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Sample records for crossed testicular ectopia

  1. Transverse testicular ectopia.

    PubMed

    Yıldız, Abdullah; Yiğiter, Murat; Oral, Akgün; Bakan, Vedat

    2014-02-01

    Described herein are six cases of transverse testicular ectopia. All patients who underwent orchidopexy at the one pediatric surgical unit between October 2001 and January 2008 were evaluated. The medical records of all patients diagnosed with transverse testicular ectopia were evaluated retrospectively. Five patients (84%) were admitted with a symptomatic right inguinal hernia and empty scrotum on the left side. Only one child (16%) had left-sided hernia and right non-palpable testis (age ranged from 1 month to 3 years). Four patients (66%) were diagnosed in the operating theatre and the last two (33%) on inguinal ultrasound preoperatively. Magnetic resonance imaging was also performed in the last patient. Herniorrhaphy with fixation of the ectopic gonad to the opposite hemiscrotum through a transseptal incision was performed in all patients. Postoperative complications were not observed. PMID:24548194

  2. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Transverse Testicular Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P. Naresh; Venugopala, Kandgal

    2015-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of Mullerian duct structures in a normal male with 46, XY karyotype. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is rare form of testicular ectopia in which two testes are located on one inguinal side. The opposite scrotum is empty. PMDS with TTE is rare. We report a case of PMDS with TTE discovered during surgery for a right inguinal hernia in a 25-year-old male. PMID:27512542

  3. PENILE AGENESIS WITH CROSSED FUSED RENAL ECTOPIA.

    PubMed

    Derbew, Milliard; Ketema, Elbet

    2015-04-01

    Penile agenesis is one of the rarest urogenital anomalies with only less than 100 cases reported worldwide so far. Only 3 cases have been reported from Africa and to our knowledge none has been reported from our country Ethiopia. Viability depends on associated anomalies. Urogenital anomalies are the most common associated ones accounting for 54% of cases. This case report is unusual presentation, which is the first reported case of penile agenesis associated with left to right, crossed fused renal ectopia.

  4. Crossed fused renal ectopia: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Shailesh; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar; Gupta, Arun K.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Crossed fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital malformation, which is reported to be usually asymptomatic but may have varied presentations. This survey was conducted to study the clinical profile and the challenges posed in the management of this entity. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 6 patients diagnosed to have crossed fused renal ectopia during 1997-2010. The diagnosis was confirmed during surgical exploration in one patient. In one patient it was detected on antenatal ultrasonography and in the other 4 patients it was detected during investigations for abdominal pain, abdominal mass, anorectal malformation and urinary tract infection. Results: The left moiety was crossed and fused with the right moiety in 4 cases. Ultrasonography was found to be a good screening investigation with useful diagnostic contributions from CT scans, radionuclide scintigraphy and magnetic resonance urography. Micturating cystourethrography revealed presence of VUR in 4 cases, 3 of whom have undergone ureteric reimplantation. Two patients required pyeloplasty for pelviureteric junction obstruction; in one of these patients the upper ureter was entrapped in the isthmus. In one patient, a non-functioning moiety resulted in nephrectomy. All children were asymptomatic at last follow-up with stable renal functions. Conclusions: Crossed fused renal ectopia was detected in most patients during investigation for other problems. It was found more commonly in boys. The left moiety was crossed to the right in the majority of cases. Associated urological problems were found in most cases and required the appropriate surgical management. PMID:23599575

  5. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  6. Management of Ureterolithiasis in a Patient with Crossed Unfused Renal Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are situated on one side and fused together in 85%–90% of cases. The management of urinary calculi in patients with crossed renal ectopia continues to pose challenges to urologists because the aberrant anatomy may make access and clearance of the calculi more difficult to accomplish. Here, we report a case of inferior crossed renal ectopia, without fusion, and a ureteral stone in which the patient was treated successfully by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. PMID:27403369

  7. Management of Ureterolithiasis in a Patient with Crossed Unfused Renal Ectopia.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Koichi; Takase, Yasukazu; Tatsu, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are situated on one side and fused together in 85%-90% of cases. The management of urinary calculi in patients with crossed renal ectopia continues to pose challenges to urologists because the aberrant anatomy may make access and clearance of the calculi more difficult to accomplish. Here, we report a case of inferior crossed renal ectopia, without fusion, and a ureteral stone in which the patient was treated successfully by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. PMID:27403369

  8. Crossed Renal Ectopia and Aorto-Occlusive Disease: A Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Eugene; Campbell, Ian; Choong, Andrew MTL; Dunglison, Nigel; Aziz, Maged

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with aortoiliac occlusive disease on the background of type A crossed renal ectopia, for whom open surgical intervention was required. Aortic exposure in patients with concomitant crossed renal ectopia can present technical challenges to the vascular surgeon. The knowledge of variations in the ectopic renal blood supply is of paramount importance when performing surgery to treat this condition and affects the choice of surgical exposure. We present and discuss the operative details of our patient and outline an approach to this subset of patients. PMID:26509134

  9. Right-Crossed, Fused Renal Ectopia L-Shaped Kidney Type with Urinary Chyluria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ding-yi; Wang, Hao-fei; Xia, Wei-mu; He, Hong-chao; Shen, Zhou-jun

    2015-01-01

    Crossed fused renal ectopia combined with chyluria is extremely rare. Here we report the case of a patient who was admitted to our institution since milky urine and was finally found to have an L-shaped fused kidney and renal pelvis fistula. The patient was cured by renal pelvic instillation sclerotherapy. PMID:26066307

  10. Solitary Crossed Renal Ectopia: Concurrence of Posterior Urethral Valve and Hypospadias

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Amin; Khorramirouz, Reza; Keihani, Sorena; Fareghi, Mehdi; Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Solitary crossed renal ectopia (SCRE) represents an exceedingly rare congenital disorder. Although skeletal and genitourinary abnormalities most commonly accompany this condition, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been described in only a few cases. Here, we present two unique cases of SCRE complicated by high-grade VUR concomitant with posterior urethral valve in one case and hypospadias in the other one. We also provide a brief review of the literature on this subject. PMID:26167315

  11. Case report: laparoscopic pyeloplasty with pyelolithotomy in crossed fused ectopia.

    PubMed

    Modi, Pranjal; Goel, Rajiv; Dodia, Sharad

    2006-03-01

    An 8-year-old boy with right flank pain was found on ultrasonography and intravenous urography to have hydronephrosis secondary to ureteropelvic junction obstruction with calculi in the lower pole of the right kidney and a fusion anomaly. Transperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty and removal of calculi was carried out. The patient had uneventful recovery and is doing well at 6 months' follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of laparoscopic pyeloplasty with pyelolithotomy in crossed fused ectopic kidneys in the pediatric population. PMID:16548727

  12. Clinical aspects and molecular genetics of persistent müllerian duct syndrome associated with transverse testicular ectopia: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Ju, Xiaobing; Li, ZhongXing; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Chao; Shao, Pengfei; Li, Jie; Li, Pu; Cao, Qiang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zengjun; Yin, Changjun

    2013-01-01

    Persistent müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of male pseudohermaphroditism, characterized by the presence of a uterus and fallopian tubes owing to failure of müllerian duct regression in genotypically normal males. The association between a persistent müllerian duct and transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is even more uncommon. PMDS with TTE is a very rare pathological association, often discovered during repair for inguinal hernia or cryptorchidism. We report 3 cases of Chinese patients with PMDS associated with TTE. Hysterectomy was performed, with resection of the underdeveloped fallopian tubes. Both gonads were placed into subdartos pouches in each scrotum by the transseptal approach. PMDS with TTE is a rarely encountered form of male pseudohermaphroditism usually unexpectedly found at surgery for cryptorchidism or inguinal hernia. Surgical treatment should avoid damage of fertile testes and vasa deferens. PMID:23147169

  13. Cross-fused renal ectopia associated with vesicoureteral reflux; a case report.

    PubMed

    Naseri, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare urinary system anomaly which mostly is asymptomatic and is diagnosed incidentally. Urinary obstruction, infection, and neoplasia of the urinary system and nephrolithiasis are main complications of this anomaly. A 6-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with colicky abdominal pain and nausea. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness in right lower quadrant. Urine analysis and culture were normal. Kidney ultrasonography showed right kidney in pelvis cavity with no kidney tissue in left side. TC 99-DMSA scan demonstrated no radiotracer accumulation in the normal renal area. Radiotracer accumulation was seen in the pelvis area with a deviation to the left. Voiding cystoureterogram revealed right sided grade II vesicoureteral reflux. Severe urological anomalies in children may be asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain. PMID:27689123

  14. Cross-fused renal ectopia associated with vesicoureteral reflux; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare urinary system anomaly which mostly is asymptomatic and is diagnosed incidentally. Urinary obstruction, infection, and neoplasia of the urinary system and nephrolithiasis are main complications of this anomaly. A 6-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with colicky abdominal pain and nausea. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness in right lower quadrant. Urine analysis and culture were normal. Kidney ultrasonography showed right kidney in pelvis cavity with no kidney tissue in left side. TC 99-DMSA scan demonstrated no radiotracer accumulation in the normal renal area. Radiotracer accumulation was seen in the pelvis area with a deviation to the left. Voiding cystoureterogram revealed right sided grade II vesicoureteral reflux. Severe urological anomalies in children may be asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain. PMID:27689123

  15. Cross-fused renal ectopia associated with vesicoureteral reflux; a case report

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is a rare urinary system anomaly which mostly is asymptomatic and is diagnosed incidentally. Urinary obstruction, infection, and neoplasia of the urinary system and nephrolithiasis are main complications of this anomaly. A 6-year-old boy admitted to the hospital with colicky abdominal pain and nausea. Abdominal examination revealed tenderness in right lower quadrant. Urine analysis and culture were normal. Kidney ultrasonography showed right kidney in pelvis cavity with no kidney tissue in left side. TC 99-DMSA scan demonstrated no radiotracer accumulation in the normal renal area. Radiotracer accumulation was seen in the pelvis area with a deviation to the left. Voiding cystoureterogram revealed right sided grade II vesicoureteral reflux. Severe urological anomalies in children may be asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms such as abdominal pain.

  16. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly. PMID:27141201

  17. Renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia and its laparoscopic management: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Santosh; Chipde, Saurabh Sudhir; Kalathia, Jaisukh; Agrawal, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Management of renal stone in crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE) is difficult because of abnormal location, malrotation, and its relations with vertebral column and small bowel. Management is not standardized because of the paucity of literature and variable anatomy. We managed an 8-year-old boy with multiple renal stones in right side crossed kidney by laparoscopic pyelolithotomy and nephro pyeloscopy with the help of ureteroscope. Until now, there is only one prior report of laparoscopic pyelolithotomy in CFRE. We share our experience in this case and review the literature regarding the management of kidney stones in this rare anomaly.

  18. Endovascular Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair by Means of the Chimney Technique in a Patient with Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia

    PubMed Central

    Kfoury, Elias; Almanfi, Abdelkader; Dougherty, Kathryn G.

    2016-01-01

    Crossed fused renal ectopia, a congenital anomaly in 1 of 7,000 individuals, presents a challenge during endovascular treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm. Most treatment approaches in these patients have involved open surgical repair of the aneurysm or endovascular repair with coverage of the ectopic renal artery. We present what we think is the first case of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with use of the chimney technique (parallel stent-grafting) to preserve an ectopic renal artery, in an 88-year-old man who was at high risk for open surgery. In addition to the patient's case, we discuss the relevant medical literature. PMID:27303239

  19. Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia: Presentations on 99mTc-MAG3 Scan, 99mTc-DMSA SPECT, and Multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Min-Woo; Kim, Young Jun; Sun, In O

    2015-10-01

    Crossed renal ectopia is an uncommon developmental anomaly in which both kidneys are located on the same side of the body. The present case describes a 20-year-old man who underwent the military entrance physical examination. The ultrasound showed the right kidney in normal site with slightly increased size, but the left kidney was not identified. Tc-MAG3 scan showed a single kidney with 2 ureters, and the orifices of the ureters were connected at both sides of bladder. Tc-DMSA SPECT and contrast-enhanced multidetector CT were performed and revealed crossed fused renal ectopia.

  20. (99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy diagnosing crossed renal ectopia with fusion in a three years old boy.

    PubMed

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Kambouri, Katerina; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Boussios, Nikos; Deftereos, Savas; Vaos, George; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2011-01-01

    A 3 years old boy with a history of surgery for orchidopexy was admitted to our hospital with fever and abdominal pain. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations revealed urinary tract infection with renal involvement. Ultrasonography demonstrated a solitary left kidney and raised the suspicion of a fusion anomaly. Voiding cystography disclosed grade III vesicoureteral reflux and technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy revealed right to left crossed renal ectopia with fusion (L-shaped kidney). The patient is undergoing standard follow-up for the early detection of possible renal complications. In conclusion, L-shaped kidney is a rare entity and the (99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy played an important role on timely diagnosis.

  1. From Tucking to Twisting; A Case of Self-induced Testicular Torsion in a Cross Dressing Male.

    PubMed

    Epps, Thomas; McCormick, Barrett; Ali, Antar; Duboy, Alberto; Gillen, James; Martinez, Daniel; Carrion, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    A self-induced, non-traumatic testicular torsion is a rare entity that to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 28-year-old male who caused a self-induced testicular torsion during acts associated with cross dressing. Differential diagnosis of the acute scrotum in an adult should always include testicular torsion, as outcomes in this population are worse than in younger populations. Additional unusual causes of testicular torsion are reviewed.

  2. Testicular cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - testes; Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer ... The exact cause of testicular cancer is unknown. Factors that may ... increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure ...

  3. Ectopia lentis et pupillae: the genetic aspects and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Colley, A; Lloyd, I C; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1991-01-01

    Two sib pairs and a fifth child are described with autosomal recessive ectopia lentis et pupillae. Patients with this disorder need regular ophthalmic review, but do not have the skeletal and metabolic complications associated with other syndromes with ectopia lentis. Images PMID:1770538

  4. Testicular torsion

    MedlinePlus

    Torsion of the testis; Testicular ischemia; Testicular twisting ... Symptoms include: Sudden severe pain in one testicle. The pain may occur ... ). Nausea or vomiting. Lightheadedness . Additional symptoms ...

  5. [Case report: Ectopia cordis in a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Schulze, U; Kramer, K; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Haas, L; Distl, O

    2006-07-01

    A case of ectopia cordis pectoralis was diagnosed in a black and white coloured German Holstein calf. The heart and pericard were displaced through a fissure in the breastbone. The heart was connected with the thoracic cavity by its large vessels. Besides of the ectopia cordis no other defects of the heart were noticed. The liver was deformed and many organs showed passive hyperaemia. The calf was well developed and died under birth. The lungs were not ventilated. The malformed calf was inbred on a bull used for artificial insemination with an inbreeding coefficient of 3.125%. The ectopia cordis probably resulted from the fissure of the breastbone.

  6. Diagnostic evaluation of a case of lingual thyroid ectopia.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, Valeria; Claroni, Giulia; Scarano, Angela Lia; Schillaci, Orazio; Floris, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Thyroid ectopia can occur when the process of thyroid embryogenesis fails. Here, we present the case of a 30-year-old woman with thyroid ectopia that was discovered during magnetic resonance imaging of cervical spine for referred neck pain. Imaging revealed the presence of an encapsulated mass at the base of her tongue. The patient was not symptomatic for any compression of the airways. Diagnosis of ectopic lingual thyroid was confirmed by (99m)TC scintigraphy. Incidental diagnosis of thyroid ectopia in asymptomatic adult patients is rare, and it should be considered on diagnostic imaging in case of an anterior midline cervical mass. PMID:27594942

  7. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Signaling Represses Testicular Steroidogenesis through Cross-Talk with Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunsook; Song, Chin-Hee; Park, Jae-Il; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Ko, CheMyong; Lee, Keesook

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) has been reported to inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) mediated-steroidogenesis in testicular Leydig cells. However, the mechanism by which TGF-β1 controls the steroidogenesis in Leydig cells is not well understood. Here, we investigated the possibility that TGF-β1 represses steroidogenesis through cross-talk with the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. Nur77, which is induced by LH/cAMP signaling, is one of major transcription factors that regulate the expression of steroidogenic genes in Leydig cells. TGF-β1 signaling inhibited cAMP-induced testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes such as P450c17, StAR and 3β-HSD in mouse Leydig cells. Further, TGF-β1/ALK5 signaling repressed cAMP-induced and Nur77-activated promoter activity of steroidogenic genes. In addition, TGF-β1/ALK5-activated Smad3 repressed Nur77 transactivation of steroidogenic gene promoters by interfering with Nur77 binding to DNA. In primary Leydig cells isolated from Tgfbr2flox/flox Cyp17iCre mice, TGF-β1-mediated repression of cAMP-induced steroidogenic gene expression was significantly less than that in primary Leydig cells from Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-β1/ALK5/Smad3 signaling represses the expression of steroidogenic genes via the suppression of Nur77 transactivation in testicular Leydig cells. These findings may provide a molecular mechanism involved in the TGF-β1-mediated repression of testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:25140527

  8. Is Sedentary Lifestyle Associated With Testicular Function? A Cross-Sectional Study of 1,210 Men.

    PubMed

    Priskorn, Lærke; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bang, Anne Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Lassen, Tina Harmer; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2016-08-15

    Based on cross-sectional data on 1,210 healthy young Danish men, we investigated whether sedentary lifestyle was associated with testicular function (semen quality and reproductive hormones) independent of physical activity. The men were invited to participate in the study between 2008 and 2012, when they attended a compulsory medical examination to determine their fitness for military service. Information on sedentary behavior (television watching and computer time) and physical activity was obtained by questionnaire. The men had a physical examination, delivered a semen sample, and had a blood sample drawn. Time spent watching television, but not time sitting in front of a computer, was associated with lower sperm counts. Men who watched television more than 5 hours/day had an adjusted sperm concentration of 37 million/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 30, 44) versus 52 million/mL (95% CI: 43, 62) among men who did not watch television; total sperm counts in those 2 groups were 104 million (95% CI: 84, 126) and 158 million (95% CI: 130, 189), respectively. Furthermore, an increase in follicle-stimulating hormone and decreases in testosterone and the testosterone/luteinizing hormone ratio were detected in men watching many hours of television. Self-rated physical fitness, but not time spent on physical activity, was positively associated with sperm counts. PMID:27501721

  9. Testicular biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... egg in the lab. This process is called in vitro fertilization. Testicular biopsy may also be done if you have found a lump during testicular self-examination . If tests ... the lump may be in the testicle, surgery may be needed to look ...

  10. Testicular failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... LH . Your doctor may also order a semen analysis to examine the number of healthy sperm you are producing. Sometimes, an ultrasound of the testes will be ordered. Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to ...

  11. A cross-sectional study of cryptorchidism in children: testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Varela-Cives, R.; Méndez-Gallart, R.; Estevez-Martínez, E.; Rodríguez-Barca, P.; Bautista-Casasnovas, A.; Pombo-Arias, M.; Tojo-Sierra, R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between unilateral or bilateral criptorchidism, patient age, primary location of the gonad and modality of treatment with testicular volume and hormonal status at 18 years in patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood. Materials and Methods Testicular volume, LH, FSH, and testosterone were evaluated in 143 young men at 18 years treated in childhood for unilateral (n=103) or bilateral (n=40) cryptorchidism. Results Unilateral cryptorchidism: Location of testis was prescrotal in 36 patients, inguinal in 52 and non-palpable in 15. The mean volume was 9.7 mL compared to 16.2 mL. for the spontaneously descended testicle in unilateral cryptorchidism. However, 22 patients who received HCG had a significantly bigger testis (11.8 mL.) than those treated with primary surgery (9.2 mL). The results showed a significant positive correlation between testicular volume and patient age at treatment. Bilateral cryptorchidism Location of testis was prescrotal in 34 cases, inguinal in 40 and 6 patients with non-palpable testicles. Mean volume at 18 years was 12.9 mL, greater than unilateral cryptorchid testis (9.7 mL) but smaller than healthy contralateral in unilateral cases (16.2 mL). There were significant differences in the testicular growth for bilateral patients with testicular descent after being treated with HCG (14.4 mL) in respect with those untreated (11.1 mL) or those who underwent primary surgery (11.4 mL). There was a significant positive correlation between the testicular volume and palpable (12.4 mL) or non-palpable testis (10.4 mL). There was a correlation between unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism and levels of FSH. Conclusions Testicular volume and hormonal function at 18 years for patients diagnosed and treated for cryptorchidism during childhood are strongly influenced by whether the undescended testis was unilateral or bilateral. Location of the testes at diagnosis or age of initial treatment exerts

  12. Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  13. What Is Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a microscope). Some cases are found incidentally (by accident) when a testicular biopsy is done for another ... Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer Talking With ...

  14. Retrograde intrarenal surgery in cross-fused ectopic kidney.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Kabar, Mucahit; Resorlu, Berkan; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Kilinc, Muhammet Fatih; Karakan, Tolga

    2015-02-01

    Cross-fused renal ectopia is a rare congenital anomaly in which both kidneys are fused and located on the same side. We report a case of right-to-left cross-fused renal ectopia and nephrolithiasis, in whom retrograde intrarenal surgery was used to treat the stone disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case of retrograde intrarenal surgery of a crossed-fused ectopic kidney. PMID:25481231

  15. Gallstone ectopia in the lungs: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Xinli; Yan, Chengxin; Mu, Yushu; Li, Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone ectopia in the lungs is relatively rare, which accounts for its frequent misdiagnosis. This paper reports a case found in a suspicious lung cancer surgery. The patient received intrahepatic duct stone removal surgery and partial hepatectomy five months prior to the report. He started showing symptoms of cough and hemoptysis without any apparent cause one month before this report. Enhanced computed tomography showed a solid mass in the lower lobe of the right lung, which was considered as hamartoma or lung cancer. A wedge-shaped excision was then performed in the lower lobe of the right lung. After the surgery, postoperative findings and pathological examination results showed gallstone ectopia in the lung. This case reminds us that gallstones that overflow into the intraperitoneal section can enter the thoracic cavity through diaphragmatic weakness and travel to the lung, thus forming an inflammatory mass. The case also reminds us of the following points in clinical diagnosis: 1) remove gallstones to the greatest extent during cholelithiasis surgery to prevent the stones from migrating from the intraperitoneal area, which causes intraperitoneal and thoracic cavity complications; 2) conduct routine chest imaging examination after cholelithiasis surgery during the clinical follow-up period to facilitate early detection and timely treatment of intrathoracic complications; 3) inquire whether the patients suffering from a solid mass of the lower lobe of right lung, have cholelithiasis history to facilitate clinical diagnosis and avoid misdiagnosis, mistreatment, and treatment delay. PMID:25550982

  16. [Crossed renal ectopy without fusion associated with lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Mottola, A; Bartoletti, R; Dami, A

    1990-06-01

    A case of crossed unfused renal ectopia associated with lithiasis, that was incidentally discovered during IVP, is described. The clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of this rare congenital anomaly are discussed.

  17. Grayscale and color Doppler features of testicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, Michele; Derchi, Lorenzo E; Secil, Mustafa; Dogra, Vikram; Sidhu, Paul S; Clements, Richard; Freeman, Simon; Grenier, Nicolas; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Ramchandani, Parvati; Cicero, Calogero; Abete, Luca; Bussani, Rossana; Rocher, Laurence; Spencer, John; Tsili, Athina; Valentino, Massimo; Pavlica, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Pooled data from 16 radiology centers were retrospectively analyzed to seek patients with pathologically proven testicular lymphoma and grayscale and color Doppler images available for review. Forty-three cases were found: 36 (84%) primary and 7 (16%) secondary testicular lymphoma. With unilateral primary lymphoma, involvement was unifocal (n = 10), multifocal (n = 11), or diffuse (n = 11). Synchronous bilateral involvement occurred in 6 patients. Color Doppler sonography showed normal testicular vessels within the tumor in 31 of 43 lymphomas (72%). Testicular lymphoma infiltrates through the tubules, preserving the normal vascular architecture of the testis. Depiction of normal testicular vessels crossing the lesion is a useful adjunctive diagnostic criterion. PMID:26014335

  18. Prenatally evolving ectopia cordis with successful surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Sadłecki, Paweł; Krekora, Michał; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Grabiec, Marek; Moll, Jacek; Respondek-Liberska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Ectopia cordis (EC) is a rare malformation due to failure of maturation of the midline mesodermal components of the chest and abdomen. It can be defined as a complete or partial displacement of the heart outside the thoracic cavity. It comprises 0.1% of congenital heart diseases. Common cardiac anomalies associated with EC are ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect, and tetralogy of Fallot. EC and additional anomalies usually lead to intrauterine death. The possibility and efficacy of surgery in a surviving neonate depends on the degree of EC, coexisting congenital heart defects and extracardiac malformations. We present a case of prenatally diagnosed isolated EC diagnosed in the first half of pregnancy. After counseling, the patient decided to continue her pregnancy which ended with a newborn baby discharged from the hospital after cardiac surgery performed just after elective cesarean section. PMID:21508620

  19. Testicular Torsion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Hernias Ultrasound: Scrotum Undescended Testicles Male Reproductive System PQ: I have a lump on one of ... How to Perform a Testicular Self-Examination Varicocele Male Reproductive System Testicular Torsion Contact Us Print Resources Send to ...

  20. Association of Chiari I malformation and cerebellar ectopia with sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Haktanir, Alpay; Yücedağ, Fatih; Kaçar, Emre; Ulu, Sahin; Gültekin, Mehmet Ali; Ünlü, Ebru; Bucak, Abdülkadir; Ayçiçek, Abdullah

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of cerebellar tonsil ectopia and Chiari 1 malformation in sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) that has, to the best of our knowledge, not been studied previously. Magnetic resonance imaging records of 166 subjects with SHL and 50 controls without known otologic disturbances were included in the study. A tonsils descent more than 2 mm was assumed as cerebellar ectopia, and a descent equal to or more than 5 mm was assumed as Chiari 1 malformation. A tonsil descent group was also formed by summation of both groups. Transverse diameters of bilateral intracranial vertebral arteries and transverse sinuses were also measured, and all parameters were analyzed using appropriate statistics. A significant difference of frequencies of Chiari 1, ectopia, and tonsil descent was detected between patients and controls. In comparison of cerebellar ectopia and Chiari 1 groups, SHL did not show any significant difference. The left lateral sinus diameter showed positive correlation with tonsil descent. There was no significant correlation for the diameters of other vessels. A powerful correlation was detected between SHL and age. In addition, right and vertebral artery diameters showed positive correlations with age. Chiari 1 malformation and cerebellar ectopia showed an association with SHL. These patients should also be evaluated for otologic disturbances. Further high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging studies to explain the exact cause of this currently unknown association seems required.

  1. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer This page lists cancer ... in testicular cancer that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer Blenoxane (Bleomycin) Bleomycin Cisplatin ...

  2. Imaging of testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Owens, E J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis, pathology and imaging of testicular tumours, predominantly germ cell tumours. It will discuss the imaging techniques used in their diagnosis, staging and surveillance.

  3. Infertility with Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Kevin A; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-08-01

    Testicular germ cell cancer is one of the most curable cancers. Most patients are treated during their reproductive years, making infertility a significant quality of life issue after successful treatment. This focused review evaluates the factors that contribute to infertility and specific fertility risks with the various testicular cancer treatments. Timing of patient discussions and current fertility treatments are reviewed. PMID:26216827

  4. Demonstration of normal and dilated testicular veins by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2011-04-01

    Recent advances in multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technology enabled better visualization of testicular (gonadal) vein using submillimeter slice thickness and three-dimensional images. Normally, the testicular vein measures 1-3 mm and drains into the inferior vena cava and left renal vein on the right and left sides, respectively. They can be seen in most patients during MDCT studies. Curved planar and volume-rendered images can be used to display testicular veins. We aim to demonstrate MDCT findings of normal testicular vein and its pathologies including varicocele, varices, the testicular vascular pedicle sign, and phlebolith. The testicular vein can be dilated owing to varicocele or portal hypertension and in patients with intraabdominal seminomas arising from undescended testis. The testicular vein can also cause ureteral compression at the crossing point. Understanding MDCT findings of the normal testicular vein and its various pathologies can allow a correct diagnosis, thereby avoiding further diagnostic tests. PMID:21519988

  5. Abnormal branch of the testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, P Vijaya; Bhasin, Vishu; Kumar, Sushil

    2006-09-01

    We present a case report of an abnormal course and branching of the right testicular artery, which was uncovered during routine dissection of the abdomen in our first year medical class. It arose from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta and immediately divided into two branches; one branch coursed inferiorly behind the inferior vena cava as the testicular artery proper, while the other branch passed behind the inferior vena cava and emerged on the anterior surface of the right kidney. After crossing the anterior surface of the kidney, it bifurcated into an ascending branch that went to the right suprarenal gland and a descending branch that ended in the posterior abdominal wall. The left testicular artery was normal in its course and distribution. This is a very rare variation.

  6. Testicular self-exam

    MedlinePlus

    Testicular self-exam is an examination of the testicles that you do on yourself. ... The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They ...

  7. Chemotherapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemo is an effective way to destroy any cancer cells that break off from the main tumor and travel to lymph nodes or distant organs. Chemo is often used to cure testicular cancer when it has spread outside the ...

  8. Learning and memory in the autoimmune BXSB mouse: effects of neocortical ectopias and environmental enrichment.

    PubMed

    Boehm, G W; Sherman, G F; Hoplight, B J; Hyde, L A; Waters, N S; Bradway, D M; Galaburda, A M; Denenberg, V H

    1996-07-01

    Approximately 40-60% of BXSB mice have ectopic cell clusters in layer 1 of neocortex. Prior studies have shown distinct behavioral differences between those with ectopias and their non-ectopic littermates. In this study, female BXSB mice were reared after weaning in either enriched environments or standard cages. Following an initial round of behavioral testing, all mice were housed in standard cages and retested. Enriched cage mice (both ectopic and non-ectopic) showed increased activity, greater speed, and enhanced learning scores across a variety of tests. Additionally, prior test experience itself had significant positive effects on Hebb-Williams maze learning. The presence of ectopias resulted in better Morris maze learning for standard cage reared mice. Further, ectopic mice, regardless of their housing condition, showed better long-term retention in the Morris maze than did their non-ectopic counterparts. These findings show that abnormalities in corticogenesis need not always result in functional deficit.

  9. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ...

  10. Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    Because testicular cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in young men, it is important that they become informed about it. This paper reviews the pathology and epidemiology of testicular cancer, the technique of testicular self-examination, and some suggestions for teaching about this subject. (Authors/JMK)

  11. Antidepressants and testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Schwalbe, Joan; Achacoso, Ninah; Meng, Maxwell V.; Kroenke, Candyce H.; Habel, Laurel A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Re-examine association of fluoxetine and paroxetine with risk of testicular cancer noted in drug screening, with four years more follow-up and expanded study of these and other antidepressant drugs. Methods In the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in northern California, 906 men with testicular cancer diagnosed August 1996–December 2010 were compared with 38,253 matched controls with race/ethnicity recorded regarding receipt of antidepressant drugs at least two years before diagnosis or control index date. Analyses emphasized duration of use and histological subgroups. Results With control for race/ethnicity and use of other antidepressant drugs, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with testicular cancer were: fluoxetine 1.22 (0.88–1.71), paroxetine 1.19 (0.78–1.83), and 1.21 (0.92–1.58) for all SSRI’s. There was no statistically significant association with risk of all testicular cancers or their histologic subtypes for any individual drug or for tricyclics or all antidepressants combined except for citalopram with all testicular cancers 2.55 (1.43–4.52) and those of mixed histology 4.36 (1.50–12.68) and nefazodone with embryonal cancers 9.79 (1.85–51.81). These could readily be chance findings in the context of the many analyses that were performed. Duration of use was not associated with risk for the drugs and drug groups with sufficient numbers of exposed cases for analysis. Conclusions We found little evidence to support a testicular carcinogenic effect of fluoxetine, paroxetine, or other antidepressant drugs but a weakly positive association is not ruled out. The signals in prior screening may have been due to chance and/or uncontrolled confounding. PMID:24276357

  12. Hybrid SPECT/CT evaluation of dual ectopia of thyroid in the absence of orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Preethi, Govindababu Rajalakshmi; George, Mv

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately 1 per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in 1 of 4000 to 8000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare, with fewer than 35 cases published in literature to date. We report a 4-year-old girl with euthyroid and dual ectopia of thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. The role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:22614198

  13. Endocrinology of testicular neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J C

    1981-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis finely regulates levels of circulating sex steroids--especially testosterone and estradiol--and spermatogenesis. Testosterone, directly as an androgen and as a prehormone for estradiol, regulates LH secretion at both hypothalamic and pituitary levels. Leydig cells, principally under the control of LH, produce testosterone. Sertoli cells, under the control of FSH, and sensitive to intratesticular levels of testosterone, produce estradiol. This locally produced estrogen seems to be necessary for maturation of the germ cells. An abnormality in this sensitive control system, leading to elevations in gonadotrophins or steroid levels, may be etiologically important in both germ cell and nongerm cell neoplasia. Testicular cancers are associated frequently with endocrinologic manifestations, which may be more disabling to the patient than the malignant potential of the tumor, especially with childhood Leydig cell tumors. Estrogen dominance with an elevated estrogen/testosterone ratio can be seen in any testicular neoplasm and may result in gynecomastia. It may be due to a decrease in circulating testosterone or to an increase in estrogens. Virilization is seen frequently in Leydig cell tumors of adolescents. Further elucidation of hormonal interrelationships should lead to better understanding of the genesis of testicular neoplasia and to more effective therapy.

  14. [Ectopia of the right ureter as the cause of a cystic abdominal space-occupying lesion].

    PubMed

    Will, C W

    1990-01-01

    Ureteral ectopias, which mostly occur in ureteral duplications, become noticeable in women quite early by characteristic clinical signs (dribble, or urinary incontinence). In males, it is usually only a stenosis-conditioned dilatation of the ureter that results in an uncharacter-istic pattern of complaints. The article presents the clinical pattern of signs and the x-ray findings in a man of 42 year of age, who had not reported any complaints until then, with an excessive dilatation of an extopically discharging single ureter.

  15. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... staged? Testicular cancer survival rates Previous Topic Can testicular cancer be prevented? Next Topic Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular ... Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  16. Effects of neocortical ectopias and environmental enrichment on Hebb-Williams maze learning in BXSB mice.

    PubMed

    Hoplight, B J; Sherman, G F; Hyde, L A; Denenberg, V H

    2001-07-01

    Approximately 40-60% of BXSB mice have neocortical ectopias, a developmental anomaly characterized by migration of neurons into the neuron-sparse layer I of cortex. Previous studies have shown that ectopic BXSB mice have superior reference, but inferior working, memory on spatial tasks. Female BXSB mice were housed either in an enriched environment or in standard cages at weaning. Subsequently, these animals were tested on four of the Hebb-Williams mazes in a water-based version of this maze. Theoretically, two of the maze configurations placed greater emphasis on reference memory to find the goal, whereas the other two favored working memory. Ectopics reared in standard housing conditions were better than nonectopics on mazes that favored the use of reference memory, but poorer on mazes that favored working memory. In contrast, subjects raised in the enriched environment showed no ectopia differences. A comparison of enriched and standard housing conditions found that the enriched animals had better reference memory but poorer working memory. The latter effect may be because the enriched environment, although more stimulating, did not change in time or space; and other researchers have shown that daily replacement of stimuli in complex environments is correlated with better working memory.

  17. Testicular neoplasm diagnosed by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Senay, B A; Stein, B S

    1986-06-01

    The diagnosis of testicular cancer is usually made by the findings of a testicular mass on physical examination. In rare cases a young man will present with retroperitoneal nodes and a normal testicular examination. In such cases a testicular ultrasound may localize the testis which harbors a subclinical neoplasm. In addition serum markers of B-HCG and AFP are essential. As a screening procedure a urine pregnancy test is helpful, since it can be obtained quickly while quantitative B-HCG and APF results are delayed. PMID:3523046

  18. Ectopic Hydrocele After Testicular Transposition.

    PubMed

    Berli, Jens U; Zelken, Jonathan; Schuyler, Kyle; Naslund, Michael; Rasko, Yvonne

    2016-04-01

    A 55-year-old man was treated for Fournier gangrene in 2004 with radical debridement and bilateral testicular transposition to the medial thighs. Eight years later, bilateral hydroceles formed. After conservative measures failed for treatment of the hydroceles, the condition was treated during desired testicular relocation, and creation of a neoscrotum. In the case presented, bilateral thigh hydroceles may have developed from lymphatic injury during testicular transposition. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bilateral hydrocele testis in the medial thigh pouches following ectopic testicular transposition.

  19. Regulation of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Hutson, John M; Li, Ruili; Southwell, Bridget R; Newgreen, Don; Cousinery, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Testicular descent occurs in two morphologically distinct phases, each under different hormonal control from the testis itself. The first phase occurs between 8 and 15 weeks when insulin-like hormone 3 (Insl3) from the Leydig cells stimulates the gubernaculum to swell, thereby anchoring the testis near the future inguinal canal as the foetus grows. Testosterone causes regression of the cranial suspensory ligament to augment the transabdominal phase. The second, or inguinoscrotal phase, occurs between 25 and 35 weeks, when the gubernaculum bulges out of the external ring and migrates to the scrotum, all under control of testosterone. However, androgen acts mostly indirectly via the genitofemoral nerve (GFN), which produces calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) to control the direction of migration. In animal models the androgen receptors are in the inguinoscrotal fat pad, which probably produces a neurotrophin to masculinise the GFN sensory fibres that regulate gubernacular migration. There is little direct evidence that this same process occurs in humans, but CGRP can regulate closure of the processus vaginalis in inguinal hernia, confirming that the GFN probably mediates human testicular descent by a similar mechanism as seen in rodent models. Despite increased understanding about normal testicular descent, the common causes of cryptorchidism remain elusive.

  20. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  1. Genetic background but not metallothionein phenotype dictates sensitivity to cadmium-induced testicular injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Corton, C; Dix, D J; Liu, Y; Waalkes, M P; Klaassen, C D

    2001-10-01

    Sensitivity to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular injury varies greatly among mouse strains. For instance, 129/SvJ (129) mice are highly sensitive while C57BL/6J (C57) mice are refractory to Cd-induced testicular injury. Metallothionein (MT), a Cd-binding protein, is thought to be responsible for the strain susceptibility to Cd toxicity. In this study, MT-I/II knockout (MT-null) and wild-type 129 mice were used to determine the role of MT in Cd-induced testicular injury. Two additional strains of mice (C57 and the C57 x 129 F1cross) were also used to help define the role of genetic background in Cd toxicity. Mice were given 5-20 micromol/kg ip CdCl(2) and testicular injury was examined 24 h later by histopathology and testicular hemoglobin concentration. Cd produced dose-dependent testicular injury in all strains of mice, except for C57 mice, in which testicular injury could not be produced. MT-null mice were more sensitive than C57 x 129 mice but were equally sensitive as 129 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury. Fourteen days after 15 micromol/kg ip Cd administration, testicular atrophy was evident in MT-null, 129, and C57 x 129 mice but was absent in C57 mice. The resistance of C57 mice to Cd-induced testicular injury could not be attributed solely to a decreased uptake of (109)Cd nor to a greater amount of testicular MT. Microarray analysis revealed a higher expression of glutathione peroxidase in the testes of C57 mice, as well as genes encoding antioxidant components and DNA damage/repair, but their significance to Cd-induced injury is not immediately clear. Thus, this study demonstrates that it is genetic strain, not MT genotype, that is mechanistically important in determining susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:11578143

  2. Malignant testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Pierre Del; Tawil, Elie; Béland, Gilles

    1974-01-01

    A series of 71 patients with malignant testicular tumours treated primarily by orchiectomy and irradiation is reviewed with respect to pathological and clinical features and modes of treatment. The three-year crude survival rate in 36 patients with seminoma was 86% and in 24 patients with carcinoma it was 41.7%. There were no survivors among patients with choriocarcinoma. Our results are comparable with those of other series. A prospective study is proposed of the value of irradiation and subsequent limited lymph node dissection following orchiectomy in cases of carcinoma of the testis. PMID:4855670

  3. Testicular cancer in Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Magoha, G A

    1995-09-01

    This is a report of prospective study of eight patients with testicular tumours seen at the Urology Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a five-year period (1979-1983). The mean age was 32.7 years. Four patients (50%) had germ cell tumours including embryonal carcinoma 25%, seminoma 12.5% and malignant teratoma undifferentiated (MTU) 12.5%. The seminoma in this group originated from a testis which was previously undescended but brought into the scrotum at six years of age. The other four patients (50%), had non germ cell tumours. Two of these patients (25%) had paratesticular tumours including rhabdomyosarcoma of paratesticular adnexae and liposarcoma. One (12.5%) had adenomatoid tumour of the epididymis while the last patient (12.5%) had malignant fibrous mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis. This study reaffirms the fact that testicular tumours are rare in blacks and that Nigeria has the lowest incidence reported at 0.1 per 100,000 per annum.

  4. Testicular torsion repair - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The testicles are suspended in the scrotal sac. ... Testicular torsion occurs when the testicle, normally attached to the scrotum by a small ligament at its base, becomes loose. The testicle can then twist on itself, ...

  5. Testicular degeneration in Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M; Murphy, Zoe; Selva, David M; Hamidizadeh, Reza; Pearson, Jacqueline; Petersén, Asa; Björkqvist, Maria; Muir, Cameron; Mackenzie, Ian R; Hammond, Geoffrey L; Vogl, A Wayne; Hayden, Michael R; Leavitt, Blair R

    2007-06-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an adult onset, neurodegenerative disorder that results from CAG expansion in the HD gene. Recent work has demonstrated testicular degeneration in mouse models of HD and alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in HD patients. Here, we show that HD patients have specific testicular pathology with reduced numbers of germ cells and abnormal seminiferous tubule morphology. In the YAC128 mouse model, testicular degeneration develops prior to 12 months of age, but at 12 months, there is no evidence for decreased testosterone levels or loss of GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. This suggests that testicular pathology results from a direct toxic effect of mutant huntingtin in the testis and is supported by the fact that huntingtin is highly expressed in the affected cell populations in the testis. Understanding the pathogenesis of HD in the testis may reveal common critical pathways which lead to degeneration in both the brain and testis.

  6. Radiation Therapy for Testicular Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy for testicular cancer Radiation therapy uses a beam of high-energy rays (such as gamma rays ... machine outside the body is known as external beam radiation . The treatment is much like getting an ...

  7. Testicular obstruction: clinicopathological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, W. F.; Levison, D. A.; Parkinson, M. C.; Parslow, J. M.; Royle, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Genital tract reconstruction has been attempted in subfertile men with obstructive azoospermia (370 patients) or unilateral testicular obstruction (80 patients), and in vasectomised men undergoing reversal for the first (130 patients) or subsequent (32 patients) time. Histopathological changes in the obstructed testes and epididymes, and immunological responses to the sequestered spermatozoa have been studied to gain insight into possible causes of failure of surgical treatment. The results of surgery have been assessed by follow-up sperm counts and occurrence of pregnancies in the female partners. The best results were obtained with vasectomy reversal (patency 90%, pregnancy 45%), even after failed previous attempts (patency 87%, pregnancy 37%). Epididymovasostomy gave good results with postinfective caudal blocks (patency 52%, pregnancy 38%), while postinfective vasal blocks were better corrected by total anatomical reconstruction (patency 73%, pregnancy 27%) than by transvasovasostomy (patency 9%, no pregnancies). Poor results were obtained with capital blocks (patency 12%, pregnancy 3%), in which substantial lipid accumulation was demonstrated in the ductuli efferentes; three-quarters of these patients had sinusitis, bronchitis or bronchiectasis (Young's syndrome). There is circumstantial evidence to suggest that this syndrome may be a late complication of mercury intoxication in childhood. After successful reconstruction, fertility was relatively reduced in those men who had antibodies to spermatozoa, particularly amongst the postinfective cases. Similarly, impaired fertility was found in men with unilateral testicular obstruction and antibodies to spermatozoa. Mononuclear cell infiltration of seminiferous tubules and rete testis was noted occasionally, supporting a diagnosis of autoimmune orchitis; although rare, this was an important observation as the sperm output became normal with adjuvant prednisolone therapy. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 10

  8. Clinical and linkage study of a large family with simple ectopia lentis linked to FBN1

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, M.J.; Roberts, J.; Partington, M.W.; Colley, P.W.; Hollway, G.E.; Kozman, H.M.; Mulley, J.C.

    1994-10-15

    Simple ectopia lentis (EL) was studied in a large family, by clinical examination and analysis of linkage to markers in the region of FBN1, the gene for fibrillin which causes Marfan syndrome on chromosome 15. No patient had clinical or echocardiographic evidence of Marfan syndrome, although there was a trend towards relatively longer measurements of height; lower segment; arm span; middle finger, hand, and foot length in the affected members of the family, compared with unaffected sibs of the same sex. Analysis of linkage to intragenic FBN1 markers was inconclusive because they were relatively uninformative. Construction of a multipoint background map from the CEPH reference families identified microsatellite markers linked closely to FBN1 which could demonstrate linkage of EL in this family to the FBN1 region. LINKMAP analysis detected a multipoint lod score of 5.68 at D15S119, a marker approximately 6 cM distal to FBN1, and a multipoint lod score of 5.04 at FBN1. The EL gene in this family is likely to be allelic to Marfan syndrome, and molecular characterization of the FBN1 mutation should now be possible. 25 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Looijenga, Leendert H J

    2014-02-01

    Human germ cell tumors are of interest because of their epidemiology, clinical behavior and pathobiology. Histologically, they are subdivided into various elements, with similarities to embryogenesis. Recent insights resulted in a division of five types of human germ cell tumors. In the context of male germ cells, three are relevant; Type I: teratomas and yolk sac tumors of neonates and infants; Type II: seminomas and nonseminomas of (predominantly) adolescents and adults; and Type III: spermatocytic seminomas of the elderly. Recent studies led to significant increases in understanding of the parameters involved in the earliest pathogenetic steps of human germ cells tumors, in particularly the seminomas and nonseminomas (Type II). In case of a disturbed gonadal physiology, either due to the germ cell itself, or the micro-environment, embryonic germ cells during a specific window of sensitization can be blocked in their maturation, resulting in carcinoma in situ or gonadoblastoma, the precursors of seminomas and nonseminomas. The level of testicularization of the gonad determines the histological composition of the precursor. These insights will allow better definition of individuals at risk to develop a germ cell malignancy, with putative preventive measurements, and allow better selection of scientific approaches to elucidate the pathogenesis. PMID:24683949

  10. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Micropenis associated with testicular agenesis.

    PubMed

    Grant, D B; Dillon, M J

    1975-03-01

    This paper describes 2 male infants who were born with sever micropenis and in whom testicular tissue could not be identified at surgery. HCG stimulation in one infant was not followed by a rise in plasma testosterone. It was decided that both cases would be best raised as females, despite their male chromosomal sex.

  12. Drugs Approved for Testicular Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testicular cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  13. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research ... findings may help individualize treatment and help find new drugs to treat testicular cancer that can target ...

  14. [Cryopreservation of testicular tissue in children].

    PubMed

    Rives, Nathalie; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Travers, Albanne; Arkoun, Brahim; Bironneau, Amandine; Sibert, Louis; Liard-Zmuda, Agnès; Marie-Cardine, Aude; Schneider, Pascale; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Macé, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of cancer therapies can affect all organs and tissues. Some treatments damage spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), with a risk of infertility. Storage and reimplantation of frozen testicular tissue is a recent approach tofertilitypreservationfor young boys. However, thawed frozen prepubertal testicular tissue must undergo a maturation process to restore sperm production. This process, currently being studied in animal models, can be achieved by in vivo transplantation of SSCs into seminiferous tubules or by testicular grafting, possibly following in vitro maturation. PMID:25518156

  15. [Cystic testicular lesions in infancy].

    PubMed

    Calleja Escudero, J; Pascual Samaniego, M; Garrido Redondo, M; Matas Gómez, V; Fernández Domínguez, L; Fernández del Busto, E

    2004-09-01

    The present article reports a case 11 month-old infant with a right intratesticular cyst. We analyze the etiology, differential diagnosis and management off all cystic lesions of the pediatric testis. Patient age at presentation, examination features, tumor markers and sonographic appearance may assist in making a presumptive and occasionally definitive diagnosis preoperatively. The differential diagnosis include intratesticular simple cyst, epidermoid cyst, tunica albuginea cyst, testicular teratoma, juvenil granulosa cell tumor-gonadal stromal tumor, cystic dysplasia of the rete testis, cystic lymphangioma, and testicular torsion. Usually enucleation is the best treatment. A thorough understanding of potentially cystic testis lesions in children leads to the best management choices and often to preservation of a substantial portion of the affected testis.

  16. [Two cases of testicular rupture].

    PubMed

    Tsujino, S; Hirata, T; Shimizu, H; Ito, T; Shiozawa, H; Koshiba, K

    1989-06-01

    Two cases of testicular rupture are presented and 119 cases in Japanese literature are reviewed. A 29-year-old man and a 32-year-old man were admitted to our hospital with the complaint of gradually increasing pains and swelling on the right testicle. Four days and three days before admission they experienced trauma during athletic activities. The diagnosis was established preoperatively by means of ultrasonography in the first one, but not in the other. The necrotic tissue of 1/3-1/2 of testis was removed and tunica albuginea was repaired in both cases. Of 119 cases of testicular rupture in Japanese literature a peak occurs in the 2nd decade and during contact sports. The ultrasonography is an effective diagnostic modality. The rate of orchiectomy has been decreasing. The function of the affected testis is hard to evaluate.

  17. Testicular shielding in penile brachytherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Arpita; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M.; Ghadi, Yogesh; Murthy, Vedang; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Penile cancer, although rare, is one of the common genitourinary cancers in India affecting mostly aged uncircumcised males. For patients presenting with small superficial lesions < 3 cm restricted to glans, surgery, radical external radiation or brachytherapy may be offered, the latter being preferred as it allows organ and function preservation. In patients receiving brachytherapy, testicular morbidity is not commonly addressed. With an aim to minimize and document the doses to testis after adequate shielding during radical interstitial brachytherapy for penile cancers, we undertook this study in 2 patients undergoing brachytherapy and forms the basis of this report. Material and methods Two patients with early stage penile cancer limited to the glans were treated with radical high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy using interstitial implant. A total of 7-8 tubes were implanted in two planes, parallel to the penile shaft. A total dose of 44-48 Gy (55-60 Gy EQD2 doses with α/β = 10) was delivered in 11-12 fractions of 4 Gy each delivered twice daily. Lead sheets adding to 11 mm (4-5 half value layer) were interposed between the penile shaft and scrotum. The testicular dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For each patient, dosimetry was done for 3 fractions and mean calculated. Results The cumulative testicular dose to left and right testis was 31.68 cGy and 42.79 cGy for patient A, and 21.96 cGy and 23.28 cGy for patient B. For the same patients, the mean cumulative dose measured at the posterior aspect of penile shaft was 722.15 cGy and 807.72 cGy, amounting to 16.4% and 16.8% of the prescribed dose. Hence, the application of lead shield 11 mm thick reduced testicular dose from 722-808 cGy to 21.96-42.57 cGy, an “absolute reduction” of 95.99 ± 1.5%. Conclusions With the use of a simple lead shield as described, we were able to effectively reduce testicular dose from “spermicidal” range to “oligospermic” range with possible

  18. Sternal "retraction": a novel application of a mandibular distractor in treating ectopia cordis with complete cleft sternum.

    PubMed

    Gart, Michael S; Vicari, Frank A

    2015-05-01

    Complete thoracic ectopia cordis is associated with a uniformly dismal prognosis. The primary challenges of this disorder are (1) returning the heart to the thoracic cavity, (2) stabilizing the chest wall, and (3) repairing the sternal defect. Previously published techniques for achieving these goals have demonstrated very limited success and/or significant morbidity.We present a novel application of a mandibular distraction device as part of staged repair of this historically challenging problem. This method uses immediate stabilization and gradual "retraction" of the sternal remnants, thereby allowing physiologic compensation and avoiding the cardiorespiratory embarrassment associated with returning the heart to the thoracic cavity. Moreover, this technique allows stabilization of the associated sternal cleft and chest wall without the commonly associated morbidity of the currently available techniques.

  19. Testicular Cancer Education in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.

    1998-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) education is not widespread, though TC is the most common cancer in men ages 15-34 years. Teachers can positively influence young men by providing TC and testicular self-examination (TSE) education in school. The paper describes TC and TSE, discussing strategies for and barriers to implementation of TC/TSE instruction in the…

  20. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  1. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  2. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  3. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  4. 21 CFR 876.3750 - Testicular prosthesis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testicular prosthesis. 876.3750 Section 876.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 876.3750 Testicular prosthesis....

  5. Testicular function after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Ralec, V L; Tiller, D J; Horvath, J S; Turtle, J R

    1981-05-01

    Gonadal function was assessed in seventeen adult male renal transplant recipients, with well established good homograft function, for a mean of 4.9 years. Patients were assessed clinically and by measurement of basal concentrations of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone and oestradiol, FSH and LH responses to bolus injections of LHRH and semen analysis. Retrospectively all had symptoms consistent with marked hypogonadism prior to transplantation but in nine out of sixteen this was reversed with transplantation. Residual hypogonadism was evident in seven of sixteen patients and correlated with duration of haemodialysis longer than 1 year (P less than 0.01). Even among patients with clinically normal gonadal function, defects in the hypothalamic--pituitary--testicular axis remained. Elevated basal serum FSH, excessive FSH responses to LHRH and lowered basal serum testosterone were found. In the group with residual hypogonadism more marked changes, including elevated basal LH and excessive LH responses to LHRH, were also found. Fertility was recorded in two men on three occasions since transplantation. Sperm counts were normal in five and abnormal in four patients. Testicular volume and sperm density were inversely correlated with basal and stimulated FSH and LH levels.

  6. [Verification of testicular cancer guidelines].

    PubMed

    Nonomura, Norio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2012-12-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease that affects 1-2 in 100,000 people in Japan ; however, it is a very significant disease in that it has a high prevalence amongst young adults aged in their 20s and 30s and it brings about metastasis from a relatively early stage. The 2009 edition of the Testicular Cancer Clinical Practice Guidelines sets out a detailed summary of 32 clinical questions (CQ) considered necessary in routine clinical practice across the fields of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, etc, in the form of recommendations and commentary. These CQs are considered extremely important in understanding the foundation of future testicular cancer treatment guidelines. In this symposium, five doctors gave lectures consisting of the following contents in which they validated the guidelines and gave concrete clinical practice examples through cases they had experienced themselves with regards to the treatment strategies for (1) stage I patients, (2) patients with advanced cancer and (3) patients with extragonadal germ cell tumors. (1) Stage I patients : In seminoma cases, the doctors focused on the relapse prevention effect provided by single-agent carboplatin adjuvant chemotherapy. In non-seminoma cases, treatment options were considered according to risk based on the presence or absence of vascular invasion, a prognostic factor. (2) Patients with advanced cancer : 30% of testicular cancers are metastatic and progress to advanced cancer. In refractory cases resistant to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, etoposide ifosfamide, and cisplatin therapy and vinblastine, ifosfamide and cisplatin therapy have been used, but without satisfactory results and the development of new salvage chemotherapy is an important issue. The therapeutic strategies against advanced testicular cancer were narrowed down to (2) -1) therapeutic effects from ultra-high-dose chemotherapy, (2) -2) salvage chemotherapy in cases where residual tumors are observed in induction

  7. Testicular Schistosomiasis Mimicking Malignancy in a Child: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ekenze, Sebastian O; Modekwe, Victor O; Nzegwu, Martin A; Ekpemo, Samuel C; Ezomike, Uchechukwu O

    2015-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important communicable disease in the developing world. However, testicular schistosomiasis is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of testicular schistosomiasis mimicking testicular tumour in a 13 year old who presented with huge unilateral testicular mass. The dilemma encountered in the diagnosis and treatment of this child is presented to highlight the need for high index of suspicion of this pathology in children with testicular mass presenting from schistosomiasis-endemic areas.

  8. Differentiation and developmental origin of cerebellar granule neuron ectopia in protein O-mannose UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase 1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, P; Yang, Y; Xiong, Y; Qi, Y; Hu, H

    2008-03-18

    The cerebellar cortex of protein O-mannose UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase 1 (POMGnT1) knockout mice contains discrete clusters of granule neurons that fail to migrate from the external germinal layer (EGL) to the internal granule cell layer (IGL). To test the hypothesis that the breaches in the pial basement membrane and glia limitans contribute to the formation of such heterotopias, POMGnT1 deficient mice were used to examine the mechanisms underlying these migration defects. The basement membrane, glia limitans, and granule neuron development were assessed with protein markers and immunofluorescent microscopy. Further, the integrity of the pial basement membrane, and granule neuron differentiation state were assessed by electron microscopy. Localized breaches in pial basement membrane and disruptions in the glia limitans were strongly associated with ectopia of EGL cells. In such ectopias, Bergmann glia fibers were retracted and disorganized with very few protruded into the ectopic area. Thus, migration failure was correlated with a compromised Bergmann glia scaffold. Nevertheless, the ectopic EGL cells showed characteristics of differentiated granule neurons and formed synapses with mossy fibers. Altogether, these results suggest that pial basement membrane breaches and glia limitans disruptions are the underlying causes of cerebellar granule neuron ectopia in POMGnT1 knockout mice. Moreover, migration into the IGL is not required for granule cell acquisition of certain differentiated characteristics.

  9. Transmission of electric and magnetic foetal cardiac signals in a case of ectopia cordis: the dominant role of the vernix caseosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakai, R. T.; Lengle, J. M.; Leuthold, A. C.

    2000-07-01

    Foetal electrocardiograms (fECGs) and foetal magnetocardiograms (fMCGs) were recorded in the 26th, 29th and 31st weeks of gestation from a foetus with ectopia cordis - a rare condition in which the heart lies outside the chest wall. This provided an opportunity to study foetal cardiograms uninfluenced by the insulating effects of the foetal skin and vernix caseosa. The fECG of the ectopia cordis foetus was striking. Unlike recordings from age-matched normal foetuses, recordings from this subject had very high signal-to-noise ratio and showed no anomalous signal transmission properties. In contrast, fMCGs recorded from the ectopia cordis foetus and normal foetuses were largely similar. Both showed high signal-to-noise ratio and signal transmission properties consistent with volume conduction. The findings corroborate the hypothesis that high foetal skin resistance due primarily to the vernix caseosa is responsible for the low amplitude and anomalous transmission properties of the normal fECG, and demonstrate that the fMCG is relatively insensitive to conductivity inhomogeneities.

  10. Overview of Pediatric Testicular Tumors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Min

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal testicular tumors are rare compared with postpubertal testicular tumors. The incidence of prepubertal testicular tumors peaks at 2 years of age, tapers off after 4 years of age, and then begins to rise again at puberty. Prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors show many differences, including the typical tumor histology, molecular biological differences, and the malignant potential of tumors at different ages. Pediatric testicular tumors are classified as benign or malignant on the basis of their clinical behavior and histologically are divided into germ cell and gonadal stromal (nongerm cell) tumors. Many histological and biological studies have further confirmed the distinct nature of prepubertal and postpubertal testicular tumors. These differences have led to various management strategies for prepubertal and postpubertal tumors. Because overall about 75% of prepubertal testicular tumors are benign, a testis-sparing approach is becoming more common in children. Orchiectomy and observation with very selective use of chemotherapy has become the standard approach when a malignant tumor is identified. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and radiation therapy play very limited roles. PMID:25512812

  11. Morphologic manifestations of testicular and epididymal toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Justin D; Whitney, Katharine M

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the testis is the most sensitive means to detect effects on spermatogenesis; however, the complexity of testicular histology, interrelatedness of cell types within the testis, and long duration of spermatogenesis can make assessment of a testicular toxicant challenging. A thorough understanding of the histology and morphologic manifestations of response to injury is critical to successfully identify a testicular effect and to begin to understand the underlying mechanism of action. The basic patterns of response to xenobiotic-induced injury to the testis and epididymis are detailed and discussed. PMID:26413388

  12. [Segmental testicular infarction in sickle cell anemia].

    PubMed

    Mueller, F E

    2014-05-01

    Vascular occlusions are the clinical indicators of sickle cell disease and in urology they can lead to papillary necrosis, renal infarction or priapism. Segmental testicular infarction in patients with sickle cell disease is a rare event and only a few cases have been reported. We present a 25-year-old man with right testicular pain increasing over 3 days and sickle cell disease. Ultrasound of the right scrotum presented an inhomogeneous, mainly hypoechegenic mass with a hyperechogenic margin and no sign of blood flow. A partial orchiectomy was performed with total enucleation of the lesion, which was histologically diagnosed as benign hemorrhagic necrotic testicular tissue.

  13. Lead induced testicular hypersensitivity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Lal, B; Srivastava, R S; Chandra, S V

    1990-01-01

    Rats were immobilized for 2 h and treated i.p. with lead Pb2+ (8 mg/kg/day) for 45 d to investigate the testicular effects of lead on rats kept under immobilization stress. Marked alteration in SDH. G6PDH activity, cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents and reduced sperm counts associated with marked pathological changes in the testis of rats were observed after combined treatment with lead and immobilization stress in comparison to either alone. An increase in the disturbances of testicular androgen synthesis seems to be responsible for enhanced testicular injury in lead induced stressed rats. PMID:2401350

  14. Lead induced testicular hypersensitivity in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Lal, B; Srivastava, R S; Chandra, S V

    1990-01-01

    Rats were immobilized for 2 h and treated i.p. with lead Pb2+ (8 mg/kg/day) for 45 d to investigate the testicular effects of lead on rats kept under immobilization stress. Marked alteration in SDH. G6PDH activity, cholesterol and ascorbic acid contents and reduced sperm counts associated with marked pathological changes in the testis of rats were observed after combined treatment with lead and immobilization stress in comparison to either alone. An increase in the disturbances of testicular androgen synthesis seems to be responsible for enhanced testicular injury in lead induced stressed rats.

  15. [Radiotherapy after testicular-sparing surgery for bilateral or monorchide testicular tumours: an innovative approach].

    PubMed

    Sargos, P; Ferretti, L; Henriques de Figueiredo, B; Cornelis, F; Belhomme, S; Dallaudière, B; Richaud, P

    2013-01-01

    Testicular-sparing surgery may avoid definitive testosterone supplementation and preserve fertility in selected cases of men presenting with bilateral testicular tumours or in case of monorchidia. Testicular-sparing surgery may enable the conservation of both endocrine function and spermatogenesis in selected young men in order to preserve natural fatherhood, avoid definitive androgen replacement therapy and probably improve quality of life by reducing psychosexual consequences of anorchia. The tumorectomy must be followed by an external irradiation of the remaining testicle to eradicate testicular intratubular neoplasia revealed in 82% of cases after per-surgery biopsy. This approach concerns some rare indications. Dose level and technical consideration are still debated. PMID:23810303

  16. Educating young men about testicular cancer: support for a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign.

    PubMed

    Wanzer, Melissa Bekelja; Foster, S Catherine; Servoss, Timothy; LaBelle, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of testicular cancer among men 15-39 years of age, little has been done to increase awareness of this disease or educate males about its prevention. To fill this gap, the Standard Model of Health Communication was incorporated to design and implement a comprehensive testicular cancer campaign among male college students. To test the effectiveness of these messages, college students (N = 220) completed measures before and after the campaign. In addition, the authors obtained a control group of male college students (N = 52) who were not exposed to the messages. Survey items assessed awareness of testicular cancer and behaviors related to testicular cancer. Participants' knowledge of testicular cancer and likelihood of conducting a testicular self-exam increased significantly after being exposed to the campaign information. Men who were exposed to testicular cancer messages were more knowledgeable about testicular cancer and were more likely to conduct testicular self-examinations than were men in the control group. PMID:24117344

  17. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antônio Alexandre Lisbôa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  18. How to Do a Testicular Self Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer to keep in mind are: Any enlargement of a testicle A significant loss of size ... discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum Enlargement or tenderness of the breasts I hesitate to ...

  19. Cadmium-induced testicular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn{sup 2+} and/or Ca{sup 2+} mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men.

  20. Cadmium-induced testicular injury.

    PubMed

    Siu, Erica R; Mruk, Dolores D; Porto, Catarina S; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans and rodents. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer and/or regulate the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor and oxidative stress inducer, and how it may disrupt the Zn(2+) and/or Ca(2+) mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity emerges, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  1. Cadmium-induced Testicular Injury*

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Erica R.; Mruk, Dolores D.; Porto, Catarina S.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental toxicant and an endocrine disruptor in humans. Several organs (e.g., kidney, liver) are affected by Cd and recent studies have illustrated that the testis is exceedingly sensitive to Cd toxicity. More important, Cd and other toxicants, such as heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury) and estrogenic-based compounds (e.g., bisphenols) may account for the recent declining fertility in men among developed countries by reducing sperm count and testis function. In this review, we critically discuss recent data in the field that have demonstrated the Cd-induced toxicity to the testis is probably the result of interactions of a complex network of causes. This is likely to involve the disruption of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) via specific signal transduction pathways and signaling molecules, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). We also summarize current studies on factors that confer the testis sensitivity to Cd, such as Cd transporters and metallothioneins, and the impact of Cd on the testis as an endocrine disruptor, oxidative stress inducer and how it may disrupt the Zn+2 and/or Ca+2 mediated cellular events. While much work is needed before a unified mechanistic pathway of Cd-induced testicular toxicity is emerged, recent studies have helped to identify some of the likely mechanisms and/or events that take place during Cd-induced testis injury. Furthermore, some of the recent studies have shed lights on potential therapeutic or preventive approaches that can be developed in future studies by blocking or minimizing the destructive effects of Cd to testicular function in men. PMID:19236889

  2. Robot-assisted heminephrectomy for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in L-shaped fused crossed ectopia: Surgical challenge.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Shivanshu; Jain, Siddharth; Bora, Girdhar Singh; Singh, Shrawan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Renal cell carcinoma associated with fused ectopic kidneys has rarely been reported in the literature. Here we report the first case of robot-assisted heminephrectomy for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in an L-shaped fused ectopic kidney. The present case report highlights the importance of three-dimensional vision and enhanced maneuverability with the EndoWrist technology of the robotic surgical system for precise dissection. This report also highlights the importance of preoperative contrast-enhanced computed tomography with three-dimensional arterial reconstruction for surgical planning. PMID:26495075

  3. The protective effect of dexpanthenol on testicular atrophy at 60th day following experimental testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Etensel, Barlas; Ozkisacik, Sezen; Ozkara, Esra; Serbest, Yeşim Aksu; Oztan, Onur; Yazici, Mesut; Gürsoy, Harun

    2007-03-01

    Despite the prompt diagnosis and treatment of testicular torsion (TT), there are problems with fertility and atrophy after testicular salvage. Dexpanthenol (Dxp) is the biologically active alcohol of pantothenic acid (PA). Dxp is converted to PA in tissues. PA increases the content of reduced glutathione (GSH), Coenzyme A and ATP synthesis in cells. GSH and glutathione-dependent peroxidases (GPX) are the major defense systems against oxidative stress. GPX-4 is the major antioxidant in testicular tissue. However, the activity of GPX-4 appeared and increased only after puberty. We investigated the effect of Dxp on testicular atrophy after TT at the 60th day. Rats were separated randomly into four groups. Group C: control group, group Td: torsion + detorsion, group Sal: torsion + saline + detorsion, group Dxp: torsion + Dxp + detorsion. The left testis was rotated 720 degrees for 2 h. In group Sal, normal saline and in group Dxp, Dexpanthenol were injected intraperitonally, 30 min before detorsion. After 60 days, the testicular weights and volumes were measured. Histopathology of the left testis was evaluated with mean seminiferous tubular diameter (MSTD) and mean testicular biopsy score (MTBS). The left (torsed) testicular weight and volume of groups Td and Sal were significantly lower compared to group Dxp. The MSTD and MTBS of group Td and Sal were significantly lower than group Dxp. Contralateral testicular weight and volume of groups Td, Sal and Dxp had no significant difference compared to the control group. Dxp significantly prevented testicular atrophy after 60 days of TT. Dxp has FDA approval, is safe, cost effective and readily available. Its relevance for clinical trials may especially be for the problem of testicular atrophy catastrophe, seen very frequently following testicular salvage. PMID:17205291

  4. Cetuximab intensifies cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Popovtzer, Aron; Tzabari, Moran; Mizrachi, Aviram; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2016-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proliferative properties in the testis. Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR, is administered together with chemotherapy to patients with various types of cancer. This studies aim was to investigate the effect of cetuximab on testicular function. Adult male mice were injected with cetuximab (10 mg/kg), cisplatin (8 mg/kg) or a combination of both, and killed one week or one month later. The doses were chosen by human equivalent dose calculation. Testicular function was evaluated by epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count and sperm motility, weights of testes and epididymides, and the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the serum. Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine germ cell proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Terminal transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5-triphosphate nick-end labelling), reserve (DAZL-Deleted in azoospermia-like, Promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger), blood vessels (CD34) and Sertoli cells (GATA-4). Administration of cetuximab alone increased testicular apoptosis and decreased epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count over time. When added to cisplatin, cetuximab exacerbated most of the recorded testicular parameters, compared with the effect of cisplatin alone, including testis and epididymis weights, epididymal-spermatozoa total motile count, AMH concentration, meiosis and apoptosis. In conclusion, cetuximab has only a mild effect on testicular reserve, but when added to cisplatin, it exacerbates cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27184186

  5. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours].

    PubMed

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2016-04-01

    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment. PMID:27137819

  6. Testicular feminization syndrome in a mare.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, B G; Freeman, D A; Grant, B D; Kennedy, P; Whitlatch, L; MacRae, K

    1992-06-01

    Testicular feminization syndrome was diagnosed in a mare with aggressive, stallion like behavior and a history of infertility. She was found to have a high baseline testosterone concentration suggesting that testicular tissue was present, and ovarian-like structures examined by use of transrectal ultrasonography had the appearance typical of testicular tissue. Although her external female genitalia appeared normal, her vagina ended in a blind sac, and no cervix or uterus were identified. Surgery was performed, and structures removed from the abdominal cavity were determined to be hypoplastic testicles. Removal of the testicular tissue resulted in complete resolution of her aggressive behavior. Chromosomal evaluation revealed that the mare had 64X,Y (normal male) karyotype. Testicular feminization syndrome is a condition characterized by insensitivity of reproductive tissues to androgens during development because of an abnormality in androgen receptors. This androgen insensitivity results in development of normal external female genitalia, with high testosterone concentrations being released from developing testicles. Testicular feminization syndrome has not been commonly diagnosed in horses, but should be considered as a differential diagnosis for overly aggressive mares with a history of infertility. PMID:1624347

  7. Dexrazoxane exacerbates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Levi, Mattan; Tzabari, Moran; Savion, Naphtali; Stemmer, Salomon M; Shalgi, Ruth; Ben-Aharon, Irit

    2015-10-01

    Infertility induced by anti-cancer treatments pose a major concern for cancer survivors. Doxorubicin (DXR) has been previously shown to exert toxic effects on the testicular germinal epithelium. Based upon the cardioprotective traits of dexrazoxane (DEX), we studied its potential effect in reducing DXR-induced testicular toxicity. Male mice were injected with 5  mg/kg DXR, 100  mg/kg DEX, combination of both or saline (control) and sacrificed either 1, 3 or 6 months later. Testes were excised and further processed. Glutathione and apoptosis assays were performed to determine oxidative stress. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the effects of the drugs on testicular histology and on spermatogonial reserve. DXR and the combined treatment induced a striking decline in testicular weight. DEX prevented DXR-induced oxidative stress, but enhanced DXR-induced apoptosis within the testes. Furthermore, the combined treatment depleted the spermatogonial reserve after 1 month, with impaired recovery at 3 and 6 months post-treatment. This resulted in compromised sperm parameters, testicular and epididymal weights as well as significantly reduced sperm motility, all of which were more severe than those observed in DXR-treated mice. The activity of DEX in the testis may differ from its activity in cardiomyocytes. Adding DEX to DXR exacerbates DXR-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26329125

  8. A novel FBN1 missense mutation (p.C102Y) associated with ectopia lentis syndrome in a Chinese family

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Li, Jin-Yu; Yu, Yin-Hui; Lai, Kai-Ran; Yao, Ke

    2015-01-01

    AIM To characterize the disease-causing mutations in a Chinese family with ectopia lentis syndrome (ELS). METHODS Patients and their family members were given complete physical, ophthalmic, and cardiovascular examinations. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from the peripheral blood of the pedigree members and 100 healthy controls. Mutation screening was performed in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene by bi-directional sequencing of the amplified products. The mutation was analyzed using two bioinformatics methods. RESULTS A novel heterozygous c.305G>A mutation in exon 3 of FBN1 was detected. As a result of this change, a highly conserved cysteine residue was replaced by a tyrosine residue (p.C102Y). Another mutation was found in the same exon (c.303T>C), which did not change the amino acid sequence. Both mutations were discovered in each affected individual, but not in the unaffected family members, or in 100 ethnically matched controls. A bioinformatics analysis predicted that mutation p.C102Y would affect protein function. CONCLUSION In the first epidermal growth factor-like module, we identified a novel FBN1 mutation (p.C102Y), which caused ELS in the family. Our study presented a unique phenotype, including some distinct ophthalmic findings, such as hypoplasia of the iris and anisometropia. Our results expanded the mutation spectrum of FBN1 and enriched the overall knowledge of genotype-phenotype correlations due to FBN1 mutations. PMID:26558191

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development

    MedlinePlus

    ... of sex development 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... Close All Description 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development is a condition in which individuals with ...

  10. Pubertal cadmium exposure impairs testicular development and spermatogenesis via disrupting testicular testosterone synthesis in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Liu, Ping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Xu, De-Xiang

    2010-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. However, the effects of pubertal Cd exposure on testicular development and spermatogenesis remained to be elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of pubertal Cd exposure on testicular development and spermatogenesis. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (1mg/kg) daily from postnatal day 35 (PND35) to PND70. As expected, pubertal Cd exposure significantly decreased the number of spermatozoa in epididymides. In addition, pubertal Cd exposure markedly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and prostate and seminal vesicle in adult mice. A significant decrease in serum and testicular testosterone (T) was observed in mice exposed to Cd during puberty. Moreover, pubertal Cd exposure markedly reduced mRNA and protein levels of testicular StAR, P450scc, P450(17alpha) and 17beta-HSD. Taken together, these results suggest that the decreased testicular T synthesis might partially contribute to pubertal Cd-induced impairment on testicular development and spermatogenesis in mice. PMID:19897027

  11. Testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine clinic attendees.

    PubMed

    Kennett, Alexandra; Shaw, Jonathan W; Woolley, Paul D

    2014-10-01

    Advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of testicular cancer now give a five-year survival rate of 97.2%. Delayed presentation remains the primary cause of poor outcome and recommendations have stressed that men, particularly those with risk factors, should undertake regular testicular self-examination. This study aimed to determine testicular self-examination knowledge and practices amongst 740 unselected men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic via questionnaire survey. Of respondents, 75.8% of men had heard of testicular cancer, and 79.9% had heard of testicular self-examination. Of these, 41% of men had been taught testicular self-examination; 73.9% of them by a doctor or nurse. Importantly, 79.2% had previously performed testicular self-examination. The most common reason for not performing testicular self-examination was 'Don't really know what to look for' (59.5%). Men previously taught testicular self-examination were 11.5 times more likely to perform the practice than those untaught. Of respondents, 74.1% wanted more information regarding testicular self-examination whilst attending the clinic. This study shows an increased level of testicular self-examination amongst genitourinary medicine attendees than has been previously demonstrated in other patient groups. There remains room for improvement via further health promotion and research on the effectiveness of testicular self-examination. PMID:24516080

  12. Testicular volume and fertility potential in men operated due to varicocele and testicular hypotrophy in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kaletka, Zbigniew; Huk, Jacek; Fryczkowski, Mieczysław; Prokopowicz, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marcin; Muskała, Bartosz; Taborowski, Piotr; Paradysz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Failure to perform surgical repair of varicocele before puberty is among the common causes of male infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the testicular volume and fertility potential in men after laparoscopic varicocelectomy conducted in adolescence due to varicocele and concomitant testicular hypotrophy. Material and methods From 1996 through 2011, eighty–two adolescents were operated on for unilateral primary varicocele with testicular hypotrophy. Sixty–eight patients were subject to the current analysis. The age of the patients was 13 to 17 years (mean 15.3 years). Clinical diagnosis was established on the basis of andrologic examination and ultrasonography with an assessment of testicular size and varicocele severity. Laparoscopic surgical repair was performed by a transperitoneal approach with division of testicular vein only. Results An increase in left testicular volume when compared with the contralateral testis was found in 25 (78.1%) young men with clinical grade 2 varicocele (p = 0.02) and in 32 (88.8%) subjects with grade 3 abnormality (p = 0.04). An increase in left testicular volume was found in 46 (85.1%) of 54 patients with unilateral varicocele and in 12 (85.7%) of 14 subjects operated on for bilateral disease. A left testicular volume increase was comparable independent of the use of uni– or bilateral repair. Fifty–eight (85.2%) of our 68 patients had normozoospermia. Conclusions Laparoscopic varicocele repair resulted in a significant increase of hypotrophic testicular volume in 83.8% of our subjects. PMID:24578992

  13. Testicular cells in hybrid water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Bongso, T A; Hilmi, M; Basrur, P K

    1983-11-01

    Meiotic chromosome behaviour and testicular histology were studied in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) including two river (Murrah), two swamp and three F1 (Murrah cross swamp) hybrids aged between two and two and a half years, from testicular biopsies obtained by an open surgical method. Meiotic preparations revealed spermatogonial metaphases, pachytene, diplotene, diakinesis, first and second meiotic metaphases and spermatozoa in all three types of buffalo. Chromosome sets ranging from 22 to 26 (most frequent, 24 and 25) with many cells carrying univalent, bivalent and multivalent configurations were observed in hybrids, whereas the meiotic cells in the Murrah and swamp showed chromosome sets exclusively of 25 and 24 (bivalents) respectively. Histological examination of the hybrid testis revealed a large proportion of degenerating spermatocytes and abnormal spermatids in the process of spermiogenesis suggesting that the various synaptic associations leading to unbalanced gametes may be responsible for the degenerating germ cells in the hybrids. The unbalanced meiotic products will probably lead to selection against such spermatozoa or early embryos after fertilisation. Due to a large percentage of germinal epithelial cells in F1 hybrids being wasted, the fertility of backcross and F2 generations will be subnormal.

  14. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  15. Malignant testicular tumour incidence and mortality trends

    PubMed Central

    Wojtyła-Buciora, Paulina; Więckowska, Barbara; Krzywinska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Gromadecka-Sutkiewicz, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study In Poland testicular tumours are the most frequent cancer among men aged 20–44 years. Testicular tumour incidence since the 1980s and 1990s has been diversified geographically, with an increased risk of mortality in Wielkopolska Province, which was highlighted at the turn of the 1980s and 1990s. The aim of the study was the comparative analysis of the tendencies in incidence and death rates due to malignant testicular tumours observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province. Material and methods Data from the National Cancer Registry were used for calculations. The incidence/mortality rates among men due to malignant testicular cancer as well as the tendencies in incidence/death ratio observed in Poland and Wielkopolska were established based on regression equation. The analysis was deepened by adopting the multiple linear regression model. A p-value < 0.05 was arbitrarily adopted as the criterion of statistical significance, and for multiple comparisons it was modified according to the Bonferroni adjustment to a value of p < 0.0028. Calculations were performed with the use of PQStat v1.4.8 package. Results The incidence of malignant testicular neoplasms observed among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province indicated a significant rising tendency. The multiple linear regression model confirmed that the year variable is a strong incidence forecast factor only within the territory of Poland. A corresponding analysis of mortality rates among men in Poland and in Wielkopolska Province did not show any statistically significant correlations. Conclusions Late diagnosis of Polish patients calls for undertaking appropriate educational activities that would facilitate earlier reporting of the patients, thus increasing their chances for recovery. Introducing preventive examinations in the regions of increased risk of testicular tumour may allow earlier diagnosis. PMID:27095941

  16. Global incidence and outcome of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugalingam, Thurkaa; Soultati, Aspasia; Chowdhury, Simon; Rudman, Sarah; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer is a rare tumor type accounting for 1% of malignancies in men. It is, however, the most common cancer in young men in Western populations. The incidence of testicular cancer is increasing globally, although a decline in mortality rates has been reported in Western countries. It is important to identify whether the variations in trends observed between populations are linked to genetic or environmental factors. Methods Age-standardized incidence rates and age-standardized mortality rates for testicular cancer were obtained for men of all ages in ten countries from the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5plus) and World Health Organization (WHO) mortality databases. The annual percent change was calculated using Joinpoint regression to assess temporal changes between geographical regions. Results Testicular cancer age-standardized incidence rates are highest in New Zealand (7.8), UK (6.3), Australia (6.1), Sweden (5.6), USA (5.2), Poland (4.9), and Spain (3.8) per 100,000 men. India, China, and Colombia had the lowest incidence (0.5, 1.3, and 2.2, respectively) per 100,000 men. The annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer incidence significantly increased in the European countries Sweden 2.4%, (2.2; 2.6); UK 2.9%, (2.2; 3.6); and Spain 5.0%, (1.7; 8.4), Australia 3.0%, (2.2; 3.7), and China 3.5%, (1.9; 5.1). India had the lowest overall testicular cancer incidence −1.7%, (−2.5; −0.8). Annual percent changes for overall testicular cancer mortality rates were decreasing in all study populations, with the greatest decline observed in Sweden −4.2%, (−4.8; −3.6) and China −4.9%, (−6.5; −3.3). Conclusion Testicular cancer is increasing in incidence in many countries; however, mortality rates remain low and most men are cured. An understanding of the risks and long-term side effects of treatment are important in managing men with this disease. PMID:24204171

  17. Antidepressants and testicular cancer: cause versus association.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-03-01

    A data mining study that examined associations between 105 drugs and 55 cancer sites found significant associations between 2 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (fluoxetine and paroxetine) and testicular cancer. The study suggested several reasons why these associations merited further investigation. A later study tested specific relationships between 12 antidepressant drugs and testicular cancer and subtypes thereof; whereas significant relationships were again found, these disappeared after adjusting for confounding variables. These 2 studies are educative because they illustrate how false-positive results can easily arise in exploratory research and how confounding may be responsible for statistically significant relationships in study designs that are not randomized controlled trials.

  18. [PVB therapy for advanced testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakao, M; Nakagawa, S; Toyoda, K; Nukui, M; Takada, H; Ebisui, K; Sugimoto, K; Watanabe, H; Maegawa, M; Miyakoda, K

    1989-11-01

    Twelve cases of advanced testicular cancer, including 5 cases of seminoma, 3 cases of teratocarcinoma, 1 case of yolk sac tumor, 1 case of embryonal carcinoma and 2 cases of mixed cell type, were treated with cisplatin-vinblastine-bleomycin (PVB) therapy. Among them, 10 cases had measurable metastatic lesions and the objective response rate was 80%. Three cases showed complete response. Ten cases showed nonexistent disease after PVB therapy and salvage operation. Though PVB therapy was useful for the treatment of advanced testicular cancer, a few cases having poor prognostic factors showed no response to the therapy.

  19. The clinical utility of testicular prosthesis placement in children with genital and testicular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Testicular prosthesis placement is a useful important adjunctive reconstructive therapy for managing children with testicular loss or absence. Though these prostheses are functionless, experience has shown that they are extremely helpful in creating a more normal male body image and in preventing/relieving psychological stress in males with a missing testicle. With attention to details of implant technique, excellent cosmetic results can be anticipated in simulating a normal appearing scrotum. PMID:26816795

  20. Effects of age on testicular function.

    PubMed

    Tsitouras, P D

    1987-12-01

    Although frequency of sexual activity declines dramatically with age, most investigators have been able to define rather small physiologic function (hormonal and spermatogenic) changes with advancing age. Despite the development of subtle intrinsic age-related defects at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, reproductive capacity is maintained in healthy elderly men.

  1. [Sclerosing therapy of testicular hydrocele with tetracycline].

    PubMed

    Losada Guerra, J L; Hernández Navarro, E

    1992-12-01

    Twenty-six patients, aged 38 to 78 years, with testicular hydrocele were treated by aspiration, punction and tetracycline instillation. The cure rate was 79%. Inflammation of the scrotum was observed in all of the cases. Due to recurrence two patients underwent surgery, which revealed a hematocele.

  2. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome with Embryonal Cell Carcinoma along with Ectopic Cross Fused Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bharath, NR Manju; Narayana, V; Raja, V Om Pramod Kumar; Jambula, Pranav Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS) is a form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism, where there is normal development of male secondary sexual characters, along with the presence of bilateral fallopian tubes and uterus. Majority of these cases go undetected and some cases are accidentally diagnosed while investigating for other problems. Cross fused renal ectopia is a condition where one kidney lies in the opposite side, fused to the other kidney. We present an extremely rare case of a phenotypical male presenting with mass per abdomen and bilateral cryptorchidism, turned out to have uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes, ectopic cross fused right kidney and Embryonal cell carcinoma of left undescended testis. PMID:26894123

  3. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain.

    PubMed

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  4. Testicular descent: a hypothesis and review of current controversies.

    PubMed

    Husmann, Douglas A

    2009-06-01

    Descent of the testis into the scrotum occurs by a complex multifactorial process involving the normal development of the testis, the hormonal actions of insulin like growth factor 3, testosterone, a intact hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis, the patent processus vaginalis, gubernacular outgrowth and regression and intraabdominal pressure. The paper reviews the key components of testicular descent, the current hypothesis on how testicular descent occurs and the controversies surrounding this hypothesis.

  5. A case of Carney complex presenting as acute testicular pain

    PubMed Central

    Alleemudder, Adam; Pillai, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    We describe the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with testicular pain but was found to have bilateral testicular lesions later confirmed as Sertoli cell tumors. Genetic testing confirmed a PRKAR1A gene mutation consistent with Carney complex, a rare genetic disorder characterized by skin lesions, myxomas, and multiple endocrine neoplasms. A review of the condition is made highlighting the association with testicular tumors, particularly of Sertoli cell origin. PMID:27453662

  6. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  7. [Testicular bilharzioma by Schistosomia haematobium: about two cases].

    PubMed

    Ze Ondo, C; Sarr, A; Sow, Y; Thiam, I; Fall, B; Sow, D; Thiam, A; Diao, B; Fall, P A; Gaye, G W; Ndoye, A K; Ba, M; Diagne, B A

    2014-01-01

    Bilharzioma are inflammatory pseudotumors, which often pose the problem of differential diagnosis with neoplastic processes. Using the keywords "testicular" and "schistosomiasis", there are only 14 cases of testicular bilharzioma identified on PubMed. The authors report two new cases in a 6-year-old child and an adult of 38 years, collected over a period of 5 years. In both cases, orchidectomy was performed and histological analysis of the surgical specimen was allowed to diagnose testicular bilharzioma by Schistosomia haematobium. The authors emphasize the need to evoke a bilharzioma before any testicular nodule in a patient living in an endemic area.

  8. Perinatal testicular torsion and medicolegal considerations.

    PubMed

    Massoni, F; Troili, G M; Pelosi, M; Ricci, S

    2014-06-01

    Perinatal testicular torsion (PTT) is a very complex condition because of rarity of presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. In presence of perinatal testicular torsion, the involvement of contralateral testis can be present also in absence of other indications which suggest the bilateral involvement; therefore, occurrences supported by literature do not exclude the use of surgery to avoid the risk of omitted or delayed diagnosis. The data on possible recovery of these testicles are not satisfactory, and treatment consists of an observational approach ("wait-and-see") or an interventional approach. The hypothesis of randomized clinical trials seems impracticable because of rarity of disease. The authors present a case of PTT, analyzing injuries due to clinical and surgical management of these patients, according to medicolegal profile. The delayed diagnosis and the choice of an incorrect therapeutic approach can compromise the position of healthcare professionals, defective in terms of skill, prudence and diligence. Endocrine insufficiency is an unfortunate event. The analysis of literature seems to support, because of high risk, a surgical approach aimed not only at resolution of unilateral pathology or prevention of a relapse, but also at prevention of contralateral testicular torsion. PMID:24826979

  9. An unusual case of thoracic ectopia cordis in a Toggenburg Goat and its three-dimensional images constructed with X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jyh-Mirn; Wu, Jui-Te; Yang, Wei-Cheng; Chao, Ming-Hsin; Nagahata, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    A two-day-old female Toggenburg goat with thoracic ectopia cordis (EC) was diagnosed via radiography and computed tomography. The goat was born with EC, defects of the sternum and a supra-umbilical abdominal wall, but without the presence of Cantrell's syndrome. Necropsy and histopathological findings indicated the affected kid had malformation of the heart with an enlarged left ventricle. The findings showed the heart (9 x 5 x 5 cm) stayed outside the thorax, and was covered by a semitransparent membrane. This report is the first to describe a case of thoracic EC in a goat whose sternum was not developed fully and was not connected to the ribs. It is also the first paper to describe three-dimensional images of this condition constructed from computed tomography scans. PMID:27506092

  10. Testicular self-examination and testicular cancer: a cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Michael; Wilson, Bradley; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey M; Griebling, Tomas L; Nangia, Ajay K

    2014-12-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has recommended against testicular self-examinations (TSE) or clinical examination for testicular cancer screening. However, in this recommendation there was no consideration of the significant fiscal cost of treating advanced disease versus evaluation of benign disease. In this study, a cost-utility validation for TSE was performed. The cost of treatment for an advanced-stage testicular tumor (both seminomatous and nonseminomatous) was compared to the cost of six other scenarios involving the clinical assessment of a testicular mass felt during self-examination (four benign and two early-stage malignant). Medicare reimbursements were used as an estimate for a national cost standard. The total treatment cost for an advanced-stage seminoma ($48,877) or nonseminoma ($51,592) equaled the cost of 313-330 benign office visits ($156); 180-190 office visits with scrotal ultrasound ($272); 79-83 office visits with serial scrotal ultrasounds and labs ($621); 6-7 office visits resulting in radical inguinal orchiectomy for benign pathology ($7,686) or 2-3 office visits resulting in treatment and surveillance of an early-stage testicular cancer ($17,283: seminoma, $26,190: nonseminoma). A large number of clinical evaluations based on the TSE for benign disease can be made compared to the cost of one missed advanced-stage tumor. An average of 2.4 to 1 cost benefit ratio was demonstrated for early detected testicular cancer versus advanced-stage disease. PMID:25103095

  11. [Bilateral testicular metastasis of cancer of the prostate].

    PubMed

    el Moussaoui, A; Sarf, I; Dakir, M; Zamiati, S; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    Testicular metastasis of prostate cancer rarely occurs. Bilateral localization is exceptional. We report a new case of prostate adenocarcinoma with bilateral testicular metastasis. The diagnosis was made on clinical and ultrasonic arguments, and confirmed on the pathological specimen. Treatment consisted in a bilateral orchidectomy, associated with nonsteroid androgens.

  12. Testicular Niche Required for Human Spermatogonial Stem Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James F.; Yango, Pamela; Altman, Eran; Choudhry, Shweta; Poelzl, Andrea; Zamah, Alberuni M.; Rosen, Mitchell; Klatsky, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Prepubertal boys treated with high-dose chemotherapy do not have an established means of fertility preservation because no established in vitro technique exists to expand and mature purified spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to functional sperm in humans. In this study, we define and characterize the unique testicular cellular niche required for SSC expansion using testicular tissues from men with normal spermatogenesis. Highly purified SSCs and testicular somatic cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using SSEA-4 and THY1 as markers of SSCs and somatic cells. Cells were cultured on various established niches to assess their role in SSC expansion in a defined somatic cellular niche. Of all the niches examined, cells in the SSEA-4 population exclusively bound to adult testicular stromal cells, established colonies, and expanded. Further characterization of these testicular stromal cells revealed distinct mesenchymal markers and the ability to undergo differentiation along the mesenchymal lineage, supporting a testicular multipotent stromal cell origin. In vitro human SSC expansion requires a unique niche provided exclusively by testicular multipotent stromal cells with mesenchymal properties. These findings provide an important foundation for developing methods of inducing SSC growth and maturation in prepubertal testicular tissue, essential to enabling fertility preservation for these boys. PMID:25038247

  13. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery. PMID:25469070

  14. A simple vitrification method for cryobanking avian testicular tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue is a promising method of preserving male reproductive potential for avian species. This study was conducted to assess whether a vitrification method can be used to preserve avian testicular tissue, using the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as a model. A sim...

  15. A nationwide epidemiological study of testicular torsion in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sol Min; Huh, Jung-Sik; Baek, Minki; Yoo, Koo Han; Min, Gyeong Eun; Lee, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Dong-Gi

    2014-12-01

    Testicular torsion is a surgical emergency in the field of urology. Knowledge of the epidemiology and pathophysiology is significant to an urologist. However, the epidemiology of testicular torsion in Korea has not been studied. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study to improve knowledge of the epidemiology of testicular torsion. From 2006-2011, the Korean Urologic Association began the patient registry service. The annual number of patients with testicular torsion from 2006 to 2011 were 225, 250, 271, 277, 345, and 210, respectively. The overall incidence of testicular torsion in males was 1.1 per 100,000; However, the incidence in men less than 25 yr old was 2.9 per 100,000. Adolescents showed the highest incidence. Total testicular salvage rate was 75.7% in this survey. There was no geographic difference of testicular salvage rate. Minimizing the possibility of orchiectomy for testicular torsion is important to improve public awareness to expedite presentation and provider education to improve diagnosis and surgery.

  16. Teachers' Beliefs Concerning Teaching about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohl, Royal E.; Kane, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This study compared secondary health teachers' beliefs concerning teaching about testicular cancer (TC) and self-examination (TSE) to actual instruction. TC and TSE education levels were low. Perceived barriers to teaching about TSE was the main predictor of TSE instruction. Teachers with previous preparation in TC and TSE provided the most…

  17. Scrotal Exploration for Testicular Torsion and Testicular Appendage Torsion: Emergency and Reality

    PubMed Central

    Yu, You; Zhang, Feng; An, Qun; Wang, Long; Li, Chao; Xu, Zhilin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Scrotal exploration is considered the procedure of choice for acute scrotum. Objectives: We evaluated the importance of early diagnosis and testicular salvage on the therapeutic outcomes of patients with pediatric testicular torsion (TT) and testicular appendage torsion (TAT) in our geographic area. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective database analysis of patients who underwent emergency surgery for TT or TAT between January 1996 and June 2009. Patient history, physical examination findings, laboratory test results, color Doppler sonography (CDS) results, and surgical findings were reviewed. Results: A total of 65 cases were included in our analysis. Forty-two cases were followed up for at least 3 months. Testicular tenderness was identified as the major clinical manifestation of TT, while only a few patients with TAT presented with swelling. CDS was an important diagnostic modality. The orchiectomy rate was 71% in the TT group. Conclusions: Cases of acute scrotum require attention in our area. Early diagnosis and scrotal exploration could salvage the testis or preserve normal function without the need for surgery. PMID:26199690

  18. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men.

  19. Primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Mário Maciel; de Lima, Mário Maciel; Granja, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Testicular mucinous cystadenomas are rare in urological practice, and their histogenesis, course and management are debated. We report a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma in a 54-year old male who presented with left testicular swelling and pain. He denied having a history of cryptorchidism, testicular trauma, infections, urinary complaints, or febrile illnesses. He did not have diabetes, but was on treatment for hypertension. The patient underwent a left inguinal radical orchiectomy, and histological examination of the resected tumour confirmed a primary testicular mucinous cystadenoma. The patient had an uneventful recovery, and is being followed up. Conclusively, urologists need to maintain a high index of suspicion of these tumours and their differentiation from metastatic tumours to ensure optimal therapeutic outcomes.

  20. Mechanisms of endocrine dysfunction in patients with testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Morrish, D W; Venner, P M; Siy, O; Barron, G; Bhardwaj, D; Outhet, D

    1990-03-01

    To determine mechanisms of endocrine dysfunction in patients with testicular cancer, we performed static and dynamic testing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and testicular exocrine function in 13 patients and 11 normal control subjects, as well as in vitro studies of tumor tissue and remaining adjacent "normal" testicular tissue in the 13 patients. In tumor tissue, we demonstrated (a) elevated concentrations of total serum estradiol and serum estradiol not bound to sex hormone-binding globulin, (b) impaired spermatogenesis and sperm motility, and (c) blocking of multiple enzymes necessary for steroidogenesis. The data were consistent with a paracrine-endocrine mechanism in which tumor-produced human chorionic gonadotropin stimulates production of estradiol by "normal" testicular tissue but not tumor tissue, and the high estradiol levels then result in impaired spermatogenesis.

  1. Testicular cancer knowledge among deaf and hearing men.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Loren; Nakaji, Melanie; Harry, Kadie M; Oen, Marcia; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-09-01

    Testicular cancer typically affects young and middle-aged men. An educational video about prostate and testicular cancer was created in American Sign Language, with English open captioning and voice overlay, so that it could be viewed by audiences of diverse ages and hearing characteristics. This study recruited young Deaf (n = 85) and hearing (n = 90) adult males to help evaluate the educational value of the testicular cancer portion of this video. Participants completed surveys about their general, testicular, and total cancer knowledge before and after viewing the video. Although hearing men had higher pre-test scores than Deaf men, both Deaf and hearing men demonstrated significant increases in General, Testicular, and Total Cancer Knowledge scores after viewing the intervention video. Overall, results demonstrate the value of the video to Deaf and hearing men. PMID:23813488

  2. [Traumatic Testicular Rupture Complicated with Hydrocele: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Okusa, Takuya; Taniguchi, Ayumu; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    A 17-year-old man presented with right hydrocele because of an athletic injury. His scrotum was hit with a ball 2 months ago while playing baseball. He was diagnosed with post-traumatic hydrocele and underwent needle puncture at another hospital 1 month after the trauma. However, the hydrocele did not improve. Therefore, he was referred to our hospital for surgical treatment. For diagnosis of the traumatic hydrocele testis, a hydrocelectomy was scheduled. When we opened the tunica vaginalis, we realized that the tunica albuginea had been ruptured and the testicular parenchyma had gushed out. We tried to replace all the escaped testicular parenchyma into the tunica albuginea, but it was impossible. Therefore were moved some of the redundant testicular parenchyma, and replaced the remnants into the tunica albuginea. After the operation, right hydrocele and testicular atrophy did not occur. Traumatic testicular rupture complicated with hydrocele is rare.

  3. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  4. Barriers Identified by Swedish School Nurses in Giving Information about Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination to Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudberg, Lennart; Nilsson, Sten; Wikblad, Karin; Carlsson, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent school nurses in Sweden inform adolescent men about testicular cancer (TC) and testicular self-examination (TSE). A questionnaire was completed by 129 school nurses from 29 randomly selected municipalities. All respondents were women, with a mean age of 42 years. The results showed that…

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Testicular Cancer and Testicular Self-Examination Training for Patient Care Personnel: Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…

  6. Experiment K-7-16: Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Clemens, J. W.; Deaver, D.; Folmer, J.; Zirkin, B.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Grills, G. S.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D.; Serova, L. V.; Sapp, W. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed or frozen testicular tissues from five rats per group were analyzed by: subjective and quantitative evaluations of spermatogenesis; Northern-blot analysis for expression of selected genes; quantification of testosterone and receptors for LH; and morphometric analysis of Leydig cells. Based on observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats in the flight and vivarium groups had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment, and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups; the simulated-launch group contained no abnormal rat. Lesions induced in testes of caudal-elevation rats precluded discernment of any pre-existing abnormality. Considering rats without pre-existing abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (E less than 0.05) in flight rats than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other, or to Sertoli cells, and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. There was no effect of flight on normal expression of testis-specific hsp gene products, or evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp70 or hsp90 genes. Concentration of receptors for rLH in testicular tissue, and surface densities of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and peroxisomes in Leydig cells, were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus, spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Sequela of reduced androgen production on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered when interpreting data from mammals exposed to microgravity.

  7. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals.

    PubMed Central

    Amann, R P

    1986-01-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalcy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animal models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. A 50 or 90% reduction in the number of fertile sperm deposited during mating probably will not markedly reduce fertility. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. For each male, a piece of testicular tissue should be appropriately fixed and an aliquot of parenchyma should be homogenized to allow enumeration of homogenization-resistant spermatids. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis. PMID

  8. The hormonal control of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Husmann, D A

    1995-01-01

    Descent of the testes is a complex event mediated by hormonal and mechanical factors. At present we hypothesize that testicular descent occurs as the result of the secretion of descendin from a normal testicle. Descendin secretion results in selective growth of the gubernacular cells. Gubernacular outgrowth results in masculinization of the inguinal canal. At the beginning of testicular descent, the patent processus migrates into the inguinal canal, transmitting intraabdominal pressure to the gubernaculum. The gubernaculum in turn applies traction to the testicle to introduce the testicle into the inguinal canal. Descent of the testes into and through the inguinal canal is an interplay between intraabdominal pressure transmitted by a patent processus vaginalis and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. Specifically, we hypothesize that androgens under control of an intact fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum. Reductions in the turgidity of the gubernaculum allow intraabdominal pressure to push the testicle into the scrotum. Functional abnormalities in any of the above factors will result in cryptorchidism. PMID:8867594

  9. The hormonal control of testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Levy, J B; Husmann, D A

    1995-01-01

    Descent of the testes is a complex event mediated by hormonal and mechanical factors. At present we hypothesize that testicular descent occurs as the result of the secretion of descendin from a normal testicle. Descendin secretion results in selective growth of the gubernacular cells. Gubernacular outgrowth results in masculinization of the inguinal canal. At the beginning of testicular descent, the patent processus migrates into the inguinal canal, transmitting intraabdominal pressure to the gubernaculum. The gubernaculum in turn applies traction to the testicle to introduce the testicle into the inguinal canal. Descent of the testes into and through the inguinal canal is an interplay between intraabdominal pressure transmitted by a patent processus vaginalis and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. Specifically, we hypothesize that androgens under control of an intact fetal hypothalamic-pituitary axis alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum. Reductions in the turgidity of the gubernaculum allow intraabdominal pressure to push the testicle into the scrotum. Functional abnormalities in any of the above factors will result in cryptorchidism.

  10. Do testicular opiates regulate Leydig cell function?

    PubMed

    Gerendai, I; Shaha, C; Thau, R; Bardin, C W

    1984-10-01

    beta-Endorphin is believed to be synthesized in testicular Leydig cells. To gain more information about the role of this and other endogenous opioid peptides in the testis, opiate antagonists (naloxone and nalmefene, 100 micrograms/testis) were administered intratesticularly to hemicastrated adult rats. Leydig cell function was evaluated by measurement of serum testosterone and testosterone production in vitro. Estimation of androgen binding protein (rABP) was used as an index of Sertoli cell function. Serum testosterone was reduced significantly by intratesticular administration of naloxone and nalmefene in treated animals. Systemic administration of these antagonists had no effect at the doses used. Testes from treated animals incubated in vitro with or without hCG produced significantly less testosterone than vehicle-treated control testes. Hemicastration reduced rABP synthesis and secretion; however, treatment with opiate antagonists did not alter the amount of this protein in the serum or epididymides of these rats. These observations suggest that endogenous testicular opiates modulate testosterone secretion by Leydig cells. PMID:6541122

  11. Spermatic cord contamination in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Nazeer, T; Ro, J Y; Kee, K H; Ayala, A G

    1996-07-01

    It is not uncommon to find testicular germ-cell tumors in the spermatic cord. This may represent contamination or true involvement (vascular invasion or direct tumoral extension into the cord). A correct identification of the process has important clinical implications. In a review of 326 testicular germ-cell tumors, 79 (24.2%) revealed tumor in the spermatic cord. Of these 79, contamination was found in 57 (72.1%), true involvement in 15 (19%), and true involvement and contamination in 7 (8.9%). Spermatic cord contamination was seen most frequently with seminomas: 34 (24.1%) of 141 seminomas and 20 (15.4%) of 130 mixed germ-cell tumors. Eighteen of the 20 mixed germ-cell tumors contained an embryonal carcinoma component. True involvement was seen most frequently in embryonal carcinoma. Six (15.4%) of 39 pure embryonal carcinomas demonstrated true cord involvement. Six mixed germ-cell tumors with true cord involvement contained an embryonal carcinoma component. Distinguishing between true involvement of the spermatic cord and contamination can occasionally be problematic. Because true involvement, especially at the spermatic cord resection margin, identifies patients at a high risk for relapse, the problem of contamination caused by inadequate precautionary measures can be avoided by meticulous handling and processing of the specimens.

  12. CELL SURFACE ANTIGENS OF A MOUSE TESTICULAR TERATOMA

    PubMed Central

    Gooding, Linda R.; Edidin, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Rabbit antisera to a mouse testicular teratoma, absorbed with normal mouse tissues, react by immunofluorescence with plasma membrane antigens of a variety of transplantable mouse tumor cells and transformed fibroblast cell lines including Clone 1D, SV-40-3T3, and 3T12. Trypsin treatment of cells of "normal" lines, 3T3 and FR-SV-3T3, uncovers reactivity on these as well. Early passage mouse embryo fibroblast cell cultures do not react even after trypsinization. By cross-absorbtion studies, the anti-teratoma serum appears to react with an antigen common to most tumor cells investigated thus far. When this antigen on Clone 1D cells is "capped," H-2 antigens collect with the teratoma antigens in the cap indicating a physical association between the molecules. Molecules specified by both the H-2D and H-2K regions are bound to the teratoma antigens in the Clone 1D plasma membrane. This antigen is also found in soluble tumor cell fractions where it is believed to be free of H-2. A second cell surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum is expressed only by hepatoma and teratoma itself. This second antigen is apparently a secretory product of teratoma cells. A third surface antigen defined by anti-teratoma serum appears to be specific for the teratoma. PMID:4365513

  13. Presumed Testicular Rupture During a College Baseball Game

    PubMed Central

    Freehill, Michael T.; Gorbachinsky, Ilya; Lavender, John D.; Davis, Ronald L.; Mannava, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal rupture during athletic competition is considered a rare occurrence; however, blunt trauma to the scrotum is relatively common. Protective athletic cups are strongly recommended for both children and adults engaging in contact sports as they likely limit the amount of serious injury to the scrotal contents. Nonetheless, should the on-field assessment by the athletic trainer, coach, or team physician indicate that the athlete has increased pain, ecchymosis, swelling, and tenderness to palpation after blunt trauma, testicular rupture should be suspected and prompt ultrasound and urologic assessment should be undertaken, as early operative intervention is necessary for testicular preservation. This report reviews testicular trauma during athletic competition. PMID:25984265

  14. Prenatal Testicular Torsion: Not Always in the Late Third Trimester.

    PubMed

    Sauvestre, Fanny; André, Gwenaëlle; Harran, Marie-Hélène; Hemard, Marie; Carles, Dominique; Pelluard, Fanny

    2016-03-01

    Prenatal testicular torsion is a very rare morbid entity, described in the literature to occur when the testicle is intrascrotal, around the 34th week of gestation. Here we report a case of early testicular necrosis. This male fetus was the product of a medical abortion at 27 weeks. During evisceration, a left testicular nubbin free in the peritoneal cavity was found. Histologically, it was extensively necrotic. Because of the location, the size, and the histological features of this necrotic testicle, we conclude that it was the result of torsion of the pedicle that occurred around the 20th week of pregnancy. PMID:26657689

  15. Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jian-Hua; Lu, Chun-Cheng; Xu, Cheng; Chen, Gang; Qiu, Liang-Lin; Jiang, Jun-Kang; Ben, Shuai; Wang, Yu-Bang; Gu, Ai-Hua; Wang, Xin-Ru

    2016-07-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, CAS#1763-23-1) causes male reproductive toxicities, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decrease in ERα expression was only observed in 10mg/kg group. These results suggested that the alterations in testicular ERs expression, together with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells, might be involved in PFOS-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:27310206

  16. Testicular Volume and Testicular Atrophy Index as Predictors of Functionality of Unilaterally Cryptorchid Testis

    PubMed Central

    Zvizdic, Zlatan; Milisic, Emir; Halimic, Azra; Zvizdic, Denisa; Zubovic, Sandra Vegar

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Goal: The goal of this study was to determine relationship between the sensitivity and specificity of testicular volume (TV) and testicular atrophy index (TAI) in the indirect assessment of functional ability of cryptorchid testicles. Material and Methods: The study included sixty children with unilateral cryptorchidism who were treated surgically at the Clinic of Pediatric Surgery, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. We evaluated the correlation of the size of cryptorchid testicles with its locations in various age groups. Results: The results showed a significant decrease in TV and TAI in the all cryptorchid groups after the sixth month of age compared with the same parameters in control group (p<0.001). It is also determined a strong correlation between the TV and TAI of cryptorchid testicles with its locations in various age groups. Conclusion: Our results showed that the average volume of cryptorchid testicles decreased after the sixth month as well as that the reduction of testicular size correlated with increasing distance of cryptorchid testicles from the scrotum. PMID:24937926

  17. Close ties: an exploratory Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) study of social connections of men in Familial Testicular Cancer (FTC) families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer, while rare compared with other adult solid tumors, is the most common cancer in young men in northern Europe and North America. Risk factors include white race, positive family history, contralateral testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, infertility and testicular microlithiasis. As the genetic causes of familial clusters (Familial Testicular Cancer or FTC) are being sought, it is also important to understand the psycho-social experiences of members of FTC families. Methods This is a cross-sectional examination via the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map (CEGRM) of social connections reported by 49 men in FTC families participating in NCI research study 02-C-178. Results The CEGRM was acceptable and feasible for use with men in FTC families, and valuable in understanding their social connections. These men have largely adjusted to the TC history in themselves and/or their relatives. They have considerable social and emotional support from family and friends, although there is wide variability in sources and types. Conclusions The CEGRM focuses on men's social connections and close emotional bonds in FTC families. This action-oriented process of placing colored symbols on significant relationships uncovered previously under-appreciated emotions accompanying men's social exchanges. Most men in FTC families succeed in re-establishing a sense of normalcy in their lives and social connections, in the aftermath of a testicular cancer diagnosis. PMID:22381132

  18. Psychological characterization of testicular feminization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M A; Barroso, C C; Arce, B

    1983-01-01

    Ten cases with testicular feminization syndrome (TFS) diagnosed at the National Institute of Endocrinology and Metabolism, were studied. The patients were interviewed and subjected to the following psychological tests: Raven's Progressive Matrices, the MMPI, the 16PF, and the TAT. Laboratory determinations included: nuclear chromatin, karyotype, FHS, LH, estradiol, testosterone and nitrogen retention test. Intellectual achievement was found normal, and as far as psychological stability is concerned (MMPI) there was no common profile typical of the group. Psychosexual attitudes showed alterations related to acceptance of body image, fears to be unable to maintain the stability of the couple, and lack of a strong maternal drive. Personality profile manifested two outstanding traits in the group: Dominance (E+) and Shrewdness (N+), the former being remarkably high for a female population. A hypothesis is advanced in regard to the psychological alterations of the possible role of partial androgenization of the central nervous system in these patients.

  19. Testicular microlithiasis in two boys with a chromosomal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Goede, Joery; Hack, W W M; Pierik, F H

    2012-04-01

    A nine and 13-year-old boy, previously diagnosed with 18q syndrome and an 11q deletion, respectively were diagnosed with testicular microlithiasis (TM). Both cases demonstrate that TM occurs in patients with various chromosomal abnormalities.

  20. Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Men Ignore Testicular Cancer Symptoms for Months Early diagnosis and treatment are tied to 99 ... something abnormal in a testicle wait a few months before seeing a doctor. But, when diagnosed while ...

  1. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy.

  2. Segmental testicular infarction: sonographic findings and pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Michael; Nghiem, Hanh; Jafri, Syed Zafar; Schwartz, John; Malhotra, Rajwant; Amin, Mitual

    2013-02-01

    Segmental testicular infarction can mimic testicular carcinoma on sonography and can lead to unnecessary orchiectomy. This case series describes and correlates sonographic and histologic findings of 7 pathologically proven segmental testicular infarction cases. Segmental testicular infarction should be suspected on sonography when a geographic lesion with low or mixed echogenicity has absent or near-absent flow in a patient with scrotal pain. A hyperechoic rim and peripheral hyperemia correspond to interstitial hemorrhage and inflammatory changes. As an infarct evolves, it becomes more discrete and hypoechoic as ghost outlines replace seminiferous tubules. Follow-up or contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging or sonography can increase diagnostic confidence in suspected cases and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:23341396

  3. Developments in the control of testicular function.

    PubMed

    Swerdloff, R S; Wang, C; Bhasin, S

    1992-04-01

    Clinicians and clinical investigators have developed improved means for controlling testicular function in men. New and refined approaches for stimulation and inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis are now available. This chapter reviewed the most successful ways to inhibit the reproductive axis in men and its current application to the treatment of precocious puberty, metastatic prostate cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia and as prospective male contraceptives. Safe, effective and reversible medical approaches to male contraception are now approaching reality. Azoospermia and severe oligozoo/azoospermia can now be accomplished in the majority of men with combined GnRH antagonists and replacement doses of testosterone. Androgens and androgen-progestogen concentrations will induce azoospermia in over 90% of Asian men and azoospermia or severe oligospermia in Caucasian ethnic groups. Field trials are ongoing to determine whether testosterone administration will be more effective than condoms as contraceptives. True precocious puberty can now be managed more effectively than in the past by suppression of gonadotropin secretion with GnRH analogues. Precocious puberty due to other causes can be treated more effectively with inhibitors of steroidogenesis and blockers of androgen action. Metastatic prostate cancer, previously treatable with either castration or oestrogens, is now amenable to suppression of androgen secretion. GnRH analogues are given either alone or combined with blockers of androgen action. While significant palliative effects are observed with endocrine ablative therapy in most men with Stage C or D prostate cancer, modest increases in duration of survival may be seen. Benign prostate hyperplasia was previously approachable only with surgical intervention. Recent data have suggested that medical treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and/or selective alpha-adrenergic blockers may offer non-surgical alternatives in some patients

  4. The chemosensitivity of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2014-04-01

    Although rare cancers overall, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common type of cancer in young males below 40 years of age. Both subtypes of TGCTs, i.e., seminomas and non-seminomas, are highly curable and the majority of even metastatic patients may expect to be cured. These high cure rates are not due to the indolent nature of these cancers, but rather to their sensitivity to chemotherapy (and for seminomas to radiotherapy). The delineation of the cause of chemosensitivity at the molecular level is of paramount importance, because it may provide insights into the minority of TGCTs that are chemo-resistant and, thereby, provide opportunities for specific therapeutic interventions aimed at reverting them to chemosensitivity. In addition, delineation of the molecular basis of TGCT chemo-sensitivity may be informative for the cause of chemo-resistance of other more common types of cancer and, thus, may create new therapeutic leads. p53, a frequently mutated tumor suppressor in cancers in general, is not mutated in TGCTs, a fact that has implications for their chemo-sensitivity. Oct4, an embryonic transcription factor, is uniformly expressed in the seminoma and embryonic carcinoma components of non-seminomas, and its interplay with p53 may be important in the chemotherapy response of these tumors. This interplay, together with other features of TGCTs such as the gain of genetic material from the short arm of chromosome 12 and the association with disorders of testicular development, will be discussed in this paper and integrated in a unifying hypothesis that may explain their chemo-sensitivity. PMID:24692098

  5. The Correlation between Age, Body Weight and Testicular Parameters in Murrah Buffalo Bulls Raised in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da LUZ, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; SANTOS, Paulo Ramos da Silva; ANDRIGHETTO, Cristiana; JORGE, André Mendes; de ASSIS NETO, Antônio Chaves

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  6. The correlation between age, body weight and testicular parameters in Murrah buffalo bulls raised in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Luz, Patrícia Aparecida Cardoso; Santos, Paulo Ramos da Silva; Andrighetto, Cristiana; Jorge, André Mendes; de Assis Neto, Antônio Chaves

    2013-01-01

    Buffalo are an economically important source for meat and milk production, especially in Brazil. However, important aspects of their biology remain unknown thus far. Herein, we describe the reproductive characteristics of male Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) raised under extensive management conditions by applying biometrics associated with testicular weight. We analyzed seven males, divided into two groups: G1, which consisted of four 18-month-old animals, and G2, which consisted of three 24-month-old animals. Testicular development occurs slowly in Murrah buffalo, suggesting a delay of sexual maturity. The biometric testicular parameters analyzed were scrotal circumference, testicular weight, testicular length, testicular width, testicular thickness and testicular circumference. Our data indicate strong correlations between SC, age and body weight, and additional significant relationships were identified between body weight, age and other testicular parameters. Thus, these parameters are suitable indicators when selecting bulls for breeding purposes. PMID:22986925

  7. Advanced testicular cancer presenting with phlegmasia cerulea dolens

    PubMed Central

    Mulatero, C; Brogan, G; Oliver, R

    2000-01-01

    A case of fulminating deep venous thrombosis secondary to invasion of the inferior vena cava is described in a 45 year old man presenting with a germ cell tumour. Despite aggressive supportive care and emergency chemotherapy his late presentation caused his death. The case highlights the necessity for increased public education of the attendant risks in delayed presentation with a testicular lump.


Keywords: phlegmasia cerulea dolens; testicular carcinoma PMID:10727571

  8. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Breikaa, Randa M.; Mosli, Hisham A.; Nagy, Ayman A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  9. Effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy on testicular function

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsella, T.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are commonly used alone or in combination in the curative management of many malignancies in adolescent and adult males. Over the last 15-20 years, the striking success in the treatment of some common cancers in reproductive males has led to increasing concern for damage to normal tissues, such as the testes, resulting from curative cancer treatment. Indeed, a major future goal for cancer treatment will be to improve on the complication-free cure rate. Inherent in achieving this goal is to understand the pathophysiology and clinical expression of testicular injury. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy result in germ cell depletion with the development of oligo- to azoospermia and testicular atrophy. The type of drug (particularly the alkylating agents), duration of treatment, intensity of treatment, and drug combination are major variables in determining the extent and duration of testicular injury. Testicular injury with chemotherapy also appears to vary with the age of the patient at the time of treatment. Newer drug combinations are now being used which appear to have curative potential in tumors such as Hodgkin's disease and germ cell testicular cancer with less potential for testicular injury. The most accurate and complete information on radiation injury to the testes is derived from two studies of normal volunteers who received graded single doses directly to the testes. A clear dose-response relationship of clinical and histological testicular damage was found with gradual recovery occurring following doses of up to 600 cGy. While these two studies provide an important clinical data base, radiation therapy used in treating cancers involves multiple daily treatments, usually 25-35 delivered over several weeks. Additionally, direct testicular irradiation is seldom used clinically. 37 references.

  10. Computed tomography in evolution of testicular cancer during intensive chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Javadpour, N; Anderson, T; Doppman, J L

    1979-10-01

    The evolution of malignant testicular tumor to mature teratoma has been studied in 4 patients. Computed tomography has been helpful in early diagnosis of this biologic phenomenon in these patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for disseminated non-seminomatous testicular cancer. Although the potential significance of this conversion in terms of survival is not known its early recognition by computed tomography has been useful in selecting and monitoring the therapy of these patients.

  11. Cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology: prophylactic role of taurine.

    PubMed

    Manna, Prasenjit; Sinha, Mahua; Sil, Parames C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of taurine against cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology. Cadmium (in the form of Cadmium chloride, CdCl(2)) administration at a dose of 4 mg/kg body weight for 6 days significantly decreased testicular Delta(5)-3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD activities along with the reduction in the plasma testosterone level. In addition, reductions in testicular sperm count as well as loss in sperm motility were also observed in Cd-intoxication. Cd increased the intracellular concentration of reactive oxygen species and testicular Cd accumulation. Besides, increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, glutathione disulfide and DNA fragmentation as well as decreased levels of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, total thiols and reduced glutathione were also found to be associated with this toxicity. Taurine pretreatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, on the other hand, could prevent all the Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology and oxidative insult related studied parameters. Taurine treatment, in addition also increased the in vivo ferric reducing antioxidant power linearly up to a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Histological examination of testicular sections from experimental animals supported these results. The effect of a well established antioxidant, vitamin C has been included in the study as a positive control. Combining all, data suggest that being an antioxidant, taurine plays a beneficial role against Cd-induced adverse effects on the male reproductive system. PMID:18926901

  12. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential.

  13. Serum Levels of Trace Elements in Patients with Testicular Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kaba, Mehmet; Pirinççi, Necip; Yüksel, Mehmet Bilgehan; Geçit, İlhan; Güneş, Mustafa; Demir, Murat; Akkoyun, HurremTuran; Demir, Halit

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Trace elements are primary components of biological structures; however, they can be toxic when their concentrations are higher than those needed for biological functions. Materials and Methods: In the present study serum levels of trace elements were measured in 30 patients (mean age was 26.9±11.2 years) newly diagnosed with germ cell testicular cancer and 32 healthy volunteers (mean age: 27.4±10.8) by using furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Serum samples were stored at-20°C until assays. Results: In patients with germ cell testicular cancer, the diagnosis was seminoma in 15, mix germ cell tumor in 7, embryonal carcinoma in 4, yolk sac tumor in 2 and teratoma in 2 patients. There was stage I testicular tumor in 19 patients (63.3%) while stage II in 6 patients (20.0%), stage IIIA in 4 patients (13.3%) and stage IIIC in one patient (3.4%). It was found that serum Co, Cu, Mg and Pb levels were increased (p<0.05), whereas Fe, Mn, and Zn levels were decreased in patients with testicular cancer (p<0.05). Conclusions: These alterations may be important in the pathogenesis of testicular cancers; however, further prospective studies are needed to identify the relationship between testicular cancer and trace elements. PMID:26742967

  14. Epigenetics: a way to understand the origin and biology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Keisei

    2012-06-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors are neoplasms carrying two unique features. First, testicular germ cell tumors have a pluripotential nature and show protean histology ranging from that of germ cells to embryonal and differentiated somatic cells. Therefore, testicular germ cell tumors are interesting resources positioned at a crossroad in developmental and neoplastic processes. The second unique feature of testicular germ cell tumors is their exquisite sensitivity to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This review summarizes recent research progress in the epigenetics of testicular germ cell tumors in an attempt to explain the abovementioned biological and clinical characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors.

  15. Prospectively-Identified Incident Testicular Cancer Risk in a Familial Testicular Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Anand; Adams, Charleen D.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Nichols, Kathryn; Stewart, Douglas R.; Greene, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) have a strong genetic component and a high familial relative risk. However, linkage analyses have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant familial TGCT (FTGCT) susceptibility locus. Currently, multiple low-penetrance genes are hypothesized to underlie the familial multiple-case phenotype. The observation that two is the most common number of affected individuals per family presents an impediment to FTGCT gene discovery. Clinically, the prospective TGCT risk in the multiple-case family context is unknown. Methods We performed a prospective analysis of TGCT incidence in a cohort of multiple-affected-person families and sporadic-bilateral-case families; 1,260 men from 140 families (10,207 person-years of follow-up) met our inclusion criteria. Age-, gender-, and calendar time-specific standardized incidence ratios (SIR) for TGCT relative to the general population were calculated using SEER*Stat. Results Eight incident TGCTs occurred during prospective FTGCT cohort follow-up (versus 0.67 expected; SIR=11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.1–23.4; excess absolute risk=7.2/10,000). We demonstrate that the incidence rate of TGCT is greater among bloodline male relatives from multiple-case testicular cancer families than that expected in the general population, a pattern characteristic of adult-onset Mendelian cancer susceptibility disorders. Two of these incident TGCTs occurred in relatives of sporadic-bilateral cases (0.15 expected; SIR=13.4; 95%CI=1.6–48.6). Conclusions Our data are the first indicating that despite relatively low numbers of affected individuals per family, members of both multiple-affected-person FTGCT families and sporadic-bilateral TGCT families comprise high-risk groups for incident testicular cancer. Impact Men at high TGCT risk might benefit from tailored risk stratification and surveillance strategies. PMID:26265202

  16. Low temperature-induced circulating triiodothyronine accelerates seasonal testicular regression.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Keisuke; Atsumi, Yusuke; Yorinaga, Eriko; Ono, Hiroko; Murayama, Itaru; Nakane, Yusuke; Ota, Wataru; Arai, Natsumi; Tega, Akinori; Iigo, Masayuki; Darras, Veerle M; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Shosei; Yoshimura, Takashi

    2015-02-01

    In temperate zones, animals restrict breeding to specific seasons to maximize the survival of their offspring. Birds have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of seasonal regulation, and their testicular mass can change 100-fold within a few weeks. Recent studies on Japanese quail revealed that seasonal gonadal development is regulated by central thyroid hormone activation within the hypothalamus, depending on the photoperiodic changes. By contrast, the mechanisms underlying seasonal testicular regression remain unclear. Here we show the effects of short day and low temperature on testicular regression in quail. Low temperature stimulus accelerated short day-induced testicular regression by shutting down the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis and inducing meiotic arrest and germ cell apoptosis. Induction of T3 coincided with the climax of testicular regression. Temporal gene expression analysis over the course of apoptosis revealed the suppression of LH response genes and activation of T3 response genes involved in amphibian metamorphosis within the testis. Daily ip administration of T3 mimicked the effects of low temperature stimulus on germ cell apoptosis and testicular mass. Although type 2 deiodinase, a thyroid hormone-activating enzyme, in the brown adipose tissue generates circulating T3 under low-temperature conditions in mammals, there is no distinct brown adipose tissue in birds. In birds, type 2 deiodinase is induced by low temperature exclusively in the liver, which appears to be caused by increased food consumption. We conclude that birds use low temperature-induced circulating T3 not only for adaptive thermoregulation but also to trigger apoptosis to accelerate seasonal testicular regression.

  17. Opioid-induced suppression of rat testicular function.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Sewing, B; Forman, J B; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1993-07-01

    The effects of opioids on testicular function were assessed in the rat through measurements of serum testosterone levels, testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) formation and TIF testosterone levels after morphine and opioid antagonist (naloxone, naltrexone) treatment. Serum and TIF levels of testosterone were significantly decreased 1 to 6 h after morphine (10 mg/kg) injection, and TIF volumes were decreased 2-3 h after injection morphine. Each of these decreases was dose-related. In contrast to the effects of morphine, the opioid antagonist naloxone increased TIF testosterone but did not alter TIF volumes. Moreover, the opioid antagonist naltrexone totally blocked morphine's effects on both testosterone secretion and TIF volume, suggesting that morphine's testicular effects were mediated by naltrexone-sensitive opioid receptors in the testes. The possible role of morphine-induced reductions in gonadotropin secretion in morphine's testicular effects was also examined. Morphine suppressed testosterone secretion and TIF volumes after pretreatment with human chorionic gonadotropin, which reverses morphine's suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH). Our results, therefore, indicate that morphine exerts effects on testicular function that are independent of its effects on LH. They furthermore support the hypothesis that both endogenous and exogenous opioids disrupt two major aspects of testicular function: Testosterone secretion and TIF formation. Because of the role of TIF in maintaining testicular function, our results suggest that opioid-induced changes in testosterone secretion into TIF and TIF formation may, at least in part, explain the well-established effects of opioids on reproductive endocrinology and function in the male. PMID:8392556

  18. Developmental Potential of Vitrified Mouse Testicular Tissue after Ectopic Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Yamini, Nazila; Pourmand, Gholamreza; Amidi, Fardin; Salehnia, Mojdeh; Ataei Nejad, Nahid; Mougahi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue should be considered as an important factor for fertility preservation in young boys with cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate whether immature testicular tissue of mice can be successfully cryopreserved using a simple vitrification procedure to maintain testicular cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation capacity. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, immature mice testicular tissue fragments (0.5-1 mm²) were vitrified-warmed in order to assess the effect of vitrification on testicular tissue cell viability. Trypan blue staining was used to evaluate developmental capacity. Vitrified tissue (n=42) and fresh (control, n=42) were ectopically transplanted into the same strain of mature mice (n=14) with normal immunity. After 4 weeks, the graft recovery rate was determined. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to evaluate germ cell differentiation, immunohistochemistry staining by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) antibody, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) assay for proliferation and apoptosis frequency. Results Vitrification did not affect the percentage of cell viability. Vascular anastomoses was seen at the graft site. The recovery rate of the vitrified graft did not significantly differ with the fresh graft. In the vitrified graft, germ cell differentiation developed up to the secondary spermatocyte, which was similar to fresh tissue. Proliferation and apoptosis in the vitrified tissue was comparable to the fresh graft. Conclusion Vitrification resulted in a success rates similar to fresh tissue (control) in maintaining testicular cell viability and tissue function. These data provided further evidence that vitrification could be considered an alternative for cryopreservation of immature testicular tissue. PMID:27054121

  19. Testicular perfusion after standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty in stallions.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Calvo, L A; Duque, J; Balao da Silva, C; Ezquerra, J; Ortega-Ferrusola, C

    2015-09-15

    Acquired inguinal herniation is a very common condition in stallions, usually leading to unilateral or bilateral castration to prevent future recurrence. Recently, several surgical techniques such as the standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty (SLPFH) have been developed to avoid herniation recurrence and also preserve the breeding activity of high economic value stallions. However, studies on SLPFH lack more comprehensive and systematic data about reproductive-related adverse effects and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLPFH of the internal inguinal rings produces changes in the testicular blood flow in a 1-year follow-up. For that purpose, six healthy stallions were used and testicular blood flow was assessed before, 3, 6, and 12 months (T0, T3, T6, and T12) after the procedure. Blood flow was evaluated ultrasonographically, using the pulsed-wave color Doppler mode. Peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, the time-averaged maximum velocity, and the derived indexes (resistive index) and pulsatility index) of the testicular artery were measured in two localizations: in the spermatic cord and on the caudal epididymal edge of the testicle. On the spermatic cord, the peak systolic velocity of the testicular artery increased significantly at T12. However, on the epididymal edge location of the artery, the pulsatility and resistive indexes were decreased at T12 (P < 0.05). This pattern of blood flow was related to a hyperemic process. Furthermore, SLPFH might have compressed the spermatic cord, causing a slight occlusion of the testicular artery and triggering a compensatory hyperemia to compensate the deficit of blood flow that supplies the testes. The SLPFH of the internal inguinal ring affected the testicular perfusion in stallions in a 1 year follow-up, although there was no effect on sperm production during this time. The spectral Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool to asses the testicular perfusion after reproductive

  20. Testicular perfusion after standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty in stallions.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Calvo, L A; Duque, J; Balao da Silva, C; Ezquerra, J; Ortega-Ferrusola, C

    2015-09-15

    Acquired inguinal herniation is a very common condition in stallions, usually leading to unilateral or bilateral castration to prevent future recurrence. Recently, several surgical techniques such as the standing laparoscopic peritoneal flap hernioplasty (SLPFH) have been developed to avoid herniation recurrence and also preserve the breeding activity of high economic value stallions. However, studies on SLPFH lack more comprehensive and systematic data about reproductive-related adverse effects and outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SLPFH of the internal inguinal rings produces changes in the testicular blood flow in a 1-year follow-up. For that purpose, six healthy stallions were used and testicular blood flow was assessed before, 3, 6, and 12 months (T0, T3, T6, and T12) after the procedure. Blood flow was evaluated ultrasonographically, using the pulsed-wave color Doppler mode. Peak systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, the time-averaged maximum velocity, and the derived indexes (resistive index) and pulsatility index) of the testicular artery were measured in two localizations: in the spermatic cord and on the caudal epididymal edge of the testicle. On the spermatic cord, the peak systolic velocity of the testicular artery increased significantly at T12. However, on the epididymal edge location of the artery, the pulsatility and resistive indexes were decreased at T12 (P < 0.05). This pattern of blood flow was related to a hyperemic process. Furthermore, SLPFH might have compressed the spermatic cord, causing a slight occlusion of the testicular artery and triggering a compensatory hyperemia to compensate the deficit of blood flow that supplies the testes. The SLPFH of the internal inguinal ring affected the testicular perfusion in stallions in a 1 year follow-up, although there was no effect on sperm production during this time. The spectral Doppler ultrasound is a useful tool to asses the testicular perfusion after reproductive

  1. Effects of Microgravity or Simulated Launch on Testicular Function in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.; Wolgemuth, D. J.; Williams, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Testes from flight rats on COSMOS 2044 and simulated-launch, vivarium, or caudal-elevation control rats (5/group) were analyzed by subjective and quantitative methods. On the basis of observations of fixed tissue, it was evident that some rats had testicular abnormalities unassociated with treatment and probably existing when they were assigned randomly to the four treatment groups. Considering rats without preexisting abnormalities, diameter of seminiferous tubules and numbers of germ cells per tubule cross section were lower (P less than 0.05) in flight than in simulated-launch or vivarium rats. However, ratios of germ cells to each other or to Sertoli cells and number of homogenization-resistant spermatids did not differ from values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Expression of testis-specific gene products was not greatly altered by flight. Furthermore, there was no evidence for production of stress-inducible transcripts of the hsp7O or hsp9O genes. Concentration of receptors for rat luteinizing hormone in testicular tissue and surface density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cells were similar in flight and simulated-launch rats. However, concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced (P less than 0.05) in flight rats to less than 20% of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Thus spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed. Exposure to microgravity for more than 2 wk might result in additional changes. Sequelae of reduced androgen production associated with microgravity on turnover of muscle and bone should be considered.

  2. Discovery – Cisplatin and The Treatment of Testicular and Other Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Prior to the discovery of cisplatin in 1965, men with testicular cancer had few medical options. Now, thanks to NCI research, cisplatin and similar chemotherapy drugs are known for curing testicular and other forms of cancer.

  3. NOVEL MOLECULAR TARGETS IMPLICATED IN TESTICULAR DYSGENESIS INDUCED BY GESTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE (DEHP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate-induced Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome describes reproductive alterations in human males such as: hypospadias, cryptorchism, low sperm counts, and testicular cancer. This work is the first comprehensive evaluation of the rat fetal testis proteome following phthalate exp...

  4. Parents' choices in banking boys' testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F

    2010-12-01

    Researchers are working to derive sperm from banked testicular tissue taken from pre-pubertal boys who face therapies or injuries that destroy sperm production. Success in deriving sperm from this tissue will help to preserve the option for these boys to have genetically related children later in life. For the twin moral reasons of preserving access and equity in regard to having such children, clinicians and researchers are justified in offering the option to the parents of all affected boys. However, some parents may wish to decline the option to bank tissue from their boys because the technique may seem too unfamiliar or unusual, but over time people may become more comfortable with the technique as they have done with other novel assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs). Other parents may wish to decline the option because of moral or religious reasons. A prominent natural law theory holds, for example, that the ARTs that would be involved in using sperm derived from banked tissue to produce a child are morally objectionable. Some parents might not want to bank tissue in order to shield their son from using ARTs they see as objectionable. Clinicians and researchers should respect parents who wish to decline banking tissue, but parents should ordinarily embrace choices that protect the possible interests their sons may have as adult men, including the wish to have genetically related children.

  5. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome. PMID:20607225

  6. Adolescent and adult risk factors for testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Trabert, Britton

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of testicular cancer has been increasing over the past several decades in many developed countries. The reasons for the increases are unknown because risk factors for the disease are poorly understood. Some research suggests that exposures in utero or in early childhood are likely to be important in determining an individual's level of risk. However, other research suggests that exposure to various factors in adolecence and adulthood are also linked to the development of testicular cancer. Of these, two occupational exposures—firefighting and aircraft maintenance—and one environmental exposure (to organochloride pesticides) are likely to be associated with increased risk of developing testicular cancer. By contrast, six of the identified factors—diet, types of physical activity, military service as well as exposure to ionizing radiation, electricity and acrylamide—are unlikely to increase the risk of developing testicular cancer. Finally, seven further exposures—to heat, polyvinylchloride, nonionizing radiation, heavy metals, agricultural work, pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as marijuana use—require further study to determine their association with testicular cancer. PMID:22508459

  7. Testicular atrophy in the spontaneously diabetic BB Wistar rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J. R.; Yates, A. J.; Sharma, H. M.; Shim, C.; Tigner, R. L.; Thibert, P.

    1982-01-01

    Complete gross and microscopic postmortem examinations were performed on 100 BB Wistar diabetic rats, 27 BB Wistar nondiabetic siblings, and 41 Wistar rats, and the incidence of testicular lesions was tabulated. Testicular atrophy was the predominant finding in all three groups of rats, but atrophy occurred at a much younger age in the diabetic rats. There was a strong relationship between the duration of diabetes and the presence of atrophy, which was stronger than the relationship between age and atrophy. The testicular atrophy observed in the diabetic rats was morphologically similar to the senile testicular atrophy in the nondiabetic rats. Histologic findings that were associated with increasing severity of atrophy were multinucleated giant cells in the lumens of seminiferous tubules, increased interstitial connective tissue, Leydig cell hyperplasia, and thickening of the tunica albuginea. Testicular atrophy has also been reported in human diabetics. Therefore, the BB Wistar rat may be a useful model for investigating this aspect of diabetes mellitus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7091303

  8. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    PubMed

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  9. mTOR expression in human testicular seminoma.

    PubMed

    Yaba, A; Bozkurt, E R; Demir, N

    2016-08-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (TOR) has been implicated in the control of different stressors, growth factors, nutrients and hormones, participating in the control of key cellular functions. Controlling this many pathways poses mTOR signalling as a potential new target in new treatment strategies for multiple cancer types. mTOR components could potentially mislocated in tumour cells, which could lead to activation of signalling pathway that should not be active. Therefore, we aimed to show localisation of mTOR signal proteins in testicular seminoma. Tumoural testicular tissues were obtained from 10 patients with unilateral classic seminoma undergoing to therapeutic orchidectomy and compared with control human testicular tissues. Upon immunohistochemical evaluation, we detected mTOR and p-mTOR (serine 2448), P70S6K, p-P70S6K, PKCalpha and p-PKCalpha, CD36 and MAPLC3 proteins in the cytoplasm of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules. We also showed cytoplasmic perinuclear staining in seminoma cells. This study demonstrated the interaction of mTOR signalling pathway and testicular seminoma by showing intense cytoplasmic mTOR pathway proteins immunoreactivity in the seminoma, for the first time in humans. Therefore, we suggested that mTOR signalling components could create new clinical targets for treatment of testicular seminoma patients and male infertility in the future.

  10. [Effect of antineoplastic agents and ionizing radiation on a human testicular cancer heterograft].

    PubMed

    Osieka, R; Bamberg, M; Pfeiffer, R; Glatte, P; Scherer, E; Schmidt, C G

    1985-01-01

    Chemotherapy has afforded a high percentage of definitive cures in advanced testicular cancer. Nevertheless some patients with large tumor burden still succumb to chemorefractory disease. Therefore preclinical and clinical evaluation of new drugs and agents not primarily used against this type of disease are still mandatory. For preclinical drug screening purposes heterotransplantation of specific human tumors yields a model with high validity for tumor markers and drug response. Heterotransplantation of a human embryonal testicular cancer was used for simultaneous testing of established agents such as cisplatin, melphalan, bleomycin, vinblastine, etoposide and adriamycin and some newer derivatives such as PHM or mafosfamide. Furthermore agents such as procarbazine, dacarbazine and methyl-CCNU that cross the blood-brain-barrier displayed some interesting activity. The results hint at a unique chemosensitivity pattern of the xenograft line, with some accordance between clinical response to vinblastine and bleomycin and good response of the xenografts to bleomycin but not to vinblastine. Radiotherapy was also effective against this tumor line, but there was not much difference in response when the schedule of fractionation was changed. It is concluded that a combined modality approach might salvage patients with residual, chemorefractory disease.

  11. Trilostane and the normal hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Semple, C G; Weir, S W; Thomson, J A; Beastall, G H

    1982-07-01

    Trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of the 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme system, has adrenal blocking activity and has been used to treat Cushing's syndrome and other disease. To investigate is effect on the normal human hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, trilostane (initially 240 mg/day) was given to ten healthy adult males, the dose increasing at weekly intervals by 240 mg/day up to 960 mg/day. When chromatography was used to remove trilostane and metabolites from the assay system, serum testosterone was found to fall on trilostane therapy (P less than 0.01) and this was accompanied by a rise in LH (P less than 0.01). The responses of FSH and LH to LHRH were unaffected by treatment. It is concluded that trilostane inhibits human testicular 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and male patients on trilostane should be monitored for sexual dysfunction and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis.

  12. Interaction of cadmium with hepatic and testicular microsomal enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, L.T.

    1982-01-01

    Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, inhibits or activates a number of microsomal enzymes. Among the enzymes affected by cadmium are cytochrome P-450 containing mixed-function oxidases (MFO) which are present in both the liver and testis. Cadmium affects MFO activity, and as a result, cadmium-induced alterations in BP metabolism might alter BP toxicity in the liver or testis. In addition, MFO essential for testosterone production are located in the testis and cadmium-MFO interactions in the testis might alter androgen production. Therefore studies were carried out to evaluate the interaction of cadmium with heptic and testicular MFO. The results indicated that cadmium affected the activities of hepatic and testicular MFO and in so doing may influence the toxicity of BP and other chemicals in liver and testes. In addition, exposure to metals may also compromise testicular androgen biosynthesis.

  13. Diagnosis of Testicular Adrenal Rest Tumors on Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Yang, Zheng; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Huang, Yang; LI, Wei; Liu, Jin-Ya; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Lin, Man-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) on baseline ultrasound (BUS). The imaging features of 30 TART lesions pathologically or clinically confirmed in 15 patients who had undergone BUS were evaluated, and the sonographic characteristics of the lesions were analyzed. All 15 cases were bilateral and located near the testicular mediastinum. Approximately 56.7% (17/30) of the TART lesions exhibited homogeneous hypoechogenicity, 36.7% (11/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous hypoechogenicity, and 6.6% (2/30) of the lesions exhibited heterogeneous isoechogenicity. In addition, 76.7% (23/30) of the lesions exhibited a rich blood supply, whereas 23.3% (7/30) of the lesions exhibited a scarce blood supply. The sonographic characteristics of the TARTs were bilateral growth, location adjacent to the testicular mediastinum, hypoechogenicity, and rich blood supply, which may play important roles in early clinical diagnosis. PMID:26356704

  14. Leydig cell damage after testicular irradiation for lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Shalet, S.M.; Horner, A.; Ahmed, S.R.; Morris-Jones, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of testicular irradiation on Leydig cell function has been studied in a group of boys irradiated between 1 and 5 years earlier for a testicular relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Six of the seven boys irradiated during prepubertal life had an absent testosterone response to HCG stimulation. Two of the four boys irradiated during puberty had an appropriate basal testosterone level, but the testosterone response to HCG stimulation was subnormal in three of the four. Abnormalities in gonadotropin secretion consistent with testicular damage were noted in nine of the 11 boys. Evidence of severe Leydig cell damage was present irrespective of whether the boys were studied within 1 year or between 3 and 5 years after irradiation, suggesting that recovery is unlikely. Androgen replacement therapy has been started in four boys and will be required by the majority of the remainder to undergo normal pubertal development.

  15. Lonidamine affects testicular steroid hormones in immature mice

    SciTech Connect

    Traina, Maria Elsa . E-mail: Traina@iss.it; Guarino, Maria; Natoli, Alessia; Romeo, Antonella; Urbani, Elisabetta

    2007-05-15

    The effects on the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis of the well-known antispermatogenic drug lonidamine (LND) has not been elucidated so far. In the present study, the possible changes of the testicular steroid hormones were evaluated in immature mice for a better characterization of the LND adverse effects both in its use as antitumoral agent and male contraceptive. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on postnatal day 28 (PND28) with LND single doses (0 or 100 mg/kg b.w.) and euthanized every 24 h from PND29 to PND32, on PND35 and on PND42 (1 and 2 weeks after the administration, respectively). Severe testicular effects were evidenced in the LND treated groups, including: a) significant testis weight increase, 24 h and 48 h after dosing; b) sperm head counts decrease (more than 50% of the control) on PND29-32; c) damage of the tubule morphology primarily on the Sertoli cell structure and germ cell exfoliation. All these reproductive endpoints were recovered on PND42. At the same time, a significant impairment of the testicular steroid balance was observed in the treated mice, as evidenced by the decrease of testosterone (T) and androstenedione (ADIONE) and the increase of 17OH-progesterone (17OH-P4) on the first days after dosing, while the testicular content of 17{beta}-estradiol (E2) was unchanged. The hormonal balance was not completely restored afterwards, as levels of T, ADIONE and 17OH-P4 tended to be higher in the treated mice than in the controls, on PND35 and PND42. These data showed for the first time that LND affects intratesticular steroids in experimental animals. However further data are needed both to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the impairment of these metabolic pathways and to understand if the androgens decrease observed after LND administration could be partially involved in the testicular damage.

  16. Cadmium exposure increases susceptibility to testicular autoimmunity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuki; Itoh, Masahiro; Hirai, Shuichi; Suna, Shigeru; Naito, Munekazu; Qu, Ning; Terayama, Hayato; Ikeda, Ayumi; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Mori, Chisato

    2013-07-01

    Cadmium, one of various environmental toxicants, is known to suppress systemic immunity and to injure the testicular capillary endothelia with resultant necrosis of testicular tissues in mice and rats treated with high doses. Recently, it also became evident that cadmium can affect the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB), the endocrine function of Leydig cells, apoptosis of germ cells and systemic immunity, even on treatment with a low dose that does not induce spermatogenic disturbance. Experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), i.e., an organ-specific autoimmunity of the testis, can be induced by repeated immunization with testicular antigens, and its pathology is characterized by lymphocytic inflammation and spermatogenic disturbance. In the present study, we investigated the morphological and functional changes of testes in mice treated with a low dose of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 ) and also examined its toxicity as to susceptibility to EAO. The results showed that exposure to 3 mg CdCl2 kg(-1) body weight did not affect the spermatogenic state. However, the BTB at the tubuli recti and the rete testis, but not the seminiferous tubules, was slightly weakened, and intra-testicular mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1β was significantly increased by the CdCl2 treatment. Furthermore, immunization with testicular antigens after the CdCl2 exposure significantly augmented the EAO severity. Therefore, exposure to a low dose of CdCl2 induces no significant disturbance of spermatogenesis, however, it does change the immunological microcircumstances in the testis, resulting in increased susceptibility to testicular autoimmunity. PMID:22271428

  17. Lunar synchronization of testicular development and steroidogenesis in rabbitfish.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M S; Takemura, A; Takano, K

    2001-06-01

    Lunar synchronization of testicular development in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus, was assessed by measuring changes in sperm motility and conditions in the seminal plasma, and by in vitro production of steroid hormones in testicular fragments and sperm preparations. The duration and percentage of sperm motility was low 1 week before spawning (the new moon), but increased significantly on the day of spawning (the first lunar quarter). During the first lunar quarter, the osmolality decreased, but Ca(2+) concentration increased in the seminal plasma. These results suggest that spermiation occurs rapidly towards the specific lunar phase. Testicular fragments and sperm preparations were incubated with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and two precursor steroid hormones, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17alpha-OHP) and testosterone (T), during the two lunar phases. The production of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) increased significantly when the testicular fragments were incubated with hCG at the first lunar quarter, while incubation of sperm preparations with 17alpha-OHP during the same moon phase resulted in a significant increase in 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) production in the medium. These results suggest that 11-KT is produced in the somatic cells of the testis under the influence of gonadotropin, and that sperm can convert 17alpha-OHP to DHP. Additionally, steroidogenic activity was considered to increase toward the specific lunar phase. The synchronous increase in testicular activity supports the hypothesis that lunar periodicity is a major factor for the testicular development of S. guttatus.

  18. Testicular hyperthermia induces Unfolded Protein Response signaling activation in spermatocyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Hak; Park, Sun-Ji; Kim, Tae-Shin; Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Junghyung; Kim, Bo Kyung; Kim, Gyeong-Ryul; Kim, Jin-Man; Huang, Song Mei; Chae, Jung-Il; Park, Choon-Keun; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2013-05-17

    The testes of most mammals are sensitive to temperature. To survive and adapt under conditions that promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as heat shock, cells have a self-protective mechanism against ER stress that has been termed the "Unfolded Protein Response" (UPR). However, the cellular and molecular events underlying spermatogenesis with testicular hyperthermia involved in the UPR signaling pathway under ER stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, we verified that UPR signaling via phospho-eIF2α/ATF4/GADD34, p90ATF6, and phospho-IRE1α/XBP-1 is activated with testicular hyperthermia (43 °C, 15 min/day) and induced ER stress-mediated apoptosis associated with CHOP, phospho-JNK, and caspase-3 after repetitive periods of hyperthermia. Levels of phospho-eIF2α protein of mouse spermatocytes in the testis were rapidly increased by one cycle of testicular hyperthermia. ATF4/GADD34 and p90ATF6 expression gradually increased and decreased, respectively, with repetitive cycles of hyperthermia. Spliced XBP1 mRNA as a marker of IRE1 activity was increased after one, three cycles of hyperthermia and decreased by five cycles of hyperthermia. Although the levels of anti-apoptotic phospho-JNK (p54) were gradually decreased after three cycles of hyperthermia, CHOP expression was rapidly increased. After five cycles of testicular hyperthermia, the levels of cleaved caspase-3 and TUNEL-positive apoptotic spermatocytes cells were significantly increased. Our data demonstrated that testicular hyperthermia induces UPR signaling and repetitive cycles of hyperthermia lead to apoptosis of spermatocytes in mouse testis. These results suggest a link between the UPR signaling pathway and testicular hyperthermia.

  19. Pathology of testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, G L

    1991-12-01

    The pathology report on a testicular germ cell tumor should include the following information: Tumor type: The histologic type of tumor present. If the tumor is of mixed type, the components should be listed, in order of relative abundance. The pathologist may endeavor to give a numeric estimate of the percentages of each element. Staging information: The size of the tumor should be listed. Local spread--into rete testis, tunica albuginea, epididymis, and spermatic cord--should be listed. If the cord is involved, possible involvement of its surgical resection margin should be assessed. Vascular/lymphatic invasion should be assessed for its presence or absence. Status of the remainder of the testis: Evidence of cryptorchidism or other dysgenetic features should be mentioned. Such features may imply a greater risk for the development of a contralateral tumor. Also, the presence of normal spermatogenesis elsewhere in the uninvolved testis should be reported. This finding may suggest a relatively decreased risk for contralateral tumor development and is a likely indicator of fertility should the patient consider sperm banking prior to retroperitoneal surgery and chemotherapy. The finding of mature sperm in the epididymis is an easy way to confirm spermatogenesis in the testis. Incidental findings: Lipomas or hydroceles of the cord, adrenal rests, and adnexal cysts may be found. The pathologist plays a crucial role in the diagnosis of germ cell tumors. In addition to elucidating tumor type, the pathologist is relied upon for precise local staging and for the classification of metastases, all of which have important implications in determining optimal therapy. As the clinical management of germ cell tumors evolves, the pathologist will continue to play a role in defining those features that have a bearing on patient outcome.

  20. [Hypomagnesemia following chemotherapy of disseminated testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Hida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Okada, Y; Okada, K; Yoshida, O

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen patients with metastatic testicular cancer were treated with combination chemotherapy including cisplatin (CDDP) at 3- to 4-week intervals for two to five courses. There was a sequential fall in serum magnesium with each course of therapy: 13 of the 16 patients (81%) became hypomagnesemic, and the median magnesium nadir was 1.67 mg/dl. Serum magnesium nadir levels gradually decreased according to the cumulative CDDP dose. Acute clinical effects of the hypomagnesemia were observed in 4 patients, 2 of them complained of neuromuscular disturbance in the extremities, one of cardiac arrhythmia, and the other of Raynaud's phenomenon. The median time to the onset of hypomagnesemia was 67 days and the duration of hypomagnesemia was 24 days. The creatinine clearance (Ccr) decreased gradually according to the cumulative CDDP dose, and the mean Ccr declined from 87.2 ml/min before therapy to 55.8 ml/min. In 3 out of 16 patients, an irreversible decrease to below 50 ml/min was seen after chemotherapy. In patients with normal renal function treated by VAB-6 regimen, creatinine clearance (Ccr) decreased transiently during each course of chemotherapy and returned to the pretreatment level during the interval. The mean creatinine clearance declined from 90.7 ml/min before therapy to 82.9 ml/min after three courses of induction chemotherapy. Urinary excretion of beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2MG) increased transiently before Ccr began to decrease during each course of chemotherapy. Serum potassium and calcium concentrations decreased transiently probably due to urinary losses but there was no significant relationship between hypopotassemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Pulmonary Metastatic Choriocarcinoma from a Burned-out Testicular Tumor.

    PubMed

    Nakazaki, Hirofumi; Tokuyasu, Hirokazu; Takemoto, Yu; Miura, Hiroshi; Yanai, Masaaki; Fukushima, Takehito; Shimizu, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of progressive dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed multiple nodular shadows with a peripheral ground-glass halo. His clinical condition continued to deteriorate with the development of progressive respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. A histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy revealed choriocarcinoma. The patient died within nine days of admission. A histological examination of the right testis during an autopsy revealed a burned-out testicular tumor consisting of a teratoma and a fibrous scar. We herein report a rare case of pulmonary multiple metastatic choriocarcinoma originating from a burned-out testicular tumor. PMID:27250057

  2. Testicular atrophy in Columbian black-tailed deer in California.

    PubMed

    DeMartini, J C; Connolly, G E

    1975-01-01

    During an 18-year period, 4.1% (34/831) of male deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) killed on a field station during the autumn hunting season had velvet-covered, often misshapen antlers, and at least two deer had testicular atrophy (gonads from most deer were not available for examination). Testes from six similarly affected deer and several normal deer were compared histologically. Lesions ranged from hypocellularity of the semeniferous tubules and relative hyperplasia or degeneration of interstitial cells to complete connective tissue replacement of the testicular parencyma. Chronic vascular changes were present in several testes. The etiology and pathogenesis of the lesions were not determined.

  3. High origin and unusual suprarenal branch of a testicular artery.

    PubMed

    Brohi, R A; Sargon, M F; Yener, N

    2001-06-01

    In a 42 year-old male cadaver, the left testicular artery was found to originate from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta at the level of origin of the left renal artery. It ran parallel and just inferior to the left renal artery and gave off a branch which supplied the left suprarenal gland. The course, relations and branching of this suprarenal branch differed from the very rare cases found in the literature. Awareness of the possible existence of such variations of the testicular arteries is of great importance during surgical procedures.

  4. Imatinib Mesylate in Treating Patients With Progressive, Refractory, or Recurrent Stage II or Stage III Testicular or Ovarian Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-15

    Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Recurrent Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Malignant Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Stage III Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Seminoma

  5. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: A focus on contralateral testicular cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961–1989 and 1996–2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970–2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups. PMID:24407180

  6. Mortality in patients with testicular cancer: report of the Anglia and Trent testicular tumour groups.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, M; Sikora, K

    1986-01-01

    The overall prognosis of patients with testicular cancer has improved dramatically over the past decade. Most patients are now treated in regional oncology centres in general hospitals. The cause of death was determined in 52 patients in the East Anglian and Trent regions who presented between 1980 and 1984. The overall mortality was 10.8%. Thirty four patients died with progressive disease, 12 of treatment related problems, two suddenly at home in between chemotherapy courses, and four of incidental causes. Reasons for treatment failure and for the deaths related to treatment were analysed and several recommendations made to reduce the death rate in this highly curable disease predominantly of young men. PMID:3947926

  7. Testicular carcinoma: a study of knowledge, awareness, and practice of testicular self-examination in male soldiers and military physicians.

    PubMed

    Singer, A J; Tichler, T; Orvieto, R; Finestone, A; Moskovitz, M

    1993-10-01

    Multiple-choice questionnaires devised to evaluate knowledge and awareness of testicular carcinoma and the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE) were distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 military physicians in the Israeli army. Twenty-one percent of the soldiers had received explanations about the importance of TSE; 16% actually received instruction on TSE; yet only 2% practiced TSE regularly. Seventy percent of physicians had been taught how to examine testicles, but only 10% of physicians examined testicles in their routine physical exams. TSE was practiced most frequently among soldiers who had received instruction in the technique. Physicians should encourage their young male patients to practice TSE.

  8. Leydig-cell function in children after direct testicular irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Brauner, R.; Czernichow, P.; Cramer, P.; Schaison, G.; Rappaport, R.

    1983-07-07

    To assess the effect of testicular irradiation on testicular endocrine function, we studied 12 boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had been treated with direct testicular irradiation 10 months to 8 1/2 years earlier. Insufficient Leydig-cell function, manifested by a low response of plasma testosterone to chorionic gonadotropin or an increased basal level of plasma luteinizing hormone (or both), was observed in 10 patients, 7 of whom were pubertal. Two of these patients had a compensated testicular endocrine insufficiency with only high plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Testosterone secretion was severely impaired in three pubertal boys studied more than four years after testicular irradiation. A diminished testicular volume indicating tubular atrophy was found in all pubertal patients, including three who had not received cyclophosphamide or cytarabine. These data indicate that testosterone insufficiency is a frequent complication of testicular irradiation, although some patients continue to have Leydig-cell activity for several years after therapy.

  9. Optical diagnosis of testicular torsion: feasibility and methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Stothers, Lynn; Kajbafzadeh, A. M.

    2014-03-01

    Background: Torsion of the testis compromises blood flow through the spermatic cord; testicular ischemia results which if not diagnosed promptly and corrected surgically irrevocably damages the testis. Current diagnostic modalities aimed at rationalizing surgical exploration by demonstrating interruption of spermatic cord blood flow or testicular ischemia have limited applicability. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) offers a non-invasive optical method for detection of ischemia; continuous wave and frequency domain devices have been used experimentally; no device customized for clinical use has been designed. Methods: A miniature spatially resolved NIRS device with light emitting diode light source was applied over the right and left spermatic cord and the difference in oxygen saturation between the two sides measured. Results: In a 14-month old boy with a history of unilateral testicular pain color Doppler ultrasonography was equivocal but the NIRS-derived tissue oxygen saturation index (TSI) was significantly reduced on the left side. Confirmation of torsion of the left testicle was made surgically. Conclusions: Spatially resolved NIRS monitoring of spermatic cord oxygen saturation is feasible in children, adding to prior studies of testicular oxygen saturation in adults. Customized device design and further clinical trials would enhance the applicability of NIRS as a diagnostic entity for torsion.

  10. Bilateral metastatic spread of testicular teratoma to mandibular condyles.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Chaudhry, Z; Griffiths, M J; Scully, C; Kabala, J; Whipp, E

    1996-09-01

    The clinical and radiological features of a patient with metastatic spread of testicular teratoma to both mandibular condyles are presented. It is suggested that in patients with known systemic malignancy, a local metastatic deposit should be considered as a possible cause of unexplained pain in the temporomandibular joints.

  11. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE TESTICULAR TOXICITY OF HALOACETIC ACIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic analysis of the testicular toxicity of haloacetic acids

    David J. Dix and John C. Rockett
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, R...

  12. Pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 expression in testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Pierconti, F; Milardi, D; Martini, M; Grande, G; Cenci, T; Gulino, G; Larocca, L M; Rindi, G; Pontecorvi, A; De Marinis, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic instability is a feature of germ cell tumours. The pituitary-tumour-transforming-gene 1 (PTTG1) is the major effector of chromosome segregation during mitosis, protecting the cell from aneuploidy. The protein expression of this gene has been evaluated in testicular tumours by immunohistochemistry. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded specimens of testicular tissues from 83 patients undergoing therapeutic orchidectomy for seminomas (n = 53), embryonal carcinoma (n = 10), yolk sac tumour (n = 10) and teratoma (n = 10) were examined. Seminoma was associated with in situ carcinoma (CIS) in 23 samples. PTTG1 immunostaining was performed using rabbit anti-PTTG1 as a primary antibody. In CIS, only isolated cells showed nuclear staining for PTTG1. In the peripheral area of seminoma, PTTG1 was mostly detected as localised in the nucleus; in the central area of seminoma, PTTG1 staining was more intense in cytoplasm. PTTG1-positive cells were also present in the areas of seminoma infiltration. On the other hand, in embryonal carcinoma, cells had a diffuse positive immunostaining, mainly cytoplasmatic, while we did not observe an expression of PTTG1 in yolk sac tumour and mature teratoma. We firstly identified the PTTG1 expression pattern in normal testis, CIS and testicular cancer. Further investigation is needed to clarify the functional activity of PTTG1 in testicular oncogenesis. PMID:24754453

  13. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  14. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers.

  15. Recent advances in the genetics of testicular failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Hun; Chiba, Koji; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lamb, Dolores J

    2016-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples, and male factor is responsible for 30%–50% of all infertility. The most severe form of male infertility is testicular failure, and the typical phenotype of testicular failure is severely impaired spermatogenesis resulting in azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Although the etiology of testicular failure remains poorly understood, genetic factor typically is an underlying cause. Modern assisted reproductive techniques have revolutionized the treatment of male factor infertility, allowing biological fatherhood to be achieved by many men who would otherwise have been unable to become father to their children through natural conception. Therefore, identifying genetic abnormalities in male is critical because of the potential risk of transmission of genetic abnormalities to the offspring. Recently, along with other intense researches ongoing, whole-genome approaches have been used increasingly in the genetic studies of male infertility. In this review, we focus on the genetics of testicular failure and provide an update on the advances in the study of genetics of male infertility. PMID:27048782

  16. Refining the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Romero, Frederico R; Wagner, Andrew; Brito, Fabio A; Muntener, Michael; Lima, Guilherme C; Kavoussi, Louis R

    2006-01-01

    Since its initial description, the laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection has evolved considerably, from a purely diagnostic tool performed to stage germ cell testicular cancer to a therapeutic operation that fully duplicates the open technique. Herein, we describe the current technique employed at our institution, along with illustrations of all surgical steps, and delineate the refinements of the technique over time.

  17. Testicular dysmorphism associated with abdominoscrotal hydroceles during infancy.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, S A; Kirsch, A J; Thall, E H; Emanuel, E R; Hensle, T W

    1995-12-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) in infancy is a rarely reported condition. We present an 11-week-old infant who was born with massive scrotal enlargement. At exploration, he was found to have large bilateral ASHs and bilateral fusiform testes. Gross morphologic testicular changes associated with hydrocele have previously only been reported in adults. Our patient is the youngest to be reported with ASHs.

  18. Testicular damage and farming environments - An integrative ecotoxicological link.

    PubMed

    Parelho, Carolina; Bernardo, Filipe; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo Santos; Garcia, Patrícia

    2016-07-01

    The exposure to agrochemicals during farming activities affects the function of the reproductive system, as revealed by the increasing worldwide evidence of male infertility amongst farmers. The main objective of this study was to untangle the link between agricultural practices and male reproductive impairment due to chronic exposure to xenobiotics (such as agrochemicals) in conventional and organic farming environments. For this purpose, male wild mice (Mus musculus) populations from sites representing two distinct farming practices (conventional and organic farming systems) were used as bioindicators for observable effects of testicular damage, namely on a set of histological and cellular parameters: (i) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (ii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iii) apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results showed that mice from the conventional farming site bioaccumulated higher Pb hepatic loads, while mice from the organic farming site tend to bioaccumulate higher Cd hepatic loads. In general, for the analyzed testicular damage related parameters, mice from the organic farming site showed a similar performance than mice from the reference site. Mice from the conventional farming site stood out not only by underperforming in most studied parameters, while displaying an association between Pb hepatic loads and the observed testicular structural and functional disruption, but also by the increased stress index (Integrated Biomarker Response value). This study highlights the potential damaging effects of conventional farming practices on testicular structure and function, under natural conditions, raising concern about ensuing fertility risks for farmers. PMID:27108371

  19. Testicular resistive index determined by Doppler ultrasonography in men with spinal cord injury - a case series.

    PubMed

    Krebs, J; Göcking, K; Pannek, J

    2015-09-01

    In this case series, the testicular resistive index was determined in men with spinal cord injury. In ten men participating in our fertility programme, the peak systolic and end-diastolic velocity of centripetal testicular arteries was measured in triplicates by Doppler ultrasonography to calculate the testicular resistive index. Furthermore, the right and left testicular volume was determined by ultrasonography, blood samples were obtained for hormonal evaluation, and sperm analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines. The median testicular resistive index measured 0.69 and was significantly (P < 0.001) greater than the reported cut-off value of 0.6. The spermiograms were characterised by normal sperm count but decreased sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity. The median right and left testicular volume was significantly (P < 0.01) smaller compared to the volumes measured in able-bodied adult males without scrotal pathology and measured 8.4 ml and 7.2 ml respectively. There was a significant (P = 0.005) correlation (rs  = 0.81) between testicular resistive index and sperm concentration. However, no correlations were observed between testicular resistive index and other variables. The testicular resistive index in men with spinal cord injury was significantly greater than 0.6. Measuring the testicular resistive index may represent a useful additional parameter in the assessment of infertility in spinal cord-injured men. PMID:25228165

  20. Modulating testicular mass in xenografting: a model to explore testis development and endocrine function.

    PubMed

    Schlatt, Stefan; Gassei, Kathrin; Westernströer, Birgit; Ehmcke, Jens

    2010-08-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is involved in both the regulation of growth of the developing testis and in controlling spermatogenic and steroidogenic activity in the adult testis. Here, we develop a novel testicular xenografting model to examine to which degree testicular growth and function are controlled by intra- and extratesticular factors. Two or eight halves of neonatal Djungarian hamster testes were implanted into intact, hemicastrated, or castrated nude mouse recipients, and the development of the grafts under reduced or increased competition of testicular tissue was monitored and analyzed. We hypothesized that the outgrowth of the testicular grafts is influenced by the total amount of testicular tissue present in a host and that less testicular tissue in a host would result in more extended outgrowth of the grafts. Our results reveal that the hypothesis is wrong, because implanted hamster testis tissue irrespectively of the grafting condition grows to a similar size revealing an intrinsic mechanism for testicular growth. In contrast, similar size of seminal vesicle as bio-indicator of androgen levels in all hosts revealed that the steroidogenic activity is independent from the mass of testicular tissue and that steroid levels are extrinsically regulated by the recipient's HPG axis. We propose that the model of testicular xenografting provides highly valuable options to explore testicular growth and endocrine regulation of the HPG axis.

  1. A comparison of ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa aneuploidy rates in patients with high sperm DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Alladin, Naazish; Lo, Kirk C; Jarvi, Keith; Mullen, J Brendan M; Librach, Clifford L

    2012-06-01

    Testicular spermatozoa are utilized to achieve pregnancy in couples with severe male factor infertility. Several studies suggest that aneuploidy rates in spermatozoa are elevated at the testicular level in infertile patients compared to ejaculates of normal controls. However, essential data regarding aneuploidy rates between ejaculated and testicular spermatozoa in the same individuals is lacking. The purpose of our study was to compare aneuploidy rates at the testicular and post-testicular level from the same patients with persistently high sperm DNA damage. Ejaculates and testicular biopsies were obtained from eight patients with persistently high DNA damage (>30%). Both ejaculated and testicular samples were analyzed for sperm DNA damage and sperm aneuploidy for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y. In addition, semen samples from ten normozoospermic men presenting for fertility evaluation served as a control group. A strong correlation between the alteration of spermatogenesis and chromatin deterioration was observed in our study. In the same individuals, testicular samples showed a significantly lower DNA damage compared to ejaculated spermatozoa (14.9% ± 5.0 vs. 40.6% ± 14.8, P<0.05), but significantly higher aneuploidy rates for the five analyzed chromosomes (12.41% ± 3.7 vs. 5.77% ± 1.2, P<0.05). While testicular spermatozoa appear favourable for ICSI in terms of lower DNA damage, this potential advantage could be offset by the higher aneuploidy rates in testicular spermatozoa.

  2. Altered accumulation and subcellular disposition of testicular cadmium in inbred mice resistant to cadmium-induced testicular necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chellman, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Rodent testis is one of the most sensitive mammalian tissues to the toxic effects of acutely administered Cd. However, numerous inbred mouse strains are resistant to Cd-induced testicular damage, even at lethal Cd doses; the mechanism of this resistance has not been determined. Therefore, testes of mice susceptible (129/J) or resistant (A/J) to Cd-induced damage were examined for possible differences in the accumulation and subcellular disposition of Cd. Twenty-four hours after subcutaneous injection of mice with 30 ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg, 129/J testes showed extensive interstitial hemorrhage and seminiferous tubule necrosis, while A/J testes appeared histologically normal. Testicular Cd accumulation was 5-6 times less in A/J mice than in 129/J mice at all time points examined. Chromatography of testicular cytosol on Sephadex G-75 Superfine revealed four Cd-binding peaks. Both 15 min and 6 hr after dosing, A/J testes had 14% more of the total tissue Cd bound to the 14,500 MW protein (Cd-BP III), compared to 129/J testes, Cd-BP III behaved like metallothionein during gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Additional mice were injected i.v. with 10 (129/J) or 45 (A/J) ..mu..moles CdCl/sub 2//kg to achieve equal testicular Cd concentrations (approx. 4 nmoles Cd/g testis). Twenty-four hours later, 129/J testes were necrotic while A/J testes showed no microscopic evidence of damage. Therefore, resistance of A/J testes to Cd is not determined solely by decreased Cd accumulation, but is associated with increased binding of testicular Cd to Cd-BP III.

  3. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. Results There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in oxidative stress indices and testicular lead content. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of zinc in the testis of lead exposed animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality –sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Conclusions Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system. PMID:23241495

  4. Evaluation of involvement of testicular metallothionein gene expression in the protective effect of zinc against cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Imed; Banni, Mohamed; Saïd, Lamia; Saïd, Khaled; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effects of exposure to Cd and Zn on testicular MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression and evaluate their involvement in Zn protection against Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology, male rats received either tap water, Cd or Cd+Zn in their drinking water for 35 days. Cd induced histopathological changes in testicular tissues were accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, plasma and testicular Zn concentrations, oxidative stress, and by increased MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression. Co-treatment with Cd and Zn reversed the Cd-induced decrease testosterone level and SOD activity, decreased testicular Cd accumulation and partially restored Cd-induced histological changes, lipid peroxidation, and Zn depletion. The increase of testicular MT-1 and MT-2 gene expression under Cd influence was significantly reduced in Cd+Zn group. These data suggest that Zn enhances the protection against Cd-induced testicular pathophysiology through non-MT gene expression mechanisms but essentially by preventing Cd accumulation, Zn deprivation and by ameliorating the testicular antioxidant status. PMID:20096345

  5. Influence of season on testicular morphometry and semen characteristics in Martina Franca jackasses.

    PubMed

    Carluccio, A; Panzani, S; Contri, A; Bronzo, V; Robbe, D; Veronesi, M C

    2013-02-01

    with spring and autumn, and a lower curvilinear velocity compared with winter were found. No differences in amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness and linearity were observed neither between seasons nor in SS versus AW. Seminal pH did not show any seasonal difference; also sperm morphology did not show any significant difference during the whole year. This study demonstrated that under our climatic and management conditions Martina Franca donkey stallions do not show significant differences in testicular morphometric characteristics during the year, even if a certain seasonal influence exists on reaction time and some seminal parameters. Considering the variable temperature and photoperiod during the four seasons where the study was performed, this lack of substantial differences could be related to a characteristic of the Martina Franca breed.

  6. Scintigraphy for the diagnosis of testicular torsion and differential diagnosis of acute intrascrotal processes.

    PubMed

    Romics, I; Wesseler, T; Bach, D

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients suffering from acute painful testicular processes were subjected to scintigraphy. Testicular torsion in the early and delayed phases were diagnosed with 100% accuracy, but one out of 7 cases of epididymitis was wrongly recognized as negative. Interoperative diagnosis in two cases of hydatid torsion proved the foregoing scintigraphic finding to have been wrong. Nevertheless, scintigraphy was found to be reliable in testicular torsion diagnosis.

  7. Testicular amyloidosis in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, J. L.; Gallego, E.; Castaño, M.; Rueda, A.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally with Leishmania donovani. Testes were examined grossly and histologically by light and electron microscopy. Progressive testicular atrophy developed. Spermatogenic cells of the seminiferous tubules showed vacuolar degeneration and decreased in number leading to a total azoospermia in the final weeks of the pathological process. Lymphoplasmocytic infiltrates with macrophages containing leishmanias appeared in the intertubular space. Amyloid deposits in the intertubular space and tubular basement membrane were identified by optical and ultrastructural methods. It has been suggested that testicular amyloidosis may have a pathogenic mechanism related to a dysfunction of plasma cells and stimulation of the reticuloendothial system, due to the antigenic character of the parasite. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6639870

  8. Paratesticular liposarcoma-masquerading as a testicular tumour.

    PubMed

    Vinayagam, Kalaivani; Hosamath, Vijayakumar; Honnappa, Sridhar; Rau, Aarathi Ranga

    2014-02-01

    Paratesticular liposarcomas are rare tumours which account for 12% of all liposarcomas. Probably there are about 186 cases which have been reported till date. They must be differentiated from tumours of testicular origin which have extension to the spermatic cord. We are reporting a case of a 50-year-old male who had presented with a painless swelling in the right hemiscrotum, which was of 20 years' duration. Inititally, a clinical diagnosis of testicular tumour was made; however, CT of the scrotum revealed paratesticular tumour? liposarcoma and testis being normal and displaced postero-inferiorly. Metastatic work-up, which included CT of the abdomen and pelvis, thorax and whole body scan, did not reveal any distant metastasis. Patient underwent high orchidectomy, hemiscrotectomy. Histopathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma (atypical lipomatous tumour of sclerosing type). PMID:24701520

  9. Inhibitory effect of chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides on bovine testicular hyaluronidase.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Ikuko; Koizumi, Hideyo; Chen, Fengchao; Endo, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates are prominent components of the extracellular matrices of animal tissues; however, their functions in relation to their oligosaccharide structures have not yet been fully elucidated. The oligosaccharides of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfate were prepared and used to investigate their effects on the hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase when hyaluronan was used as a substrate. Hydrolysis and transglycosylation activities were assessed in independent reaction systems by analyzing the products by HPLC. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation reactions of bovine testicular hyaluronidase were dose-dependently inhibited by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides, but not by hyaluronan or chondroitin oligosaccharides. A kinetic analysis of the hydrolysis reaction using hyaluronan octasaccharide revealed that the inhibition mode by chondroitin sulfate oligosaccharides was competitive.

  10. Frequent complaints of testicular lumps by young prisoners.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash C

    2008-05-01

    The definition of the age of young offenders was changed by an Act of Parliament (The Crime and Disorder Act 1998), which was implemented by the Home Office on 1 April 2000. This Act brought down the upper-age limit of young offenders from 20 to 17. Our objective was to investigate the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among this redefined group of young offenders. Among various types of STIs, we observed that a significant number of young prisoners had complaints of testicular lumps (35%), which were not reported in the past. We tried to find out the reason for this common complaint and believe that this was due to extra vigilance, and testicular self-examination in conjunction with sex and relationship programmes which ran alongside other programmes developed as a joint venture by Prisoner Learning and Skills Unit, Prison Health Policy Unit and Sex Education Forum. PMID:18482964

  11. Selenite suppression of cadmium-induced testicular apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jones, M M; Xu, C; Ladd, P A

    1997-01-15

    The characteristic apoptotic ladder-like patterns of rat testicular DNA on agarose gel electrophoresis which results from treatment with CdCl2 are suppressed by the administration of Na2SeO3. The examination of testicular tissue using an ELISA programmed cell death detection procedure confirmed this selenite suppression of cadmium-induced apoptosis. The administration of the Na2SeO3 at either 0.5, 1, 2 h prior to or 0.5, 1, 2 h after the administration of the CdCl2 appear to be almost equally effective at suppressing the apoptotic response. These results are in accord with previous studies on the Na2SeO3 suppression of cadmium induced necrotic changes in tissues and suggest that Na2SeO3 interferes with both necrosis and apoptosis. PMID:9020518

  12. Testicular toxicity of profenofos in matured male rats.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Gihan Gamal; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Hashimoto, Yoshiharu; Alkelch, Alkelch M; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Fujita, Shoichi

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the effect of the phosphorothoate insecticide profenofos on male specific gene expression on rat testis, 16-week-old Wistar rats were orally administered at dose of 17.8 mg/kg twice weekly for 65 days. Gene expression in the testes was monitored by DNA microarray analysis and real-time RT-PCR, which revealed that genes related to steroidogenesis including cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and CYP11A1 were significantly increased. Besides the testes were histopathologicaly examined, which revealed testicular destruction and degeneration represented by a layer of columnar epithelium, oedematous changes surrounding the seminiferous tubules besides vacuolated spermatogonial cells and more elongated Leydig cells. These data suggest that profenofos considered as one of the male reproductive toxicants. Furthermore, we propose that the above three steroidogenic-related genes and the gene of acrosomal reaction as potential biomarkers of testicular toxicity. PMID:17569032

  13. [Various considerations of endocrine changes in testicular tumors].

    PubMed

    Benlloch Navarro, R

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss the link between testicular tumours and endocrine disorders which may be observed in view of the fundamental testiculo-hypophysial relations and the importance of these as far as dysendocrinias of the tumours, leidigioma, gynaecomasty and prolanuria are concerned. In the section on breast disorder phenomena, the authors make a comparative analysis of those observed in leidigiomas and choriocarcinomas, whilst in the section on prolanuria, they consider the importance of the positive value and essentially limited to the presence of chorial tumours, whilst questioning the frequent negative results -- which never rule out the possibility of a testicular tumour since, in any case, the only thing that it determines is that the claimed neoplasia in not chorial. They also point out that the positive results of prolanuria, even in non-choriomatous tumours, must simply be interpreted as a gonadotrophinuria of solely hypophysial appearance caused by reduced testicle functioning.

  14. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) Mediated Silencing of Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling Is Essential for Testicular Aging and Regulating Testis Size

    PubMed Central

    Oldknow, Karla J.; Seebacher, Jan; Goswami, Tapasree; Villen, Judit; Pitsillides, Andrew A.; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J.; Gygi, Steven P.; Schneyer, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) is a glycoprotein that binds and inhibits the action of TGFβ ligands such as activin. The roles played by FSTL3 and activin signaling in organ development and homeostasis are not fully understood. The authors show mice deficient in FSTL3 develop markedly enlarged testes that are also delayed in their age-related regression. These FSTL3 knockout mice exhibit increased Sertoli cell numbers, allowing for increased spermatogenesis but otherwise showing normal testicular function. The data show that FSTL3 deletion leads to increased AKT signaling and SIRT1 expression in the testis. This demonstrates a cross-talk between TGFβ ligand and AKT signaling and leads to a potential mechanism for increased cellular survival and antiaging. The findings identify crucial roles for FSTL3 in limiting testis organ size and promoting age-related testicular regression. PMID:23407452

  15. Ochratoxin A is not detectable in renal and testicular tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Nader; Woo, Mark; Alameldin, Mona; MacDonald, Kyle; Goneau, Lee W.; Cadieux, Peter; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Ochratoxin-A (OTA) is one of the most abundant food-contaminating mycotoxins, known for its nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, gonadotoxicity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression and carcinogenesis. OTA has been linked to several genitourinary pathologies, including Balkan nephropathy and genitourinary malignancies. We examine OTA levels in serum samples and tumour specimens collected from patients with renal and testicular tumours. Methods: Frozen samples were obtained from the Ontario Tumour Bank. Serum specimens, along with renal and testicular tumour biopsies, were included in this study. Normal tissue from the negative surgical margins of each tumour served as a control. OTA levels in serum was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while OTA detection in tissue specimens was determined using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: We included specimens collected from 56 patients (36 men and 20 women). Histopathology of the 52 renal tumours included 31 (60%) conventional type renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 5 (10%) chromophobe RCC, 5 (10%) papillary RCC, 1 (2%) oncocytoma and 10 (19%) upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UC). The 4 testicular tumours included 1 seminomatous (25%) germ cell tumour and 3 (75%) non-seminomatous germ cell tumours. OTA was detected in the serum of renal tumour patients, with a range from 0.004 to 0.25 ng/mL (mean: 0.07 and median 0.06 ng/mL). There was no OTA signal detected by IHC staining in all tested renal and testicular tumours. Conclusions: The OTA levels detected in the serum of patients were highly variable and relatively low. No OTA was detected in the tissue samples. PMID:24578744

  16. Risk of testicular cancer in cohort of boys with cryptorchidism.

    PubMed Central

    Swerdlow, A. J.; Higgins, C. D.; Pike, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of testicular cancer in relation to undescended testis and its treatment based on recorded details of the maldescent, treatment, and biopsy from case notes. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Hospital for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, London. SUBJECTS: 1075 boys with cryptorchidism treated by orchidopexy or hormones at the hospital during 1951-64. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risk of testicular cancer in the cohort compared with men in the general population. RESULTS: 12 testicular cancers occurred in 11 of the patients during follow up to mid-1990 (relative risk of cancer in males with cryptorchidism = 7.5 (95% confidence interval 3.9 to 12.8)). The relative risk fell significantly beyond 15 years after orchidopexy but did not decrease with younger age at orchidopexy. Risk was significantly raised in testes that had had biopsy samples removed during orchidopexy (relative risk = 66.7 (23.9 to 143.3) compared with a testis in a man in the general population) and was significantly greater in these testes than in undescended testes that had not had biopsy samples taken at orchidopexy (6.7 (2.7 to 13.5)). No reasons for biopsy or distinguishing clinical aspects of the testes that had had biopsy samples taken and later developed malignancies were evident in the case notes. No histological abnormalities were evident at initial biopsy except in one testis that had features of dysgenesis. CONCLUSIONS: Biopsy seems to be a stronger risk factor for testicular cancer than any factor previously identified. The trauma of open biopsy may contribute substantially to risk of malignancy or the testes may have been selected for biopsy on the basis of clinical factors predictive of malignancy but not mentioned in the case notes. PMID:9169396

  17. Effect of Picroliv on cadmium induced testicular damage in rat.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Neelam; Khandelwal, Shashi

    2008-02-01

    Ameliorative potential of Picroliv, a standardized extract of Picrorhiza kurroa on Cd induced early and advanced testicular damage was investigated in male rats. In the former experiment, the rats were administered Cd as CdCl(2) (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) 5days/week for 18 weeks and Picroliv at two doses (6 and 12 mg/kg, p.o.) was given for the last 4 weeks i.e. from week 15 to 18, to the Cd administered group. In the latter experiment, the Cd administration continued for 24 weeks and Picroliv was given from week 21 to 24. At 18 weeks, Cd caused alterations in oxidative stress indices like increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and reduced levels of non protein sulphydryls (NPSH). They were found close to the control values by Picroliv treatment, suggesting its antioxidant potential. The increased levels of Zn and Ca were reduced by Picroliv, the Cd levels remained unaltered. The Cd induced testicular damage was also mitigated by Picroliv. The higher dose (12 mg/kg) being more effective than the lower dose. However, at 24 weeks of Cd exposure, the oxidative stress indicators in testis were more pronounced along with the morphological alterations. These parameters remained unaffected by Picroliv treatment. On comparative evaluation of the two studies, 18 weeks Cd exposure caused moderate testicular damage, which could be reversed significantly by Picroliv administration and correlated well with oxidative stress markers. Our results clearly demonstrate the ameliorative potential of Picroliv in Cd induced early testicular damage. PMID:17928123

  18. Testicular tumors: what radiologists need to know--differential diagnosis, staging, and management.

    PubMed

    Coursey Moreno, Courtney; Small, William C; Camacho, Juan C; Master, Viraj; Kokabi, Nima; Lewis, Melinda; Hartman, Matthew; Mittal, Pardeep K

    2015-01-01

    Cryptorchidism, family history, and infertility are risk factors for testicular cancer. Most testicular cancers occur in young men aged 18-35 years, and seminoma is the most common cell type. Testicular tumors are usually diagnosed at ultrasonography (US) and are staged at computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At US, testicular tumors usually appear as a solid intratesticular mass. Because the differential diagnosis includes infarct and infection, correlation with patient history and symptoms is important. At staging CT or MR imaging, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are considered regional lymph nodes, and the greatest nodal diameter is used to distinguish among N1-N3 disease. The right testicular vein drains into the inferior vena cava, and the left testicular vein drains into the left renal vein. Because of venous and lymphatic drainage pathways, retroperitoneal lymph nodes are the initial landing station for testicular cancers. Enlarged lymph nodes in the supraclavicular region, chest, and pelvis are considered distant metastases. Testicular cancer is initially treated with orchiectomy. The patient may then undergo active surveillance, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or retroperitoneal lymph node resection, depending primarily on the clinical stage. Radiologists play an important role in initial diagnosis, staging, and imaging surveillance of testicular malignancies.

  19. Increased expression of dermatopontin and its implications for testicular dysfunction in mice

    PubMed Central

    CAI, JUN; LIU, WEIJIA; HAO, JIE; CHEN, MAOXIN; LI, GANG

    2016-01-01

    An array of specific and non-specific molecules, which are expressed in the testis, have been demonstrated to be responsible for testicular function. Our previous study revealed that dermatopontin (DPT) is expressed in Sertoli cells of the testis, however, its roles in testicular function remains somewhat elusive. In the present study, CdCl2- and busulfan-induced testicular dysfunction models were used to investigate the implications of DPT expression for testicular function. The mRNA and protein expression levels of DPT were detected using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. A negative correlation was observed between testicular damage and the expression of DPT, which suggested that an increase in DPT expression may be a marker for testicular dysfunction. This result was corroborated by the finding that transgenic mice exhibiting Sertoli cell-specific overexpression of DPT exhibited damage to their testicular morphology. Additionally, DPT overexpression in the testis affected the expression levels of claudin-11 and zonula occludens-1, which indicated that DPT may affect testicular function by affecting the integrity of the blood-testis barrier (BTB). In conclusion, the present study provided evidence to suggest that DPT may be indicative of mouse testicular dysfunction, since increased expression may be associated with damage to the BTB. PMID:26861869

  20. Role of Testicular Luminal Factors on Basal Cell Elongation and Proliferation in the Mouse Epididymis1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bongki; Roy, Jeremy; Shum, Winnie W.C.; Da Silva, Nicolas; Breton, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A subset of basal cells (BCs) in the initial segment (IS) of the mouse epididymis has a slender body projection between adjacent epithelial cells. We show here that these projections occasionally cross the apical tight junctions and are in contact with the luminal environment. Luminal testicular factors are critical for the establishment of the IS epithelium, and we investigated their role in the regulation of this luminal sensing property. Efferent duct ligation (EDL) was performed to block luminal flow from the testis without affecting blood flow. Cytokeratin 5 (KRT5) labeling showed a time-dependent reduction of the percentage of BCs with intercellular projections from 1 to 5 days after EDL, compared to controls. Double labeling for caspase-3 and KRT5 showed that a subset of BCs undergoes apoptosis 1 day after EDL. Ki67/KRT5 double labeling showed a low rate of BC proliferation under basal conditions. However, EDL induced a marked increase in the proliferation rate of a subset of BCs 2 days after EDL. A 2-wk treatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide did not affect the number of BCs with intercellular projections, but reduced BC proliferation. Flutamide treatment also reduced the increase in BC proliferation induced 2 days after EDL. We conclude that, in the adult mouse IS, 1) luminal testicular factors play an important role in the ability of BCs to extend their body projection towards the lumen, and are essential for the survival of a subset of BCs; 2) androgens play an important role in the proliferation of some of the BCs that survive the initial insult induced by EDL; and 3) the formation and elongation of BC intercellular projections do not depend on androgens. PMID:25411392

  1. [Molecular bases of platinum-resistance in testicular cancer].

    PubMed

    Germà-Lluch, Josep Ramon; Piulats, Josep Maria

    2013-06-01

    Cisplatin has been the cornerstone of germ cell testicular tumors therapy since its introduction more tan 30 years ago, and a basic part of the schemes given to multiple ovarian, lung, head and neck, and bladder tumors among others. Some tumors present primary resistance to this drug, others will develop it despite good initial response. In the case of testicular germ cell tumors most of them are very sensitive to this drug but up to 20% of patients with metastatic disease will present resistance, most of them secondary after a very good initial response. Cisplatin acts by binding to DNA to activate genetic damage recognition mechanisms and apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Resistance mechanisms to cisplatin have been classified in those that happen (1) before its binding to DNA and (2) once it binds to DNA. Most advances in their discovery have used other neoplasias as models, mainly ovarian and lung tumors. In this review we will describe the biological mechanisms behind resistance to cisplatin from the global perspective but trying to focus in testicular germ cell tumors.

  2. The role of thyroid hormone in testicular development and function.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2008-12-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development, and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data show that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T(3) may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.

  3. Thallium-induced testicular toxicity in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Formigli, L.; Scelsi, R.; Poggi, P.; Gregotti, C.; Di Nucci, A.; Sabbioni, E.; Gottardi, L.; Manzo, L.

    1986-08-01

    Reproductive tract functions were studied in adult male Wistar rats given 10 ppm thallium as thallium sulfate in the drinking water. After 60 days of treatment, spermatozoa isolated from the cauda epididymides and vas deferens showed reduced motility and immature germ cells were found in the tubular lumen. Histological examination of testes in thallium-treated animals revealed disarrangement of the tubular epithelium and ultrastructural changes in the Sertoli cells with cytoplasmic vacuolation and distension of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The activity of testicular ..beta..-glucuronidase was significantly reduced whereas acid phosphatase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activities were unchanged. Plasma testosterone levels were within normal limits. No abnormalities in testicular morphology and biochemistry were seen in animals sacrificed at the end of the first month of thallium exposure. These findings indicate that the male reproductive system is a susceptible target site to toxic effects of thallium under chronic exposure. They also suggest a major involvement of Sertoli cells in the mechanism underlying thallium-induced testicular damage.

  4. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes with cryopreserved testicular sperm aspiration samples.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Valle, M; Marques, F; Sampaio, M; Geber, S

    2016-04-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) may be performed with testicular frozen-thawed spermatozoa in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA). Sperm retrieval can be performed in advance of oocyte aspiration, as it may avoid the possibility of no recovery of spermatozoa on the day of oocyte pickup. There are few studies available in the literature concerning the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained from testicular sperm aspiration (TESA). To evaluate the effects and the outcomes of ICSI with frozen-thawed spermatozoa obtained by TESA, we performed a retrospective analysis of 43 ICSI cycles using frozen-thawed TESA. We obtained acceptable results with a fertilisation rate of 67.9%, an implantation rate (IR) of 17.1%, and clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates of 41.9% and 37.2% respectively. The results of this study suggest that performing ICSI using cryopreserved frozen-thawed testicular spermatozoa with TESA as a first option is a viable, safe, economic and effective method for patients with NOA.

  5. Vitamin D supplement improved testicular function in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chenzhao; Wang, Qinzhu; Hao, Yue; Ma, Xiaojun; Wu, Lina; du, Mengmeng; Li, Wen; Wu, Yang; Guo, Feng; Ma, Siyuan; Huang, Fengjuan; Qin, Guijun

    2016-04-22

    This study was designed to investigate the role that 1,25(OH)2D3 plays against testicular lesion in diabetic rats and try to find its possible mechanism of the steroidogenesis and the spermatogenesis. In diabetic rats, prolonged hyperglycemia evaluated inflammatory cytokines, damaged sperm production function and redox balance, diminished serum testosterone. After treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 at two different doses respectively for 12 months, all the alternations were effectively normalized. 1,25(OH)2D3 showed inhibitory effect on excessive inflammatory biomarkers and adjusted the expression reproductive genes and testicular androgen synthesis. It also upregulated Bcl-2 expression, decreased Bax and COX-2 expression and inhibited active caspase cascade (caspase 8 and caspase 3), which may preserved the testicular cells under diabetic condition. It revealed that vitamin D supplement may protect the cells through suppressing inflammation factors and alleviating cell apoptotic death, as well as upregulating the expression of genes related to reproductive and testosterone synthesis. PMID:27003251

  6. Causes, effects and molecular mechanisms of testicular heat stress.

    PubMed

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    The process of spermatogenesis is temperature-dependent and occurs optimally at temperatures slightly lower than that of the body. Adequate thermoregulation is imperative to maintain testicular temperatures at levels lower than that of the body core. Raised testicular temperature has a detrimental effect on mammalian spermatogenesis and the resultant spermatozoa. Therefore, thermoregulatory failure leading to heat stress can compromise sperm quality and increase the risk of infertility. In this paper, several different types of external and internal factors that may contribute towards testicular heat stress are reviewed. The effects of heat stress on the process of spermatogenesis, the resultant epididymal spermatozoa and on germ cells, and the consequent changes in the testis are elaborated upon. We also discuss the molecular response of germ cells to heat exposure and the possible mechanisms involved in heat-induced germ cell damage, including apoptosis, DNA damage and autophagy. Further, the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways that are involved in the intricate mechanism of germ cell apoptosis are explained. Ultimately, these complex mechanisms of apoptosis lead to germ cell death.

  7. Testicular development and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in the male tammar, Macropus eugenii.

    PubMed

    Williamson, P; Fletcher, T P; Renfree, M B

    1990-03-01

    Testicular growth and maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis were assessed in male tammars from 12 to 25 months of age to establish the time of sexual maturity. The testicular dimensions and body weights of 20 male tammars, approximately 12 months of age at the beginning of the study, were measured monthly for 1 year. Groups of 3 animals were castrated at 13, 19 and 25 months of age and their testes sectioned for histological examination. Testicular volume increased between 12 and 24 months of age and was highly correlated with body weight (r = 0.91). In the 13-month group the seminiferous tubules were closed with few mitotic figures. Spermatogenesis had begun in 2 of the 19-month animals. All stages of spermatogenesis were present in the other 19-month male, and in all of the 25-month males. Basal FSH concentrations increased with the age of the animal (21.0 +/- 32.48, 94.40 +/- 55.18 and 193.05 +/- 40.21 ng/ml (mean +/- s.d.) at 19, 20 and 25 months respectively) while basal LH concentrations were similar at 20 months and 25 months (0.43 +/- 0.18 and 0.58 +/- 0.25 ng/ml respectively). Basal testosterone concentrations were also similar 0.11 +/- 0.04, 0.35 +/- 0.16 and 0.22 +/- 0.10 ng/ml in 13-, 19- and 25-month-old animals. LHRH injection in tammars at 13, 19 and 25 months of age induced release of both LH and testosterone 10-30 min after injection. The hormone concentrations increased in both magnitude and duration with increasing age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. [Testicular cancer--self-awareness and testicular self-examination in soldiers and physicians in the Israeli army].

    PubMed

    Tichler, T; Weitzen, R; Feinstone, A; Orvieto, R; Moskovitz, M; Singer, A

    2000-08-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common malignancy in young men. To evaluate knowledge and awareness of that cancer, and of the practice of testicular self-examination (TSE), we developed a questionnaire which was distributed to 717 male soldiers and 200 of their military physicians. 21% of the soldiers had received some explanation of the importance of TSE, but only 16% were actually instructed how to perform TSE, and only 2% practiced it regularly. 24% had never examined their testicles before, 185 only rarely, and 6% often. With increased age, TSE frequency increased, but previous education, type of military unit, and ethnic origin had no affect. 99% of military physicians had been taught how to examine breasts, but only 70% had been taught routine testicular examination. 22% performed it, but 27% never did. 84% had never taught their soldiers the importance of TSE, although 51% taught female soldiers breast self-examination. There was a significant lack of awareness of the importance of regular practice of TSE among both soldiers and their army physicians.

  9. Effects of diallyl sulfide and zinc on testicular steroidogenesis in cadmium-treated male rats.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2008-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the environmental pollutants that affect various tissues and organs including testis. Harmful effect of cadmium on testis is known to be germ cell degeneration and impairment of testicular steroidogenesis. In the present study, the effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a sulfur-containing volatile compound present in garlic, and zinc (Zn) was investigated on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats. Male adult Wistar rats treated with cadmium (2.5 mg/kg body wt, five times a week for 4 weeks) showed decreased body weight, paired testicular weight, relative testicular weight, serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and testicular total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and protein levels. Testicular steroidogenic enzymes, such as 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD), and marker enzymes, such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), showed a significant decrease in activities whereas that of gamma-glutamyl transferase was significantly increased after cadmium exposure. The results have revealed that concurrent treatment with DAS or zinc restored key steroidogenic enzymes, SDH, LDH, and G6PD and increased testicular weight significantly. DAS restored the TAC level and increased testosterone level and relative testicular weight significantly. Zinc restored testicular protein level and body weight. It can be concluded that cadmium causes testicular toxicity and inhibits androgen production in adult male rats probably by affecting pituitary gonadotrophins and that concurrent administration of DAS or zinc provides protection against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:18972399

  10. A family with cleidocranial dysplasia and crossed ectopic kidney in one child.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Saraswathivilasam S

    2009-08-01

    Cleidocranial dysplasia or dysostosis (CCD) is a condition characterised by failure of membranous ossification resulting in absence or pseudarthrosis of the clavicle, open fontanelles, wormian bones and supernumerary teeth. The aetiology though not completely known is thought to be due to a CBFA1 (core binding factor activity 1) gene defect on the short arm of chromosome 6p21. CBFA1 is essential for differentiation of stem cells into osteoblasts, so any defect in this gene will cause defects in membranous and endochondral bone formation. Since the first description, over 700 cases have been reported in literature. The authors report a family with mother and her four sons affected with CCD and Crossed Renal Ectopia (CRE) in one child, which has not been reported in CCD before. PMID:19774820

  11. Effects of Two Testicular Cancer Education Programs on Self-Examination Knowledge and Attitudes among College-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Phillip J.; McDermott, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    This study compared instructional outcomes of two education programs about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. Instruction facilitated by a former testicular cancer patient was compared to information provided by printed materials. There was no difference in information dissemination, but possible differences in attitude resulted.…

  12. Development of a Testicular Self-Examination Program for College Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostwald, Sharon Kay; Rothenberger, James

    1985-01-01

    Personal responsibility for health is dependent upon accurate knowledge and skill in self-care. Testicular cancer incidence is the leading cancer in young adult males. This article describes the development and evaluation of a testicular cancer education program which is now available nationwide to college health services. (Author/MT)

  13. Spontaneous Idiopathic Arteritis of the Testicular Artery in Raccoons (Procyon lotor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The testes and the spermatic cord of raccoons (Procyon lotor, kits to adult breeders; n=48) were examined. Segmental arteritis confined to the extra-testicular portions of the testicular artery was present in raccoons of all ages. The arterial changes were seen in laboratory-confined experimental an...

  14. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains. PMID:21318357

  15. Genetic background of resistance to cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Hata, Iori; Hashiguchi, Takashi; Imamura, Yorishige

    2011-10-01

    We have previously reported that inbred Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular toxicity compared with inbred Fischer 344 (F344) rats. The present study was to elucidate the genetic background of resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats. The genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity was conducted by using Cd-resistant WI and Cd-sensitive F344 strains as the parental rats and by using the testicular hemoglobin level as the indicator. In the frequency distribution of testicular hemoglobin levels in parental, first filial (F(1)) and second filial (F(2)) rats treated with Cd at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg, F(1) rats had testicular hemoglobin levels intermediate to WI and F344 rats, and F(2) rats segregated into three groups of low, intermediate, and high phenotypes at the expected ratio. Furthermore, the backcross progeny between WI and F(1) or between F344 and F(1) segregated into two groups with the expected ratio. Based on a simple Mendelian genetic analysis, these segregation patterns lead us to conclude that two codominant alleles at a gene locus are responsible for the susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in rats. This is the first report for the genetic analysis of susceptibility to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in inbred rat strains.

  16. The effect of opioid antagonists in local regulation of testicular response to acute stress in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Kostić, T; Andrić, S; Kovacević, R; Marić, D

    1997-11-01

    The present study examined the effects of naloxone (N) and naltrexone-methobromide (NMB; an opioid receptor antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier) on testicular steroidogenesis during acute immobilization stress (IMO; 2 h) in adult rats. Unstressed rats as well as IMO rats were treated by unilateral intratesticular injection of N (20 micrograms/testis), NMB (36 micrograms/testis), or vehicle at the beginning of and at 1 h of the IMO period. In IMO rats serum T levels were significantly reduced, while serum luteinizing hormone levels were not affected. N and NMB normalized serum T levels in IMO rats and had no effects in controls. In IMO rats the activities of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) and P450(17 alpha, lyase) were significantly reduced, while the activity of 17 beta-HSD was not affected. N and NMB antagonized the inhibitory effect of IMO on 3 beta-HSD and P450(17 alpha, lyase) but did not alter enzyme activity in freely moving rats. Acute IMO decreased basal and human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated androgen production by hemitestis preparation, but N (10(-4) M) added directly to the incubation medium blocked the decrease and had no effect on testes from freely moving control rats. These results support the conclusion that endogenous opioid peptides are potentially important paracrine regulators of testicular steroidogenesis under stress conditions. PMID:9366009

  17. Testicular function and glycemic control in diabetic men. A controlled study.

    PubMed

    Handelsman, D J; Conway, A J; Boylan, L M; Yue, D K; Turtle, J R

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated testicular function in 28 insulin-dependent diabetic men under the age of 50 years and 119 age-matched controls. Diabetics had reduced testicular volume, semen volume, total and total motile sperm output while plasma LH and FSH levels were elevated. Reduction in semen volume and impotence were more common in long-standing complicated diabetes. Glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb) levels were positively correlated with plasma LH levels (r = 0.46, p less than 0.02) but there was no direct correlation of glycemic control and spermatogenesis. The differences in testicular function were due to decreased spermatogenesis and could not be explained by other forms of testicular pathology or the presence of diabetic neurovascular complications. We conclude that the function of the hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis is impaired in diabetic men, that this impairment is at least partly related to the degree of preceding glycemic control and that multiple levels of the axis may be dysfunctional.

  18. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma: an unusual presentation and review

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiling; Zhang, Shiying; Zhu, Li; Li, Xinlu; Wang, Ying; Duan, Yaqi; Huang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma is a rare entity. Primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma was not reported before. We reported a 27-year-old man with primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma, for which fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) for the Philadelphia chromosome was not performed at the initial hospitalization. The patient showed manifestation of Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia at relapse. In this report, we reviewed the current literature about primary testicular B-lymphoblastic lymphoma, Ph-positive lymphoma and Ph-positive clone evolution. This report has 3 meanings. First: This is first report on primary testicular Ph-positive B lymphoblastic lymphoma. Second: This shows the importance of cytogenics for lymphoma treatment. Third: This implies Philadelphia-positive subclone evolution. PMID:26147907

  19. INSL3/RXFP2 signaling in testicular descent.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu; Ferlin, Alberto; Truong, Anne; Bathgate, Ross; Wade, John D; Corbett, Sean; Han, Shuo; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Lamb, Dolores J; Foresta, Carlo; Agoulnik, Alexander I

    2009-04-01

    Mutations of the insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) hormone or its receptor, RXFP2, cause intraabdominal cryptorchidism in male mice. Specific RXFP2 expression in mouse gubernacula was detected at embryonic day 14.5 and markedly increased after birth in the developing cremaster muscle, as well as in the epididymis and testicular Leydig and germ cells. INSL3 treatment stimulated cell proliferation of embryonic gubernacular and Leydig cells, implicating active INSL3-mediated signaling. The transcription factor SOX9, a known male sex determination factor, upregulated the activity of the RXFP2 promoter. INSL3 is sufficient to direct the first transabdominal phase of testicular descent in the absence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis signaling or Hoxa10, although these factors are important for inguinoscrotal testicular descent. Similarly, conditional ablation of the androgen receptor gene in gubernacular cells resulted in disruption of inguinoscrotal descent. We performed mutation screening of INSL3 and RXFP2 in human patients with cryptorchidism and control subjects from different populations in Europe and the USA. Several missense mutations were described in both the INSL3 and RXFP2 genes. A novel V39G INSL3 mutation in a patient with cryptorchidism was identified; however, the functional analysis of the mutant peptide did not reveal compromised function. In more than 2000 patients and controls analyzed to date, the T222P RXFP2 mutation is the only one strongly associated with the mutant phenotype. The T222P mutant receptor, when transfected into 293T cells, had severely decreased cell membrane expression, providing the basis for the functional deficiency of this mutation.

  20. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  1. R-Spondin 1/Dickkopf-1/Beta-Catenin Machinery Is Involved in Testicular Embryonic Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Maria; Ferranti, Francesca; Corano Scheri, Katia; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Ciccarone, Fabio; Grammatico, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Testicular vasculogenesis is one of the key processes regulating male gonad morphogenesis. The knowledge of the molecular cues underlining this phenomenon is one of today’s most challenging issues and could represent a major contribution toward a better understanding of the onset of testicular morphogenetic disorders. R-spondin 1 has been clearly established as a candidate for mammalian ovary determination. Conversely, very little information is available on the expression and role of R-spondin 1 during testicular morphogenesis. This study aims to clarify the distribution pattern of R-spondin 1 and other partners of its machinery during the entire period of testicular morphogenesis and to indicate the role of this system in testicular development. Our whole mount immunofluorescence results clearly demonstrate that R-spondin 1 is always detectable in the testicular coelomic partition, where testicular vasculature is organized, while Dickkopf-1 is never detectable in this area. Moreover, organ culture experiments of embryonic male UGRs demonstrated that Dickkopf-1 acted as an inhibitor of testis vasculature formation. Consistent with this observation, real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that DKK1 is able to slightly but significantly decrease the expression level of the endothelial marker Pecam1. The latter experiments allowed us to observe that DKK1 administration also perturbs the expression level of the Pdgf-b chain, which is consistent with some authors’ observations relating this factor with prenatal testicular patterning and angiogenesis. Interestingly, the DKK1 induced inhibition of testicular angiogenesis was rescued by the co-administration of R-spondin 1. In addition, R-spondin 1 alone was sufficient to enhance, in culture, testicular angiogenesis. PMID:25910078

  2. Testicular nocardiosis accompanied by cutaneous lesions in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sekimoto, Etsuko; Shirakami, Atsuhisa; Shibata, Hironobu; Ozaki, Shuji; Shigekiyo, Toshio; Noda, Toshinori; Shikiji, Takanori; Kanda, Kazuya; Hirose, Takanori; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Gonoi, Tohru

    2013-01-01

    We herein report the case of a 77-year-old man admitted for an acute cutaneous infection and persistent fever. A physical examination revealed systemic small blisters and scrotal swelling. He was suspected of having complications from chickenpox or bullous impetigo as the initial diagnosis. Nocardia was detected on an aspiration biopsy of the small blisters and the surgically removed testis at a later date. Testicular nocardiosis is a rare condition; however, we should consider nocardiosis in the differential diagnosis because delay in providing treatment may worsen a patient's general condition. PMID:23291688

  3. Mini-puberty and true puberty: differences in testicular function.

    PubMed

    Rey, Rodolfo A

    2014-05-01

    The ontogeny of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is particularly characterised by incomplete functional maturation in utero and during early postnatal life, followed by functional regression and partial quiescence during childhood, and subsequently by final complete maturation during puberty. This review addresses the distinctive features of testis developmental physiology--especially in the seminiferous tubule compartment--which explain the differences observed in testicular function and its disorders between the early postnatal activation period--which many authors call "mini-puberty"--and canonical puberty.

  4. PET/Computed Tomography in Renal, Bladder, and Testicular Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bouchelouche, Kirsten; Choyke, Peter L

    2015-07-01

    Imaging plays an important role in the clinical management of cancer patients. Hybrid imaging with PET/computed tomography (CT) is having a broad impact in oncology, and in recent years PET/CT is beginning to have an impact in urooncology. In both bladder and renal cancers, there is a need to study the efficacy of other tracers than F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), particularly tracers with limited renal excretion. Thus, new tracers are being introduced. This review focuses on the clinical role of FDG and other PET agents in renal, bladder, and testicular cancers.

  5. Lead induced testicular changes in protein malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, D K; Murthy, R C; Lal, B; Chandra, S V

    1989-01-01

    The effect of concurrent low protein (8% casein) diet and lead (Pb) exposure (1 mg/ml lead acetate in drinking water) on testes of weaned rats up to 90 days of age was investigated Histopathological examination of testes of lead treated rats maintained on low protein diet revealed marked pathological changes associated with greatly reduced succinic dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and adenosine triphosphatase activity as revealed histochemically compared to lead treated rats fed normal protein diet. It was concluded that higher accumulation of lead may be responsible for altering the enzyme levels and inducing the testicular degeneration to a greater extent in low protein fed rats compared to their counterpart controls.

  6. Effects of an anabolic steroid (Durateston) on testicular angiogenesis in peripubertal stallions.

    PubMed

    Teubner, A; Müller, K; Bartmann, C P; Sieme, H; Klug, E; Zingrebe, B; Schoon, H-A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the anabolic steroid testosterone on the testicular vascularization, angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors, and their receptors in testes of peripubertal stallions. Seven peripubertal stallions were treated with Durateston and castrated either 4 (treatment group 1 [TG1]) or 12 weeks (TG2) after the last injection. The castration of seven untreated control stallions (control group [CG]) took place within the same time. In the testicular specimens, volume density (VD), numerical density (ND), and area of vessels were determined morphometrically. Immunohistochemically, the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGF-R2; angiopoietin 2 (Ang2) and its receptor Tie2 as well as of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α) was investigated. Morphometrically, the VD of TG1 (P = 0.000) and TG2 (P = 0.001) vessels and the ND of arterioles and venules and capillaries were higher (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05), and the area of capillary cross sections was smaller (TG1, TG2: P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Compared to TG2 horses, TG1 animals showed a higher (P < 0.05) VD and ND of vascular structures and a smaller (P < 0.05) area of capillary cross sections. In numerous vascular structures, especially of TG1, the TGF-α and, to a less extent, the Ang2 and VEGF-R2 expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that in the CG. Sertoli cells in TG2 were characterized by a significantly higher expression (P < 0.05) of VEGF-R2 than in the CG. In summary, the most and smallest vessels could be detected in the testes of TG1. Most likely this is explainable by the highest expression of some angiogenic factors (TGF-α, Ang2) and receptors (VEGF-R2) investigated. This expression behavior may be stimulated by testosterone. As a significant decrease of morphometric parameters could be detected in TG2 compared to TG1, the stimulatory effect of testosterone seems to be temporary.

  7. Testicular structure and germ cells morphology in salamanders

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Testes of salamanders or urodeles are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. The testes are composed of one or several lobes. Each lobe is morphologically and functionally a similar testicular unit. The lobes of the testis are joined by cords covered by a single peritoneal epithelium and subjacent connective tissue. The cords contain spermatogonia. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The spermatogenic cells in a cyst undergo their development through spermatogenesis synchronously. The distribution of cysts displays the cephalo-caudal gradient in respect to the stage of spermatogenesis. The formation of cysts at cephalic end of the testis causes their migration along the lobules to the caudal end. Consequently, the disposition in cephalo-caudal regions of spermatogenesis can be observed in longitudinal sections of the testis. The germ cells are spermatogonia, diploid cells with mitotic activity; primary and second spermatocytes characterized by meiotic divisions that develop haploid spermatids; during spermiogenesis the spermatids differentiate to spermatozoa. During spermiation the cysts open and spermatozoa leave the testicular lobules. After spermiation occurs the development of Leydig cells into glandular tissue. This glandular tissue regressed at the end of the reproductive cycle. PMID:26413406

  8. Vanadium inhalation induces actin changes in mice testicular cells.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Lara, Vianey; Morales-Rivero, Alonso; Rivera-Cambas, Angelica Muñiz; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-02-01

    Infertility is becoming a health problem, which has increased mainly in megacities, and several studies have shown its association with environmental pollution. Air pollution has been linked to alterations in sperm parameters, both in humans and animal models. In male humans, it has been associated with reduced semen quality and DNA alterations. Vanadium is a transition element that has increased in recent decades as a component of air suspended matter and has been associated with reprotoxic effects in animal models. Few are the mechanisms described by which the vanadium produces these effects, and cytoskeleton interaction is a possibility. We reported immunohistochemical changes in actin testicular cytoskeleton in a vanadium inhalation experimental mice model. Our findings show that exposure to vanadium pentoxide (0.02 M) results in actin decrease in testicular cells from 3-12 weeks exposure time; this effect was statistically significant and exposure time dependent. Actin cytoskeleton damage is a mechanism that could explain vanadium reprotoxic effects and its association with impaired fertility. PMID:24097359

  9. Testicular function following irradiation of the human prepubertal testis.

    PubMed

    Shalet, S M; Beardwell, C G; Jacobs, H S; Pearson, D

    1978-12-01

    Testicular function was studied in ten men, aged between 17 and 36 years, who had received irradiation for a nephroblastoma during childhood. The dose of scattered irradiation to the testes ranged from 268 to 983 rad. Eight subjects had either oligo- or azoospermia (0 to 5.6 million/ml), seven of whom had an elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level. One subject showed evidence of Leydig cell dysfunction with a raised serum luteinizing hormone level (LH) and a low plasma testosterone concentration. A second group of eight prepubertal males, aged between 8 and 14 years, were studied. These had also been irradiated for abdominal malignancies during childhood and received a similar dose of irradiation to the testis as the first group studied. The plasma testosterone levels were within the normal range for prepubertal boys in all eight. The mean gonadotrophin levels were not significantly different from the mean levels of normal prepubertal males. Thus irradiation-induced damage to the germinal epithelium in prepubertal boys produces raised FSH levels after puberty but not before it. We conclude, therefore, that inhibition has a minor role in the control of the prepubertal hypothalamic-pituitary testicular axis and its contribution to gonadal control of gonadotrophin secretion changes with sexual maturation.

  10. Testicular epidermoid cysts: sonographic features with histopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Dogra, V S; Gottlieb, R H; Rubens, D J; Oka, M; Di Sant Agnese, A P

    2001-01-01

    Testicular epidermoid cysts are rare, accounting for 1% of all testicular tumors. We present the sonographic appearances of epidermoid cysts in 3 cases, together with the histopathologic correlation. In case 1, sonography showed an intratesticular hypoechoic mass with a well-defined echogenic rim; the mass measured 1.8 x 1.5 x 1.5 cm, and there was no evidence of calcification. In case 2, sonography showed a well-circumscribed mass measuring 1.3 x 1.3 x 1.0 cm, with alternating hypoechoic and hyperechoic rings (onion-ring appearance) and no calcifications. In case 3, sonography showed a 2.4- x 2.3- x 2.3-cm, well-circumscribed, oval mass with a heterogeneous echotexture and an outer hypoechoic halo. The mass contained plaque-like regions of increased echogenicity, with peripheral acoustic shadowing from refraction artifact. Hypoechoic clefts were visualized posterior to the plaque-like areas. The triad of findings-sonographic appearance of an onion ring, avascularity on Doppler sonography, and negative results of tumor marker studies-is highly suggestive of an epidermoid cyst. PMID:11329161

  11. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  12. Carbon disulfide induces rat testicular injury via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yinsheng; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Zhen; Zhou, Yijun; Chen, Guoyuan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS2), one of the most important volatile organic chemicals, was shown to have serious impairment to male reproductive system. But the underline mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, we aim to investigate the male germ cell apoptosis induced by CS2 exposure alone and by co-administration with cyclosporin A (CsA), which is the inhibitor of membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP). It was shown that CS2 exposure impaired ultrastructure of germ cells, increased the numbers of apoptotic germ cells, accumulated intracellular level of calcium, elevated ROS level, and increased activities of complexes of respiratory chain. Meanwhile, exposure to CS2 dramatically decreased the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and levels of ATP and MPTP opening. Exposure to CS2 can also cause a significantly dose-dependent increase in the expression levels of Bax, Cytc, Caspase-9, and Caspase-3, but decreased the expression level of Bcl-2. Moreover, co-administration of CsA with CS2 can reverse or alleviate the above apoptotic damage effects of CS2 on testicular germ cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that CS2 can cause damage to testicular germ cells via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and MPTP play a crucial role in this process. PMID:24582363

  13. Unusual thoracoabdominal sites of metastases in testicular tumors.

    PubMed

    Husband, J E; Bellamy, E A

    1985-12-01

    Testicular tumors spread in a predictable manner to lymph nodes in the paraaortic chain and then to supradiaphragmatic nodes in the mediastinum and supraclavicular fossae. The most common sites of extranodal disease are the lungs and liver. In a series of 650 patients with testicular tumors who underwent CT examinations unusual sites of thoracoabdominal metastases were demonstrated in 20 patients (23 sites). The sites involved were kidney (six patients), adrenal glands (four patients), inferior vena cava (four patients), muscle (three patients), spleen (two patients), and stomach, pelvic cyst, seminal vesicles and prostate, and pericardium (one patient, each site). Renal metastases were either of soft-tissue density (four patients) or cystic (two patients). Cystic metastases were also identified in the spleen in two patients and in the adrenal gland in one patient. In three of the patients with inferior vena cava involvement, thrombus was seen to extend above the nodal mass over several centimeters. Metastases were demonstrated in the psoas, iliac, and middle gluteal muscles. These were separate from retroperitoneal nodal masses. The ability of CT to identify sites of metastases, which may remain undiagnosed by conventional staging procedures, is emphasized.

  14. A Rare Emergency: Testicular Torsion in the Inguinal Canal

    PubMed Central

    Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind. PMID:25654093

  15. A rare emergency: testicular torsion in the inguinal canal.

    PubMed

    Şener, Nevzat Can; Bas, Okan; Karakoyunlu, Nihat; Ercil, Hakan; Yesil, Suleyman; Zengin, Kursad; Imamoglu, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To report our experience and present the largest series of testicular torsion cases in the inguinal canal. Material and Methods. The clinical data of 13 patients with testicular torsion in the inguinal canal treated between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Recorded patient age, whether the testes were palpable or not, side of the affected testes, the presence of hernia, ischemia time, and operation outcomes were assessed. Results. Patient age ranged from 8 to 70 months (29.15 ± 20.22). Mean ischemia time was 16.5 ± 21.3 hours. Accompanying inguinal hernia was present in 92% of the cases (12/13). Four of the thirteen patients (30.8%) were treated by orchiectomy because the necrosis was present after prolonged ischemia time. Nine patients (69.2%) were treated by single session orchidopexy. Conclusion. Torsion of testes in the inguinal canal is a rare disease, but with rapid diagnosis, affected testes can be salvaged, but the key factor is to keep this condition in mind.

  16. Chronic fluoride exposure-induced testicular toxicity is associated with inflammatory response in mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ruifen; Luo, Guangying; Sun, Zilong; Wang, Shaolin; Wang, Jundong

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fluoride (F) can affect testicular toxicity in humans and rodents. However, the mechanism underlying F-induced testicular toxicity is not well understood. This study was conducted to evaluate the sperm quality, testicular histomorphology and inflammatory response in mice followed F exposure. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 0, 25, 50, 100 mg/L in the drinking water for 180 days. At the end of the exposure, significantly increased percentage of spermatozoa abnormality was found in mice exposed to 50 and 100 mg/L NaF. Disorganized spermatogenic cells, vacuoles in seminiferous tubules and loss and shedding of sperm cells were also observed in the NaF treated group. In addition, chronic F exposure increased testicular interleukin-17(IL-17), interleukin-17 receptor C (IL-17RC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in transcriptional levels, as well as IL-17 and TNF-α levels in translational levels. Interestingly, we observed that F treated group elevated testicular inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA level and nitric oxide (NO) concentration. Taken together, these results indicated that testicular inflammatory response could contribute to chronic F exposure induced testicular toxicity in mice.

  17. Effect of atenolol on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Biswas, N M; Sen Gupta, R; Chattopadhyay, A; Choudhury, G R; Sarkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Cadmium-induced stress adversely affects testicular activity and causes sympathetic stimulation. To investigate the effect of atenolol, a beta-adrenergic receptor blocker, on testicular androgen synthesis after cadmium treatment, adult Sprague-Dawley strain male rats were given a single sc dose of cadmium chloride 0.45 mg/kg BW. Animals were killed on day 3 after treatment. Adrenal weight, adrenal delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta 5-3 beta-HSD) activity, serum corticosterone, and brain noradrenaline were increased significantly while testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD and 17 beta-HSD activities, serum testosterone, and accessory sex organs weight were decreased. Oral coadministration of atenolol at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight for 3 days resulted in complete protection of adrenal delta 5-3 beta-HSD, testicular delta 5-3 beta-HSD, and 17 beta-HSD activities, adrenal weight, serum corticosterone, and serum testosterone when compared with cadmium-only group and there were no significant differences in these parameters from the vehicle control values. Simultaneous administration of cadmium and atenolol also protected brain noradrenaline content and reduced the rise of testicular cadmium concentration. All the parameters were similar to control levels in rats treated with atenolol alone. We conclude that atenolol may protect testicular androgen synthesis by inhibiting the action of noradrenaline on testicular Leydig cells and adrenocortical hyperactivity in cadmium-treated rats. PMID:11738523

  18. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination training for patient care personnel: intervention study.

    PubMed

    Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebiş, Hatice

    2014-12-01

    Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled intervention study. The study included 96 patient care staff divided into two groups of 48 participants each: Group I, the interactive education group, and Group II, the pamphlet education group. The results demonstrated that TSE practice and TC knowledge significantly increased in both Group I and Group II. Significant differences were observed between the groups pre and post education. TSE and TC knowledge levels were higher for participants in Group I than those in Group II. There was a significant difference in the performance of TSEs between groups: the rates were 83.3% in Group I and 54.2% in Group II. Perceived confidence and perceived barriers increased significantly for both groups. Interactive education sessions should be used to train men at risk for TC to perform TSEs. PMID:25248831

  20. Effects of tumor necrosis factor on the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in healthy men.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Romijn, J A; Endert, E; Sauerwein, H P

    1993-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has been implicated as a mediator of many diseases associated with alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) function. To assess the effects of TNF on the HPT axis, we performed a saline-controlled cross-over study in six healthy men, sequentially measuring serum concentrations of gonadotropins, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) after a bolus intravenous injection of recombinant human TNF (50 micrograms/m2). TNF induced an early and transient increase in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels from 6.0 +/- 1.0 to a maximum of 8.0 +/- 1.0 U/L after 30 minutes (P < .005), whereas the concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) remained unchanged. The increase in LH concentrations was followed by a transient decrease in serum testosterone levels from 18.2 +/- 0.3 to 9.1 +/- 1.2 nmol/L after 4 hours (P < .0001). Remarkably, LH levels had returned to control values when the testosterone level reached its nadir. SHBG levels were not affected by TNF. Our results suggest that TNF affects the HPT axis at multiple levels and may be involved either directly or indirectly in the decrease in circulating testosterone concentrations in systemic illnesses.

  1. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion.

    PubMed

    Funada, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  2. Testicular infarction and rupture: an uncommon complication of epididymo-orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Daniel; Penkoff, Peter; Stanowski, Matthew; Beattie, Kieran; Wang, Audrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Epididymo-orchitis is a common diagnosis in men presenting with unilateral testicular pain. It can be of an infectious or non-infectious aetiology. Clinical examination and laboratory investigations do not reliably differentiate testicular infarction secondary to epididymo-orchitis from uncomplicated epididymo-orchitis. Definitive diagnosis is usually made by ultrasound. Misdiagnosis and under-treatment can lead to poor outcome, such as infarction and loss of the affected testis. We present an uncommon case of epididymo-orchitis resulting in testicular infarction and rupture despite normal initial investigations. PMID:27165751

  3. Use of a vascularized tunica vaginalis flap for repair of testicular rupture in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Jian, Peter Y; Nelson, Eric D; Roth, David R

    2012-06-01

    The management of testicular rupture in children with a large tunical defect is challenging. We describe a technique suitable when primary closure cannot be achieved. A 16-year-old boy presented with right testicular rupture. Owing to the large tunical separation and excessive edema, primary closure could not be achieved. A tunica vaginalis flap was then fashioned with a broad-based pedicle to complete closure. The patient had an uneventful recovery. At 4 months postoperatively, the testis was of normal size and position, and the ultrasound findings were normal. The vascularized tunica vaginalis flap provides an excellent alternative method for closure of pediatric testicular rupture.

  4. Seminoma in a Man with Russell-Silver Syndrome Presenting with Testicular Torsion

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Toru; Segawa, Takehiko

    2016-01-01

    Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is a type of primordial dwarfism. Only one case of testicular cancer in RSS has been reported, the pathology of which was nonseminoma. Here, we report a case of seminoma in a 36-year-old man who was diagnosed with RSS at birth. The seminoma was diagnosed when the patient presented with testicular torsion. This is the first report of testicular seminoma in an RSS patient in the literature. We also discussed the correlation between seminoma and RSS. PMID:27034882

  5. Characterization of the model for experimental testicular teratoma in 129/SvJ-mice

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, J; Pelliniemi, L J; Kuopio, T; Veräjänkorva, E; Fröjdman, K; Harley, V; Salminen, E; Pöllänen, P

    1999-01-01

    An animal model of experimental testicular teratoma has been established to study how a teratoma affects the host testis and how the host testis reacts against the teratoma. 129/SvJ-mice were used as experimental animals. To induce the experimental testicular teratoma, male gonadal ridges from 12-day-old 129/SvJ-mouse fetuses were grafted into the testes of adult mice for 1–12 weeks. The developing tumour was analysed by light and electron microscopy and by immunocytochemical localization of transcription factors SOX9 and c-kit, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and type IV collagen. Testicular teratoma was observed in 36 out of 124 testes with implanted fetal gonadal ridges (frequency 29%). One spontaneous testicular teratoma was observed in this material from 70 male mice (1.5%). One week after implantation intracordal clusters of cells were seen in embryonic testicular cords of the graft as the first sign of testicular teratomas. Four weeks after implantation the embryonic testicular cords had totally disappeared from grafts with teratomas, and the tumour tissue had enlarged the testis and invaded the interstitium of the host testis. It consisted of solitary pieces of immature cartilage as well as of glial cells and of primitive neuroepithelium. Six to eight weeks after implantation the tumour tissue had expanded so that the enlarged testis could be detected by macroscopic enlargement of the scrotum. The testicular tissue of the host had practically disappeared, and only solitary disrupted seminiferous tubules of the host were seen surrounding the teratoma. Neuroepithelial structures of some teratomas cultured for 8 weeks had cells with a granular nucleus as a sign of obvious apoptosis. Eleven to 12 weeks after implantation the growth of the teratoma had stopped, and the histology corresponded to that of a mature cystic teratoma. GFAP, SOX9 and type IV collagen were strongly positive in some parts of the tumours cultured for 4 and 8 weeks, while only

  6. Testicular blood flow and a study of the testicular venous to arterial transfer of radioactive krypton and testosterone in the rhesus monkey

    PubMed Central

    Einer-Jensen, N.; Waites, G. M. H.

    1977-01-01

    1. Testicular blood flow (ml. 100 g-1.min-1; mean ± S.E. of the mean) measured in monkeys by 133Xe clearance was 15·9 ± 1·2 (twenty-six estimations on three monkeys; six testes) within 15 min of anaesthesia and 7·5 ± 0·8 (twelve estimates; four monkeys, eight testes), after 1-2 hr of anaesthesia; and, when measured by 85Kr clearance in the second hour of anaesthesia was 9·1 ± 3·7 (seven estimates; four monkeys, four testes). Testicular temperature was 32·9 ± 0·2° C (mean ± S.E. of mean) when deep body temperature was 37·2 ± 0·2° C. 2. Blood flow in the caput epididymidis was 27·4 ± 2·1 ml. 100 g-1.min-1 (mean ± S.E. of mean; four estimates). 3. Radioactivity accumulated in the ipsilateral testis and epididymis but not in the contralateral tissues, during the infusion of 85Kr saline into the testicular veins. 4. During [3H]testosterone infusions into the testicular veins, radioactivity was consistently higher in ipsilateral testicular arterial plasma than in plasma withdrawn simultaneously from the aorta in four of five experiments with no difference in one. After two such infusions, the radioactivity was up to 5 times greater in the ipsilateral testis and epididymis than in the contralateral tissues. 5. During one infusion of [125I]bovine serum albumin into the testicular veins, there was no accumulation of radioactivity in the ipsilateral tissues. 6. Testosterone concentrations (ng.ml-1; mean ± S.E. of mean) in plasma from seven anaesthetized monkeys which were sexually experienced were: testicular vein 53·22 ± 8·03 (eight estimates); testicular artery, 4·58 ± 0·94 (14); saphenous vein, 3·81 ± 0·68 (14). The corresponding values from four sexually inexperienced monkeys were 25·27 ± 2·11 (12); 2·89 ± 1·99 (12); aorta 2·76 ± 0·57 (12). 7. The results are discussed as evidence for vascular exchange of molecules between the testicular veins and artery in the spermatic cord. PMID:874824

  7. Social, behavioural and medical factors in the aetiology of testicular cancer: results from the UK study. UK Testicular Cancer Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Although many risk factors have been proposed for the aetiology of testicular cancer, only a history of cryptorchidism is well established. All risk factors previously suggested have been explored in this study. This population-based case-control study was carried out in nine health regions in England and Wales and included 794 men, aged 15-49 years, diagnosed with a testicular germ cell tumour between 1 January 1984 and 30 September 1986, each with an individually age-matched control. Cases and controls were interviewed and data were abstracted from their general practitioner notes. Participation rates for cases and controls were 92.0% and 83.1% respectively. Where possible the mother of each interviewed man was sent a postal questionnaire for self-completion. Testicular trauma at least 2 years prior to diagnosis was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.61]. Ever having had a sexually transmitted disease was also associated with an increased risk (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.46-3.39). There was little evidence of an association with cigarette smoking. Sporting activity had a protective effect. Detailed exploration of testicular temperature (wearing of tight underpants, jeans or trousers, hot baths and central heating) failed to reveal any relationship with risk of testicular cancer. There were no clear occupational associations. PMID:8080739

  8. Early detection of testicular cancer: revisiting the role of self-efficacy in testicular self-examination among young asymptomatic males.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Kanayo; Chadwick, Rebecca

    2016-02-01

    Research suggests that self-efficacy is an important factor in behaviors that facilitate the early-detection of various cancers. In general people with high self-efficacy are more likely to attend cancer screening sessions or perform bodily self-exams. However, there is a paucity of research focusing on testicular cancer and testicular self-examination (TSE). The effect of self-efficacy on TSE remains unclear especially given the relative obscurity of the testicular cancer threat, and appropriate clinical- and self-detection procedures, in the young asymptomatic male population. Thus, the present study tested the interaction of self-efficacy with young men's appraisals of the threat of testicular cancer. The study was based on 2 × 2 × 2 mixed factorial experimental design. Over 100 young asymptomatic men were exposed to a health warning about testicular cancer and randomly assigned to high/low self-efficacy, vulnerability, and severity conditions. High self-efficacy increased motivation to perform TSE given high vulnerability, but damaged attitudes to self-exams given low vulnerability and severity estimates. High self-efficacy also facilitated subsequent TSE. Overall, these findings support preexisting notions of self-efficacy but raise new questions about the moderating effects of threat appraisals.

  9. Species differences in testicular necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Dahl, J E; Holme, J A; Omichinski, J G; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1989-10-01

    The human testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied for the same end-point in 4 different species of laboratory animals. Marked necrosis and atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium were observed in rats and guinea pigs 10 days after a single i.p. administration of DBCP (170-340 mumol/kg), whereas significantly less damage was observed in hamsters and mice. The testicular concentrations of DBCP measured at various time-points after the i.p. injection of DBCP indicated that factors in addition to tissue concentration were of importance for the observed species differences in sensitivity towards DBCP-induced testicular damage. Also, there did not seem to be any direct correlation between DBCP-induced in vivo testicular toxicity and in vitro GSH-dependent dehalogenation, inasmuch as the rate of bromide release from DBCP with hamster testicular cytosol was as fast as that with rat cytosol. Testicular DNA damage, as determined by alkaline elution 60 min after in vivo administration of 170 mumol/kg DBCP, was observed only in rats and guinea pigs. Thus, induction of DNA damage correlates with the relative susceptibilities of the species towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis. To further study species differences in testicular activation of DBCP to DNA-damaging intermediate(s), cells isolated from the testes of the 4 species were incubated with DBCP. Testicular cells from rats and guinea pigs were the only preparations developing substantial DNA damage after 60 min incubation with low concentrations of DBCP (5-50 microM). The findings indicate that rats are sensitive towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis because rat testicular cells easily activate DBCP to a DNA-damaging intermediate(s). The relative high testicular DBCP concentration as well as the ability to activate DBCP may explain the sensitivity of guinea pigs towards DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:2799822

  10. Traumatic testicular dislocation a review of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Kochakarn, W; Choonhaklai, V; Hotrapawanond, P; Muangman, V

    2000-02-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 36 patients who were treated in our institutes with traumatic testicular dislocation from 1975 to 1997. The mean patient age was 25 years old (18-38). Average time to present at the emergency room was 1 hour (0.5-6). Bilateral dislocation was found in thirty cases and unilateral dislocation was found in six cases. The sites of dislocation included: 34 cases (64 testes) at superficial inguinal area, one case (one testis) at acetabular area, and one case (one testis) at the perineal area. Closed reduction under general anesthesia was successful in 14 cases, open reduction after failed closed reduction in 10 cases, open exploration and repaired testis with reposition in 11 cases and orchiectomy only in one case. The overall results after treatment showed the normal size and position of the testis. PMID:10710892

  11. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of testicular undescent.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Levy, J B

    1995-08-01

    At present, we believe that descent of the testes within the human is a complex event mediated by both hormonal and mechanical factors. We hypothesize that descent of the testes occurs as a result of the secretion of an androgen-independent factor from a normal testis (descendin). This paracrine factor is responsible for the rapid proliferation (outgrowth) of the ipsilateral gubernaculum. The development of the gubernaculum results in creating a dilated inguinal canal, the width of which matches the testicular width. Descent of the testes through the inguinal canal is an interplay between abdominal pressure, a patent processus vaginalis, and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. We hypothesize that androgens (under control of an intact hypothalamic pituitary axis) alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum, reducing the turgidity of the gubernaculum and allowing intra-abdominal pressure to push the testis into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can therefore result when any one or more of the involved factors malfunction. PMID:7625001

  12. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of testicular undescent.

    PubMed

    Husmann, D A; Levy, J B

    1995-08-01

    At present, we believe that descent of the testes within the human is a complex event mediated by both hormonal and mechanical factors. We hypothesize that descent of the testes occurs as a result of the secretion of an androgen-independent factor from a normal testis (descendin). This paracrine factor is responsible for the rapid proliferation (outgrowth) of the ipsilateral gubernaculum. The development of the gubernaculum results in creating a dilated inguinal canal, the width of which matches the testicular width. Descent of the testes through the inguinal canal is an interplay between abdominal pressure, a patent processus vaginalis, and androgen-induced gubernacular regression. We hypothesize that androgens (under control of an intact hypothalamic pituitary axis) alter the viscoelastic properties of the gubernaculum, reducing the turgidity of the gubernaculum and allowing intra-abdominal pressure to push the testis into the scrotum. Cryptorchidism can therefore result when any one or more of the involved factors malfunction.

  13. Cytotoxic effects of WR-2721 on mouse testicular cells

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrich, M.L.; Finch, M.V.; Hunter, N.; Milas, L.

    1984-09-01

    WR-2721 (S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid) has been demonstrated to be cytotoxic to stem spermatogonia in the mouse. Five and 10 injections of 300 mg/kg killed sufficient numbers of stem cells to reduce sperm production 56 days after treatment by 16 and 43%, respectively. Single injections of 300 or 400 mg/kg of WR-2721 given 15 min after irradiation produced negligible toxicity to stem cells as measured by counts of repopulated tubules; 600 mg/kg reduced stem cell survival by 47%. Four daily injections of 300 mg/kg given 4, 3, 2, and 1 days prior to irradiation reduced stem cell survival by about 60%. The cytotoxic effects of WR-2721 on testicular stem cells at least partially explains the reduced protection factors observed in the testis with low doses of radiation and during fractionated treatments involving multiple injections of drug.

  14. Expanding access to testicular tissue cryopreservation: an analysis by analogy.

    PubMed

    Ruutiainen, Tuua; Miller, Steve; Caplan, Arthur; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2013-01-01

    Researchers are developing a fertility preservation technique--testicular tissue cryopreservation (TTCP)--for prepubescent boys who may become infertile as a result of their cancer treatment. Although this technique is still in development, some researchers are calling for its widespread use. They argue that if boys do not bank their tissue now, they will be unable to benefit from any therapies that might be developed in the future. There are, however, risks involved with increasing access to an investigational procedure. This article examines four methods of expanding access to TTCP: (1) expansion of institutional review board (IRB)-approved research trials; (2) offering TTCP as an innovative procedure in hospitals; (3) offering TTCP as a standard practice in hospitals; and (4) commercialization of TTCP. The ethical and practical implications of each are evaluated through a comparison with umbilical cord blood banking (UCBB), a technology that has achieved widespread use based on similar claims of future benefit. PMID:23428034

  15. Germ cell transplantation: a potential treatment of severe testicular failure.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D J; Lamb, D J

    2000-12-01

    Although the process of spermatogenesis is relatively efficient and resistant to damage, male infertility can result from exposure to toxic agents such as chemotherapeutic regimes, radiation, or occupational exposures to chemicals. Other types of infertility may result from migratory defects or poor survival of primordial germ cells during development, abnormal repopulation of the tubules by spermatogonia during development, or low cellularity of the testis (hypospermatogenesis). Presently, there are no effective therapies available to treat these patients. Recent studies in animal models have demonstrated that isolated testicular germ cells collected from testes may be transplanted into sterile recipient mice to regenerate spermatogenesis. This technology will have widespread applications in efforts to manipulate the genome and produce transgenic offspring, to improve agricultural species, to enhance sperm production in endangered species, to improve our understanding of the control mechanisms regulating spermatogenesis, and to treat male infertility.

  16. Testicular toxicity in rat to repeated oral administration of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (Thiram).

    PubMed

    Mishra, V K; Srivastava, M K; Raizada, R B

    1998-04-01

    Thiram was administered to male rats through gavage at doses 5, 10 and 25 mg/kg/day for 180 and 360 days. Thiram has caused marginal increase in the relative weight of testes and epididymis and decrease in the weight of seminal vesicle and prostate. Marked degenerative changes were observed in seminiferous tubules together with alterations in testicular enzyme profile. The activity of testicular enzymes such as ACP, SDH and ATPase (Na+ + K+ dependent) was decreased whereas activity of LDH, G-6-PDH and ALP increased. The levels of serum cholesterol and testicular free sialic acid were enhanced, while the level of testicular protein was lowered. It is evident from the present study that long term treatment of thiram at tested dose levels has resulted in dose and time dependent morphological and biochemical changes in testes of rat.

  17. Two males with SRY-positive 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Sezgin; Asci, Ramazan; Okten, Gülsen; Atac, Fatih; Onat, Onur E; Ogur, Gonul; Aydin, Oguz; Ozcelik, Tayfun; Bagci, Hasan

    2013-02-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (46,XX testicular DSD) is a rare phenotype associated with disorder of the sex chromosomes. We describe the clinical, molecular, and cytogenetic findings of a 16- and a 30-year-old male patient with sex-determining region Y (SRY)-positive 46,XX testicular DSD. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46,XX karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the SRY region translocated to the short arm of the X chromosome. The presence of the SRY gene was also confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The X chromosome inactivation (XCI) assay showed that both patients have a random pattern of X chromosome inactivation. This report compares the symptoms and features of the SRY-positive 46,XX testicular DSD patients.

  18. Lead toxicity and the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis.

    PubMed

    Sokol, R Z; Madding, C E; Swerdloff, R S

    1985-10-01

    Environmental exposure to toxic levels of lead occurs in a number of industries with potential adverse effects on the reproductive capacity of exposed men. Clinical and animal studies indicate that abnormalities of spermatogenesis result from toxic lead exposure, but the pathogenetic mechanisms involved have not been identified. In order to ascertain what reproductive abnormalities occur in experimental animals when exposed to low levels of lead, 52-day-old animals were treated with water containing 0.0% (control), 0.1%, or 0.3% lead acetate for 30 days prior to killing. Whole blood serum lead levels were below detection (less than 7 micrograms/dl) in the control animals, 34 +/- 3 micrograms/dl in the 0.1% group, and 60 +/- 4 micrograms/dl in the 0.3% group (P less than 0.001). Significant negative correlations between whole blood lead levels and serum and intratesticular testosterone values were found (r = 0.64, P less than 0.001 and r = 0.6, P less than 0.001, respectively). As the level of lead exposure increased, intratesticular sperm counts significantly decreased (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). No significant changes in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were found, but sperm follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were significantly suppressed (P less than 0.05) after lead treatment. There was a significant decrease in ventral prostate weight (P less than 0.05), but no differences in testicular or seminal vesicle weights. Our data indicate that dietary exposure to lead resulting in whole blood serum lead values considered acceptable in the workplace (less than or equal to 40 micrograms/dl) causes inhibition of testicular function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Kidd, G S; Glass, A R; Vigersky, R A

    1979-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis was evaluated in seven men with thyrotoxicosis due to Graves' disease. Loss of libido and decreased potency were present in 71% and 56%, respectively. All patients had normal testicular volume (25 ml in all) and gynecomastia was detected in two of seven patients. Total sperm counts were less than 40 million in four of the five men tested. There was an inverse correlation between basal serum 17 beta-estradiol (E2) levels and total sperm count (r = -0.87; P less than 0.05). Mean (+/- SE) total testosterone (T) and E2 levels (1008 +/- 104 ng/100 ml and 104 +/- 16 pg/ml) were significantly higher than in normal men (P less than 0.05). Free T (13.6 +/- 2.4 ng/100 ml) was indistinguishable from normal (15.3 +/- 1.5 ng/100 ml). The mean (+/- SE) response of serum T to hCG administration was blunted (80 +/- 40%) compared to controls (193 +/- 19%; P less than 0.02). Basal plasma LH levels (15.5 +/- 1.5 mIU/ml) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than in normal men (9.1 +/- 0.6 mIU/ml) and hyperresponded to 100 microgram LRH iv in five of seven patients. Basal plasma FSH levels and the FSH response to LRH were normal. These results suggest that men with hyperthyroidism have 1) partial Leydig cell failure, 2) impairment of spermatogenesis, and 3) blunting of the feedback effects of E2.

  20. Development of interspecies testicular germ-cell transplantation in flatfish.

    PubMed

    Pacchiarini, Tiziana; Sarasquete, Carmen; Cabrita, Elsa

    2014-06-01

    Interspecific testicular germ cell (TGC) transplantation was investigated in two commercial flatfish species. Testes from donor species (Senegalese sole) were evaluated using classical histological techniques (haematoxylin-eosin staining and haematoxylin-light green-orange G-acid fuchsine staining), in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemical analysis. Both Ssvasa1-2 mRNAs and SsVasa protein allowed the characterisation of TGCs, confirming the usefulness of the vasa gene in the detection of Senegalese sole TGCs. Xenogenic transplants were carried out using TGCs from one-year-old Senegalese sole into turbot larvae. Propidium iodide-SYBR-14 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining showed that 87.98% of the extracted testicular cells were viable for microinjection and that 15.63% of the total recovered cells were spermatogonia. The vasa gene was characterised in turbot recipients using cDNA cloning. Smvasa mRNA was confirmed as a germ cell-specific molecular marker in this species. Smvasa expression analysis during turbot ontogeny was carried out before Senegalese sole TGC transplants into turbot larvae. Turbot larvae at 18 days after hatching (DAH) proved to be susceptible to manipulation procedures. High survival rates (83.75±15.90-100%) were obtained for turbot larvae at 27, 34 and 42 DAH. These data highlight the huge potential of this species for transplantation studies. Quantitative PCR was employed to detect Senegalese sole vasa mRNAs (Ssvasa1-2) in the recipient turbot larvae. The Ssvasa mRNAs showed a significant increase in relative expression in 42-DAH microinjected larvae three weeks after treatment, showing the proliferation of Senegalese sole spermatogonia in transplanted turbot larvae.

  1. Testicular microlithiasis in acquired undescended testis after orchidopexy at diagnosis.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, E; Meij-de Vries, A; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L; Zijp, G; Hack, W

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the prevalence of testicular microlithiasis (TM) in surgically corrected acquired undescended testis (UDT). The prevalence of TM was assessed by ultrasound. Boys and young men who had undergone orchidopexy (ORP) for acquired UDT in mid or late childhood were observed to study the long-term testicular volume. During this examination, the presence or absence of TM was also assessed. TM was defined as echogenic foci without shadowing within the testis parenchyma. We included 106 patients who had undergone ORP at the Medical Center Alkmaar (1986-1999) and 155 patients who had undergone ORP at the Juliana Children's Hospital (1996-2009). The majority of patients were white, Caucasian (82%). The median age at follow-up, 25.8 years (range 14.0-31.6 years) was higher in Medical Center Alkmaar than in Juliana Children's Hospital 13.4 years (range 5.1-26.6 years). From 2009 to 2011, these 261 patients (median age 18.9 years) underwent an ultrasound examination. Median follow-up after ORP was 11.3 years (range 1.4-23.5 years); age at ORP ranged from 2.1 to 16.2 years, with a median of 8.5 years. TM was found in 17 (6.5%) patients (median age at follow-up 20.4 years; range 11-28). No significant association was found with the incidence of TM and the operated testis, the age at ORP or the racial variance (p > 0.05). ORP at diagnosis for acquired UDT is associated with a 6.5% prevalence of TM in boys and young adults.

  2. Endogenous DNA Damage and Risk of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, M B; Sigurdson, A J; Jones, I M; Thomas, C B; Graubard, B I; Korde, L; Greene, M H; McGlynn, K A

    2008-01-18

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are comprised of two histologic groups, seminomas and nonseminomas. We postulated that the possible divergent pathogeneses of these histologies may be partially explained by variable endogenous DNA damage. To assess our hypothesis, we conducted a case-case analysis of seminomas and nonseminomas using the alkaline comet assay to quantify single-strand DNA breaks and alkali-labile sites. The Familial Testicular Cancer study and the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort provided 112 TGCT cases (51 seminomas & 61 nonseminomas). A lymphoblastoid cell line was cultured for each patient and the alkaline comet assay was used to determine four parameters: tail DNA, tail length, comet distributed moment (CDM) and Olive tail moment (OTM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. Values for tail length, tail DNA, CDM and OTM were modeled as categorical variables using the 50th and 75th percentiles of the seminoma group. Tail DNA was significantly associated with nonseminoma compared to seminoma (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 3.31, 95%CI: 1.00, 10.98; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 3.71, 95%CI: 1.04, 13.20; p for trend=0.039). OTM exhibited similar, albeit statistically non-significant, risk estimates (OR{sub 50th percentile} = 2.27, 95%CI: 0.75, 6.87; OR{sub 75th percentile} = 2.40, 95%CI: 0.75, 7.71; p for trend=0.12) whereas tail length and CDM showed no association. In conclusion, the results for tail DNA and OTM indicate that endogenous DNA damage levels are higher in patients who develop nonseminoma compared with seminoma. This may partly explain the more aggressive biology and younger age-of-onset of this histologic subgroup compared with the relatively less aggressive, later-onset seminoma.

  3. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  4. Impact of Bep or Carboplatin Chemotherapy on Testicular Function and Sperm Nucleus of Subjects with Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Ghezzi, Marco; Berretta, Massimiliano; Bottacin, Alberto; Palego, Pierfrancesco; Sartini, Barbara; Cosci, Ilaria; Finos, Livio; Selice, Riccardo; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Young males have testicular germ cells tumors (TGCT) as the most common malignancy and its incidence is increasing in several countries. Besides unilateral orchiectomy (UO), the treatment of TGCT may include surveillance, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy (CT), basing on tumor histology and stage of disease. It is well known that both radio and CT may have negative effects on testicular function, affecting spermatogenesis, and sex hormones. Many reports investigated these aspects in patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), after UO. In contrast no data are available on the side effects of carboplatin treatment in these patients. We included in this study 212 consecutive subjects who undergone to sperm banking at our Andrology and Human Reproduction Unit after UO for TGCT. Hundred subjects were further treated with one or more BEP cycles (BEP-group), 54 with carboplatin (CARB group), and 58 were just surveilled (S-group). All patients were evaluated for seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidy, sperm DNA, sex hormones, volume of the residual testis at baseline (T0) and after 12 (T1) and 24 months (T2) from UO or end of CT. Seminal parameters, sperm aneuploidies, DNA status, gonadic hormones, and testicular volume at baseline were not different between groups. At T1, we observed a significant reduction of sperm concentration and sperm count in the BEP group versus baseline and versus both Carb and S-group. A significant increase of sperm aneuploidies was present at T1 in the BEP group. Similarly, the same group at 1 had altered sperm DNA integrity and fragmentation compared with baseline, S-group and Carb group. These alterations were persistent after 2 years from the end of BEP treatment. Despite a slight improvement at T2, the BEP group had still higher percentages of sperm aneuploidies than other groups. No impairment of sperm aneuploidies and DNA status were observed in the Carb group both after 1 and 2 years from the end of treatment. Despite

  5. The calcium-sensing receptor participates in testicular damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Wei-Yuan; Tong, Li-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Cao, Yong-Gang; Wang, Gong-Chen; Zhu, Jin-Zhi; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Xue-Ying; Zhang, Tie-Hui; Zhang, Lin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility caused by testicular damage is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed in testicular tissues and plays a pivotal role in calcium homeostasis by activating cellular signaling pathways, but its role in testicular damage induced by diabetes remains unclear. A diabetic model was established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg kg−1) in Wistar rats. Animals then received GdCl3 (an agonist of CaSR, 8.67 mg kg−1), NPS-2390 (an antagonist of CaSR, 0.20 g kg−1), or a combination of both 2 months after STZ injection. Diabetic rats had significantly lower testes weights and serum levels of testosterone compared to healthy rats, indicating testicular damage and dysfunction in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Compared with healthy controls, the testicular tissues of diabetic rats overexpressed the CaSR protein and had higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and higher numbers of apoptotic germ cells. The testicular tissues from diabetic rats also expressed lower levels of Bcl-2 and higher levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in addition to higher phosphorylation rates of c-Jun NH2-terminal protein kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. The above parameters could be further increased or aggravated by the administration of GdCl3, but could be attenuated by injection of NPS-2390. In conclusion, the present results indicate that CaSR activation participates in diabetes-induced testicular damage, implying CaSR may be a potential target for protective strategies against diabetes-induced testicular damage and could help to prevent infertility in diabetic men. PMID:26387585

  6. Effects of microgravity or simulated launch on testicular function in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amann, R. P.; Deaver, D. R.; Zirkin, B. R.; Grills, G. S.; Sapp, W. J.; Veeramachaneni, D. N. R.; Clemens, J. W.; Banerjee, S. D.; Folmer, J.; Gruppi, C. M.

    1992-01-01

    Reproductive toxicology and cellular and molecular biology approaches were used to evaluate testicular function in rats from Cosmos 2044. It is found that concentrations of testosterone in testicular tissue or peripheral blood plasma were reduced in flight rates to less than 20 percent of values for simulated-launch or vivarium controls. Spermatogenesis was essentially normal in flight rats, but production of testosterone was severely depressed.

  7. Report of 4 cases of testicular rupture in adolescent boys secondary to sports-related trauma.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard J; Attia, Magdy; Cronan, Kate

    2008-12-01

    Testicular rupture is a rare entity in children and adolescents. This is due to the smaller size of the testicles in these patients, the well-protected location of the testicles, and the high degree of mobility of these organs. We present 4 cases of testicular rupture occurring in preadolescent and adolescent boys over an 11-month period in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department.

  8. Diagnosis of cardiac tamponade with transesophageal echocardiography following the induction of anesthesia for suspected testicular torsion

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Stephen M.; Wang, Xiao; Sullivan, Erin A.

    2015-01-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a valuable tool for evaluating hemodynamic instability in patients under general anesthesia. We present the case of a 28-year-old man who presented with complaints of testicular pain concerning for testicular torsion. After induction of general anesthesia for scrotal exploration and possible orchiopexy, the patient developed severe and persistent hypotension. Using intraoperative TEE, the diagnosis of pericardial tamponade was made, and an emergent pericardial window was performed. PMID:26139762

  9. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goel, Shalini; Sachdev, Ritesh; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-07-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer's ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  10. [Effect of LHRH agonists on testicular microcirculation with Doppler laser flowmetry].

    PubMed

    Gonzalvo, V; Navalón, P; Lloris, J M

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the changes that take place in testicular microcirculation measured by DLF during systemic administration of LHRH agonists. The essay includes a comparison with the variations registered in the volume of testicular interstitial fluid, the anatomopathological changes and the associated leucocyte demyeloperoxidase levels. We also examine the relationship between testicular microcirculation changes and plasma testosterone levels. To do this, 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, using 10 as control group and the remaining 40 distributed in 4 groups. Measurements were done at 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours after administration of Tryptorelin 0.4 mg i.v. We found that acute administration of an LHRH agonist causes a series of significant changes on testicular microcirculation. Testicular rhythmic microcirculatory flow, i.e., vasomotion, disappears. In turn, accumulation of PMN leucocytes associated to increased venular permeability takes places. Such pre- and postcapillary vascular changes lead to increased vascular permeability which results in increased volume of testicular interstitial fluid. This increased capillary permeability is responsible for the extensive interstitial oedema that would explain the serious histological changes seen on the seminiferous tubule with these drugs.

  11. Lycopene protects against cyclosporine A-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Ateşşahin, Ahmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Ceribaşi, Ali Osman

    2007-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced direct failures in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and Sertoli cell phagocytic function have been considered for testicular toxicity so far. It has clearly been reported that oxidative stress leads to damage in sperm functions and structure of the testis. Therefore, this study was conducted to demonstrate whether CsA causes testicular and spermatozoal toxicity associated with the oxidative stress, and to investigate the possible protective effect of lycopene against CsA-induced damages in all reproductive organs and sperm characteristics in male rats. While the daily administration of CsA at the dose 15 mg/kg for 21 days significantly decreased the seminal vesicles weight, epididymal sperm concentration, motility, testicular tissue glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase (CAT), diameter of seminiferous tubules and germinal cell thickness, it increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and abnormal sperm rates along with degeneration, necrosis, desquamative germ cells in testicular tissue. However, the CsA along with simultaneous administration of lycopene at the dose of 10mg/kg markedly ameliorated the CsA-induced all the negative changes observed in the testicular tissue, sperm parameters and oxidant/antioxidant balance. In conclusion, CsA-induced oxidative stress leads to the structural and functional damages in the testicular tissue and sperm quality of rats and, lycopene has a potential protective effect on these damages.

  12. Fenugreek seed powder mitigates cadmium-induced testicular damage and hepatotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Arafa, Manar Hamed; Mohammad, Nanies Sameeh; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2014-09-01

    Cadmium is a potential environmental and industrial pollutant affecting human tissues and organs including liver and testes. The protective role of fenugreek seed powder (FSP) was investigated in male rats subjected to cadmium-induced testicular injury and hepatic dysfunction. Testicular damage and hepatotoxicity were induced by oral administration of cadmium chloride (5 mg/kg body weight, once a day) for 7 weeks. FSP was given at 5% w/w in chow diet for 8 weeks, starting 1 week before cadmium administration. FSP intake significantly increased serum testosterone level and testis weight that were reduced by cadmium. FSP also compensated deficits in hepatic and testicular antioxidant defense system, interleukin-4 and nitric oxide levels, reduced serum liver function enzyme activities and suppressed lipid peroxidation in hepatic and testicular tissues resulted from cadmium administration. Additionally, FSP attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in hepatic and testicular tumor necrosis factor-α and transforming growth factor-beta1 levels as well as cadmium deposition and hydroxyproline content. The protective effect afforded by FSP was mainly due its antioxidant, antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects. In conclusion, the results of the present work indicated that FSP may represent a promising medicinal herb to protect hepatic and testicular tissues from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:24813645

  13. Influence of combined treatment with zinc and selenium on cadmium induced testicular pathophysiology in rat.

    PubMed

    Saïd, Lamia; Banni, Mohamed; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saïd, Khaled; Messaoudi, Imed

    2010-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential benefit of combined treatment with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) in reversing cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular pathophysiology compared to Se or Zn treatment alone in rats. For this purpose, male rats received either tap water, Cd, Cd+Zn, Cd+Se or Cd+Zn+Se in their drinking water, for 35 days. Cd exposure caused a significant decrease in plasma and testicular concentrations of Se and Zn which was accompanied by decreased plasma testosterone level, sperm count and motility, enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) as well as by increased lipid peroxidation (as malondialdehyde, MDA). With Se or Zn administration, during exposure to Cd, only partial corrective effects on depletion of testicular and plasma Se and Zn levels, sperm characteristics and oxidative stress have been observed. The combined treatment of Cd-exposed animals with Se and Zn assured a more significant decrease in plasma and testicular Cd concentrations and a more efficient protection against the observed testicular damage as evidenced by the total prevention of both Se and Zn deprivation and by the entire restoration of the sperm motility and the testicular antioxidant status. PMID:20621149

  14. Protective effect of hemin against cadmium-induced testicular damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Qureshi, Habib A; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Yacoubi, Mohamed T; Ali, Abdellah Abusrie

    2009-03-29

    The protective effect of hemin, the heme oxygenase-1 inducer, was investigated in rats with cadmium induced-testicular injury, in which oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role. Testicular damage was induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2mg/kg). Hemin was given for three consecutive days (40 micromol/kg/day, s.c.), starting 1 day before cadmium administration. Hemin treatment significantly increased serum testosterone level that was reduced by cadmium. Hemin compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione, and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities), and suppressed lipid peroxidation in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Also, hemin attenuated the cadmium-induced elevations in testicular tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide levels, and caspase-3 activity. Additionally, hemin ameliorated cadmium-induced testicular tissue damage observed by light and electron microscopic examinations. The protective effect afforded by hemin was abolished by prior administration of zinc protoporphyrin-IX, the heme oxygenase-1 inhibitor. It was concluded that hemin, through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects, represents a potential therapeutic option to protect the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:19150641

  15. Changes of testicular phosphorylated proteins in response to restraint stress in male rats*

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Uabundit, Nongnut; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate male reproductive parameters via changes of potential testicular protein markers in restraint-stress rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (non-immobilized control and restraint-immobilized/stress groups, n=8 each group). The stress animals were immobilized (12 h/d) by a restraint cage for 7 consecutive days. All reproductive parameters, morphology and histology were observed and compared between groups. In addition, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) and phosphotyrosine proteins (previously localized in Sertoli and late spermatid cells) in testicular lysate was assayed by immuno-Western blotting. Results: Testosterone level, sperm concentration and sperm head normality of stress rats were significantly decreased while the corticosterone level was increased as compared with the control (P<0.05). Histologically, stress rats showed low sperm mass in epididymal lumen and some atrophy of seminiferous tubules. Although the expression of testicular StAR protein was not significantly different between groups, changed patterns of the 131, 95, and 75 kDa testicular phosphorylated proteins were observed in the stress group compared with the control group. The intensity of a testicular 95-kDa phosphorylated protein was significantly decreased in stress rats. Conclusions: This study has demonstrated the alteration of testicular phosphorylated protein patterns, associated with adverse male reproductive parameters in stress rats. It could be an explanation of some infertility in stress males. PMID:26739523

  16. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL.

  17. The annual testicular cycle in an equatorial colony of lesser rock hyrax, Heterohyrax brucei.

    PubMed

    Neaves, W B

    1979-11-30

    Adult males from a colony of lesser rock hyrax found near the equator in Kenya exhibited an annual cycle of testicular activity characterized by intense spermatogenesis and elevated androgen status from May to July. Average masses of testes and seminal vesicles taken in these months were almost fourfold greater than those from September to January. During the months of peak testicular activity average diameters of Leydig cells and seminiferous tubules were increased by approximately one half and total tubule length was doubled, compared with values for the quiescent months. Variable testicular development occurred during transitional intervals preceding and following peak testicular activity. From February to Aril thickening of the seminiferous epithelium and appearance of spermatozoa in the caput epididymidis signalled re-establishment of sperm production. In August shedding of germinal cells from the epithelium heralded impending failure of spermatogenesis. Evidence of an annual testicular cycle contradicted the prevalent belief that equatorial hyrax breed all year and suggested that the testicular cycle is a conservative element of hyracoid reproductive strategy.

  18. Unusually Aggressive Primary Testicular Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma with Post Therapy Extensive Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shalini; Mohapatra, Ishani; Gajendra, Smeeta; Gupta, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Primary Testicular Lymphoma (PTL) is a rare intermediate to high grade tumour, diffuse large cell being the most common type. Unlike nodal Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), testicular DLBCL has a less aggressive course and better prognosis. Metastasis is uncommon in testicular DLBCL. Commonly involved sites are contralateral testes, Waldeyer’s ring, skin, lung, Central Nervous System (CNS) and prostate, however the kidneys, liver, bone marrow, pleura and bones are more rarely involved. We report a case of testicular DLBCL which has metastasized to skin and bone marrow with an aggressive clinical course in a year, in-spite of combined modality of therapy given to the patient. Bone marrow infiltration is common and well documented with nodal DLBCL, however there is no published literature for simultaneous bone marrow and skin infiltration in testicular DLBCL till date. Other large studies done in the west have shown that distinct metastasis is usually common but the median progression-free survival is usually in years. This case stresses on shorter period of progression after standard treatment protocol in this part of the world, thus highlighting the need for other extensive studies to define specific treatment protocol for testicular DLBCL. PMID:27630854

  19. Protective effect of diallyl disulfide on cyclophosphamide-induced testicular toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, In-Chul; Baek, Hyung-Seon; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced testicular toxicity in male rats. DADS was gavaged to rats once daily for 3 days at 100 mg/kg/day. One hour after the final DADS treatment, the rats were given a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 mg/kg CP. All rats were killed and necropsied on day 56 after CP treatment. Parameters of testicular toxicity included reproductive organ weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility and morphology, epididymal index, and histopathologic examinations. The CP treatment caused a decrease in body weight, testicular sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index. The histopathological examination revealed various morphological alterations, characterized by degeneration of spermatogonia/spermatocytes, vacuolization, and decreased number of spermatids/spermatocytes in the testis, and cell debris and mild oligospermia in the ductus epididymis. In contrast, DADS pretreatment effectively attenuated the testicular toxicity caused by CP, including decreased sperm head count, epididymal sperm motility, and epididymal index and increased histopathological alterations in the testis and epididymis. These results indicate that DADS attenuates testicular toxicity induced by CP in rats. PMID:24396385

  20. Testicular Metabolic Reprogramming in Neonatal Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats Impairs Glycolytic Flux and Promotes Glycogen Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rato, L.; Alves, M. G.; Dias, T. R.; Cavaco, J. E.; Oliveira, Pedro F.

    2015-01-01

    Defects in testicular metabolism are directly implicated with male infertility, but most of the mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes- (T2DM) induced male infertility remain unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of T2DM on testicular glucose metabolism by using a neonatal-streptozotocin- (n-STZ) T2DM animal model. Plasma and testicular hormonal levels were evaluated using specific kits. mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed by real-time PCR and Western Blot, respectively. Testicular metabolic profile was assessed by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. T2DM rats showed increased glycemic levels, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Both testicular and serum testosterone levels were decreased, whereas those of 17β-estradiol were not altered. Testicular glycolytic flux was not favored in testicles of T2DM rats, since, despite the increased expression of both glucose transporters 1 and 3 and the enzyme phosphofructokinase 1, lactate dehydrogenase activity was severely decreased contributing to lower testicular lactate content. However, T2DM enhanced testicular glycogen accumulation, by modulating the availability of the precursors for its synthesis. T2DM also affected the reproductive sperm parameters. Taken together these results indicate that T2DM is able to reprogram testicular metabolism by enhancing alternative metabolic pathways, particularly glycogen synthesis, and such alterations are associated with impaired sperm parameters. PMID:26064993

  1. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) bark oil on heat stress-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor density in developing Japanese quails.

    PubMed

    Türk, Gaffari; Şimşek, Ülkü G; Çeribaşı, Ali O; Çeribaşı, Songül; Özer Kaya, Şeyma; Güvenç, Mehmet; Çiftçi, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mustafa; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Bayrakdar, Ali; Yaman, Mine; Tonbak, Fadime

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamon bark oil (CBO) on heat stress (HS)-induced changes in sperm production, testicular lipid peroxidation, testicular apoptosis, and androgenic receptor (AR) density in developing Japanese quails. Fifteen-day-old 90 male chicks were assigned to two main groups. The first group (45 chicks) was kept in a thermoneutral room at 22 °C for 24 h/day. The second group (45 chicks) was kept in a room with high ambient temperature at 34 °C for 8 h/day (from 9 AM-5 PM) and at 22 °C for 16 h/day. Each of these two main groups was then divided into three subgroups (CBO groups 0, 250, 500 ppm) consisting of 15 chicks (six treatment groups in 2 × 3 factorial order). Each of subgroups was replicated for three times and each replicate included five chicks. Heat stress caused significant decreases in body weight, spermatid and testicular sperm numbers, the density of testicular Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic marker) and AR immunopositivity, and significant increases in testicular lipid peroxidation level, the density of testicular Bax (apoptotic marker) immunopositivity, and a Bax/Bcl-2 ratio along with some histopathologic damages. However, 250 and 500 ppm CBO supplementation provided significant improvements in HS-induced increased level of testicular lipid peroxidation, decreased number of spermatid and testicular sperm, decreased densities of Bcl-2 and AR immunopositivity, and some deteriorated testicular histopathologic lesions. In addition, although HS did not significantly affect the testicular glutathione level, addition of both 250 and 500 ppm CBO to diet of quails reared in both HS and thermoneutral conditions caused a significant increase when compared with quails without any consumption of CBO. In conclusion, HS-induced lipid peroxidation causes testicular damage in developing male Japanese quails and, consumption of CBO, which has antiperoxidative effect, protects their testes against HS.

  2. In vivo manipulation (depletion versus activation) of testicular macrophages: central and local effects.

    PubMed

    Gaytan, F; Bellido, C; Morales, C; García, M; van Rooijen, N; Aguilar, E

    1996-07-01

    Testicular macrophages are a relevant cell type for the regulation of Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The availability of liposome technology allows in vivo manipulation of macrophages in order to analyze their role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In this study, adult (70 days of age) and prepubertal (22 days of age) rats were injected intratesticularly with liposomes containing either dichloromethylene diphosphonate (C12MDP) to deplete testicular macrophages or muramyl tripeptide (MTP-PE) to activate them. Control rats were injected with the corresponding volumes of 0.9% NaCl. Animals were killed 10 days after treatment. Adult rats injected bilaterally or unilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed increased serum LH and testosterone concentrations, as well as increased testosterone concentrations in the testicular interstitial fluid. In unilaterally injected rats, testosterone concentrations in the interstitial fluid were higher in the macrophage-containing testes than in the contralateral, macrophage-depleted testes. Adult rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of testicular macrophages, whereas the number of Leydig cells was unchanged. Serum LH concentrations were decreased, but no changes were found in testosterone concentrations. Prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with C12MDP liposomes showed decreased numbers of Leydig cells. However, serum LH and testosterone concentrations were increased. Otherwise, prepubertal rats treated bilaterally with MTP-PE liposomes showed increased numbers of macrophages and Leydig cells, as well as increased serum testosterone concentrations. These data suggest that testicular macrophage-derived factors act at two different levels in the pituitary-testicular axis: first, at a central level by inhibiting LH secretion, and secondly, at a local level by stimulating Leydig cell steroidogenesis.

  3. HMGA2 expression distinguishes between different types of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumour.

    PubMed

    Kloth, Lars; Gottlieb, Andrea; Helmke, Burkhard; Wosniok, Werner; Löning, Thomas; Burchardt, Käte; Belge, Gazanfer; Günther, Kathrin; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2015-10-01

    The group of postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours encompasses lesions with highly diverse differentiation - seminomas, embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, teratomas and choriocarcinomas. Heterogeneous differentiation is often present within individual tumours and the correct identification of the components is of clinical relevance. HMGA2 re-expression has been reported in many tumours, including testicular germ cell tumours. This is the first study investigating HMGA2 expression in a representative group of testicular germ cell tumours with the highly sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR as well as with immunohistochemistry. The expression of HMGA2 and HPRT was measured using quantitative real-time PCR in 59 postpubertal testicular germ cell tumours. Thirty specimens contained only one type of tumour and 29 were mixed neoplasms. With the exception of choriocarcinomas, at least two pure specimens from each subgroup of testicular germ cell tumour were included. In order to validate the quantitative real-time PCR data and gather information about the localisation of the protein, additional immunohistochemical analysis with an antibody specific for HMGA2 was performed in 23 cases. Expression of HMGA2 in testicular germ cell tumours depended on the histological differentiation. Seminomas and embryonal carcinomas showed no or very little expression, whereas yolk sac tumours strongly expressed HMGA2 at the transcriptome as well as the protein level. In teratomas, the expression varied and in choriocarcinomas the expression was moderate. In part, these results contradict data from previous studies but HMGA2 seems to represent a novel marker to assist pathological subtyping of testicular germ cell tumours. The results indicate a critical role in yolk sac tumours and some forms of teratoma. PMID:27499908

  4. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones.

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Kashlan, Akram M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Hassan, Wafaa A.; Rizk, Sherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg-1), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300μg kg-1; i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg-1; i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  6. Testicular and serum testosterone variations in squirrel monkeys during seasonal cyclicity.

    PubMed

    Pasqualini, T; Colillas, O; Rivarola, M A

    1986-01-01

    The seasonal testicular maturation of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) was used as a model of maturational hormonal regulation of the testis. Testicular testosterone and serum testosterone concentrations were determined during the circannual variations of body weight and testicular volume. These data have been correlated with changes in the germinal epithelium. According to individual weight curves and time of the year, the monkeys were divided into five groups: group A1, maximal weight, April-May; A2, July; A3, November; A4, minimal weight, February-March; and A5, March-April. Variations in testicular volume followed very closely variations in body weight. Sexual activity started at A1 and persisted in A2. A marked drop in the mean width of the germinal epithelium and the diameters of the seminiferous tubules was observed in A3, followed by a recovery during A4 and A5. Testicular testosterone showed two annual elevations. The first peak, 3.91 +/- 0.31 micrograms/g (mean +/- SE), coincided with the serum testosterone peak when body weight and testicular volume were high and the trophic response of the germinal epithelium was complete. The second peak reached levels of 5.21 +/- 1.48 micrograms/g and was observed before the reinitiation of spermatogenesis. This was accompanied by a moderate increase in serum testosterone. The second peak of testicular testosterone, which has been reported to occur in the rat and in humans, might represent a local androgen need for initiation of spermatogenesis, while the first peak might represent the androgen need for full stimulation of spermatogenesis.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Date Palm Pollen for Testicular Dysfunction Induced by Thyroid Disorders in Male Rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashlan, Akram M; Nooh, Mohammed M; Hassan, Wafaa A; Rizk, Sherine M

    2015-01-01

    Hyper- or hypothyroidism can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of date palm pollen (DPP) extract on thyroid disorder-induced testicular dysfunction. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was normal control. Group II received oral DPP extract (150 mg kg(-1)), group III (hyperthyroid group) received intraperitoneal injection of L-thyroxine (L-T4, 300 μg kg(-1); i.p.), group IV received L-T4 plus DPP extract, group V (hypothyroid group) received propylthiouracil (PTU, 10 mg kg(-1); i.p.) and group VI received PTU plus DPP extract. All treatments were given every day for 56 days. L-T4 or PTU lowered genital sex organs weight, sperm count and motility, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T), testicular function markers and activities of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). Moreover, L-T4 or PTU increased estradiol (E2) serum level, testicular oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies backed these observations. Treatment with DPP extract prevented LT4- or PTU induced changes. In addition, supplementation of DPP extract to normal rats augmented sperm count and motility, serum levels of LH, T and E2 paralleled with increased activities of 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD as well as testicular antioxidant status. These results provide evidence that DPP extract may have potential protective effects on testicular dysfunction induced by altered thyroid hormones. PMID:26425844

  8. Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes

    PubMed Central

    Uribe, Mari Carmen; Grier, Harry J; Mejía-Roa, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    In most bony fishes, testes are paired elongated organs that are attached to the dorsal wall of the body by a mesorchium. Histological examination of teleost testes, and also in all vertebrates, shows that the testes are formed of germ cells and somatic cells, comprising the germinal and interstitial compartments. Both compartments are separated by a basement membrane. The germ cells may be spermatogonia, meiotic spermatocytes and haploid spermatids that differentiate into spermatozoa. The process of spermatogenesis includes a sequence of morphological and physiological changes of germ cells that begin with the differentiation of spermatogonia that become meiotic spermatocytes. After the second meiotic division, through a process of spermiogenesis, these differentiate into spermatozoa. Spermatogonia associate with Sertoli cells to form spermatocysts or cysts. The cyst is the unit of spermatogenic function, composed of a cohort of isogenic germ cells surrounded by encompassing Sertoli cells. The teleost testis is organized morphologically into 3 types of testis: 1) tubular testis type, present in lower bony fishes as salmonids, cyprinids and lepisosteids; 2) unrestricted spermatogonial testis type, found in neoteleosts except Atherinomorpha; and 3) restricted spermatogonial testis type, characteristic of all Atherinomorpha. The morphology of the testicular germinal epithelium changes during the annual reproductive cycle, reflecting reproductive seasonality. PMID:26413405

  9. Potential role of punicalagin against oxidative stress induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Faiza; Tian, Hui; Li, Wenqing; Hung, Helong; Sun, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Punicalagin is isolated from pomegranate and widely used for the treatment of different diseases in Chinese traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Punicalagin (purity ≥98%) on oxidative stress induced testicular damage and its effect on fertility. We detected the antioxidant potential of punicalagin in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress damage in testes, also tried to uncover the boosting fertility effect of Punicalagin (PU) against oxidative stress-induced infertility. Results demonstrated that 9 mg kg−1 for 7 days treatment significantly decreases LPS induced oxidative damage in testes and nitric oxide production. The administration of oxidative stress resulted in a significant reduction in testes antioxidants GSH, T-SOD, and CAT raised LPO, but treatment with punicalagin for 7 days increased antioxidant defense GSH, T-SOD, and CAT by the end of the experiment and reduced LPO level as well. PU also significantly activates Nrf2, which is involved in regulation of antioxidant defense systems. Hence, the present research categorically elucidates the protective effect of punicalagin against LPS induced oxidative stress induced perturbation in the process of spermatogenesis and significantly increased sperm health and number. Moreover, fertility success significantly decreased in LPS-injected mice compared to controls. Mice injected with LPS had fertility indices of 12.5%, while others treated with a combination of PU + LPS exhibited 75% indices. By promoting fertility and eliminating oxidative stress and inflammation, PU may be a useful nutrient for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26763544

  10. Possible mechanisms underlying the testicular toxicity of oxfendazole in rats.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Miwa; Watanabe, Takao; Kashida, Yoko; Machida, Noboru; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the mechanisms underlying the testicular toxicity of oxfendazole (OX), adult Wistar rats were orally administered a dose of 100 mg/kg/day for 3, 7, or 14 days. Assays of sex-related hormones showed a significant decrease in only the estradiol serum level at days 3 and 7, as compared with the control group. Histopathologically, marked degeneration of meiotic spermatocytes was observed in stage XIV-I seminiferous tubules from day 3 onwards, and these spermatocytes gave positive results on terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL). Abnormalities of spermiogenesis such as megakaryospermatids and binucleated spermatids were also observed in the testes of OX-treated rats. Under the electron microscope, lipid accumulation and dilatation of the endoplasmic reticulum were frequently found in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells on day 3. These results strongly suggest that OX induces both apoptosis of meiotic spermatocytes, most probably due to disruption of the microtubules, and degeneration of the Sertoli cells, characterized by distended endoplasmic reticulum and prominent cytosolic lipid accumulation.

  11. Endocrinological late effects after chemotherapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, C. C.; Bokemeyer, C.; Schuppert, F.; Schmoll, H. J.

    1996-01-01

    Type and extent of endocrinological alterations were studied in long-term disease-free survivors after cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer. A total of 63 patients with a median age of 30 (19-53) years, and median follow-up of 42 (16-128) months were included. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were found in 63% of patients, 24% showed pathologically elevated luteinising hormone (LH) levels with normal and 10% with subnormal testosterone levels. The degree of gonadotropin elevation was highly significantly correlated with the cumulative platinum (P) dose. Patients treated with platinum-vinblastine-bleomycin regimens showed higher gonadotropin levels than those treated with platinum-etoposide-bleomycin. The adrenal androgen dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), pathologically elevated in 68% of patients, was significantly correlated with the cumulative doses of chemotherapy (ctx) used and to the gonadotropin levels. Treatment variables, such as type and dose of cytotoxic agents used, as well as degree of gonadotropin elevation were further correlated with changes in oestron, testosterone and 17 alpha-OH-progesterone levels. Cholesterol levels were elevated in 32% of patients and significant interactions between the steroid hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors could be shown. PMID:8624272

  12. Testicular dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men.

    PubMed

    Poretsky, L; Can, S; Zumoff, B

    1995-07-01

    This review pertains to gonadal function in men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, who often exhibit clinical and biochemical evidence of hypogonadism. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism appears to be the most commonly encountered abnormality, although complete anterior pituitary insufficiency and primary gonadal failure have been reported. Levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) are either unchanged or increased. Plasma levels of estrogens, progesterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), and prolactin vary. Pathologically, except for involvement by opportunistic infections, no significant abnormality in the hypothalamic-pituitary area has been described, but evidence of orchitis is commonly present. The cause(s) of these abnormalities remains unclear. The possible factors leading to hypogonadism in HIV-infected men include HIV infection itself, opportunistic infections, chronic debilitating illness, and effects of cytokines on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further studies are needed to clarify the cause(s) of testicular dysfunction in HIV-infected men and its clinical significance, treatment, relevance to the progression of HIV infection, and influence on the immune system.

  13. Testicular cell junction: a novel target for male contraception.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki P Y; Wong, Elissa W P; Mruk, Dolores D; Cheng, C Yan

    2009-01-01

    Even though various contraceptive methods are widely available, the number of unwanted pregnancies is still on the rise in developing countries, pressurizing the already resource limited nations. One of the major underlying reasons is the lack of effective, low cost, and safe contraceptives for couples. During the past decade, some studies were performed using animal models to decipher if the Sertoli-germ cell junction in the testis is a target for male fertility regulation. Some of these study models were based on the use of hormones and/or chemicals to disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (e.g., androgen-based implants or pills) and others utilized a panel of chemical entities or synthetic peptides to perturb spermatogenesis either reversibly or non-reversibly. Among them, adjudin, a potential male contraceptive, is one of the compounds exerting its action on the unique adherens junctions, known as ectoplasmic specializations, in the testis. Since the testis is equipped with inter-connected cell junctions, an initial targeting of one junction type may affect the others and these accumulative effects could lead to spermatogenic arrest. This review attempts to cover an innovative theme on how male infertility can be achieved by inducing junction instability and defects in the testis, opening a new window of research for male contraceptive development. While it will still take much time and effort of intensive investigation before a product can reach the consumable market, these findings have provided hope for better family planning involving men.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in patients with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Röjdmark, S; Berg, A; Kallner, G

    1988-01-01

    To test whether chronic thyroid hormone excess influences the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, 8 hyperthyroid men were given two identical intravenous GnRH tests. The first test was performed before any treatment had been instituted, the second 6-13 months later, when medical treatment had made the patients euthyroid. Although basal serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels were of similar magnitudes before and after the medical treatment, LH and FSH responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), as reflected by the hormone incremental areas (U/l X min), were significantly larger in the thyrotoxic state compared with the euthyroid state (LH incremental areas: 3,999 +/- 665 vs. 2,640 +/- 430, p less than 0.02; FSH incremental areas: 825 +/- 193 vs. 542 +/- 98, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, serum T increased significantly in response to GnRH when the patients were hyperthyroid (T incremental area: 162 +/- 51, p less than 0.02), but failed to do so when they were euthyroid (T incremental area: 92 +/- 53, NS). These results imply that chronic thyroid hormone excess makes the pituitary gonadotrophs 'hypersensitive' to exogenous GnRH. This may in turn explain why human Leydig cells respond more powerful to exogenous GnRH in thyrotoxic patients than in euthyroid subjects.

  15. Influence of environmental cadmium on testicular proliferation in roe deer.

    PubMed

    Blottner, S; Frölich, K; Roelants, H; Streich, J; Tataruch, F

    1999-01-01

    The influence of cadmium on spermatogenesis in roe deer was studied, comparing animals from areas with high (n = 37) and low (n = 23) cadmium exposure. Testes were evaluated during pre-rut (May) and rut (July/August). During these periods the cadmium accumulation (mg/kg kidney) in polluted regions averaged 3.41 and 3.52 in comparison with 1.61 and 1.81 in controls. Cadmium accumulation was positively correlated with testis weight during both seasons. In May the proliferation (units of tissue polypeptid specific antigen/g parenchyma) was lower in animals with higher cadmium (24.02 compared with 78.20; P < 0.01). During the rut, testicular proliferation and spermatozoa/g testis as well as apoptosis showed no significant changes with increased cadmium contamination. The results suggest delayed proliferation during the pre-rutting period in animals with high cadmium exposure, but other indications of effects on the testis were not significant. PMID:10453910

  16. Dietary Cholesterol-Induced Post-Testicular Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Ouvrier, Aurélia; Alves, Georges; Damon-Soubeyrand, Christelle; Marceau, Geoffroy; Cadet, Rémi; Janny, Laurent; Brugnon, Florence; Kocer, Ayhan; Pommier, Aurélien; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Drevet, Joël R.; Saez, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    This work shows that an overload of dietary cholesterol causes complete infertility in dyslipidemic male mice (the Liver X Receptor-deficient mouse model). Infertility resulted from post-testicular defects affecting the fertilizing potential of spermatozoa. Spermatozoa of cholesterol-fed lxr−/− animals were found to be dramatically less viable and motile, and highly susceptible to undergo a premature acrosome reaction. We also provide evidence, that this lipid-induced infertility is associated with the accelerated appearance of a highly regionalized epididymal phenotype in segments 1 and 2 of the caput epididymidis that was otherwise only observed in aged LXR-deficient males. The epididymal epithelial phenotype is characterized by peritubular accumulation of cholesteryl ester lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells lining the epididymal duct, leading to their transdifferentiation into foam cells that eventually migrate through the duct wall, a situation that resembles the inflammatory atherosclerotic process. These findings establish the high level of susceptibility of epididymal sperm maturation to dietary cholesterol overload and could partly explain reproductive failures encountered by young dyslipidemic men as well as ageing males wishing to reproduce. PMID:22073227

  17. Aspects of the testicular toxicity of phthalate esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, T.J.B.; Gangolli, S.D.

    1986-03-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) produced seminiferous tubular atrophy and reductions in seminal vesicle and prostate weight in 4-week-old, but not in 15 -week-old rats. Di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPP) did produce atrophy in the older rats but this developed more slowly than in young animals. Coadministration of testosterone or gonadotrophins did not protect against phthalate-induced testicular toxicity but did partly reverse the depression of seminal vesicle and prostate weight. Secretion of seminiferous tubule fluid and androgen binding protein by the Sertoli cells was markedly suppressed within 1 hr of a dose of DPP or mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) in immature rats. This occurred less rapidly in mature rats. (/sup 14/C)mono-n-pentyl phthalate and (/sup 14/C)MEHP penetrated the blood testis barrier only to a very limited extent. These findings and the early morphological changes in the Sertoli cells produced by DPP suggest that phthalate esters may act initially to cause Sertoli cell injury, the subsequent loss of germ cells occurring as a consequence of this.

  18. Ebselen attenuates cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Ardais, Ana P; Santos, Francielli W; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2008-04-01

    This study was designed to examine if ebselen, an organoselenium compound with antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase-mimetic properties, attenuates testicular injury caused by intraperitoneal administration of CdCl(2). A number of toxicological parameters were evaluated in the testes of mice, such as delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALA-D) activity, lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid levels and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Ebselen attenuated lipid peroxidation levels altered by CdCl(2). delta-ALA-D activity inhibited by the highest dose of CdCl(2) was attenuated by ebselen. A significant negative correlation between lipid peroxidation levels and delta-ALA-D activity was observed. Ebselen restored ascorbic acid levels reduced by CdCl(2). A significant negative correlation between ascorbic acid levels and delta-ALA-D activity reinforces the idea that ebselen attenuated the damage induced by CdCl(2) via its antioxidant property. The significant correlation between ALT and delta-ALA-D activity supports the assumption that ebselen prevented damage caused by CdCl(2). The results show that ebselen attenuated oxidative stress, a process important for CdCl(2) toxicity. PMID:17624921

  19. Volcanogenic pollution and testicular damage in wild mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ana F; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Camarinho, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Armindo dos Santos

    2015-08-01

    Many evidences have surfaced the adverse effects of environmental pollutants on male reproduction. Volcanogenic pollution is understudied, although it is a well-known source of hazardous contaminants. This study aims to assess the effects of chronic exposure to volcanogenic pollution on wild mice testes by studying: (i) diameter of seminiferous tubules; (ii) relative volumetric density of different spermatogenic cells and interstitial space; (iii) damage in the seminiferous tubules and (iv) apoptotic level in the germinal epithelium. The mice from the polluted site showed higher levels of the selected heavy metals than those from the reference site. The mean diameter of seminiferous tubules and the relative volume occupied by spermatozoa and lumen in exposed mice were significantly lower than in the unexposed group. Contrarily, exposed mice showed a significantly higher relative volume occupied by interstitium, as well as, a higher degree of damage and a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in the germinal epithelium. Results show that secondary manifestations of volcanic activity can pose a serious risk of testicular injury and therefore for male reproduction.

  20. Sclerotherapy of testicular hydroceles with 3% aqueous phenol.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, E

    1996-06-01

    With the evolution of minimally invasive approaches in medicine, phenol has regained its popularity for the sclerotherapy of testicular hydroceles. Together with reported efficiency and safety of 2.5% phenol in the literature, the recently proved safety of 3% phenol in esophageal variceal sclerotherapy has led us to perform a prospective study to lessen the number of sessions. Sclerotherapy with 3% aqueous phenol was applied on an ambulatory basis to 23 patients with 31 hydroceles, who were over 40 years old and who had no fertility problems. The over-all cure rate was 96% with an average follow-up of 3 years, and 58% of the hydroceles required only one session of treatment. The average number of treatment sessions was 2.2 (range; 1-7). One patient with a history of herniorraphy 10 years earlier, was treated surgically following failure of seven sclerotherapy sessions. Phenol, a sclerosant superior to other conventional agents including tetracyclines, requires neither anesthetics nor prophylactic antibiotics. Our findings indicate that sclerotherapy with 3% phenol is an effective, economical and safe form of therapy for patients with hydrocele.

  1. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) prevents lead-induced testicular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Salawu, Emmanuel O; Adeeyo, Olusola A; Falokun, Olutunde P; Yusuf, Uthman A; Oyerinde, Abiodun; Adeleke, Anthony A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lead, an example of heavy metals, has, for decades, being known for its adverse effects on various body organs and systems such that their functions are compromised. AIM: In the present study, the ability of lead to adversely affect the male reproductive system was investigated and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum: Source of antioxidants) paste (TP) was administered orally to prevent the adverse effects of Pb. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen Sprague Dawley rats, randomised into three groups (n = 5), were used for this study. Animals in Group A served as the control and were drinking distilled water. Animals in Groups B and C were drinking 1% Pb (II) acetate (LA). Group C animals were, in addition to drinking LA, treated with 1.5 ml of TP/day. All treatments were for 8 weeks. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: A Mann–Whitney U-test was used to analyse the results obtained. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that Pb caused a significant reduction in the testicular weight, sperm count, life–death ratio, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology, and plasma and tissue superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, but a significant increase in plasma and tissue malondialdehyde concentration. But, Pb did not cause any significant change in the serum testosterone level. TP, however, significantly reduced these adverse effects of Pb. CONCLUSION: These findings lead to the conclusion that TP significantly lowered the adverse effects of Pb exposure on the kidney as well as Pb-induced oxidative stress. PMID:19562072

  2. NIR spectroscopy for the diagnosis of testicular pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleicher, Eckhard; Hampel, Uwe; Zepnick, H.; Freyer, Richard

    2000-11-01

    NIR spectroscopy is a method principally capable of measuring tissue perfusion and oxygen saturation in subsurface and deeper tissue layers. In urology such perfusion related parameters are of some importance for the differentiation and evaluation of certain types of testicular pathologies. Among them are in the first place the differentiation between inflammations and torsion of the testis, both with similar symptoms, and the assessment of tissue viability in cases of torsion and necrosis, which is sometimes not sufficiently covered by sonography. Although NIR spectroscopy is the method of choice to measure blood oxygen saturation in tissue non- invasively the strong light scattering complicates spectroscopy quantification methods. Spatially-resolved spectroscopy (SRS) is one method to quantify absolute oxygen saturation and relative blood volume. To evaluate this method for in-vivo measurements we have developed a laser scanning device and evaluated quantification algorithms by help of numerical and experimental investigations. As first results suggest the method can in principle quantify absorption differences in tissue, oxygen saturation measurements, however, not work on the testis under the simplified assumptions made for other parts of the body.

  3. Familial testicular germ cell tumor: no associated syndromic pattern identified

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) is the most common malignancy in young men. Familial clustering, epidemiologic evidence of increased risk with family or personal history, and the association of TGCT with genitourinary (GU) tract anomalies have suggested an underlying genetic predisposition. Linkage data have not identified a rare, highly-penetrant, single gene in familial TGCT (FTGCT) cases. Based on its association with congenital GU tract anomalies and suggestions that there is an intrauterine origin to TGCT, we hypothesized the existence of unrecognized dysmorphic features in FTGCT. Methods We evaluated 38 FTGCT individuals and 41 first-degree relatives from 22 multiple-case families with detailed dysmorphology examinations, physician-based medical history and physical examination, laboratory testing, and genitourinary imaging studies. Results The prevalence of major abnormalities and minor variants did not significantly differ between either FTGCT individuals or their first-degree relatives when compared with normal population controls, except for tall stature, macrocephaly, flat midface, and retro-/micrognathia. However, these four traits were not manifest as a constellation of features in any one individual or family. We did detect an excess prevalence of the genitourinary anomalies cryptorchidism and congenital inguinal hernia in our population, as previously described in sporadic TGCT, but no congenital renal, retroperitoneal or mediastinal anomalies were detected. Conclusions Overall, our study did not identify a constellation of dysmorphic features in FTGCT individuals, which is consistent with results of genetic studies suggesting that multiple low-penetrance genes are likely responsible for FTGCT susceptibility. PMID:24559313

  4. [Long-term complications following treatment of testicular cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    van den Belt-Dusebout, A W Sandra; Aleman, Berthe M P; Gietema, Jourik A; de Wit, Ronald; van 't Veer, Mars B; Lugtenburg, P J Elly; Krol, A D G Stijn; van Leeuwen, Floor E

    2010-01-01

    Patients who were treated in the past with radiotherapy or chemotherapy for testicular cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma are at risk of new malignancies and cardiovascular disease on the long run. Two patient groups who were diagnosed in various hospitals in the Netherlands as having testicular cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma in the period 1965-1995 have survived for a mean period of almost 20 years by now. Both patient groups have higher risks of a new malignancy or cardiovascular disease following radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy than the general population or patients treated without or with less intensive radiotherapy or chemotherapy. As recovery of Hodgkin lymphoma is only achieved by a more intensive treatment approach than the treatment approach for testicular cancer, the risks of a new malignancy or cardiovascular disease are considerably higher among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma than among survivors of testicular cancer. In both patient groups the long-term risks of new malignancies and cardiovascular disease are still raised in both patient groups up to 25 years after treatment. Because of the relatively high risks of late treatment complications, recommendations for follow-up for survivors of testicular cancer and Hodgkin lymphoma are necessary.

  5. [Novel methods for studies of testicular development and spermatogenesis: From 2D to 3D culture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-dong; Li, He-cheng; Zhang, Tong-dian; Wang, Zi-ming

    2016-03-01

    The two-dimensional model of cell culture is an important method in the study of testicular development and spermatogenesis but can not effectively mimic and regulate the testicular microenvironment and the whole process of spermatogenesis due to the lack of relevant cell factors and the disruption of a three-dimensional spatial structure. In the past 20 years, the development and optimization of the in vitro model such as testis organotypic culture and in vivo model such as testis transplantation achieved a transformation from two- to three-dimension. The maintenance and optimization of the testicular niche structure could mimic the testicular microenvironment and cell types including Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells, which showed similar biological behaviors to those in vivo. Besides, the cell suspension or tissue fragment floats in the gas-liquid interface so that the development of somatic and germ cells is well maintained in vitro whilst the feedback linkage between grafted testis tissue and hypothalamus-pituitary of the host rebuilt in the in vitro model provides an endocrinological basis for spermatogenesis, which serves as an effective methodology to better understand the organogenesis and development of the testis as well as testicular function regulation, advancing the concept of treatment of male infertility. Al- though each of the methods may have its limitations, the progress in the processing, freezing, thawing, and transplantation of cells and tissues will surely promote their clinical application and present their value in translational medicine. PMID:27172668

  6. Thymoquinone ameliorates testicular tissue inflammation induced by chronic administration of oral sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Alyoussef, A; Al-Gayyar, M M H

    2016-06-01

    Although sodium nitrite has been widely used as food preservative, building bases of scientific evidence about nitrite continues to oppose the general safety in human health. Moreover, thymoquinone (TQ) has therapeutic potential as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anticancer. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both sodium nitrite and TQ on testicular tissues of rats. Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used. They received either 80 mg kg(-1) sodium nitrite or 50 mg kg(-1) TQ daily for twelve weeks. Serum testosterone was measured. Testis were weighed and the testicular tissue homogenates were used for measurements of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL10, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. Sodium nitrite resulted in significant reduction in serum testosterone concentration and elevation in testis weight and Gonado-Somatic Index. We found significant reduction in testicular tissues levels of IL-4 and IL-10 associated with elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9. In conclusion, chronic oral sodium nitrite induced changes in the weight of rat testis accompanied by elevation in the testicular tissue level of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines. TQ attenuated sodium nitrite-induced testicular tissue damage through blocking oxidative stress, restoration of normal inflammatory cytokines balance and blocking of apoptosis.

  7. Formaldehyde exposure induces autophagy in testicular tissues of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shui-Ping; Zhou, Dang-Xia; Lin, Pu; Qin, Zhen; An, Lu; Zheng, Lie-Rui; Lei, Li

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of causing adverse male reproductive effects. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain elusive. The overall aim of this study is to clarify the role of autophagy in male reproductive injuries induced by formaldehyde exposure, by which we can further understand the molecular mechanism of spermatogenesis and develop new targets for prevention and treatment of male infertility. In this study, electron microscopy, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were used to detect autophagy in testicular tissues. Moreover, testicular weights, histopathology, and morphometry were used to evaluate the reproductive injuries of formaldehyde exposure. We found that formaldehyde exposure-induced autophagy in testicular tissues was dose dependent. Increasing autophagosomes in spermatogenetic cells was observed by electron microscopy in formaldehyde exposure group. In addition, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed the transcription levels of the LC3-II, as well as the conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II, an indicator of autophagy, significantly increased in testicular tissue of formaldehyde exposure group in a dose dependent manner when compared with those in control group. Furthermore, the alterations of autophage were basically consistent with the changes in testicular weight and morphologic findings. In summary, formaldehyde exposure triggered autophagy, and autophagy may be a scathing factor responsible for male reproductive impairment induced by formaldehyde.

  8. Efficacy of naringenin against permethrin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Heba El-Sayed; Abd El-Baset, Samia A; Kattaia, Asmaa A A; Zidan, Rania A; Al Sadek, Mona M A

    2016-02-01

    Permethrin (PM), a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, has broad toxicity spectra. We aimed to investigate the effects of PM on the testes of adult albino rats, examine the recovery response and evaluate the efficacy of naringenin (NG) supplementation. Adult male albino rats were randomly assigned to five groups of six each: control, NG (50 mg/kg), PM (70 mg/kg), recovery (after subsequent withdrawal of PM) and NG-PM group. All treatments were given by oral gavage for 6 weeks and another 3 weeks for the recovery group. At the time of sacrifice, each testis was weighed. Biochemical analysis of epididymal sperm count and serum testosterone level was performed. Testes were processed for histological, ultrastructural and c-Kit immunohistochemical study. PM toxicity was evidenced by a highly significant decrease in testicular weight, epididymal sperm count and serum testosterone level compared to control. Furthermore, testicular structure abnormalities and reduced c-Kit immunoreactions were observed. Stoppage of PM in the recovery group partially reversed PM-induced changes. There was a mild decrease in testicular weight and biochemical parameters compared to control. The structure of seminiferous tubules was partially retained. The NG-PM group showed an overall improvement in testicular weight and biochemical alterations which were confirmed by light and electron microscopic examination. In conclusion, PM induced testicular toxicity, which was ameliorated by NG co-administration. However, stoppage of PM exposure was associated with partial recovery. PMID:26867500

  9. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent

    PubMed Central

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-01-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes. PMID:27022326

  10. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyung Min; Ko, Jung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-06-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.

  11. Seasonally and experimentally induced changes in testicular function of the Australian bush rat (Rattus fuscipes).

    PubMed

    Irby, D C; Kerr, J B; Risbridger, G P; de Kretser, D M

    1984-03-01

    Serum concentrations of LH, FSH and testosterone were measured monthly throughout the year in male bush rats. Testicular size and ultrastructure, LH/hCG, FSH and oestradiol receptors and the response of the pituitary to LHRH were also recorded. LH and FSH rose in parallel with an increase in testicular size after the winter solstice with peak gonadotrophin levels in the spring (September). The subsequent fall in LH and FSH levels was associated with a rise in serum testosterone which reached peak levels during summer (December and January). In February serum testosterone levels and testicular size declined in parallel, while the pituitary response to an LHRH injection was maximal during late summer. The number of LH/hCG, FSH and oestradiol receptors per testis were all greatly reduced in the regressed testes when compared to active testes. In a controlled environment of decreased lighting (shortened photoperiod), temperature and food quality, the testes of sexually active adult males regressed at any time of the year, the resultant testicular morphology and endocrine status being identical to that of wild rats in the non-breeding season. Full testicular regression was achieved only when the photoperiod, temperature and food quality were changed: experiments in which only one or two of these factors were altered failed to produce complete sexual regression. PMID:6422037

  12. Protective Effect of Troxerutin on Nickel-Induced Testicular Toxicity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Elangovan, Perumal; Jalaludeen, Abdulkadhar Mohamed; Ramakrishnan, Ramalingam; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2016-01-01

    Nickel (Ni)-induced oxidative damage is a serious problem that leads to reproductive system failure through testicular damage. The present investigation was carried out to determine the effect of troxerutin (Txn) on testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental rat testes. The oral administration of Txn (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) showed a significant (p < 0.01) increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), reduced glutathione, ascorbate, total sulphydryl groups, and testis-organ weight. Subsequently, the administration of Txn also significantly reduced the accumulation of Ni, lipid peroxidation products, and protein carbonyl levels in Txn-treated animals. Testicular protection in the experimental animals by Txn is further substantiated by a remarkable reduction of Ni, which was revealed through testicular tissue histopathology. These studies suggest that Txn could prevent oxidative damage and testicular toxicity induced by Ni in experimental animals. PMID:27481491

  13. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lisa Joy; Chen, Haiyan; Liao, Xiaoyan; Allayee, Hooman; Shih, Diana Mouhan; Lee, Grace Sangeun; Hovland, David Norman; Robbins, Wendie Anne; Carnes, Kay; Hess, Rex Allen; Lusis, Aldons Jake; Collins, Michael David

    2007-12-01

    Cadmium, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, damages several major organs in humans and other mammals. The molecular mechanisms for damage are not known. At high doses (5 mg/kg cadmium chloride or higher), testicular damage in mice, rats, and other rodents includes interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and changes in the seminiferous tubules affecting spermatogenesis. Necrosis is evident by 48 h. The goal of this study was to fine map and identify the cdm gene, a gene that when mutated prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mouse strains with a mutation in this gene. A serine-threonine phosphatase, calcineurin (CN), subunit A, alpha isoform (Ppp3ca), was one of the seven candidates in the cdm region that was narrowed from 5.6 to 2.0 Mb on mouse chromosome 3. An inhibitor of CN, the immunosuppressant, FK506, prevented cadmium-induced testicular damage in five pathological categories, including vascular endothelial and seminiferous epithelial endpoints. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry revealed that FK506 protected without lowering the amount of cadmium in the testes. Ppp3ca(-/-) mice were investigated but were found to exhibit endogenous testicular abnormalities, making them an inappropriate model for determining whether the inactivation of the Ppp3ca gene would afford protection from cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. The protection afforded by FK506, found by the current study, indicated that CN is likely to be important in the mechanism of cadmium toxicity in the testis and possibly other organs. PMID:17785681

  14. Cellular changes in the hamster testicular interstitium with ageing and after exposure to short photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Frutos, E; Seco-Rovira, V; Ferrer, C; Madrid, J F; Sáez, F J; Canteras, M; Pastor, L M

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellular changes that occur in the hamster testicular interstitium in two very different physiological situations involving testicular involution: ageing and exposure to a short photoperiod. The animals were divided into an 'age group' with three subgroups - young, adult and old animals - and a 'regressed group' with animals subjected to a short photoperiod. The testicular interstitium was characterised by light and electron microscopy. Interstitial cells were studied histochemically with regard to their proliferation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL+) and testosterone synthetic activity. We identified two types of Leydig cell: Type A cells showed a normal morphology, while Type B cells appeared necrotic. With ageing, pericyte proliferation decreased but there was no variation in the index of TUNEL-positive Leydig cells. In the regressed group, pericyte proliferation was greater and TUNEL-positive cells were not observed in the interstitium. The testicular interstitium suffered few ultrastructural changes during ageing and necrotic Leydig cells were observed. In contrast, an ultrastructural involution of Leydig cells with no necrosis was observed in the regressed group. In conclusion, the testicular interstitium of Mesocricetus auratus showed different cellular changes in the two groups (age and regressed), probably due to the irreversible nature of ageing and the reversible character of changes induced by short photoperiod. PMID:25437143

  15. Effects of X-irradiation on mouse testicular cells and sperm chromatin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, B.L.; Jost, L.K.; Erickson, K.R.; Tajiran, M.A.; Evenson, D.P.

    1995-07-01

    The testicular regions of male mice were exposed to x-ray doses ranging from 0 to 400 rads. Forty days after exposure the mice were killed and the testes and cauda epididymal sperm removed surgically. Flow cytometric measurements of acridine orange stained testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular samples indicated a repopulation of testicular cell types following x-ray killing of stem cells. Cauda epididymal sperm were analyzed by the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA), a flow cytometric measurement of the susceptibility of the sperm nuclear DNA to in situ acid denaturation. The SCSA detected increased susceptibility to DNA denaturation in situ after 12.5 rads of x-ray exposure, with significant increases following 25 rads. Abnormal sperm head morphology was not significantly increased until the testes were exposed to 60 rads of x-rays. These data suggest that the SCSA is currently the most sensitive, noninvasive method of detecting x-ray damage to testicular stem spermatogonia. 47 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Involvement of Fibroblast Growth Factors and Their Receptors in Epididymo-Testicular Descent and Maldescent.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Faruk

    2016-02-01

    Maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit can occur as an isolated event or as a component of various syndromes. When part of a syndrome, crypto-epididymis is usually accompanied by other genital and/or extragenital features. Epididymis development is primarily regulated by androgens, and successful epididymo-testicular unit development and descent requires an intact hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The developing gonadotropin-releasing hormone system is essential for epididymo-testicular descent and is highly sensitive to reduced fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Our understanding of the impact of FGFR1 in the process of epididymo-testicular descent has recently improved. At later stages of embryonic development, the undifferentiated epididymal mesenchyme is a specific domain for FGFR1 expression. The majority of individuals with syndromic crypto-epididymis, as well as individuals with isolated maldescent of the epididymo-testicular unit, exhibit some disturbance of FGF, FGFR1 and/or genes involved in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulation. However, the mechanisms underlying FGF dysregulation may differ between various syndromes.

  17. A Korean boy with 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development caused by SOX9 duplication

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyung Min; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2014-01-01

    The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management. PMID:25077096

  18. A Torted Ruptured Intra-abdominal Testicular Seminoma Presenting As An Acute Abdomen.

    PubMed

    Nickalls, Oliver James; Tan, Char Loo; Thian, Yee Liang

    2015-12-01

    The susceptibility of the undescended testis to malignant transformation is well documented. The most common location of the undescended testis is within the inguinal canal, with only a minority located within the abdominal cavity. When a testicular mass develops, the risk of torsion increases. We describe a large intra-abdominal testicular seminoma that had undergone torsion, rupture and haemorrhage, presenting as an acute abdomen. A 30 year old man presented to the emergency department with right iliac fossa pain. Computed tomography in the emergency department showed haemoperitoneum and a torted large left testicular mass, likely malignant. The patient underwent laparotomy and excision of the mass. Histologic examination revealed a grossly enlarged seminomatous testis which had torted and ruptured. While pre-operative imaging diagnosis of an intra-abdominal testicular seminoma has been published, reports are few. To the best of the author's knowledge pre-operative imaging diagnosis of a malignant testicular mass with torsion and intra-abdominal haemorrhage presenting as an acute abdomen has not been described before.

  19. [Verification of the protective effect of a testicular shield in postoperative radiotherapy for seminoma].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Umezu, Yoshiyuki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Noguchi, Yoshitaka; Fukunaga, Jyunichi; Kimura, Tomoko; Hirano, Naomi; Hirose, Takaaki; Sonoda, Shinjiro; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2014-09-01

    In postoperative radiotherapy for seminoma, control of the testicular absorbed dose is important, since exposure of the testis can lead to temporary or permanent infertility. In this case, instead of using a dog-leg-shaped field, treatment using a field focused near the aorta was provided in several disease stages of seminoma. However, the precise need for testicular shielding during treatment and dose of testis exposure was not clear. We examined these questions by measuring the testicular absorbed dose with and without a testicular shield using two clinical treatment plans and a phantom. The distance from the testis phantom and the lower end of the irradiation field was varied. Where the total dose for the tumor was 20 Gy, the testicular absorbed dose was below 0.1 Gy, the threshold dose for temporary infertility. At this dosage, the distance between the testis phantom and the edge of the irradiation field was 14.6 cm without the shield and 9.99 cm with the shield. Using a testes shield, it was thus possible to reduce the dose by 58.5%. PMID:25242597

  20. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

  1. Overt testicular disease at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: lack of therapeutic role of local irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, N; Liu, W; Sandlund, J T; Jeha, S; Razzouk, B I; Ribeiro, R C; Rubnitz, J E; Howard, S C; Kyzer, E P; Redd, D S; Cheng, C; Rivera, G K; Hudson, M M; Relling, M V; Pui, C-H

    2005-08-01

    To assess the prognosis of overt testicular disease at diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and any therapeutic role of irradiation for this involvement, we reviewed the data of 811 boys treated on St Jude studies Total X--XI (early period) and Total XII-XIV (recent period). In all, 19 boys (2.3%) had testicular disease at diagnosis. In the early period, patients with testicular leukemia had a poorer overall survival (OS) (P=0.003), event-free survival (EFS) (P=0.064), and higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.041) than did other patients. During the recent period, patients with and without overt testicular leukemia did not differ in OS (P=0.257), EFS (P=0.102), or cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.51). In a multivariate analysis, OS was lower for patients with testicular disease than for those without the involvement in the early period (P=0.047) but not in the recent one (P=0.75). Both patients who received irradiation for residual testicular disease at the end of induction subsequently died of leukemia. Of the other 17 patients who did not receive irradiation, only one developed testicular relapse in combination with bone marrow relapse. In conclusion, the prognostic impact of overt testicular disease has diminished. Irradiation appears to provide no survival advantage to this patient population. PMID:15973454

  2. Birth of healthy infant through testicular sperms using conventional in vitro fertilisation technique--a case report.

    PubMed

    Kotia, Namita; Swarankar, M L; Bafna, Neelam; Soni, R R

    2011-12-01

    We present a case of birth of healthy normal baby through testicular sperms using standard in vitro fertilisation technique. Fertilisation and cleavage from testicular sperms by conventional in vitro fertilisation has been documented. Here a case of a 28-year-old lady presented with 4 years primary infertility is reported.

  3. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  4. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed.

  5. Disorders of Sex Development with Testicular Differentiation in SRY-Negative 46,XX Individuals: Clinical and Genetic Aspects.

    PubMed

    Grinspon, Romina P; Rey, Rodolfo A

    2016-01-01

    Virilisation of the XX foetus is the result of androgen excess, resulting most frequently from congenital adrenal hyperplasia in individuals with typical ovarian differentiation. In rare cases, 46,XX gonads may differentiate into testes, a condition known as 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (DSD), or give rise to the coexistence of ovarian and testicular tissue, a condition known as 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Testicular tissue differentiation may be due to the translocation of SRY to the X chromosome or an autosome. In the absence of SRY, overexpression of other pro-testis genes, e.g. SOX family genes, or failure of pro-ovarian/anti-testis genes, such as WNT4 and RSPO1, may underlie the development of testicular tissue. Recent experimental and clinical evidence giving insight into SRY-negative 46,XX testicular or ovotesticular DSD is discussed. PMID:27055195

  6. Xenografting of testicular tissue pieces: twelve years of an in vivo spermatogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Arregui, Lucía; Dobrinski, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a dynamic and complex process that involves endocrine and testicular factors. During xenotransplantation of testicular tissue fragments into immunodecifient mice a functional communication between host brain and donor testis is established. This interaction allows for the progression of spermatogenesis and recovery of fertilization-competent spermatozoa from a broad range of mammalian species. In the last years, significant progress has been achieved in testis tissue xenografting that improves our knowledge about factors determining the success of grafting. The goal of this review is to provide up to date information about the role of factors such as donor age, donor species, testis tissue preservation or type of recipient mouse on the efficiency of this technique. Applications are described and compared with other techniques with similar purposes. Recent work demonstrates that testicular tissue xenografting is used as a model to study gonadotoxicity of drugs and to obtain sperm from valuable young males. PMID:25150043

  7. The experience of Japan as a clue to the etiology of testicular and prostatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Ganmaa, D; Li, X M; Qin, L Q; Wang, P Y; Takeda, M; Sato, A

    2003-05-01

    In Japan dramatic lifestyle changes occurred after World War 2. To examine the experience of Japan as a clue to the etiology, trends in the mortality rates of testicular and prostatic cancers from 1947 to 1998 were related to changes in dietary practices. The male population born before 1945 had a peak in death from testicular cancer in their thirties or forties, whereas those born after 1946 had a peak in their twenties. The death rate of prostatic cancer increased 25-fold almost linearly after the war. The intake of milk, meat, and eggs increased 20-, 9-, and 7-fold, respectively, after the war. In connection with the development and growth of testicular and prostatic cancers in Japan, particular attention should be paid to milk, because the increase in its consumption in this country is a recent occurrence and because milk contains considerable amounts of estrogens plus saturated fats.

  8. Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking testicular malignancy in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

    2013-11-01

    Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis.

  9. Genetic determination of coat color affects testicular steroidogenesis in the Mustela vison.

    PubMed

    Amador, A G; Sundqvist, C; Bartke, A

    1996-06-01

    Coat color genes in mammals are known to be developmental genes with wide pleiotropic effects. The present study was undertaken to study testicular steroidogenesis in American Mink (Mustela vison) of various coat color phenotypes. No differences in testicular steroid levels were observed between fertile and infertile mink with the standard phenotype and genotype (BB jj MM PP). Mink with the opaline phenotype and genotype (bb mm pp), were found to have in their testes, 20-40% higher levels of progesterone, five times higher levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and eight times higher levels of testosterone, than the corresponding values in other mink. No other differences were observed among the different types of mink. Since the genotype of the opaline mink differs from the other mink studied, only in their combination at the pastel (b) and moyle (m) loci, their bb mm genotype could be assumed to be responsible for the increase in testicular steroids.

  10. Cavernous haemangioma of the testis mimicking testicular malignancy in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Naveed, S; Quari, H; Sharma, H

    2013-11-01

    Haemangioma of the testis is a rare condition. This benign vascular neoplasm may arise either within the testicular parenchyma (intratesticular) as in this case or from adnexal structures of the testis (extratesticular). Intratesticular haemangioma is rarer than extratesticular form. Intratesticular vascular neoplasms are extremely rare tumours and mostly seen in children or young adults. There are 21 reported testicular haemangioma cases in the literature as indexed in PubMed. Since 2007, only 19 cases of cavernous haemangioma have been reported in the literature in PubMed and other indexed sites. We report a case of cavernous haemangioma of the testis to attract attention to testicular haemangioma and also to prevent invasive surgery of the testis. PMID:24215057

  11. Primary testicular lymphoma: Two case reports and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Eyyupoglu, Seyit Erkan; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Noseri, Umit; Aksoy, Suleyman Hilmi; Ozturk, Ahmet Bekir

    2015-12-01

    Primary testicular lymphoma, is a rare testis tumor that accounts for only less than 9% of all testis tumors. In the preoperative period, it is extremely difficult to distinguish this tumor from other testis tumors. Its diagnosis is done by histological analysis. Most commonly encountered histological type is diffuse large Bcell lymphoma. Adjuvant radiotheraphy and/or chemotheraphy is given after orchiectomy. Prognosis is worse than other testis tumors. Non-metastatic tumors indicates good prognosis within one year. Ongoing research in patients with primary testicular lymphoma, are on efficacy of adjuvant theraphies and preventive and cure effect on extranodal extension to central nervous system which is the most common site for recurrency. There are conflicting results because of the small number of patient size. Here we present two cases with primary testicular lymphoma at the ages 71 and 82. PMID:26766810

  12. Hesperetin, a citrus flavonone, protects potentially cadmium induced oxidative testicular dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Shagirtha, Kalist; Pari, Leelavinothan

    2011-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of hesperetin (Hp) on cadmium (Cd) induced oxidative testicular toxicity in rats. Subcutaneous administration of Cd (3mg/kg body weight) for 21 days significantly elevated the levels of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis and lowered the levels of enzymatic, non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound enzymes in the testicular tissue. Hp administrated orally along with Cd injection for 21 days, significantly revert back the status of oxidative stress markers, Cd concentration in testis, improved status of antioxidant markers and membrane bound enzymes in the testis to near normal level. The histopathological studies in the testis of rats also supported that Hp (40 mg/kg) markedly reduced the toxicity of Cd and preserved the normal histoarchitecture pattern of the testis. Thus, the results suggest that Hp acts as a potent antioxidative agent against Cd induced testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:21719105

  13. Binding of Nickel to Testicular Glutamate–Ammonia Ligase Inhibits Its Enzymatic Activity

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YINGBIAO; OU, YOUNG; CHENG, MIN; RUAN, YIBING; VAN DER HOORN, FRANS A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Exposure to nickel has been shown to cause damage to the testis in several animal models. It is not known if the testis expresses protein(s) that can bind nickel. To test this, we used a nickel-binding assay to isolate testicular nickel-binding proteins. We identified glutamate–ammonia ligase (GLUL) as a prominent nickel-binding protein by mass spectrometry. Protein analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that GLUL is expressed in the testis, predominantly in interstitial cells. We determined that GLUL has a higher affinity for nickel than for its regular co-factor manganese. We produced an enzymatically active, recombinant GLUL protein. Upon binding, nickel interferes with the manganese-catalyzed enzymatic activity of recombinant GLUL protein. We also determined that GLUL activity in testes of animals exposed to nickel sulfate is reduced. Our results identify testicular GLUL as the first testicular protein shown to be affected by nickel exposure. PMID:21254280

  14. Traumatic Testicular Dislocation Associated with Lateral Compression Pelvic Ring Injury and T-Shaped Acetabulum Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mike; Yeon-Kim, Chang; Tomaszewski, Paul; Leslie, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a unilateral testicular dislocation to the superficial inguinal region associated with a lateral compression type pelvic ring injury (OTA classification 61-C3.3a2, b2, c3) and left T-shaped acetabulum fracture (OTA classification 62-B2) in a 44-year-old male who was in a motorcycle accident. The testicular dislocation was noted during the emergency department primary survey, and its location and viability were verified with ultrasound. The testicle was isolated during surgical stabilization of the left acetabulum through a Pfannenstiel incision and modified-Stoppa approach and returned through the inguinal canal to the scrotum. In follow-up, the patient did not suffer urologic or sexual dysfunction. All motorcycle collision patients presenting with pelvic ring injuries or acetabulum fractures should be worked up for possible testicular dislocation with a scrotal exam. Advanced imaging and a urologic consult may be necessary to detect and treat these injuries.

  15. Unusual Ultrasound Presentation of Testicular Metastasis from Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Atti, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Testicular metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma (RCC) are extremely uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, only 32 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a rare case of testicular metastasis from RCC. A 69-year-old patient presented with discomfort and pain in his left testis. He had undergone laparoscopic left radical nephrectomy at another institution. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed a non-palpable lesion at the upper pole of the left testis with hypoechoic aspect, highly suspicious for malignancy. We performed a left inguinal orchiectomy. The testicular lesion was diagnosed as a metastasis from RCC. After orchiectomy, a computed tomography of the chest and abdomen revealed no other metastatic lesions. The patient remains free of clinical recurrence after 20 months without adjuvant therapy. PMID:27746886

  16. The relationship between perceived social support and mood of testicular cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ord-Lawson, S; Fitch, M

    1997-05-01

    A descriptive correlational study was conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived social support and mood of testicular cancer patients two to three months post-diagnosis. The conceptualization for the study was based on the cognitive-phenomenological theory of psychological stress (Lazarus and Folkman, 1984). A convenience sample of 30 young adult males with testicular cancer was interviewed. Data were collected using the Demographic Data Sheet, MOS Social Support Survey. Importance of Social Support Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States and two open-ended interview questions. Data indicated subjects felt well-supported, especially in areas that they thought were important. No significant relationship was found between perceived social support and mood in this sample. The findings suggest the need for the nurse's individualized assessment regarding the testicular cancer patient's number of close friends/relatives and the importance placed on different types of support.

  17. Suppurative appendicitis presenting as acute scrotum confounded by a testicular appendage

    PubMed Central

    Shumon, Syed; Bennett, John; Lawson, Geoffrey; Small, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with testicular pain and swelling mandate an urgent urology review and scrotal exploration to prevent testicle loss due to torsion. Other pathology masquerading as torsion is extremely rare but can occur. We present one such case. A 14-year-old male presented with a 1-day history of right testicular swelling and tenderness. He was apyrexial and denied any other symptoms. Blood tests demonstrated raised inflammatory markers. He had lower left-sided abdominal tenderness with a swollen, erythematous right hemiscrotum. During an urgent scrotal exploration for testicular torsion, a purulent hydrocele with a patent process vaginalis was noted, but no torsion. Post-operative abdominal pain mandated a general surgical review and subsequent appendicectomy. The patient made a full recovery. Acute suppurative appendicitis presenting as a urological emergency is extremely rare. To make a correct diagnosis and prevent multiple surgeries, a joint urological and general surgical assessment with a high index of suspicion is required. PMID:26966225

  18. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

  19. Oxidant and Antioxidant Status in Experimental Rat Testis after Testicular Torsion/Detorsion

    PubMed Central

    Cvetkovic, Tatjana; Stankovic, Jablan; Najman, Stevo; Pavlovic, Dusica; Stokanovic, Dragana; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Dakovic-Bjelakovic, Marija; Cukuranovic, Jovana; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Stefanovic, Vladisav

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress (OS) parameters after testicular torsion/detorsion in adult rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of seven animals: group I-one hour right testicular torsion with subsequent orchiectomy, group II-one hour right testicular torsion followed by detorsion, group III-unilateral right-sided orchiectomy without previous torsion and group IV-control. After 30 days, bilateral orchiectomies were performed in rats with both testes and unilateral orchiectomies in rats with single testicles. Parameters of OS were determined in testicular tissue and in plasma. Results Plasma concentrations of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively), whilst the plasma concentration of the total sulfhydryl (T-SH)-groups was lower (p<0.05) in group I compared to the control group. Group II had higher plasma concentrations of AOPP compared to group IV (p<0.05), as well as significantly increased TBARS and decreased T-SH-group levels compared to groups III (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and IV (p<0.01, for both parameters). There were significant differences in OS markers between the ipsilateral and contralateral testis, as well as significant correlations among levels of both plasma and tissue markers of OS. Conclusion The increase in TBARS levels seen throughout the experimental period indicated that OS development was caused by ischemia/reperfusion in the testicular tissue. The oxidant-antioxidant system of the testicular tissue was altered during torsion as well as detorsion. PMID:25918600

  20. Modulatory effects of lipoic acid and selenium against cadmium-induced biochemical alterations in testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Maraghy, Shohda A; Nassar, Noha N

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to toxic metals including cadmium has become an increasingly recognized source of illness worldwide. Cadmium (Cd(2+) ) is one of the environmental pollutants affecting various tissues and organs including testis. The protective effect of lipoic acid and selenium on Cd(2+) -induced testicular damage was investigated. Accordingly, male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups (n = 8; each). Gp I: (control), whereas the other 3 groups received CdCl(2) (2 mg/kg, i.p. for 28 days) alone or in combination with either (i) lipoic acid (35 mg/kg, p.o) or (ii) selenium (0.35 mg/kg, p.o) throughout the experiment. Serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels significantly decreased in the Cd(2+) -exposed rats. The activities of testicular key androgenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17 β-HSD significantly decreased in Cd(2) exposed rats compared to the control counterparts. In addition, the activities of testicular marker enzymes were significantly altered in cadmium-treated animals. Significant reductions in body and testicular weight as well as antioxidant status were also observed in Cd(2+) -exposed rats. Moreover, some testicular metal levels were altered. Lipoic acid and selenium significantly increased serum testosterone level and restored testicular activity of 3β-HSD and 17 β-HSD and were effective in modulation of most of the measured biochemical parameters. The biochemical parameters were further confirmed with histopathological findings. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the beneficial influences of lipoic acid and selenium in reducing harmful effects of Cd(2+) in rats' testes. PMID:20957662

  1. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions. PMID:12753547

  2. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the development and occurrence of male reproductive disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Virtanen, H.E.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Main, K.M.; Skakkebaek, N.E.; Toppari, J. . E-mail: jorma.toppari@utu.fi

    2005-09-01

    Patients with 45,X0/46XY karyotype often present with intersex phenotype and testicular dysgenesis. These patients may also have undescended testes (cryptorchidism), hypospadias and their spermatogenesis is severely disrupted. They have a high risk for testicular cancer. These patients have the most severe form of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS). We have hypothesized that testicular cancer, cryptorchidism, hypospadias and poor spermatogenesis are all signs of a developmental disturbance that was named as testicular dysgenesis syndrome. The hypothesis is based on clinical and epidemiological findings and on biological and experimental evidence. Signs of TDS share several risk factors, such as small birth weight (particularly being small for gestational age), and they are risk factors for each other. All of them have background in fetal development. They show strong epidemiological links so that countries with high incidence of testicular cancer, such as Denmark, tend to also have high prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias and poor semen quality. Vice versa, in countries with good male reproductive health, e.g., in Finland, all these aspects are better than in Denmark. Although genetic abnormalities can cause these disorders, in the majority of cases, the reasons remain unclear. Adverse trends in the incidence of male reproductive disorders suggest that environmental and life style factors contribute to the problem. Endocrine disrupters are considered as prime candidates for environmental influence. Fetal exposure to high doses of dibutyl phthalate was shown to cause a TDS-like phenotype in the rats. Studies are underway to assess whether there is any exposure-outcome relation with selected chemicals (persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, phthalates) and cryptorchidism00.

  3. Beneficial role of celery oil in lowering the di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced testicular damage.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Naglaa K

    2014-10-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), the most abundant phthalate in the environment, is known to be a reproductive toxicant. Considering the therapeutic significance of medicinal plants, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administration of celery oil on DEHP-induced testicular toxicity. The experiment was carried out for 8 weeks on 36 male rats that were divided equally into six groups. Group 1 was kept as normal control (given vehicle), while rats of group 2 were administered orally 200 mg/kg/day of celery oil. Groups 3 and 5 were orally given 500 and 1000 mg DEHP/kg/day, respectively. Groups 4 and 6 were treated with similar doses of DEHP as in groups 3 and 5 plus celery oil (200 mg/kg/day). Body and testicular weights, sperm parameters, serum hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and estradiol), antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)) and expression of cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) messenger RNA (mRNA) were investigated at the end of 8th week. Treatment with DEHP alone resulted in a significant decrease in body and testicular weights, sperm parameters and serum hormone levels when compared with control. On the other hand, testicular antioxidant enzymes showed a significant dose-dependent increase. The expression of CYP19 mRNA was significantly reduced by increasing the doses of DEHP. Administration of celery oil along with DEHP partially prevented the decrease in body and testicular weights and enhanced epididymal sperm count, serum hormone levels and the expression of CYP19 mRNA along with diminution in the activities of SOD, GPx and CAT enzymes. The obtained results showed that the celery improved the testicular alterations induced by DEHP in albino rats.

  4. Burden of testicular, paratesticular and extragonadal germ cell tumours in Europe.

    PubMed

    Trama, A; Mallone, S; Nicolai, N; Necchi, A; Schaapveld, M; Gietema, J; Znaor, A; Ardanaz, E; Berrino, F

    2012-01-01

    We provide updated estimates of survival, incidence, complete prevalence, and proportion cured for patients with testicular/paratesticular and extragonadal germ cell cancers in Europe, grouped according to the new list of cancer types developed by RARECARE. We collected data, archived in European cancer registries, with vital status information available to 31st December 2003. We analysed 26,000 cases of testicular, paratesticular and extragonadal germ cell cancers diagnosed 1995-2002, estimating that about 15,600 new testicular/paratesticular and 630 new extragonadal cancer cases occurred per year in EU27, with annual incidence rates of 31.5/1,000,000 and 1.27/1,000,000, respectively. Slightly more than 436,000 persons were alive at the beginning of 2008 with a diagnosis of testicular/paratesticular cancer, and about 17,000 with a diagnosis of extragonadal germ cell cancer. Five-year relative survival was 96% for testicular/paratesticular cancer and 71% for extragonadal germ cell cancer; the proportions cured were 95% and 69%, respectively. We found limited variation in survival between European regions except for non-seminomatous testicular cancer, for which five-year relative survival ranged from 86% in Eastern Europe to 96% in Northern Europe. Survival for all cancer types considered decreased with increasing age at diagnosis. Further investigation is required to establish the real reasons for the lower survival in Eastern Europe. Considering the high prevalence of these highly curable cancers, it is important to monitor patients long-term, so as to quantify treatment-related risks and develop treatments having limited impact on quality of life.

  5. Promoter methylation of candidate genes associated with familial testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Mirabello, Lisa; Kratz, Christian P; Savage, Sharon A; Greene, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Recent genomic studies have identified risk SNPs in or near eight genes associated with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Mouse models suggest a role for Dnd1 epigenetics in TGCT susceptibility, and we have recently reported that transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic events may be associated with familial TGCT risk. We now investigate whether aberrant promoter methylation of selected candidate genes is associated with familial TGCT risk. Pyrosequencing assays were designed to evaluate CpG methylation in the promoters of selected genes in peripheral blood DNA from 153 TGCT affecteds and 116 healthy male relatives from 101 multiple-case families. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between promoter methylation and TGCT. We also quantified gene product expression of these genes, using quantitative PCR. We observed increased PDE11A, SPRY4 and BAK1 promoter methylation, and decreased KITLG promoter methylation, in familial TGCT cases versus healthy male family controls. A significant upward risk trend was observed for PDE11A when comparing the middle and highest tertiles of methylation to the lowest [odds ratio (OR) =1.55, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.82-2.93, and 1.94, 95% CI 1.03-3.66], respectively; P(trend)=0.042). A significant inverse association was observed for KITLG when comparing the middle and lowest tertiles to the highest (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.11, and 2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.14, respectively; P(trend)=0.031). There was a weak inverse correlation between promoter methylation and KITLG expression. Our results suggest that familial TGCT susceptibility may be associated with promoter methylation of previously-identified TGCT risk-modifying genes. Larger studies are warranted. PMID:23050052

  6. Identification of novel fusion genes in testicular germ cell tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Andreas M.; Alagaratnam, Sharmini; Zhao, Sen; Bruun, Jarle; Andrews, Peter W.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; Skotheim, Rolf I.

    2015-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequently diagnosed solid tumors in young men ages 15 to 44 years. Embryonal carcinomas (EC) comprise a subset of TGCTs that exhibit pluripotent characteristics similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the genetic drivers underlying malignant transformation of ECs are unknown. To elucidate the abnormal genetic events potentially contributing to TGCT malignancy, such as the existence of fusion genes or aberrant fusion transcript expression, we performed RNA sequencing of EC cell lines and their non-malignant ES cell line counterparts. We identified eight novel fusion transcripts and one gene with alternative promoter usage, ETV6. Four out of nine transcripts were found recurrently expressed in an extended panel of primary TGCTs and additional EC cell lines, but not in normal parenchyma of the testis, implying tumor-specific expression. Two of the recurrent transcripts involved an intrachromosomal fusion between RCC1 and HENMT1 located 80 Mbp apart and an interchromosomal fusion between RCC1 and ABHD12B. RCC1-ABHD12B and the ETV6 transcript variant were found to be preferentially expressed in the more undifferentiated TGCT subtypes. In vitro differentiation of the NTERA2 EC cell line resulted in significantly reduced expression of both fusion transcripts involving RCC1 and the ETV6 transcript variant, indicating that they are markers of pluripotency in a malignant setting. In conclusion, we identified eight novel fusion transcripts that, to our knowledge, are the first fusion genes described in TGCT and may therefore potentially serve as genomic biomarkers of malignant progression. PMID:26659575

  7. Nanobacteria may be linked to testicular microlithiasis in infertility.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Hua; Lu, Gen-Sheng; Shen, Xue-Cheng; Zhou, Zhan-Song; Fang, Qiang; Zhang, Xin; Li, Long-Kun; Jin, Xi-Yu; Song, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Testicular microlithiasis (TM) in infertility is an uncommon pathologic condition of unclear etiology that is characterized by calcium deposits within the seminiferous tubules. Nanobacteria (NB), as novel microorganisms mediating tissue calcification, have been discovered in some diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that NB may participate in the pathogenesis of TM, particularly in infertility. Seventeen infertility patients with TM detected by scrotal color Doppler ultrasonography and 17 infertility patients without TM as controls were enrolled in the study. The NB were isolated and cultured from semen samples and urine samples. After 3 to 6 weeks of culture, 10 of 17 (58.8%) semen samples and 2 urine samples from infertile patients with TM showed the growth of white granular microbes that firmly attached to the bottom of the culture flask and were visible to the naked eye. In the control group, only 1 of 17 (5.9%) semen samples from infertile patients without TM showed the growth of white granular microbes. The cultured microbes were identified by indirect immunofluorescent staining (IIFS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 16s rRNA gene expression. IIFS and TEM revealed NB to be coccoid and 100 to 500 nm in diameter. The BLAST result revealed that the 16s rRNA gene sequence from the cultured microbes was 97% the same as that of the known NB. Our results showed that NB may be linked to the development of TM, which may provide a potential target for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility with TM. PMID:19779212

  8. Management of ovarian and testicular sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Kris Ann P; Schneider, Dominik T; Pashankar, Farzana; Ross, Jonathan; Frazier, Lindsay

    2012-05-01

    Pediatric ovarian and testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are distinct from germ cell neoplasms and may present with palpable mass or signs of hormone production. Both may be associated with specific genetic syndromes. Staging for ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors is based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classification for ovarian carcinoma. Treatment for those with high risk disease includes multiagent chemotherapy. Testicular stromal tumors often, though not always, follow a benign course. Additional research will help to define optimal treatment strategies for children with these rare tumors.

  9. Compliance of males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol.

    PubMed

    Honeyball, F; Murali-Ganesh, R; Hruby, G; Grimison, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of compliance among 57 males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol at a single Australian centre. At median follow up of 24 months, 81% had adequate compliance with the follow-up regimen, 12% were lost to follow up, and 16% relapsed; none between protocol visits. Active surveillance is an acceptable alternative to adjuvant therapy for stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours, with reduced toxicity for most and equivalent survival, but requires efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up to avoid late detection of recurrence.

  10. A case of scrotal swelling mimicking testicular torsion preceding Henoch-Schönlein vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Akgun, C

    2012-01-01

    Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is one of the most common types of multisystemic vasculitis seen in childhood. The major clinical manifestations are cutaneous purpura, arthritis, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and nephritis. Isolated central nervous system vasculitis, seizures, coma and hemorrhage, Guillan--Barré syndrome, ataxia and central and peripheral neuropathy, ocular involvement, orchitis, epididymitis or testicular torsion are medical or surgical complications. In this study, we report a 7-year-old boy with scrotal swelling mimicking testicular torsion with ultrasonographic and clinical findings that the typical clinical features of Henoch-Schönlein purpura including rashes and arthritis were developed after one week of surgery (Ref. 15).

  11. Hemoperitoneum secondary to bleeding of a hepatic metastasis of testicular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Espínola, Daniella; Faundes, Víctor; Calderón, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer among young patients. At the moment of diagnosis, between 30% and 50% of them have developed metastases, which affect retroperitoneal lymph nodes and lungs especially. Hepatic compromise is rare and is associated with poor prognosis. Besides this, hepatic lesions can complicate with necrosis and overgrowth, a phenomenon that is mainly seen in primary lesions. Furthermore, bleeding of secondary lesions is very uncommon. We present a case of a patient with massive hemoperitoneum secondary to rupture of hepatic metastatic lesions of a primary testicular tumor. PMID:24578860

  12. Ethanolamine oleate as a sclerosant for testicular hydroceles and epididymal cysts.

    PubMed

    Hellström, P; Tammela, T; Kontturi, M; Lukkarinen, O

    1988-11-01

    Forty patients with testicular hydroceles and 16 patients with epididymal cysts were treated by tapping and injection of ethanolamine oleate; 97.5% of the hydroceles and 31% of the epididymal cysts were completely cured, 50% of the latter partly cured and 19% failed. About half of the patients experienced pain after treatment. Two patients developed infection. Ultrasonography showed no change in the testicular tissue during the follow-up period. Sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate is a rapid and cost-effective modality which can be recommended as primary treatment for hydroceles and for unilocular epididymal cysts, especially in elderly males.

  13. [Bilateral and synchronic testicular neoplasia. A report of a new case].

    PubMed

    Soto Delgado, M; Pedrero Márquez, G; Ramírez Chamorro, F; Rodríguez-Rubio Cortadellas, F; Sánchez Bernal, C; González Moreno, D

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral and synchronic testicular tumor is an unfrequent fact (0,17% of germinative tumors of testicle), being most cases seminomas. We present the case of a male, 25-year old patient underwent a bilateral radical orchiectomy for bilateral and synchronic testicular tumor. The result of anatomopathological examination revealed bilateral seminoma (pT2 in both testes). Patient received four courses of adjuvant chemotherapy (etoposide and cisplatin) for metastases (N2, M1). The patient is without evidence of disease two years after orchiectomy.

  14. The development of cat testicular sperm cryopreservation protocols: Effects of tissue fragments or sperm cell suspension.

    PubMed

    Chatdarong, Kaywalee; Thuwanut, Paweena; Morrell, Jane M

    2016-01-15

    In endangered animals that have been found dead or sterilized for medical reasons, testis is the ultimate source of haploid DNA or sperm. Thus, preservation of testicular sperm may be performed to rescue their genetics. The aim of this study was to evaluate protocols for testicular sperm freezing: as tissue fragments or cell suspension in domestic cats as a model. A pair of testes from each cat (n = 9) were cut into eight equal pieces. Four randomly selected pieces were cryopreserved as: (1) tissue pieces using two-step freezing; (2) tissue pieces using a slow passive cooling device (CoolCell); (3) sperm suspension after single-layer centrifugation (SLC) through colloids; and (4) sperm suspension without being processed through SLC. A testicular piece from each cat served as fresh control. Testicular sperm membrane and DNA integrity were evaluated before, and after, the cryopreservation process. In addition, spermatogenic cell types (testicular sperm, spermatogonia, spermatocyte, and spermatid) present in the suspension samples were counted before and after SLC. The results found that testicular sperm membrane integrity in the suspension after SLC process was higher than that in the fragment form neither using the two-step nor CoolCell freezing, both before and after freezing (before freezing: 92.3 ± 3.4 vs. 81 ± 4.5 and 80.0 ± 7.0; after freezing: 84.5 ± 4.6 vs. 71.2 ± 12 and 76.2 ± 4.6; P ≤ 0.05). Testicular sperm DNA integrity was, however, not different among groups. Furthermore, the samples processed through the SLC had higher ration of sperm cells: other spermatogenic cells than those were not processed through the SLC (88.9 ± 3.8 vs. 30 ± 7.9; P ≤ 0.05). In summary, testicular sperm cryopreserved as a minced suspension is considered suitable in terms of preventing sperm membrane integrity, and SLC is considered a selection tool for enriching haploid sperm cells from castrated or postmortem cats.

  15. Parent-of-origin effects of A1CF and AGO2 on testicular germ-cell tumors, testicular abnormalities, and fertilization bias.

    PubMed

    Carouge, Delphine; Blanc, Valerie; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Hunter, Robert J; Davidson, Nicholas O; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2016-09-13

    Testicular tumors, the most common cancer in young men, arise from abnormalities in germ cells during fetal development. Unconventional inheritance for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) risk both in humans and mice implicates epigenetic mechanisms. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme complex 1 (APOBEC1) cytidine deaminase and Deadend-1, which are involved in C-to-U RNA editing and microRNA-dependent mRNA silencing, respectively, are potent epigenetic modifiers of TGCT susceptibility in the genetically predisposed 129/Sv inbred mouse strain. Here, we show that partial loss of either APOBEC1 complementation factor (A1CF), the RNA-binding cofactor of APOBEC1 in RNA editing, or Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a key factor in the biogenesis of certain noncoding RNAs, modulates risk for TGCTs and testicular abnormalities in both parent-of-origin and conventional genetic manners. In addition, non-Mendelian inheritance was found among progeny of A1cf and Ago2 mutant intercrosses but not in backcrosses and without fetal loss. Together these findings suggest nonrandom union of gametes rather than meiotic drive or preferential lethality. Finally, this survey also suggested that A1CF contributes to long-term reproductive performance. These results directly implicate the RNA-binding proteins A1CF and AGO2 in the epigenetic control of germ-cell fate, urogenital development, and gamete functions. PMID:27582469

  16. Noninvasive assessment of testicular torsion in rabbits using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy: prospects for pediatric urology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallacoglu, Bertan; Matulewicz, Richard S.; Paltiel, Harriet J.; Padua, Horacio; Gargollo, Patricio; Cannon, Glenn; Alomari, Ahmad; Sassaroli, Angelo; Fantini, Sergio

    2009-09-01

    We present a quantitative near-IR spectroscopy study of the absolute values of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin before and after surgically induced testicular torsion in adult rabbits. Unilateral testicular torsions (0, 540, or 720 deg) on experimental testes and contralateral sham surgery on control testes are performed in four adult rabbits. A specially designed optical probe for measurements at multiple source-detector distances and a commercial frequency-domain tissue spectrometer are used to measure absolute values of testicular hemoglobin saturation. Our results show: (1) a consistent baseline absolute tissue hemoglobin saturation value of 78+/-5%, (2) a comparable tissue hemoglobin saturation of 77+/-6% after sham surgery, and (3) a significantly lower tissue hemoglobin saturation of 36+/-2% after 540- and 720-deg testicular torsion surgery. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of performing frequency-domain, multidistance near-IR spectroscopy for absolute testicular oximetry in the assessment of testicular torsion. We conclude that near-IR spectroscopy has potential to serve as a clinical diagnostic and monitoring tool for the assessment of absolute testicular hemoglobin desaturation caused by torsion, with the possibility of serving as a complement to conventional color and spectral Doppler ultrasonography.

  17. Cell population indexes of spermatogenic yield and testicular sperm reserves in adult jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Maria Helena Ferreira; de Paula, Tarcízio Antônio Rego; Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto da; Fonseca, Cláudio César; da Costa, Eduardo Paulino; Costa, Deiler Sampaio; Peixoto, Juliano Vogas

    2010-03-01

    The intrinsic yield of spermatogenesis and supporting capacity of Sertoli cells are the desirable indicators of sperm production in a species. The objective of the present study was to quantify intrinsic yield and the Sertoli cell index in the spermatogenic process and estimate testicular sperm reserves by histological assessment of fragments obtained by testicular biopsy of five adult jaguars in captivity. The testicular fragments were fixed in 4% glutaric aldehyde, dehydrated at increasing alcohol concentrations, included into hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and were cut into 4 microm thickness. In the seminiferous epithelium of the jaguar, 9.2 primary spermatocytes in pre-leptotene were produced by "A" spermatogonia. During the meiotic divisions only 3.2 spermatids were produced by a primary spermatocyte. The general spermatogenic yield of the jaguar was about 23.4 cells and each Sertoli cell was able to maintain about 19.2 germ cells, 11 of them were round spermatids. In each seminiferous epithelium cycle about 166 million spermatozoa were produced by each gram of testicular tissue. In adult jaguars, the general spermatogenic yield was similar to the yield observed in pumas, greater than that observed for the domestic cat, but less compared to most domestic animals.

  18. Production of live offspring from testicular tissue cryopreserved by vitrification procedures in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianan; Cheng, Kimberly M; Silversides, Frederick G

    2013-05-01

    Cryopreservation of testicular tissue can be used for ex situ conservation of male germplasm of avian species. The possibility of using vitrification and transplantation of testicular tissue for fertility preservation and recovery was tested in Japanese quail. Testes were removed from 1-wk-old Japanese quail; transfixed on acupuncture needles; equilibrated with dimethyl sulphoxide, ethylene glycol, and sucrose; plunged into liquid nitrogen; and stored in 2-ml straws. Cryopreserved tissue was warmed in sucrose solution at room temperature or at 40°C. Fresh and cryopreserved tissue were transplanted subcutaneously into castrated, 1-wk-old recipients. Twenty of 21 recipients survived the surgery, and 18 had viable transplants at maturity, with no difference in transplantation success between fresh and cryopreserved tissue. Fluid extrusion from 11 of the transplants was collected and inseminated surgically into the magnum of 22 quail hens, and 10 inseminations included foam from the proctodeal gland of the same recipients. Egg production in the 2 wk after insemination was reduced, and none of the hens inseminated with foam produced fertile eggs. Five hens inseminated without foam produced a total of eight live offspring; four of these hens had been inseminated with fluid extrusion from cryopreserved tissue. Histological examination showed spermatogenesis in the transplants, and the tubules, lumens, and epithelium of the seminiferous tubules were of comparable size to those of testicular tissue from intact males. These results demonstrate that testicular tissue of Japanese quail can be preserved using vitrification procedures and recovered through transplantation.

  19. Effects of chronic heat stress on testicular structures, serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations in developing lambs.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Aria; Taha Jalali, Mohammad; Nouri, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Babak; Barati, Farid

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of high and moderate summer ambient temperatures on testicular structures and endocrine profile of developing ram lambs. Twenty fall-born ram lambs were randomly divided into two groups: animals were kept outdoor (n=10) under ambient temperature (31-50 degrees C) or maintained indoor (26-32 degrees C) from May to October 2007. Daily maximum ambient temperature was recorded for both environments. Monthly serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations were compared between two groups throughout the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study and their testes subjected to histopathology exam. The results showed that maximum outdoor ambient temperature was significantly higher than indoor. There was no difference between two groups on serum testosterone concentration. There was no effect on serum cortisol levels except in August and October. Histolopathological examination revealed a severe testicular degeneration with significant germ line degeneration without any impact on somatic cells. In conclusion, direct exposure of developing lambs during non-breeding season impairs testicular germ cells without significant effect on testicular endocrine function.

  20. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Yonkos, Lance T; Friedel, Elizabeth A; Fisher, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The authors describe the prevalence and severity of intersex in the form of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected over a 5-yr period from a variety of surface waters on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA, a region dominated by poultry production and agricultural land use. During a survey from 2005 to 2007 of approximately 200 male specimens representing 6 fish and 2 frog species collected from numerous small-order streams on Delmarva, intersex was observed in only largemouth bass (system-wide prevalence 17%). During 2008 and 2009, testicular oocytes were encountered in male largemouth bass from 6 lakes and 1 large river system, with prevalence ranging from 33% to 88% (weighted arithmetic mean, 57%). The prevalence of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass from Delmarva lakes was comparable to the highest levels reported in a national US Geological Survey reconnaissance of this species, which also occurred in regions of the Atlantic coastal plain with intensive row-crop and animal agriculture. To the authors' knowledge, the present study represents the first report in the peer-reviewed scientific literature of testicular oocytes in fish on the Delmarva Peninsula. PMID:24488607

  1. Adolescent Boys' Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Testicular Self-Examination: Evaluating an Outreach Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Jeffrey K.; Sauter, Marcia; Day, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescent boys who had participated in a brief outreach program to high school health education classes designed to increase boys' knowledge about and improve their attitudes toward testicular self-examination (TSE) and early cancer detection. Results indicated that the 1-hour outreach improved students' knowledge and attitudes regarding…

  2. Intersex (testicular oocytes) in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA.

    PubMed

    Yonkos, Lance T; Friedel, Elizabeth A; Fisher, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    The authors describe the prevalence and severity of intersex in the form of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) collected over a 5-yr period from a variety of surface waters on the Delmarva Peninsula, USA, a region dominated by poultry production and agricultural land use. During a survey from 2005 to 2007 of approximately 200 male specimens representing 6 fish and 2 frog species collected from numerous small-order streams on Delmarva, intersex was observed in only largemouth bass (system-wide prevalence 17%). During 2008 and 2009, testicular oocytes were encountered in male largemouth bass from 6 lakes and 1 large river system, with prevalence ranging from 33% to 88% (weighted arithmetic mean, 57%). The prevalence of testicular oocytes in largemouth bass from Delmarva lakes was comparable to the highest levels reported in a national US Geological Survey reconnaissance of this species, which also occurred in regions of the Atlantic coastal plain with intensive row-crop and animal agriculture. To the authors' knowledge, the present study represents the first report in the peer-reviewed scientific literature of testicular oocytes in fish on the Delmarva Peninsula.

  3. Rediscovering hermaphroditism in Grammatidae with the description of the testicular gland in Brazilian Basslet Gramma brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Leite, J R; Freitas, M O; Sanches, E G; Gomes, M L M; Hostim-Silva, M; Cole, K S

    2016-04-19

    Many aspects of sex change in reef fishes have been studied, including behavior and social organization. However, gonad histology remains the most robust way to identify sexual patterns in fishes. Some uncommon tissues remain poorly described, such as the accessory gonadal structures found in species from the Gobiidae family, which are rare in other bony fishes. This is the first report of the testicular gland in Gramma brasiliensis and for the Grammatidae family. Between April 2011 and February 2012 eighty specimens were collected during four dive campaigns on the Taipus de Fora reef (13°56'20"S 38°55'32"W), Bahia, Northeast Brazil, and their sex was determined. Thirteen per cent of the active-females and 90% of the active-males had testicular gland tissue in their ovotestis. This discovery led to additional research into the characteristics of the gland tissue and its relationship with gonadal maturation. Three patterns of testicular gland development were found in Brazilian basslet ovotestis. Both ova and sperm-producing gonad contained testicular gland tissue, and the appearance of this tissue seems to be the first modification of ovotestis tissue marking the beginning of the protogynous sex-change process in G. brasiliensis.

  4. The adrenal gland and progesterone stimulates testicular steroidogenesis in the rat in vivo.

    PubMed

    Feek, C M; Tuzi, N L; Edwards, C R

    1989-04-01

    Administration of pharmacological doses of glucocorticoid to male rats in vivo suppresses adrenal steroidogenesis and inhibits testicular steroidogenesis by inhibiting the anterior pituitary secretion of LH. In contrast, administration of ACTH to these pharmacologically-suppressed rats stimulates the adrenal secretion of progesterone and testicular steroidogenesis. The mechanism by which ACTH increases testicular steroidogenesis is dependent on the presence of the adrenal gland and is reproduced by the administration of progesterone. The conclusion from these data is that the adrenal gland has an important role in generating external signals that modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. The adrenal secretion of glucocorticoid acts as a negative signal to testicular steroidogenesis whereas progesterone acts as a positive signal. The adrenal secretion of progesterone and its conversion to testosterone by steroidogenic enzymes in the cytoplasm of the Leydig cell may provide an alternative pathway for testosterone biosynthesis and may account for the increased plasma testosterone levels during the acute phase of stress and mating.

  5. Mild calorie restriction does not affect testosterone levels and testicular gene expression in mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juliana S; Bonkowski, Michael S; França, Luiz R; Bartke, Andrzej

    2007-09-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and the somatotropic axis are influenced by nutritional factors. Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan but suppresses both the HPG and the somatotropic axes. Since most CR studies use a fairly severe (40%-60%) reduction of calorie intake, we hypothesized that a milder CR (20%) might not be deleterious to reproduction in male mice. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of 20% CR on testicular testosterone content and on testicular expression of genes that are relevant to testicular function and reproductive competence, including insulin-like growth factor-I, cytochrome P450 aromatase (Cyp19a1), androgen receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, cytochrome P450c17 and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase. To relate CR effects to the activity of the somatotropic axis, we have used growth hormone-resistant GHR knockout mice as well as transgenic mice overexpressing GH. Mild CR did not affect testosterone levels in testis homogenates and had little effect on expression of the examined genes in the reproductive organs. Altered activity of the GH/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis had a major impact on the parameters analyzed. The results also suggest that expression of several key genes involved in the control of testicular function is preserved under conditions of mild CR and encourage speculation that mild regimens of CR can produce longevity benefits without impairing reproduction.

  6. Effects of long-term simvastatin treatment on testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis in hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Bernini, G P; Argenio, G F; Gasperi, M; Vivaldi, M S; Franchi, F; Salvetti, A

    1994-04-01

    Simvastatin is an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the key enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol, recently introduced in the therapy of hypercholesterolemic patients. Cholesterol is the precursor of the biosynthesis of steroid hormones; thus, a reduction of the availability of cholesterol in the adrenal and testicular cells may reduce the synthesis of corticosteroids and androgens. To establish whether chronic therapy with simvastatin interferes with the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and with the adrenal and testicular reserve, we administered simvastatin orally in a single-day 10 mg dose for 6 months in 8 mildly hypercholesterolemic male patients. At weeks 0, 6 and 24 of treatment we evaluated the lipids, the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by means of the Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) test, the adrenal reserve by means of the Corticotropin rapid test and, finally, the testicular reserve by means of the Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) test. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly reduced by Simvastatin, while the HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides did not change significantly. The hormonal responses to CRH, ACTH and HCG tests at weeks 6 and 24 of treatment were comparable to those obtained in basal conditions. We conclude that Simvastatin, while effective in reducing total and LDL-cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic male patients, did not interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity or with basal and stimulated adrenal and testicular steroidogenesis.

  7. Lipoic acid mitigates bisphenol A-induced testicular mitochondrial toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Aly, Hamdy A A; El-Shafey, Mostafa

    2013-11-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the highest volume chemicals produced worldwide. BPA is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used in manufacturing plastic baby bottles and lining of food cans. In this study, we investigated the BPA-induced testicular oxidative stress and perturbation of mitochondrial marker enzymes in male albino rats and its amelioration by α-lipoic acid (LA). Rats were administered a dose of BPA (10 mg/kg body weight) orally for 14 days. This resulted in decreased testes weight, total testicular protein content, testicular enzymes such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and decline in activities of marker mitochondrial enzymes such as succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, monoamine oxidase and NADH dehydrogenase. The serum testosterone and total antioxidant status were reduced. Besides, it also affected the activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. BPA also caused lipid peroxidation and decrease in reduced glutathione content of mitochondria. The co-administration of LA (20 mg/kg body weight; orally for 14 days) together with BPA resulted in restoration of the mitochondrial marker enzyme activities and increasing enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants of mitochondria. The obtained results demonstrated that LA has a potential role in mitigating BPA-induced mitochondrial toxicity through antioxidant mechanism or by direct free radical scavenging activity. PMID:22623521

  8. Rutin- and selenium-attenuated cadmium-induced testicular pathophysiology in rats.

    PubMed

    Abarikwu, S O; Iserhienrhien, B O; Badejo, T A

    2013-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause oxidative damage in the testes of rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of rutin (RUT, 30 mg/kg) and selenium (Se, 0.15 ppm) alone or in combination against Cd (200 ppm)-induced lipid peroxidation, steroidogenesis and changes in antioxidant defence system in the rat testes. The obtained results showed that Cd increased lipid peroxidation and abnormal sperm count and decreased plasma testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and testicular steroidogenic enzymes: 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD), 17β-HSD activities as well as epididymal sperm counts and motility, while RUT and Se treatment reversed this change to control values. Acute intoxication with Cd was also followed by significantly decreased activity of the antioxidant defence system (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)). Treatment with RUT and Se reversed Cd-induced alterations of antioxidant defence system and significantly prevented Cd-induced testes damage and depletion of plasma and testicular Se levels. RUT and Se appear not to have more profound effects than their separate effects against Cd-induced testicular toxicity, although Se was more potent than RUT in the recovery of testosterone levels. These results suggest that both RUT and Se do not have synergistic role against Cd-induced testicular injury. PMID:23424207

  9. GENETIC BACKGROUND BUT NOT METALLOTHIONEIN PHENOTYPE DICTATES SENSITIVITY TO CADMIUM-INDUCED TESTICULAR INJURY IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genetic Background but not Metallothionein Phenotype Dictates Sensitivity to
    Cadmium-Induced Testicular Injury in Mice

    Jie Liu1,2, Chris Corton3, David J. Dix4, Yaping Liu1, Michael P. Waalkes2
    and Curtis D. Klaassen1

    ABSTRACT

    Parenteral administrati...

  10. Localization of a highly divergent mammalian testicular alpha tubulin that is not detectable in brain.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, N B; Distel, R J; Yelick, P C; Tanhauser, S M; Driscoll, C E; Goldberg, E; Tung, K S

    1988-01-01

    Sequence analysis of a mouse testicular alpha-tubulin partial cDNA, pRD alpha TT1, reveals an isotype that differs from both the somatic and the predominant testicular alpha tubulins at approximately 30% of the 212 amino acid residues determined. Although this mouse testicular cDNA retains the highly conserved sequence, Glu-Gly-Glu-Glu, found in the carboxyl termini of many alpha tubulins, the protein extends substantially beyond this sequence and does not terminate with a C-terminal tyrosine. Using rabbit antiserum prepared to a novel synthetic peptide predicted from this mouse testis alpha-tubulin cDNA, we have have detected by immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence an antigenic epitope present in testicular alpha tubulin that is not detectable in brain alpha tubulins. We find that the antiserum specifically binds to the manchettes and meiotic spindles of the mouse testis but not with neural fibers or tubulin extracts of the adult mouse brain. These results demonstrate that at least one of the multiple alpha-tubulin isotypes of the mammalian testis is expressed and used in male germ cells but not in the brain. Images PMID:3352610

  11. Therapeutic effects of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) pollen extract on cadmium-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Neweshy, M S; El-Maddawy, Z K; El-Sayed, Y S

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known testicular toxicant. This study was designed to explore the long-term effects of a single low dose of Cd on spermatogenesis, and testicular dysfunction and oxidative stress, and the therapeutic potential of date palm pollen extract (DPP) in averting such reproductive damage. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl2 (0 or 1 mg kg(-1) ). Twenty-four hours later, they started receiving DPP (0 or 40 mg kg(-1) ) orally, once daily for 56 consecutive days. Cd exposure caused significant reproductive damage via reduced weight of the reproductive organs, which includes spermatological damage (decreased sperm count and motility and increased rates of sperm abnormalities), increased oxidative stress (increased malondialdehyde and decreased reduced glutathione levels), histological alterations (necrosis, inefficient to completely arrest spermatogenesis and a reduced Johnsen's score) and decreased serum testosterone level. DPP restored spermatogenesis and attenuated the toxic effects of Cd on the reproductive system to the levels observed in the control animals. These findings support the hypothesis that the testis is particularly sensitive to Cd, which can cause testicular damage and infertility. Treatment with DPP can ameliorate the deleterious effects of Cd, probably by activating testicular endocrine and antioxidant systems. PMID:22998418

  12. Captopril and telmisartan treatments attenuate cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-04-01

    The possible protective effect of captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, vs. telmisartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist, was investigated in rats with testicular injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cadmium chloride (2 mg/kg). Captopril (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and telmisartan (10 mg/kg/day, p.o.) were given for five consecutive days, starting 3 days before cadmium administration. Both agents significantly increased serum testosterone level, which was reduced by cadmium, suppressed lipid peroxidation, restored the depleted reduced glutathione, decreased the elevations of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cadmium ion levels, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in testicular tissue resulted from cadmium administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both captopril and telmisartan significantly reduced the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand, and caspase-3 in testicular tissue. The differences between the results obtained with captopril and telmisartan were insignificant, suggesting that both drugs equally protected the testicular tissue from the detrimental effects of cadmium. PMID:21819444

  13. Influence of injection timing on severity of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Katsumi; Yanagiba, Yukie; Ashimori, Atsushige; Takeuchi, Asuka; Takada, Naoko; Togawa, Masako; Hasegawa, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Masayuki; Miura, Nobuhiko

    2013-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the endocrine disrupter and is a well-known testicular toxicant. Recently, we reported that Cd-induced mortality was markedly different by injection timing. In this report, we investigated whether severity of testicular toxicity was affected by injection timing of Cd. C57BL/6J mice (male, 7 w) were received single intraperitoneal injection of CdCl(2) (4.5 mg/kg) at zeitgeber time 6 (ZT6) or ZT18; these injection timings showed highest (ZT6) or lowest (ZT18) mortality in our previous study (Miura, 2012). After one week of the injection, several parameters for testicular toxicity such as epididymal sperm motility and numbers of sperm head both in cauda epididymidis and testis were measured. At ZT6 injection group, all parameters examined were significantly reduced compared to the control group. However, very interestingly, no significant changes were observed at ZT18 injection group. We obtained similar results by another experiment in which mice were received single subcutaneous injection of CdCl(2) (4 or 6 mg/kg) followed by measuring the parameters ten days after the injection. This diurnal variation was not contradictory to the result of the lethal toxicity which we showed earlier. Therefore, our results indicate that the testicular toxicity of Cd is also influenced by the injection timing. PMID:23358149

  14. Effects of nitric oxide-related agents on opioid regulation of rat testicular steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adams, M L; Meyer, E R; Cicero, T J

    1996-05-01

    These studies examined whether nitric oxide (NO) mediates opioid suppression of testicular steroidogenesis. Adult male rats were treated with various combinations of a NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester; NAME), a NO donor (isosorbide dinitrate; ISDN), an opioid agonist (morphine, and an opioid antagonist (naltrexone). Serum LH and testosterone and testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) testosterone concentrations were then measured. Inhibition of NO production by NAME reversed morphine-suppressed testosterone secretion; treatment with the NO donor, ISDN, reversed naltrexone-stimulated testosterone secretion. NAME did not alter morphine's effects on LH secretion and attenuated morphine's suppression of hCG-stimulated testosterone secretion, indicating that these effects occur directly in the testes and are not dependent on LH secretion. Even though these effects suggested possible interactions between NO and opioid systems, no additive or synergistic effects were found with suppressive combinations of morphine and ISDN, or with stimulatory combinations of naltrexone and NAME at does that had little effect on testosterone secretion when given alone. These results indicate that opioid and NO exert independent effects on testicular steroidogenesis through separate pathways or mechanisms and that NO does not mediate opioid-induced testicular suppression. PMID:8722635

  15. Influence of Tribulus terrestris on testicular enzyme in fresh water ornamental fish Poecilia latipinna.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, P; Subramanian, P

    2011-12-01

    The influence of Tribulus terrestris on the activities of testicular enzyme in Poecilia latipinna was assessed in lieu of reproductive manipulation. Different concentrations of (100, 150, 200, 250, and 300 mg) Tribulus terrestris extract and of a control were tested for testicular activity of enzymes in Poecilia latipinna for 2 months. The testis and liver were homogenized separately in 0.1 mol/l potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/l, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged, and supernatant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of activities. The activities of testicular functional enzyme ALP, ACP, SDH, LDH, and G6PDH levels were changed to different extent in treated groups compared with that of the control. The total body weight and testis weight were increased with the Tribulus terrestris-treated fish (Poecilia latipinna). These results suggest that Tribulus terrestris induced the testicular enzyme activity that may aid in the male reproductive functions. It is discernible from the present study that Tribulus terrestris has the inducing effect on reproductive system of Poecilia latipinna.

  16. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Silva, A A N; Silva, V A

    2016-07-11

    Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery of testicular oxidative damage in animals with experimental diabetes. Eighteen plant species in the nineteen studies selected from the search strategy were evaluated. Plant extracts were evaluated according to their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes and oxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, total protein, testosterone levels, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium height and integrity, number of germ cells at stage VII and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium, sperm production, motility, viability and morphology. After the analysis of the studies, it was observed that plant species, used alone or in combination, may control testicular oxidative damage triggered by diabetes. The antioxidant potential varies among species, with some plants proving to have a better performance in the recovery of reproduction parameters than others. PMID:27409225

  17. Mass-Mediated Information Effects on Testicular Self-Examination among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trumbo, Craig W.

    2004-01-01

    The author assessed the effects of a youth-targeted national cable broadcast that promoted testicular self-examination (TSE). A telephone survey of 524 college men included variables from the theory of reasoned action, as well as measures of self-exam compliance, message exposure, knowledge, attention, and the effects of humor and fear. Exposure…

  18. Prepubertal Exposure to Genistein Alleviates Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Induced Testicular Oxidative Stress in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lian-Dong; Li, He-Cheng; Chong, Tie; Gao, Ming; Yin, Jian; Fu, De-Lai; Deng, Qian; Wang, Zi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plastizer in the world and can suppress testosterone production via activation of oxidative stress. Genistein (GEN) is one of the isoflavones ingredients exhibiting weak estrogenic and potentially antioxidative effects. However, study on reproductive effects following prepubertal multiple endocrine disrupters exposure has been lacking. In this study, DEHP and GEN were administrated to prepubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats by gavage from postnatal day 22 (PND22) to PND35 with vehicle control, GEN at 50 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day (G), DEHP at 50, 150, 450 mg/kg bw/day (D50, D150, D450) and their mixture (G + D50, G + D150, G + D450). On PND90, general morphometry (body weight, AGD, organ weight, and organ coefficient), testicular redox state, and testicular histology were studied. Our results indicated that DEHP could significantly decrease sex organs weight, organ coefficient, and testicular antioxidative ability, which largely depended on the dose of DEHP. However, coadministration of GEN could partially alleviate DEHP-induced reproductive injuries via enhancement of testicular antioxidative enzymes activities, which indicates that GEN has protective effects on DEHP-induced male reproductive system damage after prepubertal exposure and GEN may have promising future in its curative antioxidative role for reproductive disorders caused by other environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:25530965

  19. Sub-chronic administration of diphenyl diselenide potentiates cadmium-induced testicular damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Santos, Francielli W; Graça, Dominguita L; Zeni, Gilson; Rocha, João B T; Weis, Simone N; Favero, Alexandre M; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2006-10-01

    Sub-chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure causes testicular damage in mice. The mode of action may involve oxidative stress and especially lipid peroxidation. The present study has monitored the pathogenesis of testicular damage during sub-chronic Cd exposure and has evaluated the potential protective effect of antioxidant therapy with diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)(2). Male mice were dosed with 2.5 mg/kg CdCl(2) (2.5 mg/kg) with or without (PhSe)(2) (5 micromol/kg) at 30 min post-exposure using a model of five weekly subcutaneous injections. Histological evaluation of the testis was performed across a 4 week test period. Animals exposed to CdCl(2) and CdCl(2) plus (PhSe)(2) displayed a reduction in body weight gain and testicular weight. Progressive damage and histolopathological changes in the testis were not remedied with, but rather were potentiated by, (PhSe)(2) therapy. We conclude that (PhSe)(2) enhances testicular injury in an animal model for sub-chronic Cd exposure mice. PMID:16472969

  20. Testicular Self Examination--Knowledge of Men Attending a Large Genito Urinary Medicine Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Pauline; Sankar, K. Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the level of knowledge, training and preferences of men in relation to Testicular Self Examination (TSE). Setting: The Genito Urinary Medicine (GUM) department of a large teaching hospital in the North East of England. The open access clinic serves patients from Newcastle upon Tyne, Northumberland, Gateshead and surrounding…

  1. Effects of electromagnetic radiation on morphology and TGF-β3 expression in mouse testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Wang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Ding, Guirong; Shi, Changhong

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic pulses in certain doses may lead to increase in the permeability of the blood testes barrier (BTB) in mice, which in turn affects spermatogenesis, penetration and spermiation. TGF-β3 is a key molecule involved in BTB permeability via regulation of tight junction proteins, and it participates in regulating spermatogenesis, synthesis of steroids and production of the extracellular matrix in testicular tissue. Therefore, it is hypothesized that TGF-β3 plays important roles in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced changes in BTB permeability. In the present study, we carried out whole-body irradiation on mice using EMP of different intensities. No obvious pathological changes or significant increase in apoptosis was detected in testicular tissues after exposure to 100 and 200 pulses of intensity 200kV/m; however, with 400 pulses we observed the degeneration and shrinkage of testicular tissues along with a significant increase in apoptotic rate. Moreover, in the 100- and 200-EMP groups, a non-significant increase in TGF-β3 mRNA and protein expression was observed, whereas in the 400-EMP group a significant increase was observed (P<0.05). These results indicate that increase in the apoptotic rate of testicular tissues and increase in TGF-β3 expression may be one of the mechanisms for EMP-induced increase in BTB permeability in mice.

  2. Inutero exposure to diisononyl phthalate caused testicular dysgenesis of rat fetal testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Linxi; Bu, Tiao; Su, Huina; Chen, Zhichuan; Liang, Yuyuan; Zhang, Gaolong; Zhu, Danyan; Shan, Yuanyuan; Xu, Renai; Hu, Yuanyuan; Li, Junwei; Hu, Guoxin; Lian, Qingquan; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2015-01-22

    Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) is a synthetic material that has been widely used as a substitute for other plasticizers prohibited due to reproductive toxicity in consumer products. Some phthalates have been associated with testicular dysgenesis syndrome in male fetus when female pregnant dams were exposed to them. The present study investigated effects of DINP on fetal Leydig cell function and testis development. Female pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received control vehicle (corn oil) or DINP (10, 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage from gestational day (GD) 12 to 21. At GD 21.5, testicular testosterone production, fetal Leydig cell numbers and distribution, testicular gene and protein expression levels were examined. DINP showed dose-dependent increase of fetal Leydig cell aggregation with the low observed adverse-effect level (LOAEL) of 10 mg/kg and multinucleated gonocyte with LOAEL of 100 mg/kg. At 10 mg/kg, DINP also significantly increased fetal Leydig cell size, but inhibited insulin-like 3 and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression and protein levels. DINP inhibited testicular testosterone levels at 1000 mg/kg. The results indicate that in utero exposure to DINP affects the expression levels of some fetal Leydig cell steroidogenic genes, gonocyte multinucleation and Leydig cell aggregation. PMID:25445723

  3. Testicular response to melatonin or suprachiasmatic nuclei ablation in the spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Berria, M; DeSantis, M; Mead, R A

    1990-07-01

    Testes of the Western spotted skunk enlarge and regress seasonally. The pineal hormone, melatonin, may be important in timing this seasonal reproductive activity. Likewise, the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) have been implicated as possible neural regulators of pineal and reproductive events. These experiments were conducted to determine whether ablation of the SCN or constant administration of melatonin alters timing of the seasonal pattern of testicular regression and recrudescence. Male skunks (n = 24) were treated as follows: six received two empty Silastic capsules, six received two melatonin-filled Silastic capsules, six received sham lesions to the SCN, and six received lesions to the SCN (SCNx). All skunks were exposed to a natural photoperiod and had regressed testes at the onset of the experiment. Four of six males from the SCNx group had an average of 94 +/- 11.3% of these nuclei destroyed. Sham SCNx, animals with less than 40% of the SCN ablated, and males with empty capsules did not have fully enlarged testes until October. SCNx and melatonin-treated skunks exhibited a hastening of testicular recrudescence with maximal testis size being reached in June. Skunks with lesions to the SCN maintained enlarged testes for 5 months while all other groups exhibited rapid regression after attaining maximal testis size. Testicular regression occurred from July through October in animals receiving continuous melatonin, while controls exhibited recrudescence during this same period. Our data suggest that the SCN, melatonin, and thus the pineal gland, play a role in regulating the seasonal testicular cycle of the spotted skunk.

  4. Clinical use of testicular fine needle aspiration cytology in oligozoospermic and azoospermic dogs.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, S; Bonaccini, P; Stelletta, C; Garolla, A; Menegazzo, M; Foresta, C; Mollo, A; Milani, C; Gelli, D

    2009-07-01

    Clinical investigation of canine testicular function is complicated by the difficulty in the evaluation of seminiferous tubules. Until recently, testicular biopsy was the only diagnostic option for dogs with persistent oligo/azoospermia. In human andrology, testicular fine needle aspiration (TFNA) is currently considered a useful method in the evaluation of azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia, and has long replaced classical biopsy to evaluate spermatogenesis. In order to verify its diagnostic efficacy for the clinical approach to canine oligo- or azoospermia, TFNA was performed in seven adult (two oligozoospermic and five azoospermic) dogs. After sedation, a fine (21-23 gauge) butterfly needle connected to a 50-ml syringe was inserted into each testicle; strong suction was applied and the aspirated fluid squirted on a glass slide, smeared out, air-dried and stained with a modified May-Grunwald-Giemsa. Under light microscopy, Sertoli cells (all those found in each investigated field) and spermatogenic cells (n = 100) were counted on each smear in order to differentiate spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids and spermatozoa, and calculate their relative percentages. Cytological analysis showed the following testicular pictures: normal spermatogenesis (compatible with obstruction of the seminal ducts), hypospermatogenesis, maturative disturbances and Sertoli cell-only syndrome. Two dogs with an obstructive lesion were treated with corticosteroids; one of them recovered and sired two litters of puppies.

  5. The spectrum of computed tomographic appearance of metastatic masses from testicular neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Zingas, A P; Jain, A B; Loredo, R D; Kling, G A

    1984-01-01

    Metastatic masses from testicular neoplasms were evaluated with respect to their computed tomographic characteristics. They were divided in three categories: cystic, semicystic, and solid. The common denominator in the first two categories was the presence of teratomatous components. The nonteratomatous masses were solid.

  6. Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in clinical stage II testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Annerstedt, Magnus; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Wullt, Björn; Uvelius, Bengt

    2008-09-01

    Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissections were performed in three patients after chemotherapy for clinical stage II testicular cancer. Although our experience is still limited, we think that the outcomes of the cases suggest a role for robot-assisted surgery in selected cases undergoing post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. PMID:27628259

  7. Experimental testicular tissue banking to generate spermatogenesis in the future: A multidisciplinary team approach.

    PubMed

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman; McLean, Thomas W; Kogan, Stanley; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Crowell, Kathryn; Yousif, Mustafa Q; Hodges, Steve J; Petty, John; Pranikoff, Thomas; Sieren, Leah; Zeller, Kristen; Atala, Anthony

    2016-04-15

    Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) loss due to cancer treatment, developmental disorder or genetic abnormality may cause permanent infertility. Cryopreservation of ejaculated sperm is an effective method of fertility preservation in adult males at risk of infertility. However this is not an option in pre-pubertal boys because spermatogenesis has not yet started, and it is difficult in adolescents who are not sexually mature. Therefore testicular tissue cryopreservation to preserve SSCs for future generation of spermatogenesis, either in vivo or in vitro, could be an option for these groups of patients. Although SSC transplantation has been successful in several species including non-human primates, it is still experimental in humans. There are several remaining concerns which need to be addressed before initiating trials of human SSC autotransplantation. Establishment of a testicular tissue banking system is a fundamental step towards using SSC technology as a fertility preservation method. It is important to understand the consultation, harvesting the testicular tissue, histological evaluation, cryopreservation, and long term storage aspects. We describe here a multidisciplinary approach to establish testicular tissue banking for males at risk of infertility.

  8. Testicular ischemia-reperfusion may alter micro-rheological parameters in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Norbert; Kiss, Ferenc; Klarik, Zoltan; Peto, Katalin; Vanyolos, Erzsebet; Toth, Laszlo; Furka, Istvan; Miko, Iren

    2014-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion-caused hemorheological alterations have been widely studied but the effect of testicular ischemia-reperfusion has not so far. In this study 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were involved. In the ischemia-reperfusion group under general anaesthesia the left testis was explored by opening the scrotum then the deferent duct and vasculature were clamped for 30 minutes. Testicular microcirculation was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. The right testis was untouched. In the control group: only anaesthesia was induced. Blood sampling occurred before and after ischemia, at the 60th minute of reperfusion and on the 1st postoperative day for determining hematological parameters (microcell-counter), erythrocyte deformability (slit-flow ektacytometer) and erythrocyte aggregation (light-transmission aggregometer). After the last blood sampling, testicles were removed for histological examination. Hematological parameter changes reflected inflammatory response. Erythrocyte deformability showed a worsening already at the 60th minute of reperfusion compared to base and control values. By the 1st postoperative day further decrease was observed. Erythrocyte aggregation significantly enhanced with great magnitude versus base and control values (p < 0.001). However, conventional histological examinations did not show marked testicular injury. The experienced changes can attract attention to the testicular ischemia-reperfusion causing significant effects on hemorheological parameters, which can lead to further harmful microcirculatory consequences.

  9. Phytotherapy in reducing glycemic index and testicular oxidative stress resulting from induced diabetes: a review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J S; Silva, A A N; Silva, V A

    2016-07-11

    Oxidative stress plays a main role in the development of diabetes complications. The impairment of gonadal antioxidant potential and endocrine disturbance in diabetic males causes testicular damage and failure in sperm production. Plants have been widely used to control diabetes due their hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential, contributing towards the recovery of testicular function. Current study comprises a review of the literature on the main medicinal plants used in the recovery of testicular oxidative damage in animals with experimental diabetes. Eighteen plant species in the nineteen studies selected from the search strategy were evaluated. Plant extracts were evaluated according to their effects on blood glucose and insulin levels, antioxidant enzymes and oxidant levels, lipid peroxidation, total protein, testosterone levels, gonadosomatic index, diameter of seminiferous tubules, seminiferous epithelium height and integrity, number of germ cells at stage VII and apoptosis in the seminiferous epithelium, sperm production, motility, viability and morphology. After the analysis of the studies, it was observed that plant species, used alone or in combination, may control testicular oxidative damage triggered by diabetes. The antioxidant potential varies among species, with some plants proving to have a better performance in the recovery of reproduction parameters than others.

  10. Strain difference of cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in inbred Wistar-Imamichi and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Narumi, Rika; Nagano, Masaaki; Yasutake, Akira; Waalkes, Michael P; Imamura, Yorishige

    2009-07-01

    Previously, we reported that Wistar-Imamichi (WI) rats are highly resistant to cadmium (Cd)-induced lethality and hepatotoxicity compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Since the testes are one of the most sensitive organs to acute Cd toxicity, we examined possible strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between inbred WI and F344 rats. Rats were treated with a single dose of 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg Cd/kg, as CdCl(2), sc and killed 24 h later. Cd at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg induced severe testicular hemorrhage, as assessed by pathological and testis hemoglobin content, in F344 rats, but not WI rats. After Cd treatment (2.0 mg/kg), the testicular Cd content was significantly lower in WI rats than in the F344 rats, indicating a toxiokinetic mechanism for the observed strain difference. Thus, the remarkable resistance to Cd-induced testicular toxicity in WI rats is associated, at least in part, with lower testicular accumulation of Cd. When zinc (Zn; 10 mg/kg, sc) was administered in combination with Cd (2.0 mg/kg) to F344 rats, the Cd-induced increase in testicular hemoglobin content, indicative of hemorrhage, was significantly reduced. Similarly, the testicular Cd content was significantly decreased with Zn co-treatment compared to Cd treatment alone. Thus, it can be concluded that the testicular Cd accumulation partly competes with Zn transport systems and that these systems may play an important role in the strain-related differences in Cd-induced testicular toxicity between WI and F344 rats. PMID:19479238

  11. Chrysin alleviates testicular dysfunction in adjuvant arthritic rats via suppression of inflammation and apoptosis: Comparison with celecoxib

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, Hebatallah A.; Arab, Hany H.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.

    2014-09-01

    Long standing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with testicular dysfunction and subfertility. Few studies have addressed the pathogenesis of testicular injury in RA and its modulation by effective agents. Thus, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of two testosterone boosting agents; chrysin, a natural flavone and celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in testicular impairment in rats with adjuvant arthritis, an experimental model of RA. Chrysin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and celecoxib (5 mg/kg) were orally administered to Wistar rats once daily for 21 days starting 1 h before arthritis induction. Chrysin suppressed paw edema with comparable efficacy to celecoxib. More important, chrysin, dose-dependently and celecoxib attenuated the testicular injury via reversing lowered gonadosomatic index and histopathologic alterations with preservation of spermatogenesis. Both agents upregulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) mRNA expression and serum testosterone with concomitant restoration of LH and FSH. Furthermore, they suppressed inflammation via abrogation of myeloperoxidase, TNF-α and protein expression of COX-2 and iNOS besides elevation of IL-10. Alleviation of the testicular impairment was accompanied with suppression of oxidative stress via lowering testicular lipid peroxides and nitric oxide. With respect to apoptosis, both agents downregulated FasL mRNA expression and caspase-3 activity in favor of cell survival. For the first time, these findings highlight the protective effects of chrysin and celecoxib against testicular dysfunction in experimental RA which were mediated via boosting testosterone in addition to attenuation of testicular inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Generally, the 50 mg/kg dose of chrysin exerted comparable protective actions to celecoxib. - Highlights: • Chrysin and celecoxib alleviated testicular suppression in adjuvant arthritis. • They attenuated histopathological damage and preserved spermatogenesis

  12. Comparison of Different Electroporation Parameters on Transfection Efficiency of Sheep Testicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niakan, Sarah; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akbari, Ghasem; Nikousefat, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electroporation can be a highly efficient method for introducing the foreign genetic materials into the targeted cells for transient and/or permanent genetic modification. Considering the application of this technique as a very efficient method for drug, oligonucleotide, antibody and plasmid delivery for clinical applications and production of transgenic animals, the present study aimed to optimize the transfection efficiency of sheep testicular cells including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via electroporation. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research conducted in Biotechnology Research Center (Avicenna Research Institute, Tehran, Iran) from September 2013 to March 2014. Following isolation and propagation of one-month lamb testicular cells (SSCs and somatic testicular cells including; Sertoli, Leydig, and myoid cells), the effect of different electroporation parameters including total voltages (280, 320, and 350 V), burst durations (10, 8, and 5 milliseconds), burst modes (single or double) and addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated on transfection efficiency, viability rate and mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of sheep testicular cells. Results The most transfection efficiency was obtained in 320 V/8 milliseconds/single burst group in transduction medium with and without DMSO. There was a significantly inverse correlation between transfection efficiency with application of both following parameters: addition of DMSO and double burst. After transfection, the highest and lowest viability rates of testicular cells were demonstrated in 320 V/8 milliseconds with transduction medium without DMSO and 350 V/5 milliseconds in medium containing DMSO. Ad- dition of DMSO to transduction medium in all groups significantly decreased the viability rate. The comparison of gene expression indicated that Sertoli and SSCs had the most fluorescence intensity in 320 V/double burst/DMSO positive. However, myoid and Leydig cells showed the

  13. Comparison of Different Electroporation Parameters on Transfection Efficiency of Sheep Testicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Niakan, Sarah; Heidari, Banafsheh; Akbari, Ghasem; Nikousefat, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Objective Electroporation can be a highly efficient method for introducing the foreign genetic materials into the targeted cells for transient and/or permanent genetic modification. Considering the application of this technique as a very efficient method for drug, oligonucleotide, antibody and plasmid delivery for clinical applications and production of transgenic animals, the present study aimed to optimize the transfection efficiency of sheep testicular cells including spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) via electroporation. Materials and Methods This study is an experimental research conducted in Biotechnology Research Center (Avicenna Research Institute, Tehran, Iran) from September 2013 to March 2014. Following isolation and propagation of one-month lamb testicular cells (SSCs and somatic testicular cells including; Sertoli, Leydig, and myoid cells), the effect of different electroporation parameters including total voltages (280, 320, and 350 V), burst durations (10, 8, and 5 milliseconds), burst modes (single or double) and addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) were evaluated on transfection efficiency, viability rate and mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of sheep testicular cells. Results The most transfection efficiency was obtained in 320 V/8 milliseconds/single burst group in transduction medium with and without DMSO. There was a significantly inverse correlation between transfection efficiency with application of both following parameters: addition of DMSO and double burst. After transfection, the highest and lowest viability rates of testicular cells were demonstrated in 320 V/8 milliseconds with transduction medium without DMSO and 350 V/5 milliseconds in medium containing DMSO. Ad- dition of DMSO to transduction medium in all groups significantly decreased the viability rate. The comparison of gene expression indicated that Sertoli and SSCs had the most fluorescence intensity in 320 V/double burst/DMSO positive. However, myoid and Leydig cells showed the

  14. A novel mammalian protein kinase gene (mak) is highly expressed in testicular germ cells at and after meiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Matsushime, H; Jinno, A; Takagi, N; Shibuya, M

    1990-01-01

    We isolated a novel gene designated mak (male germ cell-associated kinase) by using weak cross-hybridization with a tyrosine kinase gene (v-ros). Sequence analysis of the cDNA corresponding to the 2.6-kilobase transcript revealed that the predicted product of rat mak consisted of 622 amino acids and contained protein kinase consensus motifs in its amino-terminal region. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of mak in the kinase domain with those of other protein kinase genes demonstrated that mak was approximately 40% identical to the cdc2-CDC28 gene family in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and humans but less identical to most other protein kinase gene products. Expression of mak was highly tissue specific, and its transcripts were detected almost exclusively in testicular cells entering and after meiosis but hardly detectable in ovarian cells including oocytes, after the dictyotene stage. These results suggest that the mak gene plays an important role in spermatogenesis. Images PMID:2183027

  15. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction.

  16. Resveratrol and curcumin ameliorate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induced testicular injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Fattah, Amal Ahmed; Fahim, Atef Tadros; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Ali, Bassam Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the protective role of resveratrol and curcumin on oxidative testicular damage induced by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups; three groups received oral daily doses of DEHP (2g/kgBW) for 45days to induce testicular injury. Two of these groups received either resveratrol (80mg/kgBW) or curcumin (200mg/kgBW) orally for 30days before and 45days after DEHP administration. A vehicle-treated control group was also included. Another two groups of rats received either resveratrol or curcumin alone. Oxidative damage was observed by decreased levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the testes of DEHP-administered rats. Serum testosterone level as well as testicular marker enzymes activities; acid and alkaline phosphatases (ACP and ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) showed severe declines. DEHP administration caused significant increases in the testicular gene expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, HSP60, HSP70 and HSP90 as well as a significant decrease in c-Kit protein when compared with the control group. Histopathological observations provided evidence for the biochemical and molecular analysis. These DEHP-induced pathological alterations were attenuated by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. We conclude that DEHP-induced injuries in biochemical, molecular and histological structure of testis were recovered by pretreatment with resveratrol and curcumin. The chemoprotective effects of these compounds may be due to their intrinsic antioxidant properties along with boosting Nrf2, HSP 60, HSP 70 and HSP 90 gene expression levels and as such may be useful potential tools in combating DEHP-induced testicular dysfunction. PMID:26361869

  17. Anchoring Ethinylestradiol Induced Gene Expression Changes with Testicular Morphology and Reproductive Function in the Medaka

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hilary D.; Clark, Bryan W.; Hinton, David E.; Whitehead, Andrew; Martin, Stan; Kwok, Kevin W.; Kullman, Seth W.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental estrogens are ubiquitous in the environment and can cause detrimental effects on male reproduction. In fish, a multitude of effects from environmental estrogens have been observed including altered courting behavior and fertility, sex reversal, and gonadal histopathology. However, few studies in fish assess the impacts of estrogenic exposure on a physiological endpoint, such as reproduction, as well as the associated morphologic response and underlying global gene expression changes. This study assessed the implications of a 14 day sub-chronic exposure of ethinylestradiol (EE2; 1.0 or 10.0 µg/L EE2) on male medaka fertility, testicular histology and testicular gene expression. The findings demonstrate that a 14 day exposure to EE2 induced impaired male reproductive capacity and time- and dose-dependent alterations in testicular morphology and gene expression. The average fertilization rate/day following the exposure for control, 1.0 and 10.0 µg/L EE2 was 91.3% (±4.4), 62.8% (±8.3) and 28.8% (±5.8), respectively. The testicular morphologic alterations included increased germ cell apoptosis, decreased germinal epithelium and thickening of the interstitium. These changes were highly associated with testicular gene expression changes using a medaka-specific microarray. A pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes emphasized genes and pathways associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and proliferation, collagen production/extracellular matrix organization, hormone signaling, male reproduction and protein ubiquitination among others. These findings highlight the importance of anchoring global gonadal gene expression changes with morphology and ultimately with tissue/organ function. PMID:23300682

  18. Spatial variation and temporal trends of testicular cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Toledano, M B; Jarup, L; Best, N; Wakefield, J; Elliott, P

    2001-06-01

    Increases in testicular cancer incidence have been reported in several countries over a long period. Geographical variability has also been reported in some studies. We have investigated temporal trends and spatial variation of testicular cancer at ages 20-49 in Britain. Temporal trends in testicular cancer incidence were examined, 1974 to 1991 and in mortality, 1981-1997. Spatial variation in incidence was analysed across electoral wards, 1975 to 1991. We used Poisson regression to examine for regional and socio-economic effects and Bayesian mapping techniques to analyse small-area spatial variability. Incidence increased from 6.5 to 11.1 per 100 000 in men at ages 20-34, and from 5.6 to 9.7 per 100 000 in men at ages 35-49, while mortality declined by 50% in both age groups. Risks of testicular cancer varied across regional cancer registries, ranging from 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.84) to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.25-1.38), and was higher in the most affluent compared with the most deprived areas. Analyses within 2 regions (one predominantly urban, the other predominantly rural) did not indicate any localized geographical clustering. The increasing incidence contrasted with a decreasing mortality over time in Great Britain, similar to that found in other countries. The higher risk in more affluent areas is not consistent with findings on social class at the individual level. The absence of any marked geographical variability at small area scale argues against a geographically varying environmental factor operating strongly in the aetiology of testicular cancer. PMID:11384098

  19. Spatial variation and temporal trends of testicular cancer in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Toledano, M B; Jarup, L; Best, N; Wakefield, J; Elliott, P

    2001-06-01

    Increases in testicular cancer incidence have been reported in several countries over a long period. Geographical variability has also been reported in some studies. We have investigated temporal trends and spatial variation of testicular cancer at ages 20-49 in Britain. Temporal trends in testicular cancer incidence were examined, 1974 to 1991 and in mortality, 1981-1997. Spatial variation in incidence was analysed across electoral wards, 1975 to 1991. We used Poisson regression to examine for regional and socio-economic effects and Bayesian mapping techniques to analyse small-area spatial variability. Incidence increased from 6.5 to 11.1 per 100 000 in men at ages 20-34, and from 5.6 to 9.7 per 100 000 in men at ages 35-49, while mortality declined by 50% in both age groups. Risks of testicular cancer varied across regional cancer registries, ranging from 0.79 (95% CI: 0.73-0.84) to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.25-1.38), and was higher in the most affluent compared with the most deprived areas. Analyses within 2 regions (one predominantly urban, the other predominantly rural) did not indicate any localized geographical clustering. The increasing incidence contrasted with a decreasing mortality over time in Great Britain, similar to that found in other countries. The higher risk in more affluent areas is not consistent with findings on social class at the individual level. The absence of any marked geographical variability at small area scale argues against a geographically varying environmental factor operating strongly in the aetiology of testicular cancer.

  20. Impact of boric acid exposure at different concentrations on testicular DNA and male rats fertility.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Abd El-Wahab, Hanan M F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid (BA) on male rats reproduction, fertility and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality. Adult male rats (12 weeks old) were treated orally with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt/d of BA for 60 d. The results indicated that BA administration at 125 mg/kg bwt had no adverse effects on fertility, sperm characteristics or prenatal development of the impregnated females. However, at dose 250 mg, BA treatment significantly increased serum nitric oxide, testosterone, estradiol levels and testicular boron and calcium levels and also significantly reduced serum arginase activity, sperm quality and testicular DNA content with minor DNA fragmentation. The impact of BA exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of BA at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility. In conclusion, BA impaired fertility, in a dose-dependant manner, by targeting the highly proliferative cells, the germ cells, through decreasing DNA synthetic rate rather than the induction of DNA damage. PMID:23301826

  1. Impact of boric acid exposure at different concentrations on testicular DNA and male rats fertility.

    PubMed

    El-Dakdoky, Mai H; Abd El-Wahab, Hanan M F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of exposure to three levels of boric acid (BA) on male rats reproduction, fertility and progeny outcome, with emphasis on testicular DNA level and quality. Adult male rats (12 weeks old) were treated orally with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg bwt/d of BA for 60 d. The results indicated that BA administration at 125 mg/kg bwt had no adverse effects on fertility, sperm characteristics or prenatal development of the impregnated females. However, at dose 250 mg, BA treatment significantly increased serum nitric oxide, testosterone, estradiol levels and testicular boron and calcium levels and also significantly reduced serum arginase activity, sperm quality and testicular DNA content with minor DNA fragmentation. The impact of BA exposure at dose 250 mg on male rats fertility was translated into increases in pre-implantation loss with a resulting decrease in the number of live fetuses/litter. In addition to the significant alteration of biochemical measurements, observed at dose 250 mg, administration of BA at 500 mg caused testicular atrophy, severe damage of spermatogenesis, spermiation failure and significant reduction of Mg and Zn testicular levels. None of the male rats, treated with 500 mg/kg bwt, could impregnate untreated females, suggesting the occurrence of definitive loss of fertility. In conclusion, BA impaired fertility, in a dose-dependant manner, by targeting the highly proliferative cells, the germ cells, through decreasing DNA synthetic rate rather than the induction of DNA damage.

  2. P450-aromatase activity and expression in human testicular tissues with severe spermatogenic failure.

    PubMed

    Lardone, M C; Castillo, P; Valdevenito, R; Ebensperger, M; Ronco, A M; Pommer, R; Piottante, A; Castro, A

    2010-08-01

    There is evidence that impaired spermatogenesis is associated with an imbalance in the oestradiol/testosterone ratio and with Leydig cell (LC) dysfunction. In testis, P450-aromatase, encoded by CYP19, is responsible for the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. The aims of this study were to quantify CYP19 mRNA expression, aromatase activity and protein localization, and to measure the oestradiol to testosterone ratio in testicular tissues of men with spermatogenic impairment. Twenty-four men with complete Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS), 14 with focal SCOS, 14 with maturation arrest (MA), 8 with mixed atrophy and 30 controls with normal spermatogenesis were subjected to testicular biopsy. All subjects underwent a physical examination, cytogenetic and serum hormonal studies. Testicular CYP19 mRNA was quantified using real time RT-PCR. Testicular aromatase activity was measured using the (3)H(2)0 assay and protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. In cases, serum testosterone and oestradiol were normal, but the testosterone/LH ratio was lower compared with controls (p < 0.05). Aromatase was localized in the Leydig, Sertoli and germ cells of all tissues, although stronger intensity was observed in LC. Aromatase mRNA and activity were not altered in cases and correlated positively with LC number (r = 0.516 and r = 0.369; p < 0.008). The intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio was elevated (p = 0.005) in complete SCOS patients compared with controls. In conclusion, testicular aromatase seems to be normal in most subjects with impaired spermatogenesis. However, an altered intratesticular oestradiol/testosterone ratio in some patients with complete SCOS suggests that aromatase is increased, which might contribute to Leydig cell dysfunction.

  3. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is reliable method for testicular spermatogenesis evaluation after torsion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoying; Lv, Faqing; Tang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate effect of torsion on testicular stiffness alteration in affected and concomitant testis using improved ultrasound method of shear wave elastography (SWE). We compared the morphology of the testicular spermatogenesis assessed with Johansen’s scale on histology specimens with a mean stiffness measured by SWE. A total of 18 New Zealand white male rabbits were divided into two groups (group A and group B), animals from group A were subjected to operation of right testicle torsion while left testicle remained intact. In group B both testicles were normal and right testicle was subjected to sham operation. The protocol of measurement for mean stiffness value was calculated from three elastographic images obtained from each testicle. Significant difference in mean stiffness value and Johnsen’ scaling was observed in both groups (A and B), as well as for normal and torted testicle in group A. The mean stiffness positively correlated with histologic grade on both sided testicles in group B, and left sided testicles in group A (P=0.045, r=0.43; group B; P=0.001, r=0.98), while histologic grade negatively correlated with mean stiffness in the group A, torted testicle (torsion P=0.012, r=-0.76). In this study testicular torsion, with consequently higher mean stiffness value determined by SWE, has qualitatively and quantitatively decreased spermatogenesis. Gradual morphology change in testicle unaffected by torsion has not been previously reported. This study confirmed that quantitative change in testicular tissue stiffness as well as change in testicular spermatogenesis can be reliably evaluated with SWE. PMID:26221246

  4. Associations of Filaggrin Gene Loss-of-Function Variants with Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Testicular Function in Young Danish Men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Niels; Meldgaard, Michael; Frederiksen, Hanne; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina; Stender, Steen; Szecsi, Pal Bela; Skakkebæk, Niels Erik; De Meyts, Ewa Rajpert; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Filaggrin is an epidermal protein that is crucial for skin barrier function. Up to 10% of Europeans and 5% of Asians carry at least one null allele in the filaggrin gene (FLG). Reduced expression of filaggrin in carriers of the null allele is associated with facilitated transfer of allergens across the epidermis. We hypothesized that these individuals may have increased transdermal uptake of endocrine disruptors, including phthalates. Objectives: We investigated urinary excretion of phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young men with and without FLG loss-of-function variants in a cross-sectional study of 861 young men from the general Danish population. Methods: All men were genotyped for FLG R501X, 2282del4, and R2447X loss-of-function variants. We measured urinary concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites and serum levels of reproductive hormones. We also evaluated semen quality. Results: Sixty-five men (7.5%) carried at least one FLG-null allele. FLG-null carriers had significantly higher urinary concentrations of several phthalate metabolites, including a 33% higher concentration of MnBP (mono-n-butyl phthalate; 95% CI: 16, 51%). FLG-null variants were not significantly associated with reproductive hormones or semen quality parameters. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that carriers of FLG loss-of-function alleles may have higher internal exposure to phthalates, possibly due to increased transepidermal absorption. FLG loss-of-function variants may indicate susceptible populations for which special attention to transepidermal absorption of chemicals and medication may be warranted. Citation: Joensen UN, Jørgensen N, Meldgaard M, Frederiksen H, Andersson AM, Menné T, Johansen JD, Carlsen BC, Stender S, Szecsi PB, Skakkebæk NE, Rajpert-De Meyts E, Thyssen JP. 2014. Associations of filaggrin gene loss-of-function variants with urinary phthalate metabolites and testicular function in young Danish men. Environ Health Perspect 122

  5. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Soderlund, E.J.; Brunborg, G.; Omichinski, J.G.; Holme, J.A.; Dahl, J.E.; Nelson, S.D.; Dybing, E.

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death.

  6. Testicular necrosis and DNA damage caused by deuterated and methylated analogs of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in the rat.

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Omichinski, J G; Holme, J A; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1988-07-01

    To study the role of metabolism in 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)-induced testicular damage in rats, selectively deuterated and methylated analogs of DBCP were given as a single ip dose of 340 mumol/kg and testicular toxicity was determined 10 days after treatment. None of the four deuterated analogs C1-D2-, C2-D1-, C3-D2-, or C1-C2-C3-D5-DBCP reduced the degree of testicular damage compared to DBCP, indicating that metabolic cleavage of a C-H bond was not rate-limiting in DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. Of the five methylated analogs, C1-methyl-, C1-dimethyl-, C2-methyl-, and C3-methyl-DBCP and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, only C3-methyl-DBCP caused testicular toxicity. DBCP treatment resulted in increased testicular DNA damage at doses of 85-170 mumol/kg as measured by alkaline elution of DNA from testicular cells isolated 3 hr after in vivo treatment. The perdeutero-DBCP analog induced testicular DNA damage that was at least as extensive as that induced by DBCP. Of the methylated analogs tested, only C3-methyl-DBCP gave a marked dose-dependent increase in testicular DNA damage between 170 and 540 mumol/kg. There were no significant differences in the testicular tissue distribution between DBCP, perdeutero-DBCP, and the methylated DBCP analogs. Furthermore, in distribution studies with DBCP, C1-methyl- and C3-methyl-DBCP, and 1,2-dibromo-4-chlorobutane, the highest tissue concentrations were found in the kidneys, followed by the liver and then the testes. The fact that testicular DNA damage of DBCP and its deuterated and methylated analogs paralleled their ability to cause testicular necrosis and atrophy makes measurement of DNA damage a very useful correlate in mechanistic studies of DBCP-induced testicular cell death. PMID:3400095

  7. Minocycline Attenuates Depressive-Like Behaviour Induced by Rat Model of Testicular Torsion: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Seyed Soheil Saeedi; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) can induce depression in pre- and post-pubertal patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological impact of testicular torsion and mechanism underlying its depressive-like behaviour, as well as antidepressant-like activity of minocycline and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway in this paradigm in male rats undergoing testicular T/D. Unilateral T/D was performed in 36 male adult Wistar rats, and different doses of minocycline were injected alone or combined with N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AG), specific inducible NOS inhibitor; l-arginine, an NO precursor; and selective PDE5I, sildenafil. After assessment of locomotor activity in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, 30 days after testicular T/D, testicular venous testosterone and serum nitrite concentrations were measured. A correlation was observed between either a decrease in plasma testosterone or an increase in serum nitrite concentrations with prolongation in immobility time in the testicular T/D-operated rats FST. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) exerted the highest significant antidepressant-like effect in the operated rats in the FST (p < 0.001). Furthermore, combination of subeffective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) and either l-NAME (10 mg/kg) or AG (50 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant robust antidepressant-like activity in T/D group (p < 0.01). Consequently, NO/cGMP pathway was involved in testicular T/D-induced depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant-like activity of minocycline in the animal model. Moreover, a contribution was observed between either decreased testosterone or elevated serum nitrite levels and depressive-like behaviour following testicular T/D. PMID:26381433

  8. Testicular fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose uptake on positron emission tomography CT in patients with lymphoma: clinical significance and management impact

    PubMed Central

    Lin, P; Son, H; Rosenfeld, D; Lin, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This is the first case series examining the role of fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) in the diagnosis of lymphoma, and its impact on the clinical management of patients with secondary testicular involvement. This study explores the clinical significance of abnormal testicular uptake, maximum standardized uptake values and the diagnostic value of the CT component in PET-CT scans of these patients. Methods: The case notes and PET scans of 12 patients with diagnosis of lymphoma that were reported to have abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the testes were examined. Case notes were reviewed for the underlying diagnosis, indication for the scan and its effect on the management decision. Results: 12 patients demonstrated abnormal 18F-FDG uptake on the PET-CT scans (mean age, 63 years; range, 37–82 years). Seven patients were diagnosed with testicular lymphoma. Six out of the seven (86%) patients received additional intrathecal chemotherapy in addition to their systemic chemotherapy, and one patient had testicular radiotherapy. Conclusion: This study establishes the importance of identifying and reporting abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the testes on PET-CT in patients with lymphoma. 18F-FDG PET-CT is superior to conventional imaging in identifying testicular lymphoma and has significant management impact. It also emphasizes the importance of incorporating the testes as part of the scan coverage. Advances in knowledge: The appearances of testicular lymphoma on 18F-FDG PET-CT can be variable and abnormal testicular uptake warrants further investigations and confirmation. FDG PET-CT is an important tool and can be used in addition to conventional imaging in the identification of testicular lymphoma. PMID:25333503

  9. Histological evaluation of the testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis: assessment of etiology and surgical approach.

    PubMed

    Emir, Haluk; Ayik, Bekir; Eliçevik, Mehmet; Büyükünal, Cenk; Danişmend, Nur; Dervişoğlu, Sergülen; Söylet, Yunus

    2007-01-01

    There is a controversy in the literature whether testicular nubbins carry malignancy risk and excision of the nubbin is necessary in patients with nonpalpable testis. It is also controversial whether vanishing testis has the same etiopathogenesis and risk with true undescended testis. The aim of this study is to investigate the histological findings of testicular nubbins in patients with nonpalpable testis and to question etiology and surgical indications for vanishing testis. We reviewed the histopathological results of 44 testicular nubbins in 40 patients (mean age: 4.1 years, range 1-13 years) with nonpalpable testis between 1992 and 2004, retrospectively. Exploration revealed 5 intraabdominal and 39 inguinal testicular nubbins. Of 44 specimens only 5 (11.3%) from inquinal testicular nubbins were found to have seminiferous tubules. Two of the five had seminiferous tubule structures with viable germ cells showing maturation correlating with age. The other two with scarce seminiferous tubules were seen on only a single area and one had Sertoli cells only. None of the excised tissue had malignant degeneration. The vas deferens was identified in 23 (52.2%), vessels in 26 (59%), calcification in 14 (31.8%) and hemosiderin in 12 (27.2%) of excised tissue. Presence of calcification in one-third of the nubbins supports vascular accident thesis in the etiopathogenesis of vanishing testis. The possibility for the presence of seminiferous tubules and viable germ cells in the testicular nubbin is low. These facts decrease theoritical risk of malingnancy. Therefore, an inguinal exploration for testicular nubbin in patients with vas deferens and vessels entering into the inquinal canal diagnosed at laparoscopy can be postponed untill testicular prosthesis implantation and the nubbin can be removed at this operation.

  10. Minocycline Attenuates Depressive-Like Behaviour Induced by Rat Model of Testicular Torsion: Involvement of Nitric Oxide Pathway.

    PubMed

    Saravi, Seyed Soheil Saeedi; Mousavi, Seyyedeh Elaheh; Saravi, Seyed Sobhan Saeedi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Testicular torsion/detorsion (T/D) can induce depression in pre- and post-pubertal patients. This study was conducted to investigate the psychological impact of testicular torsion and mechanism underlying its depressive-like behaviour, as well as antidepressant-like activity of minocycline and possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP pathway in this paradigm in male rats undergoing testicular T/D. Unilateral T/D was performed in 36 male adult Wistar rats, and different doses of minocycline were injected alone or combined with N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), non-specific NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; aminoguanidine (AG), specific inducible NOS inhibitor; l-arginine, an NO precursor; and selective PDE5I, sildenafil. After assessment of locomotor activity in open-field test, immobility times were recorded in the forced swimming test (FST). Moreover, 30 days after testicular T/D, testicular venous testosterone and serum nitrite concentrations were measured. A correlation was observed between either a decrease in plasma testosterone or an increase in serum nitrite concentrations with prolongation in immobility time in the testicular T/D-operated rats FST. Minocycline (160 mg/kg) exerted the highest significant antidepressant-like effect in the operated rats in the FST (p < 0.001). Furthermore, combination of subeffective doses of minocycline (80 mg/kg) and either l-NAME (10 mg/kg) or AG (50 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant robust antidepressant-like activity in T/D group (p < 0.01). Consequently, NO/cGMP pathway was involved in testicular T/D-induced depressive-like behaviour and antidepressant-like activity of minocycline in the animal model. Moreover, a contribution was observed between either decreased testosterone or elevated serum nitrite levels and depressive-like behaviour following testicular T/D.

  11. Protective effect of an aphrodisiac herb Tribulus terrestris Linn on cadmium-induced testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Rajendar, B.; Bharavi, K.; Rao, G. S.; Kishore, P.V.S; Kumar, P. Ravi; Kumar, C.S.V Satish; Patel, T. Pankaj

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Tribulus terrestris Linn (TT) could protect the cadmium (Cd)-induced testicular tissue peroxidation in rats and to explore the underlying mechanism of the same. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to know the protective effect of ethanolic extract of TT (eTT) in Cd toxicity. In in vitro studies, total antioxidant and ferrous metal ion chelating activity of TT was studied. In vivo studies were conducted in rats. A total of 40 Wistar strain adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while group 2 to 4 received CdCl2 (3 mg/kg b. wt. s/c once a week). In addition to Cd, group 3 and 4 rats also received eTT (5 mg/kg b.wt. daily as oral gavage) and α-tocopherol (75 mg/kg daily by oral gavage), respectively. At the end of 6th week, all the rats were sacrificed and the separated testes were weighted and processed for estimation of tissue peroxidation markers, antioxidant markers, functional markers, and Cd concentration. The testes were also subjected to histopathological screening. Results: In in vitro studies, the percentage of metal ion chelating activity of 50 μg/ml of eTT and α-tocopherol were 2.76 and 9.39, respectively, and the antioxidant capacity of eTT was equivalent to 0.063 μg of α-tocopherol/μg of eTT. In in vivo studies, administration of Cd significantly reduced the absolute and relative testicular weight, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione, and functional markers such as LDH and ALP, along with significant increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in testicular tissue. Testes of Cd only-treated group showed histological insults like necrotic changes in seminiferous tubules and interstitium, shrunken tubules with desquamated basal lamina, vacuolization and destruction of sertoli cells, and degenerating Leydig cells. This group also had higher Cd levels in testicular

  12. Digital image analysis of testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogencity and heterogeneity in dogs and the relation to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Moxon, Rachel; Bright, Lucy; Pritchard, Beth; Bowen, I Mark; de Souza, Mírley Barbosa; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado; England, Gary C W

    2015-09-01

    A semi-automated ultrasonographic method was developed to measure echogenicity and heterogeneity of the testes and prostate gland and relationships of these measures with semen quality were assessed in 43 fertile dogs. The relationship between animal age and body weight upon the volume of the testes, epididymal tail volume and prostate volume were also established. Mean testicular echogenicity was negatively correlated with the percentage of morphologically normal live spermatozoa (more echogenic testes were associated with fewer normal sperm) but not with any other semen quality measure. Mean testicular heterogeneity was positively correlated with the total spermatozoal output (more heterogenous testes, being those with anechoic parenchyma and prominent echogenic stippling, were associated with greater sperm output) but not with any other semen quality measure. There was no relationship between either mean prostatic echogenicity or mean prostatic heterogeneity and any semen quality measure. There was no relationship between age and any testicular or prostatic parameter; however bodyweight was significantly correlated with total testicular volume, total epididymal tail volume and total prostatic volume. Testicular and prostatic ultrasonographic echogenicity and heterogeneity can be objectively assessed using digital image analysis and testicular echogenicity and heterogeneity may be useful adjunct measurements in a breeding soundness examination.

  13. Municipal landfill leachate-induced testicular oxidative damage is associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Awogbindin, Ifeoluwa O; Adesina, Adebayo A; Oyebiyi, Oluwatosin O; Lawal, Tajudeen A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-01-01

    Improper management of hazardous wastes adversely impacts the environment and the public health. The present study was aimed at investigating the influence of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) from Ojota in the Lagos State of Nigeria on testicular function by assessing the plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones, testicular biometal levels, and antioxidant levels as well as observing the histological alterations in testes and epididymides of rats after exposure to 0, 12.5, and 25% OMLL in drinking water for 7 days. Exposure to OMLL significantly decreased the daily fluid intake, but it resulted in testicular biometal accumulation as follows: lead > cadmium > nickel > iron > copper. Acute exposure to OMLL induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of marker enzymes of testicular function but markedly decreased the circulatory concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Testicular and epididymal degeneration with significant decrease in sperm quality and quantity were observed in OMLL-exposed rats. Collectively, the data presented herein indicate that exposure to OMLL-induced testicular dysfunction associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats. If the effects can be extrapolated to humans, OMLL may present significant health implications for individuals exposed to OMLL-contaminated substances. PMID:25179371

  14. Metachronous Bilateral Testicular Leydig-Like Tumors Leading to the Diagnosis of Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    Vukina, Josip; Chism, David D.; Sharpless, Julie L.; Raynor, Mathew C.; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Funkhouser, William K.

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old male with a history of left testis Leydig cell tumor (LCT), 3-month status after left radical orchiectomy, presented with a rapidly enlarging (0.6 cm to 3.7 cm) right testicular mass. He underwent a right radical orchiectomy, sections interpreted as showing a similar Leydig cell-like oncocytic proliferation, with a differential diagnosis including metachronous bilateral LCT and metachronous bilateral testicular tumors associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (a.k.a. “testicular adrenal rest tumors” (TARTs) and “testicular tumors of the adrenogenital syndrome” (TTAGS)). Additional workup demonstrated a markedly elevated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and elevated adrenal precursor steroid levels. He was diagnosed with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency (3BHSD) type, and started on treatment. Metachronous bilateral testicular masses in adults should prompt consideration of adult presentation of CAH. Since all untreated CAH patients are expected to have elevated serum ACTH, formal exclusion of CAH prior to surgical resection of a testicular Leydig-like proliferation could be accomplished by screening for elevated serum ACTH. PMID:26351608

  15. Comparative effects of disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate against testicular toxicity in rats caused by acute exposure to cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Hiroshige; Funakoshi, Takayuki; Shimada, Hideaki; Kojima, Shoji

    1997-03-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DED) were compared for their protective effects against the testicular toxicity induced by acute exposure to cadmium (Cd) in rats. Rats were injected subcutaneously with CdCl{sub 2} [26.7 {mu}mol (3 mg) Cd/kg], and 30 min later they were injected intraperitoneally with DSF (0.05-0.5 mmol/kg) or DED (0.1-1 mmol/kg). The treatment with DSF at dose levels of 0.1-0.5 mmol/kg prevented the increases in testicular lipid peroxidation and calcium (Ca) concentrations and the decreases in testicular weight that were observed at 7 d after Cd injection. DED at dosage levels of 0.2-1 mmol/kg likewise reduced Cd-induced testicular toxicity. An increase in testicular iron (Fe) concentrations at 7 d and sterility at 59 d after Cd injection were almost completely blocked by treatment with DSF or DED at the highest doses, but lower doses of DSF or DED were ineffective. These results indicated that DSF, which is metabolized to DED, had a protective effect against Cd-induced testicular toxicity nearly equivalent to DED at approximately one-half the dose. 37 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Effect of lead and cadmium co-exposure on testicular steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, C; Pillai, P; Nampoothiri, L P; Bhatt, N; Gupta, S; Gupta, S

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism of testicular toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is poorly understood. Previous studies focused on single metal-related changes in testicular toxicity. This study points towards the possible involvement of Pb- and Cd-induced oxidative stress in the suppression of steroidogenesis. The oxidative status of testis of adult male rats exposed to Pb acetate and cadmium acetate either alone or in combination at a dose of 0.025 mg kg(-1) body weight of metal intraperitoneally for 15 days was studied. Pb and Cd caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by elevating testicular malondialdehydes (MDA) and decrease in activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in mitochondrial and/or post-mitochondrial fraction. Activities of steroidogenic enzymes 3β and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase also decreased significantly leading to altered testosterone production. Metal-exposed groups showed significantly decreased testicular and epididymal sperm count. Epididymal sperm motility and viability was also decreased on Pb and Cd exposure. Cd exposure showed more toxic effect than lead exposure, while combined exposure demonstrated least toxicity. In vitro experiments showed that vitamin C restores steroidogenic enzyme activities, suggesting that Pb- and Cd-induced ROS inhibits the testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:21933223

  17. Protective Effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Experimental Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. PMID:25177164

  18. Municipal landfill leachate-induced testicular oxidative damage is associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats.

    PubMed

    Adedara, Isaac A; Awogbindin, Ifeoluwa O; Adesina, Adebayo A; Oyebiyi, Oluwatosin O; Lawal, Tajudeen A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-01-01

    Improper management of hazardous wastes adversely impacts the environment and the public health. The present study was aimed at investigating the influence of Olushosun municipal landfill leachate (OMLL) from Ojota in the Lagos State of Nigeria on testicular function by assessing the plasma concentrations of reproductive hormones, testicular biometal levels, and antioxidant levels as well as observing the histological alterations in testes and epididymides of rats after exposure to 0, 12.5, and 25% OMLL in drinking water for 7 days. Exposure to OMLL significantly decreased the daily fluid intake, but it resulted in testicular biometal accumulation as follows: lead > cadmium > nickel > iron > copper. Acute exposure to OMLL induced oxidative stress and increased the activities of marker enzymes of testicular function but markedly decreased the circulatory concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Testicular and epididymal degeneration with significant decrease in sperm quality and quantity were observed in OMLL-exposed rats. Collectively, the data presented herein indicate that exposure to OMLL-induced testicular dysfunction associated with biometal accumulation and endocrine disruption in rats. If the effects can be extrapolated to humans, OMLL may present significant health implications for individuals exposed to OMLL-contaminated substances.

  19. Effect of lead and cadmium co-exposure on testicular steroid metabolism and antioxidant system of adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Pandya, C; Pillai, P; Nampoothiri, L P; Bhatt, N; Gupta, S; Gupta, S

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism of testicular toxicity of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) is poorly understood. Previous studies focused on single metal-related changes in testicular toxicity. This study points towards the possible involvement of Pb- and Cd-induced oxidative stress in the suppression of steroidogenesis. The oxidative status of testis of adult male rats exposed to Pb acetate and cadmium acetate either alone or in combination at a dose of 0.025 mg kg(-1) body weight of metal intraperitoneally for 15 days was studied. Pb and Cd caused an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) by elevating testicular malondialdehydes (MDA) and decrease in activities of testicular antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in mitochondrial and/or post-mitochondrial fraction. Activities of steroidogenic enzymes 3β and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase also decreased significantly leading to altered testosterone production. Metal-exposed groups showed significantly decreased testicular and epididymal sperm count. Epididymal sperm motility and viability was also decreased on Pb and Cd exposure. Cd exposure showed more toxic effect than lead exposure, while combined exposure demonstrated least toxicity. In vitro experiments showed that vitamin C restores steroidogenic enzyme activities, suggesting that Pb- and Cd-induced ROS inhibits the testicular steroidogenesis.

  20. Sertoli Cells Modulate Testicular Vascular Network Development, Structure, and Function to Influence Circulating Testosterone Concentrations in Adult Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Rebourcet, Diane; Wu, Junxi; Cruickshanks, Lyndsey; Smith, Sarah E; Milne, Laura; Fernando, Anuruddika; Wallace, Robert J; Gray, Calum D; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Mitchell, Rod T; O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Smith, Lee B

    2016-06-01

    The testicular vasculature forms a complex network, providing oxygenation, micronutrients, and waste clearance from the testis. The vasculature is also instrumental to testis function because it is both the route by which gonadotropins are delivered to the testis and by which T is transported away to target organs. Whether Sertoli cells play a role in regulating the testicular vasculature in postnatal life has never been unequivocally demonstrated. In this study we used models of acute Sertoli cell ablation and acute germ cell ablation to address whether Sertoli cells actively influence vascular structure and function in the adult testis. Our findings suggest that Sertoli cells play a key role in supporting the structure of the testicular vasculature. Ablating Sertoli cells (and germ cells) or germ cells alone results in a similar reduction in testis size, yet only the specific loss of Sertoli cells leads to a reduction in total intratesticular vascular volume, the number of vascular branches, and the numbers of small microvessels; loss of germ cells alone has no effect on the testicular vasculature. These perturbations to the testicular vasculature leads to a reduction in fluid exchange between the vasculature and testicular interstitium, which reduces gonadotropin-stimulated circulating T concentrations, indicative of reduced Leydig cell stimulation and/or reduced secretion of T into the vasculature. These findings describe a new paradigm by which the transport of hormones and other factors into and out of the testis may be influenced by Sertoli cells and highlights these cells as potential targets for enhancing this endocrine relationship.

  1. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  2. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 in the mammalian testis and their involvement in testicular torsion and autoimmune orchitis

    PubMed Central

    Lysiak, Jeffrey J

    2004-01-01

    This review will focus the roles of TNF-alpha, IL-1 alpha, and IL-1 beta in the mammalian testis and in two testicular pathologies, testicular torsion and orchitis. TNF alpha in the testis is produced by round spermatids, pachytene spermatocytes, and testicular macrophages. The type 1 TNF receptor has been found on Sertoli and Leydig cells and numerous studies suggest a paracrine mode of action for TNF alpha in the normal testis. IL-1 alpha has been reported to be produced by Sertoli cells, testicular macrophages, and possibly postmeiotic germ cells. IL-1 receptors have been reported on Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, testicular macrophages, and germ cells suggesting both autocrine and paracrine functions. While these proinflammatory cytokines have important roles in normal testicular homeostasis, an elevation of their expression can lead to testicular dysfunctions. Testicular torsion is a clinical pathology with results in testicular ischemia and surgical intervention is often required for reperfusion. A pivotal role for IL-1beta in the pathology of testicular torsion has been recently described whereby an increase in IL-1beta production after reperfusion of the testis is correlated with the activation of the stress-related kinase, c-jun N-terminal kinase, and ultimately resulting in neutrophil recruitment to the testis and germ cell apoptosis. In autoimmune orchitis, on the other hand, TNF alpha produced by T-lymphocytes and macrophages of the testis has been implicated in the development and progression of the disease. Thus, both proinflammatory cytokines, TNF alpha and IL-1, have significant roles in normal testicular functions as well as in certain testicular pathologies. PMID:15012831

  3. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular measurements and semen characteristics in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Magyar, S J; Coscarelli, K P; Grant, W E

    1989-03-01

    Blood samples and testicular measurements were obtained from 4-8 captive adult collared peccaries monthly for 18 months and from wild adult males during summer (N = 16) and winter (N = 22) seasons. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen samples were collected monthly by electroejaculation from captive males for 1 year. Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular measurements varied in a low-amplitude circannual pattern, with maximum mean testosterone concentrations in fall and winter (1150-1400 pg/ml) and minimum values in summer (500-700 pg/ml). Circannual rhythms appeared to be related to dominance. Serum testosterone levels in wild males generally were lower than in captive males, although this difference was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Semen characteristics did not exhibit a circannual rhythm. These results suggest that the male peccary remains reproductively fertile throughout the year, yet may undergo a facultative summer quiescence influenced by ambient temperature and social factors.

  4. Photoperiodic inhibition of testicular development is mediated by the pineal gland in white-footed mice

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.G.; Boshes, M.; Zucker, I.

    1982-05-01

    White-footed mice were maintained in short or long photoperiods from birth to 60 days of age (10 h vs. 14 h of light per day). Testes weights and spermatogenesis were substantially reduced in short daylengths. Pinealectomy at 5-7 days of age eliminated the suppressive effect of photoperiod on the reproductive system. However, testicular development was not retarded in intact males kept from 25 to 60 days of age in short daylengths. Exposure to short daylengths prior to 25 days of age contributes to photoperiodic inhibition of testicular development. Removal of the pineal gland did not consistently affect gonadal maturation in long photoperiods. The pineal gland transduces the effects of short daylengths on reproductive development. Some effects of long daylengths on the neuroendocrine axis of white-footed mice may also be mediated by the pineal gland.

  5. Choroidal metastases in testicular choriocarcinoma, successful treatment with chemo- and radiotherapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Choriocarcinoma is a very rare cause of ocular metastasis. Only 18 male patients have been reported on, 4 of whom survived, but with significant loss of vision. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian man, suffering from testicular choriocarcinoma with pulmonary, cerebral, renal, hepatic and osseous metastases, underwent left radical orchiectomy. While being treated with chemotherapy, he presented with loss of vision in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed bilateral non-pigmented, hemorrhagic choroidal tumours, compatible with secondary lesions. Continued chemotherapy and stereotactic radiotherapy of the skull and spine lead to full remission with excellent vision, after more than 4 years of follow up. Conclusion Testicular choriocarcinoma is an exceptional cause of choroidal metastasis, potentially asymptomatic and with specific clinical features. Radiotherapy can complement radical orchiectomy and chemotherapy, to achieve full remission and maintain good vision. PMID:22151977

  6. Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urology Association combined clinical management guidelines for testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Mohammed; Saadeddin, Ahmad; Bazarbashi, Shouki; Alkhateeb, Sultan; Alghamdi, Abdullah; Alghamdi, Khalid; Murshid, Esam; Abusamra, Ashraf; Rabah, Danny; Ahmad, Imran; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Alsharm, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    This is an update to the previously published Saudi guidelines for the evaluation, medical, and surgical management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. It is categorized according to the stage of the disease using the tumor-node-metastasis staging system 7(th) edition. The guidelines are presented with supporting evidence level, they are based on comprehensive literature review, several internationally recognized guidelines, and the collective expertise of the guidelines committee members (authors) who were selected by the Saudi Oncology Society and Saudi Urological Association. Considerations to the local availability of drugs, technology and expertise have been regarded. These guidelines should serve as a roadmap for the urologists, oncologists, general physicians, support groups, and health care policy makers in the management of patients diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:27141181

  7. An Aminopeptidase in the Drosophila Testicular Niche Acts in Germline Stem Cell Maintenance and Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cindy; Gandhi, Shiv; Biniossek, Martin L; Feng, Lijuan; Schilling, Oliver; Urban, Siniša; Chen, Xin

    2015-10-13

    Extrinsic cues from the niche are known to regulate adult stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation. Here, we report that an aminopeptidase Slamdance (Sda) acts in the Drosophila testicular niche to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) and regulate progenitor germ cell dedifferentiation. Mutations in sda lead to dramatic testicular niche deterioration and stem cell loss. Recombinant Sda has specific aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and the in vivo function of Sda requires an intact aminopeptidase domain. Sda is required for accumulation of mature DE-cadherin, and overexpression of DE-cadherin rescues most sda mutant phenotypes, suggesting that DE-cadherin is an important target of Sda. Finally, Sda is both necessary and sufficient to promote dedifferentiation during aging and recovery from genetically manipulated depletion of GSCs. Together, our results suggest that a niche factor promotes both stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell dedifferentiation.

  8. Inherited congenital normofunctional testicular hyperplasia and mental deficiency. A corroborative study.

    PubMed

    Cantú, J M; Scaglia, H E; González-Diddi, M; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Morato, T; Moreno, M E; Giner, J; Alcántar, A; Herrera, D; Pérez-Palacios, G

    1978-04-24

    Three 46,XY unrelated individuals out of 84 postpubertal male inpatients with severe mental deficiency in a psychiatric hospital were found to have megalorchidia and macrogenitosomia. One of the cases had a similarly affected brother. Endocrine studies were performed in two of the cases with similar results. Normal plasma levels of pituitary gonadotropins were found. A normal testicular function was demonstrated by the finding of normal: (a) baseline plasma testosterone levels and a significant rise following human chorionic gonadotropin administration, (b) sperm analysis, and (c) morphology and cell architecture of the testes. These results were compatible with normofunctional testicular hyperplasia confirming previous observations and allowing the definite individualization of a syndrome with mental deficiency probably due to an X-linked recessive mutation. PMID:649159

  9. Antioxidant Protective Effect of Honey in Cigarette Smoke-Induced Testicular Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mahaneem; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Jaafar, Hasnan; Sirajudeen, Kuttulebbai Nainamohamed Salam

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) can cause testicular damage and we investigated the possible protective effect of honey against CS-induced testicular damage and oxidative stress in rats. CS exposure (8 min, 3 times daily) and honey supplementation (1.2 g/kg daily) were given for 13 weeks. Rats exposed to CS significantly had smaller seminiferous tubules diameter and epithelial height, lower Leydig cell count and increased percentage of tubules with germ cell loss. CS also produced increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as reduced total antioxidant status (TAS) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). However, supplementation of honey significantly reduced histological changes and TBARS level, increased TAS level, as well as significantly restored activities of GPx, SOD and CAT in rat testis. These findings may suggest that honey has a protective effect against damage and oxidative stress induced by CS in rat testis. PMID:22016605

  10. Cadmium effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lafuente, A; Márquez, N; Pérez-Lorenzo, M; Pazo, D; Esquifino, A I

    2001-06-01

    This study analyzes cadmium effects at the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. Male rats were given cadmium during puberty or adulthood. Cadmium exposure through puberty increased norepinephrine content in all hypothalamic areas studied, but not in the median eminence. Metal exposure increased serotonin turnover in median eminence and the anterior hypothalamus, while decreased it in mediobasal hypothalamus. Also, decreased plasma levels of testosterone were found. Cadmium exposure during adulthood increased norepinephrine content in posterior hypothalamus and decreased the neuro-transmitter content in anterior and mediobasal hypothalamus. Decreased circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone and increased plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were also observed. Cadmium accumulated in all analyzed tissues. Various parameters showed age-dependent changes. These data suggest that cadmium globally effects hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function by acting at the three levels analyzed and that an interaction between cadmium exposure and age emerge.

  11. Exposure to Endosulfan can result in male infertility due to testicular atrophy and reduced sperm count

    PubMed Central

    Sebastian, R; Raghavan, SC

    2015-01-01

    Endosulfan (ES) is a widely used organochlorine pesticide and is speculated to be detrimental to human health. However, very little is known about mechanism of its genotoxicity. Using mouse model system, we show that exposure to ES affected physiology and cellular architecture of organs and tissues. Among all organs, damage to testes was extensive and it resulted in death of different testicular-cell populations. We find that the damage in testes resulted in qualitative and quantitative defects during spermatogenesis in a time-dependent manner, increasing epididymal reactive oxygen species levels, affecting sperm chromatin integrity. This further culminated in reduced number of epididymal sperms and actively motile sperms. Finally, we show that ES exposure affected fertility in male but not in female mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that ES exerts pathophysiological changes in mice, induces testicular atrophy, affects spermatogenesis, reduces quantity and vigour of epididymal sperm and leads to infertility in males. PMID:27551453

  12. [Fertility preservation in boys: spermatogonial stem cell transplantation and testicular grafting].

    PubMed

    Goossens, E; Tournaye, H

    2013-09-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSC) are the founder cells of spermatogenesis and are responsible for the lifelong production of spermatozoa. The cryopreservation and transplantation of these cells has been proposed as a fertility preservation strategy for young boys at risk for stem cell loss, i.e. patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer or as a conditioning treatment for bone marrow transplantation. To prevent lifelong sterility in boys, two fertility restoration strategies are being developed: the injection of SSC and the grafting of testicular tissue containing SSC. Depending on the disease of the patient one of these two approaches will be applicable. Grafting has the advantage that SSC can reside within their natural niche, preserving the interactions between germ cells and their supporting cells and may therefore be regarded as the first choice strategy. However, in cases where the risk for malignant contamination of the testicular tissue is real, e.g. leukemia, transplantation of SSC by injection is preferable over grafting. PMID:23972916

  13. Plasma absorption and ultrastructural changes of rat testicular cells induced by lindane.

    PubMed

    Suwalsky, M; Villena, F; Marcus, D; Ronco, A M

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes, for the first time, how topical application in rats of a commercial preparation of lindane widely used in public health, at similar doses and routes of administration as in humans, leads to rapid absorption and accumulation of lindane in the testes. An early peak of absorption was detected in plasma 6 h after topical treatment of male Wistar rats with a commercial preparation of 1% lindane (Plomurol). Higher plasma levels were observed after repetitive doses of 60 mg/kg b.w., the amount recommended for the treatment of scabies and pediculosis in humans in several countries. A residue level of 7.4 +/- 0.67 microg/g was found in testicular tissue 6 h after a single daily topical application for 4 consecutive days. The ultrastructural study of testicular interstitial cells exposed to dermal application of lindane (Plomurol) revealed widespread damage of a great number of Leydig cells, some of which were completely disintegrated. PMID:11204556

  14. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-06-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  15. Update in Cancer Chemotherapy: Genitourinary Tract Cancer, Part 4: Testicular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jane C.

    1988-01-01

    An update of the state of the art of cancer chemotherapeutic treatment of genitourinary tract cancer is described in this multi-part series: included are cancers of the kidney, bladder, prostate, testicle, ovary, uterus, vulva, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Part 4 is a review of treatments for cancer of the testicles. Testicular cancer is highly curable and responds well to both surgery and chemotherapy. Patients with stage I and stage II nonseminomatous germ-cell tumors may be cured by surgery alone or in combination with chemotherapy. In patients with pathologic stage II disease, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy with two courses of platinum-based combination drugs has been successful in preventing relapse. Further refinements in management and research could banish the problem of testicular cancer. PMID:3290501

  16. Ketoconazole inhibition of testicular secretion of testosterone and displacement of steroid hormones from serum transport proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, D S; Boyden, T W; Pamenter, R W; Johnson, D G; Stevens, D A; Galgiani, J N

    1983-01-01

    In vivo perfusion of canine testes with ketoconazole inhibited the stimulation of testosterone production by human chorionic gonadotropin in a dose-dependent manner. Ketoconazole also selectively displaced steroids from serum-binding globulins. Dihydrotestosterone and estradiol binding to sex hormone-binding globulin were inhibited by ketoconazole. Cortisol binding to corticosteroid-binding globulin was unaffected. The concentrations of ketoconazole that inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation of testicular androgen production and displaced sex steroids from sex hormone-binding globulin were in the range of blood levels found in patients on higher therapeutic dosage regimens. Suppression of testicular testosterone synthesis and displacement of estrogens from sex hormone-binding globulin may decrease the androgen/estrogen ratio of the blood and contribute to the development of gynecomastia that has been reported in some ketoconazole-treated patients. PMID:6301363

  17. Genetic and epigenetic analysis of monozygotic twins discordant for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Christian P; Edelman, Daniel C; Wang, Yonghong; Meltzer, Paul S; Greene, Mark H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the notion that monozygotic (identical) twins share 100% identical genetic information, genetic differences among monozygotic twin pairs do occur and can be explained by mechanisms occurring during post-zygotic events. Despite such twins being fundamentally "identical", these post-zygotic genetic changes may give rise to phenotypic differences and genetic diseases. Consequently, studies of monozygotic twin pairs discordant for specific genetic diseases represent an important tool for the identification of disease genes. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and methylation arrays to search for genetic and epigenetic differences in blood drawn from four monozygotic twin pairs discordant for testicular germ cell tumors. No consistent differences were identified. A larger twin study would be required to achieve confident discovery of very subtle differences between monozygotic twins discordant for testicular germ cell tumors. PMID:25379132

  18. An Aminopeptidase in the Drosophila Testicular Niche Acts in Germline Stem Cell Maintenance and Spermatogonial Dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Cindy; Gandhi, Shiv; Biniossek, Martin L; Feng, Lijuan; Schilling, Oliver; Urban, Siniša; Chen, Xin

    2015-10-13

    Extrinsic cues from the niche are known to regulate adult stem cell self-renewal versus differentiation. Here, we report that an aminopeptidase Slamdance (Sda) acts in the Drosophila testicular niche to maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) and regulate progenitor germ cell dedifferentiation. Mutations in sda lead to dramatic testicular niche deterioration and stem cell loss. Recombinant Sda has specific aminopeptidase activity in vitro, and the in vivo function of Sda requires an intact aminopeptidase domain. Sda is required for accumulation of mature DE-cadherin, and overexpression of DE-cadherin rescues most sda mutant phenotypes, suggesting that DE-cadherin is an important target of Sda. Finally, Sda is both necessary and sufficient to promote dedifferentiation during aging and recovery from genetically manipulated depletion of GSCs. Together, our results suggest that a niche factor promotes both stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell dedifferentiation. PMID:26440886

  19. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued. PMID:26281448

  20. [Testicular cancer: a model to optimize the radiological follow-up].

    PubMed

    Stebler, V; Pauchard, B; Schmidt, S; Valerio, M; De Bari, B; Berthold, D

    2015-05-20

    Despite being rare cancers, testicular seminoma and non-seminoma play an important role in oncology: they represent a model on how to optimize radiological follow-up, aiming at a lowest possible radiation exposure and secondary cancer risk. Males diagnosed with testicular cancer undergo frequently prolonged follow-up with CT-scans with potential toxic side effects, in particular secondary cancers. To reduce the risks linked to ionizing radiation, precise follow-up protocols have been developed. The number of recommended CT-scanners has been significantly reduced over the last 10 years. The CT scanners have evolved technically and new acquisition protocols have the potential to reduce the radiation exposure further. PMID:26152090

  1. Elevated testosterone levels in a racing horse due to an XY testicular disorder of sexual development.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Claudia; Sieme, Harald; Piechotta, Marion; Lehner, Stephanie; Merkt, Jan Carlos; Uphaus, Hubert; Klug, Erich; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-01-01

    A female thoroughbred successful in horse racing was positively tested for high testosterone values. This horse neither showed stallion-like-behaviour nor signs of ambiguous external genitalia. The karyotype of this horse was 2n = 64,XY and the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) PCR was positive. Hair samples tested for naturally testosterone revealed values normal for stallions, and tests for eight synthetic testosterone esters remained negative. The phenotype, ultrasonographic examination, hormone status, cytogenetic evaluation and molecular diagnostics lead to the diagnosis of an XY testicular disorder of sexual development (DSD) due to a complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. To our knowledge this is the first report about a thoroughbred in racing sports with an XY testicular disorder of sexual development. To date, intersex racing horses have never been described in thoroughbreds or a regulation for intersexes in regard to horse races has been issued.

  2. In vitro study of neuroendocrine regulation over the testicular development in mud crabs Scylla serrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Haihui; Huang, Huiyang; Li, Shaojing; Wang, Guizhong; Li, Qifu

    2006-06-01

    The reproductive endocrine activities of neuroendocrine organs and androgenic glands (AG) in male Scylla serrata were investigated with co-incubation technology. In vitro studies show that: (1) the AG in Stage III can significantly accelerate the development of seminiferous tubules and spermic maturation; (2) the brain, thoracic ganglia and optic ganglia have no direct influence over the testicular development; (3) the brain and thoracic ganglia can significantly promote the growth of the AG cells and highly significantly boost the ratio of Type B cells, while the optic ganglia have no such effects. It is the first time for in vitro investigations to confirm that the brain and thoracic ganglia can regulate, testicular development through AG in male crustaceans.

  3. Metastatic testicular tumor presenting as a scrotal hydrocele: An initial manifestation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    KIM, YEON WOOK; KIM, JIN WON; KIM, JEE-HYUN; LEE, JUNGSIL; LEE, EUIJAE; KIM, MOON YOUNG; YANG, HYUN KYUNG; CHANG, HYUN

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma involving the testis is a rare condition with a poor prognosis. The current study describes the case of a 69-year-old male who presented with a painful swelling of the left scrotum. Scrotal ultrasonography revealed hydroceles in the scrotal sacs, with the left one being larger in size. The patient underwent left hydrocelectomy and was eventually diagnosed with metastatic adenocarcinoma. Abdominal computed tomography, which was performed to detect the primary cancer, showed a pancreatic tail carcinoma with liver and multiple lymph node metastases, and peritoneal carcinomatosis. The patient received gemcitabine-based chemotherapy but resulted in progressive disease. This case shows that in a patient in whom a primary testicular tumor is unusual due to their age, a testicular mass or hydrocele should be a suspect for possible metastatic disease. PMID:24932235

  4. A case of testicular tuberculosis mimicking malignancy in a healthy young man

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherly; Izaguirre Anariba, Dora Ernestina; Dua, Kirandeep; Mir, Mohammad; Ankireddypalli, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis represents a form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs in the kidneys, ureters, seminal vesicles, prostate, testis, vas deferens, and epididymis. Isolated testicular involvement is unusual, and differential diagnosis includes testicular tumor, acute infection, infarction, and granulomatous infection. We report a case of a 36-year-old Ecuadorian man residing in New York, New York, who presented with a painful scrotal mass, weight loss, and purulent discharge from ulcerated lesion in scrotal area 10 years following his immigration to the United States. No other systemic symptoms were noted. Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold and radio imaging results led to the diagnosis. After extensive workup, acid fast bacilli positive cultures obtained by computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy was initiated after sensitivity tests were confirmed. Significant recovery after 3 months of directly observed therapy was accomplished. PMID:27536355

  5. The potential of mild testicular heating as a safe, effective and reversible contraceptive method for men.

    PubMed

    Mieusset, R; Bujan, L

    1994-08-01

    A preliminary assessment of the contraceptive efficacy of a daily mild increase (1-2 degrees C) in testicular temperature during waking hours is reported in nine couples using two techniques of non-surgical fixation of the testes close to the inguinal canal. With technique 1, immobilization was achieved by passing the penis and the empty scrotum through a hole made in close-fitting underwear; there was one pregnancy, from a man who stopped the heating after 7 weeks, for 42 cycles of exposure in three couples. With technique 2, immobilization was achieved by adding a ring of soft material surrounding the hole in the underwear; there was no pregnancy for 117 cycles of exposure in six couples. Reversibility and safety were assessed. These preliminary results suggest that a daily mild increase in testicular temperature could be a potential contraceptive method for men.

  6. Testicular structure in three viviparous species of teleosts in the genus Jenynsia (Anablepidae)

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, V H; Monasterio de Gonzo, G; Uribe, M C; Grier, H J

    2014-01-01

    Histological structure of the testes and development of spermatozoa in Jenynsia species is described using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The testis type is restricted spermatogonial, wherein spermatogonia are restricted to the distal ends of lobules, typical of the Atherinomorpha, and spermatogenesis is continuous throughout the year in wild-caught fish. Within the testicular lobes there are lobular germinal compartments wherein the functional units are spermatocysts, whose borders are formed by Sertoli cells. Spermatocysts may contain meiotic primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids, undergoing spermiogenesis, or spermatozoa. Spermatocysts with later stages of developing sperm are located proximal to the testicular ducts. During spermiogenesis, spermatid nuclei become elongated. As this occurs, the nucleus develops a deep, central fossa that contains the centriolar complex. As the flagellum grows, enlarging spermatid mitochondria migrate posteriorly alongside the flagellum but remain separated from it by the cytoplasmatic canal, an indentation of the plasma membrane. Between the enlarged mitochondria and plasma membrane, a sub-mitochondrial net develops. In longitudinal sections, the enlarged mitochondria are stacked in a zig-zag fashion, and in transverse sections they appear as a ring surrounding the flagellum, but separated from it by the cytoplasmic canal. Spermatozoa of the 3 jenynsiid species have an introsperm complex composed of a long mid-piece whose flagellum has a single “wing.” Within the efferent ducts and the tubular gonopodium, sperm are lightly packed in a side by side fashion which facilitates their transfer into the female reproductive tract. This study presents detailed descriptions of testicular organization and cytological characterization of the stages of spermatozoa differentiation in 3 species of Jenynsia from northwestern Argentina (J. alternimaculata, J. multidentata and J. maculata), in order

  7. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties.

  8. Rare inactivating PDE11A variants associated with testicular germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anand; Stewart, Douglas R; Faucz, Fabio R; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Bass, Sara; Vogt, Aurelie; Zhang, Xijun; Boland, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Loud, Jennifer T; Nathanson, Katherine L; McGlynn, Katherine A; Stratakis, Constantine A; Greene, Mark H; Mirabello, Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Germline inactivating mutations of isoform 4 of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 11A (coded by the PDE11A gene) have been associated with familial adrenocortical tumors and familial testicular cancer. Testicular tissue is unique in expressing all four isoforms of PDE11A. In a prior candidate gene study of 94 familial testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) subjects, we identified a significant association between the presence of functionally abnormal variants in PDE11A and familial TGCT risk. To validate this novel observation, we sequenced the PDE11A coding region in 259 additional TGCT patients (both familial and sporadic) and 363 controls. We identified 55 PDE11A variants: 20 missense, four splice-site, two nonsense, seven synonymous, and 22 intronic. Ten missense variants were novel; nine occurred in transcript variant 4 and one in transcript variant 3. Five rare mutations (p.F258Y, p.G291R, p.V820M, p.R545X, and p.K568R) were present only in cases and were significantly more common in cases vs controls (P=0.0037). The latter two novel variants were functionally characterized and shown to be functionally inactivating, resulting in reduced PDE activity and increased cAMP levels. In further analysis of this cohort, we focused on white participants only to minimize confounding due to population stratification. This study builds upon our prior reports implicating PDE11A variants in familial TGCT, provides the first independent validation of those findings, extends that work to sporadic testicular cancer, demonstrates that these variants are uncommonly but reproducibly associated with TGCT, and refines our understanding regarding which specific inactivating PDE11A variants are most likely to be associated with TGCT risk. PMID:26459559

  9. A fusional anomaly of the epididymis associated with recurrent testicular torsion.

    PubMed

    Aminu, Sani; Syed, Kamran; Gunendran, Thiru; Young, Graham

    2012-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with recurrent testicular torsion and infertility was found to have a fusional anomaly of the epididymis on scrotal exploration in which only the head of epididymis was attached to the testis, while the body and tail were completely free. He had bilateral orchidopexy, which relieved pain and recurrent torsion. He was then referred for fertility treatment. Literature search has shown that infertility is more associated with congenital anomalies of the epididymis and not with recurrent torsions.

  10. Superselective Internal Radiation With Yttrium-90 Microspheres in the Management of a Chemorefractory Testicular Liver Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Sideras, Panagiotis A.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T. Brody, Lynn A.; Siegelbaum, Robert H.; Shah, Rajesh P.; Taskar, Neeta-Pandit

    2012-04-15

    We treated a patient with biopsy-proven, chemotherapy-resistant testicular cancer liver metastasis using Y-90 selective internal radiation treatment. We chose yttrium-90 rather than surgery and ablation due to tumor location and size as well as the patient's clinical history. The result was marked tumor response by positron emission tomography and computed tomography as well as significant improvement of the patient's quality of life accompanied by a substantial decrease of his tumor markers.

  11. The effect of melatonin on procarbazine induced testicular toxicity on rats.

    PubMed

    Alp, Bilal Fırat; Kesik, Vural; Malkoç, Ercan; Yiğit, Nuri; Saldır, Mehmet; Babacan, Oğuzhan; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Poyrazoglu, Yavuz; Korkmazer, Nadir; Gulgun, Mustafa; Erdem, Onur

    2014-12-01

    Procarbazine (P) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug especially used in lymphoma treatment; however testicular toxicity is a limiting factor. Various ways of treatment were tried to preserve testicular function including hormonal treatment, antioxidant treatment, and sperm cryopreservation but resulted with low rates of satisfaction. Procarbazine is a well known agent causing sterility even in the first doses of chemotherapy. Antioxidants such as N acetylcysteine and ascorbate have been used for protective purposes and were very successful. Melatonin (M) is another powerful antioxidant and we aimed to use M for the protection of P induced testicular toxicity in this study. Procarbazine was given peroral by gavage once a week at a dose of 62.5 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks (total dose: 250 mg/kg) (P group) and in procarbazine + melatonin (PM) group, 10 mg/kg melatonin was intraperitoneally administered daily for five days a week for 4 weeks (total 20 days). The experiment ended at day 90. In the P and PM groups the testicle width, length, and weight, sperm A and sperm AB properties (Sperm A: sperms straight line progressive, Sperm B: sperms straight slow progressive, Sperm AB: Sperm A + Sperm B), spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, seminiferous tubule, and germinative layer thickness were lowered as compared with the control group. However, there were no significant differences between the P and PM groups in regard to these parameters. Melatonin preserved Sertoli cell and spermatogonia function. The testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels were also preserved. Melatonin significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and preserved the antioxidant enzyme levels such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitrite nitrate (NO2-/NO3-). Melatonin may protect testicular functions in P treated patients and is open to consideration during chemotherapy since it appears to be without any side effects. PMID:25140409

  12. International patterns and trends in testicular cancer incidence, overall and by histologic subtype, 1973-2007.

    PubMed

    Trabert, B; Chen, J; Devesa, S S; Bray, F; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates of testicular cancer in Northern European and North American countries have been widely reported, whereas rates in other populations, such as Eastern Europe, Central/South America, Asia, and Africa, have been less frequently evaluated. We examined testicular cancer incidence rates overall and by histologic type by calendar time and birth cohort for selected global populations 1973-2007. Age-standardized incidence rates over succeeding 5-year periods were calculated from volumes 4-9 of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents electronic database (CI5plus) and the newly released CI5X (volume 10) database. Annual percent change over the 35-year period was calculated using weighted least squares regression. Age-period-cohort analyses were performed and observed rates and fitted rate ratios presented by birth cohort. Incidence rates of testicular cancer increased between 1973-1977 and 2003-2007 in most populations evaluated worldwide. Of note, incidence rates in Eastern European countries rose rapidly and approached rates in Northern European countries. Rates in Central and South America also increased and are now intermediate to the high rates among men of European ancestry and low rates among men of Asian or African descent. Some heterogeneity in the trends in seminoma and nonseminoma were observed in Denmark, the United Kingdom, and among US whites, particularly in recent generations, with rapid and uniform increases in the incidence of both histologic types in Slovakia. Reasons for the rising incidence rates among European and American populations remain unexplained; however, changing distributions in the prevalence of risk factors for testicular cancer cannot be ruled out.

  13. Basal testicular testosterone production in endurance-trained men is suppressed.

    PubMed

    Hackney, A C; Szczepanowska, E; Viru, A M

    2003-04-01

    Research indicates that endurance-trained men have lower basal testosterone concentrations than age-matched sedentary control men. The physiological cause for this finding is uncertain. Therefore, we examined the peripheral component in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (H-P-T) axis in endurance-trained men to determine if their basal testicular production of testosterone was compromised. The study design was retrospective, with a case-control approach. Age-matched, trained (n=5, TRN) and sedentary control men (n=6, SED) were infused with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) to induce testicular testosterone production via subsequent luteinizing hormone elevations. Testosterone production rate was statistically analyzed with adjustments for confounding factors and compared between groups. The basal testosterone concentrations differed significantly between the TRN and SED groups [pooled mean values; 13.9 (3.0) nmol x l(-1) vs 23.4 (3.2) nmol x l(-1), P<0.05]. The testosterone production rate was significantly lower (approximately 20-30%; P<0.05) in the TRN men as compared with the SED men following GnRH infusion. It was concluded that the exogenous stimulated testicular production rate of endurance-trained men is suppressed. This finding may account, in part, for the lower circulating basal testosterone concentrations found in these men. The present evidence supports the hypothesis that endurance exercise training induces a degree of peripheral adaptation (i.e., testicle) in the H-P-T axis. Whether this adaptation in the axis is a permanent or transient phenomenon in these men remains to be determined.

  14. Regulation of testicular function in the stallion: an intricate network of endocrine, paracrine and autocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Roser, Janet F

    2008-09-01

    It is well established in many mammalian species, including the horse that normal testicular function is dependent upon a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis, which involves classic feedback mechanisms. The major HPT hormones involved in the stallion are gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), estrogens (Es) and inhibin (INH). Although prolactin (PRL) fluctuates with season in the stallion and both PRL and thyroid hormone (TH) affect reproduction in other male species, their effects on stallion reproduction have not been elucidated. Growth hormone (GH) in the stallion may be involved in sperm motility, production and secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and LH-induced testosterone release. The action of these hormones and the products involved for normal spermatogenesis require cell to cell communication within the testis. The somatic cell types, Leydig, Sertoli and peritubular myoid cells, all support germ cell development, maturation and release into the seminiferous tubule lumen. The cell to cell crosstalk involves an intricate network of paracrine-autocrine systems that support the endocrine input to modulate cell function. In other male species, researchers have demonstrated the reproductive effects of such paracrine-autocrine factors as IGF-1, transferrin, androgens, estrogens, inhibin, insulin like peptide 3 (INSL3), beta-endorphin and oxytocin. The specific nature and relative contribution of these various factors on testicular function in fertile and subfertile stallions are under investigation. This review summarizes current information regarding the nature of the multiple endocrine-paracrine-autocrine systems that may be necessary for normal testicular function in the stallion.

  15. Mechanism of the testicular toxicity of boric acid in rats: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ku, W W; Chapin, R E

    1994-01-01

    High-dose boric acid (BA) exposure produces testicular lesions in adult rats characterized by inhibited spermiation (IS) that may progress to atrophy. In vivo and in vitro studies addressed possible mechanisms. In vivo, boron tissue disposition was examined, since no detailed data existed, and relevant boron concentrations for in vitro studies needed to be set. Since BA induces riboflavinuria and also affects calcium/phosphorus homeostasis, and testis zinc appears essential for normal testis function, we examined BA effects on flavin status and testis levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and zinc (Zn). Data showed that the testicular toxicity and central nervous system (CNS) hormonal effect were not due to selective boron accumulation in testis or brain/hypothalamus, with testis boron concentrations at approximately 1 to 2 mM; that riboflavin deficiency is not involved, due to both the absence of overt signs of deficiency and effects on tissue flavin content during BA exposure; and that changes in testis P, Ca and Zn levels did not precede atrophy, and are therefore unlikely to be mechanistically relevant. In vitro studies addressed the hallmarks of the BA testicular toxicity: the mild hormone effect, the initial IS, and atrophy. No effect of BA on the steroidogenic function of isolated Leydig cells was observed, supporting the contention of a CNS-mediated rather than a direct hormone effect. Since increased testicular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) produces IS, and a role for the serine proteases plasminogen activators (PAs) in spermiation has been proposed, we examined in vitro BA effects on both Sertoli cell cAMP accumulation and PA activity, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6. A Figure 6. B PMID:7889890

  16. Serum and testicular testosterone and androgen binding protein profiles following subchronic treatment with carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Rehnberg, G L; Cooper, R L; Goldman, J M; Gray, L E; Hein, J F; McElroy, W K

    1989-10-01

    While the general toxicity of the benzimidazole pesticides for mammals is low, one of these compounds, carbendazim (MBC), causes degeneration of testicular tissue and decreases spermatogenic activity at doses well below the LD50 value. A study conducted by S. D. Carter, R. A. Hess, and J. W. Laskey (1987, Biol. Reprod. 37, 709-717) showed that treatment with 400 mg/kg/day MBC resulted in severe seminiferous tubular atrophy and infertility. Since spermatogenesis is an androgen-dependent process, we characterized the effects of MBC (0-400 mg/kg/day) on the endocrine function of the rat testes. Following subchronic (85 day) exposure, serum hormones (TSH, LH, FSH, and Prl) were measured as were androgen binding protein (ABP) and testosterone in testicular fluids (interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid). In addition, the functional capacity of the Leydig cell to secrete testosterone was assessed in vitro following an hCG challenge. Subchronic treatment with MBC at doses of 50-100 mg/kg/day had no effect on pituitary or testicular hormone concentrations: 200 mg/kg/day elevated the testosterone concentration in the seminiferous tubule fluid and the ABP concentration in both the interstitial fluid and the seminiferous tubule fluid without affecting serum testosterone or ABP concentrations. The 400 mg/kg/day dose resulted in increased concentration of both testosterone and ABP in the interstitial fluid and seminiferous tubule fluid and elevated serum ABP, with no change in serum testosterone. This endocrine profile is consistent with the testicular atrophy and "Sertoli cell-only" syndrome seen in these animals as reported by Gray et al. (1987, Toxicologist 7, 717). We conclude that seminiferous tubule fluid testosterone may be a result of two factors: (1) increased interstitial fluid testosterone concentrations and (2) decreased testosterone outflow from the testis to the general circulation. Also, increased ABP in the interstitial fluid may reflect a change in

  17. Testicular disorders induced by plant growth regulators: cellular protection with proanthocyanidins grape seeds extract.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Isa, Ahmed M; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate the adverse effects of plant growth regulators : gibberellic acid (GA3) and indoleacetic acid (IAA) on testicular functions in rats, and extends to investigate the possible protective role of grape seed extract, proanthocyanidin (PAC). Male rats were divided into six groups; control group, PAC, GA3, IAA, GA3 + PAC and IAA + PAC groups. The data showed that GA3 and IAA caused significant increase in total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum, concomitant with a significant decrease in high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, total protein, and testosterone levels. In addition, there was significant decrease in the activity of alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase. A significant decrease was detected also in epididymyal fructose along with a significant reduction in sperm count. Testicular lipid peroxidation product and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels were significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, sulphahydryl group content, as well as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity were significantly decreased. Moreover, there were a number of histopathological testicular changes including Leydig's cell degeneration, reduction in seminiferous tubule and necrotic symptoms and sperm degeneration in both GA3- and IAA-treated rats. However, an obvious recovery of all the above biochemical and histological testicular disorders was detected when PAC seed extract was supplemented to rats administered with GA3 or IAA indicating its protective effect. Therefore it was concluded that supplementation with PAC had ameliorative effects on those adverse effects of the mentioned plant growth regulators through its natural antioxidant properties. PMID:23292365

  18. Therapeutic effects of quercetin against bisphenol A induced testicular damage in male Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jahan, Sarwat; Ain, Qurat Ul; Ullah, Hizb

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate protective effects of quercetin against bisphenol A (BPA) induced testicular toxicity in male Sprague Dawley rats. Twenty adult male rats were divided into four groups. The first group served as the control and was provided with normal saline. The second group of rats was treated with 50 mg/kg of BPA dissolved in alcoholic saline. The third group received oral gavage of 50 mg/kg quercetin while the fourth group was treated with quercetin (50 mg/kg) along with BPA (50 mg/kg). All of the treatments were carried out for 52 days. Testicular tissues and epididymis were used for histology while blood plasma was used for hormonal and biochemical analysis. BPA administration resulted in a significant reduction in seminiferous tubule diameter and epithelial height with impaired spermatogenesis. Quercetin treatment resulted in restoration of spermatogenesis and reversal of histological damage. In addition, BPA treatment significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma testosterone level (ng/ml) while estrogen was not affected. Similarly, BPA caused a significant alteration in the lipid profile. Interestingly, quercetin treatment led to a marked increase in plasma testosterone, decrease in estrogen concentration, as well as a normalized lipid profile. In conclusion, results indicated that BPA administration induces toxic effects on testis and epididymis, impairs spermatogenesis, with an imbalance in hormonal levels and lipid profile while quercetin amended these toxic effects by restoring normal spermatogenesis, testicular tissue damage, and hormonal levels. This suggests that quercetin may be a potential therapeutic against BPA induced testicular toxicity. PMID:26787223

  19. Levonorgestrel enhances spermatogenesis suppression by testosterone with greater alteration in testicular gene expression in men.

    PubMed

    Lue, YanHe; Wang, Christina; Cui, YuGui; Wang, XingHai; Sha, JiaHao; Zhou, ZuoMin; Xu, Jun; Wang, Charles; Hikim, Amiya P Sinha; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2009-03-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that combined treatment of testosterone with a progestin induces a more rapid and greater suppression of spermatogenesis than testosterone treatment alone. We hypothesized that the suppressive effects of the combination of testosterone undecanoate (TU) injections plus oral levonorgestrel (LNG) on spermatogenesis may be mediated through a greater perturbation of testicular gene expression than TU alone. To test this hypothesis, we performed open testicular biopsy on 12 different adult healthy subjects: 1) four healthy men as controls; 2) four men 2 wk after TU treatment; and 3) four men 2 wk after TU + LNG administration. RNA isolated from biopsies was used for DNA microarray using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide microarrays. Gene expression with >or=2-fold changes (P < 0.05) compared with control was analyzed using the National Institutes of Health Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery 2008 resource. The TU treatment altered the gene expression in 109 transcripts, whereas TU + LNG altered the gene expression in 207 transcripts compared with control. Both TU and TU + LNG administration suppressed gene expression of insulin-like 3; cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A1 in Leydig cells; and inhibin alpha in Sertoli cells; they increased proapoptotic transcripts BCL2-like 14, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3; and they decreased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein. In comparison with TU treatment alone, TU + LNG treatment upregulated insulin-like 6 and relaxin 1, and downregulated RNA-binding protein transcripts. We conclude that TU + LNG administration induces more changes in testicular gene expression than TU alone. This exploratory study provided a novel and valuable database to study the mechanisms of action of hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in men and identified testicular-specific molecules that may serve as potential targets for male contraceptive

  20. Testicular carcinoma in situ and nonpalpable seminoma eight years after contralateral teratocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gleich, P

    1990-08-01

    A thirty-five-year-old man had invasive seminoma and extensive carcinoma in situ in his remaining testicle eight years after orchiectomy and lymphadenectomy for Stage I teratocarcinoma. Beyond orchiectomy and hormone replacement, suitable treatment for such second neoplasms, which occur in at least 1 percent of patients, is not clear. More work also is needed to determine appropriate follow-up after treatment of the first cancer now that long-term survival of testicular cancer is the rule. PMID:2385889