) and large (populations between 224 000 and 352 000). The range and IQR in LE were used to describe within-region disparities. Results In small districts, the male LE range was widest in WCS and Merseyside, while the IQR was widest in WCS and Northern Ireland. For women, the LE range was widest in WCS, though the IQR was widest in Northern Ireland and Merseyside. In large districts, the range and IQR in LE was widest in WCS and Wallonia for both sexes. Conclusions Subregional spatial inequalities in LE in WCS are wide compared with other postindustrial mainland European regions, especially for men. Future research could explore the contribution of economic, social and political factors in reducing these inequalities. PMID:24889851

  13. Suicidal ideation among medical students of Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Osama, Muhammad; Islam, Mohammad Yousuful; Hussain, Syed Ather; Masroor, Syed Muhammad Zia; Burney, Muhammad Usman; Masood, Muhammad Atif; Menezes, Ritesh G; Rehman, Razaur

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have investigated suicidal ideation among medical students in the developing world. We found only one report on suicidal ideation among medical students in Pakistan published in the year 2005. The present cross-sectional survey on suicidal ideation conducted in July 2013 involved 331 medical students of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan. In the past one year, suicidal ideation was found in 118 (35.6%) students. Forty-six (13.9%) of all the students had made a plan in their life time to commit suicide while 16 (4.8%) of the 331 students tried to commit suicide at some point of time in their life. More females than males pondered suicide while first year medical students formed the majority of those with suicidal ideation. The single greatest risk factor predisposing to suicidal ideation was substance abuse. This was followed jointly by parental neglect and previous psychiatric disorder. Campaigns against substance abuse and counseling of vulnerable students will help in eradicating suicidal intent.

  14. A cross sectional study of leptospirosis and fetal death in Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Vado-Solis, Ignacio; Pérez-Osorio, Carlos; Peniche-Lara, Gaspar; Segura-Correa, José

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly to low income human population. Acute leptospiral infection during pregnancy has been associated with spontaneous abortion and fetal death during the first trimester and the abortion may occur as consequence of systemic failure. Objective: To estimate the frequency of Leptospira interrogans infection in women with spontaneous abortion in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Methods: A cross sectional study on women with spontaneous abortion was conducted. Serum samples were tested for Leptospirosis by the microaglutination test, to estimate the frequency of the infecting serovar. The indirect ELISA IgM was used to detect recent infection by L. interrogans. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue of placenta for PCR detection of L. interrogans. Results: Overall frequency of infection with L. interrogans in the 81 women with abortion was 13.6%. Five of the 12 serovars evaluated were found and included. Two of the 11 women with abortion and positive to microaglutination test were also positive to the ELISA IgM test. None samples were positive for PCR Leptospira diagnosis. Conclusion: two women could be associated with spontaneous abortion due to leptospirosis, because they showed antibodies against L. interrogans in the microaglutination test and ELISA IgM assays. Differences between regions were found with respect to the prevalences of lesptospirosis. PMID:27226658

  15. Job demands, job resources, and job performance in japanese workers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Yuko; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-sectional association of job demands (i.e., psychological demands) and job resources (i.e., decision latitude, supervisor support, co-worker support, and extrinsic reward) with job performance. A total of 1,198 workers (458 males and 740 females) from a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire, World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, and demographic survey. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, decision latitude (β=0.107, p=0.001) and extrinsic reward (β=0.158, p<0.001) were positively and significantly associated with job performance while supervisor support (β=-0.102, p=0.002) was negatively and significantly associated with job performance. On the other hand, psychological demands or co-worker support was not significantly associated with job performance. These findings suggest that higher decision latitude and extrinsic reward enhance job performance among Japanese employees.

  16. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  17. A cross-sectional study of emotional intelligence in baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Benson, Gerry; Ploeg, Jenny; Brown, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been identified as a set of competencies necessary for workplace success. EI is deemed essential for effective nursing practice, yet little research has been done in nursing. The purpose of this study was to describe the EI scores of baccalaureate nursing students and to determine if there was a difference among the students across the four years of the program. A cross-sectional design was used to examine the EI scores of 100 female nursing students (25 in each of the four years). Students completed the BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory Short (EQ-i:S), a 51-item self-report questionnaire that includes scores for a total EQ and 5 subscales. Undergraduate nursing students in each of the four years of the program had EI scores within the emotionally and socially effective functioning capacity, identifying them as being able to establish satisfying interpersonal relationships, and work well under pressure. The difference in total EQ scores between students in Year 1 and Year 4 was statistically significant (p= or <.05) as were the scores in the interpersonal and the stress management subscales (p= or <.05) with students in Year 4 scoring higher than those in Year 1. Implications for nursing education are discussed.

  18. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. Aim To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. Results About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. Conclusion The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone. PMID:28384977

  19. Mahjong playing and eye-hand coordination in older adults—a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, William W.N.; Wong, Gloria C.K.; Gao, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Eye-hand coordination declines with age, but physical activity is known to slow down the degeneration. Playing mahjong involves lots of eye-hand coordination. The objective was to investigate the relationship between playing mahjong and eye-hand coordination in older adults using a fast finger-pointing paradigm. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-one community dwelling older adults aged sixty or above were recruited by convenience sampling in this cross-sectional study. They were tested on their ability to point quickly and accurately 1) toward a stationary visual target and 2) toward a moving visual target. [Results] The mahjong players demonstrated significantly better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hand toward a stationary target. They also demonstrated significantly faster movement of their dominant hands; shorter reaction times and better end-point accuracy when pointing with their non-dominant hands toward a moving target. [Conclusion] Mahjong players have better eye-hand coordination than non-players. Playing mahjong could usefully be introduced to older adults as a leisure time activity. PMID:27821969

  20. Relative deprivation, poverty, and subjective health: JAGES cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masashige; Kondo, Katsunori; Kondo, Naoki; Abe, Aya; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association between relative deprivation (lacking daily necessities) and subjective health in older Japanese adults, we performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES). The data were obtained from functionally independent residents aged ≥65 years from 24 municipalities in Japan (n = 24,742). Thirteen items in three dimensions were used to evaluate relative deprivation of material conditions. Approximately 28% of older Japanese people indicated that they lacked some daily necessities (non-monetary poverty). A two-level Poisson regression analysis revealed that relative deprivation was associated with poor self-rated health (PR = 1.3-1.5) and depressive symptoms (PR = 1.5-1.8) in both men and women, and these relationships were stronger than those observed in people living in relative poverty (monetary poverty). The interaction effect between relative deprivation and relative poverty was not associated with poor health. As a dimension of the social determinants of health, poverty should be evaluated from a multidimensional approach, capturing not only monetary conditions but also material-based, non-monetary conditions.

  1. Lower socioeconomic status, adiposity and negative health behaviours in youth: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah; Manlhiot, Cedric; Tyrrell, Pascal N; Dobbin, Stafford; Gibson, Don; Chahal, Nita; Stearne, Karen; Fisher, Amanda; McCrindle, Brian W

    2015-01-01

    Objective Understanding obesity and its modifiable risk factors in youth is key to addressing the burden of cardiovascular disease later in life. Our aim was to examine the associations among adiposity, negative health behaviours and socioeconomic status in youth from the Niagara Region. Design, setting and participants Cross-sectional observational study of 3467 grade 9 students during their mandatory health and physical education class to investigate the association between socioeconomic status (postal code), self-reported health behaviour and adiposity in the Niagara Region, Ontario, Canada. Results Median household income was $63 696 and overall percentage below the after-tax low-income cut-off was 4.2%. Negative health behaviours (especially skipped meals, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, higher screen time) were associated with lower income neighbourhoods, however, the absolute effect was small. Those participants in the lowest income quintile had a significantly greater body mass index z-score than those in the highest (0.72±1.19 vs 0.53±1.12), but the overall trend across quintiles was not statistically significant. A similar trend was noted for waist-to-height ratio. The lowest income neighbourhoods according to after-tax low-income cut-off had small but statistically significant associations with higher adiposity compared with the middle or highest income neighbourhoods. Conclusions Obesity prevention efforts should target modifiable behaviours, with particular attention to adolescents from lower income families and neighbourhoods. PMID:25986642

  2. Electron excitation and autoionisation cross sections for elements of chemically peculiar stars: Study of bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Predojević, B.; Pejčev, V.; Šević, D.; Marinković, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Electron impact excitation from the ground state of bismuth atoms has been studied. A beam of electrons was scattered from a beam of atoms and the intensity of scattered electrons was measured for scattering angles up to 150° and incident electron energies of 40 and 60 eV. Obtained intensities were used for the calculation of relative differential cross sections (DCS). In addition, we recorded the energy loss-spectra at different incident electron energies and scattering angles. These spectra were analysed in order to identify the energy levels of bismuth atom below and above (autoionisation) the first ionization limit in electron spectroscopy. The presence of bismuth was confirmed in spectra of the chemically peculiar (CP) magnetic Ap 73 Dra and HR 465 and nonmagnetic Hg-Mn HR 7775 and χ Lupi stars. The obtained results for relative DCS and identified autoionised energy levels of bismuth were analysed and compared with previous experimental and theoretical data. The connection between our investigations of bismuth and astrophysical measurements are discussed.

  3. A pilot cross-sectional study of patients presenting with cellulitis to emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Quirke, M; Saunders, J; O'Sullivan, R; Milenkovski, H; Wakai, A

    2014-01-01

    To characterise the Emergency Department (ED) prevalence of cellulitis, factors predicting oral antibiotic therapy and the utility of the Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in predicting patient management in the ED setting, a prospective, cross-sectional study of consecutive adult patients presenting to 3 Irish EDs was performed. The overall prevalence of cellulitis was 12 per 1,000 ED visits. Of 59 patients enrolled, 45.8% were discharged. Predictors of treatment with oral antibiotics were: CREST, Class 1 allocation (odds ratio (OR) 6.81, 95% Cl =1.5-30.1, p=0.012), patient self-referral (OR= 6.2, 95% Cl 1.9- 20.0, p=0.03) and symptom duration longer than 48 hours (OR 1.2, 95% Cl = 1.0-1.5,p=0.049). In conflict with guideline recommendation, 43% of patients in CREST Class 1 received IV therapy. Treatment with oral antibiotics was predicted by CREST Class 1 allocation, self-referral, symptom duration of more than 48 hours and absence of pre-EO antibiotic therapy.

  4. Ice cream headache in students and family history of headache: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Zierz, Antonia Maria; Mehl, Theresa; Kraya, Torsten; Wienke, Andreas; Zierz, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Headache attributed to ingestion of a cold stimulus (ICHD-3 beta 4.5.1) is also known as ice cream headache (ICH). This cross-sectional epidemiological study included 283 students (10-14-year-olds) attending a grammar school in Germany, their parents (n = 401), and 41 teachers. A self-administered questionnaire was used to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of ICH based on the ICHD classification. Additionally, the association between ICH and other headaches was investigated in students and parents. Prevalence of ICH in students was 62 % without gender difference. In adults, only 36 % of females and 22 % of males reported ICH. There was an increased risk for ICH in students when mother (OR 10.7) or father (OR 8.4) had ICH. Other headaches in parents had no influence on the prevalence of ICH in students. However, in the groups of students and parents itself there was a highly significant association between ICH and other headaches (students: OR 2.4, mothers: OR 2.9, fathers: OR 6.8). There was a decreased risk for ICH when parents and students had no headache at all (OR < 0.4). ICH in students clearly shows a familial disposition by both father and mother. There was also an association between ICH and other headaches within the student and adult groups. The absence of headache history seems to be a protective factor for ICH.

  5. Retaining vets in farm animal practice: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Adam, K; Baillie, S; Rushton, J

    2015-06-20

    Concerns have been raised about a potential shortage of farm animal vets in the UK. There is no apparent lack of new graduates willing to work with farm animals, but practices report difficulties in recruiting and retaining experienced farm animal vets. Retention of vets in farm animal practice has been identified as a key issue for the sustainability of veterinary businesses and livestock health. A cross-sectional study design was used to identify factors associated with vets remaining in farm animal practice. Data were collected via an online questionnaire covering employment, education, personal background and future plans. The target population was vets with experience of farm animal work in the UK. 380 responses were included in the analysis. Working in a practice where accommodation was provided and an increasing number of years since graduation were associated with significantly lower odds of remaining in farm animal practice, while working in a practice where staff appraisals were carried out; coming from a family with a commercial farm; spending more time on farm work and being on call with an experienced vet in the first job after graduation increased the odds of remaining in farm work. Gender was not significantly associated with retention.

  6. HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

  7. Communicating Ebola through social media and electronic news media outlets: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-09-01

    Social media and electronic news media activity are an important source of information for the general public. Yet, there is a dearth of research exploring the use of Twitter and electronic news outlets during significant worldly events such as the recent Ebola Virus scare. The purpose of this article is to investigate the use of Twitter and electronic news media outlets in communicating Ebola Virus information. A cross-sectional survey of Twitter data and Google News Trend data from 30 September till 29 October, 2014 was conducted. Between 30 September and 29 October, there were approximately 26 million tweets (25,925,152) that contained the word Ebola. The highest number of correlated activity for Twitter and electronic news outlets occurred on 16 October 2014. Other important peaks in Twitter data occurred on 1 October, 6 October, 8 October, and 12 October, 2014. The main influencers of the Twitter feeds were news media outlets. The study reveals a relationship between electronic news media publishing and Twitter activity around significant events such as Ebola. Healthcare organizations should take advantage of the relationship between electronic news media and trending events on social media sites such as Twitter and should work on developing social media campaigns in co-operation with leading electronic news media outlets (e.g. CNN, Yahoo, Reuters) that can have an influence on social media activity.

  8. Psychosomatic symptoms and stressful working conditions among Palestinian nurses: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jaradat, Yousef; Nijem, Khaldoun; Lien, Lars; Stigum, Hein; Bjertness, Espen; Bast-Pettersen, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Background: High levels of perceived stressful working conditions have been found to have an adverse effect on physical and mental health. Objectives: To examine the associations between self-reported stressful working conditions and Psychosomatic Symptoms (PSS), and to investigate possible gender differences. Methods: The present cross-sectional study comprises 430 nurses employed in Hebron district, Palestine. Self-reported stressful working conditions were recorded, and a Psychosomatic Symptoms Check list was used to assess prevalence of PSS. Findings: Median score on the psychosomatic symptom checklist for the group was 11, (range 1–21). Women reported more symptoms than men, with medians 11.6 and 10.0, respectively (p = .0001). PSS were associated with more self-reported stressful working conditions for both men (p < .0001) and women (p < .0001). The association was strongest among men. Conclusions: PSS were associated with high self-reported stressful working conditions, and this association was strongest among the men. PMID:27160155

  9. Is Nurses' Professional Competence Related to Their Personality and Emotional Intelligence? A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Abbas; Kareshki, Hossein; Armat, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nurses' professional competence is a crucial factor in clinical practice. Systematic evaluation of nurses’ competence and its related factors are essential for enhancing the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to assess the nurses’ competence level and its possible relationship with their personality and emotional intelligence. Methods: Using a cross-sectional survey design, three instruments including Nurse Competence Scale, short form of Schutte Self Report Emotional Intelligence Test, and the short 10-item version of Big Five Factor Inventory, were administered simultaneously to a randomized stratified sample of 220 nurses working in hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11.5. Results: Majority of nurses rated themselves as "good" and "very good", with the highest scores in "managing situations" and "work role" dimensions of nurse competence. A relatively similar pattern of scores was seen in competence dimensions, personality and emotional intelligence, among male and female nurses. Emotional intelligence and personality scores showed a significant relationship with nurses’ competence, explaining almost 20% of variations in nurse competence scores. Conclusion: Iranian nurses evaluated their overall professional competence at similar level of the nurses in other countries. Knowledge about the nurses’ competence level and its related factors, including personality and emotional intelligence, may help nurse managers in enhancing nurses' professional competence through appropriate task assignments and conducting in-service educational programs, thus improving the health status of patients. PMID:27354976

  10. Evaluation of Intervention Reach on a Citywide Health Behavior Change Campaign: Cross-Sectional Study Results.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Takashi; Takenaka, Koji

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about dissemination strategies that contribute to health information recognition. This study examined (a) health campaign exposure and awareness (slogan and logo recognition); (b) perceived communication channels; (c) differences between perceptions of researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials; and (d) differences in campaign awareness and communication channels, according to Japanese community demographic characteristics. A cross-sectional survey (N = 508) was conducted in Tokigawa, Japan, in 2013. The Small Change Campaign focused on increasing physical activity and improving dietary habits. Information dissemination was carried out using leaflets, newsletters, posters, website, local public relations magazines, health classes, events, and online newsletters. The participants completed a survey assessing their campaign awareness (i.e., slogan and logo) and exposure to the informational materials presented during the campaign. Fewer than half (45.4%) knew the slogan, and only 24.4% were aware of the logo. Public relations magazines, leaflets, and newsletters were significantly better-perceived health communication channels. Researcher-developed and enhancement community health information materials were equally recognized (p = .34, w = .08). Furthermore, women and those who were employed were significantly more aware of the slogan, logo, and communication materials. Further research should explore effective communication strategies for community-based health promotion intervention via randomized control trials.

  11. How Informed is the Decision about Breast Reconstruction after Mastectomy? A Prospective, Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clara Nan-hi; Ubel, Peter Anthony; Deal, Allison M; Blizard, Lillian Burdick; Sepucha, Karen R; Ollila, David W.; Pignone, Michael Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Objective to assess how informed patients are about breast reconstruction, and how involved they are in decision making. Summary Background Data Breast reconstruction is an important treatment option for patients undergoing mastectomy. Wide variations in who gets reconstruction, however, have led to concerns about decision making. Methods We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of patients planning mastectomy at a single site, over 20 months. Before surgery, patients completed a survey with validated scales to assess knowledge about breast reconstruction and involvement in decision making. Factors associated with knowledge were examined in a multivariable linear regression model. Results 145 patients enrolled (77% enrollment rate), and 126 remained eligible. The overall knowledge score was 58.5% (out of 100%). Knowledge about risk of complications was especially low at 14.3%. Knowledge did not differ by treatment (reconstruction or not). On multivariable analysis, non-white race was independently associated with lower knowledge. Most patients (92.1%) reported some discussion with a provider about reconstruction, and most (90.4%) reported being asked their preference. More patients reported discussing the advantages of reconstruction (57.9%) than the disadvantages (27.8%). Conclusions Women undergoing mastectomy in this sample were highly involved in decision making but had major deficits in knowledge about the procedure. Knowledge about the risk of complications was particularly low. Providers appeared to have discussed the advantages of reconstruction more than its disadvantages. PMID:26727092

  12. Basic Competence of Intensive Care Unit Nurses: Cross-Sectional Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Ritmala-Castrén, Marita; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Critical care patients benefit from the attention of nursing personnel with a high competence level. The aim of the study was to describe and evaluate the self-assessed basic competence of intensive care unit nurses and related factors. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A basic competence scale (Intensive and Critical Care Nursing Competence Scale version 1, Likert scale 1–5, 1 = poor and 5 = excellent) was employed among Finnish intensive care unit nurses (n = 431). Intensive care unit nurses' self-assessed basic competence was good (mean 4.19, SD 0.40). The attitude and value base of basic competence was excellent whereas experience base was the poorest compared to the knowledge base and skill base of intensive and critical care nursing. The strongest factor explaining nurses' basic competence was their experience of autonomy in nursing care (F value 60.85, β 0.11, SE 0.01, and P ≤ 0.0001). Clinical competence was self-rated as good. Nurses gave their highest competence self-ratings for ICU patient care according to the principles of nursing care. The ICU nurses also self-rated their professional competence as good. Collaboration was self-rated as the best competence. In basic and continuing education and professional self-development discussions it is meaningful to consider and find solutions for how to improve nurses' experienced autonomy in nursing. PMID:26557676

  13. A comparative study on two characteristic parametrizations for high energy pp and overlinepp total cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A.; Velasco, J.

    1996-02-01

    Available high energy data for both pp and overlinepp total cross sections ( f GeV < s < 1.8 TeV ) are described by means of two well-known distinct parametrizations, characteristic of theoretical (“Regge-like” expression) and experimental (“Froissart-Martin-like” expression) practices, respectively. Both are compared from the statistical point of view. For the whole set of present data statistical analysis ( χ2/d.o.f.) seems to favour a “Froissart-like” ((ln s) γ≈2 ) rise of the total cross section rather than a “Regge-like” ( sɛ) one.

  14. Cross-sectional small intestinal surveillance of maintenance hemodialysis patients using video capsule endoscopy: SCHEMA study

    PubMed Central

    Hosoe, Naoki; Matsukawa, Shigeaki; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Naganuma, Makoto; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ida, Yosuke; Tsuchiya, Yoshitsugu; Hibi, Toshifumi; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Small intestinal pathology in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been studied in only a small number of retrospective case series. One method for noninvasively surveying small intestinal disorders is video capsule endoscopy (VCE). The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of small intestinal abnormalities among asymptomatic maintenance HD outpatients using VCE. The secondary aim was to assess the clinical impact of these abnormalities. Patients and methods: This study consisted of two phases. In phase I, a cross-sectional study, a cohort of patients who received maintenance HD three times weekly at an outpatient hemodialysis clinic were studied using VCE. Phase II was a prospective cohort study with follow up for 1 year after VCE. Results: Fifty-six patients were enrolled in this study, and two were excluded from analysis due to capsule retention in the stomach. The prevalence of small bowel abnormalities in HD patients was 64.8 % (35/54) (95 % confidential interval 52.1 % – 77.6 %). Of 54 patients, 21 (38.9 %) had mucosal lesions, 10 (18.5 %) had vascular lesions, and 4 (7.4 %) had both lesion types. During the 1-year follow-up period, events occurred in four patients. A small bowel-associated event was observed in one patient, who underwent laparoscopy-assisted small intestinal partial resection 3 months after diagnosis by VCE. All patients in whom events were seen had small bowel abnormalities; no events were observed in the VCE-negative group. Conclusions: Although asymptomatic maintenance HD patients had a high prevalence of small bowel abnormalities (64.8 %), they did not have a high incidence of small bowel-associated events during the 1-year follow-up. PMID:27227120

  15. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Koichiro; Nishimoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  16. The Association between Meditation Practice and Job Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Minami; Ishikawa, Yoshiki

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that meditation practice has a positive impact on cognitive and non-cognitive functioning, which are related to job performance. Thus, the aims of this study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of meditation practice, (2) identify the characteristics of individuals who practice meditation, and (3) examine the association between meditation practice and job performance. Two population-based, cross-sectional surveys were conducted. In study 1, we examined the prevalence of meditation practice and the characteristics of the persons practicing meditation; in Study 2, we examined the association between meditation practice and job performance. The outcome variables included work engagement, subjective job performance, and job satisfaction. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale was used to assess work engagement, the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to measure subjective job performance, and a scale developed by the Japanese government was used to assess job satisfaction. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used in Study 2. Demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were included as covariates in the analyses. The results of Study 1 indicated that 3.9% of persons surveyed (n = 30,665) practiced meditation; these individuals were younger and had a higher education, higher household income, higher stress level, and lower body mass index than those who did not practice meditation. The results of Study 2 (n = 1,470) indicated that meditation practice was significantly predictive of work engagement (β = 0.112, p < .001), subjective job performance (β = 0.116, p < .001), and job satisfaction (β = 0.079, p = .002), even after adjusting for covariates (β = 0.083, p < .001; β = 0.104, p < .001; β = 0.060, p = .015, respectively). The results indicate that meditation practice may positively influence job performance, including job satisfaction, subjective job performance

  17. Occupational Hearing Loss among Chinese Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Haijiao; Weng, Shaofan; Su, Wenjin; Wang, Xin; Guo, Yanfei; Yu, Dan; Du, Lili; Zhou, Ting; Chen, Weihong; Shi, Tingming

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational hearing loss is an increasingly prevalent occupational condition worldwide, and has been reported to occur in a wide range of workplaces; however, its prevalence among workers from municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLs) remains less clear. This study aimed to investigate the occupational hearing loss among Chinese MSWL workers. Methods A cross-sectional study of 247 workers from 4 Chinese MSWLs was conducted. Noise and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) levels at worksites were determined. We conducted hearing examinations to determine hearing thresholds. A worker was identified as having hearing loss if the mean threshold at 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz in either ear was equal to or greater than 25 dB. Prevalence of occupational hearing loss was then evaluated. Using unconditional Logistic regression models, we estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of MSWL work associated with hearing loss. Results According to the job title for each worker, the study subjects were divided into 3 groups, including group 1 of 63 workers without MSWL occupational hazards exposure (control group), group 2 of 84 workers with a few or short-period MSWL occupational hazards exposure, and group 3 of 100 workers with continuous MSWL occupational hazards exposure. Both noise and TVOCs levels were significantly higher at worksites for group 3. Significantly poorer hearing thresholds at frequencies of 2000, 3000 and 4000 Hz were found in group 3, compared with that in group 1 and group 2. The overall prevalence rate of hearing loss was 23. 5%, with the highest in group 3 (36.0%). The OR of MSWL work associated with hearing loss was 3.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28-8.96). Conclusion The results of this study suggest significantly higher prevalence of hearing loss among MSWL workers. Further studies are needed to explore possible exposure-response relationship between MSWL occupational hazards exposure and hearing loss. PMID:26042421

  18. Primary care screening for peripheral arterial disease: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jane H; Richards, Jonathan; Conway, Kevin; Kenkre, Joyce E; Lewis, Jane EA; Mark Williams, E

    2017-01-01

    Background Early identification of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and subsequent instigation of risk modification strategies could minimise disease progression and reduce overall risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. However, the feasibility and value of primary care PAD screening is uncertain. Aim This study (the PIPETTE study — Peripheral arterial disease In Primary carE: Targeted screening and subsequenT managEment) aimed to determine the value of a proposed primary care PAD screening strategy. Outcomes assessed were: prevalence of PAD and agreement of ankle– brachial index (ABI)-defined PAD (ABI ≤0.9) with QRISK®2-defined high CV risk (≥20). Design and setting A cross-sectional observational study was undertaken in a large general practice in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales. Method In total, 1101 individuals with ≥2 pre-identified CV risk factors but no known CV disease or diabetes were invited to participate. Participants underwent ABI measurement and QRISK2 assessment, and completed Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaires. Results A total of 368 people participated in the study (participation rate: 33%). Prevalence of PAD was 3% (n = 12). The number needed to screen (NNS) to detect one new case of PAD was 31. Refining the study population to those aged ≥50 years with a smoking history reduced the NNS to 14, while still identifying 100% of PAD cases. Of participants with PAD, 33% reported severe lifestyle-limiting symptoms of intermittent claudication that warranted subsequent endovascular intervention, yet had not previously presented to their GP. The QRISK2 score predicted high CV risk in 92% of participants with PAD. Conclusion The low PAD yield and the fact that QRISK2 was largely comparable to the ABI in predicting high CV risk suggests that routine PAD screening may be unwarranted. Instead, strategies to improve public awareness of PAD are needed. PMID:28126882

  19. Health care seeking among detained undocumented migrants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As in many European countries, access to care is decreased for undocumented migrants in the Netherlands due to legislation. Studies on the health of undocumented migrants in Europe are scarce and focus on care-seeking migrants. Not much is known on those who do not seek care. Methods This cross-sectional study includes both respondents who did and did not seek care, namely undocumented migrants who have been incarcerated in a detention centre while awaiting expulsion to their country of origin. A consecutive sample of all new arrivals was studied. Data were collected through structured interviews and reviews of medical records. Results Among the 224 male migrants who arrived at the detention centre between May and July 2008, 173 persons were interviewed. 122 respondents met inclusion criteria. Only half of the undocumented migrants in this study knew how to get access to medical care in the Netherlands if in need. Forty-six percent of respondents reported to have sought medical help during their stay in the Netherlands while having no health insurance (n = 57). Care was sought most frequently for injuries and dental problems. About 25% of these care seekers reported to have been denied care by a health care provider. Asian migrants were significantly less likely to seek care when compared to other ethnic groups, independent from age, chronic health problems and length of stay in the Netherlands. Conclusion The study underlines the need for a better education of undocumented patients and providers concerning the opportunities for health care in the Netherlands. Moreover, there is a need to further clarify the reasons for the denial of care to undocumented patients, as well as the barriers to health care as perceived by undocumented migrants. PMID:21443761

  20. Urban residential road traffic noise and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of adult population.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dibyendu; Das, Partha P; Fouzdar, Anjan

    2014-12-01

    Results from studies involving exposure to road traffic noise and risk of hypertension are diverse and have seldom reached statistical significance. This study was designed with the aim of investigating whether there is any association between road traffic noise and prevalence of hypertension in an urban adult population. Similar studies have never been reported from India. A cross-sectional study was performed on 909 adults (533 female and 376 male) aged 18-80 years residing in close proximity to roadways in Asansol City. Time-weighted equivalent noise level (L den) was estimated using a standard modeling platform. Odds for hypertension in relation to traffic noise exposure were estimated by univariate and multifactorial logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for self-reported hypertension was 1.99 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.66-2.39) per 5 dB(A) increase of L den (range 55.1-77.9). A gender-related risk difference was observed among the male (OR 1.81 (1.42-2.31)) and female (OR 2.18 (1.66-2.88)) respondents. For increase in 9 years of age, the odds of hypertension risk increased by 60 % (OR 1.66 (1.43-1.91) among those exposed above L den 60 dB(A). Vulnerable subgroups were female aged 35-54 years and male aged 45-54 years. The study suggests that a threshold exposure to road traffic noise at L den > 65 dB(A) for men and L den > 60 dB(A) in women may be associated with the occurrence of hypertension.

  1. An epidemiological survey in hospital setup in Lucknow district: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Uma Shanker; Singh, Mayank; Kumar, Lakshya; Verma, Pankaj; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Shailendra; Agarwal, G. G.; Asthana, Akash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Oral cancer is the sixth most common form of cancer reported globally which includes lip, tongue, mouth, and throat. Developing countries face several challenges to identify and remove potential risk factors. Chewing tobacco/pan masala is considered to be the most potential risk factor for oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Objective: To study the clinical-epidemiological profile of oral cancer cases and potential risk factor associated with it. Materials and Methods: This is cross-sectional study which includes all major tertiary hospital in Lucknow district. Five hundred and eight cases of oral cancer reported in all major tertiary hospitals in Lucknow district during 2013–2016. Study Variable: Clinicoepidemiological characteristics of oral cancer cases. Statistical Analysis: percentages, proportions. Results: Out of 508 cases, majority of the subjects included in the study belonged to 18–75 years age group. Reported cases of oral cancer in males were higher as compared to females. Most of the subjects belonged to lower middle and upper lower socioeconomic group. It was found that 199 (39.2%) subjects consumed smokeless tobacco. Buccal mucosa was the common site of oral cancer being present in 50.4% of the subjects. Histopathologically, 256 cases of buccal mucosa, 17 cases of lip, 33 cases of alveolar region, 16 cases of mandible region, 156 cases of tongue region, 7 cases of gingival buccal sulcus region, and 23 cases of palate were diagnosed as oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: In the present study, the most affected site was buccal mucosa (50.4%), tongue (30.7%), and other diagnosis was <10%. PMID:28356689

  2. Correlation between systemic lupus erythematosus and malignancies: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Azrielant, Shir; Tiosano, Shmuel; Watad, Abdulla; Mahroum, Naim; Whitby, Aaron; Comaneshter, Doron; Cohen, Arnon D; Amital, Howard

    2017-01-14

    Autoimmune conditions reflect dysregulation of the immune system; this may be of clinical significance in the development of several malignancies. Previous studies show an association between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the development of malignancies; however, their investigations into the development of specific malignancies are inconsistent, and their external validity may be questionable. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between the presence of SLE and various malignancies, in a large-scale population-based study. Data for this study was collected from Clalit Health Services, the largest state-mandated health service organization in Israel. All adult members diagnosed with SLE were included (n = 5018) and their age and sex-matched controls (n = 25,090), creating a cross-sectional population-based study. Medical records of all subjects were analyzed for documentation of malignancies. Logistic regression models were built separately for each malignant condition, controlling for age, gender, BMI, smoking, and socioeconomic status. Diagnosis of malignancy (of any type) was more prevalent in the SLE population (odds ratio [OR] 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.02-3.72). SLE diagnosis was also found to be independently associated with higher proportions of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 3.02, 95% CI 2.72-3.33), Hodgkin lymphoma (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.88-2.99), multiple myeloma (OR 2.57, 95% CI 1.85-3.28), cervix uteri malignancies (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.10-2.20), and genital organ malignancies (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.42-3.22), after adjustment for confounding variables. The presence of an SLE diagnosis was found to be independently associated with higher proportions of malignancies, particularly hematologic malignancies. These findings should be considered while treating SLE patients, and possibly supplement their screening routine.

  3. Psychological Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Cross-Sectional European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jackie; White-Koning, Melanie; Dickinson, Heather O.; Thyen, Ute; Arnaud, Catherine; Beckung, Eva; Fauconnier, Jerome; Marcelli, Marco; McManus, Vicki; Michelsen, Susan I.; Parkinson, Kathryn; Colver, Allan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To describe psychological symptoms in 8-12-year-old children with cerebral palsy; to investigate predictors of these symptoms and their impact on the child and family. Design: A cross-sectional multi-centre survey. Participants: Eight hundred and eighteen children with cerebral palsy, aged 8-12 years, identified from population-based…

  4. Debt Burdens among MSW Graduates: A National Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Intae

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional data reveal alarming financial situations among 2009 MSW graduates from 25 states and their loan decisions (N=260). More than a quarter of the participants owe at least $40,000 in educational loans from their MSW degree, and 30% borrowed at least $30,000 of their total college education debt. Expensive credit cards are used more…

  5. Relationship between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors in Chinese adults: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Song, Peige; Li, Junping; Wang, Peiyu; Li, Guowei

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focusing on identification of dietary risk factors for hyperuricemia reported controversial findings. Moreover, evidence for relationship between hyperuricemia and eating and cooking habits remained scanty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1583 participants in a Beijing community. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical tests were also performed. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 14.1 % (20.2 % for males and 7.4 % for females). Among the 1372 subjects included for analysis, 720 (52.5 %) were males and the mean age was 37.7 years. For males, statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and tea intake, breakfast and midnight snack consumption were found, with an odds ratio of 0.56 (high vs. low), 2.14 (often vs. always) and 0.52 (rarely vs. always), respectively. Smoking, fatty liver disease, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting blood glucose were significantly related to increased serum uric acid (SUA), with a coefficient of 20.06, 11.52, 7.29, 18.97 and 13.37 on SUA, respectively. For females, no statistically significant associations between hyperuricemia and dietary risk factors were observed. In summary, hyperuricemia is highly prevalent among the adult participants in this Chinese community, especially for men. High tea intake and consuming midnight snack rarely are significantly related to decreased risk of hyperuricemia, while often-eating breakfast is associated with increased risk of hyperuricemia compared with always-eating breakfast in males. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm the findings and to establish dietary recommendations for the prevention and treatment of hyperuricemia.

  6. Multimorbidity in primary care: protocol of a national cross-sectional study in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Déruaz-Luyet, Anouk; N'Goran, A Alexandra; Tandjung, Ryan; Frey, Peter; Zeller, Andreas; Haller, Dagmar M; Rosemann, Thomas; Burnand, Bernard; Bodenmann, Patrick; Senn, Nicolas; Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction With the ageing of the population and the general improvement of care, an increasing number of people are living with multiple chronic health conditions or ‘multimorbidity’. Multimorbidity often implies multiple medical treatments. As a consequence, the risk of adverse events and the time spent by patients for their treatments increase exponentially. In many cases, treatment guidelines traditionally defined for single conditions are not easily applicable. Primary care for individuals with multimorbidity requires complex patient-centred care and good communication between the patient and the general practitioner (GP). This often includes prioritising among the different chronic conditions. Methods and analysis The main objectives of this study are to describe the burden related to multimorbidity (disease-related burden and burden of treatment) in primary care and to identify the factors influencing it. Other objectives include evaluating patients’ perception of treatment burden and quality of life, assessing factors influencing that perception, and investigating prioritisation in the management of multimorbidity from the perspectives of GPs and patients. For this cross-sectional study, patient enrolment will take place in GP's private practices across Switzerland. A convenient sample of 100 GPs will participate; overall, 1000 patients with at least three chronic health conditions will be enrolled. Data will be collected as paper-based questionnaires for GPs and delayed telephone interview questionnaires for patients. GPs will provide demographic and practice-related data. In addition, each GP will complete a paper-based questionnaire for each patient that they enrol. Each patient will complete a telephone interview questionnaire. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the research ethics committee of Canton Vaud, Switzerland (Protocol 315/14). The results of the study will be reported in international peer-reviewed journals. PMID

  7. Suicidal ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Subba, S H; Sathian, Brijesh; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Pant, Sadip; Arun, M; Kundapur, Rashmi; Jain, Animesh; Lobo, Stany Wilfred; Ravi Shankar, P

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the developed countries to know the magnitude and factors influencing suicidal ideation among medical students, but such data are sparse in developing countries. This cross-sectional study was therefore conducted to find out the prevalence of suicidal ideation and factors influencing such ideation among students of a medical college in Western Nepal. A total of 206 students were selected using random sampling and questioned about their socio-demographic factors, other risk factors and suicidal ideation using a preformed validated questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows Version 16.0 and the EPI Info 3.5.1 Windows Version. Descriptive statistics and testing of hypothesis were applied for the statistical methodology. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods were used to examine the association between different variables. Suicidal ideation in the last one year was present in nearly one tenth of the study population and in almost one fifth of them life-time suicidal ideation was present. Factors that were associated with suicidal ideation were primarily dissatisfaction with academic performance, being in the clinical semesters, having history of drug abuse and feeling neglected by parents. Most common reason reported for suicidal ideation was family related followed by self-related. Recognition of suicidal ideation among students and their associated factors can help in detecting it on time, making the right interventions and controlling the problem. Understanding the magnitude of the problem and their epidemiology via scientific study like this would be the first step in this process.

  8. The Attitude of Medical Students Toward Death: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rafsanjan

    PubMed Central

    Asadpour, Mohammad; Sabzevari, Laya; Ekramifar, Asadollah; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Attitude toward death is one of the most important factors that can influence the behavior related to the health profession. It is thought that physicians are afraid of death more than other groups of specialist. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitudes of the medical students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences toward death. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study on 308 medical students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences in the academic year of 2015. Attitudes were assessed through the questionnaire of death attitude profile-revised. The collected data were analyzed upon arrival to a computer with SPSS version 14, and descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results: Attitude toward death was investigated in the 5 dimensions including the fear of death, death avoidance, approach acceptance, neutral acceptance, and escape acceptance. The results showed that the mean and standard deviations of fear of death, death avoidance, natural acceptance, approach acceptance, and escape acceptance were 3.76 ± 1.15, 3.54 ± 1.33, 5.14 ± 0.86, 4.66 ± 0.95, and 3.73 ± 1.25, respectively. It was found that people who have had the experience in dealing with death had less escape of the death attitude. Conclusion: Totally, the results of this study demonstrated that the medical students had good attitudes through 5 dimensions of attitudes toward death. This is probably due to the religious beliefs and also dealing with dying patients. However, it is recommended that training programs should be provided for students in the field of attitudes toward death. PMID:27559268

  9. Association between Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Hypertension among Chinese: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei-Fen; Shu, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Si, Cai-Juan; Yu, Xiao-Long; Gao, Wei; Tong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Lun

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of different dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among a middle-aged Chinese population remain extremely scare. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns and investigate the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of hypertension among Chinese adults aged 45–60 years. The present cross-sectional study includes 2560 participants who reported their dietary intake using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized procedures. We used log-binomial regression analysis to examine the associations between dietary patterns and hypertension risk. Four major dietary patterns were identified and labeled as traditional Chinese, animal food, western fast-food, and high-salt patterns. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants in the highest quartile of animal food pattern scores had a greater prevalence ratio (PR) for hypertension (PR = 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.064–1.727; p < 0.05) in comparison to those from the lowest quartile. Compared with the lowest quartile of high-salt pattern, the highest quartile had a higher prevalence ratio for hypertension (PR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.013–1.635; p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings indicated that animal food and high-salt patterns were associated with increased risk of hypertension, while traditional Chinese and western fast-food patterns were not associated with the risk of hypertension. Further prospective studies are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27120612

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Kristen R.; Pears, Suzanne; Heffernan, Scott J.; Makris, Angela; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan. Methods Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas) at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P < 0.01 considered significant. Results Male (n = 49, 1.5–28.5 years) and female (n = 60, 1.8–24.6 years) baboons were included in the study. Age was significantly correlated with systolic (R2 = 0.23, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001), with blood pressure increasing with age. Age was also highly correlated with core augmentation index (R2 = 0.17, P < 0.001) and core pulse pressure (R2 = 0.30, P < 0.001). Creatinine and urea were significantly higher in older animals compared to young animals (P < 0.001 for both). Older animals (>12 years) had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years) baboons (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species. PMID:27427971

  11. Perceptions and uptake of health insurance for maternal care in rural Kenya: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Jackson Michuki; Kithuka, Peter; Tororei, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Kenya, maternal and child health accounts for a large proportion of the expenditures made towards healthcare. It is estimated that one in every five Kenyans has some form of health insurance. Availability of health insurance may protect families from catastrophic spending on health. The study intended to determine the factors affecting the uptake of health insurance among pregnant women in a rural Kenyan district. Methods This was cross-sectional study that sampled 139 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at a level 5 hospital in a Kenyan district. The information was collected through a pretested interview schedule. Results The median age of the study participants was 28 years. Out of the 139 respondents, 86(62%) planned to pay for their deliveries through insurance. There was a significant relationship between insurance uptake and marital status Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 6.4(1.4-28.8). Those with tertiary education were more likely to take up insurance AOR 5.1 (1.3-19.2). Knowing the benefits of insurance and the limits the insurance would settle in claims was associated with an increase in the uptake of insurance AOR 7.6(2.3-25.1), AOR 6.4(1.5-28.3) respectively. Monthly income and number of children did not affect insurance uptake. Results Being married, tertiary education and having some knowledge on how insurance premiums are paid are associated with uptake of medical insurance. Information generated from this study if utilized will bring a better understanding as to why insurance coverage may be low and may provide a basis for policy changes among the insurance companies to increase the uptake. PMID:27279952

  12. Electrocardiogram-based scoring system for predicting secondary pulmonary hypertension: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Patel, Nimesh Kirit; Boruah, Pranjal; Nanavaty, Sukrut; Chandran, Sindu; Sethi, Arjinder; Sheth, Jignesh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we have developed an electrocardiogram-based scoring system to predict secondary pulmonary hypertension. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Single tertiary-care hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, USA. Participants Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients undergoing right heart catheterization between 2006 and 2009. Main outcome measures Surface electrocardiogram was assessed for R-wave in lead V1 ≥ 6mm, R-wave in V6 ≤ 3mm, S-wave in V6 ≥ 3mm, right atrial enlargement, right axis deviation and left atrial enlargement. Pulmonary hypertension was defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥25 mmHg, determined by right heart catheterization. Results A total of 297 (54%) patients in the study cohort had pulmonary hypertension. In total, 332 patients from the study cohort formed the development cohort and the remaining 220 patients formed the validation cohort. In the development cohort, based on log odds ratios of association, RAE, LAE, RAD, R-wave in V1 ≥ 6 mm were assigned scores of 5, 2, 2 and 1, respectively, to form a 10-point scoring system “Scranton PHT (SP) score”. SP scores of 5 points and 7 points in DC showed C-statistic of 0.83 and 0.89, respectively, for discriminating pulmonary hypertension. C-statistic for RAE alone was significantly lower compared to an SP score of 7 (0.83 vs. 0.89, P = 0.021). The reliability of SP score in the validation cohort was acceptable. Conclusion SP score provides a good point-of-care tool to predict pulmonary hypertension in patients with clinical suspicion of it. PMID:25396053

  13. Ramadan and diabetes - knowledge, attitude and practices of general practitioners; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmedani, Muhammad Yakoob; Hashmi, Bella Z.; Ulhaque, Muhammad Saif

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Fasting during Ramadan is obligatory for all Muslims across the world. Through literature review, it has been found out that there are various articles published for the awareness of patients and general population regarding safe fasting during Ramadan. But very few studies highlight the Ramadan specific knowledge of general practitioners engaged in providing care to people with diabetes. This study aims to describe the practice, knowledge and attitude of general practitioners regarding treatment and dietary modifications for people with diabetes during Ramadan across Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was undertaken among a sample of 274 general practitioners. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire that consisted of 25 questions that were structured according to three categories i-e. Ramadan specific knowledge, diet and physical activity and treatment modification related knowledge and practices of GPs. Results: Out of the total population of GPs surveyed, 70% responded correctly to the questions while 30% responded incorrectly. 1/4th of GPs incorrectly responded to questions regarding basic concepts of diabetes and Ramadan. 1/3rd of GPs responded incorrectly regarding questions on diet. Almost 40% of the GPs responded incorrectly to the questions regarding drug dosage adjustment in people with diabetes during Ramadan. However, more than 80% responded in agreement regarding alteration in medication timings. Conclusion: Almost one third of the studied populations of general practitioners across Pakistan lack the knowledge of basic principles that are important to be employed in the management of diabetes during Ramadan. Hence there is need to promote educational programmes and CMEs to improve the knowledge of our GPs that should be reflected by their sound clinical practices in the field of diabetes. PMID:27648026

  14. Trends of Serum Electrolyte Changes in Crush syndrome patients of Bam Earthquake; a Cross sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Saeed; Eshaghzade, Mehdi; Najafi, Iraj; Baratloo, Alireza; Hashemi, Behrooz; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Mehdi; Rahmati, Farhad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Electrolyte imbalances are very common among crushed earthquake victims but there is not enough data regarding their trend of changes. The present study was designed to evaluate the trend of changes in sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions among crush syndrome patients. Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, using the database of Bam earthquake victims, which was developed by Iranian Society of Nephrology following Bam earthquake, Iran, 2003, the 10-day trend of sodium, calcium, and phosphorus ions changes in > 15 years old crush syndrome patients was evaluated. Results: 118 patients with the mean age of 25.6 ± 6.9 years were studied (57.3 male). On the first day of admission, 52.5% (95% CI: 42.7 - 62.3) of the patients had hyponatremia, which reached 43.9% (95% CI: 28.5 - 59.3) on day 10. 100.0% of patients were hypocalcemic on admission and serum calcium level did not change dramatically during the 10 days of hospitalization. The prevalence of hyperphosphatemia on the first day was 90.5% (95% CI: 81.5 - 99.5) and on the 10th day of hospitalization 66.7% (95% CI: 48.5 - 84.8) of the patients were still affected. Conclusion: The results of the present study shows the 52.5% prevalence of hyponatremia, 100% hypocalcemia, and 90.5% hyperphosphatemia among crush syndrome patients of Bam earthquake victims on the first day of admission. Evaluation of 10-day trend shows a slow decreasing pattern of these imbalances as after 10 days, 43.9% still remain hyponatremic, 92.3% hypocalcemic, and 66.7% hypophosphatemic. PMID:28286814

  15. Sensitisation to Blattella germanica among adults with asthma in Yaounde, Cameroon: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background German cockroach or Blattella germanica is commonly found in homes across the inter-tropical region. The contribution of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in people with asthma in sub-Saharan Africa has not received attention. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and investigate the predicting factors of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in patients with asthma in Yaounde, Cameroon. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted between January 2012 and June 2013. All patients (aged 15 years and above) with asthma, receiving care at the Yaounde Jamot Hospital and the CEDIMER medical practice during the study period and who had received a prick skin testing for perennial aeroallergens were included in the study. Results The final sample comprised 184 patients including 123 (66.8%) women. The median age (25th-75th percentiles) was 38 (24–54) years. Prick skin test for Blattella germanica was positive in 47 (25.5%) patients. Sensitisation to Blattella germanica was associated with a sensitisation to mite in 41 (87.2%) patients, a sensitisation to Alternaria in 18 (38.3%) patients, and a sensitisation to cat or dog dander in 7 (14.9%) patients. Independent predicting factors of a sensitisation to Blattella germanica were the sensitisation to Blomia tropicalis [adjusted odd ratio (95% confidence interval) 4.10 (1.67-10.04), p = 0.002] and sensitisation to Alternaria [3.67 (1.53-7.46), p = 0.003]. Conclusions Sensitisation to Blattella germanica is present in about a quarter of adult patients with asthma in Yaounde. Sensitisation to Alternaria and Blomia tropicalis appears to be a powerful predicting factor of sensitisation to Blattella germanica in this setting. PMID:25152805

  16. The Oral Status of Adult Population in the Croatian Town of Knin: a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Robert; Ivanišević, Ana Malčić; Matijević, Jurica

    2015-01-01

    The aim Epidemiologic studies in many countries show uneven distribution of oral diseases (primarily caries) within the population. This is why more studies are oriented towards specific regions or subpopulations instead of large scale national surveys. The major purpose of this cross sectional study was to obtain relevant data about the oral status of the population of Knin and its surroundings according to the WHO criteria. Subjects and methods The study included 414 participants aged between 18 and 65. The recorded variables included general anamnestic data, extraoral status, oral mucosa status, temporomandibular joint status, dental, periodontal and prosthetic status, and the need for dental restoration. The comparison between different groups regarding age, gender, educational level and origin was made. Results DMFT index was 17.3 – with on average 1.7 caries, 6.2 fillings, and 9.4 teeth extracted. SiC index equaled 26.4. The difference was significant regarding the level of education and age (p<0.001). The percentages of individuals with the highest CPI scores from 0-4 were 27.3, 16.9, 36.5, 16.4 and 2.9%, respectively. The difference between the age groups in CPI scores was statistically significant, while the differences according to the gender and origin were not significant (p=0.001). Conclusion The population of Knin and the surrounding area exhibited very bad oral status which can be attributed to the consequences of the war in the 1990-ies, the economic transition, and the lack of national program for oral health promotion. PMID:27688391

  17. Psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily in treatment for violent behaviour: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Heir, Trond

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although violent behaviour and psychopathology often co-occur, there has been little research on psychiatric disorders among men in treatment for intimate partner violence (IPV). This study aimed to examine the prevalence of a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders among men voluntarily attending treatment for IPV. Setting 5 clinics for IPV treatment, located in the east, south and west of Norway, participated in the study. In a cross-sectional design, men attending therapy for violence against a partner went through a face-to-face structured diagnostic interview, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Participants 222 men contacted the clinic during the inclusion period; 12 men did not attend and 13 men were referred to outpatient clinics. Of the 197 men who were offered therapy, 13 did not provide consent to participate in the study, 2 were excluded and 3 men missed the interview. Results A total of 179 men participated in the study. The majority were ethnic Norwegians (88%). A total of 70.9% of the men fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for at least one ongoing psychiatric disorder. Three categories of disorders stood out with approximately equal prevalences: depressive disorders (40.6%), anxiety disorders (38.5%) including post-traumatic stress disorder (18.4%) and alcohol/substance abuse (40.2%). Antisocial personality disorder was present in approximately 2/10 participants. Comorbidity was high, with nearly half of the men (48.0%) assigned two or more diagnoses. Conclusions Men voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV harbour a wide spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest a need for screening procedures for psychiatric disorders as well as adoption of treatment interventions according to different types of psychopathologies and therapeutic needs. Limitations include caution in terms of generalisation to other populations not voluntarily admitted to treatment for IPV, and risk of ignoring symptoms not covered by a

  18. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House Officers): A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Surani, AA; Surani, A; Zahid, S; Ali, S; Farhan, R; Surani, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on-call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We undertook the study to assess sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at private and public hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, from June 2012 to January 2013. The study population comprised of junior doctors (house physicians and house surgeons). A consecutive sample of 350 physicians was drawn from the above-mentioned study setting. The subject underwent two validated self-administered questionnaires, that is, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results: A total of 334 physicians completely filled out the questionnaire with a response rate of 95.4% (334/350). Of 334 physicians, 36.8% (123/334) were classified as “poor sleepers” (global PSQI score > 5). Poor sleep quality was associated with female gender (P = 0.01), excessive daytime sleepiness (P < 0.01), lower total sleep time (P < 0.001), increased sleep onset latency (P < 0.001), and increased frequency of sleep disturbances (P < 0.001). Abnormal ESS scores (ESS > 10) were more prevalent among poor sleepers (P < 0.01) signifying increased level of daytime hypersomnolence. Conclusion: Sleep quality among Pakistani junior physicians is significantly poor. Efforts must be directed towards proper sleep hygiene education. Regulations regarding duty hour limitations need to be considered. PMID:26500789

  19. Epidemiology of injuries in elite taekwondo athletes: two Olympic periods cross-sectional retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Altarriba-Bartes, Albert; Drobnic, Franchek; Til, Lluís; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Montoro, José Bruno; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Objective Taekwondo injuries differ according to the characteristics of the athletes and the competition. This analytical cross-sectional retrospective cohort study aimed to describe reported taekwondo injuries and to determine the prevalence, characteristics and possible risk factors for injuries sustained by athletes of the Spanish national team. In addition, we compared each identified risk factor—age, weight category, annual quarter, injury timing and competition difficulty level—with its relation to injury location and type. Settings Injury occurrences in taekwondo athletes of the Spanish national team during two Olympic periods at the High Performance Centre in Barcelona were analysed. Participants 48 taekwondo athletes (22 male, 26 female; age range 15–31 years) were studied; 1678 injury episodes occurred. Inclusion criteria were: (1) having trained with the national taekwondo group for a minimum of one sports season; (2) being a member of the Spanish national team. Results Independently of sex or Olympic period, the anatomical sites with most injury episodes were knee (21.3%), foot (17.0%), ankle (12.2%), thigh (11.4%) and lower leg (8.8%). Contusions (29.3%) and cartilage (17.6%) and joint (15.7%) injuries were the prevalent types of injury. Chronological age, weight category and annual quarter can be considered risk factors for sustaining injuries in male and female elite taekwondists according to their location and type (p≤0.001). Conclusions This study provides epidemiological information that will help to inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies and recommendations to reduce the number of injuries in taekwondo competition. PMID:24531455

  20. Prevalence of Dental Caries Among Primary School Children of India – A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Anand; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mohandoss, Suganya; Pastay, Pratibha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In India, the trend indicates an increase in oral health problems especially dental caries, which has been consistently increasing both in prevalence and in severity. Children of all age groups are affected by dental caries. It becomes imperative to collect the data on prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs to provide preventive care. Aim To assess the prevalence of dental caries and treatment needs of 6-11years old Indian school children. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Sampling frame consisted of 6-11years old primary school children. Study sample consisted of 13,200 children selected from 10 talukas of Belgavi District, Karnataka, India. Clinical examination for dmft and DMFT was carried out in the school premises by five teams, each consisting of one faculty, three postgraduate students and five interns from the KLE VK Institute of Dental Sciences, Belagavi, Karnataka, India. The examiners were trained and calibrated by the principal investigator. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square and t-test. Results The overall caries prevalence was 78.9%, mean dmft was 2.97±2.62 and mean DMFT was 0.17±0.53. The decayed teeth component was the principal component in both dmft and DMFT indices. The mean dmft in boys was higher compared to girls and it was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion This study provided us with the baseline data, using which treatment was provided to all the children screened. The children were provided treatment at the camp site/dental hospital/satellite centers and primary health care centers according to the facilities available. PMID:27891457

  1. Interaction of smoking and occupational noise exposure on hearing loss: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pouryaghoub, Gholamreza; Mehrdad, Ramin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2007-01-01

    Background Noise is the most common hazardous agent at workplaces. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) has been known since the industrial revolution. Although NIHL is permanent, irreversible and frequent, it is preventable. The economic costs of NIHL have been estimated to be about billions of dollars. Besides, cigarette smoking is a common habit worldwide, and according to some recent studies smoking and noise may act in common causal pathways for hearing loss. Methods A cross-sectional study was designed to study the effect of smoking on NIHL in 206 male smoker workers and 206 male non-smoker workers in a large food-producing factory, in which workers were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85dBA. To determine noise exposure level, we used sound level measurements reported by industrial hygienists. A qualified audiologist assessed hearing acuity by using standardized audiometric procedures assuring at least 14 h of noise avoidance. Results We observed that the percentage of workers with hearing threshold differences of greater than or equal to 30 dB between 4000 Hz and 1000 Hz in both ears were 49.5% and 11.2% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively (Odds ratio = 7.8, 95% CI = 4.7 – 13), and the percentage of workers with a hearing threshold of greater than 25dB at 4000 Hz in the better ear were 63.6% and 18.4% in smoker and non smoker groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for age and exposure duration. Conclusion It can be concluded that smoking can accelerate noise induced hearing loss, but more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanisms. Accurate follow up of smoker workers who are exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dBA is suggested. Smokers should periodically attend educational courses on "smoking cessation", especially in noisy workplaces. PMID:17605828

  2. Drinking Patterns and Behavioral Consequences: A Cross-Sectional Study among Romanian University Students

    PubMed Central

    NASUI, Bogdana Adriana; POPA, Monica; POPESCU, Codruta Alina

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol/binge drinking among university students has become a major public health problem. Many of young students will be exposed to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialization groups and social activities during the transitional period. Aim The aim of this study was to analyse the alcohol consumption in Romanian university students, and to describe the behaviours occurring after drinking. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 468 undergraduate students, from a university for medicine and law. Of these students, 35.5% were males and 64.5% were females. The mean age of students was 21.9 ± 3.22 years. Validated anonymous paper questionnaires were completed voluntary by the students. Questionnaires contained demographic items, six questions for determining the level of alcohol consumed in terms of quantity and frequency, and 19 statements or problems resulting from drinking. Results The findings of the study showed that males drunk more units of alcohol/week than females (p<0.001). The prevalence of abstainers was 10.8% in males and 17.6% in women. Heavy drinkers (drinking 5 or more drinks more than once a week) were more common among male (19.3%) than among female students (16.2%). Most frequently, drinking behaviours are related to academic performance, and the possible link between poor academic performance and alcohol consumption appears tenuous and merits further investigation. Conclusion Effective intervention strategies should be implemented to prevent students’ alcohol consumption and adverse health and social consequences resulting from this behaviour. PMID:27647090

  3. Prevalence, patterns, and correlates of equestrian injuries in Malaysia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Majeedkutty, Nizar A.; Khairulanuar, Nor A.B.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Equestrian sport carries with it an implicit risk of injury. Despite the frequency of injuries in equestrian sports, there is no published study on injuries of equestrian athletes in Malaysia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of injuries and its correlates among horseback riders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A web-based standardized questionnaire was used to collect data for this cross-sectional survey. Horseback riders aged 18 years and above were included in the study. Out of 169 participants, 93 were females and 76 were males. The correlation of injuries to gender, age, level of experience, exercise habits, use of safety measures, and type of equestrian sport were determined. Chi-square test was performed to test for statistical significance. RESULTS: The prevalence was high with 85.8% of the participants reporting symptoms and characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months. The most frequently perceived symptoms reported were in the upper extremities (43.4%) followed by lower extremities (40.7%), head injury (8.3%) and injuries of upper and lower back (3.4%). There was a higher prevalence of injury among female participants (55.03%) than males (42.60%). A significant correlation was found between gender and prevalence of injuries. About 70% of the riders sustained soft tissue injuries. Fifty-five percent of the injured were involved in recreational riding. The most common mechanism of injury was a fall from a horse. Sixty percent of the injured riders did not seek medical attention after being injured, and physiotherapy consultation was even lower with 10.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of injuries and low rate of medical consultation emphasize the need for education programs on safety in Malaysia. Sessions should be held to improve coaching for riders and instructors, and their knowledge of the nature of the horse, mechanisms of injuries, horse handling, and riding skills to help them host safe equestrian

  4. Child Feces Disposal Practices in Rural Orissa: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Majorin, Fiona; Freeman, Matthew C.; Barnard, Sharmani; Routray, Parimita; Boisson, Sophie; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background An estimated 2.5 billion people worldwide lack access to improved sanitation facilities. While large-scale programs in some countries have increased latrine coverage, they sometimes fail to ensure optimal latrine use, including the safe disposal of child feces, a significant source of exposure to fecal pathogens. We undertook a cross-sectional study to explore fecal disposal practices among children in rural Orissa, India in villages where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years prior to the study. Methods and Findings We conducted surveys with heads of 136 households with 145 children under 5 years of age in 20 villages. We describe defecation and feces disposal practices and explore associations between safe disposal and risk factors. Respondents reported that children commonly defecated on the ground, either inside the household (57.5%) for pre-ambulatory children or around the compound (55.2%) for ambulatory children. Twenty percent of pre-ambulatory children used potties and nappies; the same percentage of ambulatory children defecated in a latrine. While 78.6% of study children came from 106 households with a latrine, less than a quarter (22.8%) reported using them for disposal of child feces. Most child feces were deposited with other household waste, both for pre-ambulatory (67.5%) and ambulatory (58.1%) children. After restricting the analysis to households owning a latrine, the use of a nappy or potty was associated with safe disposal of feces (OR 6.72, 95%CI 1.02–44.38) though due to small sample size the regression could not adjust for confounders. Conclusions In the area surveyed, the Total Sanitation Campaign has not led to high levels of safe disposal of child feces. Further research is needed to identify the actual scope of this potential gap in programming, the health risk presented and interventions to minimize any adverse effect. PMID:24586864

  5. Do antimicrobials increase the carriage rate of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children? Cross sectional prevalence study.

    PubMed Central

    Arason, V. A.; Kristinsson, K. G.; Sigurdsson, J. A.; Stefánsdóttir, G.; Mölstad, S.; Gudmundsson, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of antimicrobial consumption with the carriage rate of penicillin resistant and multiresistant pneumococci in children. DESIGN: Cross sectional and analytical prevalence study. SETTING: Five different communities in Iceland. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children aged under 7 years in relation to antibiotic use as determined by information from parents, patient's records, and total sales of antimicrobials from local pharmacies in four study areas. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial sales for children (6223 prescriptions) among the four areas for which data were available ranged from 9.6 to 23.2 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily (1.1 to 2.6 courses yearly per child). Children under 2 consumed twice as much as 2-6 year olds (20.5 v 10.9 defined daily doses per 1000 children daily). Nasopharyngeal specimens were obtained from 919 children, representing 15-38% of the peer population groups in the different areas. Pneumococci were carried by 484 (52.7%) of the children, 47 (9.7%) of the isolates being resistant to penicillin or multiresistant. By multivariate analysis age (< 2 years), area (highest antimicrobial consumption), and individual use of antimicrobials significantly influenced the odds of carrying penicillin resistant pneumococci. By univariate analysis, recent antimicrobial use (two to seven weeks) and use of co-trimoxazole were also significantly associated with carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci. CONCLUSIONS: Antimicrobial use, with regard to both individual use and total antimicrobial consumption in the community, is strongly associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin resistant pneumococci in children. Control measures to reduce the prevalence of penicillin resistant pneumococci should include reducing the use of antimicrobials in community health care. PMID:8761224

  6. Emergency medicine in Paarl, South Africa: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Hanewinckel, Rens; Wallis, Lee A.; Mulligan, Terrence M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Emergency Medicine (EM) in South Africa is in its earliest stages of development. There is a paucity of data about emergency department (ED) patient demographics, epidemiology, consultation and admission criteria and other characteristics. Aims This information is absolutely necessary to properly guide the development of EM and appropriate emergency care systems. In order to provide this information, we performed a study in a rural hospital in Paarl, 60 km outside Cape Town. Methods All patients who were seen in the ED between 1 January 2008 and 31 May 2008 were eligible for our research. We designed a cross-sectional descriptive study and retrieved information from a randomized sample of all consecutive patient charts seen during this period using a 40-point questionnaire (see Appendix 1). Results We investigated 2,446 charts, of which 2,134 were suitable for our research The majority (88.2%) of these patients were self-referred. In our sample, 24.1% were children under 12 years old. Almost 20% of patients had a serious pathological condition or were physiologically unstable; 36.0% of all presentations were trauma related. Besides trauma-related problems, gastrointestinal- (21.9%) and respiratory tract- (12.4%) related problems were most common in the ED; 16.5% of the patients were admitted to a ward. Conclusion This descriptive epidemiological study provides necessary data that will be used for further needs assessments and for future EM development in Paarl, and can be used as a template in other EDs and hospitals to provide similar data necessary for initial EM development strategy. PMID:21031037

  7. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Errea, Renato A.; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D.; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  8. Association between maternal education and malocclusion in Mongolian adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tumurkhuu, Tsasan; Fujiwara, Takeo; Komazaki, Yuko; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Inazawa, Johji; Ganburged, Ganjargal; Bazar, Amarsaikhan; Ogawa, Takuya; Moriyama, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Malocclusion is a highly prevalent condition, affecting 20–60% of adolescents worldwide. Although its treatment is often expensive and unaffordable for disadvantaged individuals, few studies have examined the relationship between malocclusion and socioeconomic status. We investigated the prevalence of malocclusion among Mongolian adolescents and its association with maternal education in a community-based sample in Mongolia. Design Cross-sectional study. Settings 2 large secondary schools with different backgrounds in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Participants Complete dental casts of 557 randomly recruited Mongolian schoolchildren aged 11–16 years were evaluated using the Dental Health Component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need to dichotomise orthodontic treatment requirements. Exclusion criteria were the presence of orthodontic treatment history and absence of maternal educational status. Questionnaires were administered to caregivers to assess socioeconomic status. Poisson regression analysis was performed to examine the association between malocclusion and maternal educational status. Results The prevalence of malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment among all adolescents was 35.2% (95% CI 31.2 to 39.2). In the unadjusted analysis, the prevalence ratio (PR) for malocclusion was higher (PR=1.46; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.20) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background than among those of mothers with a low educational background. After adjusting for covariates, the PR remained significantly higher (PR=1.72; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.82) among adolescents of mothers with a high educational background. Other socioeconomic status variables, including family income and the educational level of the father, showed no association with malocclusion. Conclusions These findings suggest that malocclusion requiring orthodontic treatment in adolescents is more prevalent among children of mothers with high levels of education. Further studies are

  9. Association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    SUN, GUO-ZHE; LI, YANG; ZHOU, XING-HU; GUO, XIAO-FAN; ZHANG, XIN-GANG; ZHENG, LI-QIANG; LI, YUAN; JIAO, YUN-DI; SUN, YING-XIAN

    2013-01-01

    Obesity exhibits a wide variety of electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities in adults, which often lead to cardiovascular events. However, there is currently no evidence of an association between obesity and ECG variables in children and adolescents. The present study aimed to explore the associations between obesity and ECG intervals and axes in children and adolescents. A cross-sectional observational study of 5,556 students aged 5–18 years was performed. Anthropometric data, blood pressure and standard 12-lead ECGs were collected for each participant. ECG variables were measured manually based on the temporal alignment of simultaneous 12 leads using a CV200 ECG Work Station. Overweight and obese groups demonstrated significantly longer PR intervals, wider QRS durations and leftward shifts of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, while the obese group also demonstrated significantly higher heart rates, compared with normal weight groups within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Abdominal obesity was also associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal ECG axes compared with normal waist circumference (WC) within normotensive or hypertensive subjects (P<0.05). Gender was a possible factor affecting the ECG variables. Furthermore, the ECG variables, including PR interval, QRS duration and frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, were significantly linearly correlated with body mass index, WC and waist-to-height ratio adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. However, there was no significant association between obesity and the corrected QT interval (P>0.05). The results of the current study indicate that in children and adolescents, general and abdominal obesity is associated with longer PR intervals, wider QRS duration and a leftward shift of frontal P-wave, QRS and T-wave axes, independent of age, gender, ethnicity and blood pressure. PMID:24255675

  10. Factor analysis of self-treatment in diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-treatment is a treatment of oneself without professional help, which may cause health-related consequences. This investigation examined the self-treatment behaviors in patients with diabetes mellitus in Iran/kashan. Methods The patients who referred to the clinic of diabetes and those who were admitted to the General hospital in the city of Kashan due to diabetes mellitus were asked to participate in this cross-sectional study. For data collection, The 25 item questionnaire of Likert scale type with four scales was used. Factor analysis was performed to define the patterns of self-treatment. Results 398 patients participated in the study. The mean age of the study population was 54.9 ± 12.9 years. The majority (97%) had type 2 diabetes. 50% of patients reported self- treatment. The self-treatment score was 45.8 ± 8.8 (25-100). Female gender, lower education and co-morbid illnesses of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiac disease had significant relationship with self-treatment. The factor analysis procedure revealed seven factors that explained the 43% of variation in the self-treatment. These seven factors were categorized as knowledge, deficiencies of formal treatments, available self-treatment methods, physician related factors, the tendency to use herbal remedies, underlying factors such as gender and factors related to diabetes. Conclusions There is a medium tendency for self-treatment in diabetic patients. The assessment of self-treatment practices must be an essential part of patients' management in diabetes care. PMID:21970577

  11. Stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome in Japanese adolescent athletes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Yoko; Nagasawa, Hiroyo; Takeshita, Atsuko; Shiina, Masami

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between the occurrence of stress fracture and premenstrual syndrome (PMS)/premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) in Japanese adolescent athletes. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Osaka, Japan. Participants A school-based survey on menstruation and school life was conducted using a sample of 1818 Japanese female students who belonged to two public high schools in Japan. Among them, we recruited 394 athletes who had regular menstrual cycles (25–38 days) and completed a questionnaire about their premenstrual symptoms and their competitive career. Main outcome measure Premenstrual symptoms and the occurrence of stress fracture. Results The prevalences of moderate-to-severe PMS and PMDD were 8.9% and 1.3%, respectively, which were the same as in collegiate athletes in a previous study. Premenstrual symptoms disturbed ‘Work efficiency or productivity, home responsibilities’, ‘Relationships with coworkers or family’ and ‘Athletic performance in training or competition’ more severely than menstrual pain (p=0.031, p=0.004 and p<0.001, respectively). 66 athletes (16.8%) reported having experienced a stress fracture. The severity of ‘Overeating or food cravings’, ‘Physical symptoms’ and ‘Performance in training or competition’ in athletes with previous stress fractures were much higher than in those without a history of stress fractures (p=0.015, p=0.008 and p=0.006, respectively). In terms of premenstrual symptoms, ‘Physical symptoms’ was associated with an increased risk of stress fractures in athletes (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.62). Conclusions The results from this study indicated that premenstrual symptoms may affect athletic performance and has the risk of stress fractures in adolescent athletes. PMID:27798029

  12. Cardiopulmonary pathology among children resident at high altitude in Tintaya, Peru: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Huicho, Luis; Niermeyer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Symptomatic high-altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiac abnormalities related to high altitude have been reported previously. However, their true prevalence has not been systematically determined. We assessed clinical indicators of cardiovascular health or disease and correlated them with anatomic and physiologic cardiovascular features in preschool and schoolchildren living at 4000 m. We also estimated the prevalence of cardiovascular problems in the population, with emphasis on symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension and structural cardiopathies. Three hundred and twenty-six children residents of Tintaya, Peru, were cross-sectionally studied. Methods included structured interviews, anthropometry and physical examination, arterial oxygen saturation, hemoglobin determination, electrocardiography, and echocardiography. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was 1.5%, with less than 1% possibly attributable to high altitude. All children with structural cardiac abnormalities were identified by a focused physical exam prior to echocardiography. None were identified by the health interview. No symptomatic high altitude pulmonary hypertension was identified in the absence of underlying structural anomalies. The prevalence of structural cardiac problems was consistent with data from sea level. Active monitoring of the health status of a pediatric population at high altitude is valuable in the timely detection of cardiac abnormalities. Although our study children enjoyed generally excellent health, comparative, longitudinal studies are warranted to determine the incidence of high altitude cardiopulmonary problems and to identify risk factors and early markers for later disorders associated to life at high altitude. Our findings are applicable to children with some degree of high altitude genetic background and high mobility patterns to lower altitudes and living in comparatively good nutritional and socioeconomic conditions.

  13. Standardizing admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate how hospital capacity was managed focusing on standardizing the admission and discharge processes. Methods This study was set in a 900-bed university affiliated hospital of the National Health Service, near Barcelona (Spain). This is a cross-sectional study of a set of interventions which were gradually implemented between April and December 2008. Mainly, they were focused on standardizing the admission and discharge processes to improve patient flow. Primary administrative data was obtained from the 2007 and 2009 Hospital Database. Main outcome measures were median length of stay, percentage of planned discharges, number of surgery cancellations and median number of delayed emergency admissions at 8:00 am. For statistical bivariate analysis, we used a Chi-squared for linear trend for qualitative variables and a Wilcoxon signed ranks test and a Mann–Whitney test for non-normal continuous variables. Results The median patients’ global length of stay was 8.56 days in 2007 and 7.93 days in 2009 (p < 0.051). The percentage of patients admitted the same day as surgery increased from 64.87% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.05). The number of cancelled interventions due to lack of beds was 216 patients in 2007 and 42 patients in 2009. The median number of planned discharges went from 43.05% in 2007 to 86.01% in 2009 (p < 0.01). The median number of emergency patients waiting for an in-hospital bed at 8:00 am was 5 patients in 2007 and 3 patients in 2009 (p < 0.01). Conclusions In conclusion, standardization of admission and discharge processes are largely in our control. There is a significant opportunity to create important benefits for increasing bed capacity and hospital throughput. PMID:22741542

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus in a cross-sectional study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Conde-Gonzalez, Carlos; Rojas, Rosalba; DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Romano-Mazzotti, Luis; Cervantes, Yolanda; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) remains a public health concern worldwide contributing to significant morbidity in developed and developing countries. This cross-sectional database study estimated the overall HAV seroprevalence and the seroprevalence by gender, age, region and socioeconomic status in Mexico. Between January and October 2010, serum samples collected during the National Health and Nutrition survey (ENSANUT 2006) were obtained from subjects aged 1–95 y. Subjects’ gender, age, geographical region and socioeconomic status were extracted from the survey and compiled into a subset database by the Mexican National Institute of Public Health. Anti-HAV antibodies were measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay. A total of 3658 subjects were included in the according-to-protocol cohort. Overall, the HAV seroprevalence was 84.2%. The HAV seroprevalence rates were similar between females (86.1%) and males (82.2%). The percentage of subjects seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies was highest in adults aged ≥ 20 y (96.9%), followed by adolescents aged 10–19 y (80.1%) and lowest in children aged 1–9 y (45.0%) (p < 0.0001). Regionally, the highest HAV seroprevalence rate was observed in the South (88.8%) followed by Central and Northern Mexico and Mexico City (p = 0.02). The HAV seroprevalence was similar between subjects of high socioeconomic (90.1%) status and of low socioeconomic status (86.6%). This study confirms the intermediate HAV endemicity in Mexico. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to evaluate the inclusion of an effective hepatitis A vaccine from a population-based perspective in addition to continuous efforts to improve hygiene and sanitation that have a substantial impact on the disease burden. PMID:23291940

  15. Screening for Postpartum Depression and Associated Factors Among Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xinli; Zhang, Peichao; Wu, Haiyan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined what percentage of Chinese mothers during a three-year postpartum period were screened for postpartum depression and explored the correlation between postpartum depression and various socio-demographic, psychological, and cultural factors. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: A total of 506 mothers 23 years of age and older who were within three years postpartum completed the online survey. The survey collected information such as family economic status, a history of depression, preparation for pregnancy, relationships with husbands, and family members, adult attachment types (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS), and depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CESD). Results: Approximately 30% of mothers 1–3 years postpartum reported symptoms above the CESD cut-off score (≥16 scores) associated with the risk for depression (28.0% in the first year, 30.8% in the second year, and 31.8% in the third year). Factors significantly associated with depression in participants in the correlation analysis were education level; family income; preparation for pregnancy; a history of depression; amount of time spent with their husbands; relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a close, dependent, and/or anxious attachment style. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a history of depression; less preparation for pregnancy; poorer relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a more anxious attachment style were strongly related to a higher risk of postpartum depression. Conclusion: The overall percentage of mothers after delivery who were vulnerable to depression in China remains high. Various factors were significant predictors of postpartum depression. The research findings have several valuable implications for intervention practices. For example, attachment styles and depression history in the assessments of perinatal depression could improve screenings and the design of

  16. Internet addictive behavior in adolescence: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries.

    PubMed

    Tsitsika, Artemis; Janikian, Mari; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Tzavela, Eleni C; Olafsson, Kjartan; Wójcik, Szymon; Macarie, George Florian; Tzavara, Chara; Richardson, Clive

    2014-08-01

    A cross-sectional school-based survey study (N=13,284; 53% females; mean age 15.8±0.7) of 14-17-year-old adolescents was conducted in seven European countries (Greece, Spain, Poland, Germany, Romania, the Netherlands, and Iceland). The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of Internet addictive behavior (IAB) and related psychosocial characteristics among adolescents in the participating countries. In the study, we distinguish two problematic groups: adolescents with IAB, characterized by a loss of control over their Internet use, and adolescents "at risk for IAB," showing fewer or weaker symptoms of IAB. The two groups combined form a group of adolescents with dysfunctional Internet behavior (DIB). About 1% of adolescents exhibited IAB and an additional 12.7% were at risk for IAB; thus, in total, 13.9% displayed DIB. The prevalence of DIB was significantly higher among boys than among girls (15.2% vs. 12.7%, p<0.001) and varied widely between countries, from 7.9% in Iceland to 22.8% in Spain. Frequent use of specific online activities (e.g., gambling, social networking, gaming) at least 6 days/week was associated with greater probability of displaying DIB. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that DIB was more frequent among adolescents with a lower educational level of the parents, earlier age at first use of the Internet, and greater use of social networking sites and gaming sites. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that externalizing (i.e., behavioral) and internalizing (i.e., emotional) problems were associated with the presence of DIB.

  17. Association between serum cholesterol and eating behaviours during early childhood: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, Navindra; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Lebovic, Gerald; Carsley, Sarah; Khovratovich, Marina; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Parkin, Patricia C.; Birken, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Modifiable behaviours during early childhood may provide opportunities to prevent disease processes before adverse outcomes occur. Our objective was to determine whether young children’s eating behaviours were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Methods: In this cross-sectional study involving children aged 3–5 years recruited from 7 primary care practices in Toronto, Ontario, we assessed the relation between eating behaviours as assessed by the NutriSTEP (Nutritional Screening Tool for Every Preschooler) questionnaire (completed by parents) and serum levels of non–high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular risk. We also assessed the relation between dietary intake and serum non-HDL cholesterol, and between eating behaviours and other laboratory indices of cardiovascular risk (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, HDL cholesterol and apoliprotein A1). Results: A total of 1856 children were recruited from primary care practices in Toronto. Of these children, we included 1076 in our study for whom complete data and blood samples were available for analysis. The eating behaviours subscore of the NutriSTEP tool was significantly associated with serum non-HDL cholesterol (p = 0.03); for each unit increase in the eating behaviours subscore suggesting greater nutritional risk, we saw an increase of 0.02 mmol/L (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.002 to 0.05) in serum non-HDL cholesterol. The eating behaviours subscore was also associated with LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, but not with HDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein A1. The dietary intake subscore was not associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Interpretation: Eating behaviours in preschool-aged children are important potentially modifiable determinants of cardiovascular risk and should be a focus for future studies of screening and behavioural interventions. PMID:23775611

  18. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  19. Toxoplasma prevalence among pregnant women in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Findal, Gry; Barlinn, Regine; Sandven, Irene; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Nordbø, Svein A; Samdal, Helvi H; Vainio, Kirsti; Dudman, Susanne G; Jenum, Pål A

    2015-04-01

    Infection by Toxoplasma gondii may lead to complications in the foetus if the mother suffers from primary infection during pregnancy. Previously infected women have produced toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies. The most recent study on prevalence of toxoplasma IgG in the Norwegian pregnant population was conducted 20 years ago. The present study is part of a research programme initiated by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We aimed to update the knowledge regarding the prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway. In this cross-sectional study, sera from 1922 pregnant women in Buskerud (992) and Sør-Trøndelag counties (930) in Norway were collected consecutively. The presence of toxoplasma IgG was identified by values ≥8 IU/mL using an ELISA test. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma IgG seropositivity was 9.3% (95% CI 8.1-10.7); Sør-Trøndelag 10.4% (95% CI 8.6-12.6) and Buskerud 8.3% (95% CI 6.7-10.2). There was no difference between the counties (p = 0.13), and the result did not differ from prevalences found in 1974 (12.1%) and 1994 (10.7%). We found a higher prevalence among women ≥40 years (OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.30-5.42). The prevalence of toxoplasma IgG among pregnant women in Norway is low and has been stable during the last decades.

  20. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  1. 2005 cross section analysis and recommendations for further studies at Everest, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-01-31

    On September 8-9, 2005, representatives of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA), and Argonne National Laboratory met at the KDHE's offices in Topeka to review the status of the CCC/USDA's environmental activities in Kansas. A key CCC/USDA goal for this meeting was to discuss the recent (Phase III) environmental studies performed by Argonne at Everest, Kansas, and to obtain KDHE input on the selection of possible remedial approaches to be examined as part of the Corrective Action Study (CAS) for this site. Argonne distributed a brief Scoping Memo (Argonne 2005) to the CCC/USDA and the KDHE before the meeting to facilitate the intended pre-CAS discussions. As a result of the September meeting, the KDHE recommended several additional activities for the Everest site, for further assistance in identifying and evaluating remedial alternatives for the CAS. The requested actions include the following: (1) Construction of one or more additional, strategically located interpretive cross sections to improve the depiction of the hydrogeologic characteristics affecting groundwater and contaminant movement along the apparent main plume migration pathway to the north-northwest of the former CCC/USDA facility. (2) Development of technical recommendations for a stepwise pumping study of the Everest aquifer unit in the area near and to the north of the Nigh property. (3) Identification of potential locations for several additional monitoring wells, to better constrain the apparent western and northwestern margins of the existing groundwater plume. This report presents an update on efforts of the CCC/USDA and Argonne to address the KDHE concerns, and it proposes several additional actions for consideration.

  2. Phonatory Symptoms and Acoustic Findings in Patients with Asthma: A Cross-Sectional Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Ziade, Georges; Kasti, Maher; Akl, Leslie; Bawab, Ibrahim; Kanj, Nadim

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of phonatory symptoms, perceptual, acoustic and aerodynamic findings in patients with asthma compared to a control group. This study is a cross-sectional study. A total of 50 subjects, 31 asthmatic and 19 control subjects matched according to age and gender were enrolled in this study. All subjects were asked about the presence or absence of dysphonia, vocal fatigue, phonatory effort, cough, dyspnea, and respiratory failure. Perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis and aerodynamic measurements were also performed. Patient's self assessment using the Voice Handicap Index 10 was reported. The mean age of patients was 43.5 years with a female to male ratio of 2:1. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of dysphonia between the two groups (32.3 vs. 5.3%, p value 0.025) with a non-significant higher prevalence of vocal fatigue and phonatory effort. The overall grade of dysphonia was significantly higher in asthmatics compared to controls (p value 0.002). Patients with asthma had also significantly higher degree of asthenia and straining (p value of 0.04 and 0.008, respectively) with borderline significant difference with respect to roughness. There was no significant difference in the means of any of the acoustic parameters between patients and controls except for Shimmer, which was higher in the asthmatic group (p value of 0.037). There was also no significant difference in the Maximum phonation time between the two groups. Dysphonia is significantly more prevalent in patients with asthma compared to controls.

  3. Social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis and its treatment: a multicentre cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nagane, Yuriko; Murai, Hiroyuki; Imai, Tomihiro; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Tsuda, Emiko; Minami, Naoya; Suzuki, Yasushi; Kanai, Tetsuya; Uzawa, Akiyuki; Kawaguchi, Naoki; Masuda, Masayuki; Konno, Shingo; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Aoki, Masashi; Utsugisawa, Kimiaki

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the social disadvantages associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and examine associations with its disease and treatment. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants We evaluated 917 consecutive cases of established MG seen at 13 neurological centres in Japan over a short duration. Outcome measures All patients completed a questionnaire on social disadvantages resulting from MG and its treatment and a 15-item MG-specific quality of life scale at study entry. Clinical severity at the worst condition was graded according to the MG Foundation of America classification, and that at the current condition was determined according to the quantitative MG score and MG composite. Maximum dose and duration of dose ≥20 mg/day of oral prednisolone during the disease course were obtained from the patients' medical records. Achievement of the treatment target (minimal manifestation status with prednisolone at ≤5 mg/day) was determined at 1, 2 and 4 years after starting treatment and at study entry. Results We found that 27.2% of the patients had experienced unemployment, 4.1% had been unwillingly transferred and 35.9% had experienced a decrease in income, 47.1% of whom reported that the decrease was ≥50% of their previous total income. In addition, 49.0% of the patients reported feeling reduced social positivity. Factors promoting social disadvantages were severity of illness, dose and duration of prednisolone, long-term treatment, and a depressive state and change in appearance after treatment with oral steroids. Early achievement of the treatment target was a major inhibiting factor. Conclusions Patients with MG often experience unemployment, unwilling job transfers and a decrease in income. In addition, many patients report feeling reduced social positivity. To inhibit the social disadvantages associated with MG and its treatment, greater focus needs to be placed on helping patients with MG resume a normal lifestyle as soon as

  4. Retrospective Cross-Sectional Pilot Study of Rifaximin Dosing for the Prevention of Recurrent Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Kelsey C; Likar, Eric; Martello, Jay L; Regier, Michael

    2017-02-08

    Standard treatment for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) includes medications that reduce ammonia and bacterial translocation in the gut. Rifaximin can be used off-label for the reduction of overt HE. The study purpose was to determine efficacy of traditional rifaximin dosing (400 mg three times daily) compared to newer dosing (550 mg twice daily) via readmission rates for the prevention of recurrent HE. This was a retrospective, observational, cross-sectional pilot study conducted in a tertiary medical center. A total of 226 patients 18-89 years of age with documentation of HE via ICD-9 code who started rifaximin therapy while inpatient between April 2009 and June 2014 were evaluated. Data collected included rifaximin dosing, other medications used to treat HE, duration of therapy, time to readmission, and various laboratory values. There were no differences in readmission rates at 30 days, 60 days, or 6 months between treatment groups. Additionally, there was no difference in the odds of readmission between the treatment groups (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: (0.201, 4.365), p = 0.718). Patients had a low overall probability of readmission over the observational period. Based on average wholesale price (AWP) data, the cost for a 9 day supply of rifaximin for the 400 mg dosing regimen is $952.56 versus $605.16 for the 550 mg dosing regimen. The rifaximin 550 mg dosing strategy should be utilized in hospitalized patients for the prevention of recurrent HE as there was no difference in readmission rate or time to readmission between dosing groups. The 550 mg regimen had a lower acquisition cost for a 9-day duration of treatment in the studied institution.

  5. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-04

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%-11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%-16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12-3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15-2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11-4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54-2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56-2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65-4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals.

  6. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  7. Asthma and Wheeze Prevalence among Nursing Professionals in Western Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurai, Jun; Watanabe, Masanari; Sano, Hiroyuki; Torai, Saeko; Yanase, Hirokazu; Funakoshi, Tomoaki; Fukada, Atsuko; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Eiji; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    Although adult asthma is attributable to occupational factors, few reports are available on asthma prevalence among health care workers in Japan. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted by postal survey using a translated version of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey questionnaire from April to June 2013. The analysis included 4634 nursing professionals (257 men and 4377 women) and the overall response rate was 84.8%. The prevalence of current asthma and wheeze were 10.7% (95% confidence interval (CI), 9.9%–11.7%) and 15.6% (95% CI, 14.5%–16.6%), respectively. More than one year of work experience as a nursing professional and more than one year of experience with bed-making tasks were associated with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.95 (95% CI, 1.12–3.39) and 1.64 (95% CI, 1.15–2.23) for wheeze, respectively. Current smoking was significantly associated with the presence of wheeze, with ORs of 2.27 for men (95% CI, 1.11–4.64) and 2.01 for women (95% CI, 1.54–2.64). Among female nurses, latex allergy was associated with wheeze (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.56–2.23), as was body mass index ≥30 (OR, 2.76; 95% CI, 1.65–4.62). This study has provided the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among Japanese nursing professionals. Employment period, bed-making tasks, latex allergy, obesity, and smoking may be risk factors for prevalent wheeze among nursing professionals. PMID:26690187

  8. Nasal and conjunctival screening prior to refractive surgery: an observational and cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Koji; Sotozono, Chie; Sakamoto, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hieda, Osamu; Yamasaki, Toshihide; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate bacterial flora of clinically healthy conjunctiva and nasal cavity among patients prior to refractive surgery, as well as the characteristics of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation. Design Observational and cross-sectional study. Setting A single-centre study in Japan. Participants 120 consecutive patients pre-refractive surgery. Primary and secondary outcome measures methods Samples were obtained from the right conjunctival sac and the nasal cavity of 120 consecutive patients prior to refractive surgery and were then measured for the levels of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics. Patients were interviewed regarding their occupation, family living situation and any personal history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, smoking or contact lens wear. Results Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) (32.5%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (4.2%) were detected from the conjunctival sac. S. epidermidis was the most commonly isolated (68.3%) in the nasal cavity. Of the 30 patients (25.0%) with colonisation by S. aureus, 2 patients, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis, were found to be positive for MRSA in the nasal cavity. A history of contact lens wear, asthma or smoking, as well as patient gender and age, was not associated with MRSA colonisation. Conclusions There were only 2 patients who were colonised with MRSA, both of whom were healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis. P. acnes was predominantly found in the conjunctival sac. Further study is needed to investigate the involvement between nasal and conjunctival flora, and risk factors for infectious complications. PMID:27160843

  9. Personality Traits Are Associated with Research Misbehavior in Dutch Scientists: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tijdink, Joeri K.; Bouter, Lex M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; van de Ven, Peter M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Smulders, Yvo M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Personality influences decision making and ethical considerations. Its influence on the occurrence of research misbehavior has never been studied. This study aims to determine the association between personality traits and self-reported questionable research practices and research misconduct. We hypothesized that narcissistic, Machiavellianistic and psychopathic traits as well as self-esteem are associated with research misbehavior. Methods Included in this cross-sectional study design were 535 Dutch biomedical scientists (response rate 65%) from all hierarchical layers of 4 university medical centers in the Netherlands. We used validated personality questionnaires such as the Dark Triad (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, the Publication Pressure Questionnaire (PPQ), and also demographic and job-specific characteristics to investigate the association of personality traits with a composite research misbehavior severity score. Findings Machiavellianism was positively associated (beta 1.28, CI 1.06–1.53) with self-reported research misbehavior, while narcissism, psychopathy and self-esteem were not. Exploratory analysis revealed that narcissism and research misconduct were more severe among persons in higher academic ranks (i.e., professors) (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), and self-esteem scores and publication pressure were lower (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively) as compared to postgraduate PhD fellows. Conclusions Machiavellianism may be a risk factor for research misbehaviour. Narcissism and research misbehaviour were more prevalent among biomedical scientists in higher academic positions. These results suggest that personality has an impact on research behavior and should be taken into account in fostering responsible conduct of research. PMID:27684371

  10. Comorbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in family practice: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequent and often coexists with other diseases. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of COPD and related chronic comorbidity among patients aged over 40 years visiting family practices in an area of Madrid. Methods An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a health area of the Madrid Autonomous Region (Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid). The practice population totalled 198,670 persons attended by 129 Family Physicians (FPs), and the study population was made up of persons over the age of 40 years drawn from this practice population. Patients were deemed to have COPD if this diagnosis appeared on their clinical histories. Prevalence of COPD; prevalence of a further 25 chronic diseases in patients with COPD; and standardised prevalence ratios, were calculated. Results Prevalence of COPD in family medicine was 3.2% (95% CI 3.0–3.3) overall, 5.3% among men and 1.4% among women; 90% of patients presented with comorbidity, with a mean of 4 ± 2.04 chronic diseases per patient, with the most prevalent related diseases being arterial hypertension (52%), disorders of lipid metabolism (34%), obesity (25%), diabetes (20%) and arrhythmia (15%). After controlling for age and sex, the observed prevalence of the following ten chronic diseases was higher than expected: heart failure; chronic liver disease; asthma; generalised artherosclerosis; osteoporosis; ischaemic heart disease; thyroid disease; anxiety/depression; arrhythmia; and obesity. Conclusions Patients with COPD, who are frequent in family practice, have a complex profile and pose a clinical and organisational challenge to FPs. PMID:23324308

  11. Alterations of Myelin Content in Parkinson’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Sojkova, Jitka; Hurley, Samuel; Kecskemeti, Steven; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Theisen, Frances; Johnson, Sterling C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Gallagher, Catherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Alterations to myelin may be a core pathological feature of neurodegenerative diseases. Although white matter microstructural differences have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD), it is unknown whether such differences include alterations of the brain’s myelin content. Thus, the objective of the current study is to measure and compare brain myelin content between PD patients and age-matched controls. In this cross-sectional study, 63 participants from the Longitudinal MRI in Parkinson's Disease study underwent brain MRI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scoring, and cognitive asessments. Subjects were imaged with the mcDEPSOT (multi-component driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2), a multicomponent relaxometry technique that quantifies longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates (R1 and R2, respectively) and the myelin water fraction (VFM), a surrogate for myelin content. A voxel-wise approach was used to compare R1, R2, and VFM measures between PD and control groups, and to evaluate relationships with age as well as disease duration, UPDRS scores, and daily levodopa equivalent dose. PD subjects had higher VFM than controls in frontal and temporal white matter and bilateral thalamus. Greater age was strongly associated with lower VFM in both groups, while an age-by-group interaction suggested a slower rate of VFM decline in the left putamen with aging in PD. Within the PD group, measures of disease severity, including UPDRS, daily levodopa equivalent dose, and disease duration, were observed to be related with myelin content in diffuse brain regions. The age-by-group interaction suggests that either PD or dopaminergic therapies allay observed age-related myelin changes. The relationships between VFM and disease severity measures suggests that VFM may provide a surrogate marker for microstructural changes related to Parkinson’s disease. PMID:27706215

  12. Self-reported physical and mental health of Australian carers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rafat; Dillon, Gina; Ryan, Peta

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report on self-reported physical and mental health of informal carers in rural regions of New South Wales, Australia. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample (n=222) of carers completed a questionnaire incorporating self-reported measures of health from validated international instruments including Medical Outcomes Study Scale (SF-36), the Centre for Epidemiology-Depression (CES-D) and Kessler-10 (K-10) Psychological Distress Scales, along with information on participant demographics and other key caregiving characteristics such as health condition of care recipient. Results Rural carers’ self-reported health was poor as evident on the SF-36 Physical and Mental Health component scores as well as each individual domain of the SF-36. Results from the CES-D and K-10 scores indicated very high rates of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Over 70% of carers within the current study had CES-D scores indicative of depressive symptoms. Scores on the K-10 indicate almost half the carers were experiencing high levels of psychological distress, which is over 4 times the rate reported in the general Australian population. Conclusions and implications Results from this study were compared to Australian population normative data and were found to be significantly below Australian age-matched population norms for SF-36, CES-D and K-10. These findings illustrate the poor health profile of informal carers relative to the general Australian population, especially in terms of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. This highlights the need for additional support for rural carers in order to ease the accumulated mental and physical health burdens of this group. PMID:27625059

  13. Association between payments from manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians and regional prescribing: cross sectional ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shantanu; King, Marissa; Venkatesh, Arjun K; Krumholz, Harlan M; McKee, Douglas; Brown, Douglas; Ross, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    greater prescribing of marketed drugs than payments for food and beverages or educational materials (484 v 110, P<0.001). Conclusions and study limitations Payments by the manufacturers of pharmaceuticals to physicians were associated with greater regional prescribing of marketed drugs among Medicare Part D beneficiaries. Payments to specialists and payments for speaker and consulting fees were predominantly associated with greater regional prescribing of marketed drugs than payments to non-specialists or payments for food and beverages, gifts, or educational materials. As a cross sectional, ecological study, we cannot prove causation between payments to physicians and increased prescribing. Furthermore, our findings should be interpreted only at the regional level. Our study is limited to prescribing by physicians and the two drug classes studied. PMID:27540015

  14. The influence of latent toxoplasmosis on women's reproductive function: four cross-sectional studies.

    PubMed

    Kankova, Sarka; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel

    2015-07-28

    Several studies have investigated the association between infection with Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908), pregnancy and fertility, but the results of studies focused on the fertility are rather ambiguous. Here we report results of four new cross-sectional studies. The studies were performed in the General University Hospital, Prague (study A with n = 1 165, and study C with n = 317), in private clinics of the Centre of Reproductive Medicine, Prague (study B with n = 1 016), and in a population of Czech and Slovak volunteers from the Facebook page 'Guinea Pigs' willing to participate in various basic science studies (study D with n = 524). In studies A and B, the clinical records were used to assess the fertility problems, whereas in studies C and D, the women were asked to rate their fertility problems using a six-point scale. Pregnant T. gondii-infected women were older than T. gondii-free women (study A: 33.1 vs 31.2, P < 0.001; study B: 30.6 vs 29.6, P = 0.012) and more often used assisted reproductive technology to conceive (study A: 17.2% vs 12.4%, P = 0.041; study B: 13.4% vs 9.2%, P = 0.317). Pregnant T. gondii-infected primiparous women were older than T. gondii-free primiparas (study A: 31.1 vs 29.5, P < 0.001; study B: 29.7 vs 28.9, P = 0.064) and more often used assisted reproductive technology to conceive (study A: 24.7% vs 14.4%, P = 0.010; study B: 15.9% vs 15.5%, P = 0.888). T. gondii-infected women reported to take a longer time to conceive than T. gondii-free women (P = 0.015). They also claimed to have more fertility problems than T. gondii-free women (P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that 'asymptomatic' latent toxoplasmosis could be a more serious source of fertility problems and health-associated burden than more severe but far rarer congenital toxoplasmosis.

  15. Cross-sectional study of depression and help-seeking in Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Kaaren; Goicolea, Isabel; Kermode, Michelle; Singh, Lawrence; Shidhaye, Rahul; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to use a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe depression prevalence, healthcare seeking and associations with socioeconomic determinants in a district in North India. Setting This study was conducted in Sahaspur and Raipur, administrative blocks of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in July 2014. Participants A population-based sample of 960 people over the age of 18 years was selected in 30 randomised clusters after being stratified by rural:urban census ratios. Primary outcome measures The survey used a validated screening tool, Patient Health Questionnaire, to identify people with depression, and collected information regarding socioeconomic variables and help-seeking behaviours. Depression prevalence and health seeking behaviours were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and depression. Results Prevalence of depression was 6% (58/960), with a further 3.9% (37/960) describing a depressive episode of over 2 weeks in the past 12 months. Statistically significant adjusted OR for depression of more than 2 were found for people who were illiterate, classified as Scheduled Caste/Tribe or Other Backward Castes, living in temporary material housing and who had recently taken a loan. While over three quarters of people with depression (79%) had attended a private or government general medical practitioner in the past 3 months, none had received talking therapy (100% treatment gap) and two people (3.3%) had been prescribed antidepressants. Conclusions There are clear associations between social, educational and economic disadvantage and depression in this population. Strategies that address the social determinants of depression, such as education, social exclusion, financial protection and affordable housing for all are indicated. To address the large treatment gap in Uttarakhand, we must ensure access to primary and secondary mental health providers who can

  16. Association between age and knee structural change: a cross sectional MRI based study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, C; Cicuttini, F; Scott, F; Cooley, H; Jones, G

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe the associations between age, knee cartilage morphology, and bone size in adults. Methods: A cross sectional convenience sample of 372 male and female subjects (mean age 45 years, range 26–61) was studied. Knee measures included a cartilage defect five site score (0–4 respectively) and prevalence (defect score of ⩾2 at any site), cartilage volume and thickness, and bone surface area and/or volume. These were determined at the patellar, medial, and lateral tibial and femoral sites using T1 weighted fat saturation MRI. Height, weight, and radiographic osteoarthritis (ROA) were measured by standard protocols. Results: In multivariate analysis, age was significantly associated with knee cartilage defect scores (ß = +0.016 to +0.073/year, all p<0.01) and prevalence (OR = 1.05–1.10/year, all p<0.05) in all compartments. Additionally, age was negatively associated with knee cartilage thickness at all sites (ß = –0.013 to –0.035 mm/year, all p<0.05), and with patellar (ß = –11.5 µl/year, p<0.01) but not tibial cartilage volume. Lastly, age was significantly positively associated with medial and lateral tibial surface bone area (ß = +3.0 to +4.7 mm2/year, all p<0.05) and patellar bone volume (ß = +34.4 µl/year, p<0.05). Associations between age and tibiofemoral cartilage defect score, cartilage thickness, and bone size decreased in magnitude after adjustment for ROA, suggesting these changes are directly relevant to OA. Conclusion: The most consistent knee structural changes with increasing age are increase in cartilage defect severity and prevalence, cartilage thinning, and increase in bone size with inconsistent change in cartilage volume. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine which of these changes are primary and confirm their relevance to knee OA. PMID:15769915

  17. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000) of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure

  18. Maternal morbidity and mortality associated with interpregnancy interval: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Belizán, José M

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of interpregnancy interval on maternal morbidity and mortality. Design Retrospective cross sectional study with data from the Perinatal Information System database of the Latin American Centre for Perinatology and Human Development, Montevideo, Uruguay. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean, 1985-97. Participants 456 889 parous women delivering singleton infants. Main outcome measures Crude and adjusted odds ratios of the effects of short and long interpregnancy intervals on maternal death, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, third trimester bleeding, premature rupture of membranes, postpartum haemorrhage, puerperal endometritis, and anaemia. Results Short (<6 months) and long (>59 months) interpregnancy intervals were observed for 2.8% and 19.5% of women, respectively. After adjustment for major confounding factors, compared with those conceiving at 18 to 23 months after a previous birth, women with interpregnancy intervals of 5 months or less had higher risks for maternal death (odds ratio 2.54; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 5.38), third trimester bleeding (1.73; 1.42 to 2.24), premature rupture of membranes (1.72; 1.53 to 1.93), puerperal endometritis (1.33; 1.22 to 1.45), and anaemia (1.30; 1.18 to 1.43). Compared with women with interpregnancy intervals of 18 to 23 months, women with interpregnancy intervals longer than 59 months had significantly increased risks of pre-eclampsia (1.83; 1.72 to 1.94) and eclampsia (1.80; 1.38 to 2.32). Conclusions Interpregnancy intervals less than 6 months and longer than 59 months are associated with an increased risk of adverse maternal outcomes. PMID:11082085

  19. Drug dispensing practices at pharmacies in Bengaluru: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Soumya, R.; Devarashetty, Vijayalakshmi; Jayanthi, C. R.; Sushma, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pharmacists are one of the crucial focal points for health care in the community. They have tremendous outreach to the public as pharmacies are often the first-port-of-call. With the increase of ready-to-use drugs, the main health-related activity of a pharmacist today is to assure the quality of dispensing, a key element to promote rational medicine use. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 200 pharmacies, 100 each in various residential (R) and commercial (C) areas of Bengaluru, was conducted using a prevalidated questionnaire administered to the chief pharmacist or the person-in-charge by the investigators. Results: Dispensing without prescription at pharmacies was 45% of the total dispensing encounters and significantly higher (χ2 = 15.2, P < 0.001, df = 1) in pharmacies of residential areas (46.64%) as compared to commercial areas (43.64%). Analgesics were the most commonly dispensed drugs (90%) without prescription. Only 31% insisted on dispensing full course of antibiotics prescribed and 19% checked for completeness of prescription before dispensing. Although 97% of the pharmacies had a refrigerator, 31% of these did not have power back-up. Only about 50% of the pharmacists were aware of Schedule H. Conclusion: This study shows a high proportion of dispensing encounters without prescription, a higher rate of older prescription refills, many irregularities in medication counseling and unsatisfactory storage practices. It also revealed that about half of the pharmacists were unaware of Schedule H and majority of them about current regulations. Hence, regulatory enforcement and educational campaigns are a prerequisite to improve dispenser's knowledge and dispensing practices. PMID:27756944

  20. Periictal and interictal headache including migraine in Dutch patients with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hofstra, W A; Hageman, G; de Weerd, A W

    2015-03-01

    As early as in 1898, it was noted that there was a need to find "a plausible explanation of the long recognized affinities of migraine and epilepsy". However, results of recent studies are clearly conflicting on this matter. In this cross-sectional study, we aimed to define the prevalence and characteristics of both seizure-related and interictal headaches in patients with epilepsy (5-75years) seeking help in the tertiary epilepsy clinic SEIN in Zwolle. Using a questionnaire, subjects were surveyed on the existence of headaches including characteristics, duration, severity, and accompanying symptoms. Furthermore, details on epilepsy were retrieved from medical records (e.g., syndrome, seizure frequency, and use of drugs). Diagnoses of migraine, tension-type headache, or unclassifiable headache were made based on criteria of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Between March and December 2013, 29 children and 226 adults were evaluated, 73% of whom indicated having current headaches, which is significantly more often when compared with the general population (p<0.001). Forty-nine percent indicated having solely interictal headache, while 29% had solely seizure-related headaches and 22% had both. Migraine occurs significantly more often in people with epilepsy in comparison with the general population (p<0.001), and the occurrence of tension-type headaches conforms to results in the general population. These results show that current headaches are a significantly more frequent problem amongst people with epilepsy than in people without epilepsy. When comparing migraine prevalence, this is significantly higher in the population of patients with epilepsy.

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of Musculoskeletal Health Literacy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Andrew J; Dunkman, Andrew; Goldberg, Daniel; Uhl, Richard L; Mulligan, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Background: Approximately 33% of Americans have inadequate health literacy, which is associated with infrequent use of preventative services, increased hospitalization and use of emergency care, and worse control of chronic diseases. In this study, the Literacy in Musculoskeletal Problems (LiMP) questionnaire was used to evaluate the prevalence of limited musculoskeletal literacy in patients undergoing carpal tunnel release (CTR), as these individuals may be at increased risk of inferior outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study included individuals older than or equal to 18 years of age who were scheduled for elective CTR. Participants completed a demographic survey and the LiMP questionnaire during their preoperative office visit. The prevalence of limited health literacy was determined, with chi-square analysis used to determine the influence of demographic parameters. Results: The mean LiMP score was 6 ± 1.40. Limited musculoskeletal literacy was seen in 34% of participants (22/65). Analysis identified race (Caucasian), gender (female), higher education levels (≥college), current or prior employment in a health care field, and a prior physician visit for a non-carpal tunnel musculoskeletal complaint as being associated with higher literacy rates. Conclusions: Approximately one-third of patients scheduled for elective CTR have limited musculoskeletal literacy and may lack the necessary skills required for making informed decisions regarding their care. This is concerning, as CTR is performed in the United States on roughly 500 000 individuals annually, at an estimated cost of 2 billion dollars. The identification of those most at risk is thus crucial, and will facilitate the development of education campaigns and interventions geared toward those who are most vulnerable.

  2. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge. PMID:26091505

  3. Musculoskeletal pain and school bag use: a cross-sectional study among Ugandan pupils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Though seen as a convenient method of carrying books and other scholastic materials including food items, schoolbags are believed to contribute to back and other musculoskeletal problems in school going children. This study set out to determine the prevalence of low back and other musculoskeletal pains and describe their relationship with schoolbag use in pupils. Results This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 532 pupils from six primary schools with a mean age of 13.6 years. Analyses included the chi- square test, independent t tests, regression analysis and test for trend across ordered groups. Backpacks were the most common type of schoolbag and younger children carried disproportionately heavier bags. Urban pupils were younger, carried significantly heavier bags, and less likely to complain about schoolbag weight than the rural pupils, About 30.8% of the pupils carried schoolbags which were more than 10% of their body weight. About 88.2% of pupils reported having body pain especially in the neck, shoulders and upper back. About 35.4% of the children reported that carrying the schoolbag was the cause of their musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence of lower back pain was 37.8%. There was significant association between low back pain and; method of bag carriage (p < 0.0001), long duration of walking (odds ratio 2.67, 95% CI 1.38- 5.16) and the time spent sitting after school (p = 0.02). Only 19% had lockers at school. Conclusion Urban pupils were younger, carried significantly heavier bags, and less likely to complain about schoolbag weight than the rural pupils. The majority of pupils complained of musculoskeletal pain of which 35.4% was attributed to the schoolbags. The prevalence of lower back pain was 37.8%. Schools need to provide lockers and functional libraries in order to avoid excessive loading and repetitive strain injuries. PMID:24713177

  4. Stages of chronicity in fibromyalgia and pain catastrophising: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent and disabling disorder characterised by widespread pain and other symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue and depression. Catastrophisation is considered to be a key clinical symptom in FM; however, few studies have investigated how contextual factors, such as catastrophisation, might contribute to the duration of the pain. The present research examined the relationship among pain, catastrophic thinking and FM impact, as a function of stage of chronicity. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the sample of 328 patients diagnosed with FM was divided into 3 groups based on level of chronicity: Group A (6 months to 2 years, N = 46); Group B (2-4 years, N = 59); and Group C (more than 4 years, N = 223). The three subscales of the Pain Catastrophising Scale (PCS), rumination, magnification, and helplessness, were used as predictors of dysfunction. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the McGill Pain Questionnaire were also administered. A hierarchical regression analysis was performed on the entire sample and, subsequently, for each group to determine the effect of the continuous process variables (castastrophising and pain) on the stages of chronicity. Results Total score and PCS subscales were strongly associated with pain and impact in all the stages of chronicity in FM patients (r = 0.27-0.73, p < 0.05). For Group A, a regression analysis revealed that rumination predicted FM impact beyond the variance accounted for by age and pain. Both magnification and helplessness predicted impact in Group B, and helplessness was a significant predictor of impact in Group C. Conclusion These findings provide preliminary evidence that stage of chronicity is an important moderator of psychological vulnerability for FM impact and should be taken into account by tailoring psychological interventions. PMID:20979608

  5. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  6. Adiposity and immune-muscle crosstalk in South Asians & Europeans: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Samaan, M.Constantine; Anand, Sonia S.; Sharma, Arya M.; Bonner, Ashley; Beyene, Joseph; Samjoo, Imtiaz; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    South Asians (SA) are at higher risk of cardiometabolic disorders than Europeans (EU), yet the potential determinants of this risk are poorly understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) South Asians (SA) have greater muscle inflammation compared to Europeans (EU) at similar fat mass 2) differential regional adiposity in SA compared to EU is associated with enhanced muscle inflammation in SA. This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary academic center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The study included 29 EU and 26 SA. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure muscle inflammation. Statistical analysis was done using a General Linear Model. Despite having similar macrophage content to EU, SA muscle had lower levels of chemokine CCL2 compared to EU at gene expression (β -1.099, SE β 0.521, p-value 0.04) and protein (0.84 ± 0.69 versus 1.10 ± 0.60, p-value 0.052) levels. SA had more pronounced abdominal and hepatic adiposity, with smaller Intramyocellular lipid particles compared to EU (0.26 ± 0.12 μm2 versus 0.15 ± 0.06 μm2, p-value 0.02). In conclusion, CCL2 downregulation in SA may be an attempt to protect muscle against macrophage infiltration, and defects in fatty acid partitioning to muscle may lead to the disproportionate adiposity and adverse cardiometabolic profile in SA. PMID:26455502

  7. Insomnia and Relationship with Anxiety in University Students: A Cross-Sectional Designed Study

    PubMed Central

    Choueiry, Nour; Salamoun, Tracy; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Rabbaa Khabbaz, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Sleep disorders (SDs) are now recognized as a public health concern with considerable psychiatric and societal consequences specifically on the academic life of students. The aims of this study were to assess SDs in a group of university students in Lebanon and to examine the relationship between SDs and anxiety. Methods An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at Saint-Joseph University, Lebanon, during the academic year 2013–2014. Four questionnaires were face-to-face administered to 462 students after obtaining their written consent: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7). Results The prevalence of clinically significant insomnia was 10.6% (95% CI: 7.8–13.4%), more frequent in first year students. ISI mean score was 10.06 (SD = 3.76). 37.1% of the participants were poor sleepers. Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and poor sleep were significantly more frequent among participants with clinical insomnia (p = 0.031 and 0.001 respectively). Clinically significant anxiety was more frequent in students suffering from clinical insomnia (p = 0.006) and in poor sleepers (p = 0.003). 50.8% of the participants with clinically significant anxiety presented EDS versus 30.9% of those with no clinically significant anxiety (p<0.0001). Conclusions The magnitude of SDs in this sample of Lebanese university students demonstrate the importance of examining sleep health in this population. Moreover, the link between SD and anxiety reminds us of the importance of treating anxiety as soon as detected and not simply targeting the reduction of sleep problems. PMID:26900686

  8. Sex differences in the risk profile of hypertension: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saswata; Mukhopadhyay, Simantini; Barik, Anamitra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with hypertension among a sample male and female population in India. Setting Cross-sectional survey data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of rural West Bengal, India was used. Participants 27 589 adult individuals (13 994 males and 13 595 females), aged ≥18 years, were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or if the subject was undergoing regular antihypertensive therapy. Prehypertension was defined as SBP 120–139 mm Hg and DBP 80–89 mm Hg. Individuals were categorised as non-normotensives, which includes both the prehypertensives and hypertensives. Generalised ordered logit model (GOLM) was deployed to fulfil the study objective. Results Over 39% of the men and 25% of the women were prehypertensives. Almost 12.5% of the men and 11.3% of the women were diagnosed as hypertensives. Women were less likely to be non-normotensive compared to males. Odds ratios estimated from GOLM indicate that women were less likely to be hypertensive or prehypertensive, and age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.05; and OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.09 for males and females, respectively) and body mass index (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.97 for males; and OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60 for females) are associated with hypertension. Conclusions An elevated level of hypertension exists among a select group of the rural Indian population. Focusing on men, an intervention could be designed for lifestyle modification to curb the prevalence of hypertension. PMID:27466234

  9. Cancer Information Seeking Among Adult New Zealanders: a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Richards, Rosalina; McNoe, Bronwen; Iosua, Ella; Reeder, Anthony; Egan, Richard; Marsh, Louise; Robertson, Lindsay; Maclennan, Brett; Dawson, Anna; Quigg, Robin; Petersen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-11-16

    Organisations seeking to establish themselves as leading cancer information sources for the public need to understand patterns and motivators for information seeking. This study describes cancer information seeking among New Zealanders through a national cross-sectional survey conducted in 2014/15 with a population-based sample of adults (18 years and over). Participants were asked if they had sought information about cancer during the past 12 months, the type of information they sought, what prompted them to look for information and ways of getting information they found helpful. Telephone interviews were completed by 1064 participants (588 females, 476 males, 64% response rate). Of these, 33.8% of females and 23.3% of males (total, 29.2%) had searched for information about cancer over the past year. A search was most frequently prompted by a cancer diagnosis of a family member or friend (43.3%), a desire to educate themselves (17.5%), experience of potential symptoms or a positive screening test (9.4%), family history of cancer (8.9%) or the respondent's own cancer diagnosis (7.7%). Across the cancer control spectrum, the information sought was most commonly about treatment and survival (20.2%), symptoms/early detection (17.2%) or risk factors (14.2%), although many were general or non-specific queries (50.0%). The internet was most commonly identified as a helpful source of information (71.7%), followed by health professionals (35.8%), and reading material (e.g. books, pamphlets) (14.7%).This study provides a snapshot of cancer information seeking in New Zealand, providing valuable knowledge to help shape resource delivery to better meet the diverse needs of information seekers and address potential unmet needs, where information seeking is less prevalent.

  10. Correlation Between Vision and Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Spierer, Oriel; Fischer, Naomi; Barak, Adiel; Belkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between vision and cognition is not fully understood. Visual impairment in the elderly has been associated with impaired cognitive function, dementia, and Alzheimer disease. The aim was to study the correlation between near visual acuity (VA), refraction, and cognitive state in an elderly population.Subjects ≥75 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Refraction and near VA was tested. Cognitive function was evaluated with a version of the mini-mental state examination for the visually impaired (MMSE-blind). The eye with better VA and no cataract or refractive surgery was analyzed.One-hundred ninety subjects (81.6 ± 5.1 years, 69.5% female) were included. Good VA (≤J3) was associated with high MMSE-blind (>17) (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.57-6.43, P = 0.001). This remained significant adjusting for sex, age, and years of education. Wearing reading glasses correlated significantly with high MMSE-blind after adjustment for sex and age (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.16-3.97, P = 0.016), but reached borderline significance after adjustment for education. There was a trend toward correlation between myopia and better MMSE-blind (r = -0.123, P = 0.09, Pearson correlation).Good VA and wearing glasses seem to correlate with better cognitive function. Reading glasses can serve as a protective factor against cognitive deterioration associated with sensory (visual) deprivation in old age. The association between myopia and cognition requires further investigation.

  11. How university students view human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A cross-sectional study in Jinan, China.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huachun; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongjie; Zhao, Fanghui; Wang, Shaoming; Zhang, Shaokai; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of HPV vaccination among university students in China is not well understood. Our study was of cross-sectional study design. We collected a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of, attitude toward and acceptability of HPV vaccination. A total of 351 students were included in data analyses, among whom 47.6% were males and 70.0% aged 19-21. Only 10.3% had previously heard of HPV and 5.4% HPV vaccine. Male and female students were equally likely to accept HPV vaccine (71.8 vs 69.4%, p = 0.634) and recommend it to sexual partners (73.1 vs 76.7%, p = 0.441). The great majority of students could only afford RMB 300 (USD 50) or less for HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination acceptance was associated with being in year-one (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)  = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-6.75), being from a key university (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.07-3.31), having heard of HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05-3.35), being concerned about HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.16-4.27) and believing the vaccine should be given before first sexual contact (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38-4.29). Female students were more likely to anticipate a late uptake of HPV vaccination (p = 0.002). The relatively lower levels of HPV knowledge but higher levels of vaccine acceptance among undergraduates highlighted the need for education on the roles of sexual behaviors in HPV transmission.

  12. Retinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Hydroxychloroquine: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Goldis; Moghimi, Jamileh; Ghorbani, Raheb; Pourazizi, Mohsen; Seiri, Mohammad-Ali; Khosravi, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial medication that can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases. However, it can produce irreversible changes to the retina that lead to visual impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients treated with HCQ who develop retinal toxicity and the risk factors for the development of HCQ-induced retinal toxicity among Iranian patients. The is a cross-sectional clinical study of 59 patients who were treated with HCQ during 2014-2015. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the following demographic and clinical factors: age, gender, type of rheumatic disease, history of cataract surgery, daily and cumulative HCQ dose, and duration of HCQ use. Retinal toxicity was diagnosed on the basis of the automated perimetry results of the central 10° of vision and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The associations between the demographic and clinical factors and retinal toxicity were assessed, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Retinal toxicity was detected in 18 (30.5%) of the patients, and 5 (8.5 %) developed color vision impairments. There was no association between retinal toxicity and sex (P = 0.514), history of cataract surgery (P = 0.479), type of rheumatic disease (P = 0.539), or daily HCQ dose (P = 0.062). However, there was a significant positive association between retinal toxicity and age (P = 0.006), cumulative HCQ dose (P = 0.002), and duration of HCQ use (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the risk factors for retinal toxicity after HCQ treatment were advanced age, use of a higher cumulative HCQ dose, and a longer duration of treatment.

  13. Retinal Toxicity in Patients Treated With Hydroxychloroquine: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    ESPANDAR, Goldis; MOGHIMI, Jamileh; GHORBANI, Raheb; POURAZIZI, Mohsen; SEIRI, Mohammad-Ali; KHOSRAVI, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial medication that can also be used to treat autoimmune diseases. However, it can produce irreversible changes to the retina that lead to visual impairment. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of patients treated with HCQ who develop retinal toxicity and the risk factors for the development of HCQ-induced retinal toxicity among Iranian patients. The is a cross-sectional clinical study of 59 patients who were treated with HCQ during 2014–2015. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the following demographic and clinical factors: age, gender, type of rheumatic disease, history of cataract surgery, daily and cumulative HCQ dose, and duration of HCQ use. Retinal toxicity was diagnosed on the basis of the automated perimetry results of the central 10° of vision and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The associations between the demographic and clinical factors and retinal toxicity were assessed, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Retinal toxicity was detected in 18 (30.5%) of the patients, and 5 (8.5 %) developed color vision impairments. There was no association between retinal toxicity and sex (P = 0.514), history of cataract surgery (P = 0.479), type of rheumatic disease (P = 0.539), or daily HCQ dose (P = 0.062). However, there was a significant positive association between retinal toxicity and age (P = 0.006), cumulative HCQ dose (P = 0.002), and duration of HCQ use (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the risk factors for retinal toxicity after HCQ treatment were advanced age, use of a higher cumulative HCQ dose, and a longer duration of treatment. PMID:28293646

  14. Contraception and Unintended Pregnancy among Unmarried Female University Students: A Cross-sectional Study from China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongjing; Long, Lu; Cai, Hui; Wu, Yue; Xu, Jing; Shu, Chang; Wang, Peng; Li, Bo; Wei, Qinyu; Shang, Xuejun; Wang, Xueyi; Zhang, Meimei; Xiong, Chengliang; Yin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand the level of contraceptive knowledge and attitudes towards contraception, and then to explore the association between the contraceptive behavior and unintended pregnancy in unmarried female university students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of university students in 49 universities across 7 cities in China from September 2007 to January 2008. We distributed 74,800 questionnaires, of which 69,842 were returned. In this paper, the data from 35,383 unmarried female university students were analyzed. The prevalence of sexual intercourse in unmarried female university students was 10.2%. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy in those sexually active female university students, was 31.8%. Among students with pregnancy, 53.5% experienced two or more pregnancies. 28.3% of the students with sexual intercourse reported that they always adopted contraceptive methods, and of those 82.9% chose to use male condoms. The majority (83.9%) of students with unintended pregnancy chose to terminate the latest pregnancy by surgical abortion or medical abortion. The contraceptive knowledge level of students who experienced unintended pregnancy was lower than those who did not. In China, about one third of unmarried female students with sexual intercourse experience unintended pregnancy. A variety of contraceptive methods are adopted, but the frequency of contraceptive use is low. Most of unmarried female students who experienced unintended pregnancy would choose to terminate the pregnancy with surgical or medical abortion. University students, especially the ones who have experienced unintended pregnancy, lack contraceptive and reproductive health knowledge.

  15. Prevalence of factors related to active reproductive health behavior: a cross-sectional study Indonesian adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Rumiko; Tsuda, Akiko; Tabuchi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Complex and diverse factors are related to reproductive health (RH) behavior among adolescents according to the social and cultural context of each countries. This study examined the prevalence of active RH and factors related to active RH behavior among Indonesian adolescents. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,040 of students who were selected through a multi-stage random sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire was developed, including the World Health Organization Illustrative Questionnaire for Interview-Surveys with Young People, pubertal development scale, and sexual activity scale, modified in accordance to the Indonesian context. The data were analyzed using descriptive and comparative statistics, as well as logistic regression analyses. RESULTS The prevalence of active RH behavior were more higher in boys (56.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 50.6% to 62.6%) than in girls (43.7%; 95% CI, 37.6% to 49.8%). Negative attitudes towards RH were a factor related to active RH behavior in both boys and girls. Smoking and kind relationship envisioned before marriage (pacaran [courtship] and nikah siri [non-registered marriage]) were factors related to active RH behavior in boys; whereas the absence of access to information on substance abuse was an additional factor in girls. Moreover, an interaction was found between access to information on development and smoking (boys) and attitudes on RH (girls) as independent variables associated with active RH behavior. CONCLUSIONS Sex education for adolescents in Indonesia, particularly in the context of a health promotion program, should be developed based on prevalent social, cultural, and religious values to prevent active RH behavior. Such programs should focus on the kind of relationship envisioned before marriage and smoking for boys and access to information on subtance abuse for girls. PMID:27866406

  16. A cross-sectional study on intestinal parasitic infections in rural communities, northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-12-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand, from March to August 2013. A total of 253 stool samples from 102 males and 140 females, aged 2-80 years, were prepared using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration methods and examined using light microscopy. Ninety-four individuals (37.2%) were infected with 1 or more parasite species. Presence of parasitic infection was significantly correlated with gender (P=0.001); nearly half of males in this survey (49.0%) were infected. Older people had a higher prevalence than younger members of the population. The most common parasite found was Opisthorchis viverrini (26.9%), followed by Strongyloides stercoralis (9.5%), Taenia spp. (1.6%), echinostomes (0.4%), and hookworms (0.4%). The prevalence of intestinal protozoa was Blastocystis hominis 1.6%, Entamoeba histolytica 0.8%, Entamoeba coli 0.8%, Balantidium coli 0.4%, Iodamoeba bütschlii 0.4%, and Sarcocystis hominis 0.4%. Co-infections of various helminths and protozoa were present in 15.9% of the people. The present results show that the prevalence of parasitic infections in this region is still high. Proactive education about dietary habits, personal hygiene, and sanitation should be provided to the people in this community to reduce the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections. Moreover, development of policies and programs to control parasites is needed.

  17. Interpersonal Trust and Quality-of-Life: A Cross-Sectional Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Tokuda, Yasuharu; Jimba, Masamine; Yanai, Haruo; Fujii, Seiji; Inoguchi, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in psychosocial factors with positive attitudes, such as interpersonal trust, as determinants for Quality-of-life (QOL) or subjective well-being. Despite their longevity, Japanese people report a relatively poor subjective well-being, as well as lower interpersonal trust. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible association between interpersonal trust and QOL among Japanese people. Methodology and Principal Findings Based on the cross-sectional data for Japanese adults (2008), we analyzed the relationship between interpersonal trust and each of four domains of the WHOQOL-BREF. Interpersonal trust was assessed using three scales for trust in people, in human fairness and in human nature. In a total of 1000 participants (mean age: 45 years; 49% women), greater trust was recognized among women (vs. men), those aged 60–69 (vs. 20–29), or the high-income group (vs. low-income). Each of three trust scales was positively correlated with all domains of QOL. Multiple linear-regression models were constructed for each of QOL and the principal component score of the trust scales, adjusted for age, gender, area size of residence, income, education, and occupation. For all QOL domains, interpersonal trust was significantly and positively associated with better QOL with p<0.001 for all four domains including physical, psychological, social, and environmental QOL. Other factors associated with QOL included gender, age class, area size of residence, and income. Education and occupation were not associated with QOL. Conclusions and Significance Greater interpersonal trust is strongly associated with a better QOL among Japanese adults. If a causal relationship is demonstrated in a controlled interventional study, social and political measures should be advocated to increase interpersonal trust for achieving better QOL. PMID:19096704

  18. Metabolic toxicities in patients undergoing treatment for nonhematological malignancy: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Subhash; Haresh, Kunhi Parambath; Roy, Soumyajit; Kashyap, Lakhan; Adhikari, Narayan; Pandey, Rambha; Sharma, Dayanand; Julka, Pramod Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic toxicities in patients with different nonhematological malignancies admitted in oncology ward of a tertiary cancer care center while on treatment. Methods: We did this cross-sectional study over a period of 7 months (January–July 2013) for all adult patients (n = 280) who, while undergoing anti-cancer therapy at our center, got admitted to our oncology inpatient ward with metabolic toxicity. Grading of toxicity was done using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. Results: A total of 46 events of metabolic toxicities were noted in 31 patients over this period. The most common of them was hyperglycemia (n = 10). The others were hypokalemia (n = 9), hyponatremia (n = 9), hypernatremia (n = 5), hyperkalemia (n = 5), tumor lysis syndrome (n = 4), hypercalcemia (n = 2), and grade ≤2 hypomagnesemia (n = 2). Majority of the patients were asymptomatic (n = 26). However, death occurred in five patients. Treatment interruptions took place in 19 patients. Age ≤40 years (P = 0.03), Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2 (P = 0.023), history of addiction (P = 0.02), comorbidities (P = 0.037) were associated with increased risk of having metabolic toxicities on univariate analysis. While on multivariate analysis, only age, performance status, and history of addiction retained their statistical significance. Age ≤40 years (P = 0.02), use of more than one modality of treatment (P = 0.013), and hyperglycemia (P = 0.037) were associated with higher risk of death. Conclusion: Metabolic toxicities are common phenomena among cancer patients, especially those with young age, comorbidities, and having history of addictions. In young age, they might even be fatal, especially when they are treated with combined modality of treatment. PMID:28144092

  19. How university students view human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination: A cross-sectional study in Jinan, China

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Huachun; Wang, Wei; Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yongjie; Zhao, Fanghui; Wang, Shaoming; Zhang, Shaokai; Ma, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The acceptability of HPV vaccination among university students in China is not well understood. Our study was of cross-sectional study design. We collected a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of, attitude toward and acceptability of HPV vaccination. A total of 351 students were included in data analyses, among whom 47.6% were males and 70.0% aged 19–21. Only 10.3% had previously heard of HPV and 5.4% HPV vaccine. Male and female students were equally likely to accept HPV vaccine (71.8 vs 69.4%, p = 0.634) and recommend it to sexual partners (73.1 vs 76.7%, p = 0.441). The great majority of students could only afford RMB 300 (USD 50) or less for HPV vaccination. HPV vaccination acceptance was associated with being in year-one (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR)  = 3.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12–6.75), being from a key university (AOR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.07–3.31), having heard of HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.05–3.35), being concerned about HPV-related morbidities (AOR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.16–4.27) and believing the vaccine should be given before first sexual contact (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.38–4.29). Female students were more likely to anticipate a late uptake of HPV vaccination (p = 0.002). The relatively lower levels of HPV knowledge but higher levels of vaccine acceptance among undergraduates highlighted the need for education on the roles of sexual behaviors in HPV transmission. PMID:26308701

  20. Change of water consumption and its potential influential factors in Shanghai: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Different water choices affect access to drinking water with different quality. Previous studies suggested social-economic status may affect the choice of domestic drinking water. The aim of this study is to investigate whether recent social economic changes in China affect residents’ drinking water choices. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate residents’ water consumption behaviour in 2011. Gender, age, education, personal income, housing condition, risk perception and personal preference of a certain type of water were selected as potential influential factors. Univariate and backward stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed to analyse the relation between these factors and different drinking water choices. Basic information was compared with that of a historical survey in the same place in 2001. Self-reported drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found correlated with different water choices and water hygiene treatment using chi-square test. Results The percentage of tap water consumption remained relatively stable and a preferred choice, with 58.99% in 2001 and 58.25% in 2011. The percentage of bottled/barrelled water consumption was 36.86% in 2001 and decreased to 25.75% in 2011. That of household filtrated water was 4.15% in 2001 and increased to 16.00% in 2011. Logistic regression model showed strong correlation between one’s health belief and drinking water choices (P < 0.001). Age, personal income, education, housing condition, risk perception also played important roles (P < 0.05) in the models. Drinking-water-related diarrhoea was found in all types of water and improper water hygiene behaviours still existed among residents. Conclusions Personal health belief, housing condition, age, personal income, education, taste and if worm ever founded in tap water affected domestic drinking water choices in Shanghai. PMID:22708830

  1. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ohio EMS Providers: A Statewide Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Robert C; Hoet, Armando E; Bell, Christopher; Kelley, Christina; Lu, Bo; Anderson, Sarah E; Stevenson, Kurt B

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the nasal carriage prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among emergency medical service (EMS) personnel and the associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Ohio EMS personnel randomly sampled from 84 urban and rural agencies. Surveys assessing demographics, occupational history, health, cohabitation status, and hygiene practice were collected with nasal swabs from those who enrolled. Survey weight adjusted analysis was performed (1) to estimate MRSA nasal carriage prevalence of Ohio EMS providers, and (2) to identify variables associated with MRSA. MRSA was detected in 4.6% (13/280) EMS personnel sampled. After employing a survey-weighted analysis the following risk factors associated with MRSA carriage were identified: those who did not practice frequent hand hygiene after glove use (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 2.54-43.45; P = 0.0012), living with someone with a recent staphylococcal infection (OR, 9.02; 95% CI, 1.03-78.98; P = 0.0470), and individuals with low frequency of hand washing (< 8 times per shift) (OR, 4.20; 95% CI 1.02-17.27; P = 0.0468). An additional risk factor identified through the logistic regression analysis on the study population was EMS workers with an open wound or skin infection (OR, 6.75; 95% CI, 1.25-36.36; P = 0.0262). However, this was not significant in the survey-weighted analysis. The high prevalence of MRSA in Ohio EMS personnel is both an occupational hazard and patient safety concern. Implementing methods to reinforce CDC guidelines for proper hygiene could decrease MRSA found in the EMS setting. Previous literature suggests that a reduction in MRSA colonization can lead to decreases in transmission and improved health for both patients and personnel.

  3. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia where there is no strong surveillance system and diagnostic facilities are limited, the real burden of tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is not well known. Therefore, we conducted a study to estimate the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2009 in the Gilgel Gibe field research area. A total of 30,040 individuals 15 years or older in 10,882 households were screened for TB lymphadenitis. Any individual 15 years or older with lumps in the neck, armpits or groin up on interview were considered TB lymphadenitis suspect. The diagnosis of TB lymphadenitis was established when acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy of fine needle aspiration (FNA) sample, culture or cytology suggested TB. HIV counseling and testing was offered to all TB lymphadenitis suspects. Descriptive and bivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 15. Results Complete data were available for 27,597 individuals. A total of 87 TB lymphadenitis suspects were identified. Most of the TB lymphadenitis suspects were females (72.4%). Sixteen cases of TB lymphadenitis were confirmed. The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis was thus 58.0 per 100,000 people (16/27,597) (95% CI 35.7-94.2). Individuals who had a contact history with chronic coughers (OR 5.58, 95% CI 1.23-25.43) were more likely to have TB lymphadenitis. Lymph nodes with caseous FNA were more likely to be positive for TB lymphadenitis (OR 5.46, 95% CI 1.69-17.61). Conclusion The prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in Gilgel Gibe is similar with the WHO estimates for Ethiopia. Screening of TB lymphadenitis particularly for family members who have contact with chronic coughers is recommended. Health extension workers could be trained to screen and refer TB lymphadenitis suspects using simple methods. PMID:22770435

  4. Determinants of Prolonged Length of Stay in the Emergency Department; a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hosseininejad, Seyed Mohammad; Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Pashaei, Seyede Masoume; Goli Khatir, Iraj; Montazer, Seyed Hosein; Bozorgi, Farzad; Mahmoudi, Fahime

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Timeliness has been considered as a key domain in quality of emergency department (ED) care and delay in care providing is influential determinants of patient’s outcomes. The present study, aimed to evaluate the determinants of prolonged ED length of stay (LOS). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, using adopted version of the latest form for external evaluation and accreditation of EDs introduced by Iranian Ministry of Health, determinants of prolonged LOS were evaluated in the ED of an educational Hospital. Using SPSS 11, multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for determining factors associated with prolonged LOS. Results: 162 (10.2%) cases with prolonged LOS were detected. Based on univariate analysis, female gender (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14-1.75, p = 0.001), older age (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.08, p < 0.0001), admission on evening shifts (OR: 4.0; 95% CI: 1.84-8.68, p < 0.001), triage level I (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.21-2.57, p = 0.003), lack of insurance support (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.12-2.19, p = 0.010), higher number of ordered para-clinical tests (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11-1.37, p = 0.016), and disposition time > 6 hours (OR, 0.13, p < 0.0001), were significant risk factors of prolonged LOS. Conclusion Older age, lack of insurance support, disposition time > 6 hours due to complexity of patients’ complaint, and the necessity of repeated para-clinical measures were the most important reasons for failed provision of timely services. From the view point of ED personnel, a small part of prolonged LOS in ED was concerned with defective ED workflow, while, the most important cause of such delays was the delayed response of the consultancy services. PMID:28286860

  5. Blood Lead Concentrations in 1–3 Year Old Lebanese Children: A Cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nuwayhid, Iman; Nabulsi, Mona; Muwakkit, Samar; Kouzi, Sarah; Salem, George; Mikati, Mohamed; Ariss, Majd

    2003-01-01

    Background Childhood lead poisoning has not made the list of national public health priorities in Lebanon. This study aims at identifying the prevalence and risk factors for elevated blood lead concentrations (B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L) among 1–3 year old children. It also examines the need for universal blood lead screening. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of 281 well children, presenting to the pediatric ambulatory services at the American University of Beirut Medical Center in 1997–98. Blood was drawn on participating children for lead analysis and a structured questionnaire was introduced to mothers asking about social, demographic, and residence characteristics, as well as potential risk factors for lead exposure. Children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L were compared to those with B-Pb < 100 μg/L. Results Mean B-Pb was 66.0 μg/L (median 60.0; range 10–160; standard deviation 26.3) with 39 (14%) children with B-Pb ≥ 100 μg/L. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated B-Pb was associated with paternal manual jobs (odds ratio [OR]: 4.74), residence being located in high traffic areas (OR: 4.59), summer season (OR: 4.39), using hot tap water for cooking (OR: 3.96), exposure to kohl (OR: 2.40), and living in older buildings (OR: 2.01). Conclusion Lead screening should be offered to high-risk children. With the recent ban of leaded gasoline in Lebanon, emphasis should shift to other sources of exposure in children. PMID:12780938

  6. Physical maltreatment of children with autism in Henan province in China: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guiqin; Chen, Jingqi; Zhang, Wenjing; Yu, Buyi; Jin, Yanqin; Wang, Yazhe; Yao, Meiling

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of child physical maltreatment (CPM) in children with autism aged 2-5 years in Henan province (China), and to explore the risk factors for severe CPM in these children. This cross-sectional study was performed at the Psychology Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University between September 2012 and September 2013 with 180 parents of children with autism. Children and parents had no history of any cognitive therapy. The childhood autism rating scale (CARS) was used to evaluate the severity of autism in children. Data on parental CPM during the past 3 months were collected from parental self-reporting. Logistic regression was used to investigate the risk factors of severe CPM. CPM was self-reported by 88% of the parents of children with autism. One hundred and fifty four of these cases were in the minor CPM group (86%) and 64 in the severe CPM group (36%). Most cases of severe CPM were unlikely to have caused injury. Univariate analyses showed that child's age (p=.018), age started to speak (p=.043) and CARS score (p=.048) were associated with severe CPM. Child's age (p=.011) and CARS score (p=.041) were independently associated with severe CPM. The risk of severe CPM increased with age and CARS score. Our findings showed that CPM is widespread in families of children with autism in Central China and more knowledge should be provided to parents of children with autism, particularly in cases of severe autism (those with high CARS scores).

  7. Counselling and knowledge about contraceptive mode of action among married women; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Topsever, Pınar; Filiz, Müge; Aladağ, Nihal; Topallı, Ruşen; Ciğerli, Özlem; Görpelioğlu, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    Background Family planning counselling which covers knowledge transfer about contraceptive mode of action, by enabling informed choice, improves compliance to and efficiency of contraceptive methods. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between family planning counselling, counsellor and correct knowledge about mode of action of modern contraceptive methods among married women. Methods For this cross-sectional study, stratified (according to current modern contraceptive method in use) random sampling was performed from the registries of two primary health care centres. Main outcomes were; prevalence of family planning counselling, professional background of the counsellor and correct knowledge about mode of action. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was applied via face-to-face interview. The answers about mode of action were categorized as correct vs. incorrect by consensus rating. Results Prevalence of counselling and correct knowledge about mode of action was 49.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Higher educated women were significantly more likely to know the mode of action (p < 0.001). Being counselled by a physician (54.1%, n = 120) was not associated with correct knowledge about mode of action (p = 0.79). Non-barrier method users were less educated (p = 0.001), more often counselled (60.8% vs. 8.0%) and less knowledgeable (p < 0.001) about mode of action of their contraceptive method, compared to condom users. Nevertheless, counselled non-barrier method users were significantly more likely to know the correct mode of action of their chosen method (p = 0.021) than counselled condom users. Conclusion The beneficial effect of counselling on knowledge about mode of action of the more complicated, medical (non-barrier) contraceptive methods suggests that the use of family planning counselling services in primary health care should be promoted; furthermore, counselling strategies and content should be re-structured for

  8. Physical activity in patients with axial spondyloarthritis: a cross-sectional study of 203 patients.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Stéphanie; Molto, Anna; Dadoun, Sabrina; Rein, Christopher; Hudry, Christophe; Kreis, Sarah; Fautrel, Bruno; Pertuiset, Edouard; Gossec, Laure

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity is recommended in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) but may be insufficiently performed. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity in axial spondyloarthritis and to explore its explanatory factors. This was a cross-sectional study of patients with definite axSpA. The level of physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long form, IPAQ-L), type of aerobic exercise and the Exercise Benefits and Barriers Score were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to explain levels of exercise at least as recommended by the World Health Organization. In all, 203 patients were included: mean age 46.0 ± 11.6 years, 108 (53.2 %) males, mean Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (0-100) 37.8 ± 19.9; 137 (68.8 %) were treated with TNF-inhibitors. In all, 111 patients (54.7 %) were exercising at least as recommended; 96 (47.2 %) were in the 'high physical activity' category. Aerobic exercise >30 min was performed at least once a week by 61 (30.0 %) patients; the most frequent activities were energetic walking (31.0 %) and swimming (21.2 %). Main perceived benefits of exercising were improving physical fitness and functioning of the cardiovascular system, and the main barrier was physical exertion. Patients with paid employment had lower levels of physical activity whereas other demographic variables, disease activity/severity or TNF-inhibitor treatment were not predictive. One half of these patients performed enough physical activity according to the recommendations, similarly to the French population. Levels of physical activity did not appear to be explained by disease-related variables. Physical activity should be encouraged in axSpA.

  9. Reclassifying causes of obstetric death in Mexico: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Margaret C; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Darney, Blair G; Torres-Palacios, Luis M; Rhenals-Osorio, Ana L; Sierra, Bertha L Vázquez; Soliz-Sánchez, Patricia N; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe causes of maternal mortality in Mexico over eight years, with particular attention to indirect obstetric deaths and socioeconomic disparities. Methods We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study using the 2006–2013 Búsqueda intencionada y reclasificación de muertes maternas (BIRMM) data set. We used frequencies to describe new cases, cause distributions and the reclassification of maternal mortality cases by the BIRMM process. We used statistical tests to analyse differences in sociodemographic characteristics between direct and indirect deaths and differences in the proportion of overall direct and indirect deaths, by year and by municipality poverty level. Findings A total of 9043 maternal deaths were subjected to the review process. There was a 13% increase (from 7829 to 9043) in overall identified maternal deaths and a threefold increase in the proportion of maternal deaths classified as late maternal deaths (from 2.1% to 6.9%). Over the study period direct obstetric deaths declined, while there was no change in deaths from indirect obstetric causes. Direct deaths were concentrated in women who lived in the poorest municipalities. When compared to those dying of direct causes, women dying of indirect causes had fewer pregnancies and were slightly younger, better educated and more likely to live in wealthier municipalities. Conclusion The BIRMM is one approach to correct maternal death statistics in settings with poor resources. The approach could help the health system to rethink its strategy to reduce maternal deaths from indirect obstetric causes, including prevention of unwanted pregnancies and improvement of antenatal and post-obstetric care. PMID:27147766

  10. Assessment of Periodontal Health Status in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Chintagunta, Chaitanya; Tadiboina, Nagarjuna; Borugadda, Ravithej; Loya, Mitali; Marella, Yamuna; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral smokeless tobacco consumption has been considered as a major risk factor for oral cancer, its role as a risk factor for periodontal disease is less well documented when compared to that of relationship between smoking and periodontal disease. Aim The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effect of various forms of tobacco consumption i.e., smoking and smokeless tobacco forms on periodontal status. Materials and Methods The study population included 120 subjects with the habit of tobacco consumption, based on form of tobacco use they were divided into Group 1 (smoking), Group 2 (Smokeless tobacco), and Group 3 (smokers and smokeless tobacco users). The periodontal status for each group was evaluated by measuring Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified (OHI-S) and Community Periodontal Index (CPI) for Probing Depth (CPI-PD) and Attachment Loss (CPI-AL). Results OHI-S mean scores in Group 1 (3.53±1.03), Group 2 (3.06±0.92) and Group 3 (3.45±0.96) were similar, which were not statistically significant (p>0.076). The mean values of CPI-PD were 3.75±0.44 in Group 1, 3.65±0.48 in Group 2, 3.80±0.41 in Group 3 with no significant difference between the three Groups (p> 0.309). When the mean values of CPI-AL (0.95±0.75 in Group 1, 1.40±0.74 in group 2, and 1.55±0.60 in Group 3) were compared in between the Groups, a statistically significant difference was observed in Group 3 (p<0.001). Conclusion The results showed that tobacco consumption in both forms caused poor periodontal status, with smokeless tobacco users having more amount of attachment loss than smokers. PMID:27891477

  11. Polymorphisms in the glutathione pathway modulate cystic fibrosis severity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) clinically manifests with various levels of severity, which are thought to be modulated by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR), modifier genes, and the environment. This study verified whether polymorphisms in modifier genes associated with glutathione (GSH) metabolism influence CF severity. Methods A cross-sectional study of 180 CF patients was carried out from 2011 to 2012. We analyzed CFTR mutations, polymorphisms (GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletions, GSTP1 + 313A > G, GCLC-129C > T, and GCLC-3506A > G) in modifier genes and CF clinical severity as assessed by 28 clinical and laboratory variables. Results Significant associations were found between modifier gene polymorphisms and particular phenotypes or genotype changes. These included GCLC-129C > T with a higher frequency of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid to CC genotype (p = 0.044), and GCLC-3506A > G with a higher frequency of the no-mucoid P. aeruginosa (NMPA) to AA genotype (p = 0.012). The GSTT1 deletion was associated with a higher frequency of the NMPA to homozygous deletion (p = 0.008), GSTP1 + 313A > G with a minor risk of osteoporosis (p = 0.036), and patient age ≤ 154 months (p = 0.044) with the AA genotype. The Bhalla score was associated with GCLC-3506A > G (p = 0.044) and GSTM1/GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms (p = 0.02), while transcutaneous hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels were associated with GSTT1 deletions (p = 0.048). Conclusion CF severity is associated with polymorphisms in GSH pathways and CFTR mutations. PMID:24593045

  12. High frequency of metabolic syndrome in adult Zoroastrians in Yazd, Iran: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Afrand, Mohammadhosain; Khalilzadeh, Saeed hossein; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Ariaeinejad, Azita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disturbances, and its prevalence is increasing worldwide. MS exhibits variations among ethnic groups. Zoroastrianism is an ethnic minority which has maintained its isolation and endogamy up to now. So, we evaluated the frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, participants aged ≥30 years were selected using a systematic random sampling. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waistto- hip ratio (WHR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured using standard methods. Also, blood levels of glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), urea, creatinine and uric acid (UA) were measured. Both revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and Joint Interim Statement (JIS) criteria were used to diagnose the MS. Results: The mean±SD age of the participants (n=403) was 56.9±12.8 years. The frequency of MS was 69.7% and 74.9% based on JIS and ATPIII criteria, respectively; this was significantly different by age, marital status, job, educational level, and menopausal status (p<0.05). The most prevalent abnormal parameters of MS according to ATPIII and JIS criteria were high WC (95%) and low HDL (87.9%), respectively. Mean LDL, systolic BP, WHR, UA, urea, and creatinine were different between men and women. The difference between the age groups was statistically significant for BMI, systolic BP, diastolic BP, TG, WHR and urea (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study showed a high frequency of MS in Zoroastrians of Yazd, Iran. PMID:27493914

  13. Respiratory effects associated with wood fuel use: a cross-sectional biomarker study among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Miert, Erik; Sardella, Antonia; Nickmilder, Marc; Bernard, Alfred

    2012-04-01

    The use of wood as heating and cooking fuel can result in elevated levels of indoor air pollution, but to what extent this is related to respiratory diseases and allergies is still inconclusive. Here, we report a cross-sectional study among 744 school adolescents (median age 15 years) using as main outcomes respiratory symptoms and diseases, exhaled nitric oxide, total and aeroallergen-specific IgE in serum, and two epithelial biomarkers in nasal lavage fluid (NALF) or serum, that is, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant-associated protein D (SPD). Information about the wood fuel use and potential confounders was collected via a personal interview of the adolescent and a questionnaire filled out by the parents. Two approaches were used to limit the possible influence of confounders, that is, multivariate analysis using the complete study population or pairwise analysis of matched sub-populations obtained using an automated procedure. Wood fuel use was associated with a decrease of CC16 and an increase of SPD in serum, which resulted in a decreased serum CC16/SPD ratio (median -9%, P = 0.001). No consistent differences were observed for the biomarkers measured in exhaled breath or NALF. Wood fuel use was also associated with increased odds for asthma [odds ratio (OR) 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02], hay fever (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.3, P = 0.002), and sensitization against pollen allergens (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, P = 0.002). The risks of respiratory tract infections, self-reported symptoms, and sensitization against house-dust mite were not increased by wood fuel use. The increased risks of asthma, hay fever and aeroallergen sensitization, and the changes of lung-specific biomarkers consistently pointed towards respiratory effects associated with the use of wood fuel.

  14. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27656219

  15. Epidemiology of cancers in Lahore, Pakistan, 2010–2012: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Badar, Farhana; Mahmood, Shahid; Yusuf, Muhammed Aasim; Sultan, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the population-level cancer estimates for the Lahore district, which is part of the Punjab Cancer Registry (PCR), Pakistan. The average population per year of Lahore was estimated at 9.8 million in 2010–2012. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The Registry has 19 collaborating centres in Lahore that report their data to the Central Office located within a tertiary care cancer treatment facility in Lahore, Pakistan. Participants Patients belonging to Lahore, of any age-group, and diagnosed with cancer in 2010–2012, were included in the study. They were followed up between July and October 2015 to determine their vital status. Outcome measures Summaries were generated for gender, the basis of diagnosis, diagnoses and deaths. The Age-Standardized Incidence Rates (ASIR) were computed per 100 000 population, by gender and cancer site. Five-year age categories were created from 0–4 until 70–74, followed by 75+ years. Death counts were reported by site. Results Between 2010 and 2012, in Lahore, a total of 15 840 new cancers were diagnosed in 43% male patients and 57% female patients; 93.5% were microscopically confirmed and 6.5% non-microscopically. In females, the ASIR was 105.1 and in males, it was 66.7. ASIRs of leading cancers among women were breast 47.6, ovary 4.9 and corpus uteri 3.6, whereas among men they were prostate 6.4, bladder 5.0, and trachea, bronchus and lung 4.6. A total of 5134 deaths were recorded. Conclusions In Lahore, the ASIR was higher in women than in men. Among women and men, breast cancer and prostate cancer, respectively, were the leading cancer types. These estimates can be used for health promotion and policymaking in the region. PMID:27354082

  16. Household costs of seeking outpatient care in Egyptian children with diarrhea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Abeer; Halawa, Eman Fawzy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Addressing difficulties of seeking and getting health care would lower the burden of diarrhea among ill children from developing countries as Egypt. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the economic burden of diarrhea associated with outpatient visits of children in Egypt by identifying the different types of related costs. Methods This cross-sectional clinic-based survey was done by interviewing parents of 763 children presenting with diarrhea to the outpatient clinics of Pediatric Hospital of Cairo University. Estimated costs included tangible costs (direct, indirect) and intangible costs (forms of suffering). Insurance status of the children was also described. Descriptive statistics were presented in frequency tables, median, minimum, maximum, interquartile range, mean and standard deviation, whenever appropriate. Results It was found that 90. 7% of the studied children were of low and middle socioeconomic standard with a median monthly family income of US$83 and a median monthly expenditure of LE US$79. The average direct and indirect costs of acute diarrhea per case were US$13.2±19.5 and US$11.3±93.1 respectively. The mean cost per diarrheal episode is US$24.5 which almost consumes 29.5% of the mean monthly income. About 61% of cases sought medical care before visiting our hospital, 43.6% of them visited more than one provider. Awareness about health insurance was found in 72.7% and coverage by a health insurance system in 33%. Of insured patients only 41.4% utilized the insurance services. Conclusion Diarrhea causes great socio-economic burden for families in Egypt, which could result in significant delay in seeking health care. PMID:23560125

  17. A descriptive, cross-sectional study characterizing bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis and gout by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Ríos, Lucio; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Sanchez-Bringas, Guadalupe; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Morales-González, José Antonio; Pineda, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize bone erosions in metatarsal heads (MTH) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and gout by grayscale ultrasound. In a descriptive, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 40 patients with RA and 40 with gout, both diagnosed according to the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria, respectively. All patients had bone erosion demonstrated by ultrasound, which was used, following OMERACT criteria, to describe the shape, size, number, border definition, overhanging margin, topography (intra- or extra-articular), and distribution (over dorsal, medial, lateral, or plantar aspect) of the lesions in the MTH. Descriptive statistics were used and a concordance exercise between two ultrasonographers blinded to the diagnosis was performed. Bone erosions in RA were observed most frequently at the plantar and lateral aspect of the fifth MTH, round in 96 %, small-sized (2.43 ± 0.9 mm), intra-articular (100 %), and single (75 %). Few bone erosions had a well-defined border an overhanging margin while in gout were found most frequently in the medial and dorsal aspect of the first MTH, single in 71 %, intra-articular in 100 %, and of median size (4.0 ± 2.3). For shape, 51 % was round and 49 % was oval. A well-defined border was present in 39 %, and an overhanging margin in 62 %. Inter-rater reliability kappa was excellent (0.81, 95 % CI 0.56-1.00). Some characteristics of bone erosions in RA, including shape, size, ill-defined border, and localization in the fifth MTH could distinguish the lesions from gout. Grayscale US has excellent reliability to describe bone erosions in RA and gout.

  18. Aesthetic perception of single implants placed in the anterior zone. A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Burgueño-Barris, Genís; Cortés-Acha, Berta; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Background Several aesthetic indexes have been described to assess implant aesthetics. The aim of this study was to compare the aesthetic assessment made by dental professionals and students of single-tooth implants placed in the upper incisors. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey study using a subjective questionnaire to assess the aesthetics in 3 implant supported single-tooth cases in the anterior maxilla was performed. The interviewed subjects were divided into 4 groups: dentists with experience in implant treatment, dentists without experience in implants and 3rd and 5th year dental students. The questionnaire consisted of 2 visual analogue scales (VAS) to evaluate aesthetics, the pink esthetic score (PES), the white esthetic score (WES) and the simplified papilla index (PI). Results One-hundred dentists and one-hundred dental students filled the aesthetic assessment questionnaire. The results showed that the subjects were more critical than reference values, specially concerning prosthetic issues. The differences between groups were more obvious in the case with the best result. On the other hand, few differences were detected in the remaining cases. Regarding soft tissue and crown features, experienced dentists in implant dentistry were the most demanding. Cronbach’s Alpha showed values ≥ 0,8 in the questionnaire in every case, which indicates an adequate reliability. Conclusions Dentists and dental students have different opinions when assessing aesthetics of single tooth implant supported cases. Experience and area of expertise seem to influence the evaluation of aesthetics in the anterior region. Key words:Dental implant, anterior area, aesthetics. PMID:27031072

  19. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  20. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  1. Estimating mortality using data from civil registration: a cross-sectional study in India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Chalapati; Lakshmi, PVM; Prinja, Shankar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse the design and operational status of India’s civil registration and vital statistics system and facilitate the system’s development into an accurate and reliable source of mortality data. Methods We assessed the national civil registration and vital statistics system’s legal framework, administrative structure and design through document review. We did a cross-sectional study for the year 2013 at national level and in Punjab state to assess the quality of the system’s mortality data through analyses of life tables and investigation of the completeness of death registration and the proportion of deaths assigned ill-defined causes. We interviewed registrars, medical officers and coders in Punjab state to assess their knowledge and practice. Findings Although we found the legal framework and system design to be appropriate, data collection was based on complex intersectoral collaborations at state and local level and the collected data were found to be of poor quality. The registration data were inadequate for a robust estimate of mortality at national level. A medically certified cause of death was only recorded for 965 992 (16.8%) of the 5 735 082 deaths registered. Conclusion The data recorded by India’s civil registration and vital statistics system in 2011 were incomplete. If improved, the system could be used to reliably estimate mortality. We recommend improving political support and intersectoral coordination, capacity building, computerization and state-level initiatives to ensure that every death is registered and that reliable causes of death are recorded – at least within an adequate sample of registration units within each state. PMID:26769992

  2. Cross sectional, community based study of care of newborn infants in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Osrin, David; Tumbahangphe, Kirti M; Shrestha, Dej; Mesko, Natasha; Shrestha, Bhim P; Manandhar, Madan K; Standing, Hilary; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony M de L

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine home based newborn care practices in rural Nepal in order to inform strategies to improve neonatal outcome. Design Cross sectional, retrospective study using structured interviews. Setting Makwanpur district, Nepal. Participants 5411 married women aged 15 to 49 years who had given birth to a live baby in the past year. Main outcome measures Attendance at delivery, hygiene, thermal care, and early feeding practices. Results 4893 (90%) women gave birth at home. Attendance at delivery by skilled government health workers was low (334, 6%), as was attendance by traditional birth attendants (267, 5%). Only 461 (8%) women had used a clean home delivery kit, and about half of attendants had washed their hands. Only 3482 (64%) newborn infants had been wrapped within half an hour of birth, and 4992 (92%) had been bathed within the first hour. 99% (5362) of babies were breast fed, 91% (4939) within six hours of birth. Practices with respect to colostrum and prelacteals were not a cause for anxiety. Conclusions Health promotion interventions most likely to improve newborn health in this setting include increasing attendance at delivery by skilled service providers, improving information for families about basic perinatal care, promotion of clean delivery practices, early cord cutting and wrapping of the baby, and avoidance of early bathing. What is already known on this topicMost births in rural south Asia occur at homeNeonatal mortality has remained fairly constant in developing countries despite falling infant mortalityWhat this paper addsOnly 6% of births in rural Nepal took place in the presence of a skilled attendantCord cutting implements were often unclean and drying and wrapping of newborn infants was usually delayed99% of babies were breast fed, 92% of them within six hours of birth, and colostrum was generally givenInterventions need to focus on educating women about hygiene, encouraging early wrapping, and delaying bathing of newborn babies

  3. Factors associated with delivery outside a health facility: cross-sectional study in rural Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Mazalale, Jacob; Kambala, Christabel; Brenner, Stephan; Chinkhumba, Jobiba; Lohmann, Julia; Mathanga, Don P; Robberstad, Bjarne; Muula, Adamson S; De Allegri, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with delivery outside a health facility in rural Malawi. Method A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Balaka, Dedza, Mchinji and Ntcheu districts in Malawi in 2013 among women who had completed a pregnancy 12 months prior to the day of the survey. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with delivery outside a facility. Results Of the 1812 study respondents, 9% (n = 159) reported to have delivered outside a facility. Unmarried women were significantly more likely [OR = 1.88; 95% CI (1.086–3.173)] to deliver outside a facility, while women from households with higher socio-economic status [third-quartile OR = 0.51; 95% CI (0.28–0.95) and fourth-quartile OR = 0.48; 95% CI (0.29–0.79)] and in urban areas [OR = 0.39; 95%-CI (0.23–0.67)] were significantly less likely to deliver outside a facility. Women without formal education [OR 1.43; 95% CI (0.96–2.14)] and multigravidae [OR = 1.14; 95% CI (0.98–1.73)] were more likely to deliver outside a health facility at 10% level of significance. Conclusion About 9% of women deliver outside a facility. Policies to encourage facility delivery should not only focus on health systems but also be multisectoral to address women's vulnerability and inequality. Facility-based delivery can contribute to curbing the high maternal illness burden if authorities provide incentives to those not delivering at the facility without losing existing users. PMID:25656750

  4. Evidence for the healthy immigrant effect in older Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous work has found that first-generation immigrants to developed nations tend to have better health than individuals born in the host country. We examined the evidence for the healthy immigrant effect and convergence of health status between Chinese immigrants (n = 147) and U.S. born whites (n = 167) participating in the cross-sectional Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study and residing in the same neighborhoods. Methods We used bivariate and multivariate models to compare disease prevalence and clinical biomarkers. Results Despite an older average age and lower socioeconomic status, Chinese immigrants were less likely to have asthma (OR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.09–0.48) or cardiovascular disease (OR = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.20–0.94), had lower body mass index (BMI), lower inflammation biomarker levels, lower average sex-adjusted low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and higher average sex-adjusted high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. However, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes or hypertension. Duration of time in the U.S. was related to cardiovascular disease and asthma but was not associated with diabetes, hypertension, BMI, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, socioeconomic status, or health behaviors. Conclusions The lower CVD and asthma prevalence among the Chinese immigrants may be partially attributed to healthier diets, more physical activity, lower BMI, and less exposure to cigarette smoke. First generation immigrant status may be protective even after about two decades. PMID:24928348

  5. "Aging males" symptoms and general health of adult males: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuen, John W; Ng, Chi-Fai; Chiu, Peter Ka Fung; Teoh, Jeremy Yuen Chun; Yee, C H

    2016-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the prevalence and severity of health-related complaints perceived by adult males of Hong Kong by using the Hong Kong Traditional Chinese versions of the Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale and the 5-dimensional and 3-level European Quality of life (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. A total of 825 adult males aged 40 years or above were surveyed, and observed that 80% of the population was living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms with mean total scores ranged between 26.02 ± 7.91 and 32.99 ± 7.91 in different age groups. Such symptoms were correlated with age, especially for the somato-vegetative and sexual symptoms. The most severe AMS symptoms were observed in the oldest age group at 70 years or above, with 76%, 34% and 70% living with moderate-to-severe levels of somato-vegetative, psychological and sexual symptoms, respectively. The result was highly correlated with the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Secondly, the Hong Kong Aging males' symptoms (AMS) scale was shown to have good reliability with test-retest coefficient at 0.79 (ranged 0.66-0.87) and Cronbach's alpha coefficient at 0.88 (ranged 0.70-0.84). In summary, the population of Hong Kong male adults was commonly living with little-to-mild levels of aging symptoms, whereas their severity was correlated with age.

  6. Factors Related to Prevalence of Hallux Valgus in Female University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hiroto; Juman, Sachiko; Ueda, Ai; Miki, Tomohiro; Shima, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated the prevalence of hallux valgus (HV) and examined its association with various factors in a cross-sectional study of Japanese female university students. Methods A questionnaire survey of foot symptoms, lifestyle, and body mass index (BMI) was administered to 343 women who provided informed consent at a women’s university. Footprints were obtained and bone density was measured. Associations of HV with various factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results Big toe pain was reported in 26.5% of the women. HV (HV angle, ≥15°) was present in the left foot in 22.4%, the right foot in 20.7%, and unilaterally or bilaterally in 29.7% of women. Mild HV (HV angle, ≥15° to <20°) was noted in the left foot and right foot in 13.4% and 13.1% of women, respectively; no severe HV (HV angle, ≥40°) was observed. HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 3.56, 95% CI: 2.01–6.32), history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.19–5.02), and history of HV in other family members (adjusted OR: 3.09, 95% CI: 1.35–7.06). Moderate HV was associated with big toe pain (adjusted OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.17–9.66) and history of HV in the mother or maternal grandmother (adjusted OR: 3.36, 95% CI: 1.40–8.07). The proportion of women with big toe pain increased significantly with HV severity. Conclusions HV was present in about 30% of female university students. Young women with big toe pain or a family history of HV should be evaluated for HV. PMID:24705646

  7. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Fall Injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari-Fam, Saber; Sarbazi, Ehsan; Daemi, Amin; Sarbazi, Mohamadreza; Riyazi, Lachin; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Allahyari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of fall injuries in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on Hospital Information System (HIS) data for patients referred to the Imam Reza Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We recorded the demographic characteristics and epidemiological patterns of patients who were admitted to our center due to fall injuries. To standardize the reports the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), the International Classification of Diseases 9 Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) was used. Equally, the hospitalization period and number, admission ward, and the final status of victims after discharge from the hospital were extracted from the HIS. Results: Overall we included a total number of 3397 patients with mean age of 39.2±22.7 years. There were 2501 (73.6%) men among the patients. Long bone fracture (48.1%) and intracranial injury (24.2%) were the most frequent injuries among fall injury victims. Operations on spinal cord and spinal canal structures (12.0%), Operations on nose (11.6%) were the most common operations being performed in these patients. The survival was significantly lower in patients with age more than 60 years when compared to other age groups (p=0.001). The survival rate was significantly lower in age group of >60 years, compared to other age groups (p=0.001). Conclusion: Given the high rate of fall injuries and death among the elderly that increases with age, appropriate measures must be taken to control and prevent injuries while prioritizing the elderly. PMID:27162912

  8. Perceptions of medical students towards healthcare devolution: an online cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nyongesa, Henry; Munguti, Cecilia; Odok, Christopher; Mokua, Winstar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There have been worries concerning the preparedness and capacity of the counties to take over health care services. As the current medical students are going into this new system, we sought their opinions on the issue of devolution. The objective is to assess beliefs and attitudes of medical students towards devolution of healthcare services. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted at University of Nairobi medical school during the period of February-May 2014. Though a calculated random sample of 384 medical students was powerful enough to fulfill our objectives, all eligible medical students were invited by email to fill in a semi structured online questionnaire. Computed results from Google sheets were reported in frequencies and percentages. Results Data was collected from 191 respondents with majority of them in their clinical years (levels 3, 4 and 5) of study. More participants considered working in private/ mission health institution (40%) after graduating as compared to public or non health institution (30%). The media provided most of information concerning devolution (77%). Few respondents reported using government documents (36%) or public forums (24%) to get information on healthcare devolution. While most of the respondents were of the opinion that health information system (68%), health finance (63%), procurement of medical products (54%), leadership and governance (73) should be devolved, only 18% wanted health personnel to be devolved. Most of the opinions on healthcare devolution were not in agreement with the goal of devolution: more than 50% thought the process would not result in improved efficiency, resource allocation, disease control programs or maintenance of infrastructure. Conclusion Despite the envisioned benefits of healthcare devolution, there is a low opinion among medical trainees concerning these reforms and their implementation. Nevertheless, it is early to speculate whether such viewpoints will be carried to the

  9. Under-reporting of conflicts of interest among trialists: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Schroll, Jeppe; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Lundh, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of conflicts of interest (COIs) among Danish physicians who are authors of clinical drug trial reports and determine the extent of undisclosed COIs in trial publications. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The 100 most recent drug trial reports with at least one Danish non-industry employed physician author published in a journal adhering to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) manuscript guidelines. For each article, two observers independently extracted trial characteristics and the authors' COIs. Disclosed COIs were compared to what was registered on the Danish Health and Medicines Authority's public disclosure list. Participants Trial authors who are Danish physicians. Main outcome measures Number of disclosed and undisclosed COIs. Results One observer screened 928 articles and two observers assessed 120 articles for eligibility. The 100 included trials were published from February 2011 to May 2013 and included 318 Danish non-industry employed authors. Eighty-six of the 318 authors (27%) reported one or more COIs in the journal article. We found undisclosed COIs for 40 of 318 authors (13%) related to the trial sponsor or manufacturer of trial drugs. Seventy-nine of 318 authors (25%) had undisclosed COIs related to competing companies manufacturing drugs for the same indication and 136 (43%) had undisclosed COIs with any drug manufacturer. Conclusions Almost half of all authors had undisclosed COIs in clinical trials reported in journals adhering to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors’ manuscript guidelines. Self-declared COIs cannot be trusted, but public registries may assist editors in ensuring that more COIs are being reported. PMID:25389230

  10. Plenty of moustaches but not enough women: cross sectional study of medical leaders

    PubMed Central

    Wehner, Mackenzie R; Nead, Kevin T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To draw attention to sex related disparities in academic medical leadership by investigating the representation of female leaders compared with leaders with moustaches. Design Cross sectional analysis. Setting Academic medical departments in the United States. Participants Clinical department leaders (n=1018) at the top 50 US medical schools funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Main outcome measures The proportions of female leaders and moustachioed leaders across institutions and specialties (n=20). Additionally, the moustache index: the proportion of women compared with the proportion of moustaches, analyzed with multinomial logistic regression models. Results Women accounted for 13% (137/1018) of department leaders at the top 50 NIH funded medical schools in the US. Moustachioed leaders accounted for 19% (190/1018). The proportion of female department leaders ranged from 0% (0/20) to 26% (5/19) across institutions and 0% (0/53) to 36% (19/53) across specialties. Only seven institutions and five specialties had more than 20% of female department leaders. The overall moustache index of all academic medical departments studied was 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.90; P=0.004). Only six of 20 specialties had more women than moustaches (moustache index >1). Conclusions Moustachioed individuals significantly outnumber women as leaders of medical departments in the US. We believe that every department and institution should strive for a moustache index ≥1. Known, effective, and evidence based policies to increase the number of women in leadership positions should be prioritized. PMID:26673637

  11. Influenza immunization among Canadian health care personnel: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Sarah A.; Kwong, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. Methods: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation. Using bootstrapped survey weights, we examined immunization coverage by occupation and by presence of vaccinate-or-mask policies, and reasons for not being immunized. We used modified Poisson regression to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) of influenza immunization for health care occupations compared with the general working population. Results: For all survey cycles combined, 50% of 18 446 health care personnel reported receiving seasonal influenza immunization during the previous 12 months, although this varied by occupation type (range 4%-72%). Compared with the general working population, family physicians and general practitioners were most likely to be immunized (PR 3.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76-3.59), whereas chiropractors, midwives and practitioners of natural healing were least likely (PR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Among those who were not immunized, the most frequently cited reason was the belief that influenza immunization is unnecessary. Introduction of vaccinate-or-mask policies was associated with increased influenza immunization among health care personnel. Interpretation: Health care personnel are more likely to be immunized against influenza than the general working population, but coverage remains suboptimal overall, and we observed wide variation by occupation type. More efforts

  12. Inequality and inequity in healthcare utilization in urban Nepal: a cross-sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Eiko; Gilmour, Stuart; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Gautam, Ghan Shyam; Rahman, Md Mizanur; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Inequality in access to quality healthcare is a major health policy challenge in many low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to identify the major sources of inequity in healthcare utilization using a population-based household survey from urban Nepal. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering 9177 individuals residing in 1997 households in five municipalities of Kathmandu valley between 2011 and 2012. The concentration index was calculated and a decomposition method was used to measure inequality in healthcare utilization, along with a horizontal inequity index (HI) to estimate socioeconomic inequalities in healthcare utilization. Results showed a significant pro-rich distribution of general healthcare utilization in all service providers (Concentration Index: 0.062, P < 0.001; HI: 0.029, P < 0.05) and private service providers (Concentration Index: 0.070, P < 0.001; HI: 0.030, P < 0.05). The pro-rich distribution of probability in general healthcare utilization was attributable to inequalities in the level of household economic status (percentage contribution: 67.8%) and in the self-reported prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as hypertension (36.7%) and diabetes (14.4%). Despite the provision of free services by public healthcare providers, our analysis found no evidence of the poor making more use of public health services (Concentration Index: 0.041, P = 0.094). Interventions to reduce the household economic burden of major illnesses, coupled with improvement in the management of public health facilities, warrant further attention by policy-makers. PMID:26856362

  13. Is drinking alcohol associated with sexual coercion among Ugandan university students?: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual coercion is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa and is a risk factor for unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and mental health problems. Alcohol consumption patterns have been suggested to be an important factor behind the experience of sexual coercion among university students. Objective To study the association between alcohol consumption and the experience of sexual coercion among Ugandan university students. Method In 2010, 1954 Ugandan students participated in a cross sectional survey, conducted in Mbarara University of Science and Technology (72% response rate). A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic factors, alcohol consumption, mental health, and sexual behavior. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of recent experience of sexual coercion. The data were stratified by sex. Results Of the 1954 students, 27.6% reported having experienced sexual coercion and 16.4% stated that they had such an experience recently. Individuals who reported frequent consumption of alcohol, or having consumed alcohol often on the occasion of sexual intercourse, were found to have a higher probability of recent experiences of sexual coercion (OR adjusted 2.29, 95% CI 1.40–3.72, and OR adjusted 2.78, 95% CI 1.56–4.97, respectively). These associations were significant even after adjusting for potential confounders. A synergistic effect was found between poor mental health and frequent consumption of alcohol in conjunction with having sex with regard to its impact on recent experiences of sexual coercion. Conclusion We found an association between alcohol consumption and experiences of sexual coercion among Ugandan university students. Therefore, universities may want to consider alcohol prevention under their policy framework, as it could reduce the potential risk of sexual coercion. PMID:24438109

  14. Voluntary Blood Donation among Students - A Cross-Sectional Study on Knowledge and Practice vs. Attitude

    PubMed Central

    Pehlajani, Nand K.; Sinha, Mithilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The factors influencing blood donation decisions are varied and complex and one’s attitude can influence this decision. Aim To find the factors affecting the knowledge and practice of blood donation among college students and their attitude towards the same. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 399 college going students using convenience sampling from medical, nursing and engineering colleges in Bhubaneswar city, where blood donation camps were to be held. Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires and, analysed in SPSS Version 20.0. Results Knowledge regarding blood donation was adequate among 228 (57.1%) of the students and, 221 (55.4%) students had donated blood. Knowledge was significantly better among female students, medical stream and in those whose parents were in non-medical jobs; whereas blood donation had been done significantly more by male, non-medical stream students and by those whose parents were in medical field. Most common reason for donating blood was a sense of social responsibility and most common reason of non-donation was fear of the procedure. An 85% of the students were of the view that they would donate blood if asked. Students suggested that small incentives like certificates and arranging transport for blood donation would make it easier to donate. Conclusion Just over half of the students had adequate knowledge about blood donation and similar percentage had donated blood. There is this large pool of safe blood in college going students who are willing, but not tapped as source of blood donation. PMID:27891345

  15. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. Methods In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Findings Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. Conclusion While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care. PMID:27274597

  16. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  17. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  18. Coexistence of social inequalities in undernutrition and obesity in preschool children: population based cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, J; Dorosty, A; Reilly, J; Child, H; Emmett, P

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To test for the coexistence of social inequalities in undernutrition and obesity in preschool children. Methods: Retrospective, cross sectional, study of routinely collected data from 74 500 children aged 39–42 months in 1998/99. Main outcome measures were weight, height, sex, and age routinely recorded by health visitors. Body mass index (BMI) standardised for age and sex, relative to UK 1990 reference data, was used to define undernutrition (BMI <2nd centile) and obesity (BMI >95th centile; BMI >98th centile). Social deprivation was assessed as Carstairs deprivation category (1 = most affluent to 7 = most deprived). Results: Both undernutrition (3.3%) and obesity (8.5% above 95th centile; 4.3% above 98th centile) significantly exceeded expected frequencies from UK 1990 reference data. Undernutrition and obesity were significantly more common in the more deprived families. Odds ratios in deprivation category 7 relative to category 1 were 1.51 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.87) for undernutrition (BMI <2nd centile) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.60) for obesity (BMI >98th centile). The cumulative prevalence of under and overnutrition (malnutrition) in the most deprived group was 9.5% compared to 6.9% in the least deprived group. Conclusions: Undernutrition and obesity are significantly more common than expected in young children and strongly associated with social deprivation. Both undernutrition and obesity have adverse short and long term health effects. Public health strategies need to tackle malnutrition (both undernutrition and obesity) in children and take into consideration the association with social deprivation. PMID:12876159

  19. Cross-sectional study to assess the association of population density with predicted breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Klimberg, Suzanne; Bondurant, Kristina L; Phillips, Martha M; Kadlubar, Susan A

    2014-01-01

    The Gail and CARE models estimate breast cancer risk for white and African-American (AA) women, respectively. The aims of this study were to compare metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women with respect to predicted breast cancer risks based on known risk factors, and to determine if population density was an independent risk factor for breast cancer risk. A cross-sectional survey was completed by 15,582 women between 35 and 85 years of age with no history of breast cancer. Metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women were compared with respect to risk factors, and breast cancer risk estimates, using general linear models adjusted for age. For both white and AA women, tisk factors used to estimate breast cancer risk included age at menarche, history of breast biopsies, and family history. For white women, age at first childbirth was an additional risk factor. In comparison to their nonmetropolitan counterparts, metropolitan white women were more likely to report having a breast biopsy, have family history of breast cancer, and delay childbirth. Among white metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.44% and 1.32% (p < 0.001), and lifetime risks of breast cancer were 10.81% and 10.01% (p < 0.001), respectively. AA metropolitan residents were more likely than those from nonmetropolitan areas to have had a breast biopsy. Among AA metropolitan and nonmetropolitan women, mean estimated 5-year risks were 1.16% and 1.12% (p = 0.039) and lifetime risks were 8.94%, and 8.85% (p = 0.344). Metropolitan residence was associated with higher predicted breast cancer risks for white women. Among AA women, metropolitan residence was associated with a higher predicted breast cancer risk at 5 years, but not over a lifetime. Population density was not an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  20. Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kézia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. PMID:22574149

  1. Psychosocial Profile of Bullies, Victims, and Bully-Victims: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Leiner, Marie; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Villanos, Maria Theresa; Singh, Namrata; Blunk, Dan; Peinado, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    While adverse conditions in a child’s life do not excuse inappropriate behavior, they may cause emotional and behavioral problems that require treatment as a preventive measure to reduce the likelihood of bullying. We aimed to identify differences in the psychosocial profiles of adolescents who classified themselves as bullies, victims, or bully-victims. We performed a cross-sectional study in which data were collected between January 2009 and January 2010 from seven university-based clinics in a large metropolitan area with a predominantly Mexican-American population. We collected data on physical aggression among adolescents who self-categorized into the following groups: uninvolved, bullies, victims, and bully-victims. We determined the psychosocial profiles of the adolescents based on responses to the Youth Self Report (YSR) and parent’s responses to the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). A one-way analysis of variance and multivariate regression analyses were performed to compare the various components of the psychosocial profiles among the groups. Our analysis of the CBCL and the YSR assessments identified differences between the uninvolved group and one or more of the other groups. No significant differences were observed among the bully, victim, and bully-victim groups based on the CBCL. We did find significant differences among those groups based on the YSR, however. Our results suggest that emotional and behavioral problems exist among bullies, victims, and bully-victims. Therefore, treatment should not focus only on the victims of bullying; treatment is equally important for the other groups (bullies and bully-victims). Failure to adequately treat the underlying problems experienced by all three groups of individuals could allow the problems of bullying to continue. PMID:24459665

  2. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  3. Cross-sectional study of 168 patients with hepatorenal tyrosinaemia and implications for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatorenal tyrosinaemia (Tyr 1) is a rare inborn error of tyrosine metabolism. Without treatment, patients are at high risk of developing acute liver failure, renal dysfunction and in the long run hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of our study was to collect cross-sectional data. Methods Via questionnaires we collected retrospective data of 168 patients with Tyr 1 from 21 centres (Europe, Turkey and Israel) about diagnosis, treatment, monitoring and outcome. In a subsequent consensus workshop, we discussed data and clinical implications. Results Early treatment by NTBC accompanied by diet is essential to prevent serious complications such as liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma and renal disease. As patients may remain initially asymptomatic or develop uncharacteristic clinical symptoms in the first months of life newborn mass screening using succinylacetone (SA) as a screening parameter in dried blood is mandatory for early diagnosis. NTBC-treatment has to be combined with natural protein restriction supplemented with essential amino acids. NTBC dosage should be reduced to the minimal dose allowing metabolic control, once daily dosing may be an option in older children and adults in order to increase compliance. Metabolic control is judged by SA (below detection limit) in dried blood or urine, plasma tyrosine (<400 μM) and NTBC-levels in the therapeutic range (20–40 μM). Side effects of NTBC are mild and often transient. Indications for liver transplantation are hepatocellular carcinoma or failure to respond to NTBC. Follow-up procedures should include liver and kidney function tests, tumor markers and imaging, ophthalmological examination, blood count, psychomotor and intelligence testing as well as therapeutic monitoring (SA, tyrosine, NTBC in blood). Conclusion Based on the data from 21 centres treating 168 patients we were able to characterize current practice and clinical experience in Tyr 1. This information could form the basis for

  4. Association between maternal health literacy and child vaccination in India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Koné, Georges K; Sharma, Jitendar K; Pahwa, Smriti

    2015-01-01

    Background Education of mothers may improve child health. We investigated whether maternal health literacy, a rapidly modifiable factor related to mother's education, was associated with children's receipt of vaccines in two underserved Indian communities. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site. We assessed health literacy using Indian child health promotion materials. The outcome was receipt of three doses of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3) vaccine. We used multivariate logistic regression to investigate the relationship between maternal health literacy and vaccination status independently in each site. For both sites, adjusted models considered maternal age, maternal and paternal education, child sex, birth order, household religion and wealth quintile. Rural analyses used multilevel models adjusted for service delivery characteristics. Urban analyses represented cluster characteristics through fixed effects. Results The rural analysis included 1170 women from 60 villages. The urban analysis included 670 women from nine slum clusters. In each site, crude and adjusted models revealed a positive association between maternal health literacy and DTP3. In the rural site, the adjusted OR was 1.57 (95% CI 1.11 to 2.21, p=0.010) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=1.30 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.91, p=0.172) for those with high health literacy. In the urban site, the adjusted OR was 1.10 (95% CI 0.65 to 1.88, p=0.705) for those with medium health literacy, and OR=2.06 (95% CI 1.06 to 3.99, p=0.032) for those with high health literacy. Conclusions In these study settings, maternal health literacy is independently associated with child vaccination. Initiatives targeting health literacy could improve vaccination coverage. PMID:25827469

  5. Metabolic profile at first-time schizophrenia diagnosis: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Horsdal, Henriette Thisted; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Köhler-Forsberg, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Gasse, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia and/or antipsychotic drug use are associated with metabolic abnormalities; however, knowledge regarding metabolic status and physician’s monitoring of metabolic status at first schizophrenia diagnosis is sparse. We assessed the prevalence of monitoring for metabolic blood abnormalities and characterized the metabolic profiles in people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis. Methods This is a population-based cross-sectional study including all adults born in Denmark after January 1, 1955, with their first schizophrenia diagnosis between 2000 and 2012 in the Central Denmark Region. Information on metabolic parameters was obtained from a clinical laboratory information system. Associations were calculated using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-square tests, logistic regression, and Spearman’s correlation coefficients. Results A total of 2,452 people with a first-time schizophrenia diagnosis were identified, of whom 1,040 (42.4%) were monitored for metabolic abnormalities. Among those monitored, 58.4% had an abnormal lipid profile and 13.8% had an abnormal glucose profile. People who had previously filled prescription(s) for antipsychotic drugs were more likely to present an abnormal lipid measure (65.7% vs 46.8%, P<0.001) and abnormal glucose profile (16.4% vs 10.1%, P=0.01). Conclusion Metabolic abnormalities are common at first schizophrenia diagnosis, particularly among those with previous antipsychotic prescription(s). Increased metabolic abnormalities already present in the early phase of schizophrenia emphasize the need for increased monitoring and management. PMID:28280344

  6. Association of alcohol consumption with specific biomarkers: a cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (± 30.0) and 23.3 (± 29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p ≤ 0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p ≤ 0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans.

  7. Characteristics of street children in Cameroon: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Cumber, Samuel N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The issue of street children is one of the global social problems rising in low- and middle-income countries. These children are vulnerable, but because of a lack of sufficient information, it is very difficult for stakeholders to address their plight in Cameroon. Aim To examine the situation and characteristics of street children in three Cameroonian cities. Objectives To describe the demographic, socio-economic and behavioural profiles of street children. To identify challenges of street children and to compare the results from the three cities on account of their different settings, cultural history and challenges. Materials and methods The study was an analytical cross-sectional survey conducted through researcher-administered questionnaires to 399 street children (homeless for at least a month), in three Cameroonian cities from 1 January 2015 to 30 March 2015. Results The majority of the participants were boys, more than 70% were homeless for less than 12 months and poverty was found to be the most common reason for being on the street. Most of the participants earned less than 500CFA francs (USD 0.85), with many of them resorting to begging, drug abuse, sex work and other risky behaviours. Only two of the respondents (0.5%) regarded the public attitude towards them as supportive. Conclusion As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children. PMID:28155316

  8. Atypical Fractures are Mainly Subtrochanteric in Singapore and Diaphyseal in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Schilcher, Jörg; Howe, Tet Sen; Png, Meng Ai; Aspenberg, Per; Koh, Joyce S B

    2015-11-01

    We have previously noted a dichotomy in the location of atypical fractures along the femoral shaft in Swedish patients, and a mainly subtrochanteric location of atypical fractures in descriptions of patients from Singapore. These unexpected differences were now investigated by testing the following hypotheses in a cross-sectional study: first, that there is a dichotomy also in Singapore; second, that the relation between subtrochanteric and diaphyseal location is different between the two countries; third, that the location is related to femoral bow. The previously published Swedish sample (n = 151) was re-measured, and a new Singaporean sample (n = 75) was established. Both samples were based on radiographic classification of all femoral fractures in women above 55 years of age. The distance between the fracture line and the lesser trochanter was measured. Femoral bow was classified as present or absent on frontal radiographs. Frequency distribution of the measured distances was analyzed using the Bayesian information criterion to choose the best description of the observed variable distribution in terms of a compilation of normally distributed subgroups. The analysis showed a clear dichotomy of the fracture location: either subtrochanteric or diaphyseal. Subtrochanteric fractures comprised 48% of all fractures in Singapore, and 17% in Sweden (p = 0.0001). In Singapore, femoral bow was associated with more fractures in the diaphyseal subgroup (p = 0.0001). This was not seen in Sweden. A dichotomous location of atypical fractures was confirmed, because it was found also in Singapore. The fractures showed a different localization pattern in the two countries. This difference may be linked to anatomical variations, but might also be related to cultural differences between the two populations that influence physical activity.

  9. Calcified cysticercotic lesions and intractable epilepsy: a cross sectional study of 512 patients

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, T R; Zanello, P A; Dalmagro, C L; Araújo, D; Santos, A C; Bianchin, M M; Alexandre, V; Walz, R; Assirati, J A; Carlotti, C G; Takayanagui, O M; Sakamoto, A C; Leite, J P

    2006-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a major cause of epilepsy in developing countries and is endemic in Brazil. To test the hypothesis that the aetiological profile of patients with intractable epilepsy in Brazil includes neurocysticercosis, we conducted a cross sectional study investigating the aetiology of intractable epilepsy. Methods A total of 512 patients evaluated at the outpatient clinic for intractable epilepsy at the Ribeirão Preto School of Medicine were included in the survey. Medical intractability was determined on the basis of seizure incidence and severity, and response to appropriate epilepsy management. Neuroimaging included brain CT with non‐contrasted and contrasted phases and high resolution MRI. Patients were divided into neurocysticercosis and non‐neurocysticercosis groups according to previous diagnostic criteria. Results The most common epileptogenic lesions were mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS; 56.0%), malformations of cortical development (12.1%), and brain tumours (9.9%). Neuroimaging was normal in 8.7% of patients. Calcifications were found in 27% of patients and were significantly more common in patients with MTS than in those without MTS (p<0.001). Isolated neurocysticercosis was found in only eight patients (1.56%). Conclusions These data suggest that neurocysticercosis is an uncommon cause of intractable epilepsy, even in an endemic region such as Brazil, and that it may only represent a coexistent pathology. However, an analysis of our findings reveals that neurocysticercosis was more common in patients with MTS. This finding could suggest either that there is a cause‐effect relationship between MTS and neurocysticercosis, or that MTS and neurocysticercosis co‐vary with a missing variable, such as socio‐economic status. PMID:16543527

  10. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features.Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated.In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17-83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age <55 years (OR 1.6 [CI:1-2.5]), absence of smoking habit (OR 2.2 [CI:1.2-4]), and absence of anemia (OR 3.1 [CI:1.5-6.4]) were independent factors associated to dyspepsia.Autoimmune gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia.

  11. The electronic patient record in primary care—regression or progression? A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Pringle, Mike; Cater, Ruth; Wynn, Alison; Hammersley, Vicky; Coupland, Carol; Hapgood, Rhydian; Horsfield, Peter; Teasdale, Sheila; Johnson, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether paperless medical records contained less information than paper based medical records and whether that information was harder to retrieve. Design Cross sectional study with review of medical records and interviews with general practitioners. Setting 25 general practices in Trent region. Participants 53 British general practitioners (25 using paperless records and 28 using paper based records) who each provided records of 10 consultations. Main outcome measures Content of a sample of records and doctor recall of consultations for which paperless or paper based records had been made. Results Compared with paper based records, more paperless records were fully understandable (89.2% v 69.9%, P=0.0001) and fully legible (100% v 64.3%, P < 0.0001). Paperless records were significantly more likely to have at least one diagnosis recorded (48.2% v 33.2%, P=0.05), to record that advice had been given (23.7% vs 10.7%, P=0.017), and, when a referral had been made, were more likely to contain details of the specialty (77.4% v 59.5%, P=0.03). When a prescription had been issued, paperless records were more likely to specify the drug dose (86.6% v 66.2%, P=0.005). Paperless records contained significantly more words, abbreviations, and symbols (P < 0.01 for all). At doctor interview, there was no difference between the groups for the proportion of patients or consultations that could be recalled. Doctors using paperless records were able to recall more advice given to patients (38.6% v 26.8%, P=0.03). Conclusion We found no evidence to support our hypotheses that paperless records would be truncated and contain more local abbreviations; and that the absence of writing would decrease subsequent recall. Conversely we found that the paperless records compared favourably with manual records. PMID:12829558

  12. Preparing for Disaster: a Cross-Sectional Study of Social Connection and Gun Violence.

    PubMed

    Riley, Carley; Roy, Brita; Harari, Nurit; Vashi, Anita; Violano, Pina; Greene, Ann; Lucas, Georgina; Smart, Jerry; Hines, Teresa; Spell, Stacy; Taylor, Sharon; Tinney, Barbara; Williams, Maurice; Wang, Emily A

    2017-01-23

    Living in communities with persistent gun violence is associated with negative social, behavioral, and health outcomes, analogous to those of a natural disaster. Taking a disaster-preparedness approach may identify targets for community-based action to respond to on-going gun violence. We assessed the relevance of adapting a disaster-preparedness approach to gun violence and, specifically, the relationship between perceived collective efficacy, its subscales of social cohesion and informal social control, and exposure to gun violence. In 2014, we conducted a cross-sectional study using a community-based participatory research approach in two neighborhoods in New Haven, CT, with high violent crime rates. Participants were ≥18 years of age and English speaking. We measured exposure to gun violence by adapting the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods Exposure to Violence Scale. We examined the association between perceived collective efficacy, measured by the Sampson Collective Efficacy Scale, and exposure to gun violence using multivariate modeling. We obtained 153 surveys (51% response rate, 14% refusal rate, and 35% non-response rate). Ninety-five percent reported hearing gunfire, 58% had friend or family member killed by gun violence, and 33% were physically present during a shooting. In the fully adjusted model, one standard deviation higher perceived collective efficacy was associated with lower reported exposure to gun violence (β = -0.91, p < 0.001). We demonstrated that it is possible to activate community members and local officials to engage in gun violence research. A novel, community-based approach adapted from disaster-preparedness literature may be an effective framework for mitigating exposure to gun violence in communities with persistent gun violence.

  13. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  14. Obstetric interventions in two groups of hospitals in Catalonia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childbirth assistance in highly technological settings and existing variability in the interventions performed are cause for concern. In recent years, numerous recommendations have been made concerning the importance of the physiological process during birth. In Spain and Catalonia, work has been carried out to implement evidence-based practices for childbirth and to reduce unnecessary interventions. To identify obstetric intervention rates among all births, determine whether there are differences in interventions among full-term single births taking place in different hospitals according to type of funding and volume of births attended to, and to ascertain whether there is an association between caesarean section or instrumental birth rates and type of funding, the volume of births attended to and women’s age. Methods Cross-sectional study, taking the hospital as the unit of analysis, obstetric interventions as dependent variables, and type of funding, volume of births attended to and maternal age as explanatory variables. The analysis was performed in three phases considering all births reported in the MBDS Catalonia 2011 (7,8570 births), full-term single births and births coded as normal. Results The overall caesarean section rate in Catalonia is 27.55% (CI 27.23 to 27.86). There is a significant difference in caesarean section rates between public and private hospitals in all strata. Both public and private hospitals with a lower volume of births have higher obstetric intervention rates than other hospitals (49.43%, CI 48.04 to 50.81). Conclusions In hospitals in Catalonia, both the type of funding and volume of births attended to have a significant effect on the incidence of caesarean section, and type of funding is associated with the use of instruments during delivery. PMID:24731410

  15. A Cross-Sectional Study of Major Repeaters: A Distinct Phenotype of Suicidal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Béziat, Severine; Guillaume, Sebastien; Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Baca-Garcia, Enrique; de Leon, Jose; Courtet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The characterization of major repeaters (individuals with ≥ 5 lifetime suicide attempts) is a neglected area of research. Our aim was to establish whether or not major repeaters are a distinctive suicidal phenotype, taking into account a wide range of potential competing risks including sociodemographic characteristics, personal and familial history, psychiatric diagnoses, and personality traits. Method: This cross-sectional study included 372 suicide attempters admitted to a specialized unit for suicide attempters in Montpellier University Hospital, Montpellier, France, between October 12, 2000, and June 10, 2010. Logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders were used. Results: When compared with subjects who attempted suicide < 5 times, major repeaters were more likely to be female (odds ratio [OR] = 5.54; 95% CI, 1.41–21.81), to have a lower educational level (OR = 5.1; 95% CI, 1.55–17.2), to have lifetime diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (OR = 3.45; 95% CI, 1.10–10.84) and substance dependence (OR = 5.00; 95% CI, 1.37–18.27), and to have lower levels of anger expressed outward (OR = 0.17; 95% CI, 0.06–0.47) and higher levels of trait anger (OR = 2.82; 95% CI, 1.18–6.75). Major repeaters had significantly higher suicide risk (lethality) scores (OR = 2.14; 95% CI, 1.08–4.23). Conclusion: Major repeaters are a distinctive suicidal phenotype characterized by a distinctive sociodemographic (ie, female gender, low education) and clinical profile (ie, trait anger, substance dependence, anorexia nervosa). If our results are replicated, specific preventive plans should be tailored to major repeaters. PMID:25664212

  16. Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis and Eating Disorders: Is There a Relation? Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaina, Fabio; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Vismara, Luca; Capodaglio, Paolo; Neri, Laura; Negrini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A recent study suggests a correlation between idiopathic scoliosis in adolescence and eating disorders. However, this does not correspond with our clinical experience in the same population. The aim of this study was to verify the correlation between scoliosis and eating disorders in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was designed including 187…

  17. New Neutron-Induced Cross-Section Measurements for Weak s-process Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Wiarda, Dorothea; Leal, Luiz C; Derrien, Herve; Ausmus, Clint; Brashear, Dane; White, John A

    2008-01-01

    A series of new neutron capture and transmission measurements has been undertaken at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) in response to deficiencies identified in nuclear data libraries of crucial importance to the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program. New data and evaluations including covariances are required for several stable fission products as well as for materials found in mixtures with uranium. For example, chromium and nickel as constituents of stainless steel perform poorly in criticality calculations due to their relatively large neutron cross sections and substantial uncertainties in previous measurements. Therefore, new neutron-capture and total cross-section measurements are needed for 52,53Cr and 58,60Ni. These newly obtained data can be used not only to improve criticality calculations but also to serve as input parameters for the weak s-process stellar model calculations in massive stars. We will report on new experiments for these nuclides.

  18. Scaling study of the pion electroproduction cross sections and the pion form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Tanja Horn; Xin Qian; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; Fatiha Benmokthar; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Antje Bruell; Eric Christy; Eugene Chudakov; Ben Clasie; Mark Dalton; AJI Daniel; Donal Day; Dipangkar Dutta; Lamiaa El Fassi; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; J. Ferrer; Nadia Fomin; H. Gao; K Garrow; Dave Gaskell; C Gray; G. Huber; M. Jones; N Kalantarians; C. Keppel; K Kramer; Y Li; Y Liang; A. Lung; S Malace; P. Markowitz; A. Matsumura; D. Meekins; T Mertens; T Miyoshi; H. Mykrtchyan; R. Monson; T. Navasardyan; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; Y. Okayasu; A. Opper; C Perdrisat; V. Punjabi; A. Rauf; V. Rodriguez; D. Rohe; J Seely; E Segbefia; G. Smith; M. Sumihama; V. Tadevoyan; L Tang; V. Tvaskis; A. Villano; W. Vulcan; F. Wesselmann; S. Wood; L. Yuan; X. Zheng

    2007-07-12

    The $^{1}$H($e,e^\\prime \\pi^+$)n cross section was measured for a range of four-momentum transfer up to $Q^2$=3.91 GeV$^2$ at values of the invariant mass, $W$, above the resonance region. The $Q^2$-dependence of the longitudinal component is consistent with the $Q^2$-scaling prediction for hard exclusive processes. This suggests that perturbative QCD concepts are applicable at rather low values of $Q^2$. Pion form factor results, while consistent with the $Q^2$-scaling prediction, are inconsistent in magnitude with perturbative QCD calculations. The extraction of Generalized Parton Distributions from hard exclusive processes assumes the dominance of the longitudinal term. However, transverse contributions to the cross section are still significant at $Q^2$=3.91 GeV$^2$.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Roles of Lexical Aspect and L1 Transfer in Tense-Aspect Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Cuijing

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the acquisition of English verb morphology by learners of two typologically different L1s and the role of L1 transfer in the acquisition pattern, a cross-sectional study (n = 180) carried with Chinese and Mongolian college students learning English at two proficiency levels, using the cloze passage and composition.…

  20. Medical Students' Attitudes towards Peer Physical Examination: Findings from an International Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Charlotte E.; Wearn, Andy M.; Vnuk, Anna K.; Sato, Toshio J.

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes…

  1. The Development of Requests by L2 Learners of Modern Standard Arabic: A Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development of requests made by second language (L2) learners of Modern Standard Arabic at four levels of L2 ability. The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional data collection to investigate how learners' performance of requests developed over a five-month period and differed as a function of ability level. The…

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle, and social determinants: a cross-sectional population study

    PubMed Central

    Palomo, Luis; Félix-Redondo, Francisco-Javier; Lozano-Mera, Luis; Pérez-Castán, José-Fernando; Fernández-Berges, Daniel; Buitrago, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of socioeconomic development is often disregarded in epidemiological studies into the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Aim To analyse the relationship between major cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic indicators. Design and setting Cross-sectional, population-wide study in primary care practices in the health area of Don Benito-Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. Method A total of 2833 people aged 25–79 years (mean age 51.2 years), representative of the population, participated in the study. The prevalence and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for diabetes, arterial hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolaemia, smoking, and sedentary behaviour, according to level of education and employment status. Results A high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors related to the level of education and employment status. Females who had not studied at university had a higher risk of obesity (OR = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 4.2), smoking (OR 2.5, 95% CI = 1.7 to 3.7), and sedentary behaviour (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.5 to 3.9) than females with a university education. Males who had not studied at university showed an increased risk of smoking (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4 to 3.1), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.4), hypercholesterolaemia (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.2), and obesity (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.3) than males with a university education. The risk of obesity was higher in unemployed females than those in paid employment (OR =1.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 1.9), but they showed a lower risk of smoking (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5 to 0.9). Conclusion The study results confirm an inverse association between the level of education and the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Public health studies and interventions are needed to understand this association and develop interventions targeted at the population that is at greatest risk. PMID:25267048

  3. Medication use in pregnancy: a cross-sectional, multinational web-based study

    PubMed Central

    Lupattelli, A; Spigset, O; Twigg, M J; Zagorodnikova, K; Mårdby, A C; Moretti, M E; Drozd, M; Panchaud, A; Hämeen-Anttila, K; Rieutord, A; Gjergja Juraski, R; Odalovic, M; Kennedy, D; Rudolf, G; Juch, H; Passier, A; Björnsdóttir, I; Nordeng, H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Intercountry comparability between studies on medication use in pregnancy is difficult due to dissimilarities in study design and methodology. This study aimed to examine patterns and factors associated with medications use in pregnancy from a multinational perspective, with emphasis on type of medication utilised and indication for use. Design Cross-sectional, web-based study performed within the period from 1 October 2011 to 29 February 2012. Uniform collection of drug utilisation data was performed via an anonymous online questionnaire. Setting Multinational study in Europe (Western, Northern and Eastern), North and South America and Australia. Participants Pregnant women and new mothers with children less than 1 year of age. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of and factors associated with medication use for acute/short-term illnesses, chronic/long-term disorders and over-the-counter (OTC) medication use. Results The study population included 9459 women, of which 81.2% reported use of at least one medication (prescribed or OTC) during pregnancy. Overall, OTC medication use occurred in 66.9% of the pregnancies, whereas 68.4% and 17% of women reported use of at least one medication for treatment of acute/short-term illnesses and chronic/long-term disorders, respectively. The extent of self-reported medicated illnesses and types of medication used by indication varied across regions, especially in relation to urinary tract infections, depression or OTC nasal sprays. Women with higher age or lower educational level, housewives or women with an unplanned pregnancy were those most often reporting use of medication for chronic/long-term disorders. Immigrant women in Western (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.55, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.87) and Northern Europe (aOR: 0.50, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.83) were less likely to report use of medication for chronic/long-term disorders during pregnancy than non-immigrants. Conclusions In this study, the majority of women in

  4. Nursing Burnout: Cross-Sectional Study at a Large Army Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Jackson SE, Leiter M: Maslach Burnout Inventory, Ed 3, Mountain View, CA, Consulting Psychological Press, 1996, 7, McHolm F: Rx for compassion...364) completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 7"-test and ordinal logistic regression were used to analyze data. Findings suggest that both groups...cross-sectional design, a convenience sample of eligible participants (n = 364) completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory, 7"-test and ordinal logistic

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Ability Emotional Intelligence in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A.; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the…

  6. A coupled-cluster study of photodetachment cross sections of closed-shell anions.

    PubMed

    Cukras, Janusz; Decleva, Piero; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the performance of Stieltjes Imaging applied to Lanczos pseudo-spectra generated at the coupled cluster singles and doubles, coupled cluster singles and approximate iterative doubles and coupled cluster singles levels of theory in modeling the photodetachment cross sections of the closed shell anions H(-), Li(-), Na(-), F(-), Cl(-), and OH(-). The accurate description of double excitations is found to play a much more important role than in the case of photoionization of neutral species.

  7. Neutron capture cross-section studies of Tellurium isotopes for neutrinoless double beta decay applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhike, Megha; Tornow, Werner

    2014-09-01

    The CUORE detector at Gran Sasso, aimed at searching for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 130Te, employs an array of TeO2 bolometer modules. To understand and identify the contribution of muon and (α,n) induced neutrons to the CUORE background, fast neutron cature cross-section data of the tellurium isotopes 126Te, 128Te and 130Te have been measured with the activation method at eight different energies in the neutron energy range 0.5-7.5 MeV. Plastic pill boxes of diameter 1.6 cm and width 1 cm containing Te were irradiated with mono-energetic neutrons produced via the 3H(p,n)3He and 2H(d,n)3He reactions. The cross-sections were determined relative to the 197Au(n, γ)198Au and 115In(n,n')115m In standard cross sections. The activities of the products were measured using 60% lead-shielded HPGe detectors at TUNL's low background counting facility. The present results are compared with the evaluated data from TENDL-2012, ENDF/B-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0, as well as with literature data.

  8. A Descriptive Analysis of Oral Health Systematic Reviews Published 1991–2012: Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Saltaji, Humam; Cummings, Greta G.; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Major, Michael P.; Amin, Maryam; Major, Paul W.; Hartling, Lisa; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify all systematic reviews (SRs) published in the domain of oral health research and describe them in terms of their epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Design Cross sectional, descriptive study. Methods An electronic search of seven databases was performed from inception through May 2012; bibliographies of relevant publications were also reviewed. Studies were considered for inclusion if they were oral health SRs defined as therapeutic or non-therapeutic investigations that studied a topic or an intervention related to dental, oral or craniofacial diseases/disorders. Data were extracted from all the SRs based on a number of epidemiological and descriptive characteristics. Data were analysed descriptively for all the SRs, within each of the nine dental specialities, and for Cochrane and non-Cochrane SRs separately. Results 1,188 oral health (126 Cochrane and 1062 non-Cochrane) SRs published from 1991 through May 2012 were identified, encompassing the nine dental specialties. Over half (n = 676; 56.9%) of the SRs were published in specialty oral health journals, with almost all (n = 1,178; 99.2%) of the SRs published in English and almost none of the non-Cochrane SRs (n = 11; 0.9%) consisting of updates of previously published SRs. 75.3% of the SRs were categorized as therapeutic, with 64.5% examining non-drug interventions, while approximately half (n = 150/294; 51%) of the non-therapeutic SRs were classified as epidemiological SRs. The SRs included a median of 15 studies, with a meta-analysis conducted in 43.6%, in which a median of 9 studies/1 randomized trial were included in the largest meta-analysis conducted. Funding was received for 25.1% of the SRs, including nearly three-quarters (n = 96; 76.2%) of the Cochrane SRs. Conclusion Epidemiological and descriptive characteristics of the 1,188 oral health SRs varied across the nine dental specialties and by SR category (Cochrane vs. non-Cochrane). There is a

  9. Pressure ulcer prevention knowledge among Jordanian nurses: a cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer remains a significant problem in the healthcare system. In addition to the suffering it causes patients, it bears a growing financial burden. Although pressure ulcer prevention and care have improved in recent years, pressure ulcer still exists and occurs in both hospital and community settings. In Jordan, there are a handful of studies on pressure ulcer. This study aims to explore levels of knowledge and knowledge sources about pressure ulcer prevention, as well as barriers to implementing pressure ulcer prevention guidelines among Jordanian nurses. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design and a self-administered questionnaire, data was collected from 194 baccalaureate and master’s level staff nurses working in eight Jordanian hospitals. From September to October of 2011, their knowledge levels about pressure ulcer prevention and the sources of this knowledge were assessed, along with the barriers which reduce successful pressure ulcer care and prevention. ANOVA and t-test analysis were used to test the differences in nurses’ knowledge according to participants’ characteristics. Means, standard deviation, and frequencies were used to describe nurses’ knowledge levels, knowledge sources, and barriers to pressure ulcer prevention. Results The majority (73%, n = 141) of nurses had inadequate knowledge about pressure ulcer prevention. The mean scores of the test for all participants was 10.84 out of 26 (SD = 2.3, range = 5–17), with the lowest score in themes related to PU etiology, preventive measures to reduce amount of pressure/shear, and risk assessment. In-service training was the second source of education on pressure ulcer, coming after university training. Shortage of staff and lack of time were the most frequently cited barriers to carrying out pressure ulcer risk assessment, documentation, and prevention. Conclusions This study highlights concerns about Jordanian nurses’ knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention. The

  10. Ruptured Tendons in Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Users: A Cross-Sectional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; DeLuca, James; Meehan, William P.; Hudson, James I.; Isaacs, Stephanie; Baggish, Aaron; Weiner, Rory; Micheli, Lyle; Pope, Harrison G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accumulating case reports have described tendon rupture in men using anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However no controlled study, to our knowledge, has assessed history of tendon rupture in a large cohort of AAS users and comparison nonusers. Hypothesis We hypothesized that men reporting long-term AAS abuse would report an elevated lifetime incidence of tendon rupture as compared to non-AAS-using bodybuilders. Study Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods We obtained medical histories from 142 experienced male bodybuilders age 35–55, recruited in the course of two studies. Of these men, 88 reported at least two years of cumulative lifetime AAS use and 54 reported no history of AAS use. In men reporting a history of tendon rupture, we recorded circumstances of the injury, prodromal symptoms, concomitant drug or alcohol use, and details of current and lifetime AAS use if applicable. We also obtained surgical records for most participants. Results Nineteen (22%) of the AAS users, but only 3 (6%) of the nonusers reported at least one lifetime tendon rupture. The hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for a first ruptured tendon in AAS users versus nonusers was 9.0 (2.5, 32.3); P <.001. Several men reported two or more independent lifetime tendon ruptures. Interestingly, upper body tendon ruptures occurred exclusively in the AAS group (15 [17%] of the AAS users versus 0 non-users; risk difference 0.17 (0.09, 0.25); P < 0.001 [hazard ratio not estimable]), whereas we found no significant difference between users and nonusers in risk for lower body ruptures (6 [7%] AAS users, 3 [6%] nonusers; hazard ratio 3.1 (0.7, 13.8), P = 0.13). Of 31 individual tendon ruptures that we assessed, only 6 (19%) occurred while weightlifting, with the majority occurring during other sports activities. Eight (26%) ruptures followed prodromal symptoms of nonspecific pain in the region. Virtually all ruptures were treated surgically with complete or near

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Perez-Alamos, Alma Rosa; Rico-Almochantaf, Yazmin del Rosario; Estrada-Martinez, Sergio; Vaquera-Enriquez, Raquel; Diaz-Herrera, Arturo; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. The influence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infection on clinical features in women with this disorder has not been studied. Therefore, we determined the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs in women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of 151 women suffering from premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in sera of the participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIAs). In addition, T. gondii DNA was detected in whole blood of IgG seropositive participants using polymerase chain reaction. We obtained the clinical data of women with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of T. gondii infection with clinical characteristics of women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6.6%) of the 151 women studied. Of the 10 IgG seropositive women, four (40.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, and one (10.0%) for T. gondii DNA. Mean number (25.8 ± 7.58) of premenstrual clinical characteristics in seropositive women was similar to that (29.22 ± 9.13) found in seronegative women (P = 0.25). Logistic regression showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with difficulty concentrating (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.03 - 0.91; P = 0.03), and positively associated with out of control feeling or overwhelmed (OR: 9.00; 95% CI: 1.32 - 62.00; P = 0.02). Conclusions Results of this first study on the association of T. gondii infection and clinical characteristics of premenstrual dysphoric disorder suggest that this infection might be linked to some symptoms of this disorder. We report for the first time the association of T. gondii infection and out of control feeling or overwhelmed. Results warrant for further research on the role of T. gondii in premenstrual dysphoric

  12. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified

  13. Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (AMASE): Protocol for a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-del Arco, Débora; Monge, Susana; Copas, Andrew J; Gennotte, Anne-Francoise; Volny-Anne, Alain; Göpel, Siri; Touloumi, Giota; Prins, Maria; Barros, Henrique; Staehelin, Cornelia; del Amo, Julia; Burns, Fiona M

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrants form a substantial proportion of the population affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Europe, yet HIV prevention for this population is hindered by poor understanding of access to care and of postmigration transmission dynamics. Objective We present the design and methods of the advancing Migrant Access to health Services in Europe (aMASE) study, the first European cross-cultural study focused on multiple migrant populations. It aims to identify the structural, cultural, and financial barriers to HIV prevention, diagnosis, and treatment and to determine the likely country of HIV acquisition in HIV-positive migrant populations. Methods We delivered 2 cross-sectional electronic surveys across 10 countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and United Kingdom). A clinic survey aimed to recruit up to 2000 HIV-positive patients from 57 HIV clinics in 9 countries. A unique study number linked anonymized questionnaire data to clinical records data (viral loads, CD4 cell counts, viral clades, etc). This questionnaire was developed by expert panel consensus and cognitively tested, and a pilot study was carried out in 2 countries. A Web-based community survey (n=1000) reached those living with HIV but not currently accessing HIV clinics, as well as HIV-negative migrants. It was developed in close collaboration with a community advisory group (CAG) made up of representatives from community organizations in 9 of the participating countries. The CAG played a key role in data collection by promoting the survey to higher-risk migrant groups (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs). The questionnaires have considerable content overlap, allowing for comparison. Questions cover ethnicity, migration, immigration status, HIV testing and treatment, health-seeking behavior, sexual risk, and drug use. The electronic questionnaires

  14. Neuropathological diagnoses and clinical correlates in older adults in Brazil: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Suemoto, Claudia K.; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E. L.; Cippiciani, Tarcila M.; Farfel, Jose M.; Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre; Naslavsky, Michel Satya; Pasqualucci, Carlos A.; Jacob-Filho, Wilson; Nitrini, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Clinicopathological studies are important in determining the brain lesions underlying dementia. Although almost 60% of individuals with dementia live in developing countries, few clinicopathological studies focus on these individuals. We investigated the frequency of neurodegenerative and vascular-related neuropathological lesions in 1,092 Brazilian admixed older adults, their correlation with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the accuracy of dementia subtype diagnosis. Methods and findings In this cross-sectional study, we describe clinical and neuropathological variables related to cognitive impairment in 1,092 participants (mean age = 74 y, 49% male, 69% white, and mean education = 4 y). Cognitive function was investigated using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE); neuropsychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). Associations between neuropathological lesions and cognitive impairment were investigated using ordinal logistic regression. We developed a neuropathological comorbidity (NPC) score and compared it to CDR, IQCODE, and NPI scores. We also described and compared the frequency of neuropathological diagnosis to clinical diagnosis of dementia subtype. Forty-four percent of the sample met criteria for neuropathological diagnosis. Among these participants, 50% had neuropathological diagnoses of Alzheimer disease (AD), and 35% of vascular dementia (VaD). Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), hippocampal sclerosis, lacunar infarcts, hyaline atherosclerosis, siderocalcinosis, and Lewy body disease were independently associated with cognitive impairment. Higher NPC scores were associated with worse scores in the CDR sum of boxes (β = 1.33, 95% CI 1.20–1.46), IQCODE (β = 0.14, 95% CI 0.13–0.16), and NPI (β = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.33–2.16). Compared to neuropathological diagnoses, clinical diagnosis had high sensitivity to AD and high

  15. Design, Response Rates, and Population Characteristics of a Cross-Sectional Study in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Nyangasa, Maria Adam; Kelm, Soerge; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on nutritional status and correlates of noncommunicable diseases are scarce for resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan countries. With the scope of a project, “Access to Food and Nutrition Status of the Zanzibari Population,” data for investigating public health questions were collected using proven measurement and laboratory standards. Objective The present study aims at providing a descriptive overview of recruitment approaches, standardization, quality control measures, and data collection, with special attention to the design, responses, and participant characteristics of the overall project. Methods A cross-sectional study across 80 randomly selected Shehias (wards) was conducted in 2013 in Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Examinations included all members living in 1 household, face-to-face interviews and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist and hip circumference, and body composition) were assessed for all household members, blood pressure was taken from participants older than 2 years, and biosamples (urine and blood) from eligible household members were collected. Data collected from the core sample included sociodemographic data, nutritional status, and medical history (hypertension). Physical activity data was collected from a subsample of children between 3 and 16 years of age. Results A total of 1314 participants (mean age 23.6 ± 18.9 years, 54.54% female) completed all anthropometric measurements and were included in the analysis. Out of which, 98.40% (1293/1314) completed the household member’s questionnaire, 93.32% (1229/1314) participants older than 2 years completed blood pressure measurements, and 64.31% (845/1314) blood samples were collected from participants older than 5 years. Underweight prevalence for the total study population was 36.53% (480/1314) with the highest prevalence in children under 14 years. Overweight and obesity was highest among females with the prevalence of 7

  16. Comorbidities and Phenotypes of Rhinitis in Korean Children and Adolescents: A Cross-sectional, Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Suk; Yum, Hye Yung; Sheen, Youn Ho; Park, Yong Mean; Lee, Yong Ju; Choi, Bong Seok; Jee, Hye Mi; Choi, Sun Hee; Kim, Hyun Hee; Park, Yang; Kim, Hyo-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Rhinitis is a nasal inflammatory disease in children and adolescents. However, little is known about the phenotypes and characteristics of allergic rhinitis (AR) in Korean children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the symptoms and comorbidities of rhinitis, to compare AR to non-allergic rhinitis (NAR), and to reveal the phenotypes and features of AR in a Korean pediatric population. Methods Patients under 18 years of age with rhinitis symptoms were recruited from January 2013 to January 2015 by pediatric allergists. We analyzed symptoms, phenotypes, comorbidities, and allergen sensitization in this cross-sectional, multicenter study. Results Medical records were collected from 11 hospitals. The AR group has 641 (68.3%) patients, with 63.2% of boys and 7.5 (±3.4) years of mean age. The NAR group has 136 (14.5%) patients, with 55.1% of boys and 5.5 (±2.9) years of mean age. Moderate-severe persistent AR affected 41.2% of AR patients. Nasal obstruction was more common in NAR patients (P<0.050), whereas AR patients sneezed more (P<0.050) and more commonly had conjunctivitis, asthma, and otitis media (P<0.050). Sinusitis was the most common comorbidity in both groups. Allergen sensitization was caused by house dust mites (HDMs) (90.2%), pollen (38.7%), and animal dander (24.8%) in AR patients. Pollen and animal dander sensitization significantly increased age-dependently (P<0.050), but 91.9% of AR patients were already sensitized to HDMs before 5 years old. Conclusions Our study revealed that AR was more prevalent than NAR and that 41.2% of AR presented with moderate-severe disease in Korean pediatric populations. Sinusitis was the most common comorbidity, and sleep disturbance was associated with the severity of rhinitis. The majority of AR patients were sensitized to HDMs in preschool ages. Further studies, including nationwide and longitudinal data, will help understand the relationship between these diseases. PMID:27826964

  17. Arterial Stiffness and Trace Elements in Apparently Healthy Population- A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Subrahmanyam, Gangapatnam; Ramalingam, Krishnan; Indira, Selvam Armugam; Kantha, Katari; Soren, Bhemasen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms. Aim To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness Materials and Methods Male and female subjects living in urban and rural areas of Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, between 20-60 years, apparently normal as judged by the clinician basing on clinical and laboratory findings, were studied. Carotid-Femoral Pulse Wave Velocity (cf-PWV) a marker of arterial stiffness was assessed using non-invasive blood pressure curve monitoring (periscope). Furthermore, we also estimated serum levels of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), chromium (Cr), Aluminium (Al), silicon (Si), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mb), Vanadium (Vn) and lead (Pb) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. ANOVA and Chi-Square test were used to study the clinical correlations between severity of arterial stiffness, risk factors and trace elements. Results A total of 737 apparently healthy subjects participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total 542 (73.5%) were from rural and the remaining 195 (26.5%) were living in urban areas, 328 (44.5%) were males, and 409 (55.5%) were females. A 63.5% (468/737) had normal arterial stiffness followed by 14.5% (107/737) with mild stiffness, 7% (57/737) had moderate stiffness and 14.2% (105/737) had severe arterial stiffness. Smoking, alcohol, blood pressures, fasting blood sugar, and total cholesterol, Cu, Al and Vn correlated (p<0.05) with different grades of arterial stiffness. Conclusion A 36.5% had

  18. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  19. Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR = 3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR = 15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR = 7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR = 1.4) or could only read and write (OR = 1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation

  20. Use of smokeless tobacco among groups of Pakistani medical students – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Sardar Z; Nawaz, Haq; Sepah, Yasir J; Pabaney, Aqueel H; Ilyas, Mahwish; Ghaffar, Shehzad

    2007-01-01

    Background Use of smokeless tobacco is common in South Asia. Tobacco is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality. Doctors make one of the best avenues to influence patients' tobacco use. However, medical students addicted to tobacco are likely to retain this habit as physicians and are unlikely to counsel patients against using tobacco. With this background, this study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of smokeless tobacco among Pakistani medical students. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out in three medical colleges of Pakistan – one from the north and two from the southern region. 1025 students selected by convenient sampling completed a peer reviewed, pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. Questions were asked regarding lifetime use (at least once or twice in their life), current use (at least once is the last 30 days), and established use (more than 100 times in their life) of smokeless tobacco. Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used. Results Two hundred and twenty (21.5%) students had used tobacco in some form (smoked or smokeless) in their lifetime. Sixty six (6.4%) students were lifetime users of smokeless tobacco. Thirteen (1.3%) were daily users while 18 (1.8%) fulfilled the criterion for established users. Niswar was the most commonly used form of smokeless tobacco followed by paan and nass. Most naswar users belonged to NWFP while most paan users studied in Karachi. On univariate analysis, lifetime use of smokeless tobacco showed significant associations with the use of cigarettes, student gender (M > F), student residence (boarders > day scholars) and location of the College (NWFP > Karachi). Multivariate analysis showed independent association of lifetime use of smokeless tobacco with concomitant cigarette smoking, student gender and location of the medical college. Conclusion The use of smokeless tobacco among medical students cannot be ignored. The governments should add the

  1. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among Young Female Emirati Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al Dhaheri, Ayesha S.; Mohamad, Maysm N.; Jarrar, Amjad H.; Ohuma, Eric O.; Ismail, Leila Cheikh; Al Meqbaali, Fatima T.; Souka, Usama; Shah, Syed M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a growing problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Moreover, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing in the UAE especially among young females. However, few studies have evaluated the prevalence of MetS among young female adults in the UAE. This study determined the prevalence of MetS in Emirati females aged 17–25 years and its relation to overweight and obesity. Methods In total, 555 Emirati female college students were enrolled in a cross-sectional study, conducted during 2013–2014 at United Arab Emirates University in Al Ain, UAE. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were collected. MetS was defined according to the harmonised International Diabetes Federation criteria. Results Of the 555 participants enrolled, 23.1% were overweight and 10.4% were classified as obese. The overall prevalence of MetS was 6.8%. MetS prevalence was highest among obese participants (34.5%), as compared with normal-weight (1.7%) and overweight (10.1%) participants. MetS was significantly associated with overweight (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.15–12.52) and obesity (aOR = 11.2, 95% CI; 3.1–40.9), as compared with normal-weight. Waist-hip ratio ≥ 0.8 (aOR = 3.04, 95% CI; 1.10–8.44) was significantly associated with MetS, as compared with waist-hip ratio <0.8. The odds of MetS were 22 fold higher in participants with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5% (aOR = 22.5, 95% CI; 6.37–79.42) compared to HbA1c <6.5%. This difference was 9 fold higher when HbA1c between 5.6%–6.4% was compared to HbA1c <5.6% (aOR = 8.9, 95% CI; 3.4–23.5). Conclusion The prevalence of MetS among obese Emirati female students was significantly higher than overweight and normal weight students. The high prevalence of MetS highlights the importance of regular screening and intervention programmes targeting weight reduction. PMID:27414402

  2. Reference Ranges for Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index during the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, Luís; Gaio, Rita; Saraiva, Joaquim; Cerdeira, Sofia; Matos, Liliana; Silva, Elisabete; Macedo, Filipe; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA) impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI), exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity. Methods From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression. Results The majority of patients (97.5%) presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1–34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes. Conclusions The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity. PMID:25742286

  3. Health-related quality of life after pulmonary embolism: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Tavoly, Mazdak; Utne, Kristin Kornelia; Jelsness-Jørgensen, Lars-Petter; Wik, Hilde Skuterud; Klok, Frederikus A; Sandset, Per Morten; Ghanima, Waleed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The psychological effects of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) have scarcely been studied. The aims of this study were to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with a history of PE compared with that of the general population and buddy controls, and to explore factors that may predict impaired HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Haematology and thrombosis unit in Fredrikstad, Norway. Participants 213 consecutive patients treated for PE were identified from hospital registries. Eligible patients were scheduled for a single study visit, including a functional capacity test (6 min walking test). HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQol 5D dimensions 3-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire, of which the results were compared with Danish population norms and age-matched and sex-matched buddy controls. The buddy controls were recruited by asking every patient to hand over the EQ-5D questionnaire to 2 age-matched and sex-matched friends or relatives. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine possible determinants of reduced HRQoL. Results Mean age was 61 years (SD 15), 117 (55%) were males, and median time since diagnosis was 3.8 years (range 0.3–9.5). Mean EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) was 67 in PE as compared with 81 in the general population (p<0.005) and corresponding EQ-5D index values were 0.80 and 0.86 (p<0.005). Patients reported more problems in all 5 EQ-5D compared with both the buddy controls and the general population, p<0.05. Shorter 6 min walking distance (β=0.09, p<0.005) and patient-reported dyspnoea (β=11.27, p<0.005) were independent predictors of lower EQ VAS scores. Conclusions Our findings show that patients with a history of PE have impaired HRQoL when compared with the general population and buddy controls. Reduced functional capacity and persistent dyspnoea were the main predictors of this impairment. PMID:27810979

  4. Positive associations between consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use in early adolescence: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen N; Bhaskar, Abita; Hunt, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Background There is concern about the negative impact of modern consumer culture on young people's mental health, but very few studies have investigated associations with substance use. In those which have, positive associations have been attributed to attempts to satisfy the unmet needs of more materialistic individuals. Objectives This study examines associations between different dimensions of consumerism and tobacco and alcohol use among Scottish early adolescents. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants 2937 (92% of those eligible) secondary school pupils (ages 12–14) completed questionnaires in examination conditions. Analyses were restricted to those with complete data on all relevant variables (N=2736 smoking; N=2737 drinking). Measures Dependent variables comprised ever smoking and current drinking. Measures of consumerism comprised number of ‘premium’ (range 0–7) and ‘standard’ (range 0–5) material possessions and three Consumer Involvement subscales, ‘dissatisfaction’, ‘consumer orientation’ and ‘brand awareness’ (each range 3–12). Analyses also included school-year group and family affluence. Results Ever smoking and current drinking were both more prevalent among adolescents with more ‘premium’ and ‘standard’ material possessions, greater consumer ‘dissatisfaction’ and ‘brand awareness’ (mutually adjusted analyses including school-year group and family affluence). The strongest relationships occurred for ‘brand awareness’: for each unit increase in ‘brand awareness’ the ORs (95% CI) of ever smoking were 1.17 (1.08 to 1.26) and 1.23 (1.14 to 1.33) in males and females, respectively; and those for drinking were 1.15 (1.08 to 1.23) and 1.21 (1.13 to 1.30). ‘Brand awareness’ had an equal or stronger relationship with both smoking and drinking than did family affluence. Conclusions These results suggest aassociations between consumerism and both smoking and drinking might arise because

  5. The learners' perspective on internal medicine ward rounds: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ward rounds form an integral part of Internal Medicine teaching. This study aimed to determine the trainees' opinions regarding various aspects of their ward rounds, including how well they cover their learning needs, how they would like the rounds to be conducted, and differences of opinion between medical students and postgraduates. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 134 trainees in Internal Medicine, comprising medical students, interns, residents and fellows, who were asked to fill in a structured, self-designed questionnaire. Most of the responses required a rating on a scale of 1-5 (1 being highly unsatisfactory and 5 being highly satisfactory). Results Teaching of clinical skills and bedside teaching received the lowest overall mean score (Mean ± SD 2.48 ± 1.02 and 2.49 ± 1.12 respectively). They were rated much lower by postgraduates as compared to students (p < 0.001). All respondents felt that management of patients was the aspect best covered by the current ward rounds (Mean ± SD 3.71 ± 0.72). For their desired ward rounds, management of patients received the highest score (Mean ± SD 4.64 ± 0.55), followed by bedside examinations (Mean ± SD 4.60 ± 0.61) and clinical skills teaching (Mean ± SD 4.50 ± 0.68). The postgraduates desired a lot more focus on communication skills, counselling and medical ethics as compared to students, whose primary focus was teaching of bedside examination and management. A majority of the respondents (87%) preferred bedside rounds over conference room rounds. Even though the duration of rounds was found to be adequate, a majority of the trainees (68%) felt there was a lack of individual attention during ward rounds. Conclusions This study highlights important areas where ward rounds need improvement in order to maximize their benefit to the learners. There is a need to modify the current state of ward rounds in order to address the needs and expectations of trainees. PMID:20618929

  6. Health services performance for TB treatment in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Researches to evaluate Primary Health Care performance in TB control in Brazil show that different cities aggregate local specificities in the dynamics of coping with the disease. This study aims to evaluate health services' performance in TB treatment in cities across different Brazilian regions. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in five cities that are considered priorities for TB control in Brazil: Itaboraí (ITA), Ribeirão Preto (RP) and São José do Rio Preto (SJRP) in the Southeast; Campina Grande (CG) and Feira de Santana (FS) in the Northeast. Data were collected through interviews with 514 TB patients under treatment in 2007, using the Primary Care Assessment Tool adapted for TB care in Brazil. Indicators were constructed based on the mean response scores (Likert scale) and compared among the study sites. Results "Access to treatment" was evaluated as satisfactory in the Southeast and regular in the Northeast, which displayed poor results on 'home visits' and 'distance between treatment site and patient's house'. "Bond" was assessed as satisfactory in all cities, with a slightly better performance in RP and SJRP. "Range of services" was rated as regular, with better performance of southeastern cities. 'Health education', 'DOT' and 'food vouchers' were less offered in the Northeast. "Coordination" was evaluated as satisfactory in all cities. "Family focus" was evaluated as satisfactory in RP and SJRP, and regular in the others. 'Professional asking patient's family about other health problems' was evaluated as unsatisfactory, except in RP. Conclusions Two types of obstacles are faced for health service performance in TB treatment in the cities under analysis, mainly in the Northeast. The first is structural and derives from difficulties to access health services and actions. The second is organizational and derives from the way health technologies and services are distributed and integrated. Incentives to improve care

  7. Pediatric palliative care in Canada in 2012: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Widger, Kimberley; Davies, Dawn; Rapoport, Adam; Vadeboncoeur, Christina; Liben, Stephen; Sarpal, Amrita; Stenekes, Simone; Cyr, Claude; Daoust, Lysanne; Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Robertson, Marli; Hodgson-Viden, Heather; Laflamme, Julie; Siden, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric palliative care focuses on comprehensive symptom management and enhancing quality of life for children with life-threatening conditions and their families. Our aim was to describe Canadian programs that provided specialized pediatric palliative care in 2012 and the children who received it and to estimate the proportion of children who might benefit that received specialized care. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Specialized pediatric palliative care programs were included in the study if they offered multidisciplinary consulting pediatric palliative care services to a wide range of children and served all populations of children with life-threatening illness regardless of diagnosis. Investigators in programs that had taken part in a prior study were invited to participate. New programs that met the inclusion criteria were identified through snowball sampling within pediatric palliative care networks. Program data were obtained via surveys with coinvestigators, and health record reviews were used to obtain information about the children who received care through the programs. Results: All 13 programs identified, including 3 with a free-standing hospice, agreed to take part in the study. Of the 1401 children who received care, 508 (36.2%) were under 1 year of age, and 504 (36.0%) had a congenital illness or condition originating in the perinatal period. Of the 431 children who died in 2012, 105 (24.4%) died in a critical care setting. Programs with a hospice provided care to 517 children (36.9%). Children in this group tended to be older, more often had a neurologic illness and received care for a longer time than those who received care from programs without a hospice. Overall, 18.6% (95% confidence interval 17.1%-20.3%) of deceased children who might have benefitted from specialized pediatric palliative care based on diagnosis received such care, with 110 (25.2%) receiving care for less than 8 days. Interpretation

  8. Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hyperuricemia has doubled worldwide during the last few decades. The substantial increase in sweetened beverage (SB) consumption has also coincided with the secular trend of hyperuricemia. Recent studies do show that the consumption of SB can induce hyperuricemia. However, the association between SB and hyperuricemia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between SB consumption and levels of uric acid in Mexican adults. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from selected adults participating in the baseline assessment of the Health Workers Cohort Study. A total of 6,705 participants of both sexes between ages 18 and 70 years were included. SB intake was estimated using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Biochemical and anthropometric information was collected using standard procedures. Hyperuricemia was defined as uric acid levels ≥ 7.0 mg/dL in men and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL in women. The association of interest was assessed by multiple logistic regression models. Results The odds ratios (OR) for hyperuricemia in men who consume 0.5-1 SB/day was 1.59 (95% CI; 1.05-2.40) and 2.29 (95% CI; 1.55-3.38) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to men who consume less than half a SB/day. In women, the OR for hyperuricemia for those who consume >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day was 1.33 (95% CI; 1.04-1.70) and 1.35 (95% CI; 1.04-1.75) for those who consume ≥3 SB/day when compared to women who consume less than half a SB/day, independent of other covariables. Men and women with high SB consumption and a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 Kg/m2 had greater risk for hyperuricemia than men and women with low SB consumption and normal BMI < 25 Kg/m2. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the consumption of SB is associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults. However, longitudinal research is needed to confirm the association between SB intake and

  9. Prevalence of depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder and one of the main causes of death in Palestine. Palestinians are continuously living under stressful economic and military conditions which make them psychologically vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among type II diabetic patients and to examine the relationship between depression and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, and glycemic control. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at Al-Makhfiah primary healthcare center, Nablus, Palestine. Two hundred and ninety-four patients were surveyed for the presence of depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale. Patients' records were reviewed to obtain data pertaining to age, sex, marital status, Body Mass Index (BMI), level of education, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, glycemic control using HbA1C test, use of insulin, and presence of additional illnesses. Patients’ medication adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Results One hundred and sixty four patients (55.8%) of the total sample were females and 216 (73.5%) were < 65 years old. One hundred and twenty patients (40.2%) scored ≥ 16 on BDI-II scale. Statistical significant association was found between high BDI-II score (≥ 16) and female gender, low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses, low medication adherence and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). No significant association between BDI score and glycemic control, duration of diabetes, and other socio-demographic factors was found. Multivatriate analysis showed that low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses and low medication adherence were significantly associated with high BDI-II scores. Conclusion Prevalence of depression found in our study was higher than that reported in other countries. Although 40% of the

  10. Estimation of gestational age, using neonatal anthropometry: a cross-sectional study in India.

    PubMed

    Thawani, Rajat; Dewan, Pooja; Faridi, M M A; Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Kumar, Rajeev

    2013-12-01

    Prematurity is a significant contributor to neonatal mortality in India. Conventionally, assessment of gestational age of newborns is based on New Ballard Technique, for which a paediatric specialist is needed. Anthropometry of the newborn, especially birthweight, has been used in the past to predict the gestational age of the neonate in peripheral health facilities where a trained paediatrician is often not available. We aimed to determine if neonatal anthropometric parameters, viz. birthweight, crown heel-length, head-circumference, mid-upper arm-circumference, lower segment-length, foot-length, umbilical nipple distance, calf-circumference, intermammary distance, and hand-length, can reliably predict the gestational age. The study also aimed to derive an equation for the same. We also assessed if these neonatal anthropometric parameters had a better prediction of gestational age when used in combination compared to individual parameters. We evaluated 1,000 newborns in a cross-sectional study conducted in Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital in Delhi. Detailed anthropometric estimation of the neonates was done within 48 hours after birth, using standard techniques. Gestational age was estimated using New Ballard Scoring. Out of 1,250 consecutive neonates, 1,000 were included in the study. Of them, 800 randomly-selected newborns were used in devising the model, and the remaining 200 newborns were used in validating the final model. Quadratic regression analysis using stepwise selection was used in building the predictive model. Birthweight (R=0.72), head-circumference (R = 0.60), and mid-upper arm-circumference (R = 0.67) were found highly correlated with gestation. The final equation to assess gestational age was as follows: Gestational age (weeks) = 5.437 x W-0.781 x W(2) + 2.815 x HC-0.041 x HC(2) + 0.285 x MUAC-22.745 where W=Weight, HC=Head-circumference and MUAC=Mid-upper arm-circumference; Adjusted R = 0.76. On validation, the predictability of this equation is 46

  11. Combination of cross-sectional and molecular imaging studies in the localization of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Toumpanakis, Christos; Kim, Michelle K; Rinke, Anja; Bergestuen, Deidi S; Thirlwell, Christina; Khan, Mohid S; Salazar, Ramon; Oberg, Kjell

    2014-01-01

    aggressive disease course. When a secondary malignancy has already been established or is strongly suspected, combining molecular imaging techniques (e.g. (18)F-FDG PET and (68)Ga-DOTA PET) takes advantage of the diverse avidities of different tumor types to differentiate lesions of different origins. All the above-mentioned molecular imaging studies should always be reviewed and interpreted in a multidisciplinary (tumor board) meeting in combination with the conventional cross-sectional imaging, as the latter remains the imaging of choice for the evaluation of treatment response and disease follow-up.

  12. Neighbourhood Deprivation, Health Inequalities and Service Access by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, S. A.; McConnachie, A.; Allan, L. M.; Melville, C.; Smiley, E.; Morrison, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) experience health inequalities and are more likely to live in deprived areas. The aim of this study was to determine whether the extent of deprivation of the area a person lives in affects their access to services, hence contributing to health inequalities. Method: A cross-sectional study…

  13. What Differentiates Adolescent Problematic Drinkers from Their Peers? Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Irish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Sumnall, Harry; Goudie, Andrew J.; Field, Matt; Cole, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether or not a range of factors were associated with problematic drinking, as assessed using the Adolescent Alcohol Involvement Scale (AAIS) in a sample of 11-16-year olds in Northern Ireland. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional experimental design. Post-primary schools in the Eastern Health Board Area of Northern…

  14. Effectiveness Measures for Cross-Sectional Studies: A Comparison of Value-Added Models and Contextualised Attainment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkeit, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Educational effectiveness research often appeals to "value-added models (VAM)" to gauge the impact of schooling on student learning net of the effect of student background variables. A huge amount of cross-sectional studies do not, however, meet VAM's requirement for longitudinal data. "Contextualised attainment models (CAM)"…

  15. What Can Repeated Cross-Sectional Studies Tell Us about Student Growth? Research Report. ETS RR-12-17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Sinharay, Sandip

    2012-01-01

    To answer questions about how students' proficiencies are changing over time, educational researchers are looking for data sources that span many years. Clearly, for answering questions about student growth, a longitudinal study--in which a single sample is followed over many years--is preferable to repeated cross-sectional samples--in which a…

  16. Attitudes toward Science among Grades 3 through 12 Arab Students in Qatar: Findings from a Cross-Sectional National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Ziad; Summers, Ryan; Abd-El-Khalick, Fouad; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed students' attitudes toward science in Qatar. A cross-sectional, nationwide probability sample representing all students enrolled in grades 3 through 12 in the various types of schools in Qatar completed the "Arabic Speaking Students' Attitudes toward Science Survey" (ASSASS). The validity and reliability of the…

  17. An Exploration of Academic Reading Proficiency at the University Level: A Cross-Sectional Study of 848 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorzycki, Meg; Howard, Pamela; Allen, Diane; Desa, Geoffrey; Rosegard, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Academic reading proficiently is characterized by the ability to perform cognitive tasks associated with interpreting text. Researchers developed an externally validated Informal Academic Reading Proficiency Test to gauge undergraduates' academic reading proficiency. A cross-sectional study of 23 classes completed the reading test in 2014. This…

  18. Prevalence of prediabetes and its association with obesity among college students in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ben Haider, Nour Y; Ziyab, Ali H

    2016-09-01

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and assess its association with obesity among young adults in Kuwait; a country with a high prevalence of obesity and diabetes. The estimated prevalence of prediabetes was 6.3% (95% CI: 4.8-8.1) and obesity was associated with elevated prediabetes prevalence.

  19. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  20. Personal and Interpersonal Value System, Self-Perception and Identity of Spanish Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the predominant values system among a sample of Spanish nurses, to identify how values are tied to professional nursing identity and determine differences in values and identity between socio-demographic variables as a gender, citizenship and/or nursing service. Cross-sectional study was performed with a…

  1. Acquisition of German Word Order in Tutored Learners: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Wider Theoretical Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Louise

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the results from a cross-sectional study that tests predictions of processability theory (PT) regarding the acquisition of German word order. Spontaneous production data were elicited from 21 tutored second language learners of German who are native speakers of English. Each learner engaged in a 45-min informal conversation…

  2. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  3. Alcohol Consumption among University Students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany--Results from a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmatov, Manas K.; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.; Meier, Sabine; Kramer, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess alcohol use and problem drinking among university students in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and to examine the associated factors. Method: A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 universities in 2006-2007 in NRW by a standardized questionnaire and 3,306 students provided information…

  4. Medication Use among Australian Adults with Intellectual Disability in Primary Healthcare Settings: A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Tan N.; Lennox, Nicholas G.; Taylor-Gomez, Miriam; Ware, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is concern about widespread medication use by people with intellectual disability (ID), especially psychotropic and anticonvulsant agents. However, there is sparse information on prescribing patterns in Australia. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted between 2000 and 2002 among adults with ID who live in the community…

  5. Obese Chinese Primary-School Students and Low Self-Esteem: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue-Yan, Zhang; Dong-Mei, Li; Dan-Dan, Xu; Le-Shan, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine several factors related to low self-esteem among obese Chinese primary-school students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2009 and June 2010. A total of 1,410 primary-school students (China grades 4 - 6) in Changsha city were divided into normal weight (n = 1,084), overweight (n = 211), and obese groups (n = 115) according to world health organization (WHO) growth standards for body mass index (BMI). The students were assessed using the self-esteem scale (SES) and a general situation questionnaire. Caregivers completed questionnaires about their child’s weight status. Self-esteem levels were explored; any factors related to low self-esteem were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Results The average self-esteem score among overweight or obese primary-school students was found to be lower than that of normal-weight students. The proportion of students with low self-esteem in the obese group was more than that in the normal-weight and overweight groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that obesity status (odds ratio [OR], 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.25 - 6.22), overweight status (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.71 - 3.95), obesity considered by children’s grandparents (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.96), dissatisfaction with height (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.11 - 2.18), and dissatisfaction with weight (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.05 - 2.01) were the risk factors for low self-esteem for primary-school students, while satisfaction with academic performance was a protective factor (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.07 - 0.71). Conclusions For Chinese primary-school students, low self-esteem is associated with higher weight status and self-perceived body shape and academic performance. In addition, grandparental opinion of a child’s weight also contributes to low self-esteem. PMID:27713806

  6. Fatigue and its associated factors in liver transplant recipients in Beijing: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao-Hong; Teng, Sha; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jing; Shang, Ya-Bin; Liu, Hong-Xia; Zang, Yun-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Fatigue is a highly prevalent symptom experienced by patients who underwent the liver transplantation. However, the influencing factors of fatigue are poorly understood by healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the intensity, interference, duration and prevalence of fatigue in liver transplantation recipients and to explore the influencing factors of post-transplantation fatigue. Design A cross-sectional design was used in this study. Methods A convenience sample of liver transplant recipients was recruited at an outpatient transplant clinic of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Self-report survey data were provided by liver transplant recipients using the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (FSI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Demographic, clinical and psychosocial parameters were evaluated as fatigue influencing factors. Results Participants (n=285) included 69 women and 216 men. Fatigue was found in 87.0% of liver transplant recipients. Mean scores of fatigue intensity items were 4.47±2.85, 1.93±1.97, 3.15±2.13 and 2.73±2.42 (most fatigue, least fatigue, average fatigue in the week prior to assessment and fatigue at the point of assessment). The mean score of fatigue interference was 2.27±2.09.The number of days fatigued in the week prior to assessment was 2.26±2.02 and the amount of time fatigued each day was 2.75±2.44. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that fatigue intensity was positively associated with anxiety, depression and insomnia (p<0.001 for all), while fatigue interference was positively associated with gender, anxiety, depression and insomnia (p<0.05 for all). In the multiple linear regression analysis, anxiety and insomnia were positively associated with fatigue intensity (p<0.001), and insomnia, depression and anxiety were positively associated with fatigue interference (p<0.001). Conclusions Fatigue is common

  7. Commonly prescribed drugs associate with cognitive function: a cross-sectional study in UK Biobank

    PubMed Central

    Nevado-Holgado, Alejo J; Winchester, Laura; Gallacher, John; Lovestone, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate medications associated with cognitive function. Design Population-based cross-sectional cohort study. Setting UK Biobank. Participants UK Biobank participants aged 37–73 years who completed cognitive tests at the baseline visit in 2006–2010. Main outcome measures Cognitive test outcomes on verbal–numerical reasoning test (n=165 493), memory test (n=482 766) and reaction time test (n=496 813). Results Most drugs (262 of 368) were not associated with any cognitive tests after adjusting for age, gender, education, household income, smoking, alcohol status, psychostimulant/nootropic medication use, assessment centre, and concurrent diagnoses and medications. Drugs used for nervous system disorders were associated with poorer cognitive performance (antiepileptics, eg, topiramate breasoning(score) −0.65 (95% CI −1.05 to −0.24), bmemory(score) −1.41 (−1.79 to −1.04); antipsychotics, eg, risperidone breaction time(ms) −33 (−46 to −20), negative values indicate poor cognitive performance and vice versa). Drugs used for non-nervous system conditions also showed significant negative association with cognitive score, including those where such an association might have been predicted (antihypertensives, eg, amlodipine breasoning −0.1 (−0.15 to −0.06), bmemory −0.08 (−0.13 to −0.03), breaction time −3 (−5 to −2); antidiabetics, eg, insulin breaction time −13 (−17 to −10)) and others where such an association was a surprising observation (proton pump inhibitors, eg, omeprazole breasoning −0.11 (−0.15 to −0.06), bmemory −0.08 (−0.12 to −0.04), breaction time −5 (−6 to −3); laxatives, eg, contact laxatives breaction time −13 (−19 to −8)). Finally, only a few medications and health supplements showed association towards a positive effect on cognitive function (anti-inflammatory agents, eg, ibuprofen breasoning 0.05 (0.02 to 0.08), breaction time 4 (3, 5); glucosamine breasoning

  8. Depression, suicidal ideation, and associated factors: a cross-sectional study in rural Haiti

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, there has been increased international attention to mental health needs throughout the country. The present study represents one of the first epidemiologic studies of depression symptomatology, suicidal ideation, and associated factors in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, zone-stratified household survey of 408 adults in Haiti’s Central Plateau. Depression symptomatology was assessed with a culturally-adapted Kreyòl version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were built using backward elimination, with the outcomes being continuous BDI scores and endorsing suicidal ideation, respectively. Results The mean BDI score was 20.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 19.3-21.5), and 6.13% (N = 25) of participants endorsed current suicidal ideation. Factors associated with BDI scores were: continuous age (adjusted beta [aβ]: 0.14, CI: 0.06-0.22), female gender (aβ: 2.1, CI: 0.18-4.0), suicidal ideation (aβ: 11.1, CI: 7.3-14.9), death in family (aβ: 2.7, CI: 0.57-4.9), and prior life-threatening illness (aβ: 2.6, CI: 0.77-4.5). Education was a risk factor for depression among women but not among men, and employment was a risk factor for both genders. Factors associated with endorsing suicidal ideation were: BDI score (ten point change) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.5, CI: 1.7-3.6), lack of care if sick (aOR: 5.5, CI: 1.1-28.6), alcohol use (aOR: 3.3, CI: 1.3-8.2), and ever having been to a Vodou priest (aOR: 3.2, CI: 1.1-9.5). Conclusions A large proportion of Haiti’s Central Plateau may be experiencing high levels of depression symptomatology and/or current suicidal ideation. Screening could be conducted in biomedical, religious, and Vodou healing contexts. For prevention, poverty reduction and improved healthcare access are key elements. For treatment, general psychiatric services, psychosocial services for the medically ill and

  9. Prevalence of hypertension in the Gambia and Sierra Leone, western Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Morcos; Setareh-Shenas, Saman; Robert Pixton, J; Soliman, Camelia; Czer, Lawrence SC; Ruzza, Andrea; Mirocha, James

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Hypertension (HTN) is one of the causes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Africa, and may be associated with lower socio-economic status (SES). The prevalence of HTN is not well established in the Gambia or in Sierra Leone. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study of adults was conducted in the Gambia in 2000 and in Sierra Leone from 2001 to 2003 and in 2009. The study was conducted as part of the annual visit to countries in western Africa sponsored by a medical delegation from California. People from the Gambia and Sierra Leone were examined by the medical delegation and blood pressures were measured. Results A total of 2 615 adults were examined: 1 400 females and 1 215 males. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) of the females was 134.3 ± 29.7 mmHg, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was 84.5 ± 17.5 mmHg, and 46.2% were hypertensive. The mean SBP of the males was 132.8 ± 28.5 mmHg, mean DBP was 82.8 ± 16.2 mmHg, and 43.2% were hypertensive. Overall prevalence of HTN in the subjects was 44.8%. Mean SBP, mean DBP and HTN prevalence increased with age decade, both in males and females. In addition, after age adjustment (known age), females had higher mean SBP (p = 0.042), mean DBP (p = 0.001) and rate of occurrence of HTN (p = 0.016) when compared with males. Conclusions Prevalence rates of HTN in the Gambia and Sierra Leone were higher than 40% in males and females, and may be a major contributor to CVD in both countries. Due to the association of HTN with low SES, improvements in educational, public health, economic, non-governmental and governmental efforts in the Gambia and Sierra Leone may lead to a lower prevalence of HTN. The cause of the higher prevalence in women may be due to post-menopausal hormonal changes. PMID:25333811

  10. Cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives South Africa has pledged to the sustainable development goal of promoting good health and well-being to all residents. While this is laudable, paucity of reliable epidemiological data for different regions on diabetes and treatment outcomes may further widen the inequalities of access and quality of healthcare services across the country. This study examines the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals attending primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Design A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Primary healthcare setting in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Participants Patients treated for T2DM for 1 or more years (n=327). Primary outcome measure Prevalence of uncontrolled T2DM. Secondary outcome measure Determinants of uncontrolled T2DM (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results Out of the 327 participants, 274 had HbA1c≥7% (83.8%). Female sex (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2), overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.9 to 261.2), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI 4.4 to 23.8), sedentary habits (95% CI 7.2 to 61.3), lower monthly income (95% CI 1.3 to 6.5), longer duration of T2DM (95% CI 4.4 to 294.2) and diabetes information from non-health workers (95% CI 1.4 to 7.0) were the significant determinants of uncontrolled T2DM. There was a significant positive correlation of uncontrolled T2DM with increasing duration of T2DM, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. However, a significant negative correlation exists between monthly income and increasing HbA1c. Conclusions We found a significantly high prevalence (83.8%) of uncontrolled T2DM among the patients, possibly attributable to overweight/obesity, sedentary living, lower income and lack of information on diabetes. Addressing these determinants will require re-engineering of primary healthcare in the district. PMID:27473948

  11. A cross-sectional study to assess inhalation device handling and patient satisfaction in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Miravitlles, Marc; Montero-Caballero, Jéssica; Richard, Frank; Santos, Salud; Garcia-Rivero, Juan Luis; Ortega, Francisco; Ribera, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of inhaled medications via an inhaler device underpins the effectiveness of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Correct inhaler technique among patients is also a predictor of achieving treatment compliance and adherence. Reporting of patient satisfaction with inhalers is therefore gaining increasing attention and is now recognized as an important patient-reported outcome in clinical trials involving patients with COPD or asthma. In this cross-sectional study, we use the validated Patient Satisfaction and Preference Questionnaire (PASAPQ) to assess the handling and satisfaction for Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) compared with the Breezhaler® dry powder inhaler (DPI) among patients with COPD in Spain. Patients were already assigned to therapy with either SPIRIVA® (tiotropium) Respimat® or with Hirobriz®/Onbrez®/Oslif® (indacaterol) Breezhaler® for at least 3 but not more than 6 months before completing the PASAPQ at a single visit to the study site. The primary endpoint of the trial was the mean total PASAPQ score. Secondary endpoints were the performance score domain of the PASAPQ, the convenience score domain of the PASAPQ, and the overall satisfaction score of the PASAPQ. For the primary endpoint, the mean PASAPQ total score in the Respimat® and Breezhaler® groups was 80.7 and 79.9, respectively (difference of 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.9 to 4.5; P=0.67). The mean total performance scores were 82.5 and 78.2 (difference of 4.3, 95% CI −0.3 to 8.9; P=0.06), and the mean total convenience scores were 78.6 and 81.9 (difference of −3.3, 95% CI −7.0 to 0.4; P=0.08) for the Respimat® and Breezhaler® groups, respectively. Patients gave the Respimat® SMI and the Breezhaler® DPI overall satisfaction PASAPQ scores of 6.0 and 5.9, respectively, which shows that patients were satisfied with these inhalers. PMID:27013871

  12. Influence of alcohol use on mortality and expenditure during hospital admission: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shu-Hui; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Cheng, Ya-Ai; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was designed to investigate the effect of alcohol intoxication on clinical presentation of hospitalised adult trauma patients at a Level I trauma centre using propensity score matching. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants Detailed data of 929 hospitalised adult trauma patients with alcohol intoxication, aged 20–65 years, and 10 104 corresponding patients without alcohol intoxication were retrieved from the Trauma Registry System between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Alcohol intoxication was defined as a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ≥50 mg/dL. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality and expenditure. Results Patients with alcohol intoxication presented with significantly higher short-term mortality (OR: 3.0, 95% CI 2.0 to 4.4; p<0.001) than patients without alcohol intoxication. However, on comparison with propensity score-matched patients with respect to sex, age, comorbidity, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), injury region based on Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS), alcohol intoxication did not significantly influence mortality (OR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.4; p=0.563). This implied that the higher mortality of alcohol-intoxicated patients was attributable to patient characteristics such as a higher injury severity rather than alcohol intoxication. Even on comparison with sex-matched, age-matched and comorbidity-matched patients without alcohol intoxication, patients with alcohol intoxication still had significantly higher total expenditure (17.4% higher), cost of operation (40.3% higher), cost of examination (52.8% higher) and cost of pharmaceuticals (38.3% higher). Conclusions The associated higher mortality of adult trauma patients with alcohol intoxication was completely attributable to other patient characteristics and associated injury severity rather than the effects of alcohol. However, patients with alcohol intoxication incurred significantly higher expenditure than

  13. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Hermela; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Woldie, Haile; Tadesse, Abilo; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9%) were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6). Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14), having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67), taking zidovudine (ZDV)-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57), and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/μL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36) were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART, with a history of TB treatment, have a low CD4+T-lymphocytes count and are ART-naïve should be carefully screened and treated for anemia. PMID:28243151

  14. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  15. Essential Indicators Identifying Chronic Inorganic Mercury Intoxication: Pooled Analysis across Multiple Cross-Sectional Studies

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background The continuous exposure to inorganic mercury vapour in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) areas leads to chronic health problems. It is therefore essential to have a quick, but reliable risk assessing tool to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. This study re-evaluates the state-of-the-art toolkit to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication by analysing data from multiple pooled cross-sectional studies. The primary research question aims to reduce the currently used set of indicators without affecting essentially the capability to diagnose chronic inorganic mercury intoxication. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on established biomonitoring exposure limits for mercury in blood, hair, urine and urine adjusted by creatinine, where the biomonitoring exposure limits are compared to thresholds most associated with chronic inorganic mercury intoxication in artisanal small-scale gold mining. Methods Health data from miners and community members in Indonesia, Tanzania and Zimbabwe were obtained as part of the Global Mercury Project and pooled into one dataset together with their biomarkers mercury in urine, blood and hair. The individual prognostic impact of the indicators on the diagnosis of mercury intoxication is quantified using logistic regression models. The selection is performed by a stepwise forward/backward selection. Different models are compared based on the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and Cohen`s kappa is used to evaluate the level of agreement between the diagnosis of mercury intoxication based on the currently used set of indicators and the result based on our reduced set of indicators. The sensitivity analysis of biomarker exposure limits of mercury is based on a sequence of chi square tests. Results The variable selection in logistic regression reduced the number of medical indicators from thirteen to ten in addition to the biomarkers. The estimated level of agreement using ten of thirteen medical

  16. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura.

  17. Transplant Nurses' Work Environment: A Cross-Sectional Multi-Center Study.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Christiane; Akca, Selda; Einhorn, Ina; Rebafka, Anne; Russell, Cynthia L

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Numerically, nurses represent the largest healthcare profession, thus setting norms for the quality and safety of direct patient care. Evidence of a global shortage of nurses in all clinical practice settings across different healthcare systems and countries has been documented. The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess work environments in a sample of German transplant nurses, and (2) to compare their statements with a US-based sample. MATERIAL AND METHODS In a cross-sectional study, 181 transplant nurses from 16 German transplant centers provided information on their work environments. The translated version of the Job Design (JD) and Job Satisfaction (JS) survey showed satisfactory internal consistency for the JD (0.78) and JS (0.93) subscales. German nurses' work environments were compared with 331 transplant nurses from the US. RESULTS The majority of transplant nurses were female (81.8%), 55.4% were age 21-40 years, and 78.1% were employed full-time. German (versus US) transplant nurses reported their job design to be best for 'skill varieties' (p≤0.0002), and worst for 'autonomy' (p≤0.01). Job satisfaction was best with 'opportunities for autonomy and growth' (p≤0.0001), and 'pay and benefits' (p≤0.0001) was lowest. A higher professional degree (OR 1.57; p≤0.03; 95% CI 1.19-2.86), and longer time in transplant (OR 1.24; p≤0.001; 95% CI 1.11-1.38) showed a positive impact on German transplant nurses' perceptions of 'job satisfaction'. Nurses with time-dependent working contracts perceived more stress negatively affecting job satisfaction (OR 1.13; p≤0.009; 95% CI 1.02-12.82). CONCLUSIONS German specialty nurses working in the field of solid organ transplantation rate their work environments with respect to job design and job satisfaction as satisfactory. Institutions' investment into satisfactory nurse work environments and specializing nurses might increase the quality of care, thus improving patient outcomes.

  18. Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis and cataract in northern Ethiopia: A comparative cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Esmael; Deribe, Kebede; Rajak, Saul; Bremner, Stephen; Davey, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural populations in low-income countries commonly suffer from the co-morbidity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Podoconiosis, trachomatous trichiasis (both NTDs) and cataract are common causes of morbidity among subsistence farmers in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. We explored whether podoconiosis was associated with cataract or trachomatous trichiasis (TT) among this population. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in East Gojam region, Amhara, Ethiopia in May 2016. Data were collected from patients previously identified as having podoconiosis and from matched healthy neighbourhood controls. Information on socio-demographic factors, clinical factors and past medical history were collected by an interview-administered questionnaire. Clinical examination involved grading of podoconiosis by examination of both legs, measurement of visual acuity, direct ophthalmoscopy of dilated pupils to grade cataract, and eyelid and corneal examination to grade trachoma. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to estimate independent association and correlates of podoconiosis, TT and cataract. Findings A total of 700 participants were included in this study; 350 podoconiosis patients and 350 healthy neighbourhood controls. The prevalence of TT was higher among podoconiosis patients than controls (65 (18.6%) vs 43 (12.3%)) with an adjusted odds ratio OR 1.57 (95% CI 1.02–2.40), p = 0.04. There was no significant difference in prevalence of cataract between the two populations with an adjusted OR 0.83 (95% CI 0.55–1.25), p = 0.36. Mean best visual acuity was 0.59 (SD 0.06) in podoconiosis cases compared to 0.44 (SD 0.04) in controls, p<0.001. The proportion of patients classified as blind was higher in podoconiosis cases compared with healthy controls; 5.6% vs 2.0%; adjusted OR 2.63 (1.08–6.39), P = 0.03. Conclusions Individuals with podoconiosis have a higher burden of TT and worse visual acuity than their matched healthy

  19. Searching for a relevant definition of sarcopenia: results from the cross-sectional EPIDOS study

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Charlotte; Lauwers-Cances, Valérie; Guyonnet, Sophie; Gentil, Catherine; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Beauchet, Olivier; Schott, Anne-Marie; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background The diversity of definitions proposed for sarcopenia has been rarely tested in the same population, and so far, their clinical utilities for predicting physical difficulties could not be clearly understood. Our objective is to report the prevalence of sarcopenia and the characteristics of sarcopenic community-dwelling older women according to the different definitions of sarcopenia currently proposed. We also assessed these definitions for their incremental predictive value over currently standard predictors for some self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength. Methods Cross-sectional analysis included data from 3025 non-disabled women aged 75 years or older without previous history of hip fracture from the inclusion visit of the EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study. A total body composition evaluation was available for 2725 women. Sarcopenia was defined using six different definitions of sarcopenia based on different muscle mass, gait speed, and grip strength cut-offs. Self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength were collected. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression models were built for each physical dysfunction, and the predictive capacity of sarcopenia (one model for each definition) was studied using the C-statistic, the net reclassification index, or adjusted R2. Results The estimated prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3–20.0%. Only 85 participants (3.1%) were identified having sarcopenia according to all definitions. All definitions were, to some degree, associated with self-reported difficulties in physical function and knee extension strength, but none improved the predictive ability of the self-reported difficulties in physical function. Conversely, all definitions accounted for a small but significant amount of explained variation for predicting knee extension strength. Conclusions Prevalence of sarcopenia varies widely depending on the definition adopted

  20. A cross-sectional study on biosecurity practices and communication networks of poultry exhibition in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Schemann, Kathrin; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2013-07-01

    Poultry exhibitors are perceived to pose a biosecurity risk due to the high frequency of movements of birds and the close contact between birds at poultry shows. This cross-sectional study assessed the risks posed by poultry exhibitors in Australia using face-to-face interviews (n=46) at eight poultry shows and a postal survey. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations between age, sex, location, number of birds, number of shows attended per year and distance travelled to a show, with biosecurity and communication practices. A total of 357 (29.1%) exhibitors responded to the postal survey. Among all participants (n=403), most had owned poultry for more than 15 years (71.9%), kept less than 200 birds (83.4%), mainly chicken (96.7%) and waterfowl (17.8%), and reported not having any commercial poultry operation within 5 km of their property (85.4%). Despite most exhibitors (90.8%) having at least some knowledge of biosecurity principles; some of their practices could pose a risk for disease introduction and spread. Most exhibitors kept their birds with outdoor access (87.0%) and 67.0% of exhibitors reported contact of wild birds with domestic birds being possible. Only 60% and 40.6% of exhibitors cleaned transport cages after each use and isolated birds for over two weeks, respectively, with men and exhibitors keeping more birds less likely (P=0.003) to conduct this practice. Most exhibitors (75.0%) attended more than 5 shows per year, travelling long distances (up to 1000 km) to attend a show. Although most exhibitors would source and sell their birds from and to other exhibitors and at poultry shows, some reported sourcing (15.2%) and selling (25.3%) their birds at live bird markets. In addition, contact with veterinarians was low (23.1%), with younger exhibitors and women more likely to contact a veterinarian than older exhibitors (P=0.006) and men (P=0.017). Other poultry exhibitors were reported as the most

  1. Breastfeeding and Maternal Hypertension and Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing-Zhen; Zhang, Hui-Ying; Liu, Hai-Hang; Li, Hong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study aimed to assess the association of breastfeeding and maternal hypertension and diabetes in Beijing, China. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four urban communities of Beijing, China, with 9,128 parous women 40–81 years of age who had had only one lifetime birth. Each participant completed a detailed survey and accepted blood pressure measurement and blood glucose testing. Moreover, self-reported hypertension and diabetes were confirmed by review of medical records. Results: After the analysis was adjusted for the potential confounders, including age, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), working status, educational level, drinking, smoking, family history of hypertension, age of menarche, menopause, oral contraceptive use, age of child-bearing, and postpartum BMI, the odd ratio (OR) of hypertension was 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–1.32) for women who did not breastfeed, compared with women who did. In addition, the ORs for >0 to 6 months, >6 to 12 months, and >12 months of breastfeeding were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76–0.99), 0.83 (95% CI, 0.68–1.00), and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65–0.97), respectively, compared with women who did not breastfeed. With adjustment for age, WHR, working status, educational level, family history of diabetes, and postpartum BMI, women who did not breastfeed increased the risk of diabetes (OR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.11–1.53) compared with women who did. Moreover, women who breastfed for >0 to 6 months (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67–0.98) and >6 to 12 months (OR=0.46; 95% CI, 0.26–0.84) had a lower risk of diabetes, compared with women who did not breastfeed. Conclusions: Chinese mothers who did not breastfeed were more likely to develop hypertension and diabetes in later life. PMID:25785993

  2. Predictive risk modelling in the Spanish population: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An increase in chronic conditions is currently the greatest threat to human health and to the sustainability of health systems. Risk adjustment systems may enable population stratification programmes to be developed and become instrumental in implementing new models of care. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the capability of ACG-PM, DCG-HCC and CRG-based models to predict healthcare costs and identify patients that will be high consumers and to analyse changes to predictive capacity when socio-economic variables are added. Methods This cross-sectional study used data of all Basque Country citizens over 14 years of age (n = 1,964,337) collected in a period of 2 years. Data from the first 12 months (age, sex, area deprivation index, diagnoses, procedures, prescriptions and previous cost) were used to construct the explanatory variables. The ability of models to predict healthcare costs in the following 12 months was assessed using the coefficient of determination and to identify the patients with highest costs by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Results The coefficients of determination ranged from 0.18 to 0.21 for diagnosis-based models, 0.17-0.18 for prescription-based and 0.21-0.24 for the combination of both. The observed area under the ROC curve was 0.78-0.86 (identifying patients with a cost higher than P-95) and 0.83-0.90 (P-99). The values of the DCG-HCC models are slightly higher and those of the CRG models are lower, although prescription information could not be used in the latter. On adding previous cost data, differences between the three systems decrease appreciably. Inclusion of the deprivation index led to only marginal improvements in explanatory power. Conclusion The case-mix systems developed in the USA can be useful in a publicly financed healthcare system with universal coverage to identify people at risk of high health resource consumption and whose situation is potentially preventable

  3. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in

  4. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Yoremes (Mayos) in Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Almada-Balderrama, Gerardo Javier; Nuñez-Aguirre, Alan Daniel; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Yoremes and to identify associations of T. gondii exposure with sociodemographic, clinical and behavioural characteristics of Yoremes. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Yoremes were enrolled in the locality of Tierra Blanca in the municipality of Navojoa in Sonora State, Mexico. Participants We studied 200 Yoremes (Mayos); they are an indigenous ethnic group living in a coastal region in northwestern Mexico. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies in participants using enzyme-linked immunoassays. We used a standardised questionnaire to obtain the characteristics of Yoremes. The association of T. gondii exposure and Yoremes’ characteristics was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 200 Yoremes studied (mean age: 31.50±18.43 years), 26 (13.0%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 19 (73.1%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection did not vary with sex, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. In contrast, multivariate analysis of sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics showed that T. gondii exposure was associated with increasing age (OR=1.02; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.04; p=0.03) and consumption of squirrel meat (OR=4.99; 95% CI 1.07 to 23.31; p=0.04). Furthermore, seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in Yoremes with a history of lymphadenopathy (p=0.03) and those suffering from frequent abdominal pain (p=0.03). In women, T. gondii exposure was associated with a history of caesarean sections (p=0.03) and miscarriages (p=0.02). Conclusions We demonstrate, for the first time, serological evidence of T. gondii exposure among Yoremes in Mexico. Results suggest that infection with T. gondii might be affecting the health of Yoremes. Results may be useful for an

  5. Healthcare-Associated Infections Are Associated with Insufficient Dietary Intake: An Observational Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kossovsky, Michel P.; Iavindrasana, Jimison; Chikhi, Marinette; Meyer, Rodolphe; Pittet, Didier; Zingg, Walter; Pichard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background Indicators to predict healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) are scarce. Malnutrition is known to be associated with adverse outcomes in healthcare but its identification is time-consuming and rarely done in daily practice. This cross-sectional study assessed the association between dietary intake, nutritional risk, and the prevalence of HCAI, in a general hospital population. Methods and findings Dietary intake was assessed by dedicated dieticians on one day for all hospitalized patients receiving three meals per day. Nutritional risk was assessed using Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS)-2002, and defined as a NRS score ≥ 3. Energy needs were calculated using 110% of Harris-Benedict formula. HCAIs were diagnosed based on the Center for Disease Control criteria and their association with nutritional risk and measured energy intake was done using a multivariate logistic regression analysis. From 1689 hospitalised patients, 1024 and 1091 were eligible for the measurement of energy intake and nutritional risk, respectively. The prevalence of HCAI was 6.8%, and 30.1% of patients were at nutritional risk. Patients with HCAI were more likely identified with decreased energy intake (i.e. ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs) (30.3% vs. 14.5%, P = 0.002). The proportion of patients at nutritional risk was not significantly different between patients with and without HCAI (35.6% vs.29.7%, P = 0.28), respectively. Measured energy intake ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs (odds ratio: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.24 to 4.11, P = 0.008) and moderate severity of the disease (odds ratio: 3.38; 95% CI: 1.49 to 7.68, P = 0.004) were associated with HCAI in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Measured energy intake ≤ 70% of predicted energy needs is associated with HCAI in hospitalised patients. This suggests that insufficient dietary intake could be a risk factor of HCAI, without excluding reverse causality. Randomized trials are needed to assess whether improving energy intake in

  6. Unmarried male migrants and sexual risk behavior: a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In China, there is increasing concern because of the rapid increase in HIV infection recorded over recent years. Migrant workers are recognized as one of the groups most affected. In this study, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried migrant workers in Shanghai are investigated, with the aim of providing critical information for policy makers and sex educators to reinforce sexual health services and sex health education targeting the behavior and sexual health of unmarried male migrants. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among unmarried male migrant workers in Shanghai, China’s largest city and housing the most migrants. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of HIV/AIDS. Results A total of 2254 subjects were questioned, with a response rate of 91.3%. Among those interviewed, 63.5% reported sexual activities. Misconceptions regarding HIV transmission, poor perception of HIV infection, and low use of condoms were not uncommon. Among those who had sexual intercourse, 73.7% had not used condoms in their last sexual intercourse, and 28.6% reported having engaged in sexual risk behavior (defined as having at least one non-regular partner). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified several indicators of sexual risk behavior, including younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for older age at first sexual intercourse), more cities of migration (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 2.17–3.81 for high level; OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06–1.29 for medium level), poor perception of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never; OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60–1.81 for less frequently), not knowing someone who had or had died of HIV/AIDS and related diseases (OR: 2

  7. Cross sectional study of mode of delivery and maternal and perinatal outcomes in mainland China

    PubMed Central

    Vitonis, Allison; Zou, Liying; Ruan, Yan; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Weiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Background Cesarean delivery (CD) rates have risen globally with nearly 50% of the non-indicated CDs worldwide in China and Brazil. In China’s One Child Policy era (1979–2015) most deliveries were women having their only child. Family size is a major determinant of the safety of medically non-indicated CD or CD on maternal request. The goal of this study is to document CD rates, indications, and analyze the relative safety of non-indicated CD compared to SVD and intrapartum CD. Methods Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between mode of delivery and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes were performed on a cross-section of all deliveries at 39 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in 2011, presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 99% confidence intervals (CI). Findings Among 108,847 deliveries, 59,415 were CD (54.6%) with 20.8% of deliveries or 38.2% of all cesareans were non-indicated CD. Compared to SVD, antepartum non-indicated CD was associated with a decreased likelihood of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) (aOR = 0.80, CI = 0.69–0.92) and was not associated with maternal death or combined severe outcomes (maternal death, transfusion, or hysterectomy). Intrapartum indicated CD was associated with an increased risk of PPH (aOR = 1.68, CI = 1.50–1.89) compared to SVD. Compared to SVD, antepartum non-indicated CD was associated with lower likelihood of neonatal death (aOR = 0.14, CI = 0.06–0.34), neonatal ICU admission (aOR = 0.50, CI = 0.36–0.69), 5-minute Apgar<4 (aOR = 0.06, CI = 0.10–0.36), and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (aOR = 0.31, CI = 0.16–0.58), but not significantly associated with changes in rates of infection, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIEE), birth trauma or meconium aspiration rates. Conclusions In 2011 when 81% of deliveries were women having their first child antepartum non-indicated CD had short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes as safe as SVD. Now that all Chinese women can

  8. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  9. Epidemiological features of alcohol use in rural India: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shidhaye, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to estimate the proportion of adults in Sehore District, India, who consumed alcohol, and the proportion who had behaviours consistent with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Among men who drank, we identified individual-level, household-level and community-level factors associated with AUDIT scores. Men with AUDs (AUDIT score ≥8) reported on whether and where they had sought treatment, and about alcohol-related internal stigma. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Rural villages and urban wards in Sehore District, Madhya Pradesh, India. Participants n=3220 adult (≥18 years of age) residents of Sehore District. Primary outcome measure Score on the AUDIT. Results Nearly one in four men (23.8%) had consumed alcohol in the past 12 months, while few (0.6%) women were consumers. Among drinkers, 33.2% (95% CI 28.6% to 38.1%) had AUDIT scores consistent with hazardous drinking, 3.3% (95% CI 2.1% to 5.1%) with harmful drinking and 5.5% (95% CI 3.8% to 8.0%) with dependent drinking. We observed that AUDIT scores varied widely by village (intraclass correlation=0.052). Among men who had recently consumed alcohol, AUDIT scores were positively associated with depression, having at least one child, high-quality housing, urban residence, tobacco use and disability. AUDIT scores were negatively associated with land ownership, out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure and participation in the national employment programme. While 49.2% of men with AUDs felt embarrassed by their problems with alcohol, only 2.8% had sought treatment in the past 12 months. Conclusions A need exists for effectively identifying and treating adults with AUDs. Health promotion services, informed by commonly-expressed stigmatised beliefs held among those affected by AUDs and which are targeted at the most affected communities, may be an effective step in closing the treatment gap. PMID:26685035

  10. A cross-sectional study of chronic wound-related pain and itching.

    PubMed

    Paul, Julia

    2013-07-01

    Persons with chronic wounds may experience wound-related itch (pruritus) and pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the occurrence of itch and pain in chronic wounds and the relationship of the intensity between these factors. Patients in an outpatient wound care center, 18 years and older with an open wound, were recruited consecutively over a 5-month period. The 199 participants (112 [56%] men) had a mean age of 67 years (range 21-98 years); one wound per person was addressed and included venous (31), arterial (23), neuropathic (31), pressure-related (33), traumatic (37), and "other" (41) wounds. Wound-related pain and itch data were obtained using a modified Paul-Pieper Itching Questionnaire and Characteristics of Itch Questionnaire. Responses were hand-recorded and coded without personal identifiers and analyzed using descriptive statistics, and associations among data were assessed using Pearson chi-square, Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, and Cochran-Armitage trend tests. Wound-related itch was significantly associated with participant age (P = 0.011) and employment status (P = 0.003). Wound-related pain was significantly associated only with education level (P = 0.048). Persons with venous wounds had both the largest proportion with wound-related itch (45.2%) and the largest proportion with wound-related pain (61.2%) out of all of the wound types. Persons with diabetic neuropathy had both the smallest proportion with wound-related itch (16.1%) and the smallest proportion with wound-related pain (35.4%) among all of the wound types. Associations between wound type and wound-related itch or pain were not significant. When venous wounds were compared to all other wound types combined, wound-related itch was significantly associated (P = 0.021) with wound type - ie, venous wound type and itch was statistically significant when venous wounds were compared to a combination of all other wound types. Wound-related pain and itch occurred together in 35

  11. Application of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) in Albanian hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Adriatik; Hoxha, Adrian; Simaku, Artan; Gabrani, Jonila (Cyco)

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish the reliability and validity of the translated version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) by evaluating its psychometric properties and to determine possible differences among nurses and physicians regarding safety attitudes. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Albanian version of the SAQ and a demographic questionnaire. Setting Four regional hospitals in Albania. Participants 341 healthcare providers, including 132 nurses and 209 doctors. Main outcome measure(s) The translation, construct validity and internal validity of the SAQ. The SAQ includes six scales and 30 items. Results A total of 341 valid questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 70%. The confirmatory factor analysis and its goodness-of-fit indices (standardised root mean square residual 0.075, root mean square error of approximation 0.044 and comparative fit index 0.97) showed good model fit. The Cronbach's α values for each of the scales of the SAQ ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. The percentage of hospital healthcare workers who had a positive attitude was 60.3% for the teamwork climate, 57.2% for the safety climate, 58.4% for job satisfaction, 37.4% for stress recognition, 59.3% for the perception of management and 49.5% for working conditions. Intercorrelations showed that the subscales had moderate-to-high correlations with one another. Nurses were more hesitant to admit and report errors; only 55% of physicians and 44% of nurses endorsed this statement (χ2=4.9, p=0.02). Moreover, nurses received lower scores on team work compared with doctors (N 45.7 vs D 52.3, p=0.01). Doctors denied the effects of stress and fatigue on their performance (N 46.7 vs D 39.5, p<0.01), neglecting the workload. Conclusions The SAQ is a useful tool for evaluating safety attitudes in Albanian hospitals. In light of the health workforce's poor recognition of stress, establishing patient safety programmes should be a priority among policymakers in Albania. PMID:25877270

  12. Diabetes mellitus and intermittent claudication: a cross-sectional study of 920 claudicants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) and intermittent claudication (IC) are frequently associated health conditions. Our hypothesis is that the nature, severity and quality of life (QoL) of patients with IC and DM are worse than those of claudicant patients without diabetes. Material and methods An observational, cross-sectional and multicentre study of 920 patients with IC, divided into two groups: diabetic (n = 477) and non-diabetic (n = 443). For each group, we examined clinical and biological characteristics (including levels of glucose and lipids), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), responses to the Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) and the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire. Results Compared with claudicant patients without diabetes, claudicants with diabetes were older (p < 0.001), more likely to be female (p = 0.006), with a higher BMI (p < 0.001), more likely to have a sedentary lifestyle (p < 0.001) and to be a non-smoker (p < 0.001). Claudicant patients with diabetes also had significantly more cardiovascular risk factors (p < 0.001), more frequent ischaemic cardiopathy (p = 0.023) and chronic renal failure (p = 0.002), and fewer prior ictus events (p = 0.003). No significant differences between groups were found with respect to blood pressure, levels of cholesterol or triglycerides. The mean ABI of diabetic-IC patients was slightly lower than IC patients without diabetes (p = 0.016). All WIQ subdomains scores were significantly lower (p < 0.001), indicating poorer walking ability, in claudicant and diabetic patients with compared with those without diabetes. The mean E5-QD global scores and the mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale in the whole series were 0.58 (SD = 0.21) and 55.04 (SD = 21.30), respectively. Both E5-QD scores were significantly lower, indicating poorer QoL, in claudicant patients with diabetes than claudicant patients without diabetes (p < 0

  13. Prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity among tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The number of subjects with tuberculosis (TB) presenting with co-occurrence of multiple chronic medical conditions, or multimorbidity (MM) is increasing in Brazil. This manuscript aimed to characterize subjects with TB, according to their MM status and to analyse factors associated with TB treatment outcomes. Methods This is a cross-sectional study that included 39,881 TB subjects reported in Brazil, in 2011. MM were defined as any (two or more) occurrence of chronic medical conditions in a TB patient (TB–MM). Data analysis was performed by hierarchical logistic regression models comparing TBMM with those with only TB. Results Of the reported TB cases in 2011, 454 (1.14%) had MM. The subjects in the age group 40–59 years (OR: 17.89; 95% CI, 5.71-56.03) and those ≥ 60 years (OR: 44.11; 95% CI, 14.09-138.06) were more likely to develop TB–MM. The TB–MM subjects were less likely to be male (OR: 0.63; 95% CI, 0.52-0.76), institutionalized (OR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.23-0.80) and live in rural areas (OR: 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.95). Death from causes other than TB was higher among TB–MM subjects (OR: 1.76; 95% CI, 1.36-2.28). Of 454 TB–MM subjects 302 (66.5%) were cured and 152 (33.5%) were not cured. The odds of not being cured was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.04-2.32) among males, 2.85 (95% CI, 1.12-7.28) among institutionalized subjects, and 3.93 (IC 95%, 1.86-8.30) among those who were infected with HIV. TB retreatment after previous abandonment (OR: 7.53; 95% CI, 2.58-21.97) and transfer from a treatment site (OR: 2.76; 95% CI, 1.20-6.38) were higher for subjects not cured compared to those who were cured. Conclusions While TB is well recognized to be a disease engendered by social inequity, we found that even among TB patients, those who have MM have greater inequity in terms of socioeconomic status and adverse clinical outcomes. Addressing the problem of TB and TB–MM requires a multisectorial approach that includes health and social service