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Sample records for crossed testicular ectopia

  1. Irreducible inguinal hernia due to crossed testicular ectopia in an infant.

    PubMed

    Vaos, G; Zavras, N

    2004-12-01

    The usual presentation of crossed testicular ectopia (CTE) is that of inguinal hernia with contralateral absent testis. We report on a 10-month-old infant with CTE, which presented as irreducible inguinal hernia. Diagnosis was made during surgery, as the child underwent an emergency operation for repair of his irreducible right inguinal hernia. A normal-sized and normal-shaped testis was found in the hernial sac with its blood vessels and vas deferens. A herniotomy with fixation of the ectopic gonad to the opposite hemiscrotum was done. The child remained asymptomatic 1 year postoperatively. Crossed testicular ectopia in infancy may present as irreducible hernia, requiring urgent surgery.

  2. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  3. Persistent mullerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia: rare entity.

    PubMed

    Deepika; Kumar, Abhay

    2014-03-01

    We are reporting on a 35-year-old male from low socio-economic strata, who presented with a left-sided inguinal hernia. Intraoperatively, a uterus and two fallopian tubes were found in the hernial sac which was adjacent to the two gonads, which received their blood supply partly, along with Mullerian duct remnants (Persitent Mullerian duct Syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia). The gonads were testes by histological examination, with features of degeneration and fibrosis. Complete excision of the mass was done and mesh hernioplasty was done.The diagnosis of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with Transverse testicular ectopia was confirmed. Persistent Mullerian duct Syndrome is a rare entity and itís association with Transverse testicular ectopia is even more rare.

  4. Transverse testicular ectopia with a blind ending vas deferens

    PubMed Central

    Dhua, Anjan Kumar; Varshney, Abhimanyu; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

    2016-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is an uncommon anomaly of testicular descent. Herein, we describe a case of TTE with blindly ending vas and persistent Mόllerian duct syndrome in a 2-year-old child. Orchidopexy could be done through the normal orthotopic route after separating it from the Mόllerian structure and dividing the peritoneal fold just distal to the blindly ending vas. The report highlights that laparoscopy is useful for identifying subtle anomalies in addition to its therapeutic role. PMID:27843218

  5. Hernia uterine inguinale with transverse testicular ectopia and mixed germ cell tumor

    PubMed Central

    Jaka, Rajshekhar C.; Shankar, M.

    2007-01-01

    Persistent mullerian duct syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of uterus and fallopian tube in 46XY phenotypic males and is ascribed to defects in the synthesis or action of anti-mullerian hormone. We report a rare case of hernia uterine inguinale, transverse testicular ectopia associated with mixed germ cell tumor of the testis with metastasis. Transverse testicular ectopia should be suspected preoperatively in patients who have unilateral inguinal hernia associated with contralateral nonpalpable testis. In such cases ultrasonography should be done prior to repair of hernia to evaluate the possible presence of mullerian structures and testicular malignancy, for better management. PMID:19675770

  6. Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia and seminoma.

    PubMed

    Alp, Bilal Fırat; Demirer, Zafer; Gürağaç, Ali; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Sarı, Erkan; Sarı, Sebahattin; Yavan, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of the 46 XY disorders of sexual differentiation, characterized by the presence of a uterus and fallopian tubes due to the failure of Mullerian duct regression in genotypically normal males. More than 150 cases have been recorded, most of them in adults. In most cases, the PMDS is discovered during surgery for inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism, or by the presence of transverse testicular ectopia (TTE). The presence of PMDS with TTE is even more uncommon. In TTE, both testes descend through the same inguinal canal into the same scrotal sac. Patients with TTE present with symptoms of unilateral cryptorchidism and a contralateral inguinal hernia. For patients with inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism associated with TTE, PMDS should be kept in mind, and radiologic evaluation such as ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging of the genitourinary system and karyotyping are recommended. Whereas radiologic evaluation could be helpful in the diagnosis of TTE, it cannot diagnose the malignancy itself. The case explained in this report will offer urologists additional useful treatment strategies for patients with inguinal hernia and cryptorchidism.

  7. Laparoscopic management of transverse testicular ectopia with persistent mullerian duct syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamble, R S; Gupta, R K; Gupta, A R; Kothari, P R; Dikshit, K V; Kesan, K K

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old male child presented with right undescended testis and left inguinal hernia with funiculitis. Ultrasonography showed funiculitis on the left side testis along with presence of 1.5 × 1 cm testis like structure just above left testis and empty right scrotal sac without any evidence of mullerian structures. On diagnostic laparoscopy, right testicular vessels were crossing from right to left and had uterus with both testes in left hernia sac. Mobilization of vessels, division of uterus, and hernia repair was done laparoscopically. On the review of literature, there is only one case report of total laparoscopic repair of transversetesticular ectopia (TTE) with hernia without persistent mullerian duct (PMDS). The uniqueness of our case is that it had TTE with hernia and PMDS, which were totally managed by laparoscopy. On 6 months of follow-up, both the testes are palpable in scrotum.

  8. Laparoscopic management of transverse testicular ectopia with persistent mullerian duct syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamble, RS; Gupta, RK; Gupta, AR; Kothari, PR; Dikshit, KV; Kesan, KK

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old male child presented with right undescended testis and left inguinal hernia with funiculitis. Ultrasonography showed funiculitis on the left side testis along with presence of 1.5 × 1 cm testis like structure just above left testis and empty right scrotal sac without any evidence of mullerian structures. On diagnostic laparoscopy, right testicular vessels were crossing from right to left and had uterus with both testes in left hernia sac. Mobilization of vessels, division of uterus, and hernia repair was done laparoscopically. On the review of literature, there is only one case report of total laparoscopic repair of transversetesticular ectopia (TTE) with hernia without persistent mullerian duct (PMDS). The uniqueness of our case is that it had TTE with hernia and PMDS, which were totally managed by laparoscopy. On 6 months of follow-up, both the testes are palpable in scrotum. PMID:26195884

  9. Transverse testicular ectopia with bilateral pyocoele: case report and brief review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lokendra; Garg, Praveen; Rao, Asn; Kumar, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare anomaly in which both testis descend through a single inguinal canal and enter to same hemiscrotum. To the best of our knowledge, we are reporting a new variant of TTE with right inguinal hernia with bilateral pyocoele. In this case, both testes descend separately through corresponding inguinal canal and present in single right scrotum. There is no report of bilateral orchidectomy for this variant of TTE with bilateral pyocoele with calcified necrosed testes. We also describe its embryology and management in brief, and review the previously reported cases.

  10. Laparoscopy and transseptal orchiopexy in the management of transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Alamsahebpour, Alireza; Blachman-Braun, Ruben; Gupta, Angela; Castellan, Miguel; Campos S, Jose; Gosalbez, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is a rare congenital anomaly in which both testes descend through the same inguinal canal. The most frequent clinical presentation is undescended testis (UDT) with ipsilateral inguinal hernia and contralateral non-palpable testis. This condition is often diagnosed during surgery and is frequently associated with other anomalies. There is controversy in the surgical management of TTE. Considerations for TTE repair include avoiding damage to the testes or vas deferens and detection of other congenital anomalies. Frequently, the vas deferens and testicular tissues are joined, and dissection of these structures can cause damage. In this article, we report four patients with TTE, describe the surgical approach made in each case, and provide a review of the literature.

  11. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  12. Crossed fused renal ectopia: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun K.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation, which is reported to be usually asymptomatic but may have varied presentations. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and the challenges posed in the management of this entity. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 6 patients diagnosed to have crossed fused renal ectopia during 1997-2010. The diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in one patient. In one patient it was detected on antenatal ultrasonography and in the other 4 patients it was detected during investigations for abdominal pain, abdominal mass, anorectal malformation and urinary tract infection. Results: The left moiety was crossed and fused with the right moiety in 4 cases. Ultrasonography was found to be a good screening investigation with useful diagnostic contributions from CT scans, radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance urography. Micturating cystourethrography revealed presence of VUR in 4 cases, 3 of whom have undergone ureteric reimplantation. Two patients required pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction; in one of these patients the upper ureter was entrapped in the isthmus. In one patient, a non-functioning moiety resulted in nephrectomy. All children were asymptomatic at last follow-up with stable renal functions. Conclusions: Crossed fused renal ectopia was detected in most patients during investigation for other problems. It was found more commonly in boys. The left moiety was crossed to the right in the majority of cases. Associated urological problems were found in most cases and required the appropriate surgical management. PMID:23599575

  13. Renal scintigraphy unraveled the diagnostic dilemma of antenatal hydronephrotic solitary kidney-crossed renal ectopia.

    PubMed

    Sood, Ravi; Truong, Minh Xuan; Rossleigh, Monica A; Kainer, Gad

    2005-09-01

    On antenatal ultrasound assessment, an apparently solitary hydronephrotic kidney was identified, confirmed on postnatal ultrasound examination. More detailed postnatal investigations revealed the diagnosis of crossed renal ectopia.

  14. A Case of Crossed Left Renal Ectopia Identified during Colostomy Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sumana; Maloney-Patel, Nell

    2017-01-01

    Unilateral crossed renal ectopia without fusion is an uncommon anatomic anomaly, which often goes undiagnosed. We report a case of this renal variant discovered incidentally during colostomy reversal after Hartmann's procedure for diverticular stricture. PMID:28197355

  15. Mixed germ cell tumor after bilateral orchidopexy in persistent Müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Manassero, Francesca; Cuttano, Maria Giuseppa; Morelli, Girolamo; Salinitri, Giuseppe; Spurio, Michela; Selli, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    The persistent müllerian duct syndrome is characterized by the retention of müllerian derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus) in patients otherwise normally virilized, usually with cryptorchidism or an inguinal hernia. Very rarely, this syndrome is associated with transverse testicular ectopia, which designates the condition when both testes descend through the same inguinal canal into the same scrotal sac. We report on a patient with both conditions, who had T1N2M0 scrotal mixed germ cell tumor of the testis (teratoma and embryonal carcinoma), 18 years after bilateral orchidopexy. The literature concerning this uncommon association is reviewed.

  16. Management of ureteral obstruction in crossed fused renal ectopia: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Bhojwani, Nicholas; Hartman, Jason Brett; Ahmed, Manzoor; Morgan, Robert; Davidson, Jon C.

    2014-01-01

    Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation. We describe a case in which a 58-year-old male with left-sided crossed fused renal ectopia presented with urinary bladder outlet obstruction due to metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 13 mL/min, creatinine 4 mg/dL, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 58 mg/dL. The patient underwent successful image-guided placement of percutaneous nephrostomy tubes which were later converted to nephroureteral stents. Labs improved to a GFR of 28 mL/min, creatinine of 2.4 mg/dL, and BUN of 41 mg/dL. In this case standard image-guided renal decompression techniques were effective in treating a patient with crossed fused renal ectopia. PMID:25408820

  17. Crossed Renal Ectopia and Aorto-Occlusive Disease: A Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Eugene; Campbell, Ian; Choong, Andrew MTL; Dunglison, Nigel; Aziz, Maged

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with aortoiliac occlusive disease on the background of type A crossed renal ectopia, for whom open surgical intervention was required. Aortic exposure in patients with concomitant crossed renal ectopia can present technical challenges to the vascular surgeon. The knowledge of variations in the ectopic renal blood supply is of paramount importance when performing surgery to treat this condition and affects the choice of surgical exposure. We present and discuss the operative details of our patient and outline an approach to this subset of patients. PMID:26509134

  18. [The persistent müllerian duct syndrome with transverse testicular ectopia. A hypothesis on the role of müllerian inhibiting factor in the process of testicular migration].

    PubMed

    Asero, L; Meli, R

    1997-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of persistent mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) with transverse testicular ectopia and inguinal hernia in a 2-year-old child with family history for this syndrome. At operation the observation of a very long and thin gubernaculum and extreme mobility of both testes and uterus, which are located in the same hernial sac, allowed the Authors to propose a hypothesis to explain the role of MIF (Mullerian Inhibiting Factor) in testicular descent. Patients with PMDS present a normal outgrowth and migration phases of the gubernaculum but lack of the gubernacular regression phase. These data suggest an important function of the MIF in this phase of testicular descent.

  19. Cross-fused renal ectopia associated with vesicoureteral reflux; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare urinary system anomaly which mostly is asymptomatic and is diagnosed incidentally. Urinary obstruction, infection, and neoplasia of the urinary system and nephrolithiasis are main complications of this anomaly. A 6-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with colicky abdominal pain and nausea. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness in right lower quadrant. Urine analysis and culture were normal. Kidney ultrasonography showed right kidney in pelvis cavity with no kidney tissue in left side. TC 99-DMSA scan demonstrated no radiotracer accumulation in the normal renal area. Radiotracer accumulation was seen in the pelvis area with a deviation to the left. Voiding cystoureterogram revealed right sided grade II vesicoureteral reflux. Severe urological anomalies in children may be asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain. PMID:27689123

  20. Novel association of VACTERL, neural tube defect and crossed renal ectopia: sonic hedgehog signaling: a point of coherence?

    PubMed

    Vaze, Dhananjay; Mahalik, Santosh; Rao, Katragadda L N

    2012-12-01

    The present case report describes two patients with a novel combination of VACTERL (vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, renal, limb), neural tube defect and crossed renal ectopia. Though cases of VACTERL associated with crossed renal ectopia have been described, the present case report is the first to describe its combination with neural tube defect. The cases reported here are significant because central nervous system manifestations are scarce in VACTERL syndrome. The role of sonic hedgehog pathway has been proposed in VACTERL association and neural tube defects. Axial Sonic hedgehog signaling has also been implicated in the mediolateral positioning of the renal parenchyma. With this knowledge, the etiopathogenesis of this novel combination is discussed to highlight the role of sonic hedgehog signaling as a point of coherence.

  1. Ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Puvabanditsin, S; Di Stefano, V; Garrow, E; Wong, R; Eng, J; Balbin, J

    2013-10-01

    We report on a preterm male newborn with complete ectopia cordis associated with Cantrell's syndrome. The neonate had an ectopia cordis involving defects of the lower sternum, supraumbilical abdominal wall, anterior portion of the diaphragm, and diaphragmatic portion of the pericardium associated with complex congenital heart defects. The infant died shortly after birth. We discuss this case and review the literature.

  2. Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia: Presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 Scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Min-Woo; Kim, Young Jun; Sun, In O

    2015-10-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which both kidneys are located on the same side of the body. The present case describes a 20-year-old man who underwent the military entrance physical examination. The ultrasound showed the right kidney in normal site with slightly increased size, but the left kidney was not identified. Tc-MAG3 scan showed a single kidney with 2 ureters, and the orifices of the ureters were connected at both sides of bladder. Tc-DMSA SPECT and contrast-enhanced multidetector CT were performed and revealed crossed fused renal ectopia.

  3. Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair by Means of the Chimney Technique in a Patient with Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Elias; Almanfi, Abdelkader; Dougherty, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Crossed fused renal ectopia, a congenital anomaly in 1 of 7,000 individuals, presents a challenge during endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Most treatment approaches in these patients have involved open surgical repair of the aneurysm or endovascular repair with coverage of the ectopic renal artery. We present what we think is the first case of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with use of the chimney technique (parallel stent-grafting) to preserve an ectopic renal artery, in an 88-year-old man who was at high risk for open surgery. In addition to the patient's case, we discuss the relevant medical literature. PMID:27303239

  4. Ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Amato, J J; Douglas, W I; Desai, U; Burke, S

    2000-05-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect in which the heart is placed externally on the surface of the chest. This article describes the embrylogic events that lead to the various classifications of the defect and how they possibly explain the process of its unusual occurrence in children. While survival in some cases is possible, the ultimate repair is difficult and survival is rare. The most extreme forms of ectopia cordis, especially those with intracardiac defects, have a poor prognosis. Several cases of this rare anomaly with primary repair and staged repair are discussed.

  5. Ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Amitabh, Priya; Sharan, Rajiv; Talapatra, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly. Congenital anomaly scan can detect it at 18-23 weeks of gestation. Four chamber view of the heart in routine fetal anomaly scans at >18 weeks is the most effective technique to detect CHD prenatally.

  6. Ectopia Cordis

    PubMed Central

    Amitabh, Priya; Sharan, Rajiv; Talapatra, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly. Congenital anomaly scan can detect it at 18–23 weeks of gestation. Four chamber view of the heart in routine fetal anomaly scans at >18 weeks is the most effective technique to detect CHD prenatally. PMID:24027719

  7. Laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy for a patient with sigmoid colon cancer and crossed-fused renal ectopia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Tomioka, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Sato, Sumito

    2015-03-01

    Crossed-fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is a very rare congenital renal malformation. This condition comprises several anatomic anomalies, including unilateral ureteral intersection of the midline, anteriorly-placed renal pelvises, and aberrant renal blood vessels, all of which increase the difficulty of colectomy. This report describes a case of laparoscopic sigmoidectomy with sufficient lymphadenectomy for a patient with sigmoid colon cancer and left-sided L-shaped CFRE. Preoperative computed tomography demonstrated that the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) was free from anomalies and that the tumor did not invade surrounding organs. Therefore, we planned conventional laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy. Division of IMA at its origin and anterior colon resection was successfully performed by careful mobilization of the mesocolon to avoid exposing the retroperitoneal organs. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of laparoscopic colectomy for a patient with CFRE. Sufficient preoperative assessment of anatomic anomalies enabled successful surgery.

  8. Familial unilateral ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Simon, John W; Cotliar, Jeremy M; Burke, Leah W

    2007-12-01

    Ectopia lentis is almost always a bilateral condition, although it may be asymmetric in some cases of Marfan syndrome. Unilateral ectopia lentis has been associated with trauma and with intraocular tumors. We report two siblings with isolated unilateral ectopia lentis who had no evidence of underlying abnormality or of trauma.

  9. Ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis in a piglet.

    PubMed

    Freeman, L E; McGovern, P T

    1984-10-27

    A congenital anomaly characterised by displacement of the heart through a ventral body wall fissure involving the thoracic and cranial abdominal regions was recorded in a female Yorkshire-cross piglet. Dissection to assess the morphology of the developmental defect and a summary review of the literature on ectopia cordis were made. This case appears to be one of only three of ectopia cordis thoracoabdominalis reported in swine.

  10. From Tucking to Twisting; A Case of Self-induced Testicular Torsion in a Cross Dressing Male.

    PubMed

    Epps, Thomas; McCormick, Barrett; Ali, Antar; Duboy, Alberto; Gillen, James; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A self-induced, non-traumatic testicular torsion is a rare entity that to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 28-year-old male who caused a self-induced testicular torsion during acts associated with cross dressing. Differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum in an adult should always include testicular torsion, as outcomes in this population are worse than in younger populations. Additional unusual causes of testicular torsion are reviewed.

  11. Genetics of ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Vanderveen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary ectopia lentis or lens subluxation can occur with and without systemic associations. Significant overlap can be found in the genetic mutations and pathogenesis of subluxated lenses in their isolated forms as well as with associated syndromes. Gene mutations have been identified for lens subluxation associated with Marfan syndrome, Weill Marchesani syndrome, Ectopia Lentis simplex, Ectopia Lentis et pupillae, Ehlers Danlos syndrome, homocystinuria, and sulfite oxidase deficiency. Herein we describe the ocular and systemic characteristics found in patients with ectopia lentis, as well as the gene mutations identified thus far.

  12. [Hereditary ectopia lentis].

    PubMed

    Neuhann, T M

    2015-03-01

    If not due to trauma, ectopia lentis is usually caused genetically. It is a main symptom of several syndromal disorders such as Marfan syndrome or homocystinuria. Also other connective tissue disorders convey an elevated risk for ectopia lentis. Isolated ectopia lentis is frequently caused by genetic alterations as well, most commonly due to mutations in ADAMTSL4. Depending on the molecular basis, the consequences for the management of patients may differ significantly: On the one hand, possible accompanying symptoms may require a specific surveillance and treatment. Also, the risk for other family members to develop ectopia lentis or accompanying symptoms can only be determined if the genetic cause and thus inheritance pattern are known. This review describes the different types and genetic causes of syndromal and isolated ectopia lentis as well as possible consequences for the patients; also it presents a sensible algorithm for the molecular diagnostic approach.

  13. Complete thoracic ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Alphonso, N; Venugopal, P S; Deshpande, R; Anderson, D

    2003-03-01

    Thoracic ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect with very few reported survivors after surgical correction. We report a case of complete thoracic ectopia cordis with double outlet right ventricle. The diagnosis was established antenatally and a repair was undertaken soon after birth. The child remained stable and was extubated on the fifth post-operative day. Forty-eight hours later the child succumbed to an unexplained respiratory arrest. Also presented is a review of the different surgical strategies for this unusual condition.

  14. Unfused renal ectopia: a rare form of congenital renal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Nursal, Gül Nihal; Büyükdereli, Gülgün

    2005-09-01

    Unfused crossed renal ectopia observed 1 in 75,000 autopsies is a rare congenital anomaly. Typically one kidney is located in the proximity of the other kidney, and the ureter of the anatomically anomalous kidney crosses the midline to insert to the bladder in its normal anatomic position. Although renal function is usually not affected, the condition is generally accompanied by other congenital anomalies. In this case report, static and dynamic scintigraphic images of two patients with unfused crossed renal ectopia are presented. Besides properties of imaging modalities, clinical features are discussed in light of the available literature.

  15. Thoracic ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Shad, Jimmy; Budhwani, Keshav; Biswas, Rakesh

    2012-09-30

    Ectopia cordis is defined as complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It is a rare congenital defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in extra thoracic location of the heart. Its estimated prevalence is 5.5-7.9 per million live births. The authors had one such case of a 15-h-old full-term male neonate weighing 2.25 kg with an externally visible, beating heart over the chest wall. The neonate had difficulty in respiration with peripheral cyanosis. Patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest before any surgical intervention could be undertaken inspite of best possible resuscitative measures.

  16. Thoracic ectopia cordis

    PubMed Central

    Shad, Jimmy; Budhwani, Keshav; Biswas, Rakesh

    2012-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is defined as complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It is a rare congenital defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in extra thoracic location of the heart. Its estimated prevalence is 5.5–7.9 per million live births. The authors had one such case of a 15-h-old full-term male neonate weighing 2.25 kg with an externally visible, beating heart over the chest wall. The neonate had difficulty in respiration with peripheral cyanosis. Patient died of cardiorespiratory arrest before any surgical intervention could be undertaken inspite of best possible resuscitative measures. PMID:23035158

  17. Fetal echocardiography in ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Repondek-Liberska, M; Janiak, K; Wloch, A

    2000-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is an extremely rare congenital abnormality occurring in 5.5 to 7.9 per 1 million live births with high lethality. Between January 1995 and October 1997 eight cases of ectopia cordis were diagnosed at our institute before birth. On the basis of echocardiography the fetal heart anatomy was categorized as either normal heart anatomy (NHA; n = 3) or congenital heart defect (CHD; n = 5). In the majority of cases (seven of eight) other abnormalities were present. Some reports have described ectopia cordis being diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy. In our study group the average gestational age at diagnosis was 26 weeks. The prenatal diagnosis of isolated ectopia cordis is easy; counseling the patient, the perinatal management including term, place, and method of delivery, and optimal care of the newborn are more difficult. Ectopia cordis is a malformation that pediatricians rarely encounter, even at pediatric cardiology centers. Much more frequently it is a problem for sonographers and obstetricians; however, pediatric cardiologists should be aware of diagnostic algorithm for such cases, especially when additional abnormalities are present.

  18. [Ectopia cordis and cardiac anomalies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alberto; Rodrigo, David; Luis, María Teresa; Pastor, Esteban; Galdeano, José Miguel; Esteban, Susana

    2002-11-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare disease that occurs in 5.5 to 7.9 per million live births. Only 267 cases had been reported as of 2001, most (95%) associated with other cardiac anomalies. We studied the cardiac malformations associated in 6 patients with ectopia cordis. Depending on where the defect was located, the cases of ectopia were classified into four groups: cervical, thoracic, thoraco-abdominal, and abdominal. All 6 patients died before the third day of life, 4 during delivery. Three of the patients were included in the thoracic group, whereas the other 3 belonged to the thoraco-abdominal group. All the patients had associated ventricular septal defects, 3 double-outlet right ventricle (50%) and the rest (50%) tetralogy of Fallot-pulmonary atresia. Two patients with double-outlet right ventricle presented mitral-valve pathology, a parachute valve and an atresic mitral valve. None of these cardiac anomalies have been reported to date.

  19. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals ...

  20. Intracranial abscess in Ectopia Cordis.

    PubMed

    Merola, Joseph; Tipper, Geoffrey Adrian; Hussain, Zakier; Balakrishnan, Venkataraman; Gan, Peter

    2014-08-25

    We present a case of intracranial abscess in a young female with Ectopia Cordis, an exceptionally rare cardiac condition. The neurosurgical implication is the predisposition to intracranial abscess formation. A heightened awareness of this association will aid diagnosis in similar clinical scenarios.

  1. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines Diseases that affect the testicle, including hemochromatosis , mumps , orchitis , and testicular cancer Injury or trauma to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 44. Read More Mumps Scrotum Substance use Testes Testicular cancer Testicular torsion ...

  2. Testicular Exams

    MedlinePlus

    ... happens, surgery almost always repairs the hernia completely. Testicular Cancer Testicular cancer is unusual in teen guys, but it can happen. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in guys aged ...

  3. PHACES syndrome and ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    PHACES syndrome is a spectrum of anomalies, P, posterior fossa anomalies as Dandy-Walker malformation; H, hemangioma; A, arterial lesions of the head and neck (the most commonly detected include dysplasia, aberrant origin or course, hypoplasia, and absence or agenesis); C, cardiac abnormalities as aortic coarctation; E, abnormalities of the eye and S, sternal defect, that may be present in up to 2% of children with facial hemangiomas and 20% of children with segmental facial hemangiomas. The constellation of PHACES syndrome symptoms may vary significantly between different patients. Major and minor criteria for PHACES syndrome have been recently described in order to improve their classification and management. We report the case of a newborn with PHACES syndrome, who had additional congenital defects including ectopia cordis as the most severe form of midline defect. Although the list and variety of published cardiac malformations in PHACES syndrome are extensive, ectopia cordis has not been previously reported.

  4. Characteristics of symptomatic men with testicular microlithiasis - A Danish cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M R; Møller, H; Rafaelsen, S R; Jørgensen, M M B; Osther, P J; Vedsted, P

    2017-03-07

    Testicular microlithiasis (TML) is an incidental finding at ultrasonography of the scrotum. A link between testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer has been suggested. However, the majority of studies are retrospective using ultrasonography with minor data on health status and life style characteristics. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle and health are associated with TML. In 2014, we conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey including 1538 men, who all due to testicular/scrotal symptoms had an ultrasound investigation of the scrotum during 2004-2013. The men were divided into men with TML and men without. The 23-items questionnaire included items on age, height, weight, lifestyle (alcohol consumptions, smoking habits, workload, exercise and food), previous diseases in the testicles, pain and consumption of analgesics. The prevalence of TML was 12.8%. Overall, lifestyle factors did not vary between men with or without TML. However, men with TML did consume more crisp than men without. Development of TML was not associated to classic life style factors such as alcohol consumption, smoking habits, or mothers smoking during pregnancy. Also, age and height could not be linked to presence of TML. We did find, however, that men with TML experienced less physical activity and consumed more crisp than men without TML. Since ingestion of crisps has potential carcinogenic effect (acrylamide), this finding needs confirmation in a separate study.

  5. Ectopia cordis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Delayehu; Taye, Kefyalew

    2011-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect in which the heart is partially or completely exposed on the surface of the thorax. It may occur as an isolated malformation or it may be associated with a larger category of ventral body wall defects that affect the thorax, abdomen or both. The defect is also often associated with intracardiac lesions. We report here a case of ectopia cordis who was born by ceserean section and died after an hour.

  6. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with mosaic trisomy 16.

    PubMed

    Arnaoutoglou, Christos; Meditskou, Soultana; Keivanidou, Anastasia; Manthou, Marilena; Anesidis, Nikolaos; Assimakopoulos, Efstratios; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kumar, Sailesh

    2010-09-01

    Ectopia cordis and mosaic trisomy 16 are two rare fetal anomalies, which have not been reported in association. We report a case of an isolated ectopia cordis at 11(+3) weeks. Subsequent embryological examination confirmed thoracic ectopia cordis with normal heart structure and array comparative genomic hybridization of fetal tissue detected trisomy 16 mosaicism.

  7. Thoraco-abdominal Ectopia Cordis in Southwest Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Chishugi, John B; Franke, Trixy J

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect where the heart is completely displaced outside the chest wall. Cantrell's pentalogy is an embryologic anomaly with five classic midline deficiencies often associated with ectopia cordis. Here we present a case of thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, brief literature review, and possible implications for changes in antenatal care. PMID:25404984

  8. Thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis in southwest Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Chishugi, John B; Franke, Trixy J

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect where the heart is completely displaced outside the chest wall. Cantrell's pentalogy is an embryologic anomaly with five classic midline deficiencies often associated with ectopia cordis. Here we present a case of thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, brief literature review, and possible implications for changes in antenatal care.

  9. New Management Strategies for Ectopia Lentis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Melissa A; Origlieri, Catherine A; Dinallo, Anthony M; Forbes, Brian J; Wagner, Rudolph S; Guo, Suqin

    2015-01-01

    Ectopia lentis refers to displacement of the crystalline lens in the setting of various systemic and metabolic disorders. A literature review was conducted to investigate the management of non-traumatic ectopia lentis in the pediatric population, particularly focusing on surgical intervention. Both limbal and pars plana approaches for lensectomy are well established in the literature. Surgical options for intraocular lens implantation in pediatric eyes with ectopia lentis include anterior chamber intraocular lenses and iris-fixated or scleral-fixated posterior chamber intraocular lenses. Recently, the use of capsular tension rings has also been described with promising results. Visual rehabilitation and treatment of amblyopia are essential for patients within the amblyogenic age group following surgical intervention.

  10. A rare case of triple thyroid ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Rahalkar, Mukund; Rahalkar, Anand; Solav, Shrikant

    2014-01-01

    Various anomalies of thyro-glossal duct have been described, in which the duct may form a cyst or may present as a solid nodule to form an ectopic gland. The ectopic gland can develop along the tract of the duct to give rise to ectopic lingual, sublingual (pre-hyoid) or sub-hyoid (pyramidal) gland, with or without normal pre-tracheal thyroid gland.There are a few reports of double ectopia of thyroid but triple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. We have come across a case of triple thyroid ectopia, i.e., thyroid tissue at three locations along the tract of descent of thyro-glossal duct on CT, which hast been rarely reported in the world literature, and hence this report. PMID:24741526

  11. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function? A Cross-Sectional Study of 1,210 Men.

    PubMed

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2016-08-15

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012, when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine their fitness for military service. Information on sedentary behavior (television watching and computer time) and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. The men had a physical examination, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. Time spent watching television, but not time sitting in front of a computer, was associated with lower sperm counts. Men who watched television more than 5 hours/day had an adjusted sperm concentration of 37 million/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 44) versus 52 million/mL (95% CI: 43, 62) among men who did not watch television; total sperm counts in those 2 groups were 104 million (95% CI: 84, 126) and 158 million (95% CI: 130, 189), respectively. Furthermore, an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and decreases in testosterone and the testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio were detected in men watching many hours of television. Self-rated physical fitness, but not time spent on physical activity, was positively associated with sperm counts.

  12. Thoracic ectopia cordis with anatomically normal heart.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Flávio Donizete; Novaes, Fernando Rotatori; Maia, Marcelo Alves; Barros, Francisco de Assis

    2007-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation, which is commonly associated with other intracardiac defects. At two-day-old full-term baby girl was admitted to Santa Casade Misericórdia Hospital Montes Claros, NG, Brazil, with thoracic ectopia cordis. A transthoracic echocardiographic study did not identify any associated congenital heart diseases. The infant underwent surgical treatment using a rib graft to create a neo-sternum. She was discharged after presenting a good outcome on the 20th postoperative day.

  13. Ectopia cordis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Yuko-Jowi, C; Simiyu, D E; Musoke, R

    2004-09-01

    Ectopia Cordis is a dramatic but rare cardiac anomaly with poor prognosis in most centers worldwide. This rare malformation occurs in 5.5-7.9 per million live births in the USA(1). This cardiac malformation is defined as a heart that is in an extra- thoracic position. In this article, we report two newborn infants admitted to our newborn unit with the heart beating outside the thoracic cavity. One child succumbed due to prematurity and severe cardiac malformations, while the other child successfully underwent surgical reconstruction of the ectopia cordis. She succumbed due to overwhelming sepsis one week after the surgery. Such cases have neither been reported nor treated locally.

  14. Ectopia cordis associated with Cantrell's pentalogy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Basant; Sharma, Chetan; Sinha, Devendra D; Sumanlata

    2008-10-01

    Cantrell's pentalogy with ectopia cordis is an extremely rare and lethal congenital anomaly, with a reported incidence of 1:100,000 births in developed countries. We report a neonate who presented with ectopia cordis along with cleft lower sternum, upper abdominal wall defect, ectopic umbilicus, diaphragmatic defect, and interventricular septal defect. The neonate had respiratory distress with peripheral cyanosis and died because of acidosis and electrolyte imbalance before surgical intervention could be undertaken. We discuss the case and present a brief review of literature and of embryogenesis.

  15. [Ectopia cordis: multidisciplinary approach with successful result].

    PubMed

    Serrano Gómez, Servando Germán; Bermlúez Sosa, Marco Tulio; Palma Hernández, Emigdio; del Castillo Salceda, Luis Fernando; Pinzón Muslera, Otto; Hernández Cortés, Bernardino; Méndez Machado, Gustavo

    2006-08-01

    Ectopia cordis is a pathology in which the heart is complete or partially outside of the thoracic cavity. It represents a challenge for the diagnosis and handling because of its high perinatal mortality. We present the first case of thoracic ectopia cordis with prenatal diagnostic (27th week), its multidisciplinary handling at Hospital de Ginecopediatria núm. 71 of the Centro Medico Nacional Adolfo Ruiz Cortines, IMSS, in Veracruz, Mexico. We communicate the case of a 24 year-old woman referred by her correspondent medical unit with the diagnosis of 23.6 weeks pregnancy with suspicion of heart malformation by ultrasound. The pregnancy was followed-up until the 38th week, when it was programmed a caesarean section. The newborn had ectopia cordis, which was treated at the moment of birth. In this article, we present pictures of the heart defect as well as its evolution. The up-to-date bibliography is revised about the medical profile and treatment. The handling of the ectopia cordis includes an appropriate prenatal diagnosis through echocardiograph, a multidisciplinary perinatal team, to program the caesarean operation, aseptic handling of the newborn, immediate correction of the wall defect with skin torn piece without trying to correct the costal grill, specific hemodynamic cares, to reprogramme a correction of associated defects.

  16. A rare case of cardiac anomaly: prenatally diagnosed ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Yalçın; Hallıoğlu, Olgu; Basut, Nursel; Demetgül, Hasan; Esin Kibar, A

    2015-06-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation in which the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The estimated prevalence of ectopia cordis is 5.5-7.9 per million births and it comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Ectopia cordis is associated with other congenital heart diseases and various tissue and organ disorders. Common cardiac anomalies associated with ectopia cordis include ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular diverticulum, double right ventricular outflow tract and tetralogy of Fallot. Extracardiac anomalies associated with ectopia cordis reported in the literature include omphalocele, gastrochisis, cleft lip and palate, scollosis and central nervous system malformations. Here we report a newborn with ectopia cordis who was diagnosed prenatally.

  17. A rare case of cardiac anomaly: prenatally diagnosed ectopia cordis

    PubMed Central

    Çelik, Yalçın; Hallıoğlu, Olgu; Basut, Nursel; Demetgül, Hasan; Esin Kibar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital malformation in which the heart is located partially or totally outside the thoracic cavity. The estimated prevalence of ectopia cordis is 5.5–7.9 per million births and it comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Ectopia cordis is associated with other congenital heart diseases and various tissue and organ disorders. Common cardiac anomalies associated with ectopia cordis include ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular diverticulum, double right ventricular outflow tract and tetralogy of Fallot. Extracardiac anomalies associated with ectopia cordis reported in the literature include omphalocele, gastrochisis, cleft lip and palate, scollosis and central nervous system malformations. Here we report a newborn with ectopia cordis who was diagnosed prenatally. PMID:26265899

  18. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Cives, R.; Méndez-Gallart, R.; Estevez-Martínez, E.; Rodríguez-Barca, P.; Bautista-Casasnovas, A.; Pombo-Arias, M.; Tojo-Sierra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or age of initial treatment exerts

  19. Testicular Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also, the location of the testicles makes them prime targets to be accidentally struck on the playing ... you might also feel nauseated for a short time. If it's a minor testicular injury, the pain ...

  20. Testicular Torsion

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal of Urology. 2011;185:2469. Hittelman AB. Neonatal testicular torsion. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed ... 16, 2015. Snyder HM, et al. In utero/neonatal torsion: Observation versus prompt exploration. Journal of Urology. ...

  1. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Screening - testicular cancer - self-exam; Testicular cancer - screening - self-exam ... A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer . Testicles have blood vessels and other structures that can make ...

  2. Testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Ringdahl, Erika; Teague, Lynn

    2006-11-15

    Each year, testicular torsion affects one in 4,000 males younger than 25 years. Early diagnosis and definitive management are the keys to avoid testicular loss. All prepubertal and young adult males with acute scrotal pain should be considered to have testicular torsion until proven otherwise. The finding of an ipsilateral absent cremasteric reflex is the most accurate sign of testicular torsion. Torsion of the appendix testis is more common in children than testicular torsion and may be diagnosed by the "blue dot sign" (i.e., tender nodule with blue discoloration on the upper pole of the testis). Epididymitis/orchitis is much less common in the prepubertal male, and the diagnosis should be made with caution in this age group. Doppler ultrasonography may be needed for definitive diagnosis; radionuclide scintigraphy is an alternative that may be more accurate but should be ordered only if it can be performed without delay. Diagnosis of testicular torsion is based on the finding of decreased or absent blood flow on the ipsilateral side. Treatment involves rapid restoration of blood flow to the affected testis. The optimal time frame is less than six hours after the onset of symptoms. Manual detorsion by external rotation of the testis can be successful, but restoration of blood flow must be confirmed following the maneuver. Surgical exploration provides definitive treatment for the affected testis by orchiopexy and allows for prophylactic orchiopexy of the contralateral testis. Surgical treatment of torsion of the appendix testis is not mandatory but hastens recovery.

  3. Congenital Renal Fusion and Ectopia in the Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ditchek, Jordan J.; Kiffin, Chauniqua; Carrillo, Eddy H.

    2016-01-01

    We present two separate cases of young male patients with congenital kidney anomalies (horseshoe and crossed fused renal ectopia) identified following blunt abdominal trauma. Despite being rare, ectopic and fusion anomalies of the kidneys are occasionally noted in a trauma patient during imaging or upon exploration of the abdomen. Incidental renal findings may influence the management of traumatic injuries to preserve and protect the patient's renal function. Renal anomalies may be asymptomatic or present with hematuria, flank or abdominal pain, hypotension, or shock, even following minor blunt trauma or low velocity impact. It is important for the trauma clinician to recognize that this group of congenital anomalies may contribute to unusual symptoms such as gross hematuria after minor trauma, are readily identifiable during CT imaging, and may affect operative management. These patients should be informed of their anatomical findings and encouraged to return for long-term follow-up. PMID:27895945

  4. Morphological aspects of ectopia cordis: four case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T; Hoshi, N; Okuyama, K; Negishi, H; Sudo, S; Kishida, T; Yamada, H; Sagawa, T; Fujii, H; Ishizu, A; Ishikura, H; Fujimoto, S

    1999-08-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly. We present 4 cases of ectopia cordis, 1 of which is the first report of an affected fetus in a triplet pregnancy. The morphological relationship between the types of ectopia cordis and their outcomes were investigated in all 4 cases. In addition, the literature on ectopia cordis in Japan was reviewed and discussed.

  5. Ectopia cordis: a novel palliative care technique.

    PubMed

    Berry, Mary Judith; Saito-Benz, Maria; Klein, Tisha; Bowkett, Brendon; Richardson, Vaughan F

    2017-03-01

    Complete ectopia cordis in the newborn represents a significant management challenge. There are minimal data available to inform optimal clinical care for those infants with coexisting complex congenital heart disease who are therefore not candidates for surgical intervention. The exteriorisation of the heart and absence of the pericardial sac requires meticulous wound care to prevent desiccation of the myocardium and to minimise infection risk. Additionally, the technique selected must address the risk of occlusion of the cardiac vascular pedicle and abrasion between the mobile myocardium and dressing surface. We report a novel approach to wound management and integrated palliative care that enabled community-based care. Our patient, a full-term male infant with complete ectopia cordis was born in good condition by assisted vaginal delivery. He was discharged from hospital on day 8 and was cared for in the community until his demise from cardiac failure on day 15.

  6. Chest wall reconstruction in a pediatric patient with ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Raja; Peralta, Mat; Perez, Ramiro; Rosenkranz, Eliot R; Panthaki, Zubin J

    2010-08-01

    Ectopia cordis is defined as a congenital malposition of the heart outside of the thoracic cavity. It is a rare condition, and complete ectopia cordis can be a fatal condition. Successful surgical reconstruction of this defect has been reported but is uncommon. The general approach to reconstructing the chest wall involves repositioning the heart and providing adequate coverage of the chest wall defect. We describe our experience with a patient who had complete thoracic ectopia cordis treated with staged chest wall reconstruction. The first stage involved temporary closure with synthetic material, and the second stage involved definitive reconstruction with autologous bone and cartilage grafts supported with plates. The patient has been active and without complaints since the second stage and is awaiting tracheal decannulation. There have been a few descriptions of how to approach chest wall reconstruction in patients with ectopia cordis. The 2 stage method described can be considered to repair the chest wall defect in complete thoracic ectopia cordis.

  7. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  8. Ectopia cordis: a rare congenital anomaly.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Abigail; Donnelly, Joseph; Kuc, Alexander; Good, Daniel; Doros, Gabriela; Matusz, Petru; Loukas, Marios

    2014-11-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with the heart positioned outside of the thoracic cavity either partially or completely. The ectopic heart can be found along a spectrum of anatomical locations, including the cervical, thoracic and abdominal regions and in most cases, it protrudes outside the chest through a split sternum. Although the first case of EC was identified during the early 1600s only 91 cases have been reported since then in the literature. This review will discuss the history and prevalence of EC, its etiology, morphology, presentation and symptoms, complications, diagnosis, treatment and management and prognosis.

  9. [Case report: Ectopia cordis in a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kramer, K; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2006-07-01

    A case of ectopia cordis pectoralis was diagnosed in a black and white coloured German Holstein calf. The heart and pericard were displaced through a fissure in the breastbone. The heart was connected with the thoracic cavity by its large vessels. Besides of the ectopia cordis no other defects of the heart were noticed. The liver was deformed and many organs showed passive hyperaemia. The calf was well developed and died under birth. The lungs were not ventilated. The malformed calf was inbred on a bull used for artificial insemination with an inbreeding coefficient of 3.125%. The ectopia cordis probably resulted from the fissure of the breastbone.

  10. Ectopia cordis. A report of two cases in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbassi Awa, HD; Nguefack Dongmo, F; Menanga, AP; Ngo Um, S; Nde Kamgne, M; Koki Ndombo, PO

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of ectopia cordis in two children aged one day and twenty months respectively. A one day old newborn had complete thoracic ectopia cordis associated with an internal cardiac defect and severe thoracic and abdominal wall malformations. Our centre does not have the facilities to manage complex congenital defects and prior to being transferred to a cardiac centre, the neonate died on the second day of admission. A 20-month old baby had partial ectopia of the heart and a defect in the abdominal wall. He had no major congenital cardiac defect and has remained clinically stable with no life threatening symptoms. PMID:26236371

  11. Ectopia cordis. A report of two cases in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Chelo, D; Mbassi Awa, H D; Nguefack Dongmo, F; Menanga, A P; Ngo Um, S; Nde Kamgne, M; Koki Ndombo, P O

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of ectopia cordis in two children aged one day and twenty months respectively. A one day old newborn had complete thoracic ectopia cordis associated with an internal cardiac defect and severe thoracic and abdominal wall malformations. Our centre does not have the facilities to manage complex congenital defects and prior to being transferred to a cardiac centre, the neonate died on the second day of admission. A 20-month old baby had partial ectopia of the heart and a defect in the abdominal wall. He had no major congenital cardiac defect and has remained clinically stable with no life threatening symptoms.

  12. Familial ectopia lentis with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly.

    PubMed

    Singh, Deependra Vikram; Sharma, Yog Raj; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Pal, Nikhil; Gadagina, Shailesh

    2007-01-01

    Three siblings with ectopia lentis were examined for associated abnormalities. Case 1 had Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and retinal detachment. Case 2 had Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, ciliary staphyloma, and glaucoma. Case 3 had no associated ocular abnormality. The parents had normal eyesight. This is the first report of ectopia lentis associated with Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly. The mode of inheritance is likely autosomal recessive.

  13. Ectopia cordis with omphalocele--a case report.

    PubMed

    Baral, Karabi; Bandyopadhyay, Manimay; Das, Piyali; Dutta, Arnab; Mukherjee, Sucheta

    2010-10-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly. This may be of various types depending on the extent of soft tissue involved. Here a case of ectopia cordis with omphalocele, diagnosed prenatally, who survived 20 minutes after birth in spite of all resuscitative measures is being presented. Embryologically, the defect might have started at 21 days of gestation, due to thoracic cavity compression by ruptured chorion/yolk sac.

  14. Testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Peckham, M

    1988-01-01

    Testicular cancer, which predominantly occurs in young men, has become increasingly common; it is presently the most common malignancy in men aged 20-34. Despite a lack of knowledge of aetiology, empirical advances, particularly in the management of patients with advanced disease, have been dramatic. Prior to the development of effective chemotherapy in the 1970s, less than 10% of men with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours were cured; nowadays approximately 90% of patients are potentially curable. The introduction of effective chemotherapy has led to a reappraisal of surgery and radiotherapy in the management of early stage disease and the introduction of a policy of surveillance in patients without evidence of metastases at the time of removal of the primary tumour. Following chemotherapy, surgery is required in approximately 25% of patients with advanced disease to excise residual masses, which in one-fifth of cases will show evidence of residual malignancy. In a proportion of patients, testicular cancer develops on a background of long-standing infertility, whereas in many men there is temporary oligospermia, despite a previous history of fertility. The majority of patients with prior evidence of spermatogenesis recover this function following chemotherapy and there is no evidence that children fathered by such patients have an increased risk of malformation. Despite physician optimism and excellent prospects for cure, significant psycho-social morbidity is associated with the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer. Factors contributing to this are being identified and will lead, hopefully, to the minimisation of such problems by appropriate intervention.

  15. [Segmental testicular infarction].

    PubMed

    Ripa Saldías, L; Guarch Troyas, R; Hualde Alfaro, A; de Pablo Cárdenas, A; Ruiz Ramo, M; Pinós Paul, M

    2006-02-01

    We report the case of a 47 years old man previously diagnosed of left hidrocele. After having a recent mild left testicular pain, an ultrasonografic study revealed a solid hipoecoic testicular lesion rounded by a big hidrocele, suggesting a testicular neoplasm. Radical inguinal orchiectomy was made and pathologic study showed segmental testicular infarction. No malignancy was found. We review the literature of the topic.

  16. [Thoracic ectopia cordis with tetralogy of fallot].

    PubMed

    Ben Khalfallah, A; Annabi, N; Ousji, M; Hadrich, M; Najai, A

    2003-01-01

    Ectopia cordis; very rare congenital malformation, characterized by an evisceration of the heart through a parietal defect. The thoracic localization is most frequent. We report the case of a full term baby girl without follow-up of the pregnancy, presenting a beating mass in thoracic position, expansive to the effort, covered by a translucent membrane corresponding to an ectopique position of the heart. Transthoracic echocardiography shows cardiac malformation: Fallot tetralogy. The precocious diagnosis is possible by prenatal ultrasound examination after 12th week of pregnancy. The surgical treatment remain the only hope for these neonates. It's results depends on the associated malformations and the neonatal complications especially the infections. The prognosis remains poor in spite of the progress of surgical techniques.

  17. Proximal ureteral ectopia causing hydronephrosis in a kitten.

    PubMed

    D'Ippolito, Paola; Nicoli, Stefano; Zatelli, Andrea

    2006-12-01

    A 2-month-old, female cat was presented for abdomen dilation. The patient was undernourished, and severe left hydronephrosis was diagnosed after clinical, ultrasonographical and radiographical examination. Although pyelography was performed in order to visualise the ureteral course, surgery was necessary to reach a final aetiological diagnosis and treatment. At gross examination, the left ureter crossed the renal capsula at the level of the caudal renal pole, and the subcapsular ureteral segment was markedly dilated. Distal to the renal capsula, the left ureter was very thin when compared to the right. The parenchyma of the left kidney, as suggested by ultrasonographical evaluation, was extremely reduced in thickness. An ureteronephrectomy was performed. Histopathological evaluation revealed glomerular sclerosis and diffuse parenchymal fibrosis. Severe hydronephrosis derived from an altered renal pelvic anatomy and abnormal ureteral course determining functional stenosis. Diagnosis of congenital anomaly before development of complications such as hydronephrosis could have allowed a surgical renal capsulectomy and obstruction relief. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of severe hydronephrosis associated to altered renal pelvic anatomy and proximal ureteral ectopia in cat.

  18. Grayscale and Color Doppler Features of Testicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E.; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S.; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  19. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  20. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  1. Management of bilateral ectopia lentis et pupillae syndrome.

    PubMed

    Omulecki, Wojciech; Wilczynski, Michal; Gerkowicz, Marek

    2006-01-01

    A 52-year-old patient presented with signs clinically consistent with ectopia lentis et pupillae syndrome. The patient was treated successfully with vitrectomy, dislocated lens removal using perfluorocarbon liquid and phacofragmentation in the vitreous cavity, pupil reconstruction, and scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. Despite the fact that the surgery was successful in technical terms, the final visual outcome was not as good as expected. This was caused by the optic nerve atrophy resulting from long-lasting glaucoma. Nevertheless, the described surgical techniques may be considered an effective method of treatment in cases of ectopia lentis et pupillae syndrome.

  2. How far is observation allowed in patients with ectopia lentis?

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Surgical timing for ectopia lentis has not been well described until now. The purpose of this study is to find a benchmark as to how far observation would be allowed in children with ectopia lentis when they and their families are reluctant to go through surgery. Retrospective review was made on 15 consecutive patients (14 children and one adult) with ectopia lentis in both eyes, seen at a referral-based institution in 5 years from April 2008 to March 2013, to survey the reasons for continuing observation or deciding surgical intervention. The diagnoses were Marfan syndrome in six patients, familial ectopia lentis in six, and sporadic ectopia lentis in three. Observation was continued in nine patients with the age at the final visit, ranging from 4 to 17 (median 9) years, because six children had good visual acuity at both near and distant viewing with glasses, and three children had visual acuity of 0.4 at near viewing despites poor visual acuity at distant viewing with glasses. In contrast, lensectomy was determined in six patients (5 children and one adult) with the age at surgery, ranging from 4 to 36 (median 9) years, and the age at the final visit, ranging from 7 to 42 (median 11) years, mainly because of poor visual acuity at near and distant viewing. More specific causes for surgeries in five children were the optical axis to become aphakic due to the progression of ectopia in the course in two children, lens dislocation to the anterior chamber after blunt eye injury in one child, and difficulty in studying at school classes in two children. One adult patient developed cataract in ectopic lenses. Lensectomy, combined with anterior vitrectomy, was done from two limbal side ports with a 25-gauge infusion cannula and vitreous cutter. Two patients at the age of 16 and 36 years, additionally, underwent intraocular lens-suturing in both eyes. In conclusions, observation was continued in children with ectopia lentis who had good visual acuity at near viewing

  3. Ectopia cordis in a fetus with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Sheng-Wen; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chueh, Ho-Yen; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Soong, Yung-Kuei

    2006-02-01

    Trisomy 18 is the second-most common autosomal trisomy and represents one third of the chromosomal trisomies identified prenatally. We present a case of a fetus with trisomy 18 in which thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis was detected prenatally; it was noted as a dominant defect on a sonographic examination performed at 19 weeks' gestation. Furthermore, our case exhibits a rare type of multiple-marker screening result with increased maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein. This case demonstrates the need for thorough sonographic evaluation of the fetal thoracoabdominal wall as early as possible, because fetal ectopia cordis can be the major abnormality of trisomy 18.

  4. Testicular Sonogram

    PubMed Central

    Devkota, Jagadishwar; White, Sherry

    1980-01-01

    Precise localization, detection, and recognition of minor changes in testicular lesions are important because teratocarcinoma is notorious for manifesting as secondaries at the time the primary site is obvious to the clinician. In the past, questionable enlargement of the testis due to significant pathology required numerous radiographic invasive special procedures to provide a correct diagnosis. Due to the advent of the sophisticated digital ultrasound imager with high frequency quarter wave transducer, it is possible to detect minor changes in the tissue character of the testis, thus enabling the physician to tackle primary neoplasms prior to distant spread. In our case we were able to detect the abnormality in the testis, but unfortunately a large secondary abnormal mass was present. Even at that stage we were able to map out the extent of the lesion which was beneficial to the surgeon and the patient. Ultrasound studies were utilized in serial follow-up studies. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7401191

  5. Pediatric Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, Paul R; Gatti, John M; Murphy, J Patrick

    2017-02-01

    The pediatric patient presenting with acute scrotal pain requires prompt evaluation and management given the likelihood of testicular torsion as the underlying cause. Although other diagnoses can present with acute testicular pain, it is important to recognize the possibility of testicular torsion because the best chance of testicular preservation occurs with expeditious management. When testicular torsion is suspected, prompt surgical exploration is warranted. A delay in surgical management should not occur in an effort to obtain confirmatory imaging. When torsion is discovered, the contralateral testicle should undergo fixation to reduce the risk of asynchronous torsion.

  6. Congenital medium sternal cleft with partial ectopia cordis repair.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Paulo Rego; Antunes, Sónia; Couto, Alexandra; Santos, Gonçalo Cassiano; Leal, Luis Gagp; Magalhães, Manuel Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Congenital sternal malformation is a rare anomaly often diagnosed as an asymptomatic condition at birth. The authors report a clinical case of a full-term female neonate with congenital sternal cleft and partial ectopia cordis. Successful surgical repair was accomplished at 6 days of age. When surgery is performed shortly after birth, the procedure is easier and better results are achieved.

  7. Ectopia cordis, a successful single stage thoracoabdominal repair.

    PubMed

    Samir, Khaled; Ghez, Olivier; Metras, Dominique; Kreitmann, Bernard

    2003-12-01

    This is a report of a case of the rare ectopia cordis malformation of the thoracoabdominal type without intracardiac anomalies. The patient had a successful single stage repair with reduction of the herniating heart and reconstruction of a cartilaginous cover to protect the heart. The result was very good and the follow up for 13 months was very satisfactory.

  8. Embryology, sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy.

    PubMed

    Engum, Scott A

    2008-08-01

    Sternal clefts, ectopia cordis, and Cantrell's pentalogy continue to be very rare congenital anomalies in pediatric surgery. Unfortunately, these conditions present as neonatal emergencies and demand early surgical intervention. This article reviews the embryological development of the chest wall, specific sternal defect anomalies, along with available methods of treatment.

  9. Early onset ectopia lentis due to a FBN1 mutation with non-penetrance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Lai, Yu-Hung; Capasso, Jenina E; Han, Stella; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    Isolated ectopia lentis is usually autosomal dominant and commonly due to the mutations of FBN1 gene. We report on a family with ectopia lentis. The propositus is a 6-year-old boy with bilateral superior-temporal ectopia lentis. His echocardiogram was normal and he did not meet the revised Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. Molecular genetic testing revealed c.1948 C>T (p.Arg650Cys) in FBN1. The mother has visual acuity of 20/20 with -4.50 right eye and -2.50 left eye. She has no evidence of ectopia lentis. DNA analysis revealed that she has the same FBN1 mutation. Seven other maternal family members also have ectopia lentis. In conclusion, we report on a case of early-onset autosomal dominant isolated ectopia lentis caused by FBN1 mutation that has previously been reported only in Marfan syndrome. The child's mother presumably represents a rare case of nonpenetrance.

  10. Public awareness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination in academic environments: a lost opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Ugboma, Henry A A; Aburoma, H L S

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although testicular cancer is the most common cancer among 18- to 50-year-old males, healthcare providers seldom teach testicular self-examination techniques to clients, thus potentially missing opportunities for early detection. This form of cancer is easily diagnosable by testicular self-examination and is 96% curable if detected early. Periodic self-examination must be performed for early detection. Knowledge deficits and sociocultural norms contribute to low levels of health-related knowledge in most patients, resulting in undue delays before seeking medical advice. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to assess the level of awareness of testicular cancer and the prevalence of the practice of testicular self-examination in academic environments to enable appropriate interventions. METHOD: A cross-sectional survey was administered to 750 consecutive males aged 18–50 years in three tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt from October 2008 to April 2009. RESULT: Knowledge or awareness of testicular cancer was poor. Almost all of the respondents were unaware that testicular lumps may be signs of cancer. A lump was typically construed as a benign carbuncle or something that could resolve spontaneously. The main factor contributing to respondents' lack of knowledge of testicular cancer was that few reported that they were “ever taught about testicular self-examination.” CONCLUSION: Young adult men are unaware of their risk for testicular cancer, which is the most common neoplasm in this age group. Healthcare providers are not informing them of this risk, nor are they teaching them the simple early detection technique of self-examination of the testes. PMID:21876962

  11. Ectopia cordis in a first-trimester sonographic screening program for aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Waldo; Wong, Amy E; Simonetti, Luis; Gomez, Enrique; Dezerega, Victor; Gutierrez, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    We review the sonographic features, antenatal course, and perinatal outcomes in 7 cases of ectopia cordis diagnosed in the first trimester. Four cases were associated with a large omphalocele (pentalogy of Cantrell) and 2 with a body stalk anomaly. The remaining fetus had isolated thoracic ectopia cordis. Two pregnancies were terminated; 2 fetuses died in utero; 2 infants died after delivery; and 1 died at 3 months of age. We conclude that the diagnosis of ectopia cordis can easily be established during the first trimester. In agreement with the currently available literature, the prognosis of ectopia cordis in our series was uniformly poor.

  12. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Factors, and Prevention Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Testicular Cancer? For most people with testicular cancer, treatment removes ... Treatment for Testicular Cancer Stops Working More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  14. Bilateral ectopia lentis with isolated lens coloboma in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Sabin; Yadav, Reena; Gupta, Sharad; Raj Puri, Lila

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral ectopia lentis with isolated lens coloboma in Marfan syndrome is reported. A 21-year-old female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. Her unaided visual acuity was 20/200 and 20/400 in the right and left eye, respectively, improving to 20/40 with -4.5 DS/-3.0 DC x 10° correction in the right eye and 20/80 with -10.0 DS/-6.5 Dc x10° correction in the left eye. On slit lamp examination under mydriasis, both eyes revealed ectopia lentis with lens coloboma and stretched zonules. Fundus examination revealed pigmentary changes at the fovea. On systemic evaluation, she was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. She was prescribed a refractive correction in form of a contact lens and kept under observation.

  15. Successful repair of ectopia cordis using alloplastic materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, K A; Vincent, W R; Muenchow, S K; Wells, W J; Downey, S E

    1997-05-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital anomaly associated with a high mortality rate. A successful repair of ectopia cordis with complete absence of sternum was achieved in a two-stage procedure. Initial management consisted of coverage of skin over the malpositioned heart using bilateral pectoral skin flaps. A second more definitive repair was undertaken at age 14 months. Four methyl methacrylate struts were used to reconstruct the anterior chest wall and were then covered with bilateral pectoralis major muscle flaps. At the 2.5-year follow-up there is no evidence of cardiopulmonary compromise and the development of the thorax appears normal. We advise that use of alloplastic materials is a valid option in managing this difficult congenital anomaly.

  16. Bilateral ectopia lentis with isolated lens coloboma in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Sabin; Yadav, Reena; Gupta, Sharad; Raj Puri, Lila

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral ectopia lentis with isolated lens coloboma in Marfan syndrome is reported. A 21-year-old female presented with decreased vision in both eyes. Her unaided visual acuity was 20/200 and 20/400 in the right and left eye, respectively, improving to 20/40 with –4.5 DS/–3.0 DC x 10° correction in the right eye and 20/80 with –10.0 DS/–6.5 Dc x10° correction in the left eye. On slit lamp examination under mydriasis, both eyes revealed ectopia lentis with lens coloboma and stretched zonules. Fundus examination revealed pigmentary changes at the fovea. On systemic evaluation, she was diagnosed with Marfan syndrome. She was prescribed a refractive correction in form of a contact lens and kept under observation. PMID:28028488

  17. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed.

  18. Testicular Cancer and Genetics Knowledge Among Familial Testicular Cancer Family Members

    PubMed Central

    Beckjord, Ellen B.; Banda Ryan, Deliya R.; Carr, Ann G.; Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Korde, Larissa; Greene, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It was our aim to determine baseline levels of testicular cancer and genetics knowledge among members of families with Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC). Methods This is a sub-study of an ongoing National Cancer Institute (NCI) multidisciplinary, etiologically-focused, cross-sectional study of FTC. We evaluated 258 male and female participants including testicular cancer (TC) survivors, blood relatives and spouses to assess factors associated with a Genetic Knowledge Scale (GKS) and Testicular Cancer Knowledge Scale (TCKS). Results Knowledge levels were generally low, with genetic knowledge lower than TC knowledge (p<0.01). Men with a personal TC history scored highest on TC knowledge, while gender, age and education differentially influenced knowledge levels, particularly among unaffected relatives. Conclusions Prior to identifying FTC susceptibility genes, we recommend tailoring FTC genetic education to the different informational needs of TC survivors, their spouses and relatives, in preparation for the day when clinical susceptibility testing may be available. PMID:18481162

  19. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... main drugs used to treat testicular cancer are: Cisplatin Etoposide (VP-16) Bleomycin Ifosfamide (Ifex ® ) Paclitaxel (Taxol ® ) ... cancer are: BEP (or PEB): bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin EP: etoposide and cisplatin (also known as EP) ...

  20. The eye as a window to a rare disease: ectopia lentis and homocystinuria, a Pakistani perspective.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Maeirah; Muzaffar, Waqar; Ishaq, Mazhar

    2016-02-01

    Non-traumatic ectopia lentis has been associated with genetic diseases in a European population; however, no data are present in regards to this in a Pakistani demographic. In third world countries such as Pakistan, due to the lack of screening tests, this disease has the potential to remain undiagnosed till a later age, at which point the eye through the finding of ectopia lentis has potential to lead to the right diagnosis. Our purpose was to investigate Pakistani patients presenting with ectopia lentis who have underlying homocystinuria and establish a relationship between the two. Additionally, we elicited various systemic and ophthalmic features in these settings. Ten Pakistani patients presenting with decreased vision and ectopia lentis with concomitant homocystinuria were included in the study. Assessment of systemic and ophthalmic features was performed. All patients presented with visual deterioration. All 20 (100 %) eyes had ectopia lentis, of which, 15 (75 %) eyes had inferior subluxation, whereas five (25 %) eyes had anterior subluxation of the crystalline lens. Ectopia lentis and homocystinuria appear to have a strong correlation in Pakistani population. Ectopia lentis has the potential to serve as an important clue to its diagnosis, which may in turn lead to decreased morbidity if diagnosed in a timely fashion.

  1. Ectopia cordis thoracique sporadique: description clinique d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Lubala, Toni Kasole; Mutombo, Augustin Mulangu; Katamea, Tina; Lubala, Nina; Munkana, Arthur Ndundula; Kabuya, Maguy Sangaji; Monga, Joséphine Kalenga; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2012-01-01

    Nous décrivons un cas d'ectopia cordis, une malformation cardiaque congénitale extrêmement rare dans laquelle le coeur est partiellement ou complètement situé en dehors des limites de la cage thoracique. Dans le cas que nous décrivons, elle est thoracique et isolée. Ce cas a été diagnostiqué en salle de naissance au Katanga, au sud de la République Démocratique du Congo. Il s'agit du premier cas documenté chez un nouveau-né Congolais. PMID:23346276

  2. Successful staged-Fontan operation in a patient with ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, S; Kado, H; Imoto, Y; Shiokawa, Y; Yasui, H

    2001-02-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare and often fatal disease. We report a successful surgery case of thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis with univentricular heart. This patient underwent a three-stage Fontan procedure, a right-modified Blalock-Taussig shunt at the age of 1 month, bidirectional Glenn shunt and pulmonary arterioplasty at 2 years 8 months, and finally a total cavopulmonary connection at 4 years. This patient was discharged from the hospital in good condition and has been doing well since. Thus, ectopia cordis is not a contraindication for a Fontan operation.

  3. [Cardiac malformations in patients with pentalogy of Cantrell and ectopia cordis].

    PubMed

    de Rubens Figueroa, Jesús; Sosa Cruz, Erika Flor; Díaz García, Luisa; Carrasco Daza, Daniel

    2011-07-01

    We studied 21 patients who presented with a diagnosis of pentalogy of Cantrell. Their mean age was 40 days. All patients presented with congenital heart disease. Six presented with ectopia cordis. Every patient was subjected to echocardiography. Double outlet right ventricle, an atrial septal defect and dextrocardia were seen in 5 patients (24%). Four patients survived. Seventeen died, 12 from sepsis or septic shock. Autopsies were performed on 10 patients. All of the ectopia cordis patients died. Pentalogy of Cantrell is uncommon, and its association with ectopia cordis indicates poor prognosis. Full English text available from: www.revespcardiol.org.

  4. Testicular Microlithiasis: Is It Associated with Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cell tumors (FTGCT) — Overview of a multidisciplinary etiologic study. Andrology. 2015;3:47. Pedersen MR, et al. Testicular microlithiasis and testicular cancer: Review of the literature. International Urology and Nephrology. 2016;48:1079. Wang T, ...

  5. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  6. A Rare Case Report of Thoracic Ectopia Cordis: An Obstetrician's Point of View in Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zitkute, Viktorija; Lauzikiene, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly associated with the heart positioned outside of the thoracic cavity either partially or completely. It can be associated with other congenital abnormalities. Overall, the prognosis for infants with ectopia cordis is very poor but depends greatly on the type and severity of ectopia cordis and intracardiac and associated malformations. We present one case of a fetus with prenatally diagnosed thoracic ectopia cordis with intracardiac defects and omphalocele, all the abnormalities seen in pentalogy of Cantrell except a diaphragmatic defect. Considering poor prognosis for fetus, conservative management of prenatal care has been chosen. At the 42nd gestational week, during the active stage of labor, due to fetal distress, cesarean section was performed at a tertiary level hospital. The condition of the infant was impairing rapidly and the newborn succumbed within 24 hours. We discuss the perinatal care concerning this rare anomaly. PMID:27957373

  7. A Rare Case Report of Thoracic Ectopia Cordis: An Obstetrician's Point of View in Multidisciplinary Approach.

    PubMed

    Ramasauskaite, Diana; Snieckuviene, Vilija; Zitkute, Viktorija; Vankeviciene, Ramune; Lauzikiene, Dalia; Drasutiene, Grazina

    2016-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital anomaly associated with the heart positioned outside of the thoracic cavity either partially or completely. It can be associated with other congenital abnormalities. Overall, the prognosis for infants with ectopia cordis is very poor but depends greatly on the type and severity of ectopia cordis and intracardiac and associated malformations. We present one case of a fetus with prenatally diagnosed thoracic ectopia cordis with intracardiac defects and omphalocele, all the abnormalities seen in pentalogy of Cantrell except a diaphragmatic defect. Considering poor prognosis for fetus, conservative management of prenatal care has been chosen. At the 42nd gestational week, during the active stage of labor, due to fetal distress, cesarean section was performed at a tertiary level hospital. The condition of the infant was impairing rapidly and the newborn succumbed within 24 hours. We discuss the perinatal care concerning this rare anomaly.

  8. Ectopia cordis with endocardial cushion defect: Prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis with autopsy correlation.

    PubMed

    Balakumar, K; Misha, K

    2010-07-01

    The prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis associated with a complex intra-cardiac defect (common atrium, common atrioventricular valve with single ventricle) is illustrated in a 32-week gestation fetus. The fetus showed associated features of amniotic band disruption sequence. The cardiac autopsy findings correlated with the antenatal diagnosis. The association of ectopia cordis with amniotic band disruption is rare and infrequently reported in literature.

  9. Fontan operation through a right lateral thoracotomy to treat Cantrell syndrome with severe ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuki; Harada, Yorikazu; Uchita, Shunji

    2008-04-01

    A median sternotomy would be very difficult for Cantrell syndrome with severe ectopia cordis. For Cantrell syndrome and tricuspid atresia after left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt with severe ectopia cordis, defect in the middle and inferior portion of the sternum, and the closing of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt, we performed extracardiac total cavopulmonary connection through a right lateral thoracotomy after establishing right modified Blalock-Taussig shunt and performing coil embolization of left modified Blalock-Taussig shunt by cardiologists.

  10. Craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis and a homozygous 20-base deletion in ADAMTSL4.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Aman; Aragon-Martin, Jose Antonio; Sharif, Saba; Parulekar, Manoj; Child, Anne; Arno, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis has been described five times since 1950 with unknown inheritance and variable phenotype. The patient was diagnosed with right coronal synostosis at age 10 weeks requiring surgery, and bilateral ectopia lentis with high myopia at 10 months. No other family member was affected. There is no known consanguinity within the family. Genetic screening ruled out FBN1, TGFBR2, and the known craniosynostosis hotspots (FGFR2 exon 8 and exon 10 and FGFR3 exon 6) as the cause. A homozygous deletion in exon 6 of ADAMTSL4 (c.767_786del 20) that has been shown to cause isolated ectopia lentis was found. The mutation results in a premature termination codon (p.Gln256ProfsX38). The proband's mother, father and one sibling are heterozygous carriers of the mutation. This is the first detailed report of a possible genetic determinant of craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis. Although this mutation causes isolated ectopia lentis, this may be evidence of pleiotropic effects of ADAMTSL4 and may represent an overlapping syndrome with a causative mutation in ADAMTSL4. These findings need to be confirmed in further cases with craniosynostosis and ectopia lentis.

  11. Spin on perinatal testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Samnakay, Naeem; Tudehope, David; Walker, Rosslyn

    2006-11-01

    We describe a recent case of perinatal testicular torsion at our institution. The presentation, management and outcome of perinatal testicular torsion are quite different to testicular torsion in the general paediatric population. The literature describes a variety of management options for perinatal testicular torsion and these are briefly reviewed. In cases of unilateral perinatal testicular torsin, there is controversy over whether surgery to fix the contralateral testis is required, and if so, the appropriate timing for the surgery. A good understanding of the issues unique to perinatal torsion will facilitate appropriate counseling of parents of affected neonates.

  12. Testicular Cancer Treatments: Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... are TC clean, and your first line of defense are these testing regimens. If you do all the tests, this is not a risky choice. Click on this to go back to the TCRC main page: This page was last updated on Dec 05, 2012 Copyright © 1997 - 2012 The Testicular Cancer Resource Center , All Rights Reserved

  13. Testicular Cancer and Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Lydia; Agoulnik, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of testicular descent or cryptorchidism is the most common defect in newborn boys. The descent of the testes during development is controlled by insulin-like 3 peptide and steroid hormones produced in testicular Leydig cells, as well as by various genetic and developmental factors. While in some cases the association with genetic abnormalities and environmental causes has been shown, the etiology of cryptorchidism remains uncertain. Cryptorchidism is an established risk factor for infertility and testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Experimental animal models suggest a causative role for an abnormal testicular position on the disruption of spermatogenesis however the link between cryptorchidism and TGCT is less clear. The most common type of TGCT in cryptorchid testes is seminoma, believed to be derived from pluripotent prenatal germ cells. Recent studies have shown that seminoma cells and their precursor carcinoma in situ cells express a number of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers suggesting that TGCTs might originate from adult stem cells. We review here the data on changes in the SSC somatic cell niche observed in cryptorchid testes of mouse models and in human patients. We propose that the misregulation of growth factors’ expression may alter the balance between SSC self-renewal and differentiation and shift stem cells toward neoplastic transformation. PMID:23519268

  14. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S S; Idris, S F; Follows, G A; Williams, M V

    2012-06-01

    Primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTL) comprises around 9% of testicular cancers and 1-2% of all non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Its incidence is increasing and it primarily affects older men, with a median age at presentation of around 67 years. By far the most common histological subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, accounting for 80-90% of PTLs. Most patients present with a unilateral testicular mass or swelling. Up to 90% of patients have stage I or II disease at diagnosis (60 and 30%, respectively) and bilateral testicular involvement is seen in around 35% of patients. PTL demonstrates a continuous pattern of relapse and propensity for extra-nodal sites such as the central nervous system and contralateral testis. Retrospective data have emphasised the importance of prophylactic radiotherapy in reducing recurrence rates within the contralateral testis. Recent outcome data from the prospective IELSG-10 trial have shown far better progression-free and overall survival than historical outcomes. This supports the use of orchidectomy followed by Rituximab- cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone (R-CHOP), central nervous system prophylaxis and prophylactic radiotherapy to the contralateral testis with or without nodal radiotherapy in patients with limited disease. Central nervous system relapse remains a significant issue and future research should focus on identifying the best strategy to reduce its occurrence. Here we discuss the evidence supporting combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy in PTL.

  15. Molecular pathogenesis and management strategies of ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Charteris, D

    2014-02-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL) is a condition that can either herald underlying systemic conditions, or be isolated. The recent expansion in the genetics of these conditions has furthered the understanding of the underlying molecular aetiology. It is becoming apparent that novel genes, and in particular the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family, are important in ocular development. The common link in these genes seems to be EL. The clinical management of EL is challenging. In particular, the options for addressing surgically induced aphakia in the context of an ectopic capsule are varied. Little evidence exists to direct management of these issues. This review summarises the molecular pathogenesis of EL and conditions associated with it, using the genetic aetiology as a framework. Furthermore, it summarises some of the issues involved in its clinical management.

  16. Prenatally evolving ectopia cordis with successful surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Sadłecki, Paweł; Krekora, Michał; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Grabiec, Marek; Moll, Jacek; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare malformation due to failure of maturation of the midline mesodermal components of the chest and abdomen. It can be defined as a complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Common cardiac anomalies associated with EC are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot. EC and additional anomalies usually lead to intrauterine death. The possibility and efficacy of surgery in a surviving neonate depends on the degree of EC, coexisting congenital heart defects and extracardiac malformations. We present a case of prenatally diagnosed isolated EC diagnosed in the first half of pregnancy. After counseling, the patient decided to continue her pregnancy which ended with a newborn baby discharged from the hospital after cardiac surgery performed just after elective cesarean section.

  17. A homozygous mutation in ADAMTSL4 causes autosomal-recessive isolated ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Ahram, Dina; Sato, T Shawn; Kohilan, Abdulghani; Tayeh, Marwan; Chen, Shan; Leal, Suzanne; Al-Salem, Mahmoud; El-Shanti, Hatem

    2009-02-01

    Ectopia lentis is a genetically heterogeneous condition that is characterized by the subluxation of the lens resulting from the disruption of the zonular fibers. Patients with ectopia lentis commonly present with a marked loss in visual acuity in addition to a number of possibly accompanying ocular complications including cataract, myopia, and retinal detachment. We here describe an isolated form of ectopia lentis in a large inbred family that shows autosomal-recessive inheritance. We map the ectopia lentis locus in this family to the pericentromeric region on chromosome 1 (1p13.2-q21.1). The linkage region contains well more than 60 genes. Mutation screening of four candidate genes revealed a homozygous nonsense mutation in exon 11 of ADAMTSL4 (p.Y595X; c.1785T-->G) in all affected individuals that is absent in 380 control chromosomes. The mutation would result in a truncated protein of half the original length, if the mRNA escapes nonsense-mediated decay. We conclude that mutations in ADAMTSL4 are responsible for autosomal-recessive simple ectopia lentis and that ADAMTS-like4 plays a role in the development and/or integrity of the zonular fibers.

  18. Testicular cancer in cryptorchids.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Whitmore, W F; Golbey, R B

    1982-03-01

    One-hundred thirty-seven patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor were treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1976. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 93 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 2 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (24 patients), by orchiopexy (58 patients), or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-four cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) had either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), or abdominal (14 patients), or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (six patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 56 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 41, teratocarcinoma in 37, and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The five-year survival rates were similar in the corrected (61%) and uncorrected (63%) cases, and they were higher in patients with pure seminoma (79%) than in patients with germinal carcinomas (50%). The majority (64 of 80) of five-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation in 41 patients with pure seminoma and/or systemic chemotherapy in 23 patients with other germinomas. Since the testicular tumors that developed despite correction of the cryptorchid state were predominantly (72%) germinal carcinomas, unilateral cryptorchidism, which usually is associated with testicular atrophy, should be treated by orchiectomy instead of orchiopexy to prevent ipsilateral carcinogenesis. Cryptorchid patients with testicles that descended late should be observed periodically, especially after the 20-year latent period, for early detection of cancer.

  19. Chest wall reconstruction in thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis: using the pedicled osteomuscular latissimus dorsi composite flap.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Joshua A; Harmaty, Marco; Thompson, Elizabeth Chabner; Sett, Suvro; Koch, R Michael

    2010-11-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect characterized by complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. Repair of ectopia cordis can present a reconstructive challenge often requiring a staged approach. Ideally, structural integrity and protection of the heart are restored using autologous tissues capable of growth. In addition, reconstruction of the thorax must proceed without compromise to pulmonary or cardiovascular stability. The following article describes repair of thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis in a patient with pentalogy of Cantrell. Reconstruction of the chest wall was accomplished using a musculoosseus composite flap involving segments of the 9th and 10th ribs and overlying pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle. This is the first report known to the authors of such a repair.

  20. Body stalk anomaly complicated by ectopia cordis in the first trimester.

    PubMed

    Y, Shibata; K, Terada; M, Igarashi; S, Suzuki

    2014-05-01

    The most serious conditions seen in body stalk anomaly may be the cases which are complicated by ectopia cordis, which is characterized by the abnormal location of the heart outside the thorax. We encountered four cases of body stalk anomaly, which were complicated by ectopia cordis, which were diagnosed in the first trimesters of pregnancy. In three of these cases, ultrasound scans revealed foetuses with large anterior abdominal wall defects, with their hearts extending outside their thoracic cavities. Their mothers, along with their husbands opted for termination of their pregnancies. In 1 other case, an ultrasound scan revealed a dead foetus, with gastroschisis. Based on the current cases, we suggest that the diagnosis of ectopia cordis caused by body stalk anomaly can be made during the first trimester of pregnancy.

  1. Prenatal 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography diagnosis and autoptic findings of isolated ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Bianca, S; Bartoloni, G; Auditore, S; Reale, A; Tetto, C; Ingegnosi, C; Pirruccello, B; Ettore, G

    2006-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital malformation, commonly associated with intracardiac anomalies. It is due to a defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. We report prenatal 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D ultrasonography diagnosis and postnatal autoptic findings of an isolated ectopia cordis with tricuspid atresia. Ectopia cordis prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. 3D ultrasonography may add more detailed visualization of the heart anomaly even if the 2D ultrasonography alone permits the prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrical management should include a careful search for associated anomalies, especially cardiac, and the assessment of fetal karyotype. As this is considered a sporadic anomaly, the recurrence risk is low and no genetic origin is known.

  2. [Ectopia cordis and Cantrell's pentalogy: personal experience and considerations on the surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Pampaloni, A; Noccioli, B; Pampaloni, F; Vanini, V

    1997-01-01

    Clefts of the sternum have always attracted attention whether for pathological and physiological features or for research of surgical correction. Two cases of sternal cleft, one with partial ectopia cordis, the other with Cantrell's pentalogy, are presented. Embryology, strategies and several surgical techniques are discussed on the grounds of personal experience. The pediatric surgeon can make a choice among a lot of surgical techniques, because the ectopia cordis and Cantrell's pentalogy are very uncommon and the surgical treatment has a difficult codification. The knowledge of several methods of surgical correction is necessary to reduce high mortality of ectopia cordis and Cantrell's pentalogy. Primary repair in the neonatal period is the best type of management for these rare conditions, because simple closure of the sternal defect during the first month of life avoids the more complex reconstruction necessary in older children.

  3. Body Stalk Anomaly Complicated by Ectopia Cordis in the First Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Y., Shibata; K., Terada; M., Igarashi

    2014-01-01

    The most serious conditions seen in body stalk anomaly may be the cases which are complicated by ectopia cordis, which is characterized by the abnormal location of the heart outside the thorax. We encountered four cases of body stalk anomaly, which were complicated by ectopia cordis, which were diagnosed in the first trimesters of pregnancy. In three of these cases, ultrasound scans revealed foetuses with large anterior abdominal wall defects, with their hearts extending outside their thoracic cavities. Their mothers, along with their husbands opted for termination of their pregnancies. In 1 other case, an ultrasound scan revealed a dead foetus, with gastroschisis. Based on the current cases, we suggest that the diagnosis of ectopia cordis caused by body stalk anomaly can be made during the first trimester of pregnancy. PMID:24995220

  4. Focal Dermal Hypoplasia with Uterus Bicornis and Renal Ectopia: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Porras, Rocío F.; Arroyo, Carlos; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Focal dermal hypoplasia (FDH) is a rare inherited genodermatosis with an X-linked dominant trait. FDH is associated with skin defects and other abnormalities of bone, nails, hair, limbs, teeth and eyes. We present the case of a 26-year-old female in the 27th pregnancy week and a previous history of miscarriage. After careful physical examination and dermal biopsy, histopathology revealed that the patient was a carrier of FDH. This is the first report in the literature describing that FDH is associated with uterus bicornis and renal ectopia. Our association could be attributable to early embryonic abnormalities related with FDH because both the uterus bicornis and the renal ectopia originate around the 3th-6th week of embryonic development. We are unable to confirm that the miscarriages were caused by inherited FDH or that uterus bicornis was the cause. We conducted a literature review using the following terms: FDH, Goltz syndrome, uterus bicornis, and renal ectopia. PMID:21941481

  5. Ectopia and Partial Transposition of Mandibular Lateral Incisors in a Child Patient

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Viviane Andrade Cancio; Giacomet, Felipe; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2011-01-01

    Dental ectopia is a rare clinical finding characterized by a change in the normal tooth eruption pathway. In more severe cases, nontreated ectopia may develop into either partial or total transposition. The early diagnosis is of crucial importance for establishing a treatment planning correctly. Therefore, the present paper is aimed at reporting an unusual case of a 11-year-old boy with ectopic eruption and partial transposition of mandibular permanent lateral incisors as well as the diagnosis and therapeutic outcomes involving such an anomaly. PMID:21991466

  6. The revised ghent nosology; reclassifying isolated ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Patel, D; Aragon-Martin, J A; Pinard, A; Collod-Béroud, G; Comeglio, P; Boileau, C; Faivre, L; Charteris, D; Child, A H; Arno, G

    2015-03-01

    Inherited ectopia lentis (EL) is most commonly caused by Marfan syndrome (MFS), a multisystemic disorder caused by mutations in FBN1. Historically the diagnosis for patients with EL who have no systemic features of MFS is isolated EL (IEL). However, the Ghent nosology for MFS was updated in 2010 and made some important alterations. In particular, patients with EL and a FBN1 mutation are now categorically diagnosed with MFS, if their mutation has previously been described with aortic dilation/dissection. This carries significant systemic implications, as many patients previously diagnosed with IEL are now reclassified. We provide a review of all published cases of IEL caused by FBN1 mutations over the last 20 years to assess what impact the new Ghent nosology has on these. Indeed, 57/123 probands (46.3%) are now classified as MFS according to the revised Ghent nosology and 37/96 mutations (38.5%) reported to cause isolated EL have also been found in patients with aortic dilation/dissection. These findings suggest that EL caused by mutations in FBN1 is actually part of a spectrum of fibrillinopathies with MFS, and the term 'IEL' should be avoided in such cases.

  7. A novel mutation of the fibrillin gene causing Ectopia lentis

    SciTech Connect

    Loennqvist, L.; Kainulainen, K.; Puhakka, L.; Peltonen, L. ); Child, A. ); Peltonen, L. )

    1994-02-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL), a dominantly inherited connective tissue disorder, has been genetically linked to the fibrillin gene on chromosome 15 (FBN1) in earlier studies. Here, the authors report the first EL mutation in the FBN1 gene confirming that EL is caused by mutations of this gene. So far, several mutations in the FBN1 gene have been reported in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS). EL and MFS are clinically related but distinct conditions with typical manifestations in the ocular and skeletal systems, the fundamental difference between them being the absence of cardiovascular involvement in EL. They report a point mutation, cosegregating with the disease in the described family, that displays EL over four generations. The mutation changes a conserved glutamic acid residue in an EGF-like motif, which is the major structural component of the fibrillin and is repeated throughout the polypeptide. In vitro mutagenetic studies have demonstrated the necessity of an analogous glutamic acid residue for calcium binding in an EGF-like repeat of human factor IX. This provides a possible explanation for the role of this mutation in the disease pathogenesis. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Development of the ectopia cordis induced by hydrocortisone administration.

    PubMed

    Seichert, V; Heringová, L; Seichertová, A; Jelínek, R

    2000-01-01

    Our previous study on the development of thorax in chick embryos revealed that mechanical disturbance of the so-called membrana reuniens causes the development of the ectopia cordis (EC). To assess whether membrana reuniens disturbance was really essential for EC development, we employed hydrocortisone, a teratogen known to produce a high incidence of EC. The incidence of EC after the hydrocortisone intraamniotic application on the 4th embryonic day reached 84,8%. It was found that although in the whole course of EC development the membrana reuniens appeared very thin, it nevertheless remained continuous. The morphology of the membrana reuniens in embryos with fully developed EC, studied in classical serial histological sections, was similar to that of the amniotic membrane. Flow cytometry analysis of the cell cycle revealed that EC induced by hydrocortisone administration was associated with a significantly lowered proliferation activity of the prospective body-wall mesenchyme involved in the closure of the anterior wall of thorax. The probable mechanism of EC development is suggested.

  9. Ectopia cordis with a double outlet right ventricle, large ventricular septal defect, malposed great arteries and left ventricular hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rabiya; Zilberman, Mark V; Tang, Liwen; Miller, Susan; Pandian, Natesa G

    2015-03-01

    Ectopia cordis, defined as partial or complete displacement of the heart outside of the thoracic cavity, is a rare congenital malformation. If not surgically corrected during the early years of life, ectopia cordis can prove to be a fatal abnormality. However, due to the presence of multiple intracardiac and extracardiac malformations, a corrective surgery might not always be successful. The pathology of ectopia cordis with a double outlet right ventricle, large ventricular septal defect, malposed great arteries and left ventricular hypoplasia is discussed, highlighting the complexities involved in such a rare disorder.

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of ectopia cordis at 10 weeks of gestation using two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Liang, R I; Huang, S E; Chang, F M

    1997-08-01

    We report here the earliest prenatal diagnosis to date of a case of ectopia cordis using both two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound at 10 weeks of gestation. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasound clearly revealed a thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis and an omphalocele. Histopathological examination confirmed the prenatal ultrasonic findings. In addition to an ectopia cordis, a supraumbilical hepato-omphalocele, absence of a pericardium and an anterior diaphragmatic defect were seen, although there was a normal sternum. These pathological findings, suggested that our case was a variant of pentalogy of Cantrell.

  11. Primary testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Filiz; Cagirgan, Seckin; Saydam, Guray; Hekimgil, Mine; Soyer, Nur Akad; Tombuloglu, Murat

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated clinical features, management and survival of 12 patients with primary testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presented to our hematology unit between January 1992 and July 2006, retrospectively. The median age of patients was 47 years at presentation (range 29-78 years) and > 80% of them were < 50 years old. In the majority of cases, orchidectomy was performed as diagnostic and first-line therapeutic procedures. Dominant histological subtype was diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Seven patients out of 12 (58%) were Ann Arbor stages I and II, and the remaining five patients (42%) were stages III and IV. All the patients received doxorubicin-based chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. The addition of rituximab and central nervous system prophylaxis with intrathecal combined chemotherapy containing methotrexate, cytarabine and dexametasone were applied to three patients who were recently admitted. The rate of relapse was 8% and progression-free survival (PFS) at 10 years was 88%. Median duration of response was 84 months (range 14-173 months), median 97.5 months of follow-up. All patients are alive and in case remission. Because of the spreading nature and relapse probability at different sites, including central nervous system and contralateral testis, systemic treatment with doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without prophylaxis for contralateral testis and the central nervous system seems to improve the outcome of primary testicular lymphoma. PMID:18020104

  12. Confirmation of ADAMTSL4 mutations for autosomal recessive isolated bilateral ectopia lentis.

    PubMed

    Greene, V Bennouna; Stoetzel, C; Pelletier, V; Perdomo-Trujillo, Y; Liebermann, L; Marion, V; De Korvin, H; Boileau, C; Dufier, J L; Dollfus, H

    2010-03-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL) is a zonular disease where alteration of the zonular fibers leads progressively to lens dislocation. It is most often associated with systemic diseases such as Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchesani syndrome or homocystinuria. Isolated non syndromic ectopia lentis (IEL) is reported in families with autosomal inheritance, with dominant forms being more common than recessive. LTBP2 truncating mutations have been described as a cause of autosomal recessive ectopia lentis as a primary or secondary feature in patients showing ocular (eg, glaucoma) or extraocular manifestations (eg, Marfanoid habitus). Recently, ADAMTSL4 has been shown to be responsible for isolated autosomal recessive ectopia lentis in an inbred family. Herein we show a consanguineous family that carries a novel homozygous splice mutation IVS4-1G>A/IVS4-1G>A in ADAMTSL4 responsible for isolated autosomal recessive EL, thus confirming the involvement of this gene in this condition and underlining the major role of ADAMTS proteases in zonular fibers homeostasis.

  13. Long-term survival of a cow with cervical ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Onda, Ken; Sugiyama, Masanori; Niho, Keeko; Sato, Reiichiro; Arai, Sachiko; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Ito, Seigo; Muto, Makoto; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Wakao, Yoshito; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the long-term survival of a calf with cervical ectopia cordis that grew normally, became pregnant, and calved normally. The cow showed normal cardiac function and absence of peripheral circulation abnormalities. This paper documents antemortem characteristics of the affected cow.

  14. First-trimester prenatal sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis in a twin gestation.

    PubMed

    Barbee, Kristen; Wax, Joseph R; Pinette, Michael G; Cartin, Angelina; Blackstone, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    The 11-14-week ultrasound examination allows early pregnancy dating, detection of major anomalies and multiple gestations, and accurate chorionicity determination. We describe a rare case of first-trimester sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis in a dichorionic twin pregnancy, illustrating the benefits of early ultrasound in patient counseling and management.

  15. Long-term survival of a cow with cervical ectopia cordis

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Ken; Sugiyama, Masanori; Niho, Keeko; Sato, Reiichiro; Arai, Sachiko; Kaneko, Kazuyuki; Ito, Seigo; Muto, Makoto; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Wakao, Yoshito; Wada, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the long-term survival of a calf with cervical ectopia cordis that grew normally, became pregnant, and calved normally. The cow showed normal cardiac function and absence of peripheral circulation abnormalities. This paper documents antemortem characteristics of the affected cow. PMID:22131586

  16. [Treatment of testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Droz, Jean-Pierre; Boyle, Helen; Culine, Stéphane; Fizazi, Karim; Fléchon, Aude; Massard, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young men. Since the late 1970s, disseminated GCT have been a paradigm for curable metastatic cancer and metastatic GCTs are highly curable with cisplatin-based chemotherapy followed by surgical resection of residual masses. Patients' prognosis is currently assessed using the International Germ-Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) and used to adapt the burden of chemotherapy. Approximately 20% of patients still do not achieve cure after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, and need salvage chemotherapy (high dose or standard dose chemotherapy). Clinical stage I testicular cancer is the most common presentation and different strategies are proposed: adjuvant therapies, surgery or surveillance. During the last three decades, clinical trials and strong international collaborations lead to the development of a consensus in the management of GCTs.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of thoracic ectopia cordis by real-time fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and by echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Moniotte, Stéphane; Powell, Andrew J; Barnewolt, Carol E; Annese, David; Geva, Tal

    2008-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare congenital defect commonly associated with intra- and extra-cardiac anomalies. This report highlights the complimentary use of echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for detailed prenatal characterization of the anomaly at 23-week gestation.

  18. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapy for Testicular Cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays or x-rays) or particles (such as electrons, protons, or neutrons) to destroy cancer cells or ...

  19. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor marker ... places in the body, and blood levels of AFP, β-hCG, and LDH). Type of cancer. Size ...

  20. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... proteins called tumor markers , such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). When these tumor ... that there is a testicular tumor. Rises in AFP or HCG can also help doctors tell which ...

  1. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  2. Testicular cancer and antecedent diseases.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, A J; Huttly, S R; Smith, P G

    1987-01-01

    A case-control study of the aetiology of testicular cancer was conducted using information obtained by interview and from case-notes of 259 cases with testicular cancer and two sets of control patients -238 men with diagnoses other than testicular cancer attending the same radiotherapy centres as those attended by the cases, and 251 hospital in-patients not attending radiotherapy departments. Logistic regression analyses were performed, after stratifying by age and region of residence, to estimate the relative risks (RRs) associated with various aspects of prior medical history. The risk of testicular cancer was found to be raised for men with a history of cryptorchidism (RR based on comparison with all controls = 6.3; P less than 0.001), inguinal hernia (RR = 1.6; P = 0.14), mumps orchitis (RR = 12.7; P = 0.006), atopy (RR = 1.8; P = 0.03), and meningitis (RR = 3.0; P = 0.21). Inguinal herniorrhaphy before the age of 15 years was particularly a risk factor for seminoma, whereas the relative risks were similar for seminoma and teratoma for the other factors. The results add to the growing evidence that congenital abnormalities involving the process of testicular descent and closure of the processus vaginalis are risk factors for testicular cancer, and that some types of testicular damage later in life may also be important. The findings of associations with previous atopy and certain infections suggest a possible second aetiological mechanism - that immunological abnormalities may be associated with an increased risk of testis cancer.

  3. Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Testicular Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Testicular Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  4. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Batata, M A; Whitmore, W F; Chu, F C; Hilaris, B S; Loh, J; Grabstald, H; Golbey, R

    1980-09-01

    An analysis of 125 patients with a history or clinical evidence of cryptorchidism and testicular germinal tumor treated at our hospital from 1934 to 1975 is presented. Cryptorchidism was corrected ipsilaterally or contralaterally in 83 patients with intrascrotal testis cancer when they were from 4 to 42 years old, either spontaneously (21 patients), by orchiopexy (51 patients) or by hormonal therapy (11 patients). Forty-two cryptorchid patients (uncorrected cases) presented with either ipsilateral inguinal (24 patients), abdominal (14 patients) or contralateral intrascrotal tumors (4 patients). Tumor histologic types on orchiectomy were pure seminoma in 54 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 35, teratocarcinoma in 33 and pure choriocarcinoma in 3. The 5-year survival rates were 60 per cent for the corrected cases and 63 per cent for the uncorrected cases according to cryptorchid state, and they were 78 per cent in patients with pure seminoma and 48 per cent in patients with other germinomas according to histologic type. The majority (58 of 73) of 5-year survivors received regional lymphatic irradiation, in 39 patients with pure seminoma, and/or systemic chemotherapy, in 19 patients with germinal carcinomas, with or without regional lymphadenectomy.

  5. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  6. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  7. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750...) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis. (a) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled...

  8. Pentalogy of cantrell with complete ectopia cordis in a fetus with asplenia.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kathrin; Salmaso, Roberto; Cosmi, Erich; Iaria, Loredana; De Luca, Alessandro; Margiotti, Katia; Valentina, Citton; Manara, Renzo; Rugge, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    Cantrell's pentalogy (CP) is a rare, mainly sporadic spectrum of congenital midline thoracoabdominal defects that includes sternal anomalies, ventral diaphragmatic hernia, partial absence of the pericardium, supraumbilical abdominal wall defects, and congenital heart malformations. The approximate incidence is 1 in 100 000, with a 2∶1 male predominance. A 25-year-old pregnant woman was referred to the Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of the University Hospital of Padua for multiple congenital malformations at 21 weeks of gestation. A level 2 ultrasound scan was performed and confirmed the presence of multiple anomalies compatible with the diagnosis of CP associated with complete ectopia cordis. Fetal autopsy furthermore revealed asplenia, which usually presents as part of the heterotaxia spectrum. To our knowledge, an association of CP and complete ectopia cordis with asplenia has never been reported so far.

  9. Fatty acid intake in relation to reproductive hormones and testicular volume among young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Roca, Manuela; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Vioque, Jesús; Jørgensen, Niels; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that dietary fats may influence testicular function. However, most of the published literature on this field has used semen quality parameters as the only proxy for testicular function. We examined the association of fat intake with circulating reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume among healthy young Spanish men. This is a cross-sectional study among 209 healthy male volunteers conducted between October 2010 and November 2011 in Murcia Region of Spain. Participants completed questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, and smoking, and each underwent a physical examination, and provided a blood sample. Linear regression was used to examine the association between each fatty acid type and reproductive hormone levels and testicular volumes. Monounsaturated fatty acids intake was inversely associated with serum blood levels of calculated free testosterone, total testosterone, and inhibin B. A positive association was observed between the intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and luteinizing hormone concentrations. In addition, the intake of trans fatty acids was associated with lower total testosterone and calculated free testosterone concentrations (Ptrend = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). The intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids was positively related to testicular volume while the intake of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids was inversely related to testicular volume. These data suggest that fat intake, and particularly intake of omega 3, omega 6, and trans fatty acids, may influence testicular function. PMID:27834316

  10. Cardiac anomalies in Cantrell’s pentalogy: From ventricular diverticulum to complete thoracic ectopia cordis

    PubMed Central

    Kaouthar, Hakim; Jihen, Ayari; Faten, Jebri; Hela, Msaad; Fatma, Ouarda; Lilia, Chaker; Rafik, Boussaada

    2014-01-01

    Summary Cantrell’s pentalogy is a very rare syndrome associating varying degrees of midline wall defects and congenital cardiac anomalies. It is characterized by a combination of five anomalies that are: a midline supra umbilical abdominal wall defect, a sternal defect, an anterior diaphragmatic defect, a diaphragmatic pericardial defect and a congenital intra cardiac defect. Ectopia cordis, defined as a developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the thorax, is in some cases a part of this syndrome. We report two cases of Cantrell’s pentalogy in which cardiac ectopia was complete in one case and limited to left ventricular diverticulum in the other case. Both cases had a common intracardiac defect which is a double outlet right ventricle. The first case underwent surgical repair of the intracardiac lesions with resection of the diverticulum associated to repair of the midline defects with good outcome. The second case that presented with complete extra thoracic ectopia cordis died because of sepsis. We review through this article the main characteristics of Cantrell’s pentalogy, we highlight the diversity of anatomic lesions and study the prognosis of this syndrome. PMID:25541632

  11. Cardiac anomalies in Cantrell's pentalogy: From ventricular diverticulum to complete thoracic ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Kaouthar, Hakim; Jihen, Ayari; Faten, Jebri; Hela, Msaad; Fatma, Ouarda; Lilia, Chaker; Rafik, Boussaada

    2013-01-01

    Cantrell's pentalogy is a very rare syndrome associating varying degrees of midline wall defects and congenital cardiac anomalies. It is characterized by a combination of five anomalies that are: a midline supra umbilical abdominal wall defect, a sternal defect, an anterior diaphragmatic defect, a diaphragmatic pericardial defect and a congenital intra cardiac defect. Ectopia cordis, defined as a developmental defect in which the heart is abnormally located partially or totally outside the thorax, is in some cases a part of this syndrome. We report two cases of Cantrell's pentalogy in which cardiac ectopia was complete in one case and limited to left ventricular diverticulum in the other case. Both cases had a common intracardiac defect which is a double outlet right ventricle. The first case underwent surgical repair of the intracardiac lesions with resection of the diverticulum associated to repair of the midline defects with good outcome. The second case that presented with complete extra thoracic ectopia cordis died because of sepsis. We review through this article the main characteristics of Cantrell's pentalogy, we highlight the diversity of anatomic lesions and study the prognosis of this syndrome.

  12. Postnatal Gene Therapy Improves Spatial Learning Despite the Presence of Neuronal Ectopia in a Model of Neuronal Migration Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Huaiyu; Liu, Yu; Bampoe, Kevin; He, Yonglin; Yu, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with type II lissencephaly, a neuronal migration disorder with ectopic neurons, suffer from severe mental retardation, including learning deficits. There is no effective therapy to prevent or correct the formation of neuronal ectopia, which is presumed to cause cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that learning deficits were not solely caused by neuronal ectopia and that postnatal gene therapy could improve learning without correcting the neuronal ectopia formed during fetal development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated spatial learning of cerebral cortex-specific protein O-mannosyltransferase 2 (POMT2, an enzyme required for O-mannosyl glycosylation) knockout mice and compared to the knockout mice that were injected with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) encoding POMT2 into the postnatal brains with Barnes maze. The data showed that the knockout mice exhibited reduced glycosylation in the cerebral cortex, reduced dendritic spine density on CA1 neurons, and increased latency to the target hole in the Barnes maze, indicating learning deficits. Postnatal gene therapy restored functional glycosylation, rescued dendritic spine defects, and improved performance on the Barnes maze by the knockout mice even though neuronal ectopia was not corrected. These results indicate that postnatal gene therapy improves spatial learning despite the presence of neuronal ectopia. PMID:27916859

  13. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Craniosynostosis, ectopia lentis, and congenital heart defects: further delineation of an autosomal dominant syndrome with incomplete penetrance.

    PubMed

    Quercia, Nada L; Teebi, Ahmad S

    2002-01-01

    The association of craniosynostosis with ectopia lentis is extremely rare. This was recently reported in monozygotic twin sisters, supporting a genetic etiology for this syndromic association. We report on female first cousins once removed who were born with unilateral coronal synostosis. One cousin also had peripheral pulmonic branch stenosis at birth and was later found to have ectopia lentis and severe myopia. The other cousin had an atrial septal defect, mitral valve prolapse, and only mild myopia. Their intelligence is normal. The inheritance is likely autosomal dominant with variable expression and incomplete penetrance and further defines this syndrome to include congenital heart defects. These findings will have important implications for genetic counseling.

  16. What Are the Key Statistics about Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Are the Key Statistics About Testicular Cancer? The American Cancer Society’s estimates ... you would like to know more about survival statistics, see Testicular cancer survival rates . Visit the American ...

  17. How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... bumps — which can be the first sign of testicular cancer . Although testicular cancer is rare in teenage guys, overall it is ... checked by your doctor as soon as possible. Testicular cancer is almost always curable if it is caught ...

  18. Timely diagnosis of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Moul, Judd W

    2007-05-01

    Early detection of testicular tumors has been touted as beneficial for more than 100 years. In earlier eras, early detection was virtually the only way to improve outcomes. According to statistics that have been tracked in the literature, however, the delay from initial symptoms to definitive diagnosis by radical orchiectomy has averaged 4 to 5 months. In the modern era of effective chemotherapy, the effects of a delayed diagnosis on survival can be overcome but at the cost of a more morbid treatment regimen. Although screening on a population basis is not currently recommended by the National Cancer Institute, teaching testicular self examination to young men, particularly those who have risk factors, is reasonable.

  19. Autosomal recessive bilateral frontal polymicrogyria with ectopia lentis and chorioretinal dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Nooraine, Javeria; Vasudha, Kemmanu; Natesh, Sribhargava; Iyer, Rajesh B; Raghavendra, Seetharam

    2013-10-01

    Polymicrogyria is a type of cortical dysplasia with cortical organizational defect. Bilateral polymicrogyria are distinct with genetic basis in a subset. We hereby report a case of bilateral frontal polymicrogyria (BFP) in association with chorioretinal dystrophy and ectopia lentis (EL) in a 26-year-old lady born of a consanguineous parentage. Her male sibling also had chorioretinal dystrophy and EL. This combination of autosomal recessive inheritance has not been reported earlier in the literature and suggests a role of connective tissue genes in BFP.

  20. First trimester sonographic diagnosis of ectopia cordis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hannoun, Antoine; Usta, Ihab M; Sawaya, Fadi; Nassar, Anwar H

    2011-06-01

    A case of ectopia cordis (EC) with gastroschisis in a 27-year-old primigravida was diagnosed at 10(3/7) weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was terminated by suction dilatation and curettage. With the increasing use of first trimester ultrasonography, early detection of fetal abnormalities is becoming more frequent. We review other published cases of EC detected in the first trimester and discuss the possible advantages of early diagnosis including options of termination at earlier gestational ages which might decrease the physical and psychological trauma on some patients.

  1. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  2. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  3. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Drug Administration on or before July 5, 1995, for any testicular prosthesis that was in...

  4. [Fertility in testicular cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Miyata, Akane; Arai, Gaku; Okada, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    Testicular cancer(TC)is the most common and curable cancer affecting men of reproductive age. Successful treatment approaches have resulted in longer life expectancy in TC survivors. The most frequently used treatment for TC is a combination of inguinal orchiectomy, and either radiotherapy or cisplatin-based chemotherapy. In many TC patients, sperm quality is already abnormal and there may even be a lack of viable spermatozoa at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, the effect of cancer treatment on fertility is a potentially significant issue. Fertility preservation in these men has become essential and needs to be discussed prior to the start of cancer treatment. The only currently established fertility preservation method is the cryopreservation of sperm before therapy. For most patients seeking cryopreservation, the semen sample is collected via masturbation. If the patient is unable to ejaculate for any reason, other techniques such as vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation can be performed. In azoospermic or severely oligozoospermic patients, testicular sperm extraction at the time of the inguinal orchiectomy is a useful technique for obtaining spermatozoa before cytotoxic therapy. We herein present an overview of the current topics on fertility in TC patients, including the effects of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. We also describe the strategy for fertility preservation in these patients.

  5. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  6. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  7. Testicular conditions in athletes: torsion, tumors, and epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Sandella, Bradley; Hartmann, Brett; Berkson, David; Hong, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Individuals involved in sports are at risk for sustaining various injuries. In addition to musculoskeletal complaints, male athletes are at risk of incurring testicular injuries. These issues can range from an acute emergency such as testicular torsion to indolent testicular tumors. In contrast, epididymitis can present in stages. Presentation and management of testicular complaints can vary depending on the condition. Physicians who provide medical care to athletes need to be competent in diagnosing and managing testicular injuries.

  8. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  9. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  10. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    PubMed

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  11. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group.

  12. Management of Pentalogy of Cantrell with complete ectopia cordis and Double Outlet Right Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Harring, Gesa; Weil, Jochen; Thiel, Christian; Schmelzle, Rainer; Mueller, Goetz C

    2015-05-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell (PoC) is a rare congenital midline defect. We present a case and its treatment of PoC with complete ectopia cordis and congenital heart disease. Postnatally the congenital heart defect was surgically corrected and the ectopic heart was covered by musculous mobilized flap. Due to cephalic orientation of the heart and limited intrathoracic space, replacement of the heart into the thoracic cavity was initially not performed. After 11 years of follow up our patient now is without relevant limitations solely wearing a thoracic shelter. This case elucidates the complexity of further management. The potential risk of disastrous hemodynamic compromise by intrathoracic shift is to compare with the limited safety of the ectopic heart.

  13. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  14. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. A testicular prosthesis is an implanted device that consists of a solid or gel-filled silicone rubber prosthesis that is implanted surgically to resemble a testicle. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. Testicular lesions of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, A

    1975-01-01

    Diabetes was induced in adult male albino rats by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (75 mg/kg body weight). The diabetes was allowed to stabilize for at least 15 days, whereafter the testicular and seminal vesicle histology was studied at various time intervals. Reduction in testis weights and tubule diameters was significant after 2 weeks of diabetes. The changes in seminiferous tubules ranged from premature sloughing of epithelium to total cessation of spermatogenesis. The testicular histology of diabetic animals frequently greatly simulated the situation described following hypophysectomy. By subjective visual assessment the number of Leydig cells was found to be normal or reduced in all of the diabetic animals. Diabetes was also demonstrated to induce seminal vesicle atrophy, which did not show any correlation with the degree of testicular lesions. The possible etiology of testicular damage in diabetic animals is discussed.

  16. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  17. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  18. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (<167 cm or less), the OR of testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (<174 cm) subjects was 3.47 (95% CI: 1.60-7.51). These results suggest that the association between height and testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence.

  19. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage.

  20. Polyorchidism with presumed contralateral intrauterine testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Leodoro, B.M.; Beasley, S.W.; Stringer, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Polyorchidism was first described by Blasius in 16701 during a routine autopsy. We report a child with unilateral polyorchidism and a contralateral absent testis, a combination not reported previously. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 2-year-old boy was referred to the outpatient clinic with an impalpable left testis. At laparoscopy, the left vas deferens and testicular vessels ended blindly proximal to a closed internal ring. No gonadal tissue was identified. On the right side, a single vas deferens and testicular vessels were seen entering the internal ring as normal. The right side of the scrotum was explored and two testes were identified within a single tunica vaginalis. DISCUSSION Polyorchidism is rare with a literature search identifying approximately 230 reported cases. Whilst prenatal testicular torsion is increasing being recognized and treated as a surgical emergency,9 prenatal testicular torsion in association with polyorchidism has not been previously reported. CONCLUSION We describe a unique case of a 2-year-old boy with right-sided polyorchidism and an absent left testis associated with a blind ending vas deferens and testicular vessels, presumed secondary to intrauterine testicular torsion. PMID:25462053

  1. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

  2. Ectopia cordis with tetralogy of Fallot in an infant with pentalogy of Cantrell: high-pitch MDCT exam.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Herrera, Rogerio; Ramirez-Carmona, Rocio; Criales-Vera, Sergio; Calderon-Colmenero, Juan; Kimura-Hayama, Eric

    2011-07-01

    We report the MDCT findings of a 17-month-old girl with Cantrell's pentalogy, a rare congenital disease characterized by several defects in the ventral thoracoabdominal wall including ectopia cordis, and, in this patient, associated with tetralogy of Fallot. This case provides an example of the utility of a wide volume in coverage and high-pitch MDCT scan in the evaluation of complex cardiovascular anatomy in infants with congenital heart disease without the need of an ECG-gating acquisition.

  3. Exposure of smoke solutions from CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws induces distressed embryonic movements, embryonic hemorrhaging and ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Sohail; Ejaz, Ahmed; Sohail, Amara; Ahmed, Mukthar; Nasir, Amar; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-07-01

    In south Asian countries, a campaign has launched to promote CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (CNFAR) to decrease emission load in the environment. Even though, CNFAR are considered environmentally safe, emissions of some other toxic chemicals would amplify, which may effect the development of growing fetus and may result in different growth defects. By utilizing the in vivo chicken embryo model, this report analyzes the toxic potential of CNFAR smoke solutions (CNFARSS) on embryonic movements (EM) and cardiovascular development. Application of CNFARSS to embryos caused profound decline (p<0.001) in all four types of EMs. Several recovery attempts of all EMs were observed in oscillating fashion, however, EMs did not recover by the end of experiment. Exposure of CNFARSS escorted intense decline (p<0.001) with temperate recovery phases in the EM of tail. Macroscopic evaluation of all CNFARSS treated chicken embryos revealed several widespread hemorrhaging throughout the whole body. Moreover, four different types of ectopia cordis were prominently observed among all CNFARSS treated embryos, namely; incomplete ectopia cordis, complete ectopia cordis, cervico-thoracic ectopia cordis and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  5. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J.; Hastings, Andrew K.; Homer, Robert J.; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1−/− mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males. PMID:28261663

  6. Zika virus causes testicular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Uraki, Ryuta; Hwang, Jesse; Jurado, Kellie Ann; Householder, Sarah; Yockey, Laura J; Hastings, Andrew K; Homer, Robert J; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2017-02-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has recently been found to cause fetal infection and neonatal abnormalities, including microcephaly and neurological dysfunction. ZIKV persists in the semen months after the acute viremic phase in humans. To further understand the consequences of ZIKV persistence in males, we infected Ifnar1(-/-) mice via subcutaneous injection of a pathogenic but nonlethal ZIKV strain. ZIKV replication persists within the testes even after clearance from the blood, with interstitial, testosterone-producing Leydig cells supporting virus replication. We found high levels of viral RNA and antigen within the epididymal lumen, where sperm is stored, and within surrounding epithelial cells. Unexpectedly, at 21 days post-infection, the testes of the ZIKV-infected mice were significantly smaller compared to those of mock-infected mice, indicating progressive testicular atrophy. ZIKV infection caused a reduction in serum testosterone, suggesting that male fertility can be affected. Our findings have important implications for nonvector-borne vertical transmission, as well as long-term potential reproductive deficiencies, in ZIKV-infected males.

  7. Tissue Engineered Testicular Prostheses With Prolonged Testosterone Release

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    and Hospital Infantil de Mexico “Federico Gomez”, Mexico City, Mexico* ABSTRACT Young soldiers with testicular tissue injury may require...Rustin, 2001: Testicular implants and patient satisfaction: a questionnaire-based study of men after orchidectomy for testicular cancer .[see comment

  8. Methylene blue increases contralateral testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury after unilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mustafa; Basaran, Umit N; Dokmeci, Dikmen; Yalcin, Omer; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Turan, Nesrin

    2008-01-01

    1. Testicular ischaemia-reperfusion injury is commonly seen in childhood. Infertility occurs in 25% of patients after unilateral testicular ischaemia. It is has been reported that methylene blue has a positive effect in the reparation of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in different tissues. Therefore, we hypothesized that methylene blue may prevent the hazardous effects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury in testicular tissue after unilateral testicular torsion. 2. Thirty-two prepubertal Wistar-albino rats were divided into four groups. Testicular torsion was created by rotating the right testis 720 degrees in a clockwise direction for 5 h in all groups except for Group C, which was the sham control group. In Group T, bilateral orchiectomy was performed following the torsion period. In Group TD, both testes were removed 5 days after the torsion period. In Group MB, methylene blue (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered 40 min before detorsion and once daily over 5 days; then, both testes were harvested. Tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum levels of creatine kinase (CK), mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS) and mean seminifer tubule diameter (MSTD) were determined. 3. There was a significant difference in MTBS between Groups T and TD (P < 0.05) in both ipsilateral and contralateral testes. In the contralateral testis, treatment with methylene blue decreased MTBS and MSTD (P < 0.05) and increased MDA levels (P < 0.05). In Group T, mean serum CK concentrations were higher than in any of the other groups (P < 0.05). 4. After 5 h of unilateral testicular torsion and a 5 day reperfusion period, serious tissue damage occurred on both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. Serum CK concentrations may be an indicator for ischaemia, but not for ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Contrary to our hypothesis, methylene blue increased contralateral testicular damage after unilateral testicular torsion and exacerbated oxidative events.

  9. Testicular atrophy as a risk inguinal hernioplasty.

    PubMed

    Wantz, G E

    1982-04-01

    In my experience, the complication of testicular atrophy after primary hernioplasty occurred only in patients in whom a complete indirect inguinal hernia sac was dissected from the spermatic cord. Avoiding this dissection by leaving the distal part of the sac in place reduces the incidence of the complication. All patients with scrotal inguinal hernias and all patients with recurrent inguinal hernias should have the complications of ischemic orchitis and testicular atrophy explained to them in depth because of the litigious nature of some of the men in whom this condition occurs. Patients who had undergone two or more operations for inguinal hernia should give prior written permission for orchiectomy even though this procedure is rarely necessary. In these patients, the performance of preperitoneal inguinal hernioplasty will permit the surgeon to avoid dissecting previously mobilized spermatic cords and should reduce the incidence of testicular atrophy in men fearful of this complication.

  10. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  11. Testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Opot, E N; Magoha, G A

    2000-02-01

    This retrospective study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, clinical characteristics, management methods and prognosis of testicular cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. All histologically confirmed testicular cancer patients recorded at the Histopathology Department between 1993 and 1997 were analyzed. The mean age was 34.8 years with a peak incidence in the 30-44 year age group. About 10.26% of patients had history of cryptochirdism. The clinical symptoms presented were painless testicular swelling (n = 31, 79.49%), testicular pain (n = 11, 28.08%), scrotal heaviness (n = 9, 23.08%), abdominal swelling (n = 6, 15.38%), gynecomastia (n = 1, 2.56%), and eye swelling (n = 1, 2.56%). On examination, 32 patients (82.05%) had testicular masses, 10 (25.64%) had abdominal masses, 7 (17.91%) had supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy, 1 had gynecomastia, and 1 had an orbital mass. More than 89% of patients had germ cell cancers with seminoma accounting for 67.35%, teratoma for 12.24%, embryonal carcinoma for 8.16%, rhabdomyosarcoma for 6.12%, and malignant germ cell tumor, orchioblastoma, and dysgerminoma each accounting for 2.04%. The various methods of treatment include orchidectomy and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 3 patients (7.7%), orchidectomy and radiotherapy in 16 patients (41.03%), orchidectomy and chemotherapy in 6 patients (15.38%), and radiotherapy and chemotherapy in 10 patients (25.64%). No cisplatin-based chemotherapy was used. 18 patients were followed up, of whom 7 were alive after 5 years. Prognosis with current regimens was poor, with a 38.89% survival ratio in 5 years. Hence, cisplatin-based chemotherapy with up to 90% cure rates should be included in the testicular cancer management in this hospital.

  12. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  13. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials.

  14. Colon cancer presenting as a testicular metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Majid; Sharif, Asma

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 43-year-old male who initially presented with intermittent testicular pain as the first sign of metastatic stage IV colon cancer. Physical examination revealed a normal penis, scrotum and testes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pelvis showed an irregular 3 cm mass of the spermatic cord and right radical inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The pathological diagnosis was metastatic adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, even though metastases to the testes are rare, they should be considered in clinical practice especially in older men who present with a testicular mass or discomfort. PMID:28138654

  15. Etiologic factors in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Cook, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, testicular cancer incidence is highest among men of northern European ancestry and lowest among men of Asian and African descent. Incidence rates have been increasing around the world for at least 50 years, but mortality rates, at least in developed countries, have been declining. While reasons for the decreases in mortality are related to improvements in therapeutic regimes introduced in the late 1970s, reasons for the increase in incidence are less well understood. An accumulating body of evidence suggests, however, that testicular cancer arises in fetal life. Perinatal factors, including exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, have been suggested to be related to risk. PMID:19903067

  16. MicroRNAs in Testicular Cancer Diagnosis and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Krassnig, Lisa; Bullock, Marc D; Pichler, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Testicular cancer processes a unique and clear miRNA expression signature. This differentiates testicular cancer from most other cancer types, which are usually more ambiguous when assigning miRNA patterns. As such, testicular cancer may represent a unique cancer type in which miRNAs find their use as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, with a potential to surpass the current available markers usually with low sensitivity. In this review, we present literature findings on miRNAs associated with testicular cancer, and discuss their potential diagnostic and prognostic values, as well as their potential as indicators of drug response in patients with testicular cancer.

  17. Ectopia lentis as the presenting and primary feature in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Neda; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Niemi, Anna Kaisa; Dugan, Sarah; Kwan, Andrea; Liang, David; Hyland, James C; Hoyme, H Eugene; Hudgins, Louanne; Manning, Melanie A

    2011-11-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a multisystem connective tissue disorder with primary involvement of the ocular, cardiovascular, and skeletal systems. We report on eight patients, all presenting initially with bilateral ectopia lentis (EL) during early childhood. These individuals did not have systemic manifestations of MFS, and did not fulfill the revised Ghent diagnostic criteria. However, all patients had demonstratable, disease-causing missense mutations in the FBN1 gene. Based on molecular results, cardiovascular imaging was recommended and led to the identification of mild aortic root changes in seven of the eight patients. The remaining patient had mitral valve prolapse with a normal appearing thoracic aorta. The findings presented in this paper validate the necessity of FBN1 gene testing in all individuals presenting with isolated EL. As we observed, these individuals are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications. Furthermore, we also noted that the majority of our patient cohort's mutations occurred in the 5' portion of the FBN1 gene, and were found to affect highly conserved cysteine residues, which may indicate a possible genotype-phenotype correlation. We conclude that in patients with isolated features of EL, FBN1 mutation analysis is necessary to aid in providing prompt diagnosis, and to identify patients at risk for potentially life-threatening complications. Additionally, knowledge of the type and location of an FBN1 mutation may be useful in providing further clinical correlation regarding phenotypic progression and appropriate medical management.

  18. Role of ADAMTSL4 mutations in FBN1 mutation-negative ectopia lentis patients.

    PubMed

    Aragon-Martin, Jose Antonio; Ahnood, Dana; Charteris, David G; Saggar, Anand; Nischal, Ken K; Comeglio, Paolo; Chandra, Aman; Child, Anne H; Arno, Gavin

    2010-08-01

    Ectopia lentis (EL) is genetically heterogeneous with both autosomal-dominant and -recessive forms. The dominant disorder can be caused by mutations in FBN1, at the milder end of the type-1 fibrillinopathies spectrum. Recently in a consanguineous Jordanian family, recessive EL was mapped to locus 1q21 containing the ADAMTSL4 gene and a nonsense mutation was found in exon 11 (c.1785T>G, p.Y595X). In this study, 36 consecutive probands with EL who did not fulfill the Ghent criteria for MFS were screened for mutations in FBN1 and ADAMTSL4. Causative FBN1 mutations were identified in 23/36 (64%) of probands while homozygous or compound heterozygous ADAMTSL4 mutations were identified in 6/12 (50%) of the remaining probands. Where available, familial screening of these families confirmed the mutation co-segregated with the EL phenotype. This study confirms that homozygous mutations in ADAMTSL4 are associated with autosomal-recessive EL in British families. Furthermore; the first compound heterozygous mutation is described resulting in a PTC and a missense mutation in the PLAC (protease and lacunin) domain. The identification of a causative mutation in ADAMTSL4 may allow the exclusion of Marfan syndrome in these families and guide the clinical management, of particular relevance in young children affected by EL.

  19. Clinical and linkage study of a large family with simple ectopia lentis linked to FBN1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Roberts, J.; Partington, M.W.; Colley, P.W.; Hollway, G.E.; Kozman, H.M.; Mulley, J.C.

    1994-10-15

    Simple ectopia lentis (EL) was studied in a large family, by clinical examination and analysis of linkage to markers in the region of FBN1, the gene for fibrillin which causes Marfan syndrome on chromosome 15. No patient had clinical or echocardiographic evidence of Marfan syndrome, although there was a trend towards relatively longer measurements of height; lower segment; arm span; middle finger, hand, and foot length in the affected members of the family, compared with unaffected sibs of the same sex. Analysis of linkage to intragenic FBN1 markers was inconclusive because they were relatively uninformative. Construction of a multipoint background map from the CEPH reference families identified microsatellite markers linked closely to FBN1 which could demonstrate linkage of EL in this family to the FBN1 region. LINKMAP analysis detected a multipoint lod score of 5.68 at D15S119, a marker approximately 6 cM distal to FBN1, and a multipoint lod score of 5.04 at FBN1. The EL gene in this family is likely to be allelic to Marfan syndrome, and molecular characterization of the FBN1 mutation should now be possible. 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  1. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease.

  2. Surgical management of non-traumatic pediatric ectopia lentis: A case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hugo Y.; Edelstein, Sean L.; Lind, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To report a small series of pediatric patients with ectopia lentis that underwent limbal-approach lensectomy and vitrectomy and scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation and to review the literature on the topic of surgical management of ectopia lentis. Method A retrospective review of 13 eyes of seven patients that underwent lensectomy, vitrectomy, and scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation and a review of the ophthalmic literature. Results In our series, the average age at surgery was 70.3 ± 13.8 months and the average length of follow-up was 23.8 ± 5.9 months. The mean pre-operative visual acuity was 0.86 ± 0.17 which improved to 0.23 ± 0.09 post-operatively (p < 0.001). No complications were encountered in our series. A review of the literature found that amblyopia was the biggest vision-limiting factor. In general, the literature suggested that a higher percentage of eyes that were left aphakic achieved better vision than those implanted with a scleral-fixated intraocular lens. However, there may be selection bias in that more eyes receiving an intraocular lens may have pre-existing amblyopia. The complication rates for lensectomy or scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation were low in the literature. In the latter group, suture breakage and resultant intraocular lens dislocation is a worrisome late complication. Conclusion Surgical intervention for ectopia lentis via vitrectomy techniques yields good result. In cases of unilateral aphakia or in settings where compliance with aphakic refractive correction is questionable and amblyopia is a constant threat, scleral-fixated intraocular lens implantation is highly encouraged. However, long-term follow-up is required due to the risk of suture breakage and resultant intraocular lens dislocation over time. PMID:23961012

  3. From testicular biopsy to human embryo.

    PubMed

    Jezek, D; Knezević, N; Kalanj-Bognar, S; Vukelić, Z; Krhen, I

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the role of a testicular biopsy in the diagnosis and therapy of infertile men with a non-obstructive azoospermia. Overall, 70 testicular biopsies from infertile men were analysed. Samples were obtained by the "open testicular biopsy" method. After dissection, several pieces of the tissue were immediately immersed into the Sperm Prep Medium (Medi-Cult) and fixative (5.5% buffered glutaraldehyde). Tissue samples transported in Sperm Prep Medium were plunged into Sperm Freezing Medium (Medi-Cult) and were stored in liquid nitrogen for potential in vitro fertilization procedures. The tissue was also processed for semithin sections and transmission electron microscopy. Semithin sections from 8 infertile patients demonstrated regular testis structure and fully preserved spermatogenesis (control biopsies). In the remaining 62 cases, spermatogenesis was impaired and a variety of pathological changes could be seen: disorganization and desquamation of spermatogenic cells, spermatid or spermatocyte "stop", spermatogonia only, "Sertoli cells only" or tubular fibrosis. However, in 65% of cases (despite the above mentioned changes of seminiferous epithelium) foci of preserved spermatogenesis could be detected. These cases were classified as "mixed atrophy" of seminiferous tubules. In 63% of infertile patients, a successful extraction of sperm from the biopsy could be performed. In azoospermic patients, histological analysis of testicular biopsy proved to be very useful in terms of diagnosis as well as therapy, i.e. for further in vitro fertilization procedures.

  4. Testicular Biopsy in Evaluation of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Meinhard, Elizabeth; McRae, C. U.; Chisholm, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Testicular biopsy findings in 100 infertile men were correlated with the clinical findings. Mild or moderately severe tubular lesions were seen in 57 cases and severe changes in 43. Clinical examination and semen analysis were no guide to the severity of the testicular lesion. Though patients with normal sized testes more commonly had mild tubular lesions, many were severe. Patients with small testes more often had severe lesions but some had only mild tubular changes. Biopsy findings in both aspermic and oligospermic patients ranged from normal to a complete loss of germinal tissue. Testicular biopsy is advocated in infertile men for the complete assessment of the case and for identifying those which are potentially treatable. Patients with a severe lesion can be spared further investigations. The choice and results of treatment are discussed, particularly the surgical treatment of varicocele or obstruction. Only patients with a mild or moderate testicular tubular lesion should participate in future trials with drugs for male infertility. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:4726930

  5. Testicular Vasculitis: A Sonographic and Pathologic Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Hague, Cameron; Bicknell, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Very little has been published about single-organ vasculitis of the testicle in the radiological literature. Consequently, it is a diagnosis that is unfamiliar to most radiologists. This case report describes the sonographic, pathologic, and laboratory findings of testicular vasculitis and reviews the available literature with regard to this subject. PMID:28246567

  6. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Resource Center How to Do a Testicular Self Examination: For men over the age of 14, a monthly self-exam of the testicles is an effective way ... do it monthly? Because the point of the self exam is not to find something wrong today. ...

  7. Thoracoabdominal wall defect with complete ectopia cordis and gastroschisis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Michael A; Fishbein, Gregory A; Teitell, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Ventral wall defects are extremely rare anomalies that are likely caused by the failure of the ventral wall to close during week 4 of development. We report a case of severe thoracoabdominal wall defect including complete thoracic ectopia cordis and gastroschisis. This combination represents a novel constellation of findings in a single patient. This unique case further demonstrates an anatomically normal heart with age-appropriate development and an intact diaphragm. We review the literature of other reports and discussions of entities that share overlapping features with this case.

  8. Nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development.

    PubMed

    Rahman, K M; Lovich, J E; Lam, C; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2014-07-01

    The lactocrine hypothesis suggests a mechanism whereby milk-borne bioactive factors delivered to nursing offspring affect development of neonatal tissues. The objective of this study was to assess whether nursing affects testicular development in neonatal boars as reflected by: (1) Sertoli cell number and proliferation measured by GATA-4 expression and proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunostaining patterns; (2) Leydig cell development and steroidogenic activity as reflected by insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3), and P450 side chain cleavage (scc) enzyme expression; and (3) expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ESR1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A, and relaxin family peptide receptor (RXFP) 1. At birth, boars were randomly assigned (n = 6-7/group) to nurse ad libitum or to be pan fed porcine milk replacer for 48 h. Testes were collected from boars at birth, before nursing and from nursed and replacer-fed boars at 50 h on postnatal day (PND) 2. Sertoli cell proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index increased (P < 0.01) from birth to PND 2 in nursed, but not in replacer-fed boars. Sertoli cell number and testicular GATA-4 protein levels increased (P < 0.01) from PND 0 to PND 2 only in nursed boars. Neither age nor nursing affected testicular INSL3, P450scc, ESR1, or VEGFA levels. However, testicular relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) levels increased (P < 0.01) with age and were greater in replacer-fed boars on PND 2. Results suggest that nursing supports neonatal porcine testicular development and provide additional evidence for the importance of lactocrine signaling in pigs.

  9. The Fetus with Ectopia Cordis: Experience and Expectations from Two Centers.

    PubMed

    Escobar-Diaz, Maria C; Sunderji, Sherzana; Tworetzky, Wayne; Moon-Grady, Anita J

    2016-12-19

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare congenital anomaly often associated with congenital heart disease (CHD). There is a lack of contemporary information on EC diagnosed prenatally. We sought to combine the experiences of two regional referral centers in order to evaluate current outcomes for EC. Clinical, echocardiographic features and perinatal outcomes of fetuses with EC managed at two large cardiac centers from 1995 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Seventeen fetuses with EC were diagnosed at a median gestational age of 23 weeks (range 17-36). There were 6 thoracic EC and 11 thoracoabdominal. Fifteen had associated CHD: 10 conotruncal defects, 2 tricuspid atresia, 1 aortic stenosis, 1 atrial septal defect, and 1 atrioventricular septal defect. There were 2 terminations of pregnancy, 2 fetal deaths, 2 lost to follow-up, and 11 live born. Mean gestational age at birth was 36.4 weeks (range 26-39). Three patients died shortly after birth with comfort care, and 8 were actively managed. Six patients underwent postnatal cardiac intervention and are currently alive with a mean follow-up of 7.3 years (range 1.4-11.4), 2 of them with chronic dependency on ventilatory support. Two patients without CHD died after attempted chest closure. When diagnosed in utero, a high proportion of pregnancy termination or fetal demise is expected. In our cohort, conotruncal anomalies were the most common associated CHD. Though mortality in actively managed patients was not as high as previously reported, and cardiac surgical intervention may be achieved, EC is still associated with high mortality and significant long-term morbidity.

  10. Testicular cancer trends as 'whistle blowers' of testicular developmental problems in populations.

    PubMed

    Skakkebaek, N E; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Jørgensen, N; Main, K M; Leffers, H; Andersson, A-M; Juul, A; Jensen, T K; Toppari, J

    2007-08-01

    Recently a worldwide rise in the incidence of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) has been repeatedly reported. The changing disease pattern may signal that other testicular problems may also be increasing. We have reviewed recent research progress, in particular evidence gathered in the Nordic countries, which shows strong associations between testicular cancer, undescended testis, hypospadias, poor testicular development and function, and male infertility. These studies have led us to suggest the existence of a testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS), of which TGCC, undescended testis, hypospadias/disorders of sex differentiation and male fertility problems may be symptoms with varying penetration. In spite of their fetal origin, most of the TDS symptoms, including TGCC and poor semen quality, can only be diagnosed in adulthood. Data from a Danish-Finnish research collaboration strongly suggest that trends in TGCC rates of a population may be 'whistle blowers' of other reproductive health problems. As cancer registries are often of excellent quality - in contrast to registries for congenital abnormalities - health authorities should consider an increase in TGCC as a warning that other reproductive health problems may also be rising.

  11. Relationships of testicular iron and ferritin concentrations with testicular weight and sperm production in boars.

    PubMed

    Wise, T; Lunstra, D D; Rohrer, G A; Ford, J J

    2003-02-01

    The inverse relationship of testicular size and circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations has been documented, and accompanying this relationship is the change in color of the parenchymal tissue of the testes. Large testes (300 to 400 g) are pink to light red and small testes (100 g) are dark maroon with color gradations for weights in between. It was hypothesized that this color most likely represented an iron protein. Chromatographic analysis of testicular tissue indicated that the Fe was associated primarily with ferritin, and immunohistochemistry showed that Leydig cells were the primary location of ferritin storage within the testes. Concentrations of Fe and ferritin were higher in small testes and decreased as testes weight increased (P < 0.05). As testicular Fe concentrations increased, daily sperm production (DSP) and total DSP declined (P < 0.05). Genotyping six generations of Meishan x White composite boars (n = 288) for a quantitative trait locus that is indicative of elevated FSH and small testes in boars indicated that the Meishan genotype had elevated testicular iron concentrations and darker color in conjunction with reduced total DSP (P < 0.01). It is not thought the elevated iron concentrations affect testicular weights but are probably a result of elevated FSH and FSH inducement of Fe transport. The storage of Fe in Leydig cells may provide a reservoir of Fe for easy access by Sertoli and germ cells, but still provide a degree of protection to germ cells from ionic iron.

  12. Vascularity index distribution within the testis: a technique for guiding testicular sperm extraction.

    PubMed

    Eytan, O; Har-Toov, J; Fait, G; Yavetz, H; Hauser, R; Yogev, L; Botchan, A; Ben-Yosef, D; Elad, D; Jaffa, A J

    2001-09-01

    Azoospermia is defined as the absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, although some foci of spermatogenesis may exist in the testes of these men. Currently, there are no clinical, seminal or hormonal parameters for identifying spermatogenesis within the testis sufficient for achieving genetic offspring. As a result, multiple biopsies are performed at several arbitrary sites of both testes in search of spermatozoa. We developed a power Doppler (PD) ultrasound (US) image-based technique that predicts sites with the greatest potential for spermatogenesis. PDUS images of the testes of azoospermic men were acquired at seven cross-sections to reconstruct a 3-D matrix for constructing a spatial map of preferential regions where spermatozoa are most likely to exist. This technique may obviate the need for arbitrary multiple biopsies that inflict some degree of damage upon testicular tissue, and may increase the success rate of identifying viable spermatozoa in testicular biopsies.

  13. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  14. Testicular chloroma in a nonleukemic infant.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Michael B; Nafiu, Olubukola O; Valdez, Riccardo; Park, John M; Williams, James A; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2005-07-01

    Extramedullary myeloid cell tumors (EMCT) are localized collections of immature myeloid cells that occur outside of the bone marrow. Usually observed concurrently with bone marrow disease, EMCT also may occur in the absence of overt marrow leukemia. In this report, we describe an infant with a testicular mass that was identified as an EMCT after orchiectomy. Unlike the only previously reported case of infantile testicular chloroma, this patient did not exhibit bone marrow disease at diagnosis. Because systemic chemotherapy is considered to be superior to local control (surgery, radiation therapy), the patient was treated with intensively timed induction chemotherapy followed by 3 cycles of maintenance treatment (according to CCG protocol #2891) but no radiation therapy. The patient remains disease-free 18 months after diagnosis.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Kaipia, A; Ryymin, P; Mäkelä, E; Aaltonen, M; Kähärä, V; Kangasniemi, M

    2005-12-01

    We investigated the feasibility of contrast enhanced (CE)-dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of testicular torsion induced hypoperfusion in an experimental rat model. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion of 360 or 720 degrees. After 1 h, the tail veins of the anaesthetized rats were cannulated and T2 -, diffusion-weighted and T1-weighted CE-dynamic MRI were subsequently performed by a 1.5 T MRI scanner. On apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) images, the region of interest values of the ischaemic and control testes was compared. From CE-dynamic MR images, the maximal slopes of contrast enhancement were calculated and compared. In testicular torsion of 360 degrees, the maximal slope of contrast enhancement was 0.072%/s vs. 0.47%/s in the contralateral control testis (p < 0.001). A torsion of 720 degrees diminished the slope of contrast enhancement to 0.046%/s vs. 0.37%/s in the contralateral testis (p < 0.001). Diminished blood flow during torsion also followed in decreased ADC values in both 360 degrees (12.4% decrease; p < 0.05) and 720 degrees (10.8% decrease; p < 0.001) of torsion. Torsion of the testis causes ipsilateral hypoperfusion and decreased gadolinium uptake in a rat model that can be easily detected and quantified by CE-dynamic MRI. In diffusion-weighted MRI images, acute hypoperfusion results in a slight decrease of ADC values. Our results suggest that CE-dynamic MRI in combination with diffusion-weighted MRI can be used to detect compromised blood flow due to acute testicular torsion.

  16. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  17. Testicular ischemia following mesh hernia repair and acute prostatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pietro, Pepe; Francesco, Aragona

    2007-01-01

    We present a case of a man admitted to our Hospital for right acute scrotum that six months before had undergone a right hernioplasty with mesh implantation. Clinical history and testicular color Doppler sonography (CDS) patterns suggested an orchiepididymitis following acute prostatitis. After 48h the clinical picture worsened and testicular CDS showed a decreased telediastolic velocity that suggested testicular ischemia. The patient underwent surgical exploration: spermatic cord appeared stretched by an inflammatory tissue in absence of torsion and releasing of spermatic cord was performed. In patients with genitourinary infection who previously underwent inguinal mesh implantation, testicular CDS follow-up is mandatory. PMID:19718342

  18. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion.

  19. Testicular cancer in androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Ponce, José; Chilaca Rosas, Fátima; Molina Calzada, Carlos; Granados García, Martín; Jiménez Ríos, Miguel Angel; De la Garza Salazar, Jaime

    2008-12-01

    Male pseudohermaphroditism and androgen insensitivity syndrome cases have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer due to many factors such as mutations, hormonal disturbances involving gonadotropins and cryptorchidism. We describe the clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of two cases with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome and testicular cancer development, which were handled at the National Cancer Institute of Mexico.

  20. Testicular Cancer in U.S. Navy Personnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    urogenital abnormalities, testicular atrophy and, possibly, with intrauterine exposure to di- ethylstilbestrol (2-7). Peak age of incidence of the...Association of diethylstilbes- trotl exposure in utero with cryptorchidism, testicular hypoplasia, and semen abnormaliti-s. J Urol 1979,122:36-9. 6. Bibbo

  1. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  2. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  3. Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690

  4. Testicular biodistribution of 450 nm fluorescent latex particles after intramuscular injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Klein, J-P; Boudard, D; Cadusseau, J; Palle, S; Forest, V; Pourchez, J; Cottier, M

    2013-06-01

    The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility. Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of 450 nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h (H1), 4 days (D4), 21 days (D21), 45 days (D45) and 90 days (D90) after the injection of 7.28 × 10⁹ particles in the tibialis anterior muscles of each mouse. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D90. Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages. The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood-testis barrier was crossed.

  5. Testicular biodistribution of 450 nm fluorescent latex particles after intramuscular injection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jean-Philippe; Boudard, Delphine; Cadusseau, Josette; Palle, Sabine; Forest, Valérie; Pourchez, Jérémie; Cottier, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    The significant expansion in the use of nanoparticles and submicron particles during the last 20 years has led to increasing concern about their potential toxicity to humans and particularly their impact on male fertility. Currently, an insufficient number of studies have focused on the testicular biodistribution of particles. The aim of our study was to assess the distribution of 450 nm fluorescent particles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. To this end, testes were removed from 5 groups of 3 mice each at 1 h (H1), 4 days (D4), 21 days (D21), 45 days (D45) and 90 days (D90) after the injection of 7.28 × 109 particles in the tibialis anterior muscles of each mouse. We examined histological sections from these samples by epifluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and identified testicular biodistribution of a small number of particles in groups H1, D4, D21, D45 and D90. Using CD11b immunostaining, we showed that particles were not carried into the testis by macrophages. The intratesticular repartition of particles mainly followed testicular vascularization. Finally, we found some particles in seminiferous tubules but could not determine if the blood–testis barrier was crossed. PMID:23329290

  6. MicroRNA profiles in a monkey testicular injury model induced by testicular hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Mikamoto, Kei; Shirai, Makoto; Iguchi, Takuma; Ito, Kazumi; Takasaki, Wataru; Mori, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To characterize microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in testicular toxicity in cynomolgus monkeys, miRNA profiles were investigated using next‐generation sequencing (NGS), microarray and reverse transcription‐quantitative real‐time‐PCR (RT‐qPCR) methods. First, to identify organ‐specific miRNAs, we compared the expression levels of miRNAs in the testes to those in representative organs (liver, heart, kidney, lung, spleen and small intestine) obtained from naïve mature male and female monkeys (n = 2/sex) using NGS analysis. Consequently, miR‐34c‐5p, miR‐202‐5p, miR‐449a and miR‐508‐3p were identified to be testicular‐specific miRNAs in cynomolgus monkeys. Next, we investigated miRNA profiles after testicular–hyperthermia (TH) treatment to determine which miRNAs are involved in testicular injury. In this experiment, mature male monkeys were divided into groups with or without TH‐treatment (n = 3/group) by immersion of the testes in a water bath at 43 °C for 30 min for 5 consecutive days. As a result, TH treatment induced testicular injury in all animals, which was characterized by decreased numbers of spermatocytes and spermatids. In a microarray analysis of the testis, 11 up‐regulated (>2.0 fold) and 13 down‐regulated (<0.5 fold) miRNAs were detected compared with those in the control animals. Interestingly, down‐regulated miRNAs included two testicular‐specific miRNAs, miR‐34c‐5p and miR‐449a, indicating their potential use as biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Furthermore, RT‐qPCR analysis revealed decreased expression levels of testicular miR‐34b‐5p and miR‐34c‐5p, which are enriched in meiotic cells, reflecting the decrease in pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids after TH treatment. These results provide valuable insights into the mechanism of testicular toxicity and potential translational biomarkers for testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Toxicology

  7. A founder mutation in ADAMTSL4 causes early-onset bilateral ectopia lentis among Jews of Bukharian origin.

    PubMed

    Reinstein, Eyal; Smirin-Yosef, Pola; Lagovsky, Irina; Davidov, Bella; Peretz Amit, Gabriela; Neumann, Doron; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Ben-Shachar, Shay; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The term isolated ectopia lentis (EL; subluxation or dislocation of the human crystalline lens) is applied to patients with EL, without skeletal features and in the absence of aortic root dilatation. To date, the only gene shown to cause autosomal-recessive isolated EL is ADAMTSL4. Here we report a novel founder mutation in ADAMTSL4 gene in children of Bukharian Jewish origin presenting with early-onset bilateral EL. A carrier frequency of 1:48 was determined among unrelated healthy Bukharian Jews. Given the complications associated with disease and the allele frequency, a population screening for individuals of this ancestry is warranted in order to allow prenatal, pre-implantation or early postnatal diagnosis.

  8. Sternal "retraction": a novel application of a mandibular distractor in treating ectopia cordis with complete cleft sternum.

    PubMed

    Gart, Michael S; Vicari, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Complete thoracic ectopia cordis is associated with a uniformly dismal prognosis. The primary challenges of this disorder are (1) returning the heart to the thoracic cavity, (2) stabilizing the chest wall, and (3) repairing the sternal defect. Previously published techniques for achieving these goals have demonstrated very limited success and/or significant morbidity.We present a novel application of a mandibular distraction device as part of staged repair of this historically challenging problem. This method uses immediate stabilization and gradual "retraction" of the sternal remnants, thereby allowing physiologic compensation and avoiding the cardiorespiratory embarrassment associated with returning the heart to the thoracic cavity. Moreover, this technique allows stabilization of the associated sternal cleft and chest wall without the commonly associated morbidity of the currently available techniques.

  9. Testicular microlithiasis in a unilateral undescended testis: a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Manchanda, V; Gupta, R

    2013-12-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) is a rare benign condition with presence of multiple small microcalcifications in the seminiferous tubules. Though the aetiology is unknown, TM has been described in association with a variety of urological conditions. We report the clinico-pathological features of a 12-year-old male child who underwent orchidectomy for undescended testis. Histopathological examination of the excised testis showed multiple small intratubular calcifications without any evidence of testicular neoplasia. TM is an unusual phenomenon that should be kept in mind while evaluating testicular biopsies. Though it behaves in a benign manner in most of the cases, patients with positive family history of testicular cancer should be followed-up for testicular tumour.

  10. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  11. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R P

    1986-01-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalcy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animal models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. A 50 or 90% reduction in the number of fertile sperm deposited during mating probably will not markedly reduce fertility. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. For each male, a piece of testicular tissue should be appropriately fixed and an aliquot of parenchyma should be homogenized to allow enumeration of homogenization-resistant spermatids. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis. PMID

  12. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  13. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  14. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  16. [A case of neonatal testicular torsion].

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Satoshi; Nanpo, Yoshihito; Kuramoto, Tomomi; Iba, Akinori; Fujii, Reona; Matsumura, Nagahide; Shintani, Yasuyo; Inagaki, Takeshi; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hara, Isao

    2008-12-01

    An infant normally delivered at the 38th week of gestation was referred to our department one day after birth for a firm and painless right hemiscrotal mass with bluish coloration. Since contralateral scrotum showed swelling, we performed emergency surgery on that day. The right spermatic cord was constricted due to extravaginal torsion, and degree and direction of torsion was unclear since the spermatic cord was already organized. Right testis showed irreversible necrotic change, requiring orchiectomy. We confirmed that left testis was intact and performed orchidopexy. Since high incidence of contralateral asymptomatic torsion has been reported in patients with prenatal testicular torsion, emergency surgery should be considered when contralateral scrotum shows abnormal findings.

  17. The confused identity of Cantrell's pentad: ectopia cordis is related either to thoracoschisis or to a diaphragmatic hernia with an omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Davies, Belinda R; Duran, Marco

    2003-01-01

    To find out if Cantrell's pentad is a single entity, four cases of ectopia cordis were studied and compared with cases in the literature. Our cases had the heart outside the thorax and had two to four other features of the association. In one case the thoracic organs had apparently escaped through a diaphragmatic hernia into an omphalocele, and in the others via a thoracoschisis with an abdominal defect, either a supraumbilical hernia or a gastroschisis. According to these cases and those from the literature, it is proposed that there are two major mechanisms leading to ectopia cordis: (1) a reversed diaphragmatic hernia in the case of a large diaphragmatic defect and an omphalocele, and (2) through a sterno-costal defect, with gastroschisis or a supraumbililical abdominal defect. As omphaloceles and major diaphragmatic defects are probably pathogenetically distinct from thoraco- and thoracogastroschisis, it is important to distinguish these groups of anomalies, rather than be concerned as to their relationship with Cantrell's pentad.

  18. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Embryonal Cell Carcinoma along with Ectopic Cross Fused Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, NR Manju; Narayana, V; Raja, V Om Pramod Kumar; Jambula, Pranav Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, where there is normal development of male secondary sexual characters, along with the presence of bilateral fallopian tubes and uterus. Majority of these cases go undetected and some cases are accidentally diagnosed while investigating for other problems. Cross fused renal ectopia is a condition where one kidney lies in the opposite side, fused to the other kidney. We present an extremely rare case of a phenotypical male presenting with mass per abdomen and bilateral cryptorchidism, turned out to have uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes, ectopic cross fused right kidney and Embryonal cell carcinoma of left undescended testis. PMID:26894123

  19. Repair of ectopia cordis using a resorbable poly-L-lactic-polyglycolic acid plate in a patient with pentalogy of Cantrell.

    PubMed

    Chia, Hui-Ling; Rasheed, Mohamed Zulfikar; Ong, Kim-Kiat; Yeow, Vincent Kok-Leng

    2012-06-01

    We present a case of a 10-month-old male infant with thoracoabdominal ectopia cordis, as part of Cantrell pentad, repaired using a poly-L-lactic-polyglycolic acid plate, a resorbable plating system widely used in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. This is the first reported case of sternal reconstruction using a poly-L-lactic-polyglycolic acid plate. The repair was successfully carried out without cardiopulmonary compromise and good aesthetic outcome was achieved.

  20. Pentalogy of Cantrell with ectopia cordis totalis, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, and tetralogy of Fallot: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, M Santiago; Cerqua, Amanda; Turek, Joseph W

    2014-01-01

    Pentalogy of Cantrell is a rare condition with a varied expression and a high mortality. We present a patient with the classic pentad (type 1), but with a previously undescribed constellation of cardiac manifestations including ectopia cordis totalis, total anomalous pulmonary venous return, and tetralogy of Fallot. This case reminds us of the challenges associated with the management of various forms of this condition. We discuss the prenatal diagnosis, genetic basis, postnatal evaluation, and management of this entity.

  1. Use of Latissimus Dorsi Pedicled Myocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction in the Chest Area of an 8-Month-Old Female Infant with Ectopia Cordis

    PubMed Central

    Dastagir, Khaled; Breymann, Thomas; Heckmann, Andreas; Horke, Alexander; Vogt, Peter Maria

    2014-01-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is characterized by a complete or partial malposition of the heart outside the thorax. Despite the interdisciplinary treatment, the repair of EC is still very difficult and offers new surgical challenges because of its complexity and various combinations with other anomalies. We report the successful outcome after using a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in reconstructive surgery in the setting of chronic wound dehiscence in an 8-month-old female infant born with a thoracic EC and omphalocele. PMID:25798359

  2. Use of latissimus dorsi pedicled myocutaneous flap for reconstruction in the chest area of an 8-month-old female infant with ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Dastagir, Khaled; Breymann, Thomas; Heckmann, Andreas; Horke, Alexander; Vogt, Peter Maria

    2014-12-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is characterized by a complete or partial malposition of the heart outside the thorax. Despite the interdisciplinary treatment, the repair of EC is still very difficult and offers new surgical challenges because of its complexity and various combinations with other anomalies. We report the successful outcome after using a pedicled latissimus dorsi flap in reconstructive surgery in the setting of chronic wound dehiscence in an 8-month-old female infant born with a thoracic EC and omphalocele.

  3. Transmission of electric and magnetic foetal cardiac signals in a case of ectopia cordis: the dominant role of the vernix. caseosa.

    PubMed

    Wakai, R T; Lengle, J M; Leuthold, A C

    2000-07-01

    Foetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and foetal magnetocardiograms (fMCGs) were recorded in the 26th, 29th and 31st weeks of gestation from a foetus with ectopia cordis-a rare condition in which the heart lies outside the chest wall. This provided an opportunity to study foetal cardiograms uninfluenced by the insulating effects of the foetal skin and vernix caseosa. The fECG of the ectopia cordis foetus was striking. Unlike recordings from age-matched normal foetuses, recordings from this subject had very high signal-to-noise ratio and showed no anomalous signal transmission properties. In contrast, fMCGs recorded from the ectopia cordis foetus and normal foetuses were largely similar. Both showed high signal-to-noise ratio and signal transmission properties consistent with volume conduction. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that high foetal skin resistance due primarily to the vernix caseosa is responsible for the low amplitude and anomalous transmission properties of the normal fECG, and demonstrate that the fMCG is relatively insensitive to conductivity inhomogeneities.

  4. New insights into perinatal testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Van Kerrebroeck, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion is a relatively rare event that remains unrecognized in many patients or is suspected and treated accordingly only after an avoidable loss of time. The authors report their own experience with several patients, some of them quite atypical but instructive. Missed bilateral torsion is an issue, as are partial torsion, possible antenatal signs, and late presentation. These data are discussed together with the existing literature and may help shed new light on the natural course of testicular torsion and its treatment. The most important conclusion is that a much higher index of suspicion based on clinical findings is needed for timely detection of perinatal torsion. It is the authors’ opinion that immediate surgery is mandatory not only in suspected bilateral torsions but also in cases of possible unilateral torsions. There is no place for a more fatalistic “wait-and-see” approach. Whenever possible, even necrotic testes should not be removed during surgery because some endocrine function may be retained. PMID:19856186

  5. Baldness and testicular cancer: the EPSAM case-control study.

    PubMed

    Moirano, G; Zugna, D; Grasso, C; Lista, P; Ciuffreda, L; Segnan, N; Merletti, F; Richiardi, L

    2016-03-01

    The etiology of testicular cancer is largely unexplained. Research has mainly focused on prenatal exposures, especially to sex hormones, while less attention has been paid to exposures that may act also postnatally. As baldness has been previously associated with testicular cancer risk we focused on baldness and body hairiness, which are both associated with androgen activity. We used data of the Postnatal Exposures and Male Health (EPSAM) study, a case-control study on testicular cancer conducted in the Province of Turin, Italy, involving cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires. Analyses included 255 cases and 459 controls. We calculated ORs and 95% CIs to estimate testicular cancer risk among those who developed baldness and among those with body hairiness. We found an inverse association between testicular cancer and baldness (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.98) and body hairiness (OR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.53-1.16), although the latter had wider CIs. The inverse association between baldness and testicular cancer is consistent with the results from previous studies. These results suggest that androgens activity may influence testicular cancer risk.

  6. Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination; Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice in Final Year Medical Students in Nigeria

    PubMed

    Ugwumba, Fred O; Ekwueme, Osa Eloka C; Okoh, Agharighom D

    2016-11-01

    The testicular cancer (TCa) incidence is increasing in many countries, with age-standardized incidence rates up to 7.8/100,000 men in the Western world, although reductions in mortality and increasingly high cure rates are being witnessed at the same time. In Africa, where rates are lower, presentation is often late and morbidity and mortality high. Given this scenario, awareness of testicular cancer and practice of testicular self-examination among future first response doctors is very important. This study was conducted to determine knowledge and attitude to testicular cancer, and practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) among final (6th) year medical students. In addition, the effect of an intervention in the form of a single PowerPoint® lecture, lasting 40 minutes with image content on testicular cancer and testicular self examination was assessed. Pre and post intervention administration of a self-administered structured pre tested questionnaire was performed on 151 medical students, 101 of whom returned answers (response rate of 66.8%). In the TC domain, there was a high level of awareness of testicular cancer, but poor knowledge of the age group most affected, with significant improvement post intervention (p<0.001). Notable also was the poor awareness of the potential curability of TC, this also being improved following the intervention (p<0.001). A poor level of awareness and practice of testicular self-examination pre-intervention was found considering the nature of the study group..Respondents had surprisingly weak/poor responses to the question “How important to men’s health is regular testicular self-examination?” Answers to the questions “Do you think it is worthwhile to examine your testis regularly?” and “Would you be interested in more information on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination?” were also suboptimal, but improved post intervention p<0.001, p<0.001 and p=0.037. Age, gender and marital status were without

  7. Testicular atrophy as a consequence of inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Reid, I; Devlin, H B

    1994-01-01

    Testicular atrophy is an uncommon but well recognized complication of inguinal hernia repair and one that frequently results in litigation. A series of ten cases of testicular atrophy occurring after hernia repair in nine patients is presented. Identifiable risk factors were present in eight instances. Surgeons should make careful enquiries as to previous groin or scrotal surgery and, when indicated, warn the patient before surgery of the increased risk of testicular atrophy. Overzealous dissection of a distal hernia sac, dislocation of the testis from the scrotum into the wound and concomitant scrotal surgery should all be avoided.

  8. Long-term Morbidity of Testicular Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fung, Chunkit; Fossa, Sophie D; Williams, Annalynn; Travis, Lois B

    2015-08-01

    Second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity and ototoxicity, pulmonary complications, hypogonadism, and nephrotoxicity are potentially life-threatening long-term complications of testicular cancer and its therapy. This article describes the pathogenesis, risks, and management of these late effects experienced by long-term testicular cancer survivors, who are defined as individuals who are disease free 5 years or more after primary treatment. Testicular cancer survivors should follow applicable national guidelines for cancer screening and management of cardiovascular disease risk factors. In addition, health care providers should capitalize on the time of cancer diagnosis as a teachable moment to introduce and promote lifestyle changes.

  9. Metastatic Testicular Choriocarcinoma: A Rare Cause of Upper GI Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Jacqueline; Armstrong, Sharon; Walsh, Shaun; Groome, Max; Mowat, Craig

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in an otherwise healthy 18-year-old man who presented with melena. Endoscopy revealed an ulcerated mass in the stomach and pathology confirmed this to be a malignant, poorly differentiated choriocarcinoma. Further imaging showed a left testicular mass with evidence of pulmonary, gastric, and brain metastases, and blood tests revealed an hCG level of 32,219 U/L. He was diagnosed with advanced metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma and underwent intensive induction chemotherapy and an orchidectomy. Metastatic testicular choriocarcinoma is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:26504875

  10. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  11. Close ties: an exploratory Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) study of social connections of men in Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC) families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer, while rare compared with other adult solid tumors, is the most common cancer in young men in northern Europe and North America. Risk factors include white race, positive family history, contralateral testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, infertility and testicular microlithiasis. As the genetic causes of familial clusters (Familial Testicular Cancer or FTC) are being sought, it is also important to understand the psycho-social experiences of members of FTC families. Methods This is a cross-sectional examination via the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) of social connections reported by 49 men in FTC families participating in NCI research study 02-C-178. Results The CEGRM was acceptable and feasible for use with men in FTC families, and valuable in understanding their social connections. These men have largely adjusted to the TC history in themselves and/or their relatives. They have considerable social and emotional support from family and friends, although there is wide variability in sources and types. Conclusions The CEGRM focuses on men's social connections and close emotional bonds in FTC families. This action-oriented process of placing colored symbols on significant relationships uncovered previously under-appreciated emotions accompanying men's social exchanges. Most men in FTC families succeed in re-establishing a sense of normalcy in their lives and social connections, in the aftermath of a testicular cancer diagnosis. PMID:22381132

  12. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Gang; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Kang; Ben, Shuai; Wang, Yu-Bang; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, CAS#1763-23-1) causes male reproductive toxicities, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decrease in ERα expression was only observed in 10mg/kg group. These results suggested that the alterations in testicular ERs expression, together with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells, might be involved in PFOS-induced testicular toxicity.

  13. Molecular biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Exposito, R; Merino, M; Aguayo, C

    2016-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common solid tumors in young adult men. They constitute a unique pathology because of their embryonic and germ origin and their special behavior. Genetic predisposition, environmental factors involved in their development and genetic aberrations have been under study in many works throughout the last years trying to explain the susceptibility and the transformation mechanism of TGCTs. Despite the high rate of cure in this type of tumors because its particular sensitivity to cisplatin, there are tumors resistant to chemotherapy for which it is needed to find new therapies. In the present work, it has been carried out a literature review on the most important molecular aspects involved in the onset and development of such tumors, as well as a review of the major developments regarding prognostic factors, new prognostic biomarkers and the possibility of new targeted therapies.

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment of primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Romics, Miklós; Demeter, Judit; Romics, Imre; Nyirády, Péter

    2014-01-12

    The primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which has been first described in 1866, is a very uncommon type of urological neoplasia occuring mostly in the elderly ages. It only gives 5% of the testicular tumors, 2% of extranodal lymphomas, and barely 1% of all non-Hodgkin diseases. Patients with testicular non-Hodgkin lymphomas need prompt multidisciplinary aid because without treatment the outcome can be unfavorable. The authors discuss the attributes, diagnostic modalities and treatment options of the primary testicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma and present a case of a 68-year-old patient who underwent orchiectomy, chemo- and radiotherapy after having been diagnosed with the tumor. The follow-up PET-CT and cerebrospinal fluid analysis found no further sign of the disease, and complete remission has been achieved.

  15. Insights into the nature of human testicular peritubular cells.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin

    2009-12-01

    Human testicular peritubular cells are myofibroblast-like cells that surround the seminiferous tubules and are responsible for tubular contractility and sperm transport. In the last few years, several reports have augmented this simplified view, showing that peritubular cells are not only structural cells but also actively secrete paracrine mediators, thereby influencing the homeostasis of the testicular environment. This review is focussed on general aspects and functions of testicular peritubular cells, their potential role in male infertility and also on the recently described in vitro culture systems of human testicular peritubular cells, which will enable us to gain deeper insight into the regulation and functions of this peculiar cell type in health and disease.

  16. Bilateral perinatal testicular torsion: successful salvage supports emergency surgery.

    PubMed

    Granger, Jeremy; Brownlee, Ewan M; Cundy, Thomas P; Goh, Day Way

    2016-06-15

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) has poor rates of testicular salvage. Although rare, bilateral PTT carries the risk of anorchia. We present a case of a 2-day-old term infant with acute onset right-sided scrotal discolouration and tenderness. The infant was promptly taken to the operating theatre for emergency scrotal exploration. Bilateral extravaginal testicular torsion was identified, with the right testis appearing to have a more established ischaemic appearance compared to that on the left side. Intraoperative findings were representative of metachronous PTT with a short time period of only several hours separating the torsion events. Both testes were detorted and fixated in the scrotum. The infant made an uneventful recovery. Outpatient clinic review at 6 weeks and 6 months postoperatively confirmed no clinical evidence of testicular atrophy. Given the potential for contralateral torsion and the morbidity of anorchia, our experience supports the role for emergency scrotal exploration in suspected PTT.

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fertility) that are not related to cancer. Family history Having a close blood relative (father or brother) ... with testicular cancer do not have a family history of the disease. HIV infection Some evidence has ...

  18. Inguinal hernia as a presentation of testicular feminization.

    PubMed

    Gibor, Udit; Ohana, Eric; Elena, Dubilet; Kirshtein, Boris

    2015-08-01

    We present a case of a 20-year-old female who was admitted to our department for an elective inguinal hernia repair. An oval-shaped mass was found in the hernia sac during the surgery that was suspected to be an ovary. Histological examination revealed testicular tissue. Further evaluation confirmed testicular feminization. She underwent laparoscopic orchiectomy and hernia repair from the contralateral side 3 months later.

  19. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  20. Effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are commonly used alone or in combination in the curative management of many malignancies in adolescent and adult males. Over the last 15-20 years, the striking success in the treatment of some common cancers in reproductive males has led to increasing concern for damage to normal tissues, such as the testes, resulting from curative cancer treatment. Indeed, a major future goal for cancer treatment will be to improve on the complication-free cure rate. Inherent in achieving this goal is to understand the pathophysiology and clinical expression of testicular injury. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in germ cell depletion with the development of oligo- to azoospermia and testicular atrophy. The type of drug (particularly the alkylating agents), duration of treatment, intensity of treatment, and drug combination are major variables in determining the extent and duration of testicular injury. Testicular injury with chemotherapy also appears to vary with the age of the patient at the time of treatment. Newer drug combinations are now being used which appear to have curative potential in tumors such as Hodgkin's disease and germ cell testicular cancer with less potential for testicular injury. The most accurate and complete information on radiation injury to the testes is derived from two studies of normal volunteers who received graded single doses directly to the testes. A clear dose-response relationship of clinical and histological testicular damage was found with gradual recovery occurring following doses of up to 600 cGy. While these two studies provide an important clinical data base, radiation therapy used in treating cancers involves multiple daily treatments, usually 25-35 delivered over several weeks. Additionally, direct testicular irradiation is seldom used clinically. 37 references.

  1. Data required for testicular dose calculation during radiotherapy of seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Kokona, Georgiana; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas

    2006-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to provide the required data for the direct calculation of testicular dose resulting from radiotherapy in patients with seminoma. Paraortic (PA) treatment fields and dog-leg (DL) portals including paraortic and ipsilateral pelvic nodes were simulated on a male anthropomorphic phantom equipped with an artificial testicle. Anterior and posterior irradiations were performed for five different PA and DL field dimensions. Dose measurements were carried out using a calibrated ionization chamber. The dependence of testicular dose upon the distance separating the testicle from the treatment volume and upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam was investigated. A clamshell lead shield was used to reduce testicular dose. The scattered dose to testicle was measured in nine patients using thermoluminescent dosimeters. Phantom and patient exposures were generated with a 6 MV x-ray beam. Linear and nonlinear regression analysis was employed to obtain formulas describing the relation between the radiation dose to an unshielded and/or shielded testicle with the field size and the distance from the inferior field edge. Correction factors showing the variation of testicular dose with the patient thickness along beam axis were found. Bland-Altman statistical analysis showed that testicular dose obtained by the proposed calculation method may differ from the measured dose value by less than 25%. The current study presents a method providing reasonable estimations of testicular dose for individual patients undergoing PA or DL radiotherapy.

  2. Testicular germ cell tumors: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Albers, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors represent the most common solid malignancy of young men aged 15-40 years. Histopathologically, testicular germ cell tumors are divided into two major groups: pure seminoma and nonseminoma. The pathogenesis of testicular germ cell tumors remains unknown; however, cryptorchidism is the main risk factor, and molecular studies have shown strong evidence of an association between genetic alterations and testicular germ cell tumors. In cases of suspicion for testicular germ cell tumor, a surgical exploration with orchiectomy is obligatory. After completion of diagnostic procedures, levels of serum tumor markers and the clinical stage based on the International Union Against Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification should be defined. Patients with early-stage testicular germ cell tumors are treated by individualized risk stratification within a multidisciplinary approach. The individual management (surveillance, chemotherapy or radiotherapy) has to be balanced according to clinical features and the risk of short-term and long-term toxic effects. Treatment for metastatic tumors is based on risk stratification according to International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group classification and is performed with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and residual tumor resection in cases of residual tumor lesion. High-dose chemotherapy represents a curative option for patients with second or subsequent relapses.

  3. Protective role of erythropoietin during testicular torsion of the rats.

    PubMed

    Yazihan, Nuray; Ataoglu, Haluk; Koku, Naim; Erdemli, Esra; Sargin, Ayse Kose

    2007-10-01

    Testicular torsion is an important clinical urgency. Similar mechanisms occurred after detorsion of the affected testis as in the ischemia reperfusion (I/R) damage. This study was designed to investigate the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment after unilateral testicular torsion. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 underwent a sham operation of the right testis under general anesthesia. Group 2 was same as sham, and EPO (3,000 IU/kg) infused i.p., group 3 underwent a similar operation but the right testis was rotated 720 degrees clockwise for 1 h, maintained by fixing the testis to the scrotum, and saline infused during the procedure. Group 4 underwent similar torsion but EPO was infused half an hour before the detorsion procedure, and in group 5, EPO was infused after detorsion procedure. Four hours after detorsion, ipsilateral and contralateral testes were taken out for evaluation. Treatment with EPO improved testicular structures in the ipsilateral testis but improvement was less in the contralateral testis histologically, but EPO treatment decreased germ cell apoptosis in both testes following testicular IR. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and nitrite levels decreased after EPO treatment especially in the ipsilateral testis. We conclude that testicular I/R causes an increase in germ cell apoptosis both in the ipsilateral and contralateral testes. Erythropoietin has antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects following testicular torsion.

  4. Epigenetics: a way to understand the origin and biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keisei

    2012-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are neoplasms carrying two unique features. First, testicular germ cell tumors have a pluripotential nature and show protean histology ranging from that of germ cells to embryonal and differentiated somatic cells. Therefore, testicular germ cell tumors are interesting resources positioned at a crossroad in developmental and neoplastic processes. The second unique feature of testicular germ cell tumors is their exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes recent research progress in the epigenetics of testicular germ cell tumors in an attempt to explain the abovementioned biological and clinical characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors.

  5. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  6. Lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other eye of a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Bikram Bahadur; Singh, Ramandeep; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Abiraj

    2014-12-09

    We present a case of Marfan syndrome with lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other. A 14-year-old girl reported decreased vision in the left eye. Her visual acuity was 6/24 and counting fingers at 1 m in the right and left eyes, respectively. Her intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in both eyes. Evaluation of the right eye on slit lamp biomicroscopy under mydriasis revealed an inferiorly visible flattened and concave crystalline lens equator from 4 to 8 o'clock position along with notching and absence of zonules, suggestive of lens coloboma. Left eye examination revealed a superiorly subluxated lens from 3 to 9 o'clock position and posterior subcapsular cataract. The posterior segment evaluation of both eyes was normal. Her father, aunt and grandfather were of tall stature, characteristic of Marfan syndrome. On systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as Marfan syndrome. After surgical correction she achieved vision of 6/6 in both eyes.

  7. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue or testicular cell suspensions: a pivotal step in fertility preservation

    PubMed Central

    Onofre, J.; Baert, Y.; Faes, K.; Goossens, E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans. However, these techniques are still at a research stage and their efficiency depends on the amount of SSCs available for fertility restoration. Therefore, maintaining the number of SSCs is a critical step in human fertility preservation. Standardizing a successful cryopreservation method for TT and testicular cell suspensions (TCSs) is most important before any clinical application of fertility restoration could be successful. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE This review gives an overview of existing cryopreservation protocols used in different animal models and humans. Cell recovery, cell viability, tissue integrity and functional assays are taken into account. Additionally, biosafety and current perspectives in male fertility preservation are discussed. SEARCH METHODS An extensive PubMED and MEDline database search was conducted. Relevant studies linked to the topic were identified by the search terms: cryopreservation, male fertility preservation, (immature)testicular tissue, testicular cell suspension, spermatogonial stem cell, gonadotoxicity, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. OUTCOMES The feasibility of fertility restoration techniques using frozen-thawed TT and TCS has been proven in animal models. Efficient protocols for cryopreserving human TT exist and are currently applied in the clinic. For TCSs, the highest post-thaw viability reported after vitrification is 55.6 ± 23

  8. Aquaporin-11 control of testicular fertility markers in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Shannonhouse, John L; Urbanski, Henryk F; Woo, Shih-Lung; Fong, Li An; Goddard, Scott D; Lucas, William F; Jones, Edward R; Wu, Chaodong; Morgan, Caurnel

    2014-06-25

    The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3βHsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3βHsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility.

  9. Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups. Considering rats without preexisting abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (P less than 0.05) in flight than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other or to Sertoli cells and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Expression of testis-specific gene products was not greatly altered by flight. Furthermore, there was no evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp7O or hsp9O genes. Concentration of receptors for rat luteinizing hormone in testicular tissue and surface density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cells were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20% of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Exposure to microgravity for more than 2 wk might result in additional changes. Sequelae of reduced androgen production associated with microgravity on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered.

  10. Epitope mapping of mAbs to denatured human testicular ACE (CD143).

    PubMed

    Balyasnikova, I V; Metzger, R; Franke, F E; Conrad, N; Towbin, H; Schwartz, D E; Sturrock, E D; Danilov, S M

    2008-10-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE; CD143) has two homologous enzymatically active domains (N and C) and plays a crucial role in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. A wide spectrum of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to different epitopes on the N and C domains of human ACE have been used to study different aspects of ACE biology. In this study, we characterized a set of nine mAbs, developed against the C domain of human ACE, which recognize the denatured forms of ACE and thus are suitable for the detection and quantification of somatic ACE (sACE) and testicular ACE (tACE) using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry on paraffin-embedded human tissues. The epitopes for these mAbs were defined using species cross-reactivity, phage display library screening, Western blotting and ACE mutagenesis. Most of the mAbs recognized common/overlapping region(s) on both somatic and testicular forms of human ACE, whereas mAb 4E10 was relatively specific for the testicular isoform and mAb 5B9 mainly recognized the glycan attached to Asn 731. This set of mAbs is useful for identifying even subtle changes in human ACE conformation because of denaturation. These mAbs are also sensitive tools for the detection of human sACE and tACE in biological fluids and tissues using proteomic approaches. Their high reactivity in paraffin-embedded tissues provides opportunities to study changes in the pattern of ACE expression and glycosylation (particularly with mAb 5B9) in different tissues and cells.

  11. Pleiotropic Activities of HGF/c-Met System in Testicular Physiology: Paracrine and Endocrine Implications.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a growing body of evidence has been reported concerning the expression and functional role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on different aspects of testicular physiology. This review has the aim to summarize what is currently known regarding this topic. From early embryonic development to adult age, HGF and its receptor c-Met appeared to be clearly detectable in the testis. These molecules acquire different distribution patterns and roles depending on the developmental stage or the post-natal age considered. HGF acts as a paracrine modulator of testicular functions promoting the epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk as described even in other organs. Interestingly, it has been reported that testicular HGF acts even as an autocrine factor and that its receptor might be modulated by endocrine signals that change at puberty: HGF receptor expressed by Sertoli cells, in fact, is up-regulated by FSH administration. HGF is in turn able to modify endocrine state of the organism being able to increase testosterone secretion of both fetal and adult Leydig cells. Moreover, c-Met is expressed in mitotic and meiotic male germ cells as well as in spermatozoa. The distribution pattern of c-Met on sperm cell membrane changes in the caput and cauda epididymal sperms and HGF is able to maintain epididymal sperm motility in vitro suggesting a physiological role of this growth factor in the acquisition of sperm motility. Noteworthy changes in HGF concentration in seminal plasma have been reported in different andrological diseases. All together these data indicate that HGF has a role in the control of spermatogenesis and sperm quality either directly, acting on male germ cells, or indirectly acting on tubular and interstitial somatic cells of the testis.

  12. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  13. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  14. [Testicular tissue vitrification: evolution or revolution?].

    PubMed

    Wyns, C; Abu-Ghannam, G; Poels, J

    2013-09-01

    Preservation of reproductive health is a major concern for patient long-term quality of life. While sperm freezing has proven to be effective to preserve fertility after puberty, cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue (ITT) is emerging as a promising approach for fertility preservation in young boys. Slow-freezing (SF) is the conventional method used to preserve ITT and has resulted in the birth of mice offspring. In humans, methods to preserve ITT are still at the research stage. Controlled SF using dimethyl sulfoxide showed preservation of proliferative spermatogonia after thawing in a xenotransplantation model used to evaluate the efficiency of freezing and thawing procedures. However, spermatogonial recovery was low and normal differentiation could not be achieved. Both freezing/thawing and the environment of the xenotransplantation model may be implicated. Indeed, with SF, ice crystal formation could damage tissue and cells. For this reason, vitrification, leading to solidification of a liquid without crystallization, may be a promising alternative. ITT vitrification has been investigated in different species and shown spermatogonial survival and differentiation to the round or elongated spermatids stage. Offspring were also recently obtained after vitrification and allotransplantation in avians, confirming the potential of vitrification for fertility preservation. In humans, vitrification appears to be as efficient as SF in terms of spermatogonial survival and initiation of differentiation after xenotransplantation. However, before validation of such fertility preservation methods, completion of normal spermatogenesis and the fertilization capacity of sperm retrieved from cryopreserved and transplanted tissue should be fully investigated.

  15. Neonatal testicular torsion: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Biplab; Murphy, Feilim Liam

    2011-10-01

    Neonatal testicular torsion (NTT) is rare and reported salvage rates vary widely both in their cited frequency and plausibility. The timing and necessity of surgery is controversial with different centers arguing for the conservative management of all cases while others argue for prompt exploration for all. Confusion also reigns over the need to fix the contralateral testis. In order to clarify the issue the authors reviewed the literature and found 18 case series of NTT, containing 268 operated cases suitable for analysis. This paper reviews the literature on NTT specifically regarding salvage rates and timing/necessity of surgery. Its primary aim is to produce an overall salvage rate in the operated group. Overall salvage rate was 8.96%, 24 testes. When operation is specified as an emergency, salvage may be as high as 21.7%. While salvage of a testis torted at birth is rare, it is reported. Early asynchronous torsion is also rare but reported. Worryingly, bilateral torsion can present with unilateral signs.Given these findings, we would suggest early surgery with fixation of the contralateral side.

  16. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  17. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome.

  18. Pattern of Testicular Biopies as Seen in a Tertiary Institution in Nnewi, Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oranusi, Chidi-Kingsley; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike V; Ukah, Cornelius O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Testicular biopsy is an acknowledged method of examination of the testes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. We describe the pattern of testicular histologies in our environment. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective review of testicular histology results from the Pathology Department of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, over a 5-year period, January 2008 to December 2012. Results: During the period, 285 testicular histologies were reported. Eighty-one (28.4%) specimens were pathological specimens, while 204 (71.6%) were nonpathological specimens. Thirty-seven (13.0%) of the histology reports were for diagnostic purpose while 248 (87.0%) were for therapeutic purpose. Based on the results, indications could also be categorized into three, benign testicular pathology, malignant testicular pathology, and testicular biopsy for male factor infertility. Thirty-seven cases (13.0%) were due to male factor infertility with complete spermatogenic arrest as the most common histological finding in 21 (56.8%) of the cases. Malignant testicular diseases accounted for 16 (5.6%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Benign testicular diseases accounted for 28 (9.8%) of the indications for testicular biopsies. Hemorrhagic infarction from testicular torsion represented the commonest histology in 12 (42.9%) cases, followed by inflammations of the testes. Conclusion: Indications for testicular biopsy can be diagnostic and therapeutic. They can also be categorized into benign testicular diseases, malignant testicular diseases, and male infertility. Investigation for male factor infertility was the only diagnostic indication for testicular biopsy. The high incidence of locally and metastatic prostate cancer in males explains why therapeutic removal of the testis is common. PMID:25191093

  19. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton

    2012-04-17

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because the risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that in utero exposures, or those in early childhood, are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolescence and adulthood is also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two adult occupational exposures-fire fighting and aircraft maintenance--and one environmental exposure (to organochlorine pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, seven of the identified factors--diet, types of physical activity, military service, police work as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide--are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures--to heat, polyvinyl chloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use--require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer.

  20. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  1. Testicular torsion, oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant therapy.

    PubMed

    Dokmeci, Dikmen

    2006-01-01

    Testicular torsion is a urological syndrome caused mainly by a twist in the spermatic cord. It constitutes a surgical emergency and affects newborns, children and adolescent boys. The torsion must be treated promptly to avoid loss of function of ipsilateral and contralateral testis. This syndrome often leads to infertility of the ipsilateral (torted) and contralateral (not torted) testis,but the mechanisms of cellular injury remain still incompletely understood. The primary pathophysiologic event in testicular torsion is ischemia followed by reperfusion; thus, testicular torsion/detorsion is an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury to the testis. Testicular torsion and detorsion causes morphological and biochemical changes by both ischemia and reperfusion of the tissues. These I/R injury is associated with overgeneration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and also with a common mechanism to other organs such as brain, heart and kidneys. Although the results are not conclusive and the molecular mechanism by which antioxidants control male fertility have not yet been clearly identified, several antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant drugs have been studied to prevent such I/R injury in testis. As a result, antioxidant therapy may represent a new non-hormonal option within a broader therapeutic strategy in men with ROS-mediated infertility such as testicular torsion.

  2. Contralateral genitofemoral sympathetic nerve discharge increases following ipsilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Otçu, Selçuk; Durakoğugil, Murat; Orer, Hakan S; Tanyel, Feridun C

    2002-10-01

    The decrease in blood flow due to the activation of sympathetic system has been suggested to play a role in contralateral testicular deterioration associated with unilateral testicular torsion. Sympathetic nerve discharges (SND) from the genitofemoral nerve were evaluated before and during unilateral testicular torsion. Under urethane anesthesia, arterial blood pressure and SND from splanchnic and right genitofemoral nerves were recorded in 12 male Sprague-Dawley rats, 8 of which were included in subsequent analyses. After control recordings of basal discharges for 2 min the left testis was twisted 720 degrees counterclockwise, and recording was resumed for an additional 30 min. Changes in nerve activity were calculated by measuring the area under the autospectrum curve, and alterations were compared. Following testicular torsion no significant changes were obtained for splanchnic SND, but the amplitude of SND from contralateral genitofemoral nerve showed an overall increase of 21.20+/-7.03% in six rats. This increase lasted about 10-15 min and activities returned to pretorsion levels. In two other rats no significant change was observed in either splanchnic or genitofemoral SND. Ipsilateral testicular torsion results in a transient increase in genitofemoral SND. A possible autonomic reflex mechanism may exist, and it may be activated by noxious stimuli from contralateral side. This reflex mechanism may initiate a series of events that lead to the injury of contralateral testis.

  3. The protective role of erdosteine on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion.

    PubMed

    Koc, Ahmet; Narci, Adnan; Duru, Mehmet; Gergerlioglu, H Serdar; Akaydin, Yesim; Sogut, Sadik

    2005-12-01

    Testicular torsion and detorsion are important clinical problems for infertile man and oxidative stress may have a role in this clinical situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of erdosteine, an antioxidant, on unilateral testicular reperfusion injury in rats. The rats were divided into four groups including seven rats in each group: control, torsion, torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine. Rats, except the sham operation group, were subjected to left unilateral torsion (720( composite function) rotation in the clockwise direction) without including the epididymis. The experiments were finished after sham operation time for control, 120 min torsion for torsion group and 120 min torsion and 240 min detorsion for torsion/detorsion groups. Bilateral orchiectomy was performed for all groups of rats. The ipsilateral and controlateral testis were divided into two pieces to analyse biochemical parameters and to investigate the light microscopic view. Malondialdehyde level of ipsilateral testis was increased in torsion and torsion/detorsion groups in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.05). Erdosteine treatment ameliorated lipid peroxidation after torsion/detorsion in ipsilateral testis (p < 0.05). Also, xanthine oxidase activity of ipsilateral testis was increased in torsion/detorsion group in comparison with the others (p < 0.05). Nitric oxide (NO) level of ipsilateral testis was higher in all experimental groups than sham operated control group (p < 0.05). Also, NO level of torsion group was increased in comparison with detorsion groups (p < 0.05). Erdosteine treatment caused increased glutathione peroxidase activity in comparison with torsion and torsion/detorsion groups and catalase activity in comparison with the other groups in ipsilateral testis (p < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activity of ipsilateral testis was higher in torsion/detorsion and torsion/detorsion+erdosteine groups than control and torsion groups (p < 0

  4. [Evaluation of testicular biopsy as an aspect of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (introductory report)].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Swierczyński, W; Dziecielski, H; Semmler, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was demonstration of the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in biopsy testicular specimens. The indication to testicular biopsy was azoospermia or cryptozoospermia. The studied group comprised 12 patients in whose semen C. trachomatis was found. For the identification of the organism culture in chick embryo was used. In 2 preparations C. trachomatis was demonstrated in testicular biopsy.

  5. Lack of effect on rat testicular organogenesis after in utero exposure to 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD).

    PubMed

    El Ramy, Rosy; Ould Elhkim, Mostafa; Poul, Martine; Forest, Maguelone G; Leduque, Patrick; Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Brigitte

    2006-10-01

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a food-born contaminant known to display toxic effects on male reproduction, producing infertility in rats and humans. Using the rat as a model, we investigated whether or not testicular organogenesis, which, in the rat species, occurs during the second half of gestation, was at particular risk regarding 3-MCPD toxicity. Pregnant rats were given daily doses of 5, 10 or 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD from days 11.5-18.5 postcoitum (dpc). On 19.5 dpc, testes were removed from fetuses for histological examination and testosterone analysis. Eight genes were selected among the differentiation markers of testicular cell lineages, and their expression was studied by RT-PCR. The levels of 3-MCPD and its main metabolite, beta-chlorolactic acid, were assayed in fetal tissues and dam plasma. Our results show a statistically significant decrease in the mean body weight gain of pregnant rats treated with 10 and 25 mg/kg BW of 3-MCPD. Fetal testes exposed to 3-MCPD exhibited normal histology and produced testosterone at levels that were similar to controls. In addition, 3-MCPD did not alter gene expression in the fetal testes. This lack of effect occurred under conditions where 3-MCPD and beta-chlorolactic acid were found to readily cross the placental barrier and diffuse throughout the fetal tissues. Our findings indicate that 3-MCPD has minimal effect on rat testicular organogenesis.

  6. Genetic diversity affects testicular morphology in free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) of the Serengeti Plains and Ngorongoro Crater.

    PubMed

    Munson, L; Brown, J L; Bush, M; Packer, C; Janssen, D; Reiziss, S M; Wildt, D E

    1996-09-01

    Reduced genetic variability is known to adversely affect ejaculate quality in inbred lions (Panthera leo) physically isolated in the Ngorongoro Crater compared with outbred lions inhabiting the adjacent Serengeti Plains in East Africa. This study compared the histomorphology of testicular biopsies from these two lion populations. Ngorongoro Crater lions had fewer (P < 0.05) seminiferous tubules with spermiogenesis and fewer (P < 0.05) spermatids per seminiferous tubular cross-section than Serengeti Plains lions, although seminiferous tubular diameter did not differ (P > 0.05) between populations. Interstitial areas were greater (P < 0.05) in Crater than in Plains lions, but no qualitative differences were evident, suggesting that proportionately less testicular area was occupied by seminiferous tubules in Crater lions. None of the lions in either population had evidence of testicular degeneration. Overall results suggest that inbred Crater lions have reduced spermiogenesis and less total seminiferous tubular area per testis. These data further support the premise that genetic homogeneity compromises reproductive traits in free-living, male African lions.

  7. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  8. Mutational profiling of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with testicular relapse.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling-Wen; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Mayakonda, Anand; Tan, Kar-Tong; Chien, Wenwen; Lin, De-Chen; Jiang, Yan-Yi; Xu, Liang; Garg, Manoj; Lao, Zhen-Tang; Lill, Michael; Yang, Henry; Yeoh, Allen Eng Juh; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2017-03-02

    Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the leading cause of deaths of childhood cancer. Although relapse usually happens in the bone marrow, extramedullary relapse occasionally occurs including either the central nervous system or testis (<1-2%). We selected two pediatric ALL patients who experienced testicular relapse and interrogated their leukemic cells with exome sequencing. The sequencing results and clonality analyses suggest that relapse of patient D483 directly evolved from the leukemic clone at diagnosis which survived chemotherapy. In contrast, relapse leukemia cells (both bone marrow and testis) of patient D727 were likely derived from a common ancestral clone, and testicular relapse likely arose independently from the bone marrow relapsed leukemia. Our findings decipher the mutational spectra and shed light on the clonal evolution of two cases of pediatric ALL with testicular relapse. Presence of CREBBP/NT5C2 mutations suggests that a personalized therapeutic approach should be applied to these two patients.

  9. Epidemiology of Testicular Cancer in Oklahoma and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shannon; Janitz, Amanda; Campbell, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare cause of morbidity and mortality in the US. Marked disparities in the development of this cancer exist, with testicular cancer being more common in Caucasian men and men of higher socioeconomic status. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing worldwide, and the reasons for this have not been well documented. It has been proposed that this increase may be due to highly prevalent environmental factors, or from exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chloride, cigarette smoking, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). For our analysis, data were obtained from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program. Age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year relative survival were calculated for Oklahoma and for the US. Overall, incidence was lower in Oklahoma than the US, but no differences were observed between the US and Oklahoma regarding survival by year of diagnosis, race, age, and stage. PMID:27885307

  10. Viral-type orchitis: a potential mimic of testicular neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Kristina M; Young, Robert H; Ferry, Judith A

    2009-10-01

    Orchitis of viral or presumed viral etiology is an uncommon cause of testicular pain or enlargement. Rarely orchitis is clinically or radiographically suggestive of neoplasia, resulting in a testicular biopsy or orchiectomy being performed. Between 1978 and 2004, 10 cases submitted in consultation were diagnosed as orchitis at the Massachusetts General Hospital. The patients were from 18 to 37 years of age and presented with testicular enlargement or a mass, pain, or both. Radiographic studies were suspicious for a neoplasm in all 5 cases in which results were available. The patients underwent testicular biopsy (2 cases), orchiectomy (6 cases), biopsy immediately followed by orchiectomy (1 case), or biopsy followed by orchiectomy 3 weeks later (1 case). The cases were submitted with diagnoses that included intratubular seminoma, intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unspecified, Sertoli cell hyperplasia, myeloid sarcoma, and lymphoma. Microscopic examination revealed preservation of the architecture of the testicular parenchyma, typically with hemorrhage and edema, with patchy inflammation in the form of a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate within seminiferous tubules and also between tubules. The intratubular infiltrate usually predominated. Immunohistochemical studies, performed in 7 cases showed a mixture of CD68+ histiocytes and CD3+ T cells, with few B cells (CD20+) and few granulocytes. Follow-up was available in 5 cases; all 5 patients were alive and well 11 months to 10 years after diagnosis. In the rare instance in which a testicular specimen with orchitis is submitted for pathologic evaluation, diagnosis may be difficult. Familiarity with the pathologic changes characteristic of orchitis will help avoid misdiagnosis.

  11. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  12. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2001-06-01

    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  13. Multispecies Purification of Testicular Germ Cells.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana C; Jung, Min; Rusch, Jannette; Usmani, Abul; Lopes, Alexandra; Conrad, Donald F

    2016-08-24

    Advanced methods of cellular purification are required to apply genome technology to the study of spermatogenesis. One approach, based on flow cytometry of murine testicular cells stained with Hoechst-33342 (Ho-FACS), has been extensively optimized and currently allows the isolation of 9 germ cell types. This staining technique is straightforward to implement, highly effective at purifying specific germ cell types and yields sufficient cell numbers for high throughput studies. Ho-FACS is a technique that does not require species-specific markers, but whose applicability to other species is largely unexplored. We hypothesized that, due to the similar cell physiology of spermatogenesis across mammals, Ho-FACS could be used to produce highly purified subpopulations of germ cells in mammals other than mouse. To test this hypothesis, we applied Ho-FACS to 4 mammalian species that are widely used in testis research - Rattus norvegicus, Cavia porcellus, Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa domesticus We successfully isolated 4 germ cell populations from these species with average purity of 79% for spermatocytes, and 90% for spermatids and 66% for spermatogonia. Additionally, we compare the performance of mechanical and chemical dissociation for each species, and propose an optimized gating strategy to better discriminate round and elongating spermatids in the mouse, which can potentially be applied to other species. Our work indicates that spermatogenesis may be uniquely accessible among mammalian developmental systems, as a single set of reagents may be sufficient to isolate germ cell populations from many different mammalian species, opening new avenues in the fields of development and male reproductive biology.

  14. Testicular Mass in Late Adolescence: Not Always Malignant.

    PubMed

    Delto, Joan C; Mittal, Angela G; Castellan, Miguel

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of cystic dysplasia of the testes in an adolescent boy who presented with testicular pain and found to have a palpable intratesticular mass. Ultrasound revealed an avascular cystic dilation of the testicle. Usually, a palpable intratesticular mass is malignant unless proven otherwise. However, on computed tomography scan, he was found to have agenesis of the ipsilateral kidney and dilation of the ipsilateral seminal vesicle. These findings were consistent with a congenital abnormality, suggesting that the testicular finding was likely cystic dysplasia of the testes, with low malignant potential. Thus, the patient did not undergo radical orchiectomy.

  15. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  16. Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia of the Testis, Bilateral Testicular Cancer, and Aberrant Histologies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pranav; Dhillon, Jasreman; Sexton, Wade J

    2015-08-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors, most of which are early stage. ITGCN is also associated with testicular cancer or ITGCN in the contralateral testis, leading to a risk of bilateral testicular malignancy. Testicular biopsy detects most cases, and orchiectomy is the treatment of choice in patients with unilateral ITGCN. Low-dose radiation therapy is recommended in patients with bilateral ITGCN or ITGCN in the solitary testis, but the long-term risks of infertility and hypogonadism need to be discussed with the patient. Rare histologies of primary testicular cancer are also discussed.

  17. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: a focus on contralateral testicular cancers.

    PubMed

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961-1989 and 1996-2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970-2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups.

  18. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.; Schaison, G.; Rappaport, R.

    1983-07-07

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than four years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.

  19. Diagnosis and management of testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Yang, Jin-Rui; Huang, Yu-Meng; Wang, Long; Liu, Long-Fei; Wei, Yong-Bao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Quan; Zeng, Ming-Qiang; Tang, Zheng-Yan

    2016-12-01

    Testicular rupture, one of the most common complications in blunt scrotal trauma, is the rupture of tunica albuginea and extrusion of seminiferous tubules. Testicular rupture is more inclined to young men, and injury mechanisms are associated with sports and motor accidents. After history taking and essential physical examination, scrotal ultrasound is the first-line auxiliary examination. MRI is also one of the vital complementary examinations to evaluate testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma. Surgical exploration and repair may be necessary when the diagnosis of testicular rupture is definite or suspicious. Postoperative follow-up is to monitor the relief of local symptoms and changes of testicular functions. This review sums up the literatures about testicular rupture after blunt scrotal trauma in recent 16 years and also refers some new advantages and perspectives on diagnosis and management of testicular rupture.

  20. Cancer testis antigen expression in testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Peter K; Thielken, Andrea; Brandt, Simone; Barghorn, André; Lohe, Bernd; Knuth, Alexander; Moch, Holger

    2014-06-01

    Cancer testis antigens are encoded by germ line-associated genes that are present in normal germ cells of testis and ovary but not in differentiated tissues. Their expression in various human cancer types has been interpreted as 're-expression' or as intratumoral progenitor cell signature. Cancer testis antigen expression patterns have not yet been studied in germ cell tumorigenesis with specific emphasis on intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified as a precursor lesion for testicular germ cell tumors. Immunohistochemistry was used to study MAGEA3, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, GAGE1 and CTAG1B expression in 325 primary testicular germ cell tumors, including 94 mixed germ cell tumors. Seminomatous and non-seminomatous components were separately arranged and evaluated on tissue microarrays. Spermatogonia in the normal testis were positive, whereas intratubular germ cell neoplasia unclassified was negative for all five CT antigens. Cancer testis antigen expression was only found in 3% (CTAG1B), 10% (GAGE1, MAGEA4), 33% (MAGEA3) and 40% (MAGEC1) of classic seminoma but not in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors. In contrast, all spermatocytic seminomas were positive for cancer testis antigens. These data are consistent with a different cell origin in spermatocytic seminoma compared with classic seminoma and support a progression model with loss of cancer testis antigens in early tumorigenesis of testicular germ cell tumors and later re-expression in a subset of seminomas.

  1. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic analysis of the testicular toxicity of haloacetic acids

    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, R...

  2. Fecally loaded inguinoscrotal hernia masquerading as testicular mass.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Robert David; Wallace, Sophie; Zein, Abdulhalim Al; D'Costa, Horace

    2011-10-01

    An 88-year-old man presented with clinical signs suggestive of a testicular mass. The initial ultrasound examination was inconclusive however regional computed tomography eloquently distinguished a large indirect inguinoscrotal hernia with a hernia sac containing a loop of fecally loaded sigmoid colon.

  3. Predictive factors of successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction.

    PubMed

    Bernie, Aaron M; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Schlegel, Peter N

    2013-01-01

    Azoospermia in men requires microsurgical reconstruction or a procedure for sperm retrieval with assisted reproduction to allow fertility. While the chance of successful retrieval of sperm in men with obstructive azoospermia approaches >90%, the chances of sperm retrieval in men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) are not as high. Conventional procedures such as fine needle aspiration of the testis, testicular biopsy and testicular sperm extraction are successful in 20-45% of men with NOA. With microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), the chance of successful retrieval can be up to 60%. Despite this increased success, the ability to counsel patients preoperatively on their probability of successful sperm retrieval has remained challenging. A combination of variables such as age, serum FSH and inhibin B levels, testicular size, genetic analysis, history of Klinefelter syndrome, history of cryptorchidism or varicocele and histopathology on diagnostic biopsy have provided some insight into the chance of successful sperm retrieval in men with NOA. The goal of this review was to evaluate the preoperative factors that are currently available to predict the outcome for success with micro-TESE.

  4. Recent advances in the genetics of testicular failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Hun; Chiba, Koji; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor is responsible for 30%–50% of all infertility. The most severe form of male infertility is testicular failure, and the typical phenotype of testicular failure is severely impaired spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Although the etiology of testicular failure remains poorly understood, genetic factor typically is an underlying cause. Modern assisted reproductive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility, allowing biological fatherhood to be achieved by many men who would otherwise have been unable to become father to their children through natural conception. Therefore, identifying genetic abnormalities in male is critical because of the potential risk of transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Recently, along with other intense researches ongoing, whole-genome approaches have been used increasingly in the genetic studies of male infertility. In this review, we focus on the genetics of testicular failure and provide an update on the advances in the study of genetics of male infertility. PMID:27048782

  5. Doppler velocimetric parameters of the testicular artery in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Cunha Barbosa, Claudia; Pereira, Barbara Sucupira; Monteiro, Cynthia Levi Baratta; Pinto, José Nicodemos; Linhares, Jussiara Candeira Spíndola; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the Doppler velocimetric pattern of the testicular artery of small dogs in two different locations. Testes of 21 dogs were evaluated by two-dimensional ultrasonography to measure testicular volume and by Doppler ultrasonography to record the velocimetric patterns of the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and marginal location. The volume of left testes (4.70 ± 1.22 cm(3)) was significantly higher than the volume of the right testes (4.45 ± 1.17 cm(3)). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of the left spermatic cord was significantly higher than the right side. End-diastolic velocity was significantly higher in the marginal artery than the spermatic cord on both sides; however, resistance and pulsatility indexes were significantly lower in the marginal artery. Results demonstrate the viability of Doppler ultrasonography for characterization of the testicular artery in small dogs and Doppler velocimetric values vary according to the location of measurement along the artery.

  6. Testicular cancer: risk stratification in adolescents with nonseminoma.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-07-01

    Data are lacking on the role of histological risk factors (such as embryonal carcinoma and lymphovascular invasion) for occult metastasis in adolescents with testicular germ cell tumours. Investigators of a pilot study have now retrospectively reviewed a testis cancer database to identify risk stratification criteria in this population.

  7. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  8. Unusually Located Stroke After Chemotherapy in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Braulio Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a type of malignancy that affects young adults and has high rates of cure; however, as any malignancy, it is associated with an increased risk of ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, given the systemic tumor effects or side effects of chemotherapy, which in turn increases morbidity, functional impairment, and additional risk of early death. PMID:26425644

  9. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  10. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Tolín, A.; Mínguez-Alarcón, L.; Mendiola, J.; López-Espín, J.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Torres-Cantero, A.M.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18–23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility

  11. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Breikaa, Randa M; Mosli, Hisham A; Nagy, Ayman A; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause.

  12. Androgen Action via Testicular Arteriole Smooth Muscle Cells Is Important for Leydig Cell Function, Vasomotion and Testicular Fluid Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Michelle; Sharpe, Richard M.; Moffat, Lindsey; Atanassova, Nina; Saunders, Philippa T. K.; Kilter, Sigrid; Bergh, Anders; Smith, Lee B.

    2010-01-01

    Regulation of blood flow through the testicular microvasculature by vasomotion is thought to be important for normal testis function as it regulates interstitial fluid (IF) dynamics which is an important intra-testicular transport medium. Androgens control vasomotion, but how they exert these effects remains unclear. One possibility is by signalling via androgen receptors (AR) expressed in testicular arteriole smooth muscle cells. To investigate this and determine the overall importance of this mechanism in testis function, we generated a blood vessel smooth muscle cell-specific AR knockout mouse (SMARKO). Gross reproductive development was normal in SMARKO mice but testis weight was reduced in adulthood compared to control littermates; this reduction was not due to any changes in germ cell volume or to deficits in testosterone, LH or FSH concentrations and did not cause infertility. However, seminiferous tubule lumen volume was reduced in adult SMARKO males while interstitial volume was increased, perhaps indicating altered fluid dynamics; this was associated with compensated Leydig cell failure. Vasomotion was impaired in adult SMARKO males, though overall testis blood flow was normal and there was an increase in the overall blood vessel volume per testis in adult SMARKOs. In conclusion, these results indicate that ablating arteriole smooth muscle AR does not grossly alter spermatogenesis or affect male fertility but does subtly impair Leydig cell function and testicular fluid exchange, possibly by locally regulating microvascular blood flow within the testis. PMID:21049031

  13. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury - a case series.

    PubMed

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Pannek, J

    2015-09-01

    In this case series, the testicular resistive index was determined in men with spinal cord injury. In ten men participating in our fertility programme, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity of centripetal testicular arteries was measured in triplicates by Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the testicular resistive index. Furthermore, the right and left testicular volume was determined by ultrasonography, blood samples were obtained for hormonal evaluation, and sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. The median testicular resistive index measured 0.69 and was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the reported cut-off value of 0.6. The spermiograms were characterised by normal sperm count but decreased sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. The median right and left testicular volume was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller compared to the volumes measured in able-bodied adult males without scrotal pathology and measured 8.4 ml and 7.2 ml respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.005) correlation (rs  = 0.81) between testicular resistive index and sperm concentration. However, no correlations were observed between testicular resistive index and other variables. The testicular resistive index in men with spinal cord injury was significantly greater than 0.6. Measuring the testicular resistive index may represent a useful additional parameter in the assessment of infertility in spinal cord-injured men.

  14. A comparison of ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa aneuploidy rates in patients with high sperm DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Alladin, Naazish; Lo, Kirk C; Jarvi, Keith; Mullen, J Brendan M; Librach, Clifford L

    2012-06-01

    Testicular spermatozoa are utilized to achieve pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. Several studies suggest that aneuploidy rates in spermatozoa are elevated at the testicular level in infertile patients compared to ejaculates of normal controls. However, essential data regarding aneuploidy rates between ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa in the same individuals is lacking. The purpose of our study was to compare aneuploidy rates at the testicular and post-testicular level from the same patients with persistently high sperm DNA damage. Ejaculates and testicular biopsies were obtained from eight patients with persistently high DNA damage (>30%). Both ejaculated and testicular samples were analyzed for sperm DNA damage and sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. In addition, semen samples from ten normozoospermic men presenting for fertility evaluation served as a control group. A strong correlation between the alteration of spermatogenesis and chromatin deterioration was observed in our study. In the same individuals, testicular samples showed a significantly lower DNA damage compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (14.9% ± 5.0 vs. 40.6% ± 14.8, P<0.05), but significantly higher aneuploidy rates for the five analyzed chromosomes (12.41% ± 3.7 vs. 5.77% ± 1.2, P<0.05). While testicular spermatozoa appear favourable for ICSI in terms of lower DNA damage, this potential advantage could be offset by the higher aneuploidy rates in testicular spermatozoa.

  15. Functional and phenotypic characteristics of testicular macrophages in experimental autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed

    Rival, C; Theas, M S; Suescun, M O; Jacobo, P; Guazzone, V; van Rooijen, N; Lustig, L

    2008-06-01

    Testicular inflammation with compromised fertility can occur despite the fact that the testis is considered an immunoprivileged organ. Testicular macrophages have been described as cells with an immunosuppressor profile, thus contributing to the immunoprivilege of the testis. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of organ-specific autoimmunity and testicular inflammation. EAO is characterized by an interstitial inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltration, damage of the seminiferous tubules and germ cell apoptosis. Here we studied the phenotype and functions of testicular macrophages during the development of EAO. By stereological analysis, we detected an increased number of resident (ED2+) and non-resident (ED1+) macrophages in the testicular interstitium of rats with orchitis. We showed that this increase was mainly due to monocyte recruitment. The in vivo administration of liposomes containing clodronate in rats undergoing EAO led to a reduction in the number of testicular macrophages, which correlated with a decreased incidence and severity of the testicular damage and suggests a pathogenic role of macrophages in EAO. By immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry we detected an increased number of testicular macrophages expressing MHC class II, CD80 and CD86 costimulatory molecules in rats with orchitis. Also, testicular macrophages from rats with EAO showed a higher production of IFNgamma (ELISA). We conclude that testicular macrophages participate in EAO development, and the ED1+ macrophage subset is the main pathogenic subpopulation. They stimulate the immune response through the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and antigen presentation and thus activation of T cells in the target organ.

  16. Virtual azoospermia and cryptozoospermia--fresh/frozen testicular or ejaculate sperm for better IVF outcome?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Ron; Bibi, Guy; Yogev, Leah; Carmon, Ariella; Azem, Foad; Botchan, Amnon; Yavetz, Haim; Klieman, Sandra E; Lehavi, Ofer; Amit, Ami; Ben-Yosef, Dalit

    2011-01-01

    Men diagnosed as having azoospermia occasionally have a few mature sperm cells in other ejaculates. Other men may have constant, yet very low quality and quantity of sperm cells in their ejaculates, resulting in poor intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome. It has not been conclusively established which source of sperm cells is preferable for ICSI when both ejaculate and testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells are available. It is also unclear whether there is any advantage of fresh over frozen sperm if testicular sperm is to be used. We used ejaculate, testicular (fresh or frozen) sperm cells, or both for ICSI in 13 couples. Five of these couples initially underwent ICSI by testicular sperm extraction, because the males had total azoospermia, and in later cycles with ejaculate sperm cells. Ejaculate sperm cells were initially used for ICSI in the other 8 patients, and later with testicular sperm cells. The fertilization rate was significantly higher when fresh or frozen-thawed testicular sperm cells were used than when ejaculated sperm cells were used. Likewise, the quality of the embryos from testicular (fresh and frozen) sperm was higher than from ejaculated sperm (65.3% vs 53.2%, respectively, P < .05). The use of fresh testicular sperm yielded better implantation rates than both frozen testicular sperm and ejaculate. Therefore, fresh testicular sperm should be considered first for ICSI in patients with virtual azoospermia or cryptozoospermia because of their superior fertility.

  17. An unusual case of thoracic ectopia cordis in a Toggenburg Goat and its three-dimensional images constructed with X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Wu, Jui-Te; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chao, Ming-Hsin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    A two-day-old female Toggenburg goat with thoracic ectopia cordis (EC) was diagnosed via radiography and computed tomography. The goat was born with EC, defects of the sternum and a supra-umbilical abdominal wall, but without the presence of Cantrell's syndrome. Necropsy and histopathological findings indicated the affected kid had malformation of the heart with an enlarged left ventricle. The findings showed the heart (9 x 5 x 5 cm) stayed outside the thorax, and was covered by a semitransparent membrane. This report is the first to describe a case of thoracic EC in a goat whose sternum was not developed fully and was not connected to the ribs. It is also the first paper to describe three-dimensional images of this condition constructed from computed tomography scans.

  18. Testicular loss following bacterial epididymo-orchitis: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Fehily, Sasha Rachel; Trubiano, Jason Anthony; McLean, Catriona; Teoh, Boon Wei; Grummet, Jeremy Peter; Cherry, Catherine Louise; Vujovic, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis rarely leads to abscess formation and global testicular infarction/loss, particularly in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy. The imaging modality used when monitoring for testicular ischemia is ultrasonography. However, as described in the literature, testicular pathology may not be evident on routine imaging. We describe two cases of recurrent bacterial epididymo-orchitis, complicated by testicular abscess resulting in testicular infarction. This rare, nevertheless significant, complication occurred in both patients despite receiving appropriate extended antibiotic therapy. Both cases demonstrate the limitations of ultrasonography alone, suggesting that a high level of clinical suspicion must be maintained when ultrasound evaluation proves to be inconsistent with the clinical presentation. These cases demonstrate the importance of monitoring for warning signs of ischemia, as early recognition may lead to reperfusion interventions and ultimately testicular salvage. PMID:25844104

  19. Influence of season on testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in Martina Franca jackasses.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Panzani, S; Contri, A; Bronzo, V; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2013-02-01

    with spring and autumn, and a lower curvilinear velocity compared with winter were found. No differences in amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness and linearity were observed neither between seasons nor in SS versus AW. Seminal pH did not show any seasonal difference; also sperm morphology did not show any significant difference during the whole year. This study demonstrated that under our climatic and management conditions Martina Franca donkey stallions do not show significant differences in testicular morphometric characteristics during the year, even if a certain seasonal influence exists on reaction time and some seminal parameters. Considering the variable temperature and photoperiod during the four seasons where the study was performed, this lack of substantial differences could be related to a characteristic of the Martina Franca breed.

  20. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) Mediated Silencing of Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling Is Essential for Testicular Aging and Regulating Testis Size

    PubMed Central

    Oldknow, Karla J.; Seebacher, Jan; Goswami, Tapasree; Villen, Judit; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a glycoprotein that binds and inhibits the action of TGFβ ligands such as activin. The roles played by FSTL3 and activin signaling in organ development and homeostasis are not fully understood. The authors show mice deficient in FSTL3 develop markedly enlarged testes that are also delayed in their age-related regression. These FSTL3 knockout mice exhibit increased Sertoli cell numbers, allowing for increased spermatogenesis but otherwise showing normal testicular function. The data show that FSTL3 deletion leads to increased AKT signaling and SIRT1 expression in the testis. This demonstrates a cross-talk between TGFβ ligand and AKT signaling and leads to a potential mechanism for increased cellular survival and antiaging. The findings identify crucial roles for FSTL3 in limiting testis organ size and promoting age-related testicular regression. PMID:23407452

  1. Incidence of Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2012-0001 INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR CANCER IN U.S. AIR FORCE OFFICER AVIATORS: 1998-2008 Christopher Walker...Testicular Cancer in U.S. Air Force Officer Aviators: 1998-2008 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...results of a research project looking at the association between U.S. Air Force (USAF) aviators and the diagnosis of testicular cancer . The research

  2. Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870

  3. The role of radioimmunodetection in the management of testicular cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Javadpour, N.; Kim, E.E.; DeLand, F.H.; Salyer, J.R.; Shah, U.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1981-07-03

    Five patients with testicular cancer received an intravenous injection of between 1 and 2.5 mCi of iodine 131-labeled antibody to human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), followed by total-body photoscanning to visualize areas of abnormal radioactivity. Blood-pool and nontarget sites of radioactivity were reduced by subtracting the images derived by injection of technetium Tc 99m-labeled components from the iodine 131 scans. The HCG-immune scintiscans proved helpful in tumor localization and in the selection of appropriate therapy, while the AFP scan presented corroborative evidence of widespread tumor. Elevated serum levels of these two markers did not hinder successful tumor detection and localization by this method of radioimmunodetection. Cancer radioimmunodetection with antibodies to HCG and to AFP appears to be a useful procedure for the pretreatment and posttreatment evaluation of patients with testicular cancer and can reveal sites of tumor not detected by other methods.

  4. Postchemotherapy Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection in Patients With Nonseminomatous Testicular Cancer: A Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Nowroozi, Mohamadreza; Ayati, Mohsen; Arbab, Amir; Jamshidian, Hassan; Ghorbani, Hamidreza; Niroomand, Hassan; Taheri Mahmoodi, Mohsen; Amini, Erfan; Salehi, Sohrab; Hakima, Hamid; Fazeli, Farid; Haghdani, Saeid; Ghadian, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Testicular cancer accounts for about 1 - 1.5% of all malignancies in men. Radical orchiectomy is curative in 75% of patients with stage I disease, but advance stage with retroperitoneal lymph node involvement needs chemotherapy. All patients who have residual masses ≥ 1 cm after chemotherapy should undergo postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND). Objectives: Treatment of advanced nonseminomatous testicular cancer is usually a combination of chemotherapy and surgery. We described our experience about postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in our center. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study between 2006 and 2011, patients with a history of postchemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) in Imam Khomeini hospital were evaluated. All patients had normal postchemotherapy serum tumor markers and primary nonseminomatous cancer. We reviewed retrospectively clinical, pathological, and surgical parameters associated with PC-RPLND in our center. Results: Twenty-one patients underwent bilateral PC-RPLND. Mean age was 26.3 years (ranged 16 - 47). Mean size of retroperitoneal mass after chemotherapy was 7.6 cm. Mean operative time was 198 minutes (120 - 246 minutes). Mean follow-up time was 38.6 months. Pathologic review showed presence of fibrosis/necrosis, viable germ cell tumor and teratoma in 8 (38.1%), 10 (47.6%) and 3 (14.28%) patients, respectively. One patient in postoperative period of surgery and three patients in two first years after surgery were expired. Of 17 alive patients, only two (11.8%) had not retrograde ejaculation. Conclusions: PC-RPLND is one the major operations in the field of urology, which is associated with significant adjunctive surgeries. In appropriate cases, PC-RPLND was associated with good cancer specific survival in tertiary oncology center. PMID:26539420

  5. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p < .05) in the levels of germinal epithelial diameter in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. There was no significant change (p < .05) in cross-sectional diameter of all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Group D rats showed a significant decrease (p ˂ .05) in lumen diameter compared with group B rats. There was an uneven distribution of germinal epithelial cells in groups B, C and D. However, there was degeneration of the epithelia cells in group D when compared to the control and group B rats. Sera levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), which are markers of reactive oxygen species, significantly increased (MDA) and decreased (SOD), respectively, in all the experimental groups compared with the control group. Also sera levels of gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH and testosterone) significantly decreased (p < .05) in groups C and D compared with the control group. The study demonstrates that chronic exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased

  6. Paraneoplastic vertigo as the presenting symptom of a testicular seminoma

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Andrea; Greer, Emma B; Wong, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Vertigo is a common presenting symptom, but rarely may be caused by a malignancy. We present a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with nystagmus and vertigo precipitated by movement, with accompanying nausea and weight loss. Diagnostic workup revealed a right testicular mass that was resected and found to be a seminoma. The patient's symptoms resolved after surgical resection and treatment with corticosteroids. PMID:25378115

  7. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    PubMed

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  8. Risk of testicular cancer in cohort of boys with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Higgins, C. D.; Pike, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of testicular cancer in relation to undescended testis and its treatment based on recorded details of the maldescent, treatment, and biopsy from case notes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. SUBJECTS: 1075 boys with cryptorchidism treated by orchidopexy or hormones at the hospital during 1951-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk of testicular cancer in the cohort compared with men in the general population. RESULTS: 12 testicular cancers occurred in 11 of the patients during follow up to mid-1990 (relative risk of cancer in males with cryptorchidism = 7.5 (95% confidence interval 3.9 to 12.8)). The relative risk fell significantly beyond 15 years after orchidopexy but did not decrease with younger age at orchidopexy. Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). No reasons for biopsy or distinguishing clinical aspects of the testes that had had biopsy samples taken and later developed malignancies were evident in the case notes. No histological abnormalities were evident at initial biopsy except in one testis that had features of dysgenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy seems to be a stronger risk factor for testicular cancer than any factor previously identified. The trauma of open biopsy may contribute substantially to risk of malignancy or the testes may have been selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical factors predictive of malignancy but not mentioned in the case notes. PMID:9169396

  9. Increased expression of dermatopontin and its implications for testicular dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    CAI, JUN; LIU, WEIJIA; HAO, JIE; CHEN, MAOXIN; LI, GANG

    2016-01-01

    An array of specific and non-specific molecules, which are expressed in the testis, have been demonstrated to be responsible for testicular function. Our previous study revealed that dermatopontin (DPT) is expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, however, its roles in testicular function remains somewhat elusive. In the present study, CdCl2- and busulfan-induced testicular dysfunction models were used to investigate the implications of DPT expression for testicular function. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DPT were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between testicular damage and the expression of DPT, which suggested that an increase in DPT expression may be a marker for testicular dysfunction. This result was corroborated by the finding that transgenic mice exhibiting Sertoli cell-specific overexpression of DPT exhibited damage to their testicular morphology. Additionally, DPT overexpression in the testis affected the expression levels of claudin-11 and zonula occludens-1, which indicated that DPT may affect testicular function by affecting the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence to suggest that DPT may be indicative of mouse testicular dysfunction, since increased expression may be associated with damage to the BTB. PMID:26861869

  10. Dose-dependent protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A A; Qutub, H O; Jresat, I

    2017-02-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion induces oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and apoptosis of testicular tissues. Baicalin exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the possible protective effect of baicalin against testicular torsion-detorsion injury in rats. Surgical testicular torsion was induced for 2 h, followed by detorsion which was continued for 24 h. Baicalin was administered in three different doses (25, 50 and 100 mg kg(-1) , by intraperitoneal injection). Each dose was given twice, the first 30 min before and the second 12 h after testicular detorsion. Baicalin, in a dose-dependent manner, decreased the torsion/detorsion-induced elevations of testicular malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-α, BCL2-associated X protein (Bax), cytosolic cytochrome c and caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Baicalin, dose dependently, attenuated the reductions of B-cell leucemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in testicular tissues resulted from torsion/detorsion. In addition, baicalin ameliorated the histopathological testicular tissue damage and reduced the expression of Fas ligand in rat testes exposed to torsion/detorsion in a dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that baicalin, dose dependently, ameliorated testicular injury induced by torsion/detorsion via its antioxidant, antinitrosative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects.

  11. Testicular fibroma of gonadal stromal origin with minor sex cord elements, presenting with hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Datta, Saikat; Dey, Soumit; Mukherjee, Sumana; Chandra Paul, Prabir; Bhattacharyya, Aparna; Biswas, Sukdeb; Tudu, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Testicular fibroma of gonadal stromal origin is a rare benign tumor of testis which usually presents as a slow growing testicular mass. Only 25 cases of testicular fibroma have been reported in the literature. Presence of minor sex cord elements in this tumor is even rarer. We report a case of testicular fibroma with minor sex cord elements that involved almost the entire testis and tunica vaginalis. The patient presented with hydrocele, a rare presentation for this entity. The rarity of the diagnosis and the clinical presentation prompted this case report.

  12. Predictive role of hematologic parameters in testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Mehmet; Altok, Muammer; Akyuz, Mehmet; İşoğlu, Cemal Selcuk; Uruc, Fatih; Aras, Bekir; Akbaş, Alpaslan; Baş, Ercan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the predictive role of the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet volume (MPV), and platelet count (PLT) in the diagnosis of testicular torsion (TT) and testicular viability following TT. Materials and Methods We analyzed two study groups in this retrospective study: 75 patients with a diagnosis of TT (group 1) and 56 age-matched healthy subjects (group 2). We performed a complete blood count as a part of the diagnostic procedure, and NLR, PLR, MPV, and PLT values were recorded. We compared the patient and control groups in terms of these parameters. Then, TT patients were divided into two subgroups according to the time elapsed since the onset of symptoms. Subsequently, we evaluated the relationship between the duration of symptoms and these parameters. Results There were significant differences between groups 1 and 2 in NLR, PLR, and PLT (p<0.001 for all). There was no predictive role of MPV in the diagnosis of TT (p=0.328). We determined significantly high sensitivity and specificity levels for NLR in the prediction of TT diagnosis (84% and 92%, respectively). Furthermore, NLR was significantly related to the duration of symptoms in TT patients (p=0.01). Conclusions NLR may be a useful parameter in the diagnosis of TT. Furthermore, NLR may be used as a predictive factor for testicular viability following TT. PMID:25874047

  13. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death.

  14. Testicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Ratkal, Vishal; Chawla, Arun; Mishra, Dilip Kumar; Monappa, Vidya

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 27-year-old man who presented with a slowly growing left testicular swelling associated with mild pain over a period of 3 months. He was evaluated by his family physician with scrotal ultrasound and testicular tumour markers. He was diagnosed and treated as epididymo-orchitis and managed with antibiotics. When he later presented to us, he had an enlarged left testis with normal spermatic cord. Scrotal Doppler evaluation showed a globally enlarged left testis and epididymis with increased vascularity in the left testis, with the right testis being normal. Testicular tumour markers were normal. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the left testis was suggestive of lymphoma. Exploration through an inguinal approach was carried out and a Chevassu manoeuvre with frozen section study was performed, which was reported as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Left radical orchidectomy was performed. Histopathology reported diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, of a germinal centre type. Contrast CT of the abdomen, chest and brain were normal. Sperm cryopreservation was carried out. The patient was started on chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, prednisone (CHOP) regime. PMID:25795748

  15. Identification of Stem Leydig Cells Derived from Pig Testicular Interstitium

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shuai; Zhang, Pengfei; Dong, Wuzi; Zeng, Wenxian

    2017-01-01

    Stem Leydig cells (SLCs), located in the testicular interstitial compartment in the mammalian testes, are capable of differentiating to testosterone-synthesizing Leydig cells (LCs), thus providing a new strategy for treating testosterone deficiency. However, no previous reports have identified and cultured SLCs derived from the pig. The aim of the current study was to isolate, identify, and culture SLCs from pigs. Haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunochemical analysis showed that SLCs were present and that PDGFRα was mainly expressed in the pig testicular interstitium, indicating that PDGFRα was a marker for SLCs in the neonatal pig. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR results showed that SLC markers were expressed in primary isolated LCs, indicating that they were putative SLCs. The putative SLCs were subsequently cultured with a testicular fluid of piglets (pTF) medium. Clones formed after 7 days and the cells expressed PDGFRα. However, no clones grew in the absence of pTF, but the cells expressed CYP17A1, indicating that pTF could sustain the features of porcine SLCs. To summarize, we isolated porcine SLCs and identified their basic characteristics. Taken together, these results may help lay the foundation for research in the clinical application of porcine SLCs. PMID:28243257

  16. Air Force Health Care Providers Incidence of Performing Testicular Exams and Instruction of Testicular Self-Exam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Klinefelter s syndrome, hydrocele, family history of testicular cancer, or high socioeconomic status (ACS, 1998; Vogt & McHale; http://cancernet.nci.hih...Clark view health promotion and disease prevention within a framework they call the natural history of any disease process in man (p. 18 ). This...men with bilateral tumors have a history of cryptorchidism. This is true even when only one testicle does not descend (Ritchie, 1993). Other

  17. Air Force Health Care Providers Incidence of Performing Testicular Exams and Instruction of Testicular Self-Exam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    MD’s, 68% of PA’s, and 57% of NP’s are performing testicular exams on their patients during routine physicals or sports physicals . Additionally, 80% of...preparticipation physicals and annual physicals , providers are not providing this important health preventive information to men. Background In recent...remained constant, until recently, when it declined slightly, thought to be due to advances in therapy (Boring, Squires, & Tang, 1991). Although the

  18. Testicular development and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in the male tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1990-03-01

    Testicular growth and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were assessed in male tammars from 12 to 25 months of age to establish the time of sexual maturity. The testicular dimensions and body weights of 20 male tammars, approximately 12 months of age at the beginning of the study, were measured monthly for 1 year. Groups of 3 animals were castrated at 13, 19 and 25 months of age and their testes sectioned for histological examination. Testicular volume increased between 12 and 24 months of age and was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.91). In the 13-month group the seminiferous tubules were closed with few mitotic figures. Spermatogenesis had begun in 2 of the 19-month animals. All stages of spermatogenesis were present in the other 19-month male, and in all of the 25-month males. Basal FSH concentrations increased with the age of the animal (21.0 +/- 32.48, 94.40 +/- 55.18 and 193.05 +/- 40.21 ng/ml (mean +/- s.d.) at 19, 20 and 25 months respectively) while basal LH concentrations were similar at 20 months and 25 months (0.43 +/- 0.18 and 0.58 +/- 0.25 ng/ml respectively). Basal testosterone concentrations were also similar 0.11 +/- 0.04, 0.35 +/- 0.16 and 0.22 +/- 0.10 ng/ml in 13-, 19- and 25-month-old animals. LHRH injection in tammars at 13, 19 and 25 months of age induced release of both LH and testosterone 10-30 min after injection. The hormone concentrations increased in both magnitude and duration with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-11-15

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population-based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3,297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. A total of 6,594 matched controls were selected from the Danish Civil Registration System, which also provided the identity of 40,104 first-degree relatives of case and controls. Familial cancer was identified by linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry, and we used conditional logistic regression to analyze whether cancer among first-degree relatives was associated with higher risk of testicular cancer. Rate ratio for testicular cancer was 4.63 (95% CI: 2.41-8.87) when a father, 8.30 (95% CI: 3.81-18.10) when a brother and 5.23 (95% CI: 1.35-20.26) when a son had testicular cancer compared to no familial testicular cancer. Results were similar when analyses were stratified by histologic subtypes of testicular cancer. Familial non-Hodgkin lymphoma and esophageal cancer were associated with testicular cancer; however, these may be chance findings. The familial aggregation of testicular and possibly other cancers may be explained by shared genes and/or shared environmental factors, but the mutual importance of each of these is difficult to determine.

  20. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  1. TB or not TB?: a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Davenport, C; Gibbons, N; McConkey, S

    2009-06-01

    Despite the genitourinary tract being the most common site affected by extrapulmonary TB, isolated testicular TB remains a rare clinical entity. In patients with co-morbidities such as hepatic impairment, treatment proves a challenge, as first-line hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals are contraindicated. Here, we report a case of isolated testicular TB with scrotal involvement, on a background of hepatic dysfunction.

  2. Development of a Testicular Self-Examination Program for College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Sharon Kay; Rothenberger, James

    1985-01-01

    Personal responsibility for health is dependent upon accurate knowledge and skill in self-care. Testicular cancer incidence is the leading cancer in young adult males. This article describes the development and evaluation of a testicular cancer education program which is now available nationwide to college health services. (Author/MT)

  3. Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The testes and the spermatic cord of raccoons (Procyon lotor, kits to adult breeders; n=48) were examined. Segmental arteritis confined to the extra-testicular portions of the testicular artery was present in raccoons of all ages. The arterial changes were seen in laboratory-confined experimental an...

  4. BAX-mediated cell death affects early germ cell loss and incidence of testicular teratomas in Dnd1(Ter/Ter) mice.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew S; Coveney, Douglas; Batchvarov, Iordan; Nadeau, Joseph H; Capel, Blanche

    2009-04-15

    A homozygous nonsense mutation (Ter) in murine Dnd1 (Dnd1(Ter/Ter)) results in a significant early loss of primordial germ cells (PGCs) prior to colonization of the gonad in both sexes and all genetic backgrounds tested. The same mutation also leads to testicular teratomas only on the 129Sv/J background. Male mutants on other genetic backgrounds ultimately lose all PGCs with no incidence of teratoma formation. It is not clear how these PGCs are lost or what factors directly control the strain-specific phenotype variation. To determine the mechanism underlying early PGC loss we crossed Dnd1(Ter/Ter) embryos to a Bax-null background and found that germ cells were partially rescued. Surprisingly, on a mixed genetic background, rescued male germ cells also generated fully developed teratomas at a high rate. Double-mutant females on a mixed background did not develop teratomas, but were fertile and produced viable off-spring. However, when Dnd1(Ter/Ter) XX germ cells developed in a testicular environment they gave rise to the same neoplastic clusters as mutant XY germ cells in a testis. We conclude that BAX-mediated apoptosis plays a role in early germ cell loss and protects from testicular teratoma formation on a mixed genetic background.

  5. Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis activity, spermatogenesis, and sperm function promote infertility in males with lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jason; Hernandez, Rafael J; Chen, Andrew; Smith, Noel L; Sheynkin, Yefim R; Joshi, Gargi; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-02-10

    Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development. Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species due to lead-associated oxidative stress can potentially affect sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation, membrane lipid peroxidation, capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and chemotaxis for sperm-oocyte fusion, all of which can contribute to deter fertilization. Reproductive toxicity has been tested through cross-sectional analysis studies in humans as well as in vivo and in vitro studies in animals.

  6. Contemporary Review of Testicular Torsion: New Concepts, Emerging Technologies and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    DaJusta, Daniel; Granberg, Candace F.; Villanueva, Carlos; Baker, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular torsion is one of the few emergencies in pediatric urology which requires an accurate and timely diagnosis in order to avoid testis loss. It is not an uncommon event affecting a young male population. In fact, testicular torsion is more common than testicular tumors for this same age group, yet testicular torsion has not been given the public attention it deserves as a male health risk. In this review we highlight the new information published over the past four years regarding testicular torsion. We will discuss a variety of topics associated with torsion including: medical legal issues, etiology and genetics, imaging diagnostics, innovative surgical techniques, management controversies, fertility, and new drug therapies. PMID:23044376

  7. Evaluation of ameliorative potential of supranutritional selenium on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Rungsung, Soya; Khan, Adil Mehraj; Sood, Naresh Kumar; Rampal, Satyavan; Singh Saini, Simrat Pal

    2016-05-25

    The study was designed to assess the ameliorative potential of selenium (Se) on enrofloxacin-induced testicular toxicity in rats. There was a significant decrease in body weight and non-significant decrease in mean testicular weight of enrofloxacin treated rats. In enrofloxacin treated rats, total sperm count and viability decreased where as sperm abnormalities increased. Testicular histopathology revealed dose dependent dysregulation of spermatogenesis and presence of necrotic debris in seminiferous tubules which was marginally improved with Se. Enrofloxacin also produced a dose dependent decrease in testosterone level. The activity of testicular antioxidant enzymes decreased where as lipid peroxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Se supplementation partially restored oxidative stress and sperm damage and did not affect the plasma concentrations of enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacain. The results indicate that enrofloxacin produces a dose-dependent testicular toxicity in rats that is moderately ameliorated with supranutritional Se.

  8. Testicular torsion and epididymitis demonstrated by radionuclide angiograms and static imaging.

    PubMed

    Hankins, A J

    1979-10-01

    Radionuclide testicular angiography and static images were performed using technetium 99m sodium pertechnetate in an effort to differentiate between testicular torsion and acute epididymitis in 12 patients. The diagnosis of testicular torsion was made in four cases that were confirmed at surgery. Acute epididymitis or acute epididymo-orchitis was diagnosed six times. These patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics leading to a subsidence of their clinical symptomatology during therapy with no sequelae. The radionuclide angiogram and static image changes of chronic epididymitis are also discussed.Radionuclide testicular angiograms and static images can be significant benefits in addition to the clinical and physical findings to distinguish between testicular torsion and acute and chronic epididymitis.

  9. Cocaine abuse that presents with acute scrotal pain and mimics testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    Tamanini, José Tadeu Nunes; Salzani, Vagner Tadeu; Tamanini, Juliana Milhomem; Iessenco, Filipe; Reis, Leonardo O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Report case (s) relevant aspects: Man, 27 years old, complaining of acute testicular pain by 2 hours in the remaining left testicle. Denies fever, lower urinary tract symptoms such as dysuria, urinary frequency, concommitant or prior urethral discharge to the painful condition. He underwent right orchiectomy 13 years ago by testicular torsion. He is a chronic user of cocaine for 15 years and during the last three days the drug use was continuous and intense. Proposed premise substantiating case (s) description: Initial diagnostic hypothesis: Syndromic: Acute Scrotum Syndrome (SEA) Main Etiologic (testicular torsion)Secondary Etiologic (acute orchiepididymitis) Briefly delineates what might it add? Lines of research That Could be Addressed: In this challenging clinical case we presented an alternative and new etiologic diangosis for the acute scrotum which the main etiologic factor remains testicular torsion. This new diangosis is acute testicular ischemia as a complication of cocaine abuse. PMID:27583357

  10. Effects of an anabolic steroid (Durateston) on testicular angiogenesis in peripubertal stallions.

    PubMed

    Teubner, A; Müller, K; Bartmann, C P; Sieme, H; Klug, E; Zingrebe, B; Schoon, H-A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the anabolic steroid testosterone on the testicular vascularization, angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors, and their receptors in testes of peripubertal stallions. Seven peripubertal stallions were treated with Durateston and castrated either 4 (treatment group 1 [TG1]) or 12 weeks (TG2) after the last injection. The castration of seven untreated control stallions (control group [CG]) took place within the same time. In the testicular specimens, volume density (VD), numerical density (ND), and area of vessels were determined morphometrically. Immunohistochemically, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGF-R2; angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and its receptor Tie2 as well as of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) was investigated. Morphometrically, the VD of TG1 (P = 0.000) and TG2 (P = 0.001) vessels and the ND of arterioles and venules and capillaries were higher (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05), and the area of capillary cross sections was smaller (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Compared to TG2 horses, TG1 animals showed a higher (P < 0.05) VD and ND of vascular structures and a smaller (P < 0.05) area of capillary cross sections. In numerous vascular structures, especially of TG1, the TGF-α and, to a less extent, the Ang2 and VEGF-R2 expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Sertoli cells in TG2 were characterized by a significantly higher expression (P < 0.05) of VEGF-R2 than in the CG. In summary, the most and smallest vessels could be detected in the testes of TG1. Most likely this is explainable by the highest expression of some angiogenic factors (TGF-α, Ang2) and receptors (VEGF-R2) investigated. This expression behavior may be stimulated by testosterone. As a significant decrease of morphometric parameters could be detected in TG2 compared to TG1, the stimulatory effect of testosterone seems to be temporary.

  11. Effects of clonidine in the isolated rat testicular capsule.

    PubMed

    Dantas da Silva Júnior, Edilson; Palmieri de Souza, Bruno; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintella Dantas; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide H

    2014-03-05

    The testicular capsule contracts in response to noradrenaline and adrenaline, but the effects of adrenoceptor agonists, as for instance clonidine, had not yet been thoroughly evaluated. The testicular capsule from adult male Wistar rats was isolated and mounted in organ bath and cumulative concentration curves were performed for clonidine and other adrenergic agonists in the absence or presence of α-adrenoceptors antagonists. The order of potency for agonists (pD2) was clonidine=adrenaline>UK 14,304>noradrenaline>phenylephrine>methoxamine. The consecutive curves for clonidine showed desensitization with 3-fold rightward shift and Emax reduction of 40%. The noradrenaline curves were 4.5, 19 and 190-fold less potent after clonidine pretreatment at 10−5, 10−4 or 10−3 M for 10 min, respectively, added to Emax decrease by about 20%. Clonidine (10−5 M for 10 min) was unable to alter the noradrenaline curves if the treatment was made in the presence of idazoxan (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) whereas prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) was ineffective. The effect of idazoxan 3×10−7 M on noradrenaline curves was decreased by 50% after clonidine pretreatment, as reflected by the concentration ratio of 5.2±1.2 (treated tissue) and 10.1±1.0 (untreated tissue). However, the concentration ratio for prazosin 3×10−8 M was unchanged. After phenoxybenzamine (irreversible antagonist of α1-adrenoceptor) pretreatment, the residual noradrenaline contraction was antagonized by idazoxan or prazosin with pKB values of 7.8 and 5.1, respectively. The results indicate the presence of α2-adrenoceptors in testicular capsule. Furthermore, these receptors may be desensitized by clonidine, causing a decreased potency of noradrenaline.

  12. Early Versus Late Maturation Arrest: Reproductive Outcomes of Testicular Failure

    PubMed Central

    Weedin, John W.; Bennett, Richard C.; Fenig, David M.; Lamb, Dolores J.; Lipshultz, Larry I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is a paucity of data characterizing infertile men with maturation arrest. We hypothesized that men with early stage maturation arrest could be clinically distinguished from men with late maturation arrest and would have worse reproductive outcomes. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients with nonobstructive azoospermia and cryptozoospermia who underwent testis mapping and sperm extraction from 2002 to 2009 and for whom histopathological findings were available. Patients had uniform maturation arrest if multiple biopsies revealed maturation arrest at the spermatogonia/spermatocyte (early maturation arrest) or the spermatid (late maturation arrest) stage. Clinical parameters and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection were examined. Statistical analysis consisted of univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Uniform maturation arrest was identified in 49 of 219 men (22.3%) undergoing testicular sperm extraction. On multivariate analysis men with maturation arrest had significantly larger testes (p = 0.01), decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (p = 0.05) and more detectable genetic abnormalities (p = 0.01) than men with other histopathological conditions. Men with late maturation arrest had decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (p = 0.02), increased testosterone (p = 0.03) and a higher sperm retrieval rate at testicular sperm extraction (p = 0.01) than men with early maturation arrest. Predictors of successful sperm retrieval were larger testes, cryptozoospermia, late maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis (each p ≤0.05). Pregnancy outcomes for men with maturation arrest were not significantly different from those for men with other histopathological conditions. Conclusions Maturation arrest is a common, diverse histopathological subtype of severe male infertility. Compared to men with late maturation arrest those with early maturation arrest have increased follicle

  13. Hyperprolactinemia does not promote testicular recrudescence in photoregressed Siberian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Whitten, R D; Youngstrom, T G; Bartness, T J

    1993-07-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) concentrations, as well as body, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and testes weights, decrease in Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus sungorus) following short-photoperiod exposure. Previously, we have shown that lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus (SCNx) block regression of the testes and decreases in body weight and EWAT caused by short day-like, timed daily subcutaneous melatonin infusions in pinealectomized Siberian hamsters and elevate dramatically serum PRL concentrations. We also have shown that SCNx, as well as lesions of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVNx) and an area immediately ventral to the PVN (subPVN), promote accelerated testicular recrudescence, increases in EWAT and body weights, and increases in serum PRL concentrations, in short-day (SD)-housed, photoregressed Siberian hamsters. The stimulation of the testes seen in these previous studies could have been due to the lesion-induced increases in serum PRL concentrations. Therefore, the purpose of the present experiment was to test whether experimentally induced hyperprolactinemia could stimulate testicular recrudescence. This was accomplished by giving photoregressed, SD-housed Siberian hamsters chronic subcutaneous infusions of ovine PRL (oPRL) to mimic either long-day- or lesion-induced serum concentrations of hamster prolactin (hPRL). No increase in testes, body, or EWAT weights were observed following 5 weeks of oPRL infusions in either group compared with their vehicle-infused counterparts. These data suggest that hyperprolactinemia was not solely responsible for the stimulation of testicular recrudescence in SCNx or PVNx photoregressed, or SCNx pinealectomized hamsters receiving timed melatonin infusions seen previously.

  14. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Accardo, Giacomo; Vallone, Gianfranco; Esposito, Daniela; Barbato, Filomena; Renzullo, Andrea; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Katherine; Pasquali, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG) serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US) with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules <1 cm, but none had nodules >1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions. PMID:25130577

  15. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Accardo, Giacomo; Vallone, Gianfranco; Esposito, Daniela; Barbato, Filomena; Renzullo, Andrea; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Esposito, Katherine; Pasquali, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG) serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US) with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR) was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules <1 cm, but none had nodules >1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  16. Frequency and nature of testicular and paratesticular lesions in forensic autopsies.

    PubMed

    de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin; Marchaut, Jéhanne; Watier, Laurence; Médiouni, Zakia; Charlier, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the frequency and nature of testicular and paratesticular lesions in forensic autopsies. A retrospective study was carried out on 495 adult male cases that underwent forensic autopsy from January 2008 to December 2011 in our Department. For each case, the following parameters were reported: age, body mass index, nature of testicular and paratesticular lesions, associated lesions in external genitalia, testicle weight, cause of death, manner of death, resuscitation attempts and prior medical history. Mean age of the studied population was 47.8 years (range 18-96). Mean body mass index was 25.3 kg/m(2) (range 15-46.2). Testicular lesions and/or paratesticular were found in 16.4% of the cases (n = 81). The most frequent lesions were, respectively, testicular atrophy (n = 38) and trauma (n = 28). In three cases showing traumatic lesions, associated traumatic lesions were found in external genitalia. Most frequent cause of death was blunt trauma (19.9% of the cases). Manner of death most frequently associated with testicular trauma was, respectively, road traffic accident (n = 11) and suicidal fall (n = 6). Mean testicular weight was, respectively, 17.9 g for the right and 20.8 g for the left (range 2-38). Atrophy was associated with testicular weight less than 10 g. A significant association between testicular atrophy and age was found, the risk of atrophy increasing quite linearly with age. No significant statistical link between prior medical history and testicular pathology was found. There was also no influence of body mass index. Resuscitation attempts were not statistically associated with testicular traumatic lesions.

  17. Urologist led one-stop testicular clinic: the UK 'gold standard'.

    PubMed

    Muthuveloe, David; Nkwam, Nkwam; Hutton, Paul; Wallace, D M A; Viney, Richard; Patel, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Prompt diagnosis and early treatment for testicular cancer is vital. To help with this a one-stop, urologist run, testicular clinic with testicular ultrasound scanning as an integral part of the clinic format was introduced to investigate patients in an efficient and timely manner. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and efficiency of running a one-stop testicular clinic. A prospectively collected electronic database of all patients attending a one-stop testicular clinic at a busy university hospital was interrogated over a 6-year period. Only new referral males, above the age of 15 years old were included. Case notes were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 1757 patients were found with a median age of 36. 6.3 % had a suspicious ultrasound scan and overall 5.6 % were found to have malignancy histologically. In addition a significant proportion of men with a history of testicular maldescent went on to develop testicular cancer (p < 0.01). Median time from referral to clinic and clinic to orchidectomy for suspected testicular cancers was 9 and 5 days respectively (95 % CI). Some of the benefits of a urologist run one-stop testicular clinic include: timely diagnosis and treatment, early reassurance with normal investigations, the discovery of clinically unsuspecting malignancy and the increase in teaching opportunities. These collective benefits must improve patient experience and benefit the department as a whole. A urologist led one-stop testicular clinic should be regarded as the gold standard.

  18. Testicular tumor with clinical picture of febricity of unknown etiology.

    PubMed

    Andjelic, Sladjana

    2010-01-01

    We present a typical example of a previously healthy boy, whose febricity of unknown etiology lasting for several months was not taken seriously, regardless of the presence of general symptoms of the disease. He was treated as an outpatient with antibiotics and antipyretics under different diagnoses until he was admitted to the Department for Febrile Conditions of Unknown Etiology of the Institute for Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center of Serbia. At that point, a diagnosis of testicular tumor of extragonadal origin with bilateral metastatic changes of lung parenchyma and retroperitoneal lymph nodes was made, after which the appropriate treatment was administered.

  19. Isolated primary testicular B lymphoblastic lymphoma: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alejandro V.; Alobeid, Bachir; Traina, Jocelyn M.; Chen, Susie S.; Weiner, Michael A.; Middlesworth, William

    2012-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation often reflects bone marrow (BM) involvement and consequences of BM failure. Microscopic involvement of the testis is rare, occurring in about 2% of cases. We present a case of a 3-year-old child who displayed unilateral macroorchidism as the only clinical symptom of ALL. Although the patient presented with localized disease, he was treated with systemic chemotherapy without recurrence. In this report, we review the current literature on ALL testicular involvement, diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23042023

  20. Diagnosis and Treatment of Testicular Cancer: A Clinician's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Brandon; Sweeney, Christopher J

    2015-12-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) include seminoma and nonseminoma. Chance of cure is excellent for clinical stage I disease regardless of whether adjuvant treatment or a surveillance strategy with treatment only for those who relapse is used. Risk of recurrence is greater in nonseminoma with evidence of lymphovascular invasion, but most can be salvaged with chemotherapy and survival rates remain high. This article outlines key pathologic and clinical considerations in clinical stage I seminoma, nonseminoma, advanced disease, and assessment of cancer of unknown primary as a potential GCT.

  1. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers.

  2. PET/CT in renal, bladder and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Physician, Chief; Choyke, Peter L.

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/CT is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in uro-oncology as well. In both bladder and renal cancer there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with only limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced in these malignancies. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder and testicular cancer. PMID:26099672

  3. Mini-puberty and true puberty: differences in testicular function.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rodolfo A

    2014-05-01

    The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is particularly characterised by incomplete functional maturation in utero and during early postnatal life, followed by functional regression and partial quiescence during childhood, and subsequently by final complete maturation during puberty. This review addresses the distinctive features of testis developmental physiology--especially in the seminiferous tubule compartment--which explain the differences observed in testicular function and its disorders between the early postnatal activation period--which many authors call "mini-puberty"--and canonical puberty.

  4. Testicular Tissue Cryopreservation and Ethical Considerations: A Scoping Review.

    PubMed

    Petropanagos, Angel

    2017-03-28

    Testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP) aims to preserve the future option of genetic reproduction for prepubescent cancer patients who are at risk of infertility as a result of their cancer therapies. This technology is experimental and currently only offered in the research context. As TTCP moves towards becoming more widely available, it is imperative that healthcare providers recognize the complex ethical issues surrounding this technology. This scoping review study identifies and assesses the range and depth of ethical concerns related to this testicular tissue cryopreservation technology. At present, no such scoping review of ethical concerns exists in the TTCP literature. The forty-three full-text articles included in this study yielded twenty-two different ethical considerations discussed in relation to TTCP. It was observed that these ethical considerations fit within a mainstream Principlism approach to bioethics. Accordingly, there are ethical gaps in the TTCP literature that can be identified with alternative moral lenses. In particular, it was found that ethical concerns related to context and relational aspects of identity were absent in nearly all ethical examinations of TTCP. Furthermore, only 9 per cent of articles reviewed in this study focused primarily on the ethics of TTCP, thus demonstrating a need for further in depth ethical analyses of this technology. The results of this study are important for supporting the ethical provision of TTCP and can contribute to policy and guideline development. The findings of this study demonstrate the need for greater depth and diversity in analyses of ethical considerations related to this technology.

  5. Seasonal cycles in testicular activity in the frog, Rana perezi.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M J; Gutiérrez, P; Alonso-Bedate, M

    1989-01-01

    Studies of seasonal testicular cycle based on spermatogenetic activity and direct measurement of plasma testosterone were made in male frog Rana perezi obtained from its natural biotope in the Iberian Peninsula. Testosterone plasma level was determined by radioimmunoassay and exhibited notable differences according to season: plasma testosterone was lowest (less than 0.5 ng/ml) in summer and then increased progressively to reach a peak in spring (3-4 ng/ml), coincident with mating. After spermiation, when an increase in temperature and photoperiod in the natural habitat occurs, levels decline. Fat bodies also show a pronounced seasonal cycle with total regression following breeding and maximal development in winter. However, testicular weight was independent of seasons, and no significant change was observed throughout the year. Histological evidence indicates that although cell nests of different types are present every month of the year, the most important spermatogenetic activity is initiated in summer. The possible relationship between spermatogenetic activity and testosterone production and the importance of environmental factors as synchronizers of seasonal reproduction are discussed.

  6. Alcohol-based solutions for bovine testicular tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nelson C; Espinoza, Jorge R; Vargas-Jentzsch, Paul; Sandoval, Patricio; Ramos, Luis A; Aponte, Pedro M

    2017-01-01

    Tissue fixation, a central element in histotechnology, is currently performed with chemical compounds potentially harmful for human health and the environment. Therefore, alternative fixatives are being developed, including alcohol-based solutions. We evaluated several ethanol-based mixtures with additives to study fixative penetration rate, tissue volume changes, and morphologic effects in the bovine testis. Fixatives used were Bouin solution, 4% formaldehyde (F4), 70% ethanol (E70), E70 with 1.5% glycerol (E70G), E70 with 5% acetic acid (E70A), E70 with 1.5% glycerol and 5% acetic acid (E70AG), and E70 with 1.5% glycerol, 5% acetic acid, and 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; E70AGD). Five-millimeter bovine testicular tissue cubes could be completely penetrated by ethanol-based fixatives and Bouin solution in 2-3 h, whereas F4 required 21 h. Bouin solution produced general tissue shrinkage, whereas the other fixatives (alcohol-based and F4) caused tissue volume expansion. Although Bouin solution is an excellent fixative for testicular tissue, ethanol-based fixatives showed good penetration rates, low tissue shrinkage, and preserved sufficient morphology to allow identification of the stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, therefore representing a valid alternative for histotechnology laboratories. Common additives such as acetic acid, glycerol, and DMSO offered marginal benefits for the process of fixation; E70AG showed the best preservation of morphology with excellent nuclear detail, close to that of Bouin solution.

  7. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  8. Lack of testicular seipin causes teratozoospermia syndrome in men

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Gao, Mingming; Wu, Chaoming; He, Hui; Guo, Xuejiang; Zhou, Zuomin; Yang, Hongyuan; Xiao, Xinhua; Liu, George; Sha, Jiahao

    2014-01-01

    Obesity impairs male fertility, providing evidence for a link between adipose tissue and reproductive function; however, potential consequences of adipose tissue paucity on fertility remain unknown. Lack of s.c. fat is a hallmark of Berardinelli–Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (BSCL2), which is caused by mutations in BSCL2-encoding seipin. Mice with a targeted deletion of murine seipin model BSCL2 with severe lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and fatty liver but also exhibit male sterility. Here, we report teratozoospermia syndrome in a lipodystrophic patient with compound BSCL2 mutations, with sperm defects resembling the defects of infertile seipin null mutant mice. Analysis of conditional mouse mutants revealed that adipocyte-specific loss of seipin causes progressive lipodystrophy without affecting fertility, whereas loss of seipin in germ cells results in complete male infertility and teratozoospermia. Spermatids of the human patient and mice devoid of seipin in germ cells are morphologically abnormal with large ectopic lipid droplets and aggregate in dysfunctional clusters. Elevated levels of phosphatidic acid accompanied with an altered ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids in mutant mouse testes indicate impaired phospholipid homeostasis during spermiogenesis. We conclude that testicular but not adipose tissue-derived seipin is essential for male fertility by modulating testicular phospholipid homeostasis. PMID:24778225

  9. A Rare Emergency: Testicular Torsion in the Inguinal Canal

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind. PMID:25654093

  10. Fibroblast growth factor-9 in marsupial testicular development.

    PubMed

    Chung, J W; Pask, A J; Yu, H; Renfree, M B

    2011-01-01

    FGF9 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family and is critical for early testicular development and germ cell survival in the mouse. Fgf9 reinforces the testis determinant Sox9 and antagonizes Wnt4, an ovarian factor. To determine whether FGF9 has a conserved role in the mammalian gonad, we examined its expression in the gonads of a marsupial, the tammar wallaby Macropus eugenii, and compared it to WNT4 expression. Marsupial FGF9 is highly conserved with orthologues from eutherian mammals, including humans. FGF9 protein was detected in both the testis and ovary before sexual differentiation, but it subsequently became sexually dimorphic during the period of testicular differentiation. The protein was specifically enriched in the seminiferous cords of the developing testis in the Sertoli and germ cells. FGF9 mRNA expression was upregulated in the tammar testis at the time of seminiferous cord formation and downregulated in the developing ovary in an opposite profile to that of marsupial WNT4. These observations suggest that FGF9 promotes male fate in the early gonad of marsupials through an antagonistic relationship with WNT4 as it does in eutherian mammals.

  11. Inguinal lymph node metastases from germ cell testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Klein, F A; Whitmore, W F; Sogani, P C; Batata, M; Fisher, H; Herr, H W

    1984-03-01

    Between 1948 and 1982, 22 patients were seen with metastasis to the inguinal nodes from testicular germ cell tumors: 8 had a history of unilateral or bilateral orchiopexy with or without herniorrhaphy, 4 had nonsurgically corrected or uncorrected cryptorchidism, 9 had a history of herniorrhaphy, hydrocelectomy or transscrotal orchiectomy and 1 had no history of scrotal, iliac or inguinal surgery, or of tunica vaginalis or scrotal wall involvement by tumor. The histological type was pure seminoma in 5 patients, embryonal carcinoma in 7 and mixed tumor in 10. Treatment was individualized for tumor type and mode of presentation, and varied during the years according to the modalities available. At the time of this report 8 of 22 patients (36 per cent) are alive without evidence of disease from 2 to 29.5 years, 3 (16 per cent) have died without evidence of disease 10 to 17 years after treatment, 10 (45 per cent) have died of metastases 10 months to 6 years after treatment and 1 has been lost to followup. The over-all incidence of groin metastases from testicular carcinoma is low, even with a history of scrotal or inguinal surgery.

  12. Is mediastinal irradiation necessary for stage I testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, B.; Perkins, L.P.; Kays, H.; Chu, A.M.; Sharma, S.C.

    1984-04-01

    This study is a review of 39 patients with testicular seminoma, Stage I, treated at the Department of Radiation Oncology, James Graham Brown Cancer Center from 1959 to 1978. The age of the patients ranged from 16 to 70 years with a median of 37. Thirty-two (82%) patients presented with swelling or mass in the testis, four patients with pain, and three patients had seminoma diagnosed incidentally. Twenty (51%) patients had the tumor on the right side and 19 (49%) patients had the tumor on the left side. All patients received irradiation to the ipsilateral inguinal, iliac, and bilateral para-aortic nodes with ''hockey stick'' type fields. The majority of the patients received a midplane dose of 3,200 to 3,600 rad in 3-4 weeks time. None of the patients received prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular region. The 5-year actuarial survival rate is 96%. There is no additional benefit in giving prophylactic irradiation to the mediastinum and supraclavicular regions in Stage I testicular seminoma. A brief review of the literature regarding the role of prophylactic irradiation in this group of patients is done.

  13. A 40-year-old man with testicular torsion and large bilateral spermatoceles

    PubMed Central

    Ameli, Mojtaba; Parsapour, Arezou; Gholami-Mahtaj, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion is a rare disease that mostly involves children. Peak incidence is in infancy and in adolescence. Testicular torsion is rarely seen in men over 40 years of age and has only once been accompanied with spermatocele. We report the case of a 40-year-old man with testicular pain one day prior to visiting our clinic. The patient's visit to the clinic was delayed due to history of occasional testicular pain related to his bilateral spermatoceles. On arrival, a color Doppler ultrasound test was performed, which revealed heterogeneous echo in the right testis with no vascular flow, suggestive of torsion, as well as two cystic lesions in the right and left scrotums indicating spermatoceles. The patient was immediately transferred to the operating room where the bilateral spermatoceles were resected and after detorting, the right testis was saved. After four months, a normal left testis along with partial right testicular atrophy was observed. It is highly recommended to educate patients with spermatocele who have no indication for surgical treatment to visit their physician in case any new testicular pain is experienced. Furthermore, testicular pain regardless of the co-existing pathology may always be treated as an indicator of suspected torsion. PMID:28058232

  14. Mouse Testicular Cell Type-Specific Antiviral Response against Mumps Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Qian; Shi, Lili; Gong, Maolei; Liu, Weihua; Gao, Bo; Song, Chengyi; Li, Qihan; Chen, Yongmei; Han, Daishu

    2017-01-01

    Mumps virus (MuV) infection has high tropism to the testis and usually leads to orchitis, an etiological factor in male infertility. However, MuV replication in testicular cells and the cellular antiviral responses against MuV are not fully understood. The present study showed that MuV infected the majority of testicular cells, including Leydig cells (LC), testicular macrophages, Sertoli cells (SC), and male germ cells (GC). MuV was replicated at relatively high efficiencies in SC compared with LC and testicular macrophages. In contrast, MuV did not replicate in male GC. Notably, testicular cells exhibited different innate antiviral responses against MuV replication. We showed that interferon β (IFN-β) inhibited MuV replication in LC, macrophages, and SC, which were associated with the upregulation of major antiviral proteins. We provided primary evidence that autophagy plays a role in blocking MuV replication in male GC. Autophagy was also involved in limiting MuV replication in testicular macrophages but not in Leydig and SC. These findings indicate the involvement of the innate defense against MuV replication in testicular cells. PMID:28239382

  15. Little effects of Insulin-like Growth Factor-I on testicular atrophy induced by hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Diez-Caballero, Fernando; Castilla-Cortázar, Inma; Garcia-Fernandez, Maria; Puche, Juan Enrique; Diaz-Sanchez, Matias; Casares, Amelia Diaz; Aliaga-Montilla, M Aurelia; Rodriguez-Borrajo, Coronación; Gonzalez-Barón, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Background Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation restores testicular atrophy associated with advanced liver cirrhosis that is a condition of IGF-I deficiency. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of IGF-I in rats with ischemia-induced testicular atrophy (AT) without liver disease and consequently with normal serum level of IGF-I. Methods Testicular atrophy was induced by epinephrine (1, 2 mg/Kg intra-scrotal injection five times per week) during 11 weeks. Then, rats with testicular atrophy (AT) were divided into two groups (n = 10 each): untreated rats (AT) receiving saline sc, and AT+IGF, which were treated with IGF-I (2 μg.100 g b.w.-1.day-1, sc.) for 28d. Healthy controls (CO, n = 10) were studied in parallel. Animals were sacrificed on day 29th. Hypophyso-gonadal axis, IGF-I and IGFBPs levels, testicular morphometry and histopathology, immuno-histochemical studies and antioxidant enzyme activity phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) were assessed. Results Compared to controls, AT rats displayed a reduction in testicular size and weight, with histological testicular atrophy, decreased cellular proliferation and transferrin expression, and all of these alterations were slightly improved by IGF-I at low doses. IGF-I therapy increased signifincantly steroidogenesis and PHGPx activity (p < 0.05). Interestingly, plasma IGF-I did not augment in rats with testicular atrophy treated with IGF-I, while IGFBP3 levels, that reduces IGF-I availability, was increased in this group (p < 0.05). Conclusion In testicular atrophy by hypoxia, condition without IGF-I deficiency, IGF-treatment induces only partial effects. These findings suggest that IGF-I therapy appears as an appropriate treatment in hypogonadism only when this is associated to conditions of IGF-I deficiency (such as Laron Syndrom or liver cirrhosis). PMID:16504030

  16. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats.

  17. Testicular biodistribution of silica-gold nanoparticles after intramuscular injection in mice.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Lara; Klein, Jean-Philippe; Forest, Valérie; Boudard, Delphine; Martini, Matteo; Pourchez, Jérémie; Blanchin, Marie-Geneviève; Cottier, Michèle

    2015-08-01

    With the continuing development of nanomaterials, the assessment of their potential impact on human health, and especially human reproductive toxicity, is a major issue. The testicular biodistribution of nanoparticles remains poorly studied. This study investigated whether gold-silica nanoparticles could be detected in mouse testes after intramuscular injection, with a particular focus on their ability to cross the blood-testis barrier. To that purpose, well-characterized 70-nm gold core-silica shell nanoparticles were used to ensure sensitive detection using high-resolution techniques. Testes were collected at different time points corresponding to spermatogenesis stages in mice. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy were used for nanoparticle detection, and nanoparticle quantification was performed by atomic emission spectroscopy. All these techniques showed that no particles were able to reach the testes. Results accorded with the normal histological appearance of testes even at 45 days post sacrifice. High-resolution techniques did not detect 70-nm silica-gold nanoparticles in mouse testes after intramuscular injection. These results are reassuring about the safety of nanoparticles with regard to male human reproduction, especially in the context of nanomedicine.

  18. Detection of testicular torsion by magnetic resonance imaging in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Landa, H M; Gylys-Morin, V; Mattery, R F; Hajek, P; Krous, H F; Kaplan, G W; Packer, M G

    1988-11-01

    Testicular torsion is one of the most common pediatric urological emergencies. Incorrect or delayed diagnosis contributes significantly to morbidity. We previously have shown that magnetic resonance displays scrotal contents with great detail using hydrogen concentration weighted and T2 weighted images. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent either unilateral 720-degree testicular torsion or a sham procedure. Magnetic resonance images were obtained at intervals with a 3 or 5-inch surface coil. Scans after surgical torsion showed a characteristic spiral distortion of the fascial planes of the spermatic cord, not seen in the sham animals, as well as a decrease in testicular size with prolonged torsion.

  19. [Testicular mass in a teenager: a case report of embryonic carcinoma discovered late].

    PubMed

    Mauger, P; Vic, P; Le Guilchet, T; Modruz, N

    2015-04-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease in adolescents but is the leading cause of solid cancer in 15- to 30-year-old men. We report a clinical case of a 16-year-old who presented to the pediatric emergency unit with a testicular mass that had been enlarging for several months and the diagnosis turned out to be multimetastatic testicular cancer. However, early diagnosis largely determines the prognosis of this disease. A literature review enabled us to update the prognostic factors, the reasons for diagnostic delay, and current screening practices for this disease. There are currently no formal guidelines in France.

  20. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  1. Testicular infarction and rupture: an uncommon complication of epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751

  2. Cisplatin and bleomycin-induced acute peripheral-vascular stenosis in patient with testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Tayyar Alp; Aydin, Ufuk; Ay, Derih; Cebeci, I. Oguz Ozden

    2016-01-01

    After cisplatin and bleomycin-containing chemotherapy (CTx) for testicular cancer, part of the patients may develop acute or long-term cardiovascular toxicity. In the present case, we reported that a 58-year-old male patient presenting with testicular tumors who developed acute peripheral arterial disease during combination CTx with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin. Superficial femoral artery occlusion not responded to structure thrombolytic and anticoagulators treatment. Left lower extremity was amputated below knee. In patients with high risk of cardiovascular disease, prophylactic anticoagulation may be recommended. The risk of causing factors of thromboembolism in patients with testicular cancer under cisplatin and bleomycin-containing CTx should be evaluated. PMID:28057998

  3. Fertility issues in the therapy of nonseminomatous testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Lange, P H; Chang, W Y; Fraley, E E

    1987-11-01

    Given the data described herein, there is reason for even greater optimism about the possibility of fertility among patients with testicular cancer. Fertility issues have been and will continue to be important as different therapies for nonseminomatous cancer are proposed. For example, we previously calculated that the difference in fertility between patients who are treated with expectant therapy versus lymph-adenectomy for clinical stage I disease was only 16 patients in favor of expectant therapy. If new data on relapse rates after expectant therapy (e.g., 30 per cent) and better ejaculation preservation rates after lymphadenectomy (e.g., 85 per cent) are incorporated into this calculation, the number benefited falls to 6 patients. It has also been proposed that patients with low-volume stage IIB disease should receive initial chemotherapy and that lymphadenectomy should be reserved for those patients with residual disease. Applying these calculations along with certain additional assumptions, the difference in fertility between these two treatment alternatives is only 4 patients in favor of initial chemotherapy (P.H. Lange; manuscript in preparation). However, this approach has significantly greater toxicity. Much more must be done to improve our understanding and management of infertility in patients with testicular cancer. Additional tasks include the need to establish the exact ratio of patients with testicular cancer who have infertility that precedes or is a result of their disease, and to develop methods for predicting fertility status so that treatment can be tailored accordingly. Also, we must consolidate and improve the indications, techniques, and results for fertility-sparing lymphadenectomy in ways that have been described herein. In addition, the exact damage-to-benefit ratio for the number of courses and types of chemotherapy administered to patients will need to be studied carefully and prospectively, preferably in cooperative groups. The

  4. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  5. Social, behavioural and medical factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer: results from the UK study. UK Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although many risk factors have been proposed for the aetiology of testicular cancer, only a history of cryptorchidism is well established. All risk factors previously suggested have been explored in this study. This population-based case-control study was carried out in nine health regions in England and Wales and included 794 men, aged 15-49 years, diagnosed with a testicular germ cell tumour between 1 January 1984 and 30 September 1986, each with an individually age-matched control. Cases and controls were interviewed and data were abstracted from their general practitioner notes. Participation rates for cases and controls were 92.0% and 83.1% respectively. Where possible the mother of each interviewed man was sent a postal questionnaire for self-completion. Testicular trauma at least 2 years prior to diagnosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.61]. Ever having had a sexually transmitted disease was also associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.46-3.39). There was little evidence of an association with cigarette smoking. Sporting activity had a protective effect. Detailed exploration of testicular temperature (wearing of tight underpants, jeans or trousers, hot baths and central heating) failed to reveal any relationship with risk of testicular cancer. There were no clear occupational associations. PMID:8080739

  6. An Overview on Predictive Biomarkers of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

    PubMed

    Chieffi, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are frequent solid malignant tumors and cause of death in men between 20-40 years of age. Genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the origin and development of TGCTs. Although the majority of TGCTs are responsive to chemotherapy, about 20% of patient presents incomplete response or tumors relapse. In addition, the current treatments cause acute toxicity and several chronic collateral effects, including sterility. The present mini-review collectively summarize the most recent findings on the new discovered molecular biomarkers such as tyrosine kinases, HMGAs, Aurora B kinase, and GPR30 receptor predictive of TGCTs and as emerging new possible molecular targets for therapeutic strategies. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 276-280, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Renal and testicular agenesis in a patient with Darier's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; McConnachie, P

    1985-05-01

    Darier's disease is a familial disorder of the skin that has been associated with corneal, bone, pulmonary, and urogenital abnormalities. This report describes a novel urogenital anomaly, namely renal and testicular agenesis, in a patient with Darier's disease. Detailed study of the kindred demonstrated an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance for Darier's disease and also revealed the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis in several family members. Thyroid involvement ranged from isolated goiter to hypothyroidism. Tissue typing for HLA-A, B, C, and DR antigens did not reveal a specific haplotype common to all the carriers of the cutaneous or thyroid disorder. It is concluded that patients with Darier's disease should be carefully evaluated for the occurrence of systemic diseases, especially urogenital abnormalities and thyroid disorders.

  8. Medullary sponge kidney and testicular dysgenesis syndrome: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Masciovecchio, Stefano; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The medullary sponge kidney is also known as Lenarduzzi's kidney or Cacchi and Ricci's disease from the first Italian authors who described its main features. A review of the scientific literature underlines particular rarity of the association of MSK with developmental abnormalities of the lower urinary tract and genital tract such as hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism. The work presented is the only one in the scientific literature that shows the association between the medullary sponge kidney and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. A question still remains unanswered: are the MSK and TDS completely independent malformation syndromes occurring, in this case, simultaneously for a rare event or are they different phenotypic expressions of a common malformative mechanism? In the future we hope that these questions will be clarified.

  9. Medullary Sponge Kidney and Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Masciovecchio, Stefano; Saldutto, Pietro; Paradiso Galatioto, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The medullary sponge kidney is also known as Lenarduzzi's kidney or Cacchi and Ricci's disease from the first Italian authors who described its main features. A review of the scientific literature underlines particular rarity of the association of MSK with developmental abnormalities of the lower urinary tract and genital tract such as hypospadias and bilateral cryptorchidism. The work presented is the only one in the scientific literature that shows the association between the medullary sponge kidney and the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. A question still remains unanswered: are the MSK and TDS completely independent malformation syndromes occurring, in this case, simultaneously for a rare event or are they different phenotypic expressions of a common malformative mechanism? In the future we hope that these questions will be clarified. PMID:24716085

  10. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  11. Missed torsion in undescended testes detected by scintigraphy: testicular scintigraphy a decisive complementary tool.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Sunil Kumar; Abdullah, Zuhair Saleh; Sharma, Punit; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Naeem, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Torsion of undescended testis, although not uncommon, causes diagnostic difficulties. We here present testicular scintigraphy images of a typical case of torsion of an undescended inguinal testis with disparity between clinical and ultrasonography (USG) findings in the contralateral retractile testis.

  12. Teaching Breast and Testicular Self-Exams: Evaluation of a High School Curriculum Pilot Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Stephen L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A high school curriculum project was developed to teach students about the importance of breast and testicular self-examination. Questionnaires were used to evaluate the project. Results are discussed. (DF)

  13. Protective effects of thymoquinone against methotrexate-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ahmet; Oktar, Suleyman; Koc, Ahmet; Yonden, Zafer

    2011-08-01

    Thymoquinone is the major active component derived from Nigella sativa. Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist widely used in clinic. Aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of thymoquinone on testicular toxicity of methotrexate. Experiments were performed on male C57BL/6 mice (6 weeks old, 20 ± 2 g). The animals were divided into four groups with six mice in each group. Equivalent volumes of saline were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the control group. In the thymoquinone group, mice received thymoquinone i.p. with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day for 4 days. Mice in the methotrexate group received single dose of methotrexate i.p., with a dose of 20 mg/kg. Finally, in the methotrexate plus thymoquinone group, in the first and the following 3 days after methotrexate administration, thymoquinone was injected with a dose of 10 mg/kg/day, i.p. At the end of the experiment, the left testis was quickly removed and divided into two parts for histological examination and biochemical analysis. Methotrexate alone increased total antioxidant capacity and myeloperoxidase activity compared to the controls. Thymoquinone treatment decreased total antioxidant capacity and prevented the increase in the myeloperoxidase activity. Light microscopy showed in mice that receiving methotrexate resulted in interstitial space dilatation, edema, severe disruption of the seminiferous epithelium and reduced diameter of the seminiferous tubules. Administration of thymoquinone reversed histological changes of methotrexate significantly. We suggest that thymoquinone use may decrease the destructive effects of methotrexate on testicular tissue of patients using this agent.

  14. Gonadotropins regulate rat testicular tight junctions in vivo.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Mark J; Tarulli, Gerard A; Meachem, Sarah J; Robertson, David M; Smooker, Peter M; Stanton, Peter G

    2010-06-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG +/- FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs.

  15. Development of interspecies testicular germ-cell transplantation in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, Tiziana; Sarasquete, Carmen; Cabrita, Elsa

    2014-06-01

    Interspecific testicular germ cell (TGC) transplantation was investigated in two commercial flatfish species. Testes from donor species (Senegalese sole) were evaluated using classical histological techniques (haematoxylin-eosin staining and haematoxylin-light green-orange G-acid fuchsine staining), in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical analysis. Both Ssvasa1-2 mRNAs and SsVasa protein allowed the characterisation of TGCs, confirming the usefulness of the vasa gene in the detection of Senegalese sole TGCs. Xenogenic transplants were carried out using TGCs from one-year-old Senegalese sole into turbot larvae. Propidium iodide-SYBR-14 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that 87.98% of the extracted testicular cells were viable for microinjection and that 15.63% of the total recovered cells were spermatogonia. The vasa gene was characterised in turbot recipients using cDNA cloning. Smvasa mRNA was confirmed as a germ cell-specific molecular marker in this species. Smvasa expression analysis during turbot ontogeny was carried out before Senegalese sole TGC transplants into turbot larvae. Turbot larvae at 18 days after hatching (DAH) proved to be susceptible to manipulation procedures. High survival rates (83.75±15.90-100%) were obtained for turbot larvae at 27, 34 and 42 DAH. These data highlight the huge potential of this species for transplantation studies. Quantitative PCR was employed to detect Senegalese sole vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2) in the recipient turbot larvae. The Ssvasa mRNAs showed a significant increase in relative expression in 42-DAH microinjected larvae three weeks after treatment, showing the proliferation of Senegalese sole spermatogonia in transplanted turbot larvae.

  16. Gonadotropins Regulate Rat Testicular Tight Junctions in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Mark J.; Tarulli, Gerard A.; Meachem, Sarah J.; Robertson, David M.; Smooker, Peter M.; Stanton, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (TJs) are an essential component of the blood-testis barrier required for spermatogenesis; however, the role of gonadotropins in their maintenance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of gonadotropin suppression and short-term replacement on TJ function and TJ protein (occludin and claudin-11) expression and localization, in an adult rat model in vivo. Rats (n = 10/group) received the GnRH antagonist, acyline, for 7 wk to suppress gonadotropins. Three groups then received for 7 d: 1) human recombinant FSH, 2) human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and rat FSH antibody (to study testicular androgen stimulation alone), and 3) hCG alone (to study testicular androgen and pituitary FSH production). TJ proteins were assessed by real-time PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, whereas TJ function was assessed with a biotin permeation tracer. Acyline treatment significantly reduced testis weights, serum androgens, LH and FSH, and adluminal germ cells (pachytene spermatocyte, round and elongating spermatids). In contrast to controls, acyline induced seminiferous tubule permeability to biotin, loss of tubule lumens, and loss of occludin, but redistribution of claudin-11, immunostaining. Short-term hormone replacement stimulated significant recoveries in adluminal germ cell numbers. In hCG ± FSH antibody-treated rats, occludin and claudin-11 protein relocalized at the TJ, but such relocalization was minimal with FSH alone. Tubule lumens also reappeared, but most tubules remained permeable to biotin tracer, despite the presence of occludin. It is concluded that gonadotropins maintain Sertoli cell TJs in the adult rat via a mechanism that includes the localization of occludin and claudin-11 at functional TJs. PMID:20357222

  17. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  18. Scrotal Involvement with Testicular Nonseminomatous Germ Cell Tumour

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J. A.; O'Brien, F.; Tuthill, A.; Power, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with a traumatic injury to the scrotal region necessitating emergency surgery. Evacuation of a haematoma and bilateral orchidectomy were performed. A left sided nonseminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT), predominantly yolk sac, was identified. Microscopic margins were positive for tumour. Initial tumour markers revealed an AFP of 22,854 ng/mL, HCG of <1 mIU/mL, and LDH of 463 IU/L. Eight weeks after surgery, AFP levels remained elevated at 11,646 ng/mL. Computed tomography (CT) scanning demonstrated left inguinal adenopathy, 1.5 cm in max dimension. On review, extensive evidence of scrotal involvement was evident. His tumour was staged as stage IIIC, poor risk NSGCT. He was treated with 4 cycles of bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin over a 12-week period. His tumour markers normalised after 3 cycles. There was a marked improvement noted clinically. Follow-up CT scans demonstrated complete resolution of his tumour. He later underwent further surgery to remove a small amount of remaining spermatic cord. Histology revealed no malignant tissue. The patient suffered many complications including testosterone deficiency, osteopenia, infertility, and psychological distress. Discussion. A small proportion of testicular cancer may present in an atypical manner. The scrotum and testicle have markedly different embryonic origins and therefore a distinct anatomic separation. As a result the scrotum is not a typical site of spread of testicular cancer. Case reports have been described that were managed in a similar manner with good outcomes. Therefore, even with significant scrotal involvement, if timely and appropriate treatment is administered, complete resolution of the tumour may be achieved. PMID:27830100

  19. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  20. Testicular germ cell tumors with sarcomatous components: an analysis of 33 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Punar, Metin; Contreras, Alejandro Luiña; Tu, Shi-Ming; Pisters, Louis; Tamboli, Pheroze; Czerniak, Bogdan

    2009-08-01

    The development of sarcomatous component (SC) in testicular germ cell tumor (GCT) is an uncommon phenomenon. We searched our surgical pathology files from 1985 to 2007 and identified 33 cases of testicular GCTs with SC. The average age of patients was 31 years. All patients underwent radical orchiectomy, which demonstrated a GCT in all patients except for 3 patients who had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All testicular GCTs contained a teratomatous component. The GCTs were pure teratomas in 3 cases, and were mixed GCTs in the other cases. The SC was observed in primary testicular tumor (n=19), in metastasis (n=11), or in both primary testicular tumor and metastasis (n=3). The average percentage of the SC in the primary testicular GCT was 32% (range: 5% to 99%). The most common histologic type of SC was rhabdomyosarcoma (n=24), followed by high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n=5), rhabdomyosarcoma admixed with high-grade unclassified sarcoma (n=2), angiosarcoma (n=1), and low-grade myxoid sarcoma (n=1). Clinical follow-up information was available for 27 patients. Of the 13 patients whose SC was limited to the testicular GCT, 2 patients died of GCT not otherwise specified at 37 and 68 months, respectively; and 11 patients were free of disease at a mean of 46 months. Of the 14 patients with a SC in the metastasis, 7 patients died of GCT not otherwise specified at a mean of 95 months, and 7 patients were free of disease at a mean of 104 months. These results suggest that patients with a SC confined to the primary testicular GCT may not have a higher risk of mortality than those at a comparable stage without a SC. However, patients with a SC in the metastasis have an increased risk of mortality.

  1. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  2. Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with transesophageal echocardiography following the induction of anesthesia for suspected testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Stephen M; Wang, Xiao; Sullivan, Erin A

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool for evaluating hemodynamic instability in patients under general anesthesia. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with complaints of testicular pain concerning for testicular torsion. After induction of general anesthesia for scrotal exploration and possible orchiopexy, the patient developed severe and persistent hypotension. Using intraoperative TEE, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was made, and an emergent pericardial window was performed.

  3. Subfertility and Risk of Testicular Cancer in the EPSAM Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zugna, Daniela; Fiano, Valentina; Robles Rodriguez, Nena; Maule, Milena; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Segnan, Nereo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background/objectives It has been suggested that subfertility and testicular cancer share genetic and environmental risk factors. We studied both subfertility and the strongest known testicular cancer susceptibility gene, the c-KIT ligand (KITLG), whose pathway is involved in spermatogenesis. Methods The EPSAM case-control study is comprised of testicular cancer patients from the Province of Turin, Italy, diagnosed between 1997 and 2008. The present analysis included 245 cases and 436 controls from EPSAM, who were aged 20 years or older at diagnosis/recruitment. The EPSAM questionnaire collected information on factors such as number of children, age at first attempt to conceive, duration of attempt to conceive, use of assisted reproduction techniques, physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility, number of siblings, and self-reported cryptorchidism. Genotyping of the KITLG single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs995030 was performed on the saliva samples of 202 cases and 329 controls. Results Testicular cancer was associated with the number of children fathered 5 years before diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) per additional child: 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58–1.04) and sibship size (OR per additional sibling: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.66–0.88). When considering the reproductive history until 1 year before diagnosis, attempting to conceive for at least 12 months or fathering a child using assisted reproduction techniques was not associated with the risk of testicular cancer, nor was age at first attempt to conceive or physician-assigned diagnosis of infertility. The SNP rs995030 was strongly associated with risk of testicular cancer (per allele OR: 1.83; 95%CI: 1.26–2.64), but it did not modify the association between number of children and the risk of testicular cancer. Conclusion This study supports the repeatedly reported inverse association between number of children and risk of testicular cancer, but it does not find evidence of an association for other

  4. A case of testicular infarction from the complications of Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonae; Park, Heeyoon; Lee, Gilho

    2016-04-01

    Herein, we reported a case of testicular infarction in a patient with Klebsiella oxytoca induced acute epididymitis. Acute left epididymitis progressed into testicular infarction requiring orchiectomy in spite of antibiotics treatment. Ordinary urine cultures did not reveal any specific organism, suggesting viable but noncultureable state. We amplified a bacterial 16S ribosomal subunit gene from the urine and orchiectomized samples, and we found K. oxytoca infections from both of them.

  5. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yonggang; Xin, Ying; Tan, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Although angiotensin II (Ang II) was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN) via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NRF2), the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT) and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2. PMID:28191275

  6. Attitudes Toward Testicular Cancer and Self-Examination Among Northern Irish Males.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rachel Kathryn; Casson, Karen

    2017-03-01

    Testicular cancer incidence rates are increasing worldwide making it the most common malignancy in males aged 15 to 45 years. Without a known way to prevent the disease health professionals must promote awareness and early detection. A literature review identified a scarcity of information regarding awareness and knowledge of, and attitudes toward, testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among men in Northern Ireland. This study aimed to establish baseline data for Northern Ireland using a convenience sample of 150 men, aged 18 to 45 years. The sample was recruited from across the country and so represents a range of education and area deprivation levels. An online survey was used to collect data. Results showed that while 39% of respondents correctly identified the age group at highest risk for testicular cancer, only 17% of respondents had ever heard of a testicular self-examination. Analysis revealed knowledge, awareness, and attitudes differed by age groups and area deprivation quintiles. It is recommended that health promoters in Northern Ireland and elsewhere use these findings to tailor health promotion initiatives to engage men and raise testicular cancer and self-examination awareness.

  7. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  8. The effects of adjuvants on autoimmune responses against testicular antigens in mice.

    PubMed

    Musha, Muhetaerjiang; Hirai, Shuichi; Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Itoh, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO) is a model of immunologic male infertility and pathologically characterized by lymphocytic inflammation, which causes breakdown of the testicular immune privilege with spermatogenic disturbance. Generally, murine EAO is induced by immunization with testicular homogenate (TH) from the testes of donor mice + complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) + Bordetella pertussigens (BP), and it has been considered that treatment with these two adjuvants is required to enhance the immune response against testicular antigens. However, there remains a possibility that CFA and BP may affect autoimmune responses against the testicular antigens without TH. In the present study, we examined this possibility using real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The results demonstrated that immunization with TH in combination with CFA and BP evoked more severe EAO than that with only TH. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that Fas mRNA expression in TH+CFA+BP-induced EAO was significantly higher than that in TH-induced EAO. Interestingly, IL-6 mRNA expression dramatically increased in TH+CFA+BP-induced EAO; however, no apparent change in IL-6 mRNA expression occurred in TH-induced EAO. It was also noted that treatment with CFA and BP alone augmented autoimmune reactions against some testicular autoantigens. These results indicates that these adjuvants are helpful in evoking severe EAO, and treatment with the adjuvants alone can evoke autoimmune reactions against some testicular autoantigens despite the use of no TH.

  9. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  10. Influence of Altered Mass Loading on Testosterone Levels and Testicular Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Tommy J.; Ortiz, R. M.; Wade, C. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Effects of altered load on testosterone levels and testicular mass in mammals are not well defined. Two separate studies (loading;centrifuged; +2G(sub z) and unloading;hindlimb suspension;HLS) were conducted to provide a better understanding of the effects of mass loading on testosterone levels and testicular mass. Daily urine samples were collected, and testicular mass measured at the end of the study. +2G(sub z): Sprague-Dawley rats (230-250 g) were centrifuged for 12 days at +2G(sub z): 8 centrifuged (EC) and 8 off centrifuge controls (OCC). EC had lower body mass, however relative testicular mass was greater. EC exhibited an increase in excreted testosterone levels between days 2 (T2) and 6 (T6), and returned to baseline at T9. HLS: To assess the effects of unloading Sprague-Dawley rats (125-150 g) were studied for 12 days: 10 suspended (Exp) and 10 ambulatory (Ctl). Exp had lower body mass during the study, with reduced absolute and relative testicular mass. Exp demonstrated lower excreted testosterone levels from T5-T12. Conclusions: Loading appears to stimulate anabolism, as opposed to unloading, as indicated by greater relative testicular mass and excreted testosterone levels. Reported changes in muscle mass during loading and unloading coincide with similar changes in excreted testosterone levels.

  11. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  12. Variation in testicular histology of the spiny tailed lizard Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis during hibernation and active periods.

    PubMed

    Abu-Zinadah, Osama A

    2008-06-15

    The testicular histology of the lizard, Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis were varied considerably during hibernation and activity periods, reaching maximum values in summer. The onset of winter induces testicular regression, reduced testis size, testis diameter, diameter and epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules and epididymal epithelial height. Animals exhibit testicular recrudescence during late winter (February and March) and maximum testicular volume occurred during June. The period of maximal testicular volume was positively correlated with increasing ambient temperature. The summer season induces the testicular activity in contrast with the winter season in which the activity decreased and the testes were collapsed. Spermatocytogenesis is active in early spring and the major portion of the seminiferous epithelium comprises spermatids in various stages of maturation and their luminae were filled with spermatozoa. The size of the interstitial cells is direct correlated with changes occurring in epididymis and seminiferous epithelium. Most interstitial cell nuclei show clear regression when spermatocytogenesis were diminishes.

  13. Age at immigration and duration of stay in relation to risk for testicular cancer among Finnish immigrants in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ekbom, Anders; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Akre, Olof; Montgomery, Scott M; Sparén, Pär

    2003-08-20

    Although the incidence of testicular cancer is increasing, substantial differences in incidence between countries and populations exist. These differences cannot be explained solely by genetic differences, but environmental exposures, particularly early exposures, have been implicated in the etiology of testicular cancer. To assess whether early exposures contribute to the incidence of testicular cancer, we identified 93 172 Finnish men who immigrated to Sweden between 1969 and 1996 and followed them for the occurrence of testicular cancer. The risk of testicular cancer was lower for Finnish immigrants to Sweden than for the Swedish general population (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21 to 0.53). The reduced risk was associated with both seminomas and non-seminomas. Neither age at immigration nor duration of stay in Sweden had any impact on the reduced risk. Although the type of environmental exposures remains unknown, the results strongly indicate that early exposures are major determinants for testicular cancer.

  14. The roles of two novel FBN1 gene mutations in the genotype-phenotype correlations of Marfan syndrome and ectopia lentis patients with marfanoid habitus.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Yu, Jie; Gu, Feng; Pang, Xiuqin; Ma, Xixin; Li, Rong; Liu, Ningpu; Ma, Xu

    2008-06-01

    Mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene have been identified in patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Marfan-like connective tissue disorders. In this study, two Chinese families were recruited. The patients in family 1 were well characterized with MFS, while those in family 2 displayed Marfan-like disorders such as ectopia lentis (EL) and marfanoid habitus, but did not develop cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to analyze the pathogenic mutations and their relationships with phenotypes in these two Chinese families. All participants underwent complete physical, ophthalmic, and cardiovascular examinations. The 65 exons and flanking intronic sequences of FBN1 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and screened for mutations by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing. One hundred and fifteen unrelated controls were analyzed using the same methods to confirm the mutations. In family 1, we identified the mutation p.C499S in the calcium-binding epidermal growth factor (cbEGF)-like domain 3 of FBN1. In family 2, the mutation p.C908Y was identified in an interdomain region of the hybrid motif 2 linked to the cbEGF-like domain 10. It can be concluded that FBN1 mutations involving cysteine substitutions are usually associated with MFS and EL with some MFS features. Moreover, pathology seemed more serious when the mutations disrupted the three disulfide bridges in the cbEGF-like domains, which was more likely to cause typical MFS than if the mutations occurred in the hybrid motifs. Our data preliminarily establish a genotype-phenotype correlation in the diagnostic process of MFS and predominant EL with Marfan-like features.

  15. Imprints and DPPA3 are bypassed during pluripotency- and differentiation-coupled methylation reprogramming in testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Dorssers, Lambert C J; Trabert, Britton; Gillis, Ad J M; Cook, Michael B; Wang, Yonghong; Waterfall, Joshua J; Stevenson, Holly; Smith, William I; Noyes, Natalia; Retnakumar, Parvathy; Stoop, J Hans; Oosterhuis, J Wolter; Meltzer, Paul S; McGlynn, Katherine A; Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2016-11-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) share germline ancestry but diverge phenotypically and clinically as seminoma (SE) and nonseminoma (NSE), the latter including the pluripotent embryonal carcinoma (EC) and its differentiated derivatives, teratoma (TE), yolk sac tumor (YST), and choriocarcinoma. Epigenomes from TGCTs may illuminate reprogramming in both normal development and testicular tumorigenesis. Herein we investigate pure-histological forms of 130 TGCTs for conserved and subtype-specific DNA methylation, including analysis of relatedness to pluripotent stem cell (ESC, iPSC), primordial germ cell (PGC), and differentiated somatic references. Most generally, TGCTs conserve PGC-lineage erasure of maternal and paternal genomic imprints and DPPA3 (also known as STELLA); however, like ESCs, TGCTs show focal recurrent imprinted domain hypermethylation. In this setting of shared physiologic erasure, NSEs harbor a malignancy-associated hypermethylation core, akin to that of a diverse cancer compendium. Beyond these concordances, we found subtype epigenetic homology with pluripotent versus differentiated states. ECs demonstrate a striking convergence of both CpG and CpH (non-CpG) methylation with pluripotent states; the pluripotential methyl-CpH signature crosses species boundaries and is distinct from neuronal methyl-CpH. EC differentiation to TE and YST entails reprogramming toward the somatic state, with loss of methyl-CpH but de novo methylation of pluripotency loci such as NANOG Extreme methyl-depletion among SE reflects the PGC methylation nadir. Adjacent to TGCTs, benign testis methylation profiles are determined by spermatogenetic proficiency measured by Johnsen score. In sum, TGCTs share collective entrapment in a PGC-like state of genomic-imprint and DPPA3 erasure, recurrent hypermethylation of cancer-associated targets, and subtype-dependent pluripotent, germline, or somatic methylation.

  16. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  17. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS.

  18. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  19. Effect of age on testicular germ cell apoptosis and sperm aneuploidy in MF-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, M H; Schmid, T E

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous mutation rate in the male germ-line increases with age. The reason for this is unknown, but presumably involves an age-related degeneration in the efficacy of cellular processes. To investigate the possibility that rates of apoptosis and genetic damage (represented by aneuploidy) might vary with age in mice, the testes and sperm of 2- and 12-month-old male MF-1 mice were examined by a modified TUNEL technique and 3-colour sperm-FISH assay, respectively. Sperm were labeled with probes to chromosomes 8, X and Y and 20,000 sperm scored from each of 5 animals per group. A significant increase in gonosomal disomy was found in the aged mice, especially X-X-8. This suggests that advanced paternal age is associated primarily with meiosis II rather than meiosis I disjunction errors. Neither diploidy nor autosomal disomy was affected in the older group. The rate of germ cell apoptosis (apoptotic cells per seminiferous tubule cross-section per animal per group) was higher in the old mice than controls, but not significantly. Considerable inter-animal variability was observed in the older group. The finding of an increase in levels of sperm aneuploidy is novel for 1-year-old mice and confirms the genotoxic effect of ageing in mice. Since apoptosis is assumed to eliminate cells with unrepaired damage, it may be that the apoptotic response in older mice is compromised, resulting in the higher levels of aneuploidy in sperm. However, given the inter-animal variability in testicular germ cell apoptosis, this awaits confirmation.

  20. Self-esteem, social support, and mental health in survivors of testicular cancer: a comparison based on relationship status.

    PubMed

    Tuinman, Marrit A; Hoekstra, Harald J; Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk Th; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E H M

    2006-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most frequent malignancy in men between 20 and 40 years of age. This is a period in life in which important life events take place, such as starting a career and establishing a relationship. The goal of the study was to explore self-esteem, social support, and mental health in 3 groups of survivors of testicular cancer: singles, those with the same partner as at diagnosis (relationship during testicular cancer), and those with a partner they met after completion of treatment (relationship after testicular cancer). A total of 129 survivors completed the Social Support List, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, and the subscale mental health of the RAND-36. Mean time since diagnosis for single survivors was 8.3 years (range 1-23), for survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer 9.3 years (range 1-24), and for survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer 13.6 years (range 1-24). Levels of social support were equal in groups, but satisfaction with support was not. Survivors with a relationship during testicular cancer were most satisfied with support, and had the highest self-esteem and mental health. Survivors with a relationship after testicular cancer reported the next best levels of functioning but had the same mental health as singles. Singles and survivors with a relationship established after testicular cancer had a lower mental health than a reference group of men. The difference in self-esteem between singles and survivors of testicular cancer with a relationship during testicular cancer appeared most distinct and was clinically relevant. Mental health was predicted by different factors for the 3 groups. Being single at diagnosis seems to cause a vulnerability that remains when survivors do develop a relationship after treatment is completed because these groups are at risk for a lower mental health.

  1. More Cases of Benign Testicular Teratomas are Detected in Adults than in Children. A Clinicopathological Study of 543 Testicular Germ Cell Tumor Cases.

    PubMed

    David, Semjén; András, Farkas; Endre, Kalman; Balint, Kaszas; Árpad, Kovács; Csaba, Pusztai; Karoly, Szuhai; Tamás, Tornóczky

    2016-10-28

    Benign testicular teratomas are always thought to be pediatric neoplasms and previously all the teratoid tumors in the adult testis regarded as malignant. Recently, three publications reported benign testicular teratomas in adulthood and the latest WHO classification refers them as "prepubertal type of teratomas" which rarely appear in adulthood. These neoplasms behave benign and seemingly analogous independently whether they appear in pre- or postpubertal patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of benign testicular teratomas both in children and adults. 593 cases of testicular neoplasms were found in a period of 17 years ranging from 1998 to 2014 in the archive of our department (Department of Pathology, Medical Center, Pécs University). 543 cases diagnosed as germ cell tumor which have all been further evaluated in conjunction with the clinical data available. Of all germ cell tumor cases 14 (2.5 %) were pure teratomas. Ten out of 14 were the WHO-defined "conventional" teratoma, 4 of the 14 were the "benign or the so called prepubertal type" from which three occurred in adult patients. Only one of the 14 occurred in childhood, indicating that benign prepubertal type teratomas -which are regarded generally as childhood tumors- are more frequently detected in adults than in children. Benign adult testicular teratomas comprised 21 % of all pure teratoma cases in our series. Practicioners in the field have to be aware of its existence also in adulthood to avoid overtreatment and not to expose their patients to unnecessary chemotherapy, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RLA) and the potential complications of these interventions.

  2. Testicular cell junction: a novel target for male contraception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some studies were performed using animal models to decipher if the Sertoli-germ cell junction in the testis is a target for male fertility regulation. Some of these study models were based on the use of hormones and/or chemicals to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (e.g., androgen-based implants or pills) and others utilized a panel of chemical entities or synthetic peptides to perturb spermatogenesis either reversibly or non-reversibly. Among them, adjudin, a potential male contraceptive, is one of the compounds exerting its action on the unique adherens junctions, known as ectoplasmic specializations, in the testis. Since the testis is equipped with inter-connected cell junctions, an initial targeting of one junction type may affect the others and these accumulative effects could lead to spermatogenic arrest. This review attempts to cover an innovative theme on how male infertility can be achieved by inducing junction instability and defects in the testis, opening a new window of research for male contraceptive development. While it will still take much time and effort of intensive investigation before a product can reach the consumable market, these findings have provided hope for better family planning involving men.

  3. Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. The germ cells may be spermatogonia, meiotic spermatocytes and haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. The process of spermatogenesis includes a sequence of morphological and physiological changes of germ cells that begin with the differentiation of spermatogonia that become meiotic spermatocytes. After the second meiotic division, through a process of spermiogenesis, these differentiate into spermatozoa. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The cyst is the unit of spermatogenic function, composed of a cohort of isogenic germ cells surrounded by encompassing Sertoli cells. The teleost testis is organized morphologically into 3 types of testis: 1) tubular testis type, present in lower bony fishes as salmonids, cyprinids and lepisosteids; 2) unrestricted spermatogonial testis type, found in neoteleosts except Atherinomorpha; and 3) restricted spermatogonial testis type, characteristic of all Atherinomorpha. The morphology of the testicular germinal epithelium changes during the annual reproductive cycle, reflecting reproductive seasonality. PMID:26413405

  4. Induction of testicular damage by daily methamphetamine administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Hsuan; Liao, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Chen, Hung-En; Tsai, Shiow-Chwen; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2014-02-28

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced brain damage and apoptosis within the central nervous system are well documented. This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of daily METH administration on the testes in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (5 weeks old, ~100 g, n = 64) were divided into two groups and treated with vehicle (saline, control) or METH (10 mg/kg) for 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. The results showed that daily administration of METH decreased the body, testicular and epididymis weights as well as the serum levels of total testosterone. The increased apoptotic index (Bad/Bcl2 expression ratio) and levels of cleaved caspase-3 indicated that apoptosis had occurred in the testes of the METH-treated rats. The oxidative stress levels increased as the reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio decreased. The overall sperm counts decreased at 15 and 90 days, where- as morphologically abnormal sperm counts increased at 30, 60 and 90 days in the METH-treated rats. This study demonstrates that daily exposure to METH significantly reduced the number and quality of sperm in rats. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms likely include the reduction of serum testosterone levels and the increase of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the rat testes.

  5. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  6. Familial testicular germ cell tumor: no associated syndromic pattern identified

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in young men. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history, and the association of TGCT with genitourinary (GU) tract anomalies have suggested an underlying genetic predisposition. Linkage data have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant, single gene in familial TGCT (FTGCT) cases. Based on its association with congenital GU tract anomalies and suggestions that there is an intrauterine origin to TGCT, we hypothesized the existence of unrecognized dysmorphic features in FTGCT. Methods We evaluated 38 FTGCT individuals and 41 first-degree relatives from 22 multiple-case families with detailed dysmorphology examinations, physician-based medical history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and genitourinary imaging studies. Results The prevalence of major abnormalities and minor variants did not significantly differ between either FTGCT individuals or their first-degree relatives when compared with normal population controls, except for tall stature, macrocephaly, flat midface, and retro-/micrognathia. However, these four traits were not manifest as a constellation of features in any one individual or family. We did detect an excess prevalence of the genitourinary anomalies cryptorchidism and congenital inguinal hernia in our population, as previously described in sporadic TGCT, but no congenital renal, retroperitoneal or mediastinal anomalies were detected. Conclusions Overall, our study did not identify a constellation of dysmorphic features in FTGCT individuals, which is consistent with results of genetic studies suggesting that multiple low-penetrance genes are likely responsible for FTGCT susceptibility. PMID:24559313

  7. Endogenous interleukin 18 regulates testicular germ cell apoptosis during endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Taketo; Aoyama-Ishikawa, Michiko; Kamoshida, Shingo; Nishino, Satoshi; Sasano, Maki; Oka, Nobuki; Yamashita, Hayato; Kai, Motoki; Nakao, Atsunori; Kotani, Joji; Usami, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    Orchitis (testicular swelling) often occurs during systemic inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Interleukin 18 (IL18) is a proinflammatory cytokine and is an apoptotic mediator during endotoxemia, but the role of IL18 in response to inflammation in the testes was unclear. WT and IL18 knockout (KO) mice were injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce endotoxemia and examined 12 and 48  h after LPS administration to model the acute and recovery phases of endotoxemia. Caspase activation was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression were examined by western blot and quantitative real-time RT-PCR respectively. During the acute phase of endotoxemia, apoptosis (as indicated by caspase-3 cleavage) was increased in WT mice but not in IL18 KO mice. The death receptor-mediated and mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathways were both activated in the WT mice but not in the KO mice. During the recovery phase of endotoxemia, apoptosis was observed in the IL18 KO mice but not in the WT mice. Activation of the death-receptor mediated apoptotic pathway could be seen in the IL18 KO mice but not the WT mice. These results suggested that endogenous IL18 induces germ cell apoptosis via death receptor mediated- and mitochondrial-mediated pathways during the acute phase of endotoxemia and suppresses germ cell apoptosis via death-receptor mediated pathways during recovery from endotoxemia. Taken together, IL18 could be a new therapeutic target to prevent orchitis during endotoxemia.

  8. Volcanogenic pollution and testicular damage in wild mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Many evidences have surfaced the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on male reproduction. Volcanogenic pollution is understudied, although it is a well-known source of hazardous contaminants. This study aims to assess the effects of chronic exposure to volcanogenic pollution on wild mice testes by studying: (i) diameter of seminiferous tubules; (ii) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (iii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iv) apoptotic level in the germinal epithelium. The mice from the polluted site showed higher levels of the selected heavy metals than those from the reference site. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and the relative volume occupied by spermatozoa and lumen in exposed mice were significantly lower than in the unexposed group. Contrarily, exposed mice showed a significantly higher relative volume occupied by interstitium, as well as, a higher degree of damage and a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results show that secondary manifestations of volcanic activity can pose a serious risk of testicular injury and therefore for male reproduction.

  9. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg-1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility.

  10. Pure Testicular Seminoma Relapsing Late with Somatic Type Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Anheuser, Petra; Gehrckens, Ralf; Wilczak, Waldemar; Sauter, Guido; Höflmayer, Doris

    2017-01-01

    Background. Somatic type malignancy (STM) occurs in 2% of all germ cell tumours (GCTs). The prognosis is unfavourable and the origin is poorly understood. Pathogenetic hypotheses involve direct transformation of teratoma, origin from totipotent cancer cells, or derivation from yolk sac tumour elements. Case Presentation. A 31-year-old patient was cured from testicular seminoma clinical stage IIc by orchiectomy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Nine years later, he experienced a late relapse with a mass sized 5 × 6 cm located at the former metastatic site. As no remission occurred after chemotherapy with three cycles of cisplatin, ifosfamide and etoposide, the mass was surgically resected. Histologically, the specimen consisted of neurofibroma with areas of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour and spots with mature bone formation. FISH analysis disclosed isochromosome 12p in the majority of evaluated cells suggesting somatic type malignancy (STM) of GCT. The patient is well 1 year after surgery. Conclusion. The pathogenesis of this STM remains enigmatic. The origin from GCT was evidenced by documentation of isochromosome 12p. Unrecognized teratomatous elements in the primary and totipotent cancer cells surviving the first chemotherapy could be hypothesized to represent the origin. STM developing from seminoma cells would be another novel hypothesis. PMID:28367345

  11. Coenzyme Q10 counteracts testicular injury induced by sodium arsenite in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T

    2011-03-25

    The protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against testicular toxicity induced by sodium arsenite (10mg/kg/day, orally for two consecutive days) was investigated in rats. Coenzyme Q10 treatment (10mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for five consecutive days, starting three days before arsenite administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased serum testosterone level which was reduced by sodium arsenite. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted antioxidant defenses, and attenuated the increases of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide resulted from arsenic administration. Also, the elevation of arsenic ion, and the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue were mitigated by coenzyme Q10. Histopathological examination showed that testicular injury mediated by arsenic was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the arsenic-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of arsenic intoxication.

  12. Induction of metallothionein synthesis with preservation of testicular function in rats following long term renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Deng, D X; Jiang, J; Chen, S; Zhong, R; Cherian, M G; Chakrabarti, S

    2000-04-01

    Metallothionein (MT), as an acute phase or stress-response protein and free radical scavenger, is related to inflammation and cellular protection from oxidative damage. In order to evaluate long-term testicular damage and the role of MT following renal transplant, nine allogenic (Fisher 344 --> Lewis) and seven isogenic (Lewis --> Lewis) renal transplants were performed and the recipient rats were followed for 140 days when allografts develop chronic transplant rejection. Testicular weight, light microscopic morphology, and lactate dehydrogenase-X enzyme activity were assessed. Testicular MT was determined by Cd-heme assay, and was localized immunocytochemically using a polyclonal rabbit antibody. No differences in testis weight, morphology, or LDH-X enzyme activity were found between allograft and isograft recipients. Testicular MT level was significantly increased in the testis of allograft recipients. Testicular zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) levels, but not iron (Fe) level, were significantly higher in testis with allograft kidney than that with isograft kidney. In addition, Cu/Zn ratio was also significantly high in the allograft group. However, the MT level did not show any significant correlation either with Cu and Zn alone or with Cu/Zn and Fe/Zn ratios. These data suggest that allogenic stimuli may induce MT synthesis in the recipient testis. The increased MT level in an allograft may offer a protective action from oxidative damage in the testis.

  13. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  14. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent

    PubMed Central

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes. PMID:27022326

  15. Meiosis in autologous ectopic transplants of immature testicular tissue grafted to Callithrix jacchus.

    PubMed

    Wistuba, Joachim; Luetjens, C Marc; Wesselmann, Ramona; Nieschlag, Eberhard; Simoni, Manuela; Schlatt, Stefan

    2006-04-01

    Grafting of immature testicular tissue provides a tool to examine testicular development and may offer a perspective for preservation of fertility in prepubertal patients. Successful xenografting in mice, resulting in mature spermatids, has been performed in several species but has failed with testicular tissues from the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus. Previous data indicate that the hormonal milieu provided by the mouse host might cause this failure. We conducted autologous ectopic transplantation of testicular fragments under the back skin in newborn marmoset monkeys. Seventeen months after transplantation, we found viable transplants in 2 out of the 4 grafted animals. In the transplants, tubules developed up to a state intermediate between the pregraft situation and adult controls. Dividing spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were present. Boule-like positivity and CDC25A negativity indicated that spermatogenesis was arrested at early meiosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed normal maturation of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and peritubular cells. Serum testosterone values were not restored to the normal range and bioactive chorionic gonadotropin levels increased to castrate levels. Meiotic arrest could have occurred in the grafts because of lack of sufficient testosterone or because of hyperthermia caused by the ectopic position of the grafts. We conclude that autologous transplants of immature testicular tissues in the marmoset can mature up to meiosis but that normal serum testosterone levels are not restored. Further studies have to be performed to overcome the meiotic arrest to explore the model further and to develop therapeutic options.

  16. A Torted Ruptured Intra-abdominal Testicular Seminoma Presenting As An Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Nickalls, Oliver James; Tan, Char Loo; Thian, Yee Liang

    2015-12-01

    The susceptibility of the undescended testis to malignant transformation is well documented. The most common location of the undescended testis is within the inguinal canal, with only a minority located within the abdominal cavity. When a testicular mass develops, the risk of torsion increases. We describe a large intra-abdominal testicular seminoma that had undergone torsion, rupture and haemorrhage, presenting as an acute abdomen. A 30 year old man presented to the emergency department with right iliac fossa pain. Computed tomography in the emergency department showed haemoperitoneum and a torted large left testicular mass, likely malignant. The patient underwent laparotomy and excision of the mass. Histologic examination revealed a grossly enlarged seminomatous testis which had torted and ruptured. While pre-operative imaging diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular seminoma has been published, reports are few. To the best of the author's knowledge pre-operative imaging diagnosis of a malignant testicular mass with torsion and intra-abdominal haemorrhage presenting as an acute abdomen has not been described before.

  17. Testicular gene expression of steroidogenesis-related factors in prepubertal, postpubertal, and aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, E; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2017-03-01

    Developmental and aging changes in testicular factors related to steroidogenesis are unknown in dogs. Using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR, this study examined testicular mRNA levels of CYP11A1 (P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc), CYP17A1 (P450 17α-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, P450c17), HSD3B2 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 3β-HSD), CYP19A (P450 aromatase, P450arom), STAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, StAR), cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and COX-2 in prepubertal (4-6 months of age), postpubertal (1 year of age), and aging (2-18 years of age) dogs. Testicular mRNA levels for P450scc, 3β-HSD, StAR, COX-1, and COX-2 did not change from prepubertal to postpubertal stages, whereas that for P450arom markedly and abruptly increased and that for P450c17 gradually decreased. In postpubertal and aging dogs, a negative correlation was found between aging and testicular P450arom mRNA levels. Based on the rapid testicular growth observed during puberty, these results suggested that total testis gene expression for steroidogenesis-related factors, in particular for P450arom, increases during puberty in dogs. In addition, the decline in P450arom gene expression during aging may affect the ability to synthesize steroids in canine testes.

  18. Effects of curcumin on bleomycin‑induced oxidative stress in malignant testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cort, Aysegul; Ozdemir, Evrim; Timur, Mujgan; Ozben, Tomris

    2012-10-01

    Bleomycin is commonly used in the treatment of testicular cancer. Bleomycin generates oxygen radicals, induces the oxidative cleavage of DNA strands and induces cancer cell apoptosis. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a potent antioxidant and chief component of the spice turmeric. No study investigating the effects of curcumin on intrinsic and bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in testicular germ cell tumors has been reported in the literature. For this reason, the present study aimed to examine the effects of curcumin on oxidative stress produced in wild-type NTera-2 and p53-mutant NCCIT testicular cancer cells incubated with bleomycin and the results were compared with cells treated with H2O2 which directly produces oxidative stress. The protein carbonyl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (GSH), 8-isoprostane, lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) levels and total antioxidant capacity in the two testicular cancer cell lines were determined. Results showed that bleomycin and H2O2 significantly increased protein carbonyl, TBARS, 8-isoprostane and LPO levels in the NTera-2 and NCCIT cell lines. Bleomycin and H2O2 significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity and GSH levels in NTera-2 cells. Curcumin significantly decreased LPO, 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyl content, and TBARS levels increased in cells treated with bleomycin and H2O2. Curcumin enhanced GSH levels and the antioxidant capacity of NTera-2 cells. In conclusion, curcumin inhibits bleomycin and H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human testicular cancer cells.

  19. Effects of X-irradiation on mouse testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, B.L.; Jost, L.K.; Erickson, K.R.; Tajiran, M.A.; Evenson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    The testicular regions of male mice were exposed to x-ray doses ranging from 0 to 400 rads. Forty days after exposure the mice were killed and the testes and cauda epididymal sperm removed surgically. Flow cytometric measurements of acridine orange stained testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular cell types following x-ray killing of stem cells. Cauda epididymal sperm were analyzed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric measurement of the susceptibility of the sperm nuclear DNA to in situ acid denaturation. The SCSA detected increased susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ after 12.5 rads of x-ray exposure, with significant increases following 25 rads. Abnormal sperm head morphology was not significantly increased until the testes were exposed to 60 rads of x-rays. These data suggest that the SCSA is currently the most sensitive, noninvasive method of detecting x-ray damage to testicular stem spermatogonia. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Idiopathic scrotal hematoma simulating a testicular torsion, in association with cryptorchidism: US findings

    PubMed Central

    Crisci, Vincenzina; Esposito, Ciro; Giurin, Ida; Vitale, Valerio; Vallone, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background An acute scrotum concerns endoscrotal organs (testicles, spermatic cord, tunica vaginalis) and is characterized by pain, swelling and hyperemia of the hemi-scrotum. It represents one of the most common surgical emergencies in children often caused by testicular torsion; the diagnosis is mostly clinical but must be supported by ultrasonographic examination of the scrotal region in association with a colour Doppler study of the spermatic cord vessels and glandular parenchyma. An idiopathic scrotal hematoma is a very rare condition that can simulate it. Case Report A 3-day-old full-term baby, otherwise in good health, showed swelling and pain of the left inguinal-scrotal region. A testicular torsion was suspected, so the baby underwent an ultrasound examination of the testis and spermatic cord that showed a left scrotal hematoma with superior displacement of the didymus; the right testicle was located in the internal inguinal canal. Surgical intervention confirmed the sonographic diagnosis of left testicular hematoma and of the right cryptorchidism. Conclusions Although testicular torsion is the most frequent cause of acute scrotum, the possibility of a persistent idiopathic scrotal haematoma and/or haematoma secondary to a trauma of the inguino-scrotal region, must be always taken into account. US diagnosis can avoid unnecessary emergency surgical treatment, required in case of testicular torsion. PMID:25061495

  1. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  2. Protective effects of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Pratap; Madhu, P; Reddy, P Sreenivasula

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the probable protective effect of resveratrol against cisplatin-induced testicular and epididymal toxicity in rats. Body weights of the animals showed no significant changes after cisplatin administration. Conversely, the weights of testis, and accessory sex organs reduced significantly. The daily sperm production and epididymal sperm quantity and quality were decreased in cisplatin treated rats. The circulatory levels of testosterone and activity levels of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly decreased after cisplatin treatment. The activity levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase were decreased with an increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in the testis and epididymis of cisplatin treated rats, suggesting the cisplatin-induced oxidative stress. The biochemical findings were supplemented by histological examination of testis. Reduced tubular size, decreased spermatogenesis and deterioration in architecture were observed after cisplatin treatment. Administration of resveratrol alone has no significant effect on testicular and epididymal metabolism. On the other hand, administration of resveratrol ameliorated cisplatin-induced alterations in testicular and epididymal oxidative damage, suppressed steroiodgenesis and spermatogenesis and restored testicular architecture. In conclusion, resveratrol possesses multimechanistic protective activity that can be attributed to its steroidogenic and antioxidant actions.

  3. Testicular cytology indicates differences in Sertoli cell counts between "good freezer" and "poor freezer" bulls.

    PubMed

    Rajak, Shailendra Kumar; Thippeswamy, Vijetha Bajjalli; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Gaurav, Mukesh Kumar; Chakravarty, Atish Kumar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Manimaran, Ayyasamy; Prasad, Shiv

    2016-01-01

    In artificial insemination, poor quality of semen unsuitable for cryopreservation and susceptibility of spermatozoa to cryodamage in crossbred bulls have been a matter of concern. Present study was designed to identify the testicular cytology indices that might be used to predict the semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa in bulls. Based on the ejaculate rejection rate and sperm cryotolerance, bulls (Holstein Friesian X Tharparkar crossbred) were classified into either good (producing good quality semen with spermatozoa having good cryotolerance; n = 4) or poor (producing poor quality semen with spermatozoa having poor cryotolerance; n = 4). Testicular cytology was studied in all the 8 bulls using fine needle aspiration technique. Testicular cytology of good bulls and poor bulls differed significantly. The proportion of Sertoli cells was significantly higher in good bulls (25.3 ± 1.6) compared to poor bulls (11.0 ± 0.8). The Sertoli cell index was 46.1 ± 5.0 in good bulls while it was only 13.8 ± 1.3 in poor bulls. The cut off values, as determined using Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis, indicate that the bulls having testicular cytogram comprising of < 15.5% Sertoli cells, < 24.3 Sertoli cell index and > 4.0 spermatogenic cells to Sertoli cell ratio might be a poor bull in terms of semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa. The proportion of Sertoli cells in the testicular cytology had positive (P < 0.05) relationship with semen quality and cryotolerance of spermatozoa.

  4. Hypophysectomy and hemivasectomy can inhibit the testicular hemicastration response of the mature rat.

    PubMed

    Frankel, A I; Mock, E J; Chapman, J C

    1984-05-01

    Three questions were asked in an attempt to understand how testosterone (T) concentration in the veins of the remaining testis can double within 24 h after hemicastration in the mature rat without a change in plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. These three questions (and their answers) were: 1) Can the testicular hemicastration response occur in hypophysectomized rats? Answer, No. 2) Does LH binding to the testis increase after hemicastration? Answer, No. 3) Is there a neural route to the testis alternate to the superior spermatic plexi? Answer, Yes, apparently there is, since hemivasectomy contralateral to the excised testis partially suppressed the testicular hemicastration response (150.4 +/- 13.2 ng/ml in hemicastrated, sham- hemivasectomized rats [n = 18] vs. 109.4 +/- 11.6 ng/ml in hemicastrated, hemivasectomized rats [n = 18], P less than 0.026). It was concluded that LH was probably necessary to the testicular hemicastration response but that its presence did not provide a mechanism. The response was mediated at least partly through the inferior spermatic nerves associated with the vas deferens. A possible reason, although highly speculative, for failure to previously block the testicular hemicastration response by bilateral denervation of the superior spermatic plexi (Mock and Frankel , 1982) was that during the 12-wk interval between denervation and hemicastration, testicular innervation functionally transferred from the superior spermatic to the inferior spermatic nerves.

  5. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  6. Temperature dependent action of growth hormone on somatic growth and testicular activities of the catfish, Clarias batrachus.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Raj Naresh; Kumar, Pankaj; Lal, Bechan

    2014-01-01

    Effects of growth hormone on somatic growth and testicular activities were studied during late quiescence and early recrudescence phases of the reproductive cycle of the catfish, Clarias batrachus. The administration of exogenous growth hormone (GH) during the late quiescence phase (December-January; ambient water temperature-15.2±1°C) did not influence the somatic growth as well as the testicular activity, as no change in body weight, testis weight, plasma level of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and testicular morphology was detected following GH treatment, though the plasma testosterone was marginally increased. While during the early recrudescence phase (March-April; ambient water temperature-28.1±2°C), GH treatment promoted the production of insulin like growth factor-I and testicular steroidogenic activity in a dose dependent manner, as was evident from the significant increase in the circulating levels of testosterone and estradiol-17β. GH treatment also increased body weight, testicular weight and gonadosomatic index, suggesting its involvement in testicular development. The GH treatment promoted spermatogonial proliferation and accelerated the spermatogenic process in the present catfish. These results, thus, suggest that GH influences the somatic growth and testicular activities depending on the temperature of the rearing water; warmer temperature and longer photoperiod promote testicular steroidogenic and spermatogenic activities in fish. This study has immense practical use in fisheries science.

  7. A Survey of Athletic Trainers as Health Care Advocates for Testicular and Breast Self-Examination in Athletic Populations

    PubMed Central

    Dewald, Lori; Zientek, Candice

    1996-01-01

    There have been no previous studies of athletic trainers' educational practices regarding breast or testicular cancer, so we surveyed athletic trainers regarding: 1) the incidence of cancer among athletes, 2) educational practices concerning breast/testicular cancer, 3) educational practices regarding breast/testicular self-examination, 4) breast/testicular concerns of athletes, 5) breast self-examination and testicular self-examination among athletic trainers. A researcher-developed questionnaire was randomly distributed to athletic trainers at the 1994 NATA convention, and SPSS-X was used to analyze results, using Chi-square. One alarming finding was that 28% of athletic trainers surveyed had worked with an athlete who had cancer. Twenty-two percent of the athletic trainers surveyed reported that a female athlete had brought a breast concern to them, and 51% reported that a male athlete had brought a testicular concern to them. Most of the athletic trainers surveyed do not educate athletes about breast or testicular cancer and do not teach athletes about self-examination procedures, but do perform breast self-examination or testicular self-examination on themselves. Acting as a role model is an important step toward the education of athletes in our care, but more must be done. As health care professionals, athletic trainers must become more proactive, rather than reactive, when dealing with cancer prevention. PMID:16558366

  8. False-positive "halo" sign on testicular scintigraphy in a 5-year-old boy with epididymitis and hydrocele.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, Sampath; Guha, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Anish; Bawa, Monika; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2011-07-01

    Scintigraphic differentiation between acute torsion, hydrocele and testicular or scrotal abscess can be difficult. Doppler sonography may provide useful complimentary information toward diagnosis. The authors describe a 5-year-old child where epididymitis with hydrocele was misdiagnosed as testicular torsion on scrotal scintigraphy.

  9. Comparison of sperm retrieval and reproductive outcome in azoospermic men with testicular failure and obstructive azoospermia treated for infertility.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Sandro C; Prudencio, Christina; Seol, Bill; Verza, Sidney; Knoedler, Christopher; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the rates of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, including the neonatal profile of infants conceived, in men with testicular failure. Three-hundred and sixty-five men with testicular failure who underwent micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction were included in this study. We compared their outcomes with 40 men with testicular failure who used donor sperm for injections due to failed retrieval, and 146 men with obstructive azoospermia who underwent percutaneous sperm retrieval. The retrieval rate in testicular failure was 41.4%, and the results were lower than the obstructed azoospermia (100%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.033; 95% CI: 0.007-0.164; P< 0.001). Live birth rates after sperm injections were lower in men with testicular failure (19.9%) compared with donor sperm (37.5%; adjusted OR: 0.377 (95% CI: 0.233-0.609, P< 0.001)) and obstructive azoospermia (34.2%; adjusted OR: 0.403 (95% CI: 0.241-0.676, P= 0.001). Newborn parameters of infants conceived were not significantly different among the groups. We concluded that the chances of obtaining sperm on retrieval and achieving a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are reduced in men with testicular failure. The profile of infants conceived after sperm injection does not seem to be negatively affected by testicular failure.

  10. Comparison of sperm retrieval and reproductive outcome in azoospermic men with testicular failure and obstructive azoospermia treated for infertility

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Sandro C; Prudencio, Christina; Seol, Bill; Verza, Sidney; Knoedler, Christopher; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the rates of sperm retrieval and intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, including the neonatal profile of infants conceived, in men with testicular failure. Three-hundred and sixty-five men with testicular failure who underwent micro-dissection testicular sperm extraction were included in this study. We compared their outcomes with 40 men with testicular failure who used donor sperm for injections due to failed retrieval, and 146 men with obstructive azoospermia who underwent percutaneous sperm retrieval. The retrieval rate in testicular failure was 41.4%, and the results were lower than the obstructed azoospermia (100%; adjusted odds ratio: 0.033; 95% CI: 0.007–0.164; P < 0.001). Live birth rates after sperm injections were lower in men with testicular failure (19.9%) compared with donor sperm (37.5%; adjusted OR: 0.377 (95% CI: 0.233–0.609, P < 0.001)) and obstructive azoospermia (34.2%; adjusted OR: 0.403 (95% CI: 0.241–0.676, P = 0.001). Newborn parameters of infants conceived were not significantly different among the groups. We concluded that the chances of obtaining sperm on retrieval and achieving a live birth after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) are reduced in men with testicular failure. The profile of infants conceived after sperm injection does not seem to be negatively affected by testicular failure. PMID:24759580

  11. DNA single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and crosslinks in rat testicular germ cells: Measurements of their formation and repair by alkaline and neutral filter elution

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.O.; Dysart, G. )

    1985-06-01

    This work describes a neutral and alkaline elution method for measuring DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs), DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DNA-DNA crosslinks in rat testicular germ cells after treatments in vivo or in vitro with both chemical mutagens and gamma-irradiation. The methods depend upon the isolation of testicular germ cells by collagenase and trypsin digestion, followed by filtration and centrifugation. {sup 137}Cs irradiation induced both DNA SSBs and DSBs in germ cells held on ice in vitro. Irradiation of the whole animal indicated that both types of DNA breaks are induced in vivo and can be repaired. A number of germ cell mutagens induced either DNA SSBs, DSBs, or cross-links after in vivo and in vitro dosing. These chemicals included methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, ethyl nitrosourea, dibromochlorpropane, ethylene dibromide, triethylene melamine, and mitomycin C. These results suggest that the blood-testes barrier is relatively ineffective for these mutagens, which may explain in part their in vivo mutagenic potency. This assay should be a useful screen for detecting chemical attack upon male germ-cell DNA and thus, it should help in the assessment of the mutagenic risk of chemicals. In addition, this approach can be used to study the processes of SSB, DSB, and crosslink repair in DNA of male germ cells, either from all stages or specific stages of development.

  12. A novel approach for manual de-torsion of an atypical (outward) testicular torsion with bedside Doppler ultrasonography guidance.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Armağan, Hamit Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with right testicular torsion to the lateral side. Torsion was diagnosed by physical examination; the colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) confirmed right testicular torsion with minimal peripheral hydrocele. Transverse and longitudinal examination of the spermatic cord with ultrasound and CDU revealed a counter-clockwise testicular torsion. Manual de-torsion was performed in a clockwise direction (720o) and testicular blood flow and the neutral position of the spermatic cord were confirmed by CDU. We did not encounter a residual twist of the spermatic cord upon surgical exploration. In our experience, ultrasound and CDU may predict the direction of testicular torsion and may allow appropriate management of cases prior to surgery.

  13. A novel approach for manual de-torsion of an atypical (outward) testicular torsion with bedside Doppler ultrasonography guidance

    PubMed Central

    Güneş, Mustafa; Umul, Mehmet; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Armağan, Hamit Hakan; Değirmenci, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    A 17-year-old boy presented with right testicular torsion to the lateral side. Torsion was diagnosed by physical examination; the colour Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) confirmed right testicular torsion with minimal peripheral hydrocele. Transverse and longitudinal examination of the spermatic cord with ultrasound and CDU revealed a counter-clockwise testicular torsion. Manual de-torsion was performed in a clockwise direction (720o) and testicular blood flow and the neutral position of the spermatic cord were confirmed by CDU. We did not encounter a residual twist of the spermatic cord upon surgical exploration. In our experience, ultrasound and CDU may predict the direction of testicular torsion and may allow appropriate management of cases prior to surgery. PMID:26425241

  14. Suppurative appendicitis presenting as acute scrotum confounded by a testicular appendage

    PubMed Central

    Shumon, Syed; Bennett, John; Lawson, Geoffrey; Small, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with testicular pain and swelling mandate an urgent urology review and scrotal exploration to prevent testicle loss due to torsion. Other pathology masquerading as torsion is extremely rare but can occur. We present one such case. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-day history of right testicular swelling and tenderness. He was apyrexial and denied any other symptoms. Blood tests demonstrated raised inflammatory markers. He had lower left-sided abdominal tenderness with a swollen, erythematous right hemiscrotum. During an urgent scrotal exploration for testicular torsion, a purulent hydrocele with a patent process vaginalis was noted, but no torsion. Post-operative abdominal pain mandated a general surgical review and subsequent appendicectomy. The patient made a full recovery. Acute suppurative appendicitis presenting as a urological emergency is extremely rare. To make a correct diagnosis and prevent multiple surgeries, a joint urological and general surgical assessment with a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:26966225

  15. [Valoration of the FAS in the contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion. Experimental study in rats].

    PubMed

    Paredes Esteban, R M; Ramírez Chamond, R; Carracedo Añón, J; Rodríguez Portillo, M

    2003-01-01

    The role the FAS and BCL-2 in the apoptosis of testicular cells in the contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion, was investigated. We compared with control group. These experiments were performed in male Wistar rats prepuberal old. FAS and BCL-2 determination is realized in cells cultures of contralateral testis. Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies, using a FAS and BCL-2 specific monoclonal antibody, were utilized to value FAS y BCL-2 expression on testiculaires cells following unilateral testicular torsion. We observed an increase of expression of FAS and decrease of BCL-2 in the contralateral testis in comparison with control group. The present results may indicate that the expression of this molecules is implicated in cellular apoptosis.

  16. Nephroblastoma Arising from Primary Testicular Germ Cell Tumor: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alatassi, Houda; O'Bryan, Brittany E.; Messer, Jamie C.

    2016-01-01

    Adult extrarenal nephroblastoma is a very rare tumor. Nephroblastoma arising from primary testicular germ cell tumor is exceedingly rare. To our knowledge, only three cases have been reported in the English literature. We report a case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a large right testicle. Image studies showed a large retroperitoneal mass along with liver and lung metastases. Orchiectomy demonstrated a mixed germ cell tumor composed of yolk sac tumor, embryonal carcinoma, and mature and immature teratoma with a significant portion of nephroblastoma. The patient received chemotherapy and no recurrence was noted during six months of followup. WT-1 expression was also studied due to the lack of consistency of its expression in testicular nephroblastoma in the literature. We also present a discussion and review of the literature due to its rarity, which indicate an adverse prognosis for patients with nephroblastoma components receiving standard chemotherapeutical regimes for testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:27957372

  17. Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking testicular malignancy in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

    2013-11-01

    Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis.

  18. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  19. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, H.E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Main, K.M.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Toppari, J. . E-mail: jorma.toppari@utu.fi

    2005-09-01

    Patients with 45,X0/46XY karyotype often present with intersex phenotype and testicular dysgenesis. These patients may also have undescended testes (cryptorchidism), hypospadias and their spermatogenesis is severely disrupted. They have a high risk for testicular cancer. These patients have the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark. Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates for environmental influence. Fetal exposure to high doses of dibutyl phthalate was shown to cause a TDS-like phenotype in the rats. Studies are underway to assess whether there is any exposure-outcome relation with selected chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, phthalates) and cryptorchidism00.

  20. AZF gene expression analysis in peripheral leukocytes and testicular cells from idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhuo, Zuo-Min; Ding, Guan-Xiong; Zhang, Jing; Hua, Li-Xin; Wu, Hong-Fei

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of AZF microdeletions in peripheral leukocytes and testicular cells in Chinese men with idiopathic infertility. Expression in testicular cells was also determined. In this study, we screened 62 idiopathic infertile patients, in whom karyotype, sperm count and hormonal parameters were evaluated. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral leukocytes. Molecular analysis was performed by two multiplex polymerase chain reactions (PCR) using a set of eight sequence tagged sites (STS) from 3 different regions of the Y chromosome. Total cellular RNA was extracted from the testicular tissue using a Trizol-method. Reverse Transcription (RT) reactions were performed to synthesize cDNA. Amplification of DFFRY, RBM and DAZ genes was performed to analyze their expression in testicular cells. In this cohort, we found 12 submicroscopic deletions (12/62, 19.4%). Nine patients (9/33, 27.2%) were detected in the azoospermic group and three (3/29, 10.3%) in the severe oligozoospermic group. RT-PCR analysis from testicular cells gave normal amplifications for SRY and DFFRY mRNA in 62 idiopathic patients; two patients were negative for RBM expression; no RBM and DAZ were detected for a case; 12 patients had no expression in the AZFc region involving the DAZ gene. Of 12 cases, three patients with normal PCR analysis of DAZ gene on genomic DNA showed no RT-PCR amplification for DAZ mRNA. The use of RT-PCR of specific spermatid expressed genes in conjunction with examining microdeletions using peripheral leukocytes is suggested to avoid the transmission of the Y chromosomal microdeletions from a father to a son via testicular sperm aspiration (TESE), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (JCSI).

  1. Late hormonal levels, semen parameters, and presence of antisperm antibodies in patients treated for testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Arap, Marco A; Vicentini, Fabio C; Cocuzza, Marcello; Hallak, Jorge; Athayde, Kelly; Lucon, Antonio M; Arap, Sami; Srougi, Miguel

    2007-01-01

    In spite of prompt diagnosis and either orchiectomy or preservation of the affected testis, infertility remains a significant sequel to testicular torsion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the late endocrine profile, seminal parameters, and antisperm antibody levels after testicular torsion. We also analyzed the impact of orchiectomy or detorsion on the organ fate. Of 24 patients evaluated after testicular torsion, 15 were treated with orchiectomy (group 1) and 9 were treated with orchiopexy (group 2). All subjects were assessed by semen analysis, endocrine profile (levels of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone), and seminal antisperm antibody levels. A group of 20 proven fertile men was used as the control. Median ischemia time in group 1 (48 hours) was significantly higher than in group 2 (7 hours). Both groups demonstrated decreases in sperm count and morphology compared with controls. Group 1 showed a significantly higher motility than group 2 (P = .02). Group 1 also showed a significantly better morphology by World Health Organization and Kruger criteria than group 2 (P = .01). All patients presented endocrine profiles within the normal range, and no significant differences in antisperm antibody levels were detected between the groups. However, a trend for higher levels was found in patients treated for testicular torsion, regardless of the fate of the testis. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between antisperm antibody levels and age at torsion, ischemia time, seminal parameters, or treatment applied. In conclusion, we found that after torsion patients maintain late hormonal levels within the normal range. Testicular fate did not have any correlation with the formation of antisperm antibodies. Although sperm quality was preserved in most of the patients with the exception of sperm morphology, patients treated with orchiectomy presented better motility and morphology compared with the detorsion group

  2. Germ-cell testicular cancer in offspring of Finnish immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Scott M; Granath, Fredrik; Ehlin, Anna; Sparén, Pär; Ekbom, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Variation in testicular cancer incidence can be used to assist in identification of risks. Finland has a significantly lower germ-cell testicular cancer risk than Sweden. Finns who immigrate to Sweden maintain their lower risk irrespective of age at immigration. We investigated difference in risk between Finland and Sweden by examining germ-cell testicular cancer incidence in males born in Sweden to Finnish immigrant parents. Swedish general population registers were used to identify 11,662 males born in Sweden where both Finnish parents immigrated to Sweden from Finland from 1969 or afterward. All of these offspring were at least 15 years old by final follow-up in 2001. Some six offspring (all diagnosed between ages 20 and 24 years) had a diagnosis of germ-cell testicular cancer. Comparison with the Swedish population rate produced standardized incidence ratios [SIR (95% confidence interval)] of 0.85 (0.31-1.84) for all the men and 1.75 (0.64-3.81) for the 20- to 24-year age group. SIRs calculated using the Finnish population rates produced an overall SIR (95% confidence interval) of 1.11 (0.41-2.41) and 2.95 (1.08-6.42) for the 20- to 24-year age group. Although the substantially reduced risk of testicular cancer previously observed in Finnish immigrant to Sweden was not found, this study had insufficient statistical power to conclude that environmental exposures explain the difference in germ-cell testicular cancer risk between Finland and Sweden.

  3. The testicular capsule and peritubular tissue of birds: morphometry, histology, ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Aire, T A; Ozegbe, P C

    2007-06-01

    The testicular capsule was studied histologically, morphometrically, ultrastructurally and immunohistochemically in the Japanese quail, domestic fowl, turkey and duck (all members of the Galloanserae). The testicular capsule was, relative to mammals, thin, being 81.5 +/- 13.7 microm in the quail, 91.7 +/- 6.2 microm in the domestic fowl, 104.5 +/- 29.8 microm in the turkey and 91.8 +/- 18.9 microm in the duck. The orchido-epididymal border (hilus) of the capsule was much thicker than elsewhere in all birds (from 233.7 +/- 50.7 microm in the duck to 550.0 +/- 147.3 microm thick in the turkey). The testicular capsule, other than the tunica serosa and tunica vasculosa, comprised, in the main, smooth muscle-like or myoid cells running mainly in one direction, and disposed in one main mass. Peritubular tissue was similarly composed of smooth muscle-like cells disposed in several layers. Actin and desmin intermediate filaments were immunolocalized in the inner cellular layers of the capsule in the quail, domestic fowl and duck, but uniformly in the turkey. Vimentin intermediate filament immunoreaction in the capsule was moderately and uniformly positive in the testicular capsule of only the quail. Actin and desmin, but not vimentin (except very faintly in the turkey) or cytokeratin, were immunolocalized in the peritubular tissue of all birds. The results therefore establish, or complement, some previous observations that these birds have contractile cells in their testicular capsule and peritubular tissue, whose function probably includes the transport of testicular fluid into the excurrent duct system.

  4. Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Experimental Rat Testis after Testicular Torsion/Detorsion

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Stankovic, Jablan; Najman, Stevo; Pavlovic, Dusica; Stokanovic, Dragana; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Dakovic-Bjelakovic, Marija; Cukuranovic, Jovana; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress (OS) parameters after testicular torsion/detorsion in adult rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven animals: group I-one hour right testicular torsion with subsequent orchiectomy, group II-one hour right testicular torsion followed by detorsion, group III-unilateral right-sided orchiectomy without previous torsion and group IV-control. After 30 days, bilateral orchiectomies were performed in rats with both testes and unilateral orchiectomies in rats with single testicles. Parameters of OS were determined in testicular tissue and in plasma. Results Plasma concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), whilst the plasma concentration of the total sulfhydryl (T-SH)-groups was lower (p<0.05) in group I compared to the control group. Group II had higher plasma concentrations of AOPP compared to group IV (p<0.05), as well as significantly increased TBARS and decreased T-SH-group levels compared to groups III (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and IV (p<0.01, for both parameters). There were significant differences in OS markers between the ipsilateral and contralateral testis, as well as significant correlations among levels of both plasma and tissue markers of OS. Conclusion The increase in TBARS levels seen throughout the experimental period indicated that OS development was caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the testicular tissue. The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue was altered during torsion as well as detorsion. PMID:25918600

  5. Robot - assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular tumor

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Fabio C. M.; Jardim, Denis; Guglielmetti, Giuliano B.; Patel, Vipul; Coelho, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objective Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND. Patient and method A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months. Physical examination revealed an enlarged and hard left testis. Alpha-fetoprotein (>1000ng/mL) and beta-HCG (>24.000U/L) were increased. Beta-HCG increased to >112.000U/L in less than one month. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy. Pathological examination showed a mixed NSGCT (50% embryonal carcinoma; 30% teratoma; 10% yolk sac; 10% choriocarcinoma). Computed tomography scan revealed a large tumor mass close to the left renal hilum (10x4x4cm) and others enlarged paracaval and paraortic lymph nodes (T2N3M1S3-stage III). Patient was submitted to 4 cycles of BEP with satisfactory response. Residual mass was suggestive of teratoma. Based on these findings, he was submitted to a robot-assisted RPLND. Results RPLND was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 3.5 hours. Blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. Pathological examination showed a pure teratoma. After 6 months of follow-up, patient is asymptomatic with an alpha-fetoprotein of 2.9ng/mL and an undetectable beta-HCG. Conclusion Robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity even for post chemotherapy patients when performed by an experienced surgeon.

  6. The gubernaculum during testicular descent in the human fetus.

    PubMed Central

    Heyns, C F

    1987-01-01

    This study of 178 male human fetuses and infants demonstrates that descent of the testis through the inguinal canal is a rapid process, with 75% of testes descending between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. The gubernaculum is a cylindrical, gelatinous structure attached cranially to the testis and epididymis. While the testis is in the abdomen, the caudal tip of the gubernaculum is firmly attached to the region of the inguinal canal. In a few fetuses prior to descent the globular tip of the gubernaculum can be seen bulging through the external inguinal ring, covered by superficial fascia, with no macroscopically discernible extensions to the scrotum or any other area. Once the testis has passed through the inguinal canal, the bulbous lower tip of the gubernaculum is no longer firmly attached to any structure, nor does it extend to the bottom of the scrotum. Histologically the gubernaculum consists of undifferentiated mesenchymatous tissue. Prior to descent of the testis, there is an increase in the length of the intra-abdominal gubernaculum. The wet mass of the gubernaculum relative to the fetal mass increases rapidly prior to descent, while the relative wet mass of the testis remains constant during this period. There is also an increase in the wet/dry mass ratio of the gubernaculum, denoting an increase in its water content prior to descent. This indicates that a combination of growth processes is responsible for testicular descent, with the increase in the size of the gubernaculum playing the most important role in passage of the testis through the inguinal canal. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:2892824

  7. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  8. Differential expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Marianna; Coltrinari, Giulia; Paoli, Donatella; Pallotti, Francesco; Lombardo, Francesco; Lenzi, Andrea; Gandini, Loredana

    2016-10-28

    Various microRNAs from the miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d clusters have recently been proposed as markers for testicular germ cell tumours. Upregulation of these miRNAs has been found in both the tissue and serum of testicular cancer patients, but they have never been studied in human seminal plasma. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the differences in the expression of miR-371-3 and miR-302a-d between the seminal plasma and serum of testicular cancer patients, and to identify new potential testicular cancer markers in seminal plasma. We investigated the serum and seminal plasma of 28 pre-orchiectomy patients subsequently diagnosed with testicular cancer, the seminal plasma of another 20 patients 30 days post-orchiectomy and a control group consisting of 28 cancer-free subjects attending our centre for an andrological check-up. Serum microRNA expression was analysed using RT-qPCR. TaqMan Array Card 3.0 platform was used for microRNA profiling in the seminal plasma of cancer patients. Results for both miR-371-3 and the miR-302 cluster in the serum of testicular cancer patients were in line with literature reports, while miR-371and miR-372 expression in seminal plasma showed the opposite trend to serum. On array analysis, 37 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the seminal plasma of cancer patients, and the upregulated miR-142 and the downregulated miR-34b were validated using RT-qPCR. Our study investigated the expression of miRNAs in the seminal plasma of patients with testicular cancer for the first time. Unlike in serum, miR-371-3 cannot be considered as markers in seminal plasma, whereas miR-142 levels in seminal plasma may be a potential marker for testicular cancer.

  9. Role of imaging in testicular cancer: current and future practice.

    PubMed

    Barrisford, Glen W; Kreydin, Evgeniy I; Preston, Mark A; Rodriguez, Dayron; Harisighani, Mukesh G; Feldman, Adam S

    2015-09-01

    The article provides a summary of the epidemiologic and clinical aspects of testicular malignancy. Current standard imaging and novel techniques are reviewed. Present data and clinical treatment trends have favored surveillance protocols over adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy for low-stage testicular malignancy. This has resulted in increasing numbers of imaging studies and the potential for increased long-term exposure risks. Understanding imaging associated risks as well as strategies to minimize these risks is of increasing importance. The development, validation and incorporation of alternative lower risk highly efficacious and cost-effective imaging techniques is essential.

  10. [Testicular microlithiasis: echographic diagnosis of a new cause for orchialgia and infertility].

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, J

    1990-03-01

    We report five patients who consulted for orchialgia in whom the diagnosis of testicular microlithiasis was made by means of scrotal sonography. Four showed oligo or azzosperm and 4 had their testis diminished in size. The echographic findings were characteristic and consisted of multiple small echogenic nonshadowing images, scattered in both testis. Atrophy of the germinal epithelium and impairment of spermiogenesis associated to intratubular calcic microspheres were demonstrated in 3 cases. Testicular microlithiasis is not generally recognized as a cause for infertility and we proposed that scrotal sonography should be used in workup for male infertility.

  11. Incidentally detection of non-palpable testicular nodules at scrotal ultrasound: what is new?

    PubMed

    Valentino, Massimo; Bertolotto, Michele; Martino, Pasquale; Barozzi, Libero; Pavlica, Pietro

    2014-12-30

    The increased use of ultrasound in patients with urological and andrological symptoms has given an higher detection of intra-testicular nodules. Most of these lesions are hypoechoic and their interpretation is often equivocal. Recently, new ultrasound techniques have been developed alongside of B-mode and color-Doppler ultrasound. Although not completely standardized, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and tissue elastography (TE), added to traditional ultrasonography, can provide useful information about the correct interpretation of incidentally detected non-palpable testicular nodules. The purpose of this review article is to illustrate these new techniques in the patient management.

  12. Parent-of-origin effects of A1CF and AGO2 on testicular germ-cell tumors, testicular abnormalities, and fertilization bias

    PubMed Central

    Carouge, Delphine; Blanc, Valerie; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Hunter, Robert J.; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Nadeau, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Testicular tumors, the most common cancer in young men, arise from abnormalities in germ cells during fetal development. Unconventional inheritance for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk both in humans and mice implicates epigenetic mechanisms. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme complex 1 (APOBEC1) cytidine deaminase and Deadend-1, which are involved in C-to-U RNA editing and microRNA-dependent mRNA silencing, respectively, are potent epigenetic modifiers of TGCT susceptibility in the genetically predisposed 129/Sv inbred mouse strain. Here, we show that partial loss of either APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF), the RNA-binding cofactor of APOBEC1 in RNA editing, or Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a key factor in the biogenesis of certain noncoding RNAs, modulates risk for TGCTs and testicular abnormalities in both parent-of-origin and conventional genetic manners. In addition, non-Mendelian inheritance was found among progeny of A1cf and Ago2 mutant intercrosses but not in backcrosses and without fetal loss. Together these findings suggest nonrandom union of gametes rather than meiotic drive or preferential lethality. Finally, this survey also suggested that A1CF contributes to long-term reproductive performance. These results directly implicate the RNA-binding proteins A1CF and AGO2 in the epigenetic control of germ-cell fate, urogenital development, and gamete functions. PMID:27582469

  13. Ginkgo Biloba Ameliorates Subfertility Induced by Testicular Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Adult Wistar Rats: A Possible New Mitochondrial Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asmaa Ibrahim; El-Zawahry, Khaled Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Testicular torsion, a surgical emergency, could affect the endocrine and exocrine testicular functions. This study demonstrates histopathological and physiological effects of testicular ischemia/perfusion (I/R) injury and the possible protective effects of Ginkgo biloba treatment. Fifty adult male Wistar rats, 180–200 gm, were randomly divided into sham-operated, Gingko biloba supplemented, ischemia only, I/R, and Gingko biloba treated I/R groups. Overnight fasted rats were anaesthetized by Pentobarbital; I/R was performed by left testis 720° rotation in I/R and treated I/R groups. Orchiectomy was performed for histopathological studies and detection of mitochondrial NAD+. Determination of free testosterone, FSH, TNF-α, and IL1-β in plasma was performed. Plasma-free testosterone was significantly decreased, while plasma FSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and testicular mitochondrial NAD+ were significantly increased in I/R group compared to control group. These parameters were reversed in Gingko biloba treated I/R group compared to I/R group. I/R caused marked testicular damage and increased APAF-1 in the apoptotic cells which were reversed by Ginkgo biloba treatment. It could be concluded that I/R caused subfertility induced by apoptosis and oxidative stress manifested by the elevated testicular mitochondrial NAD+, which is considered a new possible mechanism. Also, testicular injury could be reduced by Gingko biloba administration alone. PMID:28101298

  14. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  15. Relation between the testicular sperm assay and sex hormone level in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuiwen; An, Yulin; Li, Junguo; Guo, Junhong; Zhou, Guoping; Li, Jianhua; Xu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relation between the testicular sperm assay (TESA) and sex hormone level or testicular volume in patients with azoospermia induced by mumps. Samples from 52 patients with mumps-induced azoospermia were subjected to TESA, and then the sperm activity was observed microscopically. The sex hormone level was detected with an electrochemical assay, and ultrasound was used to calculate the testicular volume. Of the 52 azoospermia patients, 38 were found to have active sperms through testicular sperm extraction from the opened testis; furthermore, the serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone levels were obviously higher in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group (P < 0.05). Moreover, the testicular volume was smaller in the non-sperm group than in the sperm group; however, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). With the FSH value as a standard, the quantity of sperms was found to be within two times of, or more than two-fold of the normal range. With the testicular volume as a standard, sperms were found in testes with a volume of > 6 mL or < 6 mL. The FSH value and the testicular volume were indicators of the ability of the TESA to obtain sperms. To allow the performance of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, all patients need to undergo TESA. PMID:26885123

  16. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology.

    PubMed

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S; Paltiel, Harriet J; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  17. Blood perfusion of the contralateral testis evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound in rabbits with unilateral testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhan, Wei-Wei; Shen, Zhou-Jun; Rui, Wen-Bin; Lv, Chen; Chen, Man; Zhou, Jian-Qiao; Zhou, Ping; Zhou, Mi; Zhu, Ying

    2009-03-01

    The changes of blood perfusion of contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion remain controversial. In this study, 28 New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into five groups. Group A (n = 8), the control group, underwent a sham operation on the unilateral testis without inducing testicular torsion. In groups B, C, and D (n = 5 each), unilateral testicular torsion was induced, and, after 3, 6 or 24 h, respectively, detorsion was performed. In group E (n = 5), permanent unilateral testicular torsion was applied. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was used to observe the blood perfusion of the contralateral testis at the following stages: pre-torsion (preopration), immediately post-torsion (postopration), pre-detorsion, immediately post-detorsion, and late-stage post-detorsion (6-12 h post-detorsion in groups B-D) or at a similar time point (15-21 h post-torsion in group E). Time-intensity curves were generated, and the following parameters were derived and analyzed: arrival time, time to peak intensity, peak intensity, and half-time of the descending peak intensity. The analysis revealed that blood perfusion of the contralateral testis increased immediately after testicular torsion on the opposite side (P < 0.05), which increased with prolonged testicular torsion of the other testis. This research demonstrated that contrast-enhanced ultrasound was valuable in evaluating blood perfusion of the contralateral testis after unilateral testicular torsion.

  18. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  19. Mass-Mediated Information Effects on Testicular Self-Examination among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed the effects of a youth-targeted national cable broadcast that promoted testicular self-examination (TSE). A telephone survey of 524 college men included variables from the theory of reasoned action, as well as measures of self-exam compliance, message exposure, knowledge, attention, and the effects of humor and fear. Exposure…

  20. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-09

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  1. Blastomyces dermatitidis prostatic and testicular infection in eight dogs (1992-2005).

    PubMed

    Totten, Amy Kaye; Ridgway, Marcella D; Sauberli, Debra S

    2011-01-01

    This was a retrospective case study of eight dogs diagnosed with prostatic or testicular B. dermatitidis infection. Signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options were evaluated. Review of medical records of dogs diagnosed with blastomycosis at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1992 to 2005 yielded four dogs with prostatic blastomycosis (PB) and four dogs with testicular blastomycosis (TB). Three of the four dogs with PB and all four dogs with TB had evidence of urogenital disease. Three dogs with PB had an elevated body temperature and all had systemic disease. All dogs with TB had a normal body temperature, and three had systemic disease and one had clinical signs limited to testicular disease. Cytology or histopathology was used to diagnose PB or TB. Treatment included itraconazole or fluconazole with or without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PB and TB are infrequently recognized and may be under diagnosed due to failure to specifically evaluate these tissues. PB or TB should be considered in the evaluation and staging of male dogs with blastomycosis. Male dogs with urogenital signs should be evaluated via prostatic or testicular cytology or histopathology since proper identification and management of PB or TB may improve overall treatment success.

  2. Testicular Self Examination--Knowledge of Men Attending a Large Genito Urinary Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Pauline; Sankar, K. Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the level of knowledge, training and preferences of men in relation to Testicular Self Examination (TSE). Setting: The Genito Urinary Medicine (GUM) department of a large teaching hospital in the North East of England. The open access clinic serves patients from Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Gateshead and surrounding…

  3. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  4. Acute effects of polychlorinated biphenyl-containing and -free transformer fluids on rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Andric, S A; Kostic, T S; Dragisic, S M; Andric, N L; Stojilkovic, S S; Kovacevic, R Z

    2000-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-based transformer fluids belong to a class of environmentally persistent mixtures with known toxic effects. Here, we studied the acute effects of Askarel (which contains Aroclor 1260) and two substitute transformer fluids (the silicone oil-based DC561 and the mineral oil-based ENOL C) on rat testicular steroidogenesis. Single intraperitoneal (ip; 10 mg/kg body weight) or bilateral intratesticular (itt; 25 microg/testis) injections of Askarel markedly decreased serum androgen levels 24 hr after administration. In acute testicular cultures from these animals, chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone and androgen productions were severely attenuated. When itt was injected or added in vitro, Askarel inhibited 3ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ssHSD), stimulated 17[alpha]-hydroxylase/lyase (P450c17), and did not affect 17ss-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testicular postmitochondrial fractions. The ip-injected Askarel did not affect 3ssHSD, but inhibited P450c17, suggesting that a more intensive metabolism of peripherally injected Askarel reduces the circulating levels of active ingredients below the threshold needed for inhibition of 3ssHSD and generates a derivative that inhibits P450c17. In contrast to Askarel, itt-injection (25 microg/testis) of DC561 and ENOL C did not affect in vivo and in vitro steroidogenesis. These findings show the acute effects of Askarel, but not silicone and mineral oils, on testicular steroidogenesis.

  5. Adolescent Boys' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Testicular Self-Examination: Evaluating an Outreach Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…

  6. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Yonkos, Lance T; Friedel, Elizabeth A; Fisher, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The authors describe the prevalence and severity of intersex in the form of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected over a 5-yr period from a variety of surface waters on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA, a region dominated by poultry production and agricultural land use. During a survey from 2005 to 2007 of approximately 200 male specimens representing 6 fish and 2 frog species collected from numerous small-order streams on Delmarva, intersex was observed in only largemouth bass (system-wide prevalence 17%). During 2008 and 2009, testicular oocytes were encountered in male largemouth bass from 6 lakes and 1 large river system, with prevalence ranging from 33% to 88% (weighted arithmetic mean, 57%). The prevalence of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass from Delmarva lakes was comparable to the highest levels reported in a national US Geological Survey reconnaissance of this species, which also occurred in regions of the Atlantic coastal plain with intensive row-crop and animal agriculture. To the authors' knowledge, the present study represents the first report in the peer-reviewed scientific literature of testicular oocytes in fish on the Delmarva Peninsula.

  7. Protective Effect of Selenium on Aflatoxin B1-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zheng; Shao, Bing; Xu, Feibo; Liu, Yunfeng; Li, Yanfei; Zhu, Yanzhu

    2017-03-27

    Aflatoxins have been considered as one of the major risk factors of male infertility, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most highly toxic and prevalent member of the aflatoxins family. Selenium (Se), an essential nutritional trace mineral for normal testicular development and male fertility, has received extensive intensive on protective effects of male reproductive system due to its potential antioxidant and activating testosterone synthesis. To investigate the protective effect of Se on AFB1-induced testicular toxicity, the mice were orally administered with AFB1 (0.75 mg/kg) and Se (0.2 mg/kg or 0.4 mg/kg) for 45 days. We found that that Se elevated testes index, sperm functional parameters (concentration, malformation, and motility), and the level of serum testosterone in AFB1-exposed mice. Moreover, our results showed that Se attenuated the AFB1-induced oxidative stress and the reduction of testicular testosterone synthesis enzyme protein expression such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), P450 side-chain cleavage (P450scc), and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in AFB1-exposed mice. These results demonstrated that Se conferred protection against AFB1-induced testicular toxicity and can be attributed to its antioxidant and increased testosterone level by stimulating protein expression of StAR and testosterone synthetic enzymes.

  8. Influence of injection timing on severity of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Katsumi; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ashimori, Atsushige; Takeuchi, Asuka; Takada, Naoko; Togawa, Masako; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki; Miura, Nobuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the endocrine disrupter and is a well-known testicular toxicant. Recently, we reported that Cd-induced mortality was markedly different by injection timing. In this report, we investigated whether severity of testicular toxicity was affected by injection timing of Cd. C57BL/6J mice (male, 7 w) were received single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl(2) (4.5 mg/kg) at zeitgeber time 6 (ZT6) or ZT18; these injection timings showed highest (ZT6) or lowest (ZT18) mortality in our previous study (Miura, 2012). After one week of the injection, several parameters for testicular toxicity such as epididymal sperm motility and numbers of sperm head both in cauda epididymidis and testis were measured. At ZT6 injection group, all parameters examined were significantly reduced compared to the control group. However, very interestingly, no significant changes were observed at ZT18 injection group. We obtained similar results by another experiment in which mice were received single subcutaneous injection of CdCl(2) (4 or 6 mg/kg) followed by measuring the parameters ten days after the injection. This diurnal variation was not contradictory to the result of the lethal toxicity which we showed earlier. Therefore, our results indicate that the testicular toxicity of Cd is also influenced by the injection timing.

  9. Reversal of testicular function after prolonged suppression with an LHRH agonist in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, K; Keizer-Zucker, A; Thau, R B; Bardin, C W

    1987-01-01

    Using subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps, four male rhesus monkeys were continuously infused for 18 months with 100 micrograms/day of [(imBzl)-D-His6-Pro9-NEt]-LHRH (LHRH-A), a potent agonist of LHRH. After an initial increase, serum testosterone levels declined to 10% of pretreatment levels in three monkeys and the response to electroejaculation was lost. There was a decrease in testicular volume. Androgen replacement in the form of subcutaneous SILASTIC implants releasing 7 alpha-methyl-19-nor-testosterone acetate led to a restoration of ejaculatory response and the electroejaculates were devoid of spermatozoa. Under this treatment regimen (100 micrograms LHRH-A + 100 micrograms androgen daily), azoospermia was essentially maintained in the three monkeys for about 8 months. Withdrawal of LHRH-A and androgen treatment led to a complete restoration of testicular function. Serum testosterone returned to control levels and spermatozoa reappeared in the ejaculates with sperm counts reaching the normal range. Testicular volumes showed a gradual increase. These results indicate that continuous administration of an LHRH agonist together with an androgen can induce an extended period of azoospermia in rhesus monkeys. These results also show that after prolonged suppression (more than one year) of testicular function complete recovery occurs after cessation of treatment.

  10. Cell population indexes of spermatogenic yield and testicular sperm reserves in adult jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Maria Helena Ferreira; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino; Costa, Deiler Sampaio; Peixoto, Juliano Vogas

    2010-03-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and supporting capacity of Sertoli cells are the desirable indicators of sperm production in a species. The objective of the present study was to quantify intrinsic yield and the Sertoli cell index in the spermatogenic process and estimate testicular sperm reserves by histological assessment of fragments obtained by testicular biopsy of five adult jaguars in captivity. The testicular fragments were fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the jaguar, 9.2 primary spermatocytes in pre-leptotene were produced by "A" spermatogonia. During the meiotic divisions only 3.2 spermatids were produced by a primary spermatocyte. The general spermatogenic yield of the jaguar was about 23.4 cells and each Sertoli cell was able to maintain about 19.2 germ cells, 11 of them were round spermatids. In each seminiferous epithelium cycle about 166 million spermatozoa were produced by each gram of testicular tissue. In adult jaguars, the general spermatogenic yield was similar to the yield observed in pumas, greater than that observed for the domestic cat, but less compared to most domestic animals.

  11. Protection of arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress by arjunolic acid.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic-induced tissue damage is a major concern to the human population. An impaired antioxidant defense mechanism followed by oxidative stress is the major cause of arsenic-induced toxicity, which can lead to reproductive failure. The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of arjunolic acid, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from the bark of Terminalia arjuna, against arsenic-induced testicular damage in mice. Administration of arsenic (in the form of sodium arsenite, NaAsO(2), at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight) for 2 days significantly decreased the intracellular antioxidant power, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, as well as the levels of cellular metabolites. In addition, arsenic intoxication enhanced testicular arsenic content, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and the level of glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Exposure to arsenic also caused significant degeneration of the seminiferous tubules with necrosis and defoliation of spermatocytes. Pretreatment with arjunolic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 4 days could prevent the arsenic-induced testicular oxidative stress and injury to the histological structures of the testes. Arjunolic acid had free radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system and antioxidant power in vivo. In summary, the results suggest that the chemopreventive role of arjunolic acid against arsenic-induced testicular toxicity may be due to its intrinsic antioxidant property.

  12. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  13. Cimetidine-induced vascular cell apoptosis impairs testicular microvasculature in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Flávia L; Yamauti, Caroline T; Caneguim, Breno H; Cerri, Paulo S; Miraglia, Sandra M; Sasso-Cerri, Estela

    2012-10-01

    Cimetidine, an H₂ receptor antagonist used for treatment of gastric ulcers, exerts antiandrogenic and antiangiogenic effects. In the testes cimetidine impairs spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells and peritubular tissue, inducing apoptosis in the myoid cells. Regarding the importance of histamine and androgens for vascular maintenance, the effect of cimetidine on the structural integrity of the testicular vasculature was evaluated. Adult male rats received cimetidine (CMTG) and saline (CG) for 50 days. The testes were fixed in buffered 4% formaldehyde and embedded in historesin and paraffin. In the PAS-stained sections, the microvascular density (MVD) and the vascular luminal area (VLA) were obtained. TUNEL method was performed for detection of cell death. Testicular fragments embedded in Araldite were analyzed under transmission electron microscopy. A significant decrease in the MVD and VLA and a high number of collapsed blood vessel profiles were observed in CMTG. Endothelial cells and vascular muscle cells were TUNEL-positive and showed ultrastructural features of apoptosis. These results indicate that cimetidine induces apoptosis in vascular cells, leading to testicular vascular atrophy. A possible antagonist effect of cimetidine on the H₂ receptors and/or androgen receptors in the vascular cells may be responsible for the impairment of the testicular microvasculature.

  14. Androgen insensitivity syndrome in a Thoroughbred mare (64, XY — testicular feminization)

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A Thoroughbred mare was presented for stallion-like behavior. Reproductive and ultrasonographic evaluation, testosterone assays, and karyotyping confirmed a diagnosis of androgen insensitivity syndrome (64, XY — testicular feminization). Surgery to remove abdominal testicles was successful in alleviating the behavioral abnormality. This condition is discussed with reference to the current literature. PMID:15283519

  15. Testicular torsion and its effects on the spermatogenic cycle in the contralateral testis of the rat.

    PubMed

    Vigueras, R M; Reyes, G; Rojas-Castañeda, J; Rojas, P; Hernández, R

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of unilateral testicular torsion on the contralateral testis with respect to the stages of the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium (CSE). Fifty-five male Wistar rats, 60 days old, were used. The animals were divided into 11 groups. Groups 1-5 were subjected to unilateral testicular torsion from 3 to 48 h, followed by detorsion. Groups 6-10 had unilateral orchiectomies after unilateral testicular torsion for 3 to 48 h. Animals constituting group 11 served as the control sham-operated group. All animals were killed after 2 months. The percentage of affected tubules (tubules showing pathological changes) in the contralateral testis was estimated based on the CSE stages. In the torsion/detorsion group, the percentage of affected tubules was significantly greater (58.6%) than in torsion/orchiectomy group (48.0%). Stages VI-XI of the spermatogenic cycle were the most affected when compared with the rest of the stages in each experimental group (P <0.05). These results show that stages VI-XI of the spermatogenic cycle, the stages associated with low antioxidant capacities, are the most sensitive to the effects of testicular torsion on the contralateral testis.

  16. Mechanism of testicular protection of carvedilol in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramzy, Maggie M.; El-Sheikh, Azza A. K.; Kamel, Maha Y.; Abdelwahab, Soha A.; Morsy, Mohamed A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Male sub-fertility and infertility are major complications of diabetes mellitus. The non-selective β-blocker carvedilol has been reported to have favorable effects on some of the diabetic complications based on its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. This study aims to evaluate the possible testicular protective effect of carvedilol in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat model and its possible mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. dose of 65 mg/kg of STZ. In parallel groups of diabetic rats, carvedilol in low and high doses (1 and 10 mg/kg/day orally) were administered for 4 weeks. Oxidative stress markers as reduced glutathione (GSH) and the product of lipid peroxidation; malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in testicular homogenate. The level of expression of the apoptotic marker; caspase 3, was assessed using western blot, followed by densitometric analysis. Results: Induction of diabetes caused distortion of histological normal testicular structure, with decrease (P < 0.05) in GSH and increase (P < 0.05) in MDA, as well as induction of caspase 3 expression. Carvedilol in low or high doses reverted diabetes-induced histological damage, restored antioxidant activity and ameliorated caspase 3 expression. Conclusion: Carvedilol confers testicular protection against diabetes-induced damage through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. PMID:24741186

  17. Testicular Microlithiasis: Patient Compliance in a Two-Year Follow-Up Program

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, M. R.; Osther, P. J. S.; Soerensen, F. B.; Rafaelsen, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We present a retrospective 2-year follow-up cohort of 103 men with testicular microlithiasis (TML) and discuss patient compliance and the value of surveillance. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients examined with scrotal ultrasonography (US) in the period from 2008 through 2010 was performed. A total of 103 men with TML were diagnosed and offered US follow-up every 6 months for 2 years. They were retrospectively analyzed regarding demographics and follow-up details, including the development of any kind of malignancy until March 2015, using the Danish Electronic Pathology Registry. Results: The prevalence of TML was 10.3%. Of the 103 men with TML, 23 (22.3%) had TML in the left testicle, 38 (36.9%) in the right (p=0.002), and 42 (40.8%) had bilateral TML. Patient compliance was low with 11.7% participating in all US follow-up examinations. 5 men presented risk factors (testicular atrophy (N=1) and previous testicular cancer (N=4)), but no cases of testicular malignancy were found in the follow-up period. Conclusion: The low patient compliance conflicts with the ESUR Scrotal Imaging Subcommittee guidelines that recommend scrotal US follow-up annually for TML until the age of 55 years. The fact that no cancers were found during follow-up using the pathology registry calls the value of follow-up into question. PMID:27921092

  18. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium.

  19. Increased concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and chlordanes in mothers of men with testicular cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Lennart; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Carlberg, Michael; Dreifaldt, Ann Charlotte; Wijkström, Hans; Starkhammar, Hans; Eriksson, Mikael; Hallquist, Arne; Kolmert, Torgny

    2003-01-01

    An increasing incidence of testicular cancer has been reported from several countries in the Western world during the last decades. According to current hypothesis, testicular cancer is initiated during the fetal period, and exposure to endocrine disruptors, i.e., xenoestrogens, has been of concern. In this investigation we studied the concentrations of the sum of 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and chlordanes, in 61 cases with testicular cancer and 58 age-matched controls. Furthermore, case and control mothers were also asked to participate, and 44 case mothers and 45 control mothers agreed. They were of similar age. In cases only the concentration on lipid basis of cis-nonachlordane was significantly increased, whereas case mothers showed significantly increased concentrations of the sum of PCBs, HCB, trans- and cis-nonachlordane, and the sum of chlordanes. Among case mothers the sum of PCBs yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-10 was calculated using the median concentration for the control mothers as cutoff value. For HCB, OR = 4.4 (95% CI, 1.7-12); for trans-nonachlordane, OR = 4.1 (95% CI, 1.5-11); for cis-nonachlordane, OR = 3.1 (95% CI, 1.2-7.8); and for sum of chlordanes, OR = 1.9 (95% CI, 0.7-5.0). No consistent different risk pattern was found for seminoma or nonseminoma testicular cancer. PMID:12782494

  20. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.