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Sample records for crossing parana state

  1. Astronomy Outreach In Parana state/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.

  2. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  3. Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in the State of Parana in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrânio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2009-01-01

    Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis.

  4. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes. PMID:27032202

  5. Discovery of a Novel Diterpene in Brown Propolis from the State of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shigemi; Arai, Yasuko; Hotta, Sho; Mitsui, Taichi; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Ichihara, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous substance collected by honeybees from certain plant sources. The components of propolis depend on the vegetation of the area in which apiculture is practiced. In Brazil, there are several types of propolis including 'green,' 'red' and 'brown'. Brazilian brown propolis from the state of Parana characteristically includes diterpenes, and we discovered a novel clerodane diterpene, rel-(5S,6S,8R,9R,10S,18R,19S)-18,19-epoxy-2-oxocleroda-3,12(E),14- triene-6,18,19-triol 18,19-diacetate 6-benzoate (3) and five known diterpenes (1, 2, 4, 5 and 6). The chemical structure of the novel diterpene 3 was determined using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the activities of the isolated diterpenes on growth inhibition of several human cancer cell lines (LNCaP, MCF-7, DLD-1 and A549) were evaluated in vitro; diterpene 3 exhibited a potent inhibition of cell growth, and its activity was approximately 15 times higher than that of the other diterpenes.

  6. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  7. PHLEBOTOMINE SANDFLIES IN RURAL LOCATIONS IN THE STATE OF PARANA, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193

  8. [Phlebotomines in an area of transmission of tegumentar leishmaniasis in the northern region of Parana State, Brazil: seasonal variation and nocturnal activity].

    PubMed

    Teodoro, U; Salvia Filho, V L; de Lima, E M; Spinosa, R P; Barbosa, O C; Ferreira, M E; Silveira, T G

    1993-06-01

    In two years of phlebotomine captures in a modified forest an appreciable decrease in the size of this insect population has been observed when compared to previous data from the same locality. The captures with the Shannon light trap were made in the outlying forest of Palmital farm in Terra Boa county, Parana State, Brazil. The predominant species were Lutzomyia withmani, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedius e Lutzomyia fischeri. These insects were active from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. and the period of greatest activity varied according to the species. These species' densities were higher in the summer and autumn months. Environmental modifications may have influenced the observed changes in phlebotomine behavior.

  9. Parana River Delta in Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Parana River delta is a huge forested marshland about 20 miles northeast of Buenos Aires, Argentina. The area is a very popular tour destination. Guided boat tours can be taken into this vast labyrinth of marsh and trees. The Parana River delta is one of the world's greatest bird-watching destinations. This image highlights the striking contrast between dense forest and wetland marshes, and the deep blue ribbon of the Parana River. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on May 26, 2000. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, near infrared, and green wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  10. Search for Aqueous Minerals in Parana Valles, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talib, Saveelah; Dalton, J. B.; Moore, J. M.

    2007-10-01

    Search for Aqueous Minerals in Parana Valles, Mars S. Talib, J.B. Dalton and J.M. Moore We have performed a compositional analysis of surface deposits in Parana Valles using a combination of Mars Observer Laser Altimeter (MOLA), Mars Observer Camera (MOC), Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Emission Imaging Subsystem (THEMIS) observations. Parana Valles lies within a well-defined basin in the southern highlands and contains a well-developed watershed drainage network (Barnhart et al., 2007). The strong evidence of hydrologic activity suggests that aqueously-derived minerals may be sufficiently abundant to be detected through orbital remote sensing. We examined MOLA observations to determine locations of smaller basins within Parana, where ponding and sedimentation may have occurred. Mosaics of MOC images were then examined to identify albedo differences which could indicate mineral deposits. THEMIS night-time thermal infrared mosaics were examined to identify regions of high thermal inertia, which may be swept clear of surface dust. Finally, image cubes from TES were compiled. The TES data were culled following the method of Stockstill et al. (2005) to eliminate orbital tracks of high atmospheric dust or water ice cloud composition. A Dust Cover Index (Ruff and Christensen 2002) was computed for TES data and used to reject observations obscured by high surface dust. Once the TES image cube had been reduced, regions of interest were defined based on the areas determined likely to contain minerals of aqueous origin based on the MOLA, MOC, and THEMIS observations. A linear spectral mixture model was then applied to these spectra using the Arizona State University Thermal Emission Spectral Library (Christensen et al., 2000) to estimate mineral abundances. We found that the surface mineralogy of Parana Valles is dominated by mixtures of phyllosilicates, feldspars, olivines and pyroxenes. This is consistent with chemically-weathered basaltic material.

  11. Detection of thermophilic Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages by methods ISO 10272: 2006 in Curitiba – Parana State – Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Konell, K.; Gelinsk, M.A.; Benetti, T.M.; Abrahão, W.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the detection of Campylobacter sp. in raw chicken sausages using the methods ISO 10272-1 and ISO 10272-2. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter sp. in the samples tested was 16.67%, representing a serious risk to the health of consumers, particularly if measures guaranteeing proper cooking of foods and prevention of cross-contamination are not adopted. Furthermore, the majority of campylobacteriosis cases in humans are caused by consumption or improper handling of contaminated raw or undercooked poultry meat, which constitute the main vehicle of this infection. PMID:25763066

  12. Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Ephydridae) from Brazil with an emphasis on the faunas from the states of Parana and Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Júnior, Francisco de Assis; Mathis, Wayne Nielsen; Couri, Márcia Souto

    2014-01-10

    With more than 200 species worldwide, Hydrellia Robineau-Desvoidy is the largest genus of the family Ephydridae (Diptera). However, knowledge of this genus is much reduced in Brazil and throughout the Neotropical Region, where only 8 species are known, including one from Brazil (H. xanthocera Cresson). The objective of this study is to review the species of Hydrellia from Brazil, with an emphasis on the faunas of Paraná and Rio de Janeiro states. Six new species are described: H. bocaiuvensis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m), H. longiseta sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m),H. vilelai sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°16.6'S, 48°58.5'W, 770 m), H. simplex sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú, 25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m) e H. schneiderae sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Parque Iguaçú (25°33.4'S, 49°13.6'W, 880 m), H. similis sp. nov. (Brazil, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul, 25°14.9'S, 49°8.9'W, 890 m). Seven new registers are recorded: H. agitator (Pará), H. apalachee (Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. calverti (Amazonas and Paraná), H. cavator (Rio de Janeiro), H. tibialis (Amazonas, Paraná and Rio de Janeiro), H. vulgaris (Paraná, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and Rio de Janeiro), H. wirthi (Pará, Paraná and Santa Catarina). Together with H. xanthocera, Hydrellia now includes 14 species from Brazil.

  13. Lower Rio Parana Panaramic, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This southeast looking view shows the lower Parana River (32.0S, 59.5W) of central Argentina with floodwaters obscuring most of the valley bottom detail. The rain swollen lower 300 km of the river, that displaced some 200,000 people, even appears as an arm of the ocean. Uruguay is visible at top left and cities appear as small white patches. Buenos Aires, South America's largest city, can be seen on the south shore of Rio de la Plata.

  14. View of Parana and Paraguay Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In this photo, north is roughly toward the bottom and the view direction (toward the right side) is roughly west. When the photo is viewed the way it was taken (with west to the top), the second largest river in South America, the Parana, enters from the bottom of the view. Its major tributary, the Paraguay River, enters from the right side of the view. The combined rivers flow southwards (left) hundreds of miles to Buenos Aires and serves as a major transportation artery for countries in this part of South America. The rivers provide the boundaries between Paraguay (bottom right) and Argentina (top and left). This photograph shows a landscape dominated by plains built by rivers and the sediments of rivers. Lines of lakes in southern Paraguay represent ancient, disused courses of the Parana River. These lakes are difficult to discern except in the specific geometry of this photograph, where the sunlight is reflected off the water surface. The lighter linear zones in the bottom left qua

  15. The practice of OTC counseling by community pharmacists in Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Halila, Gerusa C.; Junior, Edson H.; Otuki, Michel F.; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to provide appropriate advice to the patient at the time of dispensing and over-the-counter (OTC) medication counseling, community pharmacists need access to current and reliable information about medicines. Brazilian pharmacists have assumed new functions such as prescribing medication, in a dependent model, based in protocols. Objective: To examine the practice of community pharmacists in a Brazilian State, focusing on OTC recommendation. Method: A cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in a state of Brazil was conducted from October 2013 to January 2014, with data collection through a pre-piloted self-administered anonymous survey via Survey Monkey® platform. Following ethical approval, the online instrument was sent to 8,885 pharmacists registered in Parana State, Brazil, focusing on professionals working in community pharmacies. The questionnaire assessed the community pharmacy setting, the search for information, the knowledge of the evidence-based practice, the important factors to consider when recommending an OTC medicine, and the pharmacist prescribing. Responses were imported into SPSS® (version 22.0) for analysis. Nonparametric tests were used to assess the association between responses and demographic information with a significance level less than 5% (p<0.05). Results: Of the pharmacists, 97.4% dispensed medications and counseled patients for a median of six hours per day. Product’s efficacy (97%) and adverse effects (62.3%) were the most important factors taken into account when counseling a nonprescription medicine. Few pharmacists knew the meaning of terms related to evidence-based health. Most respondents agreed that pharmacists have the necessary training to prescribe. Conclusion: Over-the-counter medication counseling is a daily practice among Brazilian pharmacists. Learning needs exist for community pharmacists in relation to evidence-based practice. Thus, sources of information with good evidence could be used

  16. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims. PMID:20662147

  17. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  18. Crossing the Border? Exploring the Cross-State Mobility of the Teacher Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian L.; Brown, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Due to data limitations, very little is known about patterns of cross-state teacher mobility. It is an important issue because barriers to cross-state mobility create labor market frictions that could lead both current and prospective teachers to opt out of the teaching profession. In this article, we match state-level administrative data sets…

  19. Excited state cross sections for Er-doped glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemon, Stanley A.; Lambert, Gary M.; Miniscalco, William J.; Davies, Richard W.; Hall, Bruce T.; Folweiler, Robert C.; Wei, Ta-Sheng; Andrews, Leonard J.; Singh, Mahendra P.

    1991-01-01

    Excited-state-absorption (ESA) cross sections were determined for the region between 760 and 900 nm for Er-doped fluorophosphate phosphate and silicate glasses. Measurements were performed on multimode fibers pumping at 647 nm with powers 1 . 5 Wto invert the population into the saturation regime. Over much of the 800-nm band ground-state-absorption (GSA) cross sections are equal to or greater than ESA cross sections. For comparison ESA was also measured for singlemode Al/P-doped silica fiber. The cross sections were incorporated into an amplifier model and the phosphate and fluorophosphate glasses were found to provide higher gain than silica for pumping in the 800-nm band. Photoexcited fluorozirconates were found to have substantial populations in the first four excited states and ESA transitions originating from these states are identified.

  20. Global climate change crosses state boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Changnon, S.A.

    1996-12-31

    The hot, dry summer of 1988 brought the specter of global warming a bit too close for comfort. {open_quotes}Scorching heat, not scientific models, attracted media attention,{close_quotes} says Stanley A. Changnon, senior scientist with the Illinois State Water Survey in Champaign, Illinois. Rising temperatures in the late 1980`s prompted individual states to begin to take action to curb greenhouse-gas emissions. A 1990 report by the National Governors Association identified two guiding principles for addressing climate change issues. {open_quotes}First, that energy policy must be at the center of any efforts to control greenhouse-gas emissions. Second, that state can...restrict emissions through state policies related to public utilities, land use, transportation, and even taxation,{close_quotes} Changnon says. Even if concerns for global warming prove to be overblown, states decided to act for broader economic and environmental reasons. Such initiatives not only save money, but they improve air quality and leave the nation more energy independent,{close_quotes} Changnon says.

  1. Vegetation and its relationship with geomorphologic units in the Parana River floodplain, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Z. Y.; Latrubesse, E. M.; Pereira, M. S.; Ramonell, C. G.

    2013-10-01

    The Parana River is one of the most important fluvial systems of South America and its floodplain includes the most diverse subtropical ecosystem on the continent. However, the relationship between basic aspects, such as the vegetation and geomorphology of the river floodplain, has scarcely been investigated. In this paper, the annual dynamics of vegetation in relation to the geomorphologic and hydrological characteristics of a river floodplain around 31° 30' S, are analyzed. The annual dynamics of vegetation was investigated using values of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from satellite images at two scales of spatial analysis: the first, at the geomorphologic unit level, through several transects crossing the total width of each unit and, the second, through some transects selected from each unit. Our analysis considered variables of different temporal stability (such as geomorphology, hydrology, vegetation, precipitation, and ground temperature), using scenes corresponding to two hydrological cycles of the system (2009 and 2010), which represented relatively "dry" and "humid" years. Five main geomorphologic units were identified in the floodplain of this anabranching system, which were named considering the predominant landforms and the most important (or typical) water course of each area: Bars and Islands of the Main Channel of the Parana River (BI-MCH), Scroll Bars of the Colastine Branch (SB-C), Scroll Bars of the San Javier River Channel (SB-SJ), Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Malo-Mendieta minor channels (CSL-MM), and Crevasse Splays and Levees of the Santa Fe-Coronda river channels (CSL-SFC). These major units are assembled at different general levels and with variable slopes, which partially control the permanence and other characteristics of the flood flow. The crevasse splays and river levees units were predominantly characterized by herbaceous-bushy marshy vegetation, with low mean NDVI values, while SB-C and BI

  2. Evolution of superpositions of quantum states through a level crossing

    SciTech Connect

    Torosov, B. T.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2011-12-15

    The Landau-Zener-Stueckelberg-Majorana (LZSM) model is widely used for estimating transition probabilities in the presence of crossing energy levels in quantum physics. This model, however, makes the unphysical assumption of an infinitely long constant interaction, which introduces a divergent phase in the propagator. This divergence remains hidden when estimating output probabilities for a single input state insofar as the divergent phase cancels out. In this paper we show that, because of this divergent phase, the LZSM model is inadequate to describe the evolution of pure or mixed superposition states across a level crossing. The LZSM model can be used only if the system is initially in a single state or in a completely mixed superposition state. To this end, we show that the more realistic Demkov-Kunike model, which assumes a hyperbolic-tangent level crossing and a hyperbolic-secant interaction envelope, is free of divergences and is a much more adequate tool for describing the evolution through a level crossing for an arbitrary input state. For multiple crossing energies which are reducible to one or more effective two-state systems (e.g., by the Majorana and Morris-Shore decompositions), similar conclusions apply: the LZSM model does not produce definite values of the populations and the coherences, and one should use the Demkov-Kunike model instead.

  3. Giant waves in weakly crossing sea states

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, V. P.

    2010-03-15

    The formation of rogue waves in sea states with two close spectral maxima near the wave vectors k{sub 0} {+-} {Delta}k/2 in the Fourier plane is studied through numerical simulations using a completely nonlinear model for long-crested surface waves [24]. Depending on the angle {theta} between the vectors k{sub 0} and {Delta}k, which specifies a typical orientation of the interference stripes in the physical plane, the emerging extreme waves have a different spatial structure. If {theta} {<=} arctan(1/{radical}2), then typical giant waves are relatively long fragments of essentially two-dimensional ridges separated by wide valleys and composed of alternating oblique crests and troughs. For nearly perpendicular vectors k{sub 0} and {Delta}k, the interference minima develop into coherent structures similar to the dark solitons of the defocusing nonlinear Schroedinger equation and a two-dimensional killer wave looks much like a one-dimensional giant wave bounded in the transverse direction by two such dark solitons.

  4. Zoonoses in humans from small rural properties in Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Alves, Lucimara Aparecida; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Santana, Maria Aparecida Zanella; dos Santos, Luís Roberto Alves; Carreira, Teresa; Vieira, Maria Luísa; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a serological survey for Lyme diseases, brucellosis, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis and identify the risk variables related to these zoonoses in humans living in the rural area of Jataizinho, state of Parana, Brazil. A total of 63 rural properties were surveyed. Additionally, 207 serum samples collected from these rural area inhabitants were tested for indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) and western blots (WB) were performed to detect Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato); a tamponated acidified antigen test (AAT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were used to detect antibodies of Brucella abortus; the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) was carried out to detect antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. and IFI was used to find antibodies of Toxoplasma gondii. Two of the samples (0.96%) were reactive for Lyme borreliosis, three (1.4%) for brucellosis, 25 (12.1%) for leptospirosis and 143 (69.1%) for toxoplasmosis. Although the town of Jataizinho has a human development index (IDH) that was considered to be average (0.733) in the state of Parana, the low social, economic and cultural conditions of the population from small rural properties have resulted in lack of basic information on animal health and direct or indirect contact with the various species of domestic animals, wildlife and ticks have probably contributed to the prevalence levels found. These results show the need for additional regional studies in order to determine the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases as well as their respective vectors and reservoirs so that effective prophylaxis can be administered in the human population. PMID:24159294

  5. Oil migration examples in Irati Formation, Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Espitalie, J.; Mizuta, K.; Carvalho, T.E.M.; Triguis, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The Irati Formation (Late Permian), in the Parana basin, is a source rock with high oil generating potential. The TOC contents range from 0.5 to 13% according to the quality of the organic matter. Pyrolysis analysis indicates that the area where the Irati has the highest oil-generating source rock is in the north and south of the Parana basin. In these areas petroleum potential can reach 90 kg HC/t of rock. In the central part of the basin the Irati Formation might reach a depth of about 3200 m (10,498 ft). In many wells diabase intrusions have more or less completely cooked this formation, thus generating oil or gas, and leaving residual organic matter. The phenomenon of migration into the Irati Formation has been observed in many wells. In certain places, oil is accumulated in shales embedded between intrusion levels; in other places oil is accumulated into limestone beds, intercalated in the Irati Formation. It seems safe to assume that the oil accumulated in the deeper beds resulted from the effect of thermal intrusions and also from the effects of normal burial. Oil migration occurred after diabase intrusions (Late Cretaceous) during the increasing subsidence of the basin. In the Parana basin, the Irati Formation may be compared to a drain with a lateral oil migration. Vertical migration was hindered by the lack of enough porosity and permeability in the shales above the Irati source rock. Consequently, migration and accumulation of oil above and below the formation might have resulted from changes in facies of the Irati itself, by faulting, or by fractures due to diabase intrusions.

  6. Understanding Ego States: A Prerequisite for Cross-Cultural Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hoon

    This paper argues that cross-cultural training aimed at improving cultural sensitivity and awareness is a must for students and management trainees pursuing careers with international businesses and for U.S. companies actively seeking strategic alliances with foreign partners. It further argues that understanding the ego states of the parties…

  7. Stratigraphy and reservoir potential of glacial deposits of the Itarare Group (Carboniferous-Permian), Parana basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Franca, A.B. ); Potter, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Drilling in the Parana basin of Brazil in the mid-1980s discovered gas and condensate in the Itarare Group, and showed that glacial deposits in Brazil can contain hydrocarbons. The reservoir potential of the Carboniferous-Permian Itarare Group of the basin is analyzed using new subsurface data from 20 deep wells drilled in the early to middle 1980s. Central to the analysis was the construction of over 3000 km of cross sections based on more than 100 wells, the description of more than 400 m of core, and study of 95 thin sections. Subsurface exploration and mapping of the Itarare are greatly aided by the recognition of three recently defined and described formations and four members, which are traceable for hundreds of kilometers. These units belong to three major glacial cycles in which the pebbly mudstones and shales are seals and glacially related sandstones are reservoirs. The best sandstone reservoirs in the deep subsurface belong to the Rio Segredo Member, the upper-most sandy unit of the Itarare. The Rio Segredo Member is the best petroleum target because it is overlain by thick seals and massive pebbly mudstones and shales, and because it is shallower and less compacted than underlying, more deeply buried sandstones. This member has little detrital matrix and much of its porosity is secondary, developed by carboxylic acid and CO{sub 2} generated when Jurassic-Cretaceous basalts, sills, and dikes were intruded into the Parana basin as Gondwana broke up.

  8. Geochemical Stratigraphy of Southern Parana' Lava Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzoli, A.; De Min, A.; Marques, L. S.; Nardy, A.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    Basaltic lava flows of the Paranà Large Igneous Province exhibit significant regional and stratigraphic geochemical variations. While the most notable difference concerns the dominance of low-Ti (TiO2 < 2.0 wt.%) and high-Ti types in the southern and northern part of the province, respectively, detailed analyses of lava flow sequences sampled mostly in drill cores allowed definition of six main groups of chemically distinct flow units. The chemical and possible age differences among these units were then used to define the global time-related evolution of Paranà basaltic magmatism and involvement of distinct mantle-source components. Newly sampled outcropping lava flow sequences from the southern Paranà do however only partially support this picture. Our new major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data show that high- and low-Ti basaltic flows are interlayered. In particular, Pitanga type high-Ti basalts are interlayered with Gramado and Esmeralda low-Ti basalts (these latter being present both towards the base and the top of the sequence) in Paranà State, while in Santa Caterina State Gramado flows are interlayered with Urubici-type high-Ti basalts. The interlayering of distinct basaltic magma type requires near-synchronous eruption of chemically strongly different magma types generated from clearly heterogeneous mantle sources and erupted through separated magma plumbing systems, without apparent interaction (mixing) among the distinct basalts. In conclusion, the relative timing of low- and high-Ti magma types seems to be much more complicated than previously thought, as for example Esmeralda or Pitanga basalts, previously considered as quite late and postdating Gramado basalts, are indeed synchronous with them.

  9. REGIONAL MAGNETOTELLURIC SURVEYS IN HYDROCARBON EXPLORATION, PARANA BASIN, BRAZIL.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, William D.; Saad, Antonio; Ohofugi, Walter

    1985-01-01

    The mangetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with sounding spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas. Refs.

  10. First record of Borrelia burgdorferi B31 strain in Dermacentor nitens ticks in the northern region of Parana (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Daniela Dib; Carreira, Teresa; Nunes, Mónica; Benitez, Aline; Lopes-Mori, Fabiana Maria Ruiz; Vidotto, Odilon; de Freitas, Julio Cesar; Vieira, Maria Luísa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in ticks that feed on horses used for animal traction in rural Jataizinho, Parana, Brazil. Between February and June 2008, a total of 224 ticks was collected of which 75% were identified as Dermacentor nitens and 25% as Amblyomma cajenense. To amplify B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA, the intergenic space region (ISR) between the 5S (rrf) 23S (rrl) rRNA genes was used as targets for nested-PCR. Two ticks of the D. nitens species were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. Both species showed a fragment of 184 bp, but the sequencing revealed 99.9% homology with the B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) strain B31. These results showed, for the first time, the presence of spirochete DNA infecting ticks that parasitize horses used for animal traction, in the rural municipality mentioned. In conclusion, this study opens up promising prospects for determining the infection rate of B. burgdorferi s.s. genospecies or other species in the equine population, as well as the impact of the infection rate on Lyme disease in the state of Parana. PMID:24516456

  11. 75 FR 3463 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of North...'s approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of North...

  12. 75 FR 1617 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of New...'s approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of New...

  13. Inelastic Scattering of CO with He: Polarization Dependent Differential State-to-State Cross Sections.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; Bishwakarma, Chandan Kumar; Sarma, Gautam; Parker, David H; Suits, Arthur G

    2015-12-17

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of state-to-state rotationally inelastic polarization dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) for CO (v = 0, j = 0, 1, 2) molecules colliding with helium is reported for collision energies of 513 and 840 cm(-1). In a crossed molecular beam experiment, velocity map imaging (VMI) with state-selective detection by (2 + 1) and (1 + 1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is used to probe rotational excitation of CO due to scattering. By taking account of the known fractions of the j = 0, 1, and 2 states of CO in the rotationally cold molecular beam (Trot ≈ 3 K), close-coupling theory based on high-quality ab initio potential energy surfaces for the CO-He interaction is used to simulate the differential cross sections for the mixed initial states. With polarization-sensitive 1 + 1' REMPI detection and a direct analysis procedure described by Suits et al. ( J. Phys, Chem. A 2015 , 119 , 5925 ), alignment moments are extracted from the images and the latter are compared with images simulated by theory using the calculated DCS and alignment moments. In general, good agreement of theory with the experimental results is found, indicating the reliability of the experiment in reproducing state-to-state differential and polarization-dependent differential cross sections. PMID:26473516

  14. Framed BPS states, moduli dynamics, and wall-crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjay; Yi, Piljin

    2011-04-01

    We formulate supersymmetric low energy dynamics for BPS dyons in strongly-coupled N = 2 Seiberg-Witten theories, and derive wall-crossing formulae thereof. For BPS states made up of a heavy core state and n probe (halo) dyons around it, we derive a reliable supersymmetric moduli dynamics with 3 n bosonic coordinates and 4 n fermionic superpartners. Attractive interactions are captured via a set of supersymmetric potential terms, whose detail depends only on the charges and the special Kähler data of the underlying N = 2 theories. The small parameters that control the approximation are not electric couplings but the mass ratio between the core and the probe, as well as the distance to the marginal stability wall where the central charges of the probe and of the core align. Quantizing the dynamics, we construct BPS bound states and derive the primitive and the semi-primitive wall-crossing formulae from the first principle. We speculate on applications to line operators and Darboux coordinates, and also about extension to supergravity setting.

  15. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose....

  16. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose....

  17. Total electron scattering and electronic state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, and ionization for O2, CO, and CH4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of cross sections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing these recommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upper limits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH4 should very closely equal the actual dissociation cross section.

  18. Regional magnetotelluric surveys in hydrocarbon exploration, Parana' Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, W.D.; Ohofugi, W.; Saad, A.R.

    1985-03-01

    The magnetotelluric geophysical method has been used effectively as a hydrocarbon exploration tool in the intracratonic Parana basin of South America. The 1-2 km thick surface basalts and buried diabase sills pose no problem for the magnetotelluric method because the natural electromagnetic fields used as the energy source pass easily through the basalt. Data for the regional study were taken on six profiles with soundings spaced 8 to 15 km apart. The magnetotelluric sounding data outline a linear uplift known as the Ponta Grossa arch. This major structural feature cuts across the northeast-trending intracratonic basin almost perpendicularly, and is injected with numerous diabase dikes. In the survey area, MT interpretations show that basalts have aggregate thicknesses of as much as 2 km (6,600 ft), and basement may be as much as 6 km (20,000 ft) below the surface. Over most of the basin, the basalts are covered by Upper Cretaceous to Holocene continental sediments of a few hundred meters thickness and are underlain by 2 to 4 km (6,600 to 13,100 ft) thick Paleozoic sediments with possible hydrocarbon potential. Significant electrical contrasts occur between the Permian sediments and older units, so that magnetotelluric measurements can give an indication of the regional thickness of the Permian and younger sediments to aid in interpreting hydrocarbon migration patterns and possible trap areas.

  19. 75 FR 65627 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of...'s approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of...

  20. 75 FR 69660 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Hawaii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Authorized Program Revision Approval: State of Hawaii... approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State of Hawaii's request...

  1. Total Electron Scattering and Electronic State Excitations Cross Sections for O_2, CO, and CH_4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrationalexcitation, and ionization for O_2, CO, and CH_4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of crosssections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing theserecommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upperlimits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH_4 should very closely equal the actualdissociation cross section.

  2. The Age of Parana Flood Volcanism, Rifting of Gondwanaland, and the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, Paul R.; Ernesto, Marcia; Pacca, Igor G.; Coe, Robert S.; Glen, Jonathon M.; Prevot, Michel; Perrin, Mireille

    1992-11-01

    The Parana-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced ~1.5 x 10^6 cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New 40Ar/39Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Parana flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 ± 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Parana flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  3. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS... grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to reduce collisions at...

  4. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS... grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to reduce collisions at...

  5. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS... grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this section is to reduce collisions at...

  6. Selective cross-polarization in solution state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiarparin, Elisabetta

    1998-12-01

    In two influential papers, Ernst and coworkers argued that cross-polarization, originally proposed by Hartmann and Hahn, can be very useful in isotropic liquids to transfer coherence between scalar-coupled nuclei such as protons and carbon-13 (Maudsley, A. A., Muller, L., and Ernst, R. R., 1977; J. magn. Reson ., 28, 463; Muller, L., and Ernst, R. R., 1979, Molec. Phys ., 38, 963). Unfortunately, the efficiency of cross-polarization in liquids tends to be strongly attenuated if the radiofrequency fields are not perfectly homogeneous. In this paper, it is demonstrated by experiments and simulations that imperfections in RF fields have little effect on the efficiency of magnetization transfer, provided that the RF amplitudes are comparable with the magnitudes of the heteronuclear scalar coupling constants. A comparison between selective cross-polarization and selective INEPT shows clearly that crosspolarization is more efficient. Selective cross-polarization does not require any careful calibration and is insensitive to experimental instabilities.

  7. Interface-state capture cross section—Why does it vary so much?

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J. T.; Matsuda, A.; Campbell, J. P.; Cheung, K. P.

    2015-04-20

    A capture cross section value is often assigned to Si–SiO{sub 2} interface defects. Using a kinetic variation of the charge pumping technique and transition state theory, we show that the value of capture cross section is extremely sensitive to the measurement approach and does not provide any meaningful insight into the physics involved. We argue that capture cross section is neither a physical property of interface defects nor is there any need to assign capture cross section values.

  8. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  9. 75 FR 983 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Approved Program Revision/Modification Approvals...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of ] title 40... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule State Approved Program Revision/Modification Approvals... announces EPA's approval, under regulations for Cross-Media Electronic Reporting, of the State...

  10. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  11. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  12. Neutron Fission of 235,237,239U and 241,243Pu: Cross Sections, Integral Cross Sections and Cross Sections on Excited States

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Britt, H C

    2003-07-10

    In a recent paper submitted to Phys. Rev. C they have presented estimates for (n,f) cross sections on a series of Thorium, Uranium and Plutonium isotopes over the range E{sub n} = 0.1-2.5 MeV. The (n,f) cross sections for many of these isotopes are difficult or impossible to measure in the laboratory. The cross sections were obtained from previous (t,pf) reaction data invoking a model which takes into account the differences between (t,pf) and (n,f) reaction processes, and which includes improved estimates for the neutron compound formation process. The purpose of this note is: (1) to compare the estimated cross sections to current data files in both ENDF and ENDL databases; (2) to estimate ratios of cross sections relatively to {sup 235}U integrated over the ''tamped flattop'' critical assembly spectrum that was used in the earlier {sup 237}U report; and (3) to show the effect on the integral cross sections when the neutron capturing state is an excited rotational state or an isomer. The isomer and excited state results are shown for {sup 235}U and {sup 237}U.

  13. Triplet state photochemistry and the three-state crossing of acetophenone within time-dependent density-functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huix-Rotllant, Miquel Ferré, Nicolas

    2014-04-07

    Even though time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) works generally well for describing excited states energies and properties in the Franck-Condon region, it can dramatically fail in predicting photochemistry, notably when electronic state crossings occur. Here, we assess the ability of TDDFT to describe the photochemistry of an important class of triplet sensitizers, namely, aromatic ketones. We take acetophenone as a test molecule, for which accurate ab initio results exist in the literature. Triplet acetophenone is generated thanks to an exotic three-state crossing involving one singlet and two triplets states (i.e., a simultaneous intersystem crossing and triplet conical intersection), thus being a stringent test for approximate TDDFT. We show that most exchange-correlation functionals can only give a semi-qualitative picture of the overall photochemistry, in which the three-state crossing is rather represented as a triplet conical intersection separated from the intersystem crossing. The best result overall is given by the double hybrid functional mPW2PLYP, which is even able to reproduce quantitatively the three-state crossing region. We rationalize this results by noting that double hybrid functionals include a larger portion of double excitation character to the excited states.

  14. Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ralchenko, Yu. Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de

    2008-07-15

    Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n{<=}4 are treated individually, while the states with n{>=}5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n{>=}5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form.

  15. Quantum teleportation of a generic two-photon state with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli

    2016-08-01

    We present a scheme for teleporting a generic two-photon polarization state by using two EPR states as quantum channel based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities. As the core component of the present framework, the quantum nondemolition detector based on the weak cross-Kerr nonlinearity acts as an EPR entangler as well as the Bell-state analyzer. This makes the teleportation protocol be achieved near deterministically and be feasible in the current experimental technology.

  16. Cross-site comparisons of state-change dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the state of a system, for example from grasslands to shrublands or from dominance by one fish species to another species, with associated changes in other parts of the system, are often irreversible. Most of these state changes bring forth negative impacts on ecosystem, resulting in alte...

  17. Identification of unavoided crossings in nonadiabatic photoexcited dynamics involving multiple electronic states in polyatomic conjugated molecules.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Roitberg, Adrian E; Nelson, Tammie; Tretiak, Sergei

    2012-07-01

    Radiationless transitions between electronic excited states in polyatomic molecules take place through unavoided crossings of the potential energy surfaces with substantial non-adiabatic coupling between the respective adiabatic states. While the extent in time of these couplings are large enough, these transitions can be reasonably well simulated through quantum transitions using trajectory surface hopping-like methods. In addition, complex molecular systems may have multiple "trivial" unavoided crossings between noninteracting states. In these cases, the non-adiabatic couplings are described as sharp peaks strongly localized in time. Therefore, their modeling is commonly subjected to the identification of regions close to the particular instantaneous nuclear configurations for which the energy surfaces actually cross each other. Here, we present a novel procedure to identify and treat these regions of unavoided crossings between non-interacting states using the so-called Min-Cost algorithm. The method differentiates between unavoided crossings between interacting states (simulated by quantum hops), and trivial unavoided crossings between non-interacting states (detected by tracking the states in time with Min-Cost procedure). We discuss its implementation within our recently developed non-adiabatic excited state molecular dynamics framework. Fragments of two- and four-ring linear polyphenylene ethynylene chromophore units at various separations have been used as a representative molecular system to test the algorithm. Our results enable us to distinguish and analyze the main features of these different types of radiationless transitions the molecular system undertakes during internal conversion. PMID:22779670

  18. Quantifying the Level of Cross-State Renewable Energy Transactions (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Beiter, P.; Flores, F.; Hurlbut, D.; Liu, C.

    2015-02-01

    This presentation and associated spreadsheet examine the level of cross-state renewable energy transactions. Most state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies allow for out-of-state renewable energy or renewable energy certificates to count towards compliance. This analysis focuses on compliance for 2012 and provides stakeholders with an understanding of the extent to which RPSs are being met.

  19. 78 FR 35030 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Nevada...

  20. 76 FR 24020 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois...

  1. 76 FR 25333 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision/Modification Approvals, State of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision/ Modification Approvals, State...

  2. 76 FR 25334 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Maryland

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Maryland...

  3. 77 FR 37039 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Delaware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes electronic reporting... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Delaware...

  4. 77 FR 25474 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Florida...

  5. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas...

  6. 78 FR 49510 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana...

  7. 77 FR 37038 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes electronic... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Illinois...

  8. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Indiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Indiana...

  9. 77 FR 65379 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes electronic... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Wyoming...

  10. 77 FR 68770 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Vermont

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Vermont...

  11. 77 FR 58131 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Mississippi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of...

  12. 78 FR 32386 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas...

  13. 76 FR 30342 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio...

  14. 76 FR 76970 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as Part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Montana...

  15. 77 FR 13123 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ..., seeh.karen@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Ohio...

  16. 77 FR 71792 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Georgia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On October 13, 2005, the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Georgia...

  17. Implementation of the Cross-border Care Directive in EU Member States: Luxembourg.

    PubMed

    Schwebag, Mike

    2014-03-01

    The Cross-border Care Directive sets up basic patient rights in case of cross-border healthcare. These rights concern both the country of affiliation and the country of treatment of the patient. The article briefly describes the state of the transposition in Luxembourg, with a focus on the draft act on patients' rights and obligations. This new act on patient rights and obligations will apply without distinction to domestic and cross-border patients, thus transposing most of Luxembourg's obligations as a country of treatment of a cross-border patient. PMID:24665671

  18. [A state of need: the Spanish Red Cross in Morocco, 1886-1927].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the central role of nation-states in the Red Cross during the interwar period. In the late nineteenth century, Spain pioneered the creation of European-style humanitarian institutions in Morocco. However, its perennial instability as a state, aggravated by the colonial disaster of 1898, put an end to the regenerationist project of a Moroccan Red Cross. When the Spanish protectorate was established in 1912, the Spanish Red Cross was overshadowed by competition from its French counterpart, the internationalization of Tangiers and resistance from the local inhabitants. This culminated in the so-called Rif War of 1921-1927, a mixture of anticolonial revolt and international war that vividly exposed the ingrained deficiencies of the Spanish State and its Red Cross. PMID:27557359

  19. Determination of differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of electronic states of molecular oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, L.; Green, M. A.; Brunger, M. J.; Teubner, P. J. O.; Cartwright, D. C.

    2000-02-01

    The development and initial results of a method for the determination of differential cross sections for electron scattering by molecular oxygen are described. The method has been incorporated into an existing package of computer programs which, given spectroscopic factors, dissociation energies and an energy-loss spectrum for electron-impact excitation, determine the differential cross sections for each electronic state relative to that of the elastic peak. Enhancements of the original code were made to deal with particular aspects of electron scattering from O{sub 2}, such as the overlap of vibrational levels of the ground state with transitions to excited states, and transitions to levels close to and above the dissocation energy in the Herzberg and Schumann-Runge continua. The utility of the code is specifically demonstrated for the ''6-eV states'' of O{sub 2}, where we report absolute differential cross sections for their excitation by 15-eV electrons. In addition an integral cross section, derived from the differential cross section measurements, is also reported for this excitation process and compared against available theoretical results. The present differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the ''6-eV states'' of O{sub 2} are the first to be reported in the literature for electron-impact energies below 20 eV. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  20. Quantum state-to-state cross sections for atom-diatom reactions: A Chebyshev real wave-packet approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Shiying; Guo Hua

    2006-08-15

    We describe the implementation of a quantum mechanical method to calculate state-to-state differential cross sections for atom-diatom reactive scattering processes. The key ingredient of this approach is the efficient and accurate propagation of a real scattering wave packet in the Chebyshev order domain, from which the S-matrix elements can be extracted. This approach is implemented with Open MP and applied to compute differential and integral cross sections for the direct H+H{sub 2} abstraction reaction and the more challenging N({sup 2}D)+H{sub 2} insertion reaction.

  1. Photoionization cross section of image potential states around nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocan, G. A.; Segui, S.; Gervasoni, J. L.; Arista, N. R.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we theoretically address the photoemission from image potential states (IPS) around nanotubes. The relevance of this process is related to the fact that this particular kind of IPS has been experimentally detected for carbon nanotubes by means of femtosecond-resolved two-photon photoemission (Zamkov et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 156803). The quantum interaction between the bound electron and the incident radiation field is considered within the dipolar approximation, and the transition matrix for the process is obtained using a first-order Born expansion. For a linearly polarized photon with the polarization vector perpendicular to the nanotube's axis, electrons are found to be emitted with a polar angle that is determined by the initial parallel momentum of the bound electron.

  2. 75 FR 2466 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...) published on November 13, 2009 (74 FR 58589), FRA proposed a rule to require the ten States with the most... Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you may visit http://www... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 234 RIN 2130-AC20 State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing...

  3. Electron-impact ionization cross sections out of the ground and excited states of cesium

    SciTech Connect

    Lukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; Reddish, T. J.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A. T.; McConkey, J. W.

    2006-09-15

    An atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionization cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom is presented. The unique feature of our method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionization cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the 'trap loss' technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionization cross sections out of the Cs state between 7 eV and 400 eV. CCC, RMPS, and Born theoretical results are also presented for both the ground and excited states of cesium and rubidium. In the low energy region (<11 eV) where best agreement between these excited state measurements and theory might be expected, a discrepancy of approximately a factor of five is observed. Above this energy there are significant contributions to the TICS from both autoionization and multiple ionization.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of nitrogen dissociation based on state-resolved cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Gang Boyd, Iain D.

    2014-01-15

    State-resolved analyses of N + N{sub 2} are performed using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. In describing the elastic collisions by a state-resolved method, a state-specific total cross section is proposed. The state-resolved method is constructed from the state-specific total cross section and the rovibrational state-to-state transition cross sections for bound-bound and bound-free transitions taken from a NASA database. This approach makes it possible to analyze the rotational-to-translational, vibrational-to-translational, and rotational-to-vibrational energy transfers and the chemical reactions without relying on macroscopic properties and phenomenological models. In nonequilibrium heat bath calculations, the results of present state-resolved DSMC calculations are validated with those of the master equation calculations and the existing shock-tube experimental data for bound-bound and bound-free transitions. In various equilibrium and nonequilibrium heat bath conditions and 2D cylindrical flows, the DSMC calculations by the state-resolved method are compared with those obtained with previous phenomenological DSMC models. In these previous DSMC models, the variable soft sphere, phenomenological Larsen-Borgnakke, quantum kinetic, and total collision energy models are considered. From these studies, it is concluded that the state-resolved method can accurately describe the rotational-to-translational, vibrational-to-translational, and rotational-to-vibrational transfers and quasi-steady state of rotational and vibrational energies in nonequilibrium chemical reactions by state-to-state kinetics.

  5. Efficient entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Wang, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes physical qubits in a logic qubit, has great application in the future quantum communication. We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for recovering less-entangled C-GHZ state into the maximally entangled C-GHZ state with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearities and photon detectors. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the obtained maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for other applications. Moreover, the ECP can be used repeatedly, which can increase the success probability largely. Based on the advantages above, our ECP may be useful in the future long-distance quantum communication.

  6. An Evaluation of the Science Education Component of the Cross River State Science and Technical Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta

    2012-01-01

    The Cross River State Science and Technical Education Project was introduced in 1992 by edict number 9 of 20 December 1991, "Cross River State Science and Technical Education Board Edit, 20 December, 1991", with the aim of improving the quality of science teaching and learning in the state. As the success of the project depends essentially on…

  7. Cross-State Mobility of the Teacher Workforce: A Descriptive Portrait. CEDR Working Paper. WP #2015-­5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldhaber, Dan; Grout, Cyrus; Holden, Kristian; Brown, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Barriers to the cross-state mobility of the teacher workforce can have undesirable effects on the teacher workforce and student outcomes. While a large literature addresses issues related to within-state mobility, very little is known about patterns of cross-state mobility. This paper addresses that research gap. We describe features of Oregon's…

  8. Geoelectrical Tomography of the Lithosphere Under the Parana Basin from Gds Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, C. E.; de Padua, M. B.; Vitorello, I.; Padilha, A. L.

    2011-12-01

    The major geoelectric architecture of the lithosphere beneath the Parana Basin, southeastern South America, is viewed past the highly conducting sedimentary layers, that attenuate to some degree the electromagnetic signal, using very long period geomagnetic array data. It is an area greater than 2 millions square kilometers, in the southern-southeastern region of Brazil and neighboring countries, hindering a clear image of the crust and particularly of the deep upper mantle. 3D models are constructed with long period magnetic data from three-channels fluxgate magnetometers that were deployed for several months during many campaigns carried out in recent years and that covered most of the basin and its borders. The field surveys were set in a grid format with approximately 50 to 100 km intervals between sites, allowing a satisfactory sounding coverage of the region. After critical analysis of the data quality and the processing, the Geomagnetic Depth Sounding (GDS) passive technique is applied to obtain the magnetic transfer functions of the region. The induction vectors show the presence of relevant conductive structures, providing a significant contribution to the understanding of the geoelectrical conductivity distribution of the lithosphere under the Parana Basin and to possible links to tectonic events in this region. Detailed 3D models of some geodynamically relevant areas are used to define key regions for magnetotelluric investigations so that both can be evaluated synergistically with other presently available geophysical data in order to unravel the tectonic evolution of the region.

  9. Acritarchs from Ponta Grossa Formation and their stratigraphic significance: Devonian of Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Dino, R.

    1983-03-01

    The Devonian fossil record in the Parana basin of Brazil is restricted to the Ponta Grossa Formation, a potential source rock unit. Paleontological studies of the macrofauna from this formation indicated an Early Devonian age. For this paper a wide range of surface samples and core samples from eight wells drilled by Pauliperto (a CESP-IPT joint venture) have been studied. Microplankton from the Devonian of the Parana basin never before described are presented here, together with their biostratigraphical and paleoecological implications. Intrabasinal and interbasinal correlations are also made. From a total of 60 species identified until now, twenty forms having well-defined stratigraphic ranges and broad (intercontinental) geographic representation are described herein. This assemblage is marked by the presence and diversity of the Subgroups Polygonomorphitae and Pteromorphitae. The Subgroup Acanthomorphitae is also well represented. The Emsian-Frasnian age previously established for the Ponta Grossa Formation through other palynological studies is further confirmed by the paleomicroplankton evidence. Moreover, the chronostratigraphic limits of these sediments may now be refined even further. Thus, depsite the presence of long-ranging forms, other species, such as Triangulina alargada, which is restricted to the Emsian in the La Vid Formation in northern Spain, allow a better chronostratigraphic subdivision of the Ponta Grossa Formation. The abundance of forms of Tasmanites together with a large quantity and diversity of microplankton provides the basis for the paleoecologic interpretations.

  10. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  11. Curriculum Review Evaluation on Entrepreneurial Education in Cross River State Higher Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambekeh, Udida Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated curriculum organization and delivery towards functional entrepreneurial education transformation of students in Higher Institutions in Cross River State -- Nigeria. To guide the conduct of this study, two research questions and one hypothesis were formulated. Proportionate stratified sampling technique was used in the…

  12. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    PubMed Central

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  13. 78 FR 77121 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of New York

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ...-Media Electronic Reporting Rule (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of New York...

  14. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  15. Academic Staff Utilization of Information and Communication Technology and Knowledge Creation in Cross River State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Etor, Comfort Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined academic staff utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in knowledge creation in universities in Cross River State. The study was guided by two research questions and one hypothesis. A questionnaire was developed, validated and used for data collection from a sample of 300 academic staff. Descriptive…

  16. Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Dennis G.; Hunt, Gilbert H.; Zhukov, Vassiliy I.; Mardahaev, Lev V.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in what constitutes effective teaching in Pre-K-12 and higher education is nearly universal. This important text explores this interest at the college and university level from a unique, international perspective. "Teaching at the University Level: Cross-Cultural Perspectives from the United States and Russia" brings to one publication…

  17. Generalized crossing states in the interacting case: The uniform gravitational field

    SciTech Connect

    Villanueva, Anthony D.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-11-15

    We reconsider Baute et al.'s free crossing states [Phys. Rev. A 61, 022118 (2000)] and show that if we require a generalization in the interacting case that goes in complete parallel with the free-particle case, then this generalized crossing state cannot be arbitrary but is determined by the null space of the particle's quantum time-of-arrival operator. Nonetheless, the free crossing states appear as the leading term in the asymptotic expansion of our generalized crossing state in the limit of large momentum. We then examine the quantum time-of-arrival problem of a spinless particle in a uniform gravitational field. Mass-dependent time-of-arrival probability distributions emerge, signifying quantum departures from the weak equivalence principle. However, in the classical limit of large mass and vanishing uncertainty in position, the mass dependence of the quantum time-of-arrival distribution becomes exponentially small and the mean quantum time of arrival reduces to the classical time of arrival.

  18. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Camille; Dotseth, Eric J; Jackson, Bryan T; Zink, Steven D; Marek, Paul E; Kramer, Laura D; Paulson, Sally L; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-04-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics.

  19. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The…

  20. Marketing Strategies and Students' Enrolment in Private Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, Chika C.; Nwafor, Innocent A.; Nwaneri, Mary G.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated marketing strategies and students' enrolment in private secondary schools in Calabar Municipality, Cross River State. One research question was raised and two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. Thirty two (32) school administrators in 32 private secondary schools in the study area constitute the study population…

  1. Engaging in cross-border power exchange and trade via the Arab Gulf states power grid

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hamish; Al-Asaad, Hassan K.

    2008-12-15

    When construction is complete in 2010, an interconnector established among the Gulf states will enhance their electricity infrastructure while increasing reliability and security of power supply. The interconnector will also foster exchanges of energy and facilitate cross-border trade. (author)

  2. Border Crossings: Undocumented Migration between Mexico and the United States in Contemporary Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies patterns in 11 English language young adult novels from the past three decades (1981-2011) which depict undocumented migration between Mexico and the United States. The increase in YA novels on this topic demonstrates rising public concern. These books offer sympathetic identification with border crossing youth. Eight of the…

  3. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. B.; da Costa, R. F.; Varella, M. T. do N.; Bettega, M. H. F.; Lima, M. A. P.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2016-04-01

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20-250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron-furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  4. Intermediate closed state for glycine receptor function revealed by cysteine cross-linking

    PubMed Central

    Prevost, Marie S.; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Van Renterghem, Catherine; Edelstein, Stuart J.; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2013-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate signal transmission by coupling the binding of extracellular ligands to the opening of their ion channel. Agonist binding elicits activation and desensitization of pLGICs, through several conformational states, that are, thus far, incompletely characterized at the structural level. We previously reported for GLIC, a prokaryotic pLGIC, that cross-linking of a pair of cysteines at both sides of the extracellular and transmembrane domain interface stabilizes a locally closed (LC) X-ray structure. Here, we introduced the homologous pair of cysteines on the human α1 glycine receptor. We show by electrophysiology that cysteine cross-linking produces a gain-of-function phenotype characterized by concomitant constitutive openings, increased agonist potency, and equalization of efficacies of full and partial agonists. However, it also produces a reduction of maximal currents at saturating agonist concentrations without change of the unitary channel conductance, an effect reversed by the positive allosteric modulator propofol. The cross-linking thus favors a unique closed state distinct from the resting and longest-lived desensitized states. Fitting the data according to a three-state allosteric model suggests that it could correspond to a LC conformation. Its plausible assignment to a gating intermediate or a fast-desensitized state is discussed. Overall, our data show that relative movement of two loops at the extracellular-transmembrane interface accompanies orthosteric agonist-mediated gating. PMID:24085847

  5. Probe of local impurity states by bend resistance measurements in graphene cross junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, J.; Li, J. Y.; Kang, N.; Lin, Li; Peng, Hailin; Liu, Zhongfan; Xu, H. Q.

    2016-06-01

    We report on low-temperature transport measurements on four-terminal cross junction devices fabricated from high-quality graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition. At high magnetic fields, the bend resistance reveals pronounced peak structures at the quantum Hall plateau transition, which can be attributed to the edge state transport through the junctions. We further demonstrate that the bend resistance is drastically affected by the presence of local impurity states in the junction regions, and exhibits an unusual asymmetric behavior with respect to the magnetic field direction. The observations can be understood in a model taking into account the combination of the edge transport and an asymmetric scatterer. Our results demonstrate that a graphene cross junction may serve as a sensitive probe of local impurity states in graphene at the nanoscale.

  6. Effect of light state transitions on the apparent absorption cross section of Photosystem II in Chlorella

    SciTech Connect

    Falkowski, P.G.; Fujita, Yoshihiko

    1986-01-01

    The distribution of excitation energy between photosystems may profoundly affect the quantum yield of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. Excitation energy absorbed by pigment molecules is transferred to reaction centers, where it may potentially drive a photochemical event. To balance the photochemical events in PSII with those in PSI, excitation energy may be transferred between PSII and PSI. This type of energy transfer has been inferred primarily in the steady state quantum yield of oxygen evolution and/or fluorescence with changes in excitation wavelength. These so called ''state transitions'' have been attributed to changes in either the absorption cross section of PSII or ''spillover'' of excitation energy between the two photosystems. We report here on measurements of relative absorption cross sections of PSII under state I and state II light conditions. We simultaneously followed the yields of O/sub 2/ and the change in fluorescence yields, ..delta.. phi, as a function of flash energy using single turnover xenon flashes. Our data suggest that the effective absorption cross section of PSII does not change within +- 10% under physiological conditions in unpoisoned Chlorella pyrenoidosa. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Single-Photon-Resolved Cross-Kerr Interaction for Autonomous Stabilization of Photon-Number States.

    PubMed

    Holland, E T; Vlastakis, B; Heeres, R W; Reagor, M J; Vool, U; Leghtas, Z; Frunzio, L; Kirchmair, G; Devoret, M H; Mirrahimi, M; Schoelkopf, R J

    2015-10-30

    Quantum states can be stabilized in the presence of intrinsic and environmental losses by either applying an active feedback condition on an ancillary system or through reservoir engineering. Reservoir engineering maintains a desired quantum state through a combination of drives and designed entropy evacuation. We propose and implement a quantum-reservoir engineering protocol that stabilizes Fock states in a microwave cavity. This protocol is realized with a circuit quantum electrodynamics platform where a Josephson junction provides direct, nonlinear coupling between two superconducting waveguide cavities. The nonlinear coupling results in a single-photon-resolved cross-Kerr effect between the two cavities enabling a photon-number-dependent coupling to a lossy environment. The quantum state of the microwave cavity is discussed in terms of a net polarization and is analyzed by a measurement of its steady state Wigner function. PMID:26565448

  8. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the X̃²A' ionic state.

    PubMed

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A; Lucchese, Robert R; Fulfer, K D; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E D; Aguilar, A A

    2014-09-01

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the X̃²A' ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν9, ν10, ν11, and ν12) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11-100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A' scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry.

  9. Dynamics of higher plant photosystem cross-section associated with state transitions.

    PubMed

    Ruban, Alexander V; Johnson, Matthew P

    2009-03-01

    Photosynthetic state transitions are a well-known phenomenon of short-term adaptation of the photosynthetic membrane to changes in spectral quality of light in low light environments. The principles of the monitoring and quantification of the process in higher plants are revised here. The use of the low-temperature excitation fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of the photosystem I antenna cross-section dynamics is described. This cross section was found to increase by 20-25% exclusively due to the migration and attachment of LHCIIb complex in State 2. Analysis of the fine structure of the additional PSI cross-section spectrum revealed the 510 nm band, characteristic of Lutein 2 of LHCIIb and present only when the complex is in a trimeric state. The excitation fluorescence spectrum of the phospho-LHCII resembles the spectrum of aggregated and hence quenched LHCII. This novel observation could explain the fact that at no point in the course of the state transition high fluorescence and long lifetime components of detached trimeric LHCII have ever been observed. In the plants lacking Lhcb1 and 2 proteins and unable to perform state transitions, compensatory sustained adjustments of the photosystem I and II antennae have been revealed. Whilst the major part of the photosystem II antenna is built largely of CP26 trimers, possessing less chlorophyll b and more of the red-shifted chlorophyll a, photosystem I in these plants contains more than 20% of extra LHCI antenna enriched in chlorophyll b. Hence, both photosystems in the plants lacking state transitions have less spectrally distinct antennae, which enable to avoid energy imbalance due to the changes in the light quality. These alterations reveal remarkable plasticity of the higher plant photosynthetic antenna design providing the basis for a flexible adaptation to the light environment.

  10. Studies of combustion reactions at the state-resolved differential cross section level

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, P.L.; Suits, A.G.; Bontuyan, L.S.; Whitaker, B.J.

    1993-12-01

    State-resolved differential reaction cross sections provide perhaps the most detailed information about the mechanism of a chemical reaction, but heretofore they have been extremely difficult to measure. This program explores a new technique for obtaining differential cross sections with product state resolution. The three-dimensional velocity distribution of state-selected reaction products is determined by ionizing the appropriate product, waiting for a delay while it recoils along the trajectory imparted by the reaction, and finally projecting the spatial distribution of ions onto a two dimensional screen using a pulsed electric field. Knowledge of the arrival time allows the ion position to be converted to a velocity, and the density of velocity projections can be inverted mathematically to provide the three-dimensional velocity distribution for the selected product. The main apparatus has been constructed and tested using photodissociations. The authors report here the first test results using crossed beams to investigate collisions between Ar and NO. Future research will both develop further the new technique and employ it to investigate methyl radical, formyl radical, and hydrogen atom reactions which are important in combustion processes. The authors intend specifically to characterize the reactions of CH{sub 3} with H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO; of HCO with O{sub 2}; and of H with CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}.

  11. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health. PMID:24849712

  12. Genotoxic effects of water from São Francisco River, Brazil, in Astyanax paranae.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron; d'Arce, Luciana Paula Grégio

    2014-09-01

    Aquatic monitoring is an important tool for identifying potential compounds in rivers that may damage the environment. Here, we evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of water samples from São Francisco River (Brazil) using the micronuclei (MN) assay in resident species, Astyanax paranae. Four seasonal collections occurred between the years 2009 and 2010, at three locations between two nearby cities in the region. It was clearly observed an increase of MN frequency in fish caught in the river. This result is most likely due to the sewage contamination from the treatment plant, the waste pesticides from crops and the lack of riparian vegetation along the river, especially during the winter when there was a significant increase in the frequencies of MN. These results indicate that compounds in waters from São Francisco River may have genotoxic effects and consequently, cause damage to the environment as well as to human health.

  13. Tuning equilibration of quantum Hall edge states in graphene - Role of crossed electric and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Sudipta; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2016-07-01

    We probe quantum Hall effect in a tunable 1-D lateral superlattice (SL) in graphene created using electrostatic gates. Lack of equilibration is observed along edge states formed by electrostatic gates inside the superlattice. We create strong local electric field at the interface of regions of different charge densities. Crossed electric and magnetic fields modify the wavefunction of the Landau Levels (LLs) - a phenomenon unique to graphene. In the region of copropagating electrons and holes at the interface, the electric field is high enough to modify the Landau levels resulting in increased scattering that tunes equilibration of edge states and this results in large longitudinal resistance.

  14. Calculation of state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for atom-diatom reactions with transition-state wave packets.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2014-06-21

    A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D2 reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.

  15. Calculation of state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for atom-diatom reactions with transition-state wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang E-mail: hguo@unm.edu; Guo, Hua E-mail: hguo@unm.edu

    2014-06-21

    A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D{sub 2} reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.

  16. Circumcision and STD in the United States: cross sectional and cohort analyses

    PubMed Central

    Diseker, R.; Peterman, T.; Kamb, M.; Kent, C.; Zenilman, J.; Douglas, J.; Rhodes, F.; Iatesta, M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: Male circumcision status has been shown to be associated with sexually transmitted disease (STD) acquisition in some, but not all, studies. Most studies have been cross sectional. Objectives: We examined the association between circumcision status and the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Methods: We analysed cross sectional and cohort study data from a multicentre controlled trial in the United States. Between July 1993 and September 1996, 2021 men visiting public inner city STD clinics in the United States were examined by a clinician at enrolment and 1456 were examined at follow up visits 6 and 12 months later. At each visit, men had laboratory tests for gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis and were examined for circumcision status. We used multiple logisitic regression to compare STD risk among circumcised and uncircumcised men adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: Uncircumcised men were significantly more likely than circumcised men to have gonorrhoea in the multivariate analyses, adjusted for age, race, and site, in both the cross sectional (odds ratio (OR), 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9 to 1.7) and in the cohort analysis (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.6). There was no association between lack of circumcision and chlamydia in either the cross sectional (OR, 1.0; 95% CI 0.7-1.4) or the cohort analysis (OR, 0.9; 95% CI 0.5-1.5). The magnitude of association between lack of circumcision and syphilis was similar in the cross sectional (OR, 1.4; 95% CI 0.6 to 3.3) and cohort analysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI 0.4 to 6.1). Conclusion: Uncircumcised men in the United States may be at increased risk for gonorrhoea and syphilis, but chlamydia risk appears similar in circumcised and uncircumcised men. Our results suggest that risk estimates from cross sectional studies would be similar to cohort findings. Key Words: circumcision; sexually transmitted diseases; United States PMID:11221132

  17. Calculation of the production cross sections of high-spin isomeric states in hafnium

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G. . Nuclear Physics Lab.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1989-01-01

    The J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +} isomeric state in {sup 178}Hf(E{sub x} = 2.447 MeV), which has a halflife of 31 years, poses a threat for serious radioactive activation problems in some fusion reactor designs if its production in 14-MeV neutron reactions is significant. The relatively high excitation energy (2.447 MeV) of this state results in it lying in the continuum region, so it is necessary in a calculation to reconstruct the salient nuclear structure around the state, particularly rotational band levels that might be populated and would feed into it. Using preequilibrium and Hauser-Feshbach statistical theories, the cross sections for this and other hafnium isomeric states are calculated and compared with experimental measurements, where available. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Preparation of nuclear spin singlet states using spin-lock induced crossing.

    PubMed

    DeVience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S

    2013-10-25

    We introduce a broadly applicable technique to create nuclear spin singlet states in organic molecules and other many-atom systems. We employ a novel pulse sequence to produce a spin-lock induced crossing (SLIC) of the spin singlet and triplet energy levels, which enables triplet-singlet polarization transfer and singlet-state preparation. We demonstrate the utility of the SLIC method by producing a long-lived nuclear spin singlet state on two strongly coupled proton pairs in the tripeptide molecule phenylalanine-glycine-glycine dissolved in D(2)O and by using SLIC to measure the J couplings, chemical shift differences, and singlet lifetimes of the proton pairs. We show that SLIC is more efficient at creating nearly equivalent nuclear spin singlet states than previous pulse sequence techniques, especially when triplet-singlet polarization transfer occurs on the same time scale as spin-lattice relaxation.

  19. Nearly deterministic preparation of the perfect W state with weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Wang, Jun-Xi; Li, Qing-Yang; Shen, Hong-Zhi; Dong, Hai-Kuan; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Oh, Choo Hiap

    2016-01-01

    Relying on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose a nearly deterministic generation scheme of the three-photon polarization-entangled perfect W state which can be applied to the perfect teleportation of an unknown single-photon state and has robust entanglement against the loss of one photon of them. Three photons entangle together by virtue of the bus function of the coherent state serving as the intermediate among them. In the scheme, three processes are executed successively and two kinds of modules are inserted into the circuit, where the homodyne measurement and the photon number measurement are aptly performed. By means of classical feedforward techniques, single-photon unitary transformation operations are performed on the corresponding photons based on the obtained measurement outcomes, by which the generation efficiency of the perfect W state aims to nearly unity. Moreover, some currently available optical elements are applied in the generation process, which offer facilities for the practical implementation.

  20. On the Separation of Bedforms by Using Robust Spline Filter and Wavelet Transform, application on the Parana River, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, R. R.; Abad, J. D.; Parsons, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    The quantification of the variability of bedform geometry is necessary for scientific and practical purposes. For the former purpose, it is necessary for modeling bed roughness cross-strata sets, vertical sorting, sediment transport rates, transition between two-dimensional and three-dimensional dunes, velocity pulsations, flow over bedforms, interaction between flow over bedforms and groundwater, and transport of contaminants. For practical purposes the study of the variability of bedforms is important to predict floods and flow resistance, to predict uplifting of manmade structures underneath a river beds, to track future changes of bedform and biota following dam removal, to estimate the relationship between bedform characteristics and biota, in river restoration, among others. Currently there is not a standard nomenclature and procedure to separate bedform features such as sand waves, dunes and ripples which are commonly present in large rivers. Likewise, there is not a standard definition of the scope for the different scales of such bedform features. The present study proposes a standardization of the nomenclature and symbolic representation of bedform features and elaborates on the combined application of robust spline filter and continuous wavelet transforms to separate the morphodynamic features. A fully automated robust spline procedure for uniformly sampled datasets is used. The algorithm, based on a penalized least squares method, allows fast smoothing of uniformly sampled data elements by means of the discrete cosine transform. The wavelet transforms, which overcome some limitations of the Fourier transforms, are applied to identify the spectrum of bedform wavelengths. The proposed separation method is applied to a 370-m width and 1.028-km length swath bed morphology data of the Parana River, one of the world's largest rivers, located in Argentina. After the separation is carried out, the descriptors (e.g. wavelength, slope, and amplitude for both

  1. Towards rotationally state-resolved differential cross sections for the hydrogen exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrakking, M.J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The hydrogen exchange reaction H + H{sub 2} {yields} H{sub 2} + H (and its isotopic variants) plays a pivotal role in chemical reaction dynamics. It is the only chemical reaction for which fully converged quantum scattering calculations have been carried out using a potential energy surface which is considered to be chemically accurate. To improve our ability to test the theory, a `perfect experiment`, measuring differential cross sections with complete specification of the reactant and product states, is called for. In this thesis, the design of an experiment is described that aims at achieving this goal for the D + H{sub 2} reaction. A crossed molecular beam arrangement is used, in which a photolytic D atom beam is crossed by a pulsed beam of H{sub 2} molecules. DH molecules formed in the D + H{sub 2} reaction are state-specifically ionized using Doppler-free (2+1) Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and detected using a Position-sensitive microchannel plate detector. This detection technique has an unprecedented single shot detection sensitivity of 6.8 10{sup 3} molecules/cc. This thesis does not contain experimental results for the D + H{sub 2} reaction yet, but progress that has been made towards achieving this goal is reported. In addition, results are reported for a study of the Rydberg spectroscopy of the water molecule.

  2. Towards rotationally state-resolved differential cross sections for the hydrogen exchange reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Vrakking, M.J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The hydrogen exchange reaction H + H[sub 2] [yields] H[sub 2] + H (and its isotopic variants) plays a pivotal role in chemical reaction dynamics. It is the only chemical reaction for which fully converged quantum scattering calculations have been carried out using a potential energy surface which is considered to be chemically accurate. To improve our ability to test the theory, a 'perfect experiment', measuring differential cross sections with complete specification of the reactant and product states, is called for. In this thesis, the design of an experiment is described that aims at achieving this goal for the D + H[sub 2] reaction. A crossed molecular beam arrangement is used, in which a photolytic D atom beam is crossed by a pulsed beam of H[sub 2] molecules. DH molecules formed in the D + H[sub 2] reaction are state-specifically ionized using Doppler-free (2+1) Resonance-Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionization (REMPI) and detected using a Position-sensitive microchannel plate detector. This detection technique has an unprecedented single shot detection sensitivity of 6.8 10[sup 3] molecules/cc. This thesis does not contain experimental results for the D + H[sub 2] reaction yet, but progress that has been made towards achieving this goal is reported. In addition, results are reported for a study of the Rydberg spectroscopy of the water molecule.

  3. Integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of vibrational and electronic states in phenol.

    PubMed

    Neves, R F C; Jones, D B; Lopes, M C A; Blanco, F; García, G; Ratnavelu, K; Brunger, M J

    2015-05-21

    We report on measurements of integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of composite vibrational modes and electronic-states in phenol, where the energy range of those experiments was 15-250 eV. There are currently no other results against which we can directly compare those measured data. We also report results from our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction computations, namely, for the inelastic ICS (all discrete electronic states and neutral dissociation) and the total ionisation ICS. In addition, for the relevant dipole-allowed excited electronic states, we also report f-scaled Born-level and energy-corrected and f-scaled Born-level (BEf-scaled) ICS. Where possible, our measured and calculated ICSs are compared against one another with the general level of accord between them being satisfactory to within the measurement uncertainties.

  4. Photoionization cross section measurements of the excited states of cobalt in the near-threshold region

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xianfeng Zhou, Xiaoyu; Cheng, Zaiqi; Jia, Dandan; Qu, Zehua; Yao, Guanxin; Zhang, Xianyi; Cui, Zhifeng

    2014-10-15

    We present measurements of photoionization cross-sections of the excited states of cobalt using a two-color, two-step resonance ionization technique in conjunction with a molecular beam time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The atoms were produced by the laser vaporization of a cobalt rod, coupled with a supersonic gas jet. The absolute photoionization cross-sections at threshold and near-threshold regions (0-1.2 eV) were measured, and the measured values ranged from 4.2±0.7 Mb to 10.5±1.8 Mb. The lifetimes of four odd parity energy levels are reported for the first time.

  5. Direct observation of intersystem crossing in a thermally activated delayed fluorescence copper complex in the solid state

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Larissa; Hedley, Gordon J.; Baumann, Thomas; Bräse, Stefan; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    2016-01-01

    Intersystem crossing in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials is an important process that controls the rate at which singlet states convert to triplets; however, measuring this directly in TADF materials is difficult. TADF is a significant emerging technology that enables the harvesting of triplets as well as singlet excited states for emission in organic light emitting diodes. We have observed the picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence of a highly luminescent, neutral copper(I) complex in the solid state that shows TADF. The time constant of intersystem crossing is measured to be 27 picoseconds. Subsequent overall reverse intersystem crossing is slow, leading to population equilibration and TADF with an average lifetime of 11.5 microseconds. These first measurements of intersystem crossing in the solid state in this class of mononuclear copper(I) complexes give a better understanding of the excited-state processes and mechanisms that ensure efficient TADF. PMID:26767194

  6. Direct observation of intersystem crossing in a thermally activated delayed fluorescence copper complex in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Larissa; Hedley, Gordon J; Baumann, Thomas; Bräse, Stefan; Samuel, Ifor D W

    2016-01-01

    Intersystem crossing in thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials is an important process that controls the rate at which singlet states convert to triplets; however, measuring this directly in TADF materials is difficult. TADF is a significant emerging technology that enables the harvesting of triplets as well as singlet excited states for emission in organic light emitting diodes. We have observed the picosecond time-resolved photoluminescence of a highly luminescent, neutral copper(I) complex in the solid state that shows TADF. The time constant of intersystem crossing is measured to be 27 picoseconds. Subsequent overall reverse intersystem crossing is slow, leading to population equilibration and TADF with an average lifetime of 11.5 microseconds. These first measurements of intersystem crossing in the solid state in this class of mononuclear copper(I) complexes give a better understanding of the excited-state processes and mechanisms that ensure efficient TADF.

  7. State-of-the-lagoon reports as vehicles of cross-disciplinary integration.

    PubMed

    Zaucha, Jacek; Davoudi, Simin; Slob, Adriaan; Bouma, Geiske; van Meerkerk, Ingmar; Oen, Amy Mp; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2016-10-01

    An integrative approach across disciplines is needed for sustainable lagoon and estuary management as identified by integrated coastal zone management. The ARCH research project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) has taken initial steps to overcome the boundaries between disciplines and focus on cross-disciplinary integration by addressing the driving forces, challenges, and problems at various case study sites. A model was developed as a boundary-spanning activity to produce joint knowledge and understanding. The backbone of the model is formed by the interaction between the natural and human systems, including economy and governance-based subsystems. The model was used to create state-of-the-lagoon reports for 10 case study sites (lagoons and estuarine coastal areas), with a geographical distribution covering all major seas surrounding Europe. The reports functioned as boundary objects to build joint knowledge. The experiences related to the framing of the model and its subsequent implementation at the case study sites have resulted in key recommendations on how to address the challenges of cross-disciplinary work required for the proper management of complex social-ecological systems such as lagoons, estuarine areas, and other land-sea regions. Cross-disciplinary integration is initially resource intensive and time consuming; one should set aside the required resources and invest efforts at the forefront. It is crucial to create engagement among the group of researchers by focusing on a joint, appealing overall concept that will stimulate cross-sectoral thinking and focusing on the identified problems as a link between collected evidence and future management needs. Different methods for collecting evidence should be applied including both quantitative (jointly agreed indicators) and qualitative (narratives) information. Cross-disciplinary integration is facilitated by functional boundary objects. Integration offers important

  8. State-of-the-lagoon reports as vehicles of cross-disciplinary integration.

    PubMed

    Zaucha, Jacek; Davoudi, Simin; Slob, Adriaan; Bouma, Geiske; van Meerkerk, Ingmar; Oen, Amy Mp; Breedveld, Gijs D

    2016-10-01

    An integrative approach across disciplines is needed for sustainable lagoon and estuary management as identified by integrated coastal zone management. The ARCH research project (Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons) has taken initial steps to overcome the boundaries between disciplines and focus on cross-disciplinary integration by addressing the driving forces, challenges, and problems at various case study sites. A model was developed as a boundary-spanning activity to produce joint knowledge and understanding. The backbone of the model is formed by the interaction between the natural and human systems, including economy and governance-based subsystems. The model was used to create state-of-the-lagoon reports for 10 case study sites (lagoons and estuarine coastal areas), with a geographical distribution covering all major seas surrounding Europe. The reports functioned as boundary objects to build joint knowledge. The experiences related to the framing of the model and its subsequent implementation at the case study sites have resulted in key recommendations on how to address the challenges of cross-disciplinary work required for the proper management of complex social-ecological systems such as lagoons, estuarine areas, and other land-sea regions. Cross-disciplinary integration is initially resource intensive and time consuming; one should set aside the required resources and invest efforts at the forefront. It is crucial to create engagement among the group of researchers by focusing on a joint, appealing overall concept that will stimulate cross-sectoral thinking and focusing on the identified problems as a link between collected evidence and future management needs. Different methods for collecting evidence should be applied including both quantitative (jointly agreed indicators) and qualitative (narratives) information. Cross-disciplinary integration is facilitated by functional boundary objects. Integration offers important

  9. The 75As(n,2n) Cross Sections into the 74As Isomer and Ground State

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W; Garrett, P E; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Ormand, W E; Dietrich, F S; Nelson, R O; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N

    2003-06-30

    The {sup 75}As(n, 2n) cross section for the population of the T{sub 1/2} = 26.8-ns isomer at E{sub x} = 259.3 keV in {sup 74}As has been measured as a function of incident neutron energy, from threshold to E{sub n} = 20 MeV. The cross section was measured using the GEANIE spectrometer at LANSCE/WNR. For convenience, the {sup 75}As(n, 2n) population cross section for the {sup 74}As ground state has been deduced as the difference between the previously-known (n, 2n) reaction cross section and the newly measured {sup 75}As(n, 2n){sup 74}As{sup m} cross section. The (n, 2n) reaction, ground-state, and isomer population cross sections are tabulated in this paper.

  10. Strain-dependent cross-bridge cycle for muscle. II. Steady-state behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D A; Geeves, M A

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative predictions of steady-state muscle properties from the strain-dependent cross-bridge for muscle are presented. With a stiffness of 5.4 x 10(-4) N/m per head, a throw distance of 11 nm, and three allowed actin sites/head, isometric properties and their dependence on phosphate and nucleotide levels are well described if the tension-generating step occurs before phosphate release. At very low ATP levels, rigorlike states with negative strain are predicted. The rate-limiting step for cycling and ATP consumption is strain-blocked ADP release for isometric and slowly shortening muscle. Under rapid shortening, ATP hydrolysis on detached heads is the rate-limiting step, and the ratio of bound ATP to bound ADP.Pi increases by a factor of 7. At large positive strains, bound heads must be forcibly detached from actin to account for tension in rapid extension, but forced detachment in shortening has no effect without destroying isometric attached states. Strain-blocked phosphate release as proposed produces modest inhibition of the ATPase rate under rapid shortening, sufficient to give a maximum for one actin site per helix turn. Alternative cross-bridge models are discussed in the light of these predictions. PMID:8527668

  11. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  12. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  13. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  14. The Effects of State R&D Tax Credits in Stimulating Private R&D Expenditure: A Cross-State Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yonghong

    2005-01-01

    This is a cross-state empirical study which examines the effects of state research and development (R&D) tax credits on private R&D expenditure in the states. Other explanatory variables include federal R&D subsidies, public services in higher education and R&D-targeted programs as well as other control variables. The statistical result shows that…

  15. Regulating the New Borderlands: An Event History Analysis of State Cross-Border Distance Higher Education Policy Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-border state distance higher education policy is a complex web of complicated and often contradictory regulations stretching across 50 states and 14 US territories. This study examined the applicability of strategic choice theory to state higher education policy innovation in the context of the adoption of polices that regulate the distance…

  16. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Factors Associated with School Bullying in Japan and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jeanne M.; Anngela-Cole, Linda; Wakita, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Researchers in both Japan and in the United States have documented that bullying is a common and potentially damaging form of violence among children. The authors' review highlights distinct cross-cultural patterns of personal, family, peer, and school characteristics that predict gender differences in bullying and victimization. Cross-cultural…

  17. Elastic positron scattering by C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Differential cross sections and virtual state formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Claudia R.C. de; Varella, Marcio T. do N; Lima, Marco A.P.; Silva, Euclimar P. da

    2003-12-01

    We present calculated elastic differential cross sections for positron-acetylene scattering, obtained by using the Schwinger multichannel method. Our results are in very good agreement with quasielastic experimental data of Kauppila et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 192, 162 (2002)]. We also discuss the existence of a virtual state (zero-energy resonance) in e{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} collisions, based on the behavior of the integral cross section and of the s-wave phase shift. As expected the fixed-nuclei cross section and annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff}) present the same energy dependence at very low impact energies. As the virtual state energy approaches zero, the magnitude of both cross section and Z{sub eff} are extremely enhanced (at zero impact energy). The possibility of shifting from a low-lying virtual state to a shallow bound state is not expected to significantly affect room-temperature annihilation rates.

  18. Preparation of circular Rydberg states in helium using the crossed-fields method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.

    2016-08-01

    Helium atoms have been prepared in the circular |n =55 ,ℓ =54 , mℓ=+54 > Rydberg state using the crossed electric and magnetic fields method. The atoms, initially traveling in pulsed supersonic beams, were photoexcited from the metastable 1 s 2 s S31 level to the outermost, mℓ=0 Rydberg-Stark state with n =55 in the presence of a strong electric field and weak perpendicular magnetic field. Following excitation, the electric field was adiabatically switched off causing the atoms to evolve into the circular state with mℓ=+54 defined with respect to the magnetic-field quantization axis. The circular states were detected by ramped electric-field ionization along the magnetic-field axis. The dependence of the circular state production efficiency on the strength of the excitation electric field, and the electric-field switch-off time was studied, and microwave spectroscopy of the circular-to-circular |55 ,54 ,+54 >→|56 ,55 ,+55 > transition at ˜38.5 GHz was performed.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117

  20. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist.

  1. Core-Level Crossing and the High-Pressure Equation of State of Heavy Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, John

    2015-06-01

    The structural properties of the 5d transition metal osmium have recently been probed at static pressures up to ~ 770 GPa. In this study, anomalies in the hcp c/a ratio were found at pressures of in the vicinity of 150 GPa and 440 GPa. The anomaly at 150 GPa approximately coincides in pressure with an electron topological transition (ETT) observed in Density Functional Theory (DFT) band structure. However, no ETT is observed at higher pressures. Instead, we find that the anomaly in the c / a ratio of osmium is correlated with the crossing of the 5p3 / 2 and 4f7 / 2 ``core'' levels, which at this pressure are found to have bandwidths ~ .2-.3 Ry, in our DFT calculations. In this talk, I discuss the calculated structural properties and calculated equation of state of osmium and other heavy 5d elements at pressures less than 1 TPa and the effect of core-level crossing on the equation of state and structural properties of these elements.

  2. Intersystem crossing rates of S1 state keto-amino cytosine at low excess energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobsiger, Simon; Etinski, Mihajlo; Blaser, Susan; Frey, Hans-Martin; Marian, Christel; Leutwyler, Samuel

    2015-12-01

    The amino-keto tautomer of supersonic jet-cooled cytosine undergoes intersystem crossing (ISC) from the v = 0 and low-lying vibronic levels of its S1(1ππ∗) state. We investigate these ISC rates experimentally and theoretically as a function of S1 state vibrational excess energy Eexc. The S1 vibronic levels are pumped with a ˜5 ns UV laser, the S1 and triplet state ion signals are separated by prompt or delayed ionization with a second UV laser pulse. After correcting the raw ISC yields for the relative S1 and T1 ionization cross sections, we obtain energy dependent ISC quantum yields QISC corr = 1 % -5%. These are combined with previously measured vibronic state-specific decay rates, giving ISC rates kISC = 0.4-1.5 ṡ 109 s-1, the corresponding S1⇝S0 internal conversion (IC) rates are 30-100 times larger. Theoretical ISC rates are computed using SCS-CC2 methods, which predict rapid ISC from the S1; v = 0 state with kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1 to the T1(3ππ∗) triplet state. The surprisingly high rate of this El Sayed-forbidden transition is caused by a substantial admixture of 1nOπ∗ character into the S1(1ππ∗) wave function at its non-planar minimum geometry. The combination of experiment and theory implies that (1) below Eexc = 550 cm-1 in the S1 state, S1⇝S0 internal conversion dominates the nonradiative decay with kIC ≥ 2 ṡ 1010 s-1, (2) the calculated S1⇝T1 (1ππ∗⇝3ππ∗) ISC rate is in good agreement with experiment, (3) being El-Sayed forbidden, the S1⇝T1 ISC is moderately fast (kISC = 3 ṡ 109 s-1), and not ultrafast, as claimed by other calculations, and (4) at Eexc ˜ 550 cm-1 the IC rate increases by ˜50 times, probably by accessing the lowest conical intersection (the C5-twist CI) and thereby effectively switching off the ISC decay channels.

  3. The influence of push-pull states on the ultrafast intersystem crossing in nitroaromatics.

    PubMed

    López-Arteaga, Rafael; Stephansen, Anne B; Guarin, Cesar A; Sølling, Theis I; Peon, Jorge

    2013-08-29

    The photochemistry of nitro-substituted polyaromatic compounds is generally determined by the rapid decay of its S1 state and the rapid population of its triplet manifold. Previous studies have shown that such an efficient channel is due to a strong coupling of the fluorescent state with specific upper receiver states in the triplet manifold. Here we examine variations in this mechanism through the comparison of the photophysics of 2-nitrofluorene with that of 2-diethylamino-7-nitrofluorene. The only difference between these two molecules is the presence of a diethylamino group in a push-pull configuration for the latter compound. The femtosecond-resolved experiments presented herein indicate that 2-nitrofluorene shows ultrafast intersystem crossing which depopulates the S1 emissive state within less than a picosecond. On the other hand, the amino substituted nitrofluorene shows a marked shift in its S1 energy redounding in the loss of coupling with the receiver triplet state, and therefore a much longer lifetime of 100 ps in cyclohexane. In polar solvents, the diethylamino substituted compound actually shows double peaked fluorescence due to the formation of charge transfer states. Evaluation of the Stokes shifts in different solvents indicates that both bands correspond to intramolecular charge transfer states in equilibrium which are formed in an ultrafast time scale from the original locally excited (LE) state. The present study addresses the interplay between electron-donating and nitro substituents, showing that the addition of the electron-donating amino group is able to change the coupling with the triplet states due to a stabilization of the first excited singlet state and the rapid formation of charge transfer states in polar solvents. We include calculations at the TD-DFT level of theory with the PBE0 and B3LYP functionals which nicely predict the observed difference between the two compounds, showing how the specific S(π-π*)-T(n-π*) coupling normally

  4. Aphidophagous parasitoids can forage wheat crops before aphid infestation, Parana State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceolin Bortolotto, Orcial; de Oliveira Menezes Júnior, Ayres; Thibes Hoshino, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    Aphid parasitoids are common in Brazilian wheat fields, and parasitize aphids at the wheat tillering stage. However, there is little information available about when this natural enemy occurs in wheat crops. This study investigated the initial occurrence of aphid parasitoids in four commercial wheat crops in northern Paraná during the 2009 crop season. We installed two Malaise traps at each wheat farm, and 400 tillers were assessed weekly in each field for aphid abundance. During this study, we captured 4,355 aphid parasitoids and 197 aphids. Three species of braconid parasitoids were identified, including Aphidius colemani (Viereck 1912), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson 1880), and Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh 1855). The aphids species identified were Rhopalosiphum padi (Linnaeus 1758) and Sitobion avenae (Fabricius 1775). This study showed that aphid parasitoids are present in wheat crops even when aphid densities are low, and in one farm, occurred before the aphids colonization. These reports can justified the high efficiency of these natural enemies against aphids in wheat fields.

  5. Oral health and welfare state regimes: a cross-national analysis of European countries

    PubMed Central

    Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol C; Tsakos, Georgios; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about the potential relationship between welfare state regimes and oral health. This study assessed the oral health of adults in a range of European countries clustered by welfare regimes according to Ferrera's typology and the complementary Eastern type. We analysed data from Eurobarometer wave 72.3, a cross-sectional survey of 31 European countries carried out in 2009. We evaluated three self-reported oral health outcomes: edentulousness, no functional dentition (<20 natural teeth), and oral impacts on daily living. Age-standardized prevalence rates were estimated for each country and for each welfare state regime. The Scandinavian regime showed lower prevalence rates for all outcomes. For edentulousness and no functional dentition, there were higher prevalence rates in the Eastern regime but no significant differences between Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, and Southern regimes. The Southern regime presented a higher prevalence of oral impacts on daily living. Results by country indicated that Sweden had the lowest prevalences for edentulousness and no functional dentition, and Denmark had the lowest prevalence for oral impacts. The results suggest that Scandinavian welfare states, with more redistributive and universal welfare policies, had better population oral health. Future research should provide further insights about the potential mechanisms through which welfare-state regimes would influence oral health. PMID:23659239

  6. Modalities of Thinking: State and Trait Effects on Cross-Frequency Functional Independent Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Milz, Patricia; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Lehmann, Dietrich; Faber, Pascal L

    2016-05-01

    Functional states of the brain are constituted by the temporally attuned activity of spatially distributed neural networks. Such networks can be identified by independent component analysis (ICA) applied to frequency-dependent source-localized EEG data. This methodology allows the identification of networks at high temporal resolution in frequency bands of established location-specific physiological functions. EEG measurements are sensitive to neural activity changes in cortical areas of modality-specific processing. We tested effects of modality-specific processing on functional brain networks. Phasic modality-specific processing was induced via tasks (state effects) and tonic processing was assessed via modality-specific person parameters (trait effects). Modality-specific person parameters and 64-channel EEG were obtained from 70 male, right-handed students. Person parameters were obtained using cognitive style questionnaires, cognitive tests, and thinking modality self-reports. EEG was recorded during four conditions: spatial visualization, object visualization, verbalization, and resting. Twelve cross-frequency networks were extracted from source-localized EEG across six frequency bands using ICA. RMANOVAs, Pearson correlations, and path modelling examined effects of tasks and person parameters on networks. Results identified distinct state- and trait-dependent functional networks. State-dependent networks were characterized by decreased, trait-dependent networks by increased alpha activity in sub-regions of modality-specific pathways. Pathways of competing modalities showed opposing alpha changes. State- and trait-dependent alpha were associated with inhibitory and automated processing, respectively. Antagonistic alpha modulations in areas of competing modalities likely prevent intruding effects of modality-irrelevant processing. Considerable research suggested alpha modulations related to modality-specific states and traits. This study identified the

  7. Curie surface of the alkaline provinces of Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP), central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes Rocha, Loiane Gomes de; Pires, Augusto César Bittencourt; Carmelo, Adriana Chatack; Oksum, Erdinc

    2015-05-01

    The study area includes the most important carbonatite and kimberlite complexes in Brazil, located in the Brazilian states of Goiás and Minas Gerais. The central portion of this area involves the Azimuth 125° lineament (Az 125°) that consists of an extensive set of faults (oriented in the NW-SE direction) that served as a conduit for magma ascent. This lineament is the main structural feature associated with these complexes. The Goiás (GAP) and Alto Paranaíba (APAP) Alkaline Provinces occur along the Az 125° and include highly economically valuable mineralizations. In this study, we aim to map the depth to the curie isotherm (or Curie Point Depths: CPD) of the study area (mainly the Gap and APAP regions) based on spectral analysis of aeromagnetic data. The CPD estimations were achieved from a spectral approach known as the centroid method, providing the relationship between the spectra of magnetic anomalies and the depths of the magnetic source of a 2-D magnetic data. The CPD estimates from approximately 500 overlapping blocks vary from 7 km to 40 km deep. The shallower depths are related to the GAP and APAP regions, and the deeper ones are related to the São Franciscana Plate. The Curie depths related to the Az 125° are between 30 km and 15.7 km deep. According to the results, the GAP and APAP intrusive bodies have shallower roots the major faults of the Az 125°.

  8. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of the silicic volcanic rocks of the Etendeka-Parana province: Source constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Milner, S.C.; Armstrong, R.A. ); Whittingham, A.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of pyroxene phenocrysts in the silicic volcanic rocks from the Cretaceous Etendeka-Parana flood basalt province (Namibia, South America) are believed to reflect the {delta}{sup 18}O values of the original magmas. The authors recognize a high {delta}{sup 18}O value type ({delta}{sup 18}O pyroxene {approximately} +10{per thousand}) found in the south of both regions, and a low {delta}{sup 18}O value type ({delta}{sup 18}O pyroxene {approximately} +6.5{per thousand}) found in the north. Other differences between thee two rhyolite types include higher concentrations of incompatible elements and lower initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in the low {delta}{sup 18}O value type. The authors suggest that the regional distribution of rhyolite types reflects differences in source composition, which can best be explained if the sources are lower crustal, Late Proterozoic mobile belt material (high {delta}{sup 18}O) and Archean lower crust (low {delta}{sup 18}O).

  9. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. PMID:17794593

  10. The age of parana flood volcanism, rifting of gondwanaland, and the jurassic-cretaceous boundary.

    PubMed

    Renne, P R; Ernesto, M; Pacca, I G; Coe, R S; Glen, J M; Prévot, M; Perrin, M

    1992-11-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka flood volcanic event produced approximately 1.5 x 10(6) cubic kilometers of volcanic rocks, ranging from basalts to rhyolites, before the separation of South America and Africa during the Cretaceous period. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar data combined with earlier paleomagnetic results indicate that Paraná flood volcanism in southern Brazil began at 133 +/- 1 million years ago and lasted less than 1 million years. The implied mean eruption rate on the order of 1.5 cubic kilometers per year is consistent with a mantle plume origin for the event and is comparable to eruption rates determined for other well-documented continental flood volcanic events. Paraná flood volcanism occurred before the initiation of sea floor spreading in the South Atlantic and was probably precipitated by uplift and weakening of the lithosphere by the Tristan da Cunha plume. The Parana event postdates most current estimates for the age of the faunal mass extinction associated with the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  11. Diet and nutrition of prehistoric populations at the alluvial banks of the Parana River.

    PubMed

    Cornero, S; Puche, R C

    2000-01-01

    This study attempts to characterize the health status and diet of prehistoric populations (1,000-2,000 years BP), dwelling at both banks of Parana River, between 29 degrees S and 32 degrees S. The data obtained suggest that these prehistoric populations had an adequate nutritional status, with complete proteins in the diet, as suggested by the ratio strontium/calcium in their bone mineral (0.71 +/- 0.04 microgram Srx1,000/mg Ca). The overall frequency of dental caries (4.9%) coincides with that reported for hunters-gatherers. The average mineral densities of the tibiae of adult subjects exhumed at two sites (males: 1.51 +/- 0.07 gr/cm2; females: 1.24 +/- 0.06 gr/cm2) suggested that they had significant bone mass, an asset compatible with adequate nutrition. In metacarpals, the amount of cortical tissue also suggests bone mass comparable to contemporaneous controls. The growth and development of the prehistoric populations studied are deemed normal as shown by the clear sexual dimorphism of their estimated heights at adult age (males: 177-183 cm; females 152-166 cm) and their bone mass. PMID:10835707

  12. Coriolis coupling effects in the calculation of state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the H+D2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Han, Ke-Li; Hankel, Marlies; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

    2007-06-01

    The quantum wavepacket parallel computational code DIFFREALWAVE is used to calculate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections for the title reaction on the BKMP2 surface in the total energy range of 0.4-1.2 eV with D2 initially in its ground vibrational-rotational state. The role of Coriolis couplings in the state-to-state quantum calculations is examined in detail. Comparison of the results from calculations including the full Coriolis coupling and those using the centrifugal sudden approximation demonstrates that both the energy dependence and the angular dependence of the calculated cross sections are extremely sensitive to the Coriolis coupling, thus emphasizing the importance of including it correctly in an accurate state-to-state calculation.

  13. Welcome to the wild west: protecting access to cross border fertility care in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mutcherson, Kimberley M

    2012-01-01

    As has been the case with other types of medical tourism, the phenomenon of cross border fertility care ("CBFC") has sparked concern about the lack of global or even national harmonization in the regulation of the fertility industry. The diversity of laws around the globe leads would-be parents to forum shop for a welcoming place to make babies. Focusing specifically on the phenomenon of travel to the United States, this Article takes up the question of whether there should be any legal barriers to those who come to the United States seeking CBFC. In part, CBFC suffers from the same general concerns raised about the use of fertility treatment in general, but it is possible to imagine a subset of arguments that would lead to forbidding or at least discouraging people from coming to the United States for CBFC, either as a matter of law or policy. This paper stands in opposition to any such effort and contemplates the moral and ethical concerns about CBFC and how, and if, those concerns warrant expression in law. Part I describes the conditions that lead some couples and individuals to leave their home countries to access fertility treatments abroad and details why the United States, with its comparatively liberal regulation of ART, has become a popular CBFC destination for travelers from around the world. Part II offers and refutes arguments supporting greater domestic control over those who seek to satisfy their desires for CBFC in the United States by reasserting the importance of the right of procreation while also noting appropriate concerns about justice and equality in the market for babies. Part III continues the exploration of justice by investigating the question of international cooperation in legislating against perceived wrongs. This Part concludes that consistent legislation across borders is appropriate where there is consensus about the wrong of an act, but it is unnecessary and inappropriate where there remain cultural conflicts about certain

  14. The effect of core level crossing on the high-pressure equation of state of osmium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wills, John

    2015-03-01

    The equation of state of the 5d transition metal osmium has been studied with a combination of experiment and theory at pressures up to 500 GPa. The experimental results show a c/a ratio increasing by approximately 1 percent over this pressure range and displaying anomalies at pressures near 180 GPa and near 400 GPa. We have use all-electron fully relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the cold equation of state and structural parameters of osmium at pressures up to 500 GPa, using one LDA and two GGA functionals. The increase in the c/a ratio agrees well with experiment, and we find anomalies, although less extreme, near the experimentally observed pressures. We find that the high pressure anomaly coincides with the crossing and hybridization of the 4f(7/2) and 5p(3/2) semi-core levels. In this talk we discuss the theoretical results and methodology and the possible implication for the equations of state of the 5d transition and actinide metals.

  15. State-Selective Capture Cross Sections in Proton-Hydrogen and Proton-Helium Collisions at Intermediate and High Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkic, Dzevad

    1989-01-01

    Total cross sections are computed for electron capture from the ground states of H and He by fast protons using the Corrected first-Born (CB1) approximation. Particular emphasis is given to the formation of atomic hydrogen in excited states 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 3d and 4s for which experimental data are available. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out, with the purpose of assessing the validity and utility of the CB1 method for prediction of state-selective cross sections.

  16. Measurement of the photoionization cross section of the 5S{sub 1/2} state of rubidium

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, J.R.; Northup, T.; Patterson, B.M.; Takekoshi, T.; Knize, R.J.

    2002-12-01

    We report the measurement of the photoionization cross section for the 5S{sub 1/2} state of rubidium, using atoms confined in a magneto-optical trap. A single-photon rate at {lambda}=266 nm was found by monitoring the decay of trap fluorescence after exposure to ionizing radiation from a quadrupled Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser. In order to eliminate excited-state ionization, the photoionization and trapping lasers were alternately chopped, so that only ground-state atoms were ionized. We determine that the photoionization cross section at {lambda}=266 nm is {sigma}=1.7(2)x10{sup -20} cm{sup 2}.

  17. Absolute state-selected and state-to-state total cross sections for the Ar sup + ( sup 2 P sub 3/2,1/2 )+CO reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Flesch, G.D.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ng, C.Y. . Ames Laboratory Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa . Department of Chemistry)

    1991-09-01

    Absolute spin--orbit state-selected total cross sections for the reactions, Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+CO{r arrow}CO{sup +}+Ar (reaction (1)), C{sup +}+O+Ar (reaction (2)), O{sup +}+C+Ar (reaction (3)), and ArC{sup +}+O (reaction (4)), have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy ({ital E}{sub c.m.}) range of 0.04--123.5 eV. Absolute spin--orbit state transition total cross sections for the Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+CO reactions at {ital E}{sub c.m.} have also been obtained. The appearance energies (AE) for C{sup +}({ital E}{sub c.m.}=6.6{plus minus}0.4 eV) and O{sup +}({ital E}{sub c.m.}=8.6{plus minus}0.4 eV) are in agreement with the thermochemical thresholds for reactions (2) and (3), respectively. The observed AE for reaction (4) yields a lower bound of 0.5 eV for the ArC{sup +} bond dissociation energy. The kinetic energy dependence of the absolute cross sections and the retarding potential analysis of the product ions support that ArC{sup +}, C{sup +}, and O{sup +} are formed via a charge transfer predissociation mechanism, similar to that proposed to be responsible for the formation of O{sup +} (N{sup +}) and ArO{sup +} (ArN{sup +}) in the collisions of Ar{sup +}({sup 2}{ital P}{sub 3/2,1/2})+O{sub 2}(N{sub 2}).

  18. Steady-state cross-correlations for live two-colour super-resolution localization data sets.

    PubMed

    Stone, Matthew B; Veatch, Sarah L

    2015-06-12

    Cross-correlation of super-resolution images gathered from point localizations allows for robust quantification of protein co-distributions in chemically fixed cells. Here this is extended to dynamic systems through an analysis that quantifies the steady-state cross-correlation between spectrally distinguishable probes. This methodology is used to quantify the co-distribution of several mobile membrane proteins in both vesicles and live cells, including Lyn kinase and the B-cell receptor during antigen stimulation.

  19. Probabilistically cloning two single-photon states using weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Rui, Pinshu; Zhang, Ziyun; Yang, Qun

    2014-08-01

    By using quantum nondemolition detectors (QNDs) based on weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, we propose an experimental scheme for achieving 1\\to 2 probabilistic quantum cloning (PQC) of a single-photon state, secretly choosing from a two-state set. In our scheme, after a QND is performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the assistant photon, a single-photon projection measurement is performed by a polarization beam splitter (PBS) and two single-photon trigger detectors (SPTDs). The measurement is to judge whether the PQC should be continued. If the cloning fails, a cutoff is carried out and some operations are omitted. This makes our scheme economical. If the PQC is continued according to the measurement result, two more QNDs and some unitary operations are performed on the to-be-cloned photon and the cloning photon to achieve the PQC in a nearly deterministic way. Our experimental scheme for PQC is feasible for future technology. Furthermore, the quantum logic network of our PQC scheme is presented. In comparison with similar networks, our PQC network is simpler and more economical.

  20. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. III. Once and only once. Selecting reactive trajectories

    SciTech Connect

    Lorquet, J. C.

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the present work is to determine initial conditions that generate reacting, recrossing-free trajectories that cross the conventional dividing surface of transition state theory (i.e., the plane in configuration space passing through a saddle point of the potential energy surface and perpendicular to the reaction coordinate) without ever returning to it. Local analytical equations of motion valid in the neighborhood of this planar surface have been derived as an expansion in Poisson brackets. We show that the mere presence of a saddle point implies that reactivity criteria can be quite simply formulated in terms of elements of this series, irrespective of the shape of the potential energy function. Some of these elements are demonstrated to be equal to a sum of squares and thus to be necessarily positive, which has a profound impact on the dynamics. The method is then applied to a three-dimensional model describing an atom-diatom interaction. A particular relation between initial conditions is shown to generate a bundle of reactive trajectories that form reactive cylinders (or conduits) in phase space. This relation considerably reduces the phase space volume of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories. Loci in phase space of reactive initial conditions are presented. Reactivity is influenced by symmetry, as shown by a comparative study of collinear and bent transition states. Finally, it is argued that the rules that have been derived to generate reactive trajectories in classical mechanics are also useful to build up a reactive wave packet.

  1. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. III. Once and only once. Selecting reactive trajectories.

    PubMed

    Lorquet, J C

    2015-09-14

    The purpose of the present work is to determine initial conditions that generate reacting, recrossing-free trajectories that cross the conventional dividing surface of transition state theory (i.e., the plane in configuration space passing through a saddle point of the potential energy surface and perpendicular to the reaction coordinate) without ever returning to it. Local analytical equations of motion valid in the neighborhood of this planar surface have been derived as an expansion in Poisson brackets. We show that the mere presence of a saddle point implies that reactivity criteria can be quite simply formulated in terms of elements of this series, irrespective of the shape of the potential energy function. Some of these elements are demonstrated to be equal to a sum of squares and thus to be necessarily positive, which has a profound impact on the dynamics. The method is then applied to a three-dimensional model describing an atom-diatom interaction. A particular relation between initial conditions is shown to generate a bundle of reactive trajectories that form reactive cylinders (or conduits) in phase space. This relation considerably reduces the phase space volume of initial conditions that generate recrossing-free trajectories. Loci in phase space of reactive initial conditions are presented. Reactivity is influenced by symmetry, as shown by a comparative study of collinear and bent transition states. Finally, it is argued that the rules that have been derived to generate reactive trajectories in classical mechanics are also useful to build up a reactive wave packet.

  2. Altered cross-frequency coupling in resting-state MEG after mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Antonakakis, Marios; Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Zervakis, Michalis; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Zouridakis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) is thought to represent a basic mechanism of functional integration of neural networks across distant brain regions. In this study, we analyzed CFC profiles from resting state Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings obtained from 30 mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and 50 controls. We used mutual information (MI) to quantify the phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC) of activity among the recording sensors in six nonoverlapping frequency bands. After forming the CFC-based functional connectivity graphs, we employed a tensor representation and tensor subspace analysis to identify the optimal set of features for subject classification as mTBI or control. Our results showed that controls formed a dense network of stronger local and global connections indicating higher functional integration compared to mTBI patients. Furthermore, mTBI patients could be separated from controls with more than 90% classification accuracy. These findings indicate that analysis of brain networks computed from resting-state MEG with PAC and tensorial representation of connectivity profiles may provide a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis of mTBI.

  3. All Solid-State Lithium Metal Batteries Using Cross-linked Polymer Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Qiwei; Li, Christopher; Soft Materials Team

    Nowadays, to prepare all solid-state lithium metal batteries with high rate capability and stability using solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) is still a grand challenge because of the interfaces between the SPE and the electrodes. In this presentation, we report a series of hybrid SPEs with controlled network structures by using POSS as cross-linker. These hybrid network SPEs show promising ionic conductivity, mechanical properties, and lithium dendrite growth resistance. All solid-state LiFePO4/Li batteries were also prepared using these SPEs as the electrolytes to study the effect of conductivity and mechanical properties of the SPEs on the performance of the batteries. At 90 °C, the prepared cells show high rate capability and stability. Capacity up to 160 mAh/g can be obtained at a C/2 rate during the galvanostatic cycling. Capacity retention of the cells is higher than 80% after 250 cycles. Battery performance at 60 °C and decay mechanism of the batteries will also be discussed.

  4. “Zero-length” Cross-linking in Solid State as an Approach for Analysis of Protein -Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Elshafey, Ahmed; Tolic, Nikola; Young, Malin M.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Smith, Richard D.; Kery, Vladimir

    2006-03-01

    Analyzing the architecture of protein complexes is a difficult task. Chemical cross-linking is often used in combination with mass spectrometric analysis to elucidate the interaction interfaces between proteins. We have developed a new approach for the analysis of interacting interfaces in protein complexes based on cross-linking in the solid state. Protein complexes are freeze-dried under vacuum and cross-links are introduced in the solid phase by dehydrating the protein in a non-water solvent, thus, creating peptide bonds between amino and carboxyl groups of the interacting peptides. Cross-linked proteins are digested into peptides with trypsin in both H216O and H218O and then readily distinguished in mass spectra by characteristic 8 atomic mass unit (amu) shifts reflecting incorporation of two 18O atoms into each C-terminus of proteolytic peptides. Computer analysis of mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS data is used to identify the cross-linked peptides.We demonstrated our method by cross-linking homooligomeric protein complexes alone or in a mixture of many other proteins. Cross-linking in the solid state was shown to be specific and reproducible. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Schistosoma japonicum was studied in more detail. Twenty-seven unique intra-molecular and two inter-molecular cross-linked peptides were identified using tryptic mapping followed by LTQ-MS analysis. Identified cross-links were predominantly of amide origin, but six esters and thioesters were also found. Identified cross-linked peptides were validated by computational (visualization of cross-links in the three-dimensional [3D] structure of GST) and experimental (MS/MS) analyses. Most of the identified cross-links matched interacting peptides in the native 3D structure of GST indicating that the structure of GST and its oligomeric complex remained primarily intact after freeze drying. The pattern of oligomeric GST obtained in solid state was the same as that obtained in solution by Ru

  5. Electron-impact ionization cross sections out of the ground and 6P2 excited states of cesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukomski, M.; Sutton, S.; Kedzierski, W.; Reddish, T. J.; Bartschat, K.; Bartlett, P. L.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A. T.; McConkey, J. W.

    2006-09-01

    An atom trapping technique for determining absolute, total ionization cross sections (TICS) out of an excited atom is presented. The unique feature of our method is in utilizing Doppler cooling of neutral atoms to determine ionization cross sections. This fluorescence-monitoring experiment, which is a variant of the “trap loss” technique, has enabled us to obtain the experimental electron impact ionization cross sections out of the Cs 6P3/22 state between 7eV and 400eV . CCC, RMPS, and Born theoretical results are also presented for both the ground and excited states of cesium and rubidium. In the low energy region (<11eV) where best agreement between these excited state measurements and theory might be expected, a discrepancy of approximately a factor of five is observed. Above this energy there are significant contributions to the TICS from both autoionization and multiple ionization.

  6. Late Mesozoic crustal extension and rifting on the western edge of the Parana Basin, Paraguay

    SciTech Connect

    DeGraff, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Geophysical and geological evidence indicates that the western edge of the Parana basin in Paraguay was a site of NE-SW directed crustal extension during late Mesozoic time. Major zones of normal faulting in south-eastern Paraguay trend northwesterly on average, and mafic dikes of probable late Mesozoic age have similar orientations. At least two NW-trending zones of tectonic subsidence, each over 200 km long, are now recognized in eastern Paraguay. Most alkalic rocks of south-eastern Paraguay are concentrated along this rift, and occur as simple to composite stocks and ring complexes composed of rocks ranging from foid-syenite to essexite. NW-trending, lamprophyric to phonolitic dikes are associated with some alkalic complexes. The southern zone, located about 125 km southwest, is a composite tectonic basin about 60 km wide and nearly devoid of alkalic rocks. The timing of crustal extension and rifting in eastern Paraguay is largely based on isotopic ages of associated alkalic rocks, which cluster between 150 and 100 Ma (latest Jurassic to mid-Cretaceous). Geologic evidence for the age of faulting and subsidence is consistent with this age range; tectonic depressions were being filled in late Cretaceous to early Cenozoic time. The age range of alkalic rocks in Paraguay contain that of the Serra Geral basalts and spans the time when South America Separated from Africa. This suggests that alkalic activity and crustal extension in eastern Paraguay are grossly related to the Serra Geral extrusive event, and were a manifestation of the breakup of South America and Africa far from the site of final separation.

  7. Late Paleozoic paleofjord in the southernmost Parana Basin (Brazil): Geomorphology and sedimentary fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Julia; Cagliari, Joice; Coitinho, Julia dos Reis; da Cunha Lopes, Ricardo; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Correa

    2016-09-01

    In the southernmost part of the Parana Basin, records of the late Paleozoic glaciation occur in a discontinuous form preserved in paleovalley systems excavated in the crystalline basement. This paper addresses one of these paleovalleys, the Mariana Pimentel, which extends over 60 km with NW-SE valley direction and a constant width of 2.5 km. With the objective of demonstrating that the paleovalley worked as a fjord during the glaciation period, its origin as well as sedimentary fill and morphology were analyzed. The paleovalley morphology was obtained through electrical resistivity (electrical sounding and lateral mapping) and mathematical modeling in four transverse sections. The morphology of the paleovalley documented by the U-shape, steady width, and high depth reaching up to 400 m are typical features of modern glacial valleys. The sedimentary facies that fill the base of the paleovalley, such as rhythmites and dropstones with thickness up to 70 m and diamictites with faceted pebbles (up to 5 m thick) are signs of its glacial origin. During the glaciation period, the paleovalley had a connection to the epicontinental sea located to the northwest, extended toward Namibia, and was excavated by glaciers from the highlands of this region. Thus, the evidence attests that the Mariana Pimentel paleovalley was a fjord during the late Paleozoic glaciation. The duration of the late Paleozoic glaciation (which is longer than the Quaternary glaciation), the apatite fission track that suggests erosion up to 4 km thick in the study area, and the lack of preserved hanging valleys in the Mariana Pimentel indicate that the paleovalley once featured a higher dimension. Furthermore, the existence of paleofjords excavated in the border of the basement corroborates the idea of small ice centers controlled by topography during the late Paleozoic glaciation.

  8. Mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer: Implication of two-state focal zooming on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D. H.; Kessler, T. J.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Huang, H.; Hu, S. X.; Hill, E.; Kelly, J. H.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Shvydky, A.; Zuegel, J. D.

    2013-08-15

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) during OMEGA low-adiabat cryogenic experiments reduces the hydrodynamic efficiency by ∼35%, which lowers the calculated one-dimensional (1-D) yield by a factor of 7. CBET can be mitigated by reducing the diameter of the laser beams relative to the target diameter. Reducing the diameter of the laser beams by 30%, after a sufficient conduction zone has been generated (two-state zooming), is predicted to maintain low-mode uniformity while recovering 90% of the kinetic energy lost to CBET. A radially varying phase plate is proposed to implement two-state zooming on OMEGA. A beam propagating through the central half-diameter of the phase plate will produce a large spot, while a beam propagating through the outer annular region of the phase plate will produce a narrower spot. To generate the required two-state near-field laser-beam profile, a picket driver with smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) would pass through an apodizer, forming a beam of half the standard diameter. A second main-pulse driver would co-propagate without SSD through its own apodizer, forming a full-diameter annular beam. Hydrodynamic simulations, using the designed laser spots produced by the proposed zooming scheme on OMEGA, show that implementing zooming will increase the implosion velocity by 25% resulting in a 4.5× increase in the 1-D neutron yield. Demonstrating zooming on OMEGA would validate a viable direct-drive CBET mitigation scheme and help establish a pathway to hydrodynamically equivalent direct-drive–ignition implosions by increasing the ablation pressure (1.6×), which will allow for more stable implosions at ignition-relevant velocities.

  9. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  10. Diamond nitrogen vacancy electronic and nuclear spin-state anti-crossings under weak transverse magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clevenson, Hannah; Chen, Edward; Dolde, Florian; Teale, Carson; Englund, Dirk; Braje, Danielle

    2016-05-01

    We report on detailed studies of electronic and nuclear spin states in the diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) center under moderate transverse magnetic fields. We numerically predict and experimentally verify a previously unobserved NV ground state hyperfine anti-crossing occurring at magnetic bias fields as low as tens of Gauss - two orders of magnitude lower than previously reported hyperfine anti-crossings at ~ 510 G and ~ 1000 G axial magnetic fields. We then discuss how this regime can be optimized for magnetometry and other sensing applications and propose a method for how the nitrogen-vacancy ground state Hamiltonian can be manipulated by small transverse magnetic fields to polarize the nuclear spin state. Acknowlegement: The Lincoln Laboratory portion of this work is sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations, conclusions and recommendations are those of the authors and are not necessarily endorsed by the United States Government.

  11. Theoretical state-selective and total cross sections for electron capture from helium atoms by fully stripped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, I.; Milojević, N.; Belkić, Dž.

    2015-03-01

    The four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation is used to compute cross sections for single electron capture from helium targets by fully stripped ions. The projectile ions are H+, He2+, Li3+, Be4+, B5+, C6+, N7+, O8+, and F9+. An extensive list of theoretical state-to-state cross sections in these collisions at energies ranging from 20 to 10 000 keV/amu is given. This list includes the state-selective cross sections Qnlm for each individual triple of the usual quantum numbers { n , l , m } of the final hydrogen-like states alongside Qnl and Qn for the pertinent sub-shells and shells where the respective summations over m and { l , m } have been carried out. The maximal value of the principal quantum number n was chosen to vary from 4 (H+) to 10 (F9+) so as to satisfy the condition n ≥ZP, where ZP is the nuclear charge of the projectile. Usually, the largest cross sections stem from those values of n that match the projectile charge (n =ZP) . The total cross sections for capture summed over all the quantum numbers { n , l , m } are also tabulated. The overall goal of this study is to fill in lacunae in the existing databases of charge exchange cross sections that are needed in several inter-disciplinary fields. For example, in particle transport physics, which is of utmost importance in such emerging branches as hadron therapy, these cross sections constitute a part of the multifaceted input data for stochastic simulations of energy losses of multiply charged ions in matter, including tissue. Other significant uses of the present data are anticipated in charge exchange diagnostics within thermonuclear research project as well as in applications covering the relevant parts of plasma physics and astrophysics.

  12. The Parana paradox: can a model explain the decadal impacts of climate variability and land-cover change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Livino, A.; Briscoe, J.

    2013-12-01

    Since the 1970s, despite a decrease in rainfall, flow in the Parana river has increased. This paradox is explored using the Ecosystem Demography (ED) model. If there were no change in land cover, the modeled runoff decreased from the 1970s to the 2000s by 11.8% (with 1970 land cover) or 18.8% (with 2008 land cover). When the model is run holding climate constant, the decadal average of the modeled runoff increased by 24.4% (with the 1970s climate) or by 33.6% (with 2000s climate). When the model is run allowing both the actual climate and land-cover changes, the model gives an increase in the decadal average of runoff by 8.5%. This agrees well with 10.5% increase in the actual stream flow as measured at Itaipu. There are three main conclusions from this work. First, the ED model is able to explain a major, paradoxical, reality in the Parana basin. Second, it is necessary to take into account both climate and land use changes when exploring past or future changes in river flows. Third, the ED model, now coupled with a regional climate model (i.e., EDBRAMS), is a sound basis for exploring likely changes in river flows in major South American rivers.

  13. Characterization of capture cross sections of interface states in dielectric/III-nitride heterojunction structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matys, M.; Stoklas, R.; Kuzmik, J.; Adamowicz, B.; Yatabe, Z.; Hashizume, T.

    2016-05-01

    We performed, for the first time, quantitative characterization of electron capture cross sections σ of the interface states at dielectric/III-N heterojunction interfaces. We developed a new method, which is based on the photo-assisted capacitance-voltage measurements using photon energies below the semiconductor band gap. The analysis was carried out for AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction (MISH) structures with Al2O3, SiO2, or SiN films as insulator deposited on the AlGaN layers with Al content (x) varying over a wide range of values. Additionally, we also investigated an Al2O3/InAlN/GaN MISH structure. Prior to insulator deposition, the AlGaN and InAlN surfaces were subjected to different treatments. We found that σ for all these structures lies in the range between 5 × 10 - 19 and 10 - 16 cm2. Furthermore, we revealed that σ for dielectric/AlxGa1-xN interfaces increases with increasing x. We showed that both the multiphonon-emission and cascade processes can explain the obtained results.

  14. 77 FR 18296 - Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings... series of U.S.-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings. The United States has not...

  15. Calculation of state-to-state cross sections for triatomic reaction by the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Dong-H.; Sun, Zhigang; Lee, Soo-Y.

    2014-04-28

    A framework for quantum state-to-state integral and differential cross sections of triatomic reactive scattering using the Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method is introduced, where a modified version of the Heidelberg MCTDH package is applied. Parity of the system is adopted using only non-negative helicity quantum numbers, which reduces the basis set size of the single particle functions in angular degree of freedom almost by half. The initial wave packet is constructed in the space-fixed frame, which can accurately account for the centrifugal potential. By using the reactant-coordinate-based method, the product state-resolved information can be accurately extracted. Test calculations are presented for the H + H{sub 2} reactive scattering. This work demonstrates the capability of the MCTDH method for extracting accurate state-to-state integral and differential cross sections. As an efficient scheme for high-dimensional problems, the MCTDH method may be promising for the study of product state-resolved cross sections for polyatomic reactive systems.

  16. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  17. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  18. Assessing Teaching Readiness of University Students in Cross River State, Nigeria: Implications for Managing Teacher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akuegwu, B. A.; Edet, A. O.; Uchendu, C. C.; Ekpoh, U. I.

    2011-01-01

    This ex-post-facto designed study was geared towards assessing the readiness of would-be teachers in universities in Cross River State for the teaching profession, and how reforms can be managed to strengthen this. Three hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 200 students from the two universities in the state…

  19. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  20. Quantum state-resolved differential cross sections for complex-forming chemical reactions: Asymmetry is the rule, symmetry the exception

    SciTech Connect

    Larrégaray, Pascal Bonnet, Laurent

    2015-10-14

    We argue that statistical theories are generally unable to accurately predict state-resolved differential cross sections for triatomic bimolecular reactions studied in beam experiments, even in the idealized limit where the dynamics are fully chaotic. The basic reason is that quenching of interferences between partial waves is less efficient than intuitively expected, especially around the poles.

  1. A Cross-National Study of Teacher Attitudes Toward Children's Language in England and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Robert E.

    To determine teachers' attitudes (and reasons for these attitudes) toward the language of children in their schools, 33 teachers in selected infant and junior schools in England and a similar number in the United States representing a cross-section of schools and geographic areas in the two countries were interviewed. More than 90 percent of the…

  2. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected…

  3. Comparative Analysis of Selected Motor Fitness Profile of Football Referees in Cross River and AKWA IBOM States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogabor, J. O.; Sanusi, M.; Saulawa, A. I.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare selected motor fitness profile of football referees in Cross River and Akwa Ibom States. Motor fitness profiles compared were running speed and agility of the referees. Standardized equipment and procedures were employed in the tests. To achieve the objectives of the study, two research hypotheses were…

  4. Attitude of Students and Parents towards the Teaching of Sex Education in Secondary Schools in Cross Rivers State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunjimi, L. O.

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the disposition of students and parents towards the inclusion of sex education in the school curriculum in Cross River State. Using a random sampling technique, 602 secondary school students and 180 parents from Calabar, were selected for the study. Data were collected with the aid of self-administered…

  5. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  6. Politics of Leadership and Implementation of Educational Policies and Programmes of Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, W. E.; Ifere, Francis O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines issues of politics of leadership and implementation of Educational policies and programmes of tertiary institutions in Cross River State with a view to determine the problems are situated and suggest the way forward. It examines the concept of politics of education, concept of leadership, meaning of planning and generation of…

  7. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  8. Recoil distance transmission method: Measurement of interaction cross sections of excited states with fast rare-isotope beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, N.; Whitmore, K.; Iwasaki, H.

    2016-09-01

    The possible appearance of nuclear halos in ground and excited states close to the particle-decay threshold is of great importance in the investigation of nuclear structure and few-body correlations at the limit of stability. In order to obtain direct evidence of the halo structure manifested in nuclear excited states, we have considered a new method to measure the interaction cross sections of excited states. The combination of the transmission method and the recoil distance Doppler-shift method with a plunger device enables us to measure the number of interactions of the excited states in a target. Formulae to determine the interaction cross section are derived, and key issues to realize measurements are discussed. Dominant sources of errors are uncertainties in the excited-state lifetimes and γ-ray yields. We examine prototype experiments and perform simulations to study the impact of each uncertainty on the final result. This method provides a novel opportunity to perform cross section measurements on the excited states of rare isotopes.

  9. Stratigraphical framework of basaltic lavas in Torres Syncline main valley, southern Parana-Etendeka Volcanic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Lucas M.; Lima, Evandro F.; Waichel, Breno L.; Scherer, Claiton M.; Barreto, Carla J.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná-Etendeka Volcanic Province records the volcanism of the Early Cretaceous that precedes the fragmentation of the South-Gondwana supercontinent. Traditionally, investigations of these rocks prioritized the acquisition of geochemical and isotopic data, considering the volcanic stack as a monotonous succession of tabular flows. Torres Syncline is a tectonic structure located in southern Brazil and where the Parana-Etendeka basalts are well preserved. This work provides a detailed analysis of lithofacies and facies architecture, integrated to petrographic and geochemical data. We identified seven distinct lithofacies grouped into four facies associations related to different flow morphologies. The basaltic lava flows in the area can be divided into two contrasting units: Unit I - pahoehoe flow fields; and Unit II - simple rubbly flows. The first unit is build up by innumerous pahoehoe lava flows that cover the sandstones of Botucatu Formation. These flows occur as sheet pahoehoe, compound pahoehoe, and ponded lavas morphologies. Compound lavas are olivine-phyric basalts with intergranular pyroxenes. In ponded lavas and cores of sheet flows coarse plagioclase-phyric basalts are common. The first pahoehoe lavas are more primitive with higher contents of MgO. The emplacement of compound pahoehoe flows is related to low volume eruptions, while sheet lavas were emplaced during sustained eruptions. In contrast, Unit II is formed by thick simple rubbly lavas, characterized by a massive core and a brecciated/rubbly top. Petrographically these flows are characterized by plagioclase-phyric to aphyric basalts with high density of plagioclase crystals in the matrix. Chemically they are more differentiated lavas, and the emplacement is related to sustained high effusion rate eruptions. Both units are low TiO2 and have geochemical characteristics of Gramado magma type. The Torres Syncline main valley has a similar evolution when compared to other Large Igneous Provinces

  10. Quantum mechanical calculations of state-to-state cross sections and rate constants for the F + DCl → Cl + DF reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Roncero, Octavio

    2015-06-07

    We present accurate state-to-state quantum wave packet calculations of integral cross sections and rate constants for the title reaction. Calculations are carried out on the best available ground 1{sup 2}A′ global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged state-to-state reaction cross sections have been calculated for collision energies up to 0.5 eV and different initial rotational and vibrational excitations, DCl(v = 0, j = 0 − 1; v = 1, j = 0). Also, initial-state resolved rate constants of the title reaction have been calculated in a temperature range of 100-400 K. It is found that the initial rotational excitation of the DCl molecule does not enhance reactivity, in contract to the reaction with the isotopologue HCl in which initial rotational excitation produces an important enhancement. These differences between the isotopologue reactions are analyzed in detail and attributed to the presence of resonances for HCl(v = 0, j), absent in the case of DCl(v = 0, j). For vibrational excited DCl(v = 1, j), however, the reaction cross section increases noticeably, what is also explained by another resonance.

  11. Quantum mechanical calculations of state-to-state cross sections and rate constants for the F + DCl → Cl + DF reaction.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Niyazi; Kłos, Jacek; Roncero, Octavio

    2015-06-01

    We present accurate state-to-state quantum wave packet calculations of integral cross sections and rate constants for the title reaction. Calculations are carried out on the best available ground 1(2)A' global adiabatic potential energy surface of Deskevich et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224303 (2006)]. Converged state-to-state reaction cross sections have been calculated for collision energies up to 0.5 eV and different initial rotational and vibrational excitations, DCl(v = 0, j = 0 - 1; v = 1, j = 0). Also, initial-state resolved rate constants of the title reaction have been calculated in a temperature range of 100-400 K. It is found that the initial rotational excitation of the DCl molecule does not enhance reactivity, in contract to the reaction with the isotopologue HCl in which initial rotational excitation produces an important enhancement. These differences between the isotopologue reactions are analyzed in detail and attributed to the presence of resonances for HCl(v = 0, j), absent in the case of DCl(v = 0, j). For vibrational excited DCl(v = 1, j), however, the reaction cross section increases noticeably, what is also explained by another resonance.

  12. State-to-state differential cross sections for a four-atom reaction: H2 + OH → H2O + H in full dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-10-01

    The time-dependent wave packet method has been employed to calculate state-to-state differential cross sections for the title reaction in full dimensions. It is found that the majority of H2O is produced in the first stretching excited states, with a large fraction of available energy for the reaction ending up as product internal motion. The differential cross sections for collision energy up to 0.4 eV are all peaked in the backward direction, but the width of the angular distribution increases considerably as the increase of collision energy. The isotope effect was also examined by comparing the scattering angular distribution for the title reaction with those for the HD + OH and D2 + OH reactions obtained in our previous work.

  13. Complete nondestructive analysis of two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled Bell states assisted by cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Guan-Yu; Ai, Qing; Zhang, Mei; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Hyperentanglement, the entanglement in several degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a quantum system, has attracted much attention as it can be used to increase both the channel capacity of quantum communication and its security largely. Here, we present the first scheme to completely distinguish the hyperentangled Bell states of two-photon systems in three DOFs with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearity without destruction, including two longitudinal momentum DOFs and the polarization DOF. We use cross-Kerr nonlinearity to construct quantum nondemolition detectors which can be used to make a parity-check measurement and analyze Bell states of two-photon systems in different DOFs. Our complete scheme for two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled Bell-state analysis may be useful for the practical applications in quantum information, especially in long-distance high-capacity quantum communication. PMID:26912172

  14. Meeting Policymakers' Education Responsibilities Requires Cross-State Data Collaboration, Sharing, and Comparability. Breaking down State Silos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    States have responsibilities to ensure that transferring students receive uninterrupted education and services, produce indicators that provide a complete picture, and ensure that information is comparable across states. However, states' and districts' ability to meet these responsibilities requires data capacity that can be undermined due to…

  15. Cross-State Findings. Benchmarking State Implementation of College- and Career-Readiness Standards, Aligned Assessments and Related Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kimberly; Mira, Mary Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of college- and career-readiness standards is some of the most important work currently underway in states to improve student achievement and public education overall. SREB examined the efforts of 14 states--including 11 SREB states--to support implementation of new college- and career-readiness standards. The goal of the research…

  16. A Cross-National Comparison of School Drug Policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Jennifer M.; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2005-01-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy, environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent in primary schools,…

  17. The dissolved chemical and isotopic signature downflow the confluence of two large rivers: The case of the Parana and Paraguay rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campodonico, Verena Agustina; García, María Gabriela; Pasquini, Andrea Inés

    2015-09-01

    The Paraná River basin is one of the largest hydrological systems in South America (∼2.6 × 106 km2). Downflow the confluence of tributaries, most large rivers exhibit transverse and longitudinal inhomogeneities that can be detected for tens or even hundreds of kilometers. Concordantly, a noticeable cross-sectional chemical asymmetry in the dissolved load was distinguished in the Middle Paraná River, after the confluence of its main tributaries (i.e., the Paraguay and Upper Paraná rivers). Water chemistry and isotopic signature in three cross-sections along the Middle Paraná River, as well as from main and minor tributaries, and some deep (∼105 m bs) and shallow boreholes (∼15 m bs) located near both river banks, were analyzed in order to define the extent of mixing and identify possible contributions from groundwater discharges. Downflow the confluence of the Upper Paraná and Paraguay rivers a chemical and isotopic asymmetry was observed, mainly through the values of EC, major ions (Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl- and SO42-), some trace elements (Fe, U, Th, Ba, Sr, As and REE) and stable isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). Toward its western margin, higher elemental concentrations which resembled that of the Paraguay River were measured, whereas at the eastern border, waters were more diluted and preserved the chemical signature of the Upper Paraná River. This variability remained detectable at least until ∼225 km downflow the confluence, where differences between western and eastern margins were less evident. At ∼580 km downflow the confluence, a slight inversion in the transverse chemical asymmetry was observed. This trend switch can be the result of the input of solutes from minor tributaries that reach the main channel from the East and/or may be due to higher groundwater discharges from the East bank. A mass balance model was applied, as a first approach, to estimate the groundwater inflow using the geochemical tracer 222Rn. The results indicate that groundwater

  18. State-dependent radial elasticity of attached cross-bridges in single skinned fibres of rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Brenner, B; Yu, L C

    1993-01-01

    approximately linear. 7. The fibres under different conditions showed a wide range of radial stiffness, which was not proportional to the apparent axial stiffness of the fibre. If the apparent axial stiffness is a measure of the fraction of cross-bridges bound to actin, it follows that the radial elastic constant is state dependent; or vice versa.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7693922

  19. Total photoionization cross-sections of excited electronic states by the algebraic diagrammatic construction-Stieltjes-Lanczos method

    SciTech Connect

    Ruberti, M.; Yun, R.; Averbukh, V.; Gokhberg, K.; Kopelke, S.; Cederbaum, L. S.; Tarantelli, F.

    2014-05-14

    Here, we extend the L{sup 2} ab initio method for molecular photoionization cross-sections introduced in Gokhberg et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064104 (2009)] and benchmarked in Ruberti et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144107 (2013)] to the calculation of total photoionization cross-sections of molecules in electronically excited states. The method is based on the ab initio description of molecular electronic states within the many-electron Green's function approach, known as algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC), and on the application of Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory to Lanczos pseudospectra of the ADC electronic Hamiltonian. The intermediate state representation of the dipole operator in the ADC basis is used to compute the transition moments between the excited states of the molecule. We compare the results obtained using different levels of the many-body theory, i.e., ADC(1), ADC(2), and ADC(2)x for the first two excited states of CO, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O both at the ground state and the excited state equilibrium or saddle point geometries. We find that the single excitation ADC(1) method is not adequate even at the qualitative level and that the inclusion of double electronic excitations for description of excited state photoionization is essential. Moreover, we show that the use of the extended ADC(2)x method leads to a substantial systematic difference from the strictly second-order ADC(2). Our calculations demonstrate that a theoretical modelling of photoionization of excited states requires an intrinsically double excitation theory with respect to the ground state and cannot be achieved by the standard single excitation methods with the ground state as a reference.

  20. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, M age = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts. PMID:26579033

  1. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts. PMID:26579033

  2. Structural characterization of weakly attached cross-bridges in the A*M*ATP state in permeabilized rabbit psoas muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, S; Gu, J; Melvin, G; Yu, L C

    2002-01-01

    It is well established that in a skeletal muscle under relaxing conditions, cross-bridges exist in a mixture of four weak binding states in equilibrium (A*M*ATP, A*M*ADP*P(i), M*ATP, and M*ADP*P(i)). It has been shown that these four weak binding states are in the pathway to force generation. In the past their structural, biochemical, and mechanical properties have been characterized as a group. However, it was shown that the myosin heads in the M*ATP state exhibited a disordered distribution along the thick filament, while in the M*ADP*P(i) state they were well ordered. It follows that the structures of the weakly attached states of A*M*ATP and A*M*ADP*P(i) could well be different. Individual structures of the two attached states could not be assigned because protocol for isolating the two states has not been available until recently. In the present study, muscle fibers are reacted with N-phenylmaleimide such that ATP hydrolysis is inhibited, i.e., the cross-bridge population under relaxing conditions is distributed only between the two states of M*ATP and A*M*ATP. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction was applied to determine the structural characteristics of the attached A*M*ATP state. Because the detached state of M*ATP is disordered and does not contribute to layer line intensities, changes as a result of increasing attachment in the A*M*ATP state are attributable to that state alone. The equilibrium toward the attached state was achieved by lowering the ionic strength. The results show that upon attachment, both the myosin and the first actin associated layer lines increased intensities, while the sixth actin layer line was not significantly affected. However, the intensities remain weak despite substantial attachment. The results, together with modeling (see J. Gu, S. Xu and L. C. Yu, 2002, Biophys. J. 82:2123-2133), suggest that there is a wide range of orientation of the attached A*M*ATP cross-bridges while the myosin heads maintain some degree of helical

  3. 32 CFR 643.42 - Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. 643.42 Section 643.42 National Defense Department of...—Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. Under the...

  4. 32 CFR 643.42 - Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. 643.42 Section 643.42 National Defense Department of...—Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. Under the...

  5. 32 CFR 643.42 - Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. 643.42 Section 643.42 National Defense Department of...—Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. Under the...

  6. 32 CFR 643.42 - Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. 643.42 Section 643.42 National Defense Department of...—Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. Under the...

  7. 32 CFR 643.42 - Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Policy-Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. 643.42 Section 643.42 National Defense Department of...—Consents for crossing of rights-of-ways and similar interests owned by the United States. Under the...

  8. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the tilde{X} {}^2 A^' } ionic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the tilde{X} {}^2 A^' } ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν9, ν10, ν11, and ν12) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11-100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A' scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry.

  9. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the Χ{sup ~}A{sup '} ionic state

    SciTech Connect

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2014-09-07

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the Χ{sup ~}A{sup '} ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν{sub 9}, ν{sub 10}, ν{sub 11}, and ν{sub 12}) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11–100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A{sup ′} scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry.

  10. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area.

  11. Environmental assessment of the area surrounding Dam Rio Verde - Parana/Brazil. An overview of environmental geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Claudia Moreira; Carrijo, Beatriz Rodrigues; Sessegolo, Gisele; Passos, Everton

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a brief essay on the situation in which the environment of the dam of the Rio Verde Basin-Parana, from the vision of environmental geomorphology. The area is located between the cities of Campo Magro and Campo Largo, Paraná plateau in the first part of theAlto Iguaçu basin. This study aims to raise the concepts relating to environmental geomorphology, to identify the anthropogenic impacts caused in the reservoir areas, identify the environmental compartments found around the dam and characterize the geologic and physiographic region. It was found that the area has intense anthropogenic influence, as urban growth is present in areas and wavy and rough terrain, subject to mass movements and floods. Besides these aspects, the use of land for agriculture contributes to fragility of the area. PMID:23424831

  12. Integrated remote sensing, geological and geophysical data processing and analysis for hydrocarbon prospection in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G.; Filho, A.P.; Crosta, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive basaltic lava flows of the Serra Geral Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in the upper portions of the Parana sedimentary basin, are a severe obstacle for hydrocarbon prospecting. Its thickness and physical characteristics make difficult the general application of conventional geophysical methods. In order to overcome this problem a research program was developed for PETROBRAS in order to obtain the maximum geological information from remote sensing data and integrate it with field and geophysical data. Automated analysis of LANDSAT data with visual inspection of LANDSAT and SLAR imagery resulted in a large amount of lithological and structural information, which were integrated with geological and geophysical data for the selection of target areas for future investigation.

  13. Fully quantum state-resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) + Kr: Differential cross sections and product rotational alignment

    SciTech Connect

    Brouard, M. Chadwick, H.; Gordon, S. D. S.; Hornung, B.; Nichols, B.; Kłos, J.; Aoiz, F. J.; Stolte, S.

    2014-10-28

    Fully quantum state selected and resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) by krypton has been investigated. Initial Λ-doublet state selection is achieved using an inhomogeneous hexapole electric field. Differential cross sections and even-moment polarization dependent differential cross sections have been obtained at a collision energy of 514 cm{sup −1} for both spin-orbit and parity conserving and changing collisions. Experimental results are compared with those obtained from quantum scattering calculations and are shown to be in very good agreement. Hard shell quantum scattering calculations are also performed to determine the effects of the different parts of the potential on the scattering dynamics. Comparisons are also made with the NO(X) + Ar system.

  14. Fully quantum state-resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) + Kr: differential cross sections and product rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Brouard, M; Chadwick, H; Gordon, S D S; Hornung, B; Nichols, B; Kłos, J; Aoiz, F J; Stolte, S

    2014-10-28

    Fully quantum state selected and resolved inelastic scattering of NO(X) by krypton has been investigated. Initial Λ-doublet state selection is achieved using an inhomogeneous hexapole electric field. Differential cross sections and even-moment polarization dependent differential cross sections have been obtained at a collision energy of 514 cm(-1) for both spin-orbit and parity conserving and changing collisions. Experimental results are compared with those obtained from quantum scattering calculations and are shown to be in very good agreement. Hard shell quantum scattering calculations are also performed to determine the effects of the different parts of the potential on the scattering dynamics. Comparisons are also made with the NO(X) + Ar system. PMID:25362298

  15. Experimental investigation of photoionization cross section for the 3d 2D excited states of lithium and sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, Ali; Shah, Mehmood; Shahzada, Shaista; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Haq, Sami-ul-

    2013-09-01

    We report experimentally measured photoionization cross sections for the 3 d 2D excited states of lithium and sodium at first ionization threshold. The experiments were performed using two dye lasers simultaneously pumped by the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The vapor contentment and the detection system was a thermionic diode ion detector operating in a space charge limited mode. Photoionization cross sections of the excited states were deduced from the dependence of ion signal intensity on the ionizing laser energies as 19 ± 3 Mb and 21.5 ± 3.5 Mb for lithium and sodium respectively, which are in good agreement with the previously computed theoretical results.

  16. Cross-cutting environmental laws: A guide for federal/state project officers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Congress has passed a number of environmental laws which address the federal responsibility for protecting and conserving special resources. Examples of such laws are the Endangered Species Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, and the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) refers to these laws generally as 'cross-cutters' because the requirement to comply with them cuts across all federal programs. A list of cross-cutting environmental laws (other than those administered by EPA) is included at the end of the section. The cross-cutters require federal agencies to consider the impact that their programs and individual actions might have on particular resources and such consideration must be documented as part of the agency's decision-making process.

  17. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-07-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state.

  18. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state. PMID:27412489

  19. Deterministic distribution of four-photon Dicke state over an arbitrary collective-noise channel with cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei-Yu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    We present two deterministic quantum entanglement distribution protocols for a four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state resorting to the frequency and spatial degrees of freedom, which are immune to an arbitrary collective-noise channel. Both of the protocols adopt the X homodyne measurement based on the cross-Kerr nonlinearity to complete the task of the single-photon detection with nearly unit probability in principle. After the four receivers share the photons, they add some local unitary operations to obtain a standard four-photon Dicke polarization entangled state. PMID:27412489

  20. Traditional medicine used in childbirth and for childhood diarrhoea in Nigeria's Cross River State: interviews with traditional practitioners and a statewide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, Iván; Zuluaga, Germán; Andersson, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Examine factors associated with use of traditional medicine during childbirth and in management of childhood diarrhoea. Design Cross-sectional cluster survey, household interviews in a stratified last stage random sample of 90 census enumeration areas; unstructured interviews with traditional doctors. Setting Oil-rich Cross River State in south-eastern Nigeria has 3.5 million residents, most of whom depend on a subsistence agriculture economy. Participants 8089 women aged 15–49 years in 7685 households reported on the health of 11 305 children aged 0–36 months in July–August 2011. Primary and secondary outcome measures Traditional medicine used at childbirth and for management of childhood diarrhoea; covariates included access to Western medicine and education, economic conditions, engagement with the modern state and family relations. Cluster-adjusted analysis relied on the Mantel-Haenszel procedure and Mantel extension. Results 24.1% (1371/5686) of women reported using traditional medicine at childbirth; these women had less education, accessed antenatal care less, experienced more family violence and were less likely to have birth certificates for their children. 11.3% (615/5425) of young children with diarrhoea were taken to traditional medical practitioners; these children were less likely to receive BCG, to have birth certificates, to live in households with a more educated head, or to use fuel other than charcoal for cooking. Education showed a gradient with decreasing use of traditional medicine for childbirth (χ2 135.2) and for childhood diarrhoea (χ2 77.2). Conclusions Use of traditional medicine is associated with several factors related to cultural transition and to health status, with formal education playing a prominent role. Any assessment of the effectiveness of traditional medicine should anticipate confounding by these factors, which are widely recognised to affect health in their own right. PMID:27094939

  1. Exploring the Relationship Between Gender Violence and State Failure: A Cross-National Comparison.

    PubMed

    Gould, Laurie A; Agnich, Laura E

    2016-10-01

    The concept of state failure has only recently emerged in the political science and legal literature. Although state failure has been used to predict violent conflicts, and all citizens are affected by violence in failed/fragile states, women are especially at risk. Using data from the WomanStats project, this study's findings reveal that the physical security of women is lower in failed/fragile states compared with more sustainable nations. The characteristics of failed states that increase the likelihood of various forms of violence against women are identified, including high levels of militarization, countries with neighboring states at war, and massive movement of refugees.

  2. Exploring the Relationship Between Gender Violence and State Failure: A Cross-National Comparison.

    PubMed

    Gould, Laurie A; Agnich, Laura E

    2016-10-01

    The concept of state failure has only recently emerged in the political science and legal literature. Although state failure has been used to predict violent conflicts, and all citizens are affected by violence in failed/fragile states, women are especially at risk. Using data from the WomanStats project, this study's findings reveal that the physical security of women is lower in failed/fragile states compared with more sustainable nations. The characteristics of failed states that increase the likelihood of various forms of violence against women are identified, including high levels of militarization, countries with neighboring states at war, and massive movement of refugees. PMID:26834148

  3. A cross-national comparison of school drug policies in Washington State, United States, and Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Beyers, Jennifer M; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Mathers, Megan; Toumbourou, John W; Catalano, Richard F

    2005-04-01

    Using mail survey data collected from primary and secondary school administrators in Washington State, United States, and in Victoria, Australia, this study compared aspects of the school drug policy environment in the 2 states. Documented substance-use policies were prevalent in Washington and Victoria but less prevalent.in primary schools, especially in Victoria. Victorian school policy-setting processes were significantly more likely to involve teachers, parents, and students than processes in Washington schools. Consistent with expectations based on their respective national drug policy frameworks, school drug policies in Washington schools were more oriented toward total abstinence and more frequently enforced with harsh punishment (such as expulsion or calling law enforcement), whereas policies in Victorian schools were more reflective of harm-minimization principles. Within both states, however, schools more regularly used harsh punishment and remediation consequences for alcohol and illicit-drug violations compared to tobacco policy violations, which were treated more leniently.

  4. State-to-state differential cross sections for D2 + OH → D + DOH reaction: Influence of vibrational excitation of OH reactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2016-10-01

    State-to-state differential cross sections (DCSs) are computed quantum mechanically in full dimensionality for the title reaction using a reactant-product decoupling scheme. The DCSs are calculated at three collision energies of 0.25, 0.28, and 0.34 eV, corresponding to the existing experimental results. In good agreement with experiment, the calculated DCSs are dominated by backward scattering, thanks to the direct rebound mechanism, and the DOH product has two quanta of OD stretching vibration in the newly formed OD bond. In addition, the vibrational excitation of the OH reactant is found to result in a very different but predictable vibrational distribution of the DOH product. It is further shown at the state-to-state level that the DCSs of the DOH(vOD, vb, vOH) product state from the OH(v = 1) reactant state resemble the ones of the DOH(vOD, vb, vOH-1) product state from the OH(v = 0) reactant state, thanks to the spectator nature of the OH moiety.

  5. Teaching Cross-Cultural Aging: Using Literary Portrayals of Elders from Chile and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Literary texts are cultural artifacts revealing a society's values and attitudes; reading literature about elders and old age can change readers' ageist attitudes. Beginning with these assumptions, I discuss ways of teaching cross-cultural aging in undergraduate literature courses, using Chilean texts paired with American texts. Students learn how…

  6. Comparing Efficiency in a Cross-Country Perspective: The Case of Italian and Spanish State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Perez-Esparrells, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The growing internationalization of European Higher Education requires more emphasis on cross-country comparisons. In this paper, an efficiency analysis of Italian and Spanish universities is conducted; as well as from a comparative perspective. The efficiency scores are obtained using data envelopment analysis. The results demonstrate a good…

  7. Regulating Cross-Border Higher Education: A Case Study of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Jason E.; Kinser, Kevin; Knox, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In an increasing number of nations, foreign education providers are becoming part of the educational landscape. This aspect of cross-border higher education raises many questions about how such activities are regulated, particularly the role of the importing and exporting governments. Drawing on a principal-agent framework, this study uses the…

  8. Programs of Study: A Cross-Study Examination of Programs in Three States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Sam; Shumer, Robert; Stipanovic, Natalie; Murphy, Nora

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Center on Career and Technical Education has supported four studies on one of the major components of Perkins legislation: programs of study. In this article, we present qualitative data linking the research center's longitudinal projects based on programs of study, via a one-time cross-case study of sites deemed highly…

  9. The Content of Educational Technology Curricula: A Cross-Curricular State of the Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aesaert, Koen; Vanderlinde, Ruben; Tondeur, Jo; van Braak, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the content features of educational technology curricula for primary education developed by national governments. A qualitative cross-case document analysis of the national educational technology curriculum of Norway, Flanders and England was conducted. The analysis focuses on the underlying visions,…

  10. Trifunctional cross-linker for mapping protein-protein interaction networks and comparing protein conformational states

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Dan; Li, Qiang; Zhang, Mei-Jun; Liu, Chao; Ma, Chengying; Zhang, Pan; Ding, Yue-He; Fan, Sheng-Bo; Tao, Li; Yang, Bing; Li, Xiangke; Ma, Shoucai; Liu, Junjie; Feng, Boya; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Hong-Wei; He, Si-Min; Gao, Ning; Ye, Keqiong; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-01-01

    To improve chemical cross-linking of proteins coupled with mass spectrometry (CXMS), we developed a lysine-targeted enrichable cross-linker containing a biotin tag for affinity purification, a chemical cleavage site to separate cross-linked peptides away from biotin after enrichment, and a spacer arm that can be labeled with stable isotopes for quantitation. By locating the flexible proteins on the surface of 70S ribosome, we show that this trifunctional cross-linker is effective at attaining structural information not easily attainable by crystallography and electron microscopy. From a crude Rrp46 immunoprecipitate, it helped identify two direct binding partners of Rrp46 and 15 protein-protein interactions (PPIs) among the co-immunoprecipitated exosome subunits. Applying it to E. coli and C. elegans lysates, we identified 3130 and 893 inter-linked lysine pairs, representing 677 and 121 PPIs. Using a quantitative CXMS workflow we demonstrate that it can reveal changes in the reactivity of lysine residues due to protein-nucleic acid interaction. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12509.001 PMID:26952210

  11. 76 FR 11963 - Updating Cross-References for the Oklahoma State Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans'' (SIP Narrowing Rule) (75 FR 82536... Deterioration Provisions Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans'' at 75 FR... Deterioration Provisions Concerning Greenhouse Gas Emitting-Sources in State Implementation Plans'' to...

  12. Who Are the Influentials? A Cross-State Social Network Analysis of the Reading Policy Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Mengli; Miskel, Cecil G.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed policy actors' influence on state reading policy and compared the structure of reading policy networks across eight states. Data for the study came from structured interviews and archival documents and were analyzed using social network analysis methods. This study found that state reading policy networks were heterogeneous in…

  13. Evaluation Capacity within State-Level School Counseling Programs: A Cross-Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ian; Carey, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Many state departments of education have revised their state school counseling models to reflect the ASCA National Model for school counseling programs. Only a few states have developed statewide evaluation systems to gather information about program effectiveness and/or to promote effective local program evaluation. This qualitative study…

  14. Differential cross sections for intermediate-energy electron scattering from α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol: Excitation of electronic-states

    SciTech Connect

    Chiari, L.; Jones, D. B.; Thorn, P. A.; Pettifer, Z.; Duque, H. V.; Silva, G. B. da; Limão-Vieira, P.; Duflot, D.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.; Delwiche, J.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; and others

    2014-07-14

    We report on measurements of differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron impact excitation of a series of Rydberg electronic-states in α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA). The energy range of these experiments was 20–50 eV, while the scattered electron was detected in the 10°–90° angular range. There are currently no other experimental data or theoretical computations against which we can directly compare the present measured results. Nonetheless, we are able to compare our THFA DCSs with earlier cross section measurements for Rydberg-state electronic excitation for tetrahydrofuran, a similar cyclic ether, from Do et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 144302 (2011)]. In addition, “rotationally averaged” elastic DCSs, calculated using our independent atom model with screened additivity rule correction approach are also reported. Those latter results give integral cross sections consistent with the optical theorem, and supercede those from the only previous study of Milosavljević et al. [Eur. Phys. J. D 40, 107 (2006)].

  15. Solid-state effects on thermal-neutron cross sections and on low-energy resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, J.A.; Mook, H.A.; Hill, N.W.; Shahal, O.

    1982-01-01

    The neutron total cross sections of several single crystals (Si, Cu, sapphire), several polycrystalline samples (Cu, Fe, Be, C, Bi, Ta), and a fine-powder copper sample have been measured from 0.002 to 5 eV. The Cu powder and polycrystalline Fe, Be and C data exhibit the expected abrupt changes in cross section. The cross section of the single crystal of Si is smooth with only small broad fluctuations. The data on two single Cu crystals, the sapphire crystal, cast Bi, and rolled samples of Ta and Cu have many narrow peaks approx. 10/sup -3/ eV wide. High resolution (0.3%) transmission measurements were made on the 1.057-eV resonance in /sup 240/Pu and the 0.433-eV resonance in /sup 180/Ta, both at room and low temperatures to study the effects of crystal binding. Although the changes in Doppler broadening with temperature were apparent, no asymmetries due to a recoilless contribution were observed.

  16. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L.

    2016-04-01

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  17. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases.

    PubMed

    Sosnovsky, Denis V; Jeschke, Gunnar; Matysik, Jörg; Vieth, Hans-Martin; Ivanov, Konstantin L

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  18. On Baryon-Antibaryon Cross Sections from Initial State Radiation Processes at BABAR and their Surprising Threshold Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pacetti, Simone

    2015-04-14

    BABAR has measured with unprecedented accuracy the e+e- → pp-bar and e+e- → ΛΛ-bar cross sections by means of the initial state radiation technique, which has the advantages of good efficiency and energy resolution, and full angular acceptance in the threshold region. A striking feature of these cross sections is their non-vanishing values at threshold. In the case of charged baryons, the phenomenon is well understood in terms of the Coulomb interaction between the outgoing baryon and antibaryon. However, such an effect is not expected for neutral baryons. We suggest a simple explanation for both charged and neutral baryon pairs based on Coulomb interactions at the valence quark level.

  19. Total n cross section from 50 to 400 MeV/c and hint for a narrow n state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iazzi, F.

    1999-08-01

    The measurement of the n total cross section in the momentum range 50-400 MeV/c has been performed in the OBELIX experiment at the LEAR machine at CERN. The results are reported for the first time together with a preliminary analysis in terms of scattering length and scattering volume approximation: from this analysis the contributions of the S and P wave to the n interaction in the full range have been evaluated as well as the isospin dependence of the total cross section in the range 200-400 MeV/c. The most striking result is the strong indication in the data of a narrow n state near the p threshold.

  20. Are cultures becoming individualistic? A cross-temporal comparison of individualism-collectivism in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi

    2012-02-01

    Individualism-collectivism is one of the best researched dimensions of culture in psychology. One frequently asked but underexamined question regards its cross-temporal changes: Are cultures becoming individualistic? One influential theory of cultural change, modernization theory, predicts the rise of individualism as a consequence of economic growth. Findings from past research are generally consistent with this theory, but there is also a body of evidence suggesting its limitations. To examine these issues, cross-temporal analyses of individualism-collectivism in the United States and Japan were conducted. Diverging patterns of cultural changes were found across indices: In both countries, some of the obtained indices showed rising individualism over the past several decades, supporting the modernization theory. However, other indices showed patterns that are best understood within the frameworks of a shifting focus of social relationships and a persisting cultural heritage. A comprehensive theory of cultural change requires considerations of these factors in addition to the modernization effect.

  1. Cross-cultural Temperamental Differences in Infants, Children, and Adults in the United States of America and Finland

    PubMed Central

    Gaias, Larissa M.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Fisher, Philip A.; Putnam, Samuel P.; Räikkönen, Katri; Komsi, Niina

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in temperament were investigated between infants (n = 131, 84 Finns), children (n = 653, 427 Finns), and adults (n = 759, 538 Finns) from the United States of America and Finland. Participants from both cultures completed the Infant Behavior Questionnaire, Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Across all ages, Americans received higher ratings on temperamental fearfulness than Finnish individuals, and also demonstrated higher levels of other negative affects at several time points. During infancy and adulthood, Finns tended to score higher on positive affect and elements of temperamental effortful control. Gender differences consistent with prior studies emerged cross-culturally, and were found to be more pronounced in the U.S. during childhood and in Finland during adulthood. PMID:22428997

  2. Delimiting the Origin of a B Chromosome by FISH Mapping, Chromosome Painting and DNA Sequence Analysis in Astyanax paranae (Teleostei, Characiformes)

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Duílio M. Z. de A.; Pansonato-Alves, José Carlos; Utsunomia, Ricardo; Araya-Jaime, Cristian; Ruiz-Ruano, Francisco J.; Daniel, Sandro Natal; Hashimoto, Diogo Teruo; Oliveira, Cláudio; Camacho, Juan Pedro M.; Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Foresti, Fausto

    2014-01-01

    Supernumerary (B) chromosomes have been shown to contain a wide variety of repetitive sequences. For this reason, fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is a useful tool for ascertaining the origin of these genomic elements, especially when combined with painting from microdissected B chromosomes. In order to investigate the origin of B chromosomes in the fish species Astyanax paranae, these two approaches were used along with PCR amplification of specific DNA sequences obtained from the B chromosomes and its comparison with those residing in the A chromosomes. Remarkably, chromosome painting with the one-arm metacentric B chromosome probe showed hybridization signals on entire B chromosome, while FISH mapping revealed the presence of H1 histone and 18S rDNA genes symmetrically placed in both arms of the B chromosome. These results support the hypothesis that the B chromosome of A. paranae is an isochromosome. Additionally, the chromosome pairs Nos. 2 or 23 are considered the possible B chromosome ancestors since both contain syntenic H1 and 18S rRNA sequences. The analysis of DNA sequence fragments of the histone and rRNA genes obtained from the microdissected B chromosomes showed high similarity with those obtained from 0B individuals, which supports the intraspecific origin of B chromosomes in A. paranae. Finally, the population hereby analysed showed a female-biased B chromosome presence suggesting that B chromosomes in this species could influence sex determinism. PMID:24736529

  3. Solvent-dependent excited-state hydrogen transfer and intersystem crossing in 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole.

    PubMed

    Aly, Shawkat M; Usman, Anwar; AlZayer, Maytham; Hamdi, Ghada A; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F

    2015-02-12

    The excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) has been investigated in a series of nonpolar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents. A variety of state-of-the-art experimental methods were employed, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. We show that the dynamics and mechanism of ESIHT of the singlet excited HBT are strongly solvent-dependent. In nonpolar solvents, the data demonstrate that HBT molecules adopt a closed form stabilized by O-H···N chelated hydrogen bonds with no twisting angle, and the photoinduced H transfer occurs within 120 fs, leading to the formation of a keto tautomer. In polar solvents, owing to dipole-dipole cross talk and hydrogen bonding interactions, the H transfer process is followed by ultrafast nonradiative deactivation channels, including ultrafast internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC). This is likely to be driven by the twisting motion around the C-C bond between the hydroxyphenyl and thiazole moieties, facilitating the IC back to the enol ground state or to the keto triplet state. In addition, our femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments indicate, for the first time, that the lifetime of the enol form in ACN is approximately 280 fs. This observation indicates that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the H bond and deactivating the excited state of the HBT. Interestingly, the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion data clearly demonstrate that the intermolecular proton transfer from the excited HBT to the DMSO solvent is about 190 fs, forming the HBT anion excited state.

  4. Characterization of the pre-force-generation state in the actomyosin cross-bridge cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingxuan; Rose, Michael B.; Ananthanarayanan, Shobana K.; Jacobs, Donald J.; Yengo, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Myosin is an actin-based motor protein that generates force by cycling between actin-attached (strong binding: ADP or rigor) and actin-detached (weak binding: ATP or ADP·Pi) states during its ATPase cycle. However, it remains unclear what specific conformational changes in the actin binding site take place on binding to actin, and how these structural changes lead to product release and the production of force and motion. We studied the dynamics of the actin binding region of myosin V by using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to monitor conformational changes in the upper-50-kDa domain of the actin binding cleft in the weak and strong actin binding states. Steady-state and lifetime data monitoring the FRET signal suggest that the cleft is in a more open conformation in the weak actin binding states. Transient kinetic experiments suggest that a rapid conformational change occurs, which is consistent with cleft closure before actin-activated phosphate release. Our results have identified a pre-force-generation actomyosin ADP·Pi state, and suggest force generation may occur from a state not yet seen by crystallography in which the actin binding cleft and the nucleotide binding pocket are closed. Computational modeling uncovers dramatic changes in the rigidity of the upper-50-kDa domain in different nucleotide states, which suggests that the intrinsic flexibility of this domain allows myosin motors to accomplish simultaneous tight nucleotide binding (closed nucleotide binding pocket) and high-affinity actin binding (closed actin binding cleft). PMID:18552179

  5. Crustal thickness beneath the Chaco-Parana basin, NE Argentina, from surface waves and ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, M.; Collaco, B.; Sanchez, G.; Assumpcao, M.; Sabbione, N.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a study of surface-wave dispersion data obtained by group velocity tomography, using seismic data and ambient seismic noise correlation, for the region of the Chaco-Parana basin, a Neopaleozoic intracratonic basin, formed by a complex history of different processes of subsidence. Previous surface waves analysis (e.g., Feng et al., 2004, 2007; Snokes and James, 1997) estimated Moho depth in the central Chaco basin and a low-velocity anomaly in the lithospheric mantle. However the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle remains little characterized across the region due to the rather poor resolution, especially for the south region. The aim of this work is to improve the resolution and fidelity of crustal images obtained from traditional earthquake-based measurements. Hence, we have increased the number of group velocity measurements using data from regional earthquakes recorded at LPA (La Plata) station, Brazilian Seismic Network stations (BRASIS), permanent (GSN) and portable (BLSP) stations as well as inter-station dispersion curves derived from a dataset of seismic noise recordings from BRASIS, INPRES stations, LPA, CPUP and TRQA stations. The resulting path coverage is denser and displays a more uniform azimuthally distribution producing better tomographic images. The dispersion curves were obtained by a multiple filter technique (Dziewonski et al, 1969) using a phase-matched filter. A 2D group velocity tomographic inversion was performed, applying a conjugate-gradient method (Paige and Saunders, 1982). The group velocity maps for 10 to 120 seconds correspond very well to tectonic structures throughout the studied area and the resolution was improved in northern Argentina and southern Brazil by the better seismic ray coverage showing low-velocity anomalies in the upper-mantle beneath the Chaco basin, compatible with other dispersion results. The new group velocity maps were inverted for S velocity structures, using a

  6. State-selective differential cross sections for double-electron capture in 0.25{endash}0.75-MeV He{sup 2+}-He collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Doerner, R.; Mergel, V.; Spielberger, L.; Jagutzki, O.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Ullrich, J.

    1998-01-01

    For 0.25{endash}0.75-MeV He{sup 2+} on He collisions we have measured total state selective double capture cross sections and cross sections differential in projectile scattering angle. For 0.25 MeV we present also state-selective scattering-angle-dependent double-capture cross sections. The projectile energy loss (the final electronic state) as well as the transverse momentum transfer (i.e., the projectile scattering angle) have been obtained by measuring the momentum vector of the recoil ion using cold target recoil ion momenum spectroscopy. The resonant transfer to the ground state is found to be by far the dominant double-capture channel. Capture to nonautoionizing excited states is smaller by about a factor of 7, and results in larger scattering angles than the ground-state double capture. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Phi--(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanes Egiyan

    2012-01-01

    We searched for the {Phi}{sup --}(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} decay channel using CLAS. The invariant mass spectrum of the {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M = 1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90% confidence level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of {Phi}{sup --}(1860) with a consecutive decay into {Xi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} in the photon energy range 4.5 GeV < E{sub {gamma}} < 5.5 GeV.

  8. A search for narrow states in antineutron-proton total and annihilation cross sections near N¯N threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T.; Chu, C.; Clement, J.; Elinon, C.; Furic, M.; Hartman, K.; Hicks, A.; Hungerford, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kruk, J.; Lewis, R.; Lowenstein, D.; Lochstet, W.; Mayes, B.; Moss, B.; Mutchler, G.; Pinsky, L.; Smith, G. A.; Tang, L.; von Witsch, W.; Xue, Y.

    1986-08-01

    The n¯p total and annihilation cross section have been measured from near N¯N threshold (1880 MeV) to 1940 MeV with RMS resolution ranging from 0.08 MeV (1880 MeV) to 6.7 MeV (1940 MeV). No significant narrow meson structures were seen, with 90% CL upper limits of 40-180 mb-MeV on σΓ for states with width less than our resolution. Combined with increasing unitarity bounds on σ as one approaches threshold, these limits confine widths of possible predicted states below 1900 MeV to less than ∼ 1 MeV.

  9. A search for narrow states in antineutron-proton total and annihilation cross-sections near N¯N threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, T.; Chu, C.; Clement, J.; Elinon, C.; Furic, M.; Hartman, K.; Hicks, A.; Hungerford, E.; Kishimoto, T.; Kruk, J.; Lewis, R.; Lowenstein, D.; Lochstet, W.; Mayes, B.; Moss, B.; Mutchler, G.; Pinsky, L.; Smith, G. A.; Tang, L.; von Witsch, W.; Xue, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The n¯p total and annihilation cross sections have been measured from near N¯N threshold (1880 MeV) to 1940 MeV with RMS resolution ranging from 0.08 MeV (1880 MeV) to 6.7 MeV (1940 MeV). No significant narrow meson structures were seen, with 90% C.L. upper limits of 40-180 mb-MeV on σT for states with width less than our resolution. Combined with increasing unitarity bounds on σ as one approaches threshold, these limits confine widths of possible predicted states below 1900 MeV to less than ˜1 MeV.

  10. Marginal chimera state at cross-frequency locking of pulse-coupled neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotov, M. I.; Osipov, G. V.; Pikovsky, A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider two coupled populations of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. Depending on the coupling strength, mean fields generated by these populations can have incommensurate frequencies or become frequency locked. In the observed 2:1 locking state of the mean fields, individual neurons in one population are asynchronous with the mean fields, while in another population they have the same frequency as the mean field. These synchronous neurons form a chimera state, where part of them build a fully synchronized cluster, while other remain scattered. We explain this chimera as a marginal one, caused by a self-organized neutral dynamics of the effective circle map.

  11. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state. PMID:27807452

  12. Cross-frequency phase synchrony around the saccade period as a correlate of perceiver's internal state

    PubMed Central

    Nakatani, Chie; Chehelcheraghi, Mojtaba; Jarrahi, Behnaz; Nakatani, Hironori; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-01-01

    In active vision, eye-movements depend on perceivers' internal state. We investigated peri-fixation brain activity for internal state-specific tagging. Human participants performed a task, in which a visual object was presented for identification in lateral visual field, to which they moved their eyes as soon as possible from a central fixation point. Next, a phrase appeared in the same location; the phrase could either be an easy or hard question about the object, answered by pressing one of two alternative response buttons, or it could be an instruction to simply press one of these two buttons. Depending on whether these messages were blocked or randomly mixed, one of two different internal states was induced: either the task was known in advance or it wasn't. Eye movements and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded simultaneously during task performance. Using eye-event-time-locked averaging and independent component analysis, saccade- and fixation-related components were identified. Coss-frequency phase-synchrony was observed between the alpha/beta1 ranges of fixation-related and beta2/gamma1 ranges of saccade-related activity 50 ms prior to fixation onset in the mixed-phrase condition only. We interpreted this result as evidence for internal state-specific tagging. PMID:23754990

  13. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Leadership in the United States and Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Charles L.; Boone, Mike; Price, Larry; Martinez, Dyanna; Alvarez, Isaias; Topete, Carlos; Olea, Elia

    This study reports the administration of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (J. Kouzes and B. Posner, 1995) to 28 graduate students in educational administration at a university in the Southwest of the United States and 28 students at a university in Mexico. The limitations of this quantitative measure are examined, and comparisons of…

  14. Comparison of 3D Classical Trajectory and Transition-State Theory Reaction Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Koeppl, G. W.; Karplus, Martin

    1970-10-01

    Although there is excellent agreement for a system such as H+H{sub 2} --> H{sub 2}+H, in which both the potential and the particle masses are symmetric, significant deviations occur for more asymmetric reactions. A detailed analysis show that the calculated differences are from the violation of two assumptions of transition-state theory.

  15. Communication and Decision Making in Japanese and American (United States) Organizations: A Cross-Cultural Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applbaum, Ronald L.

    Focusing upon the interactive work-group communication patterns of employees classified as "managers," this paper compares such communication observed in Japanese and United States business and industrial organizations. The paper first describes several models of decision making within American and Japanese organizations, highlighting the…

  16. Economic Literacy in the United States, Germany, and Austria: Results of Cross National Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumm, Volker; Beck, Klaus

    Designed to assess the economic literacy of high school students in Austria, Germany, and the United States, this research study involved the administration of an economic literacy test and gathering data on attitudes toward economics, on intelligence, and on moral maturity. The main focus of the research was a comparison between 11th and 12th…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Examination of the Positivity Effect in Memory: United States vs. China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Christie; Lin, Ziyong

    2012-01-01

    Many studies conducted in the United States (U.S.) have documented a positivity effect in aging--a tendency for older adults to remember more positive than negative information in comparison to young adults. Despite this cognitive emotional benefit, U.S. adults still hold a more negative view of aging compared to adults in Asia. We hypothesized…

  18. Special Education in Australia and the United States: A Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares and contrasts American and Australian special education, noting the overlap in general issues such as federal/state government role, legal/judicial involvement, identification practices, funding, mainstreaming, and parent advocacy. Specific policies and practices which have evolved along separate paths due to historical,…

  19. Cross-Cultural Differences in Counseling Attitudes: Japanese Versus the United States Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Kiyotoshi; Elia, Diane; Chambliss, Catherine

    The present study compared attitudes about the causes and optimal responses to mental illnesses of college students attending schools in Japan and in the United States. Independent sample t-tests were performed to assess differences between the national groups in their responses to 22 Likert-format items exploring different aspects of a…

  20. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  1. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: The importance of level crossings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-01

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants.

  2. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: the importance of level crossings.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Kent R; Tycko, Robert

    2012-08-28

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T(1e) is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants. PMID:22938251

  3. Theory for cross effect dynamic nuclear polarization under magic-angle spinning in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance: The importance of level crossings

    PubMed Central

    Thurber, Kent R.; Tycko, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) due to the cross effect in nuclear magnetic resonance under magic-angle spinning (MAS). Using a three-spin model (two electrons and one nucleus), cross effect DNP with MAS for electron spins with a large g-anisotropy can be seen as a series of spin transitions at avoided crossings of the energy levels, with varying degrees of adiabaticity. If the electron spin-lattice relaxation time T1e is large relative to the MAS rotation period, the cross effect can happen as two separate events: (i) partial saturation of one electron spin by the applied microwaves as one electron spin resonance (ESR) frequency crosses the microwave frequency and (ii) flip of all three spins, when the difference of the two ESR frequencies crosses the nuclear frequency, which transfers polarization to the nuclear spin if the two electron spins have different polarizations. In addition, adiabatic level crossings at which the two ESR frequencies become equal serve to maintain non-uniform saturation across the ESR line. We present analytical results based on the Landau-Zener theory of adiabatic transitions, as well as numerical quantum mechanical calculations for the evolution of the time-dependent three-spin system. These calculations provide insight into the dependence of cross effect DNP on various experimental parameters, including MAS frequency, microwave field strength, spin relaxation rates, hyperfine and electron-electron dipole coupling strengths, and the nature of the biradical dopants. PMID:22938251

  4. Korean Social Studies Preservice Teachers' Cross-Cultural Learning and Global Perspective Development: Crossing Borders between Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Yoonjung; Choi, Minsik

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cross-cultural learning experiences on Korean preservice social studies teachers' global perspectives development. Social studies preservice teachers in a large woman's university in Korea participated in a cross-cultural learning course, which focused on critical understanding of globalization and global…

  5. Absolute cross sections for one electron capture into excited projectile states in collisions between He 2+ (15-150 keV) and Li atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, K.; Dijkkamp, D.; Van Der Woude, R.; Yan, Pan Guang; De Heer, F. J.

    1982-03-01

    We have studied the He 2+-Li collision system at laboratory energies between 15 and 150 keV using optical methods. From the measured emission cross sections we derive state-selective capture cross sections for n = 2,3,4 and n ⩾ 5 states of the He + ions. Our data are consistent with theoretical predictions of Bransden and Ermolaev. The total capture cross sections as evaluated from our emission cross section data, agree very well with the results of McCullough et al. obtained from projectile charge detection measurements. Near 15 keV our emission cross sections for 30.4 nm and 25.6 nm are much larger than those measured previously by Barrett and Leventhal at slightly lower energies.

  6. Charge state distributions and charge exchange cross sections of carbon in helium at 30-258 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxeiner, Sascha; Seiler, Martin; Suter, Martin; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    With the introduction of helium stripping in radiocarbon (14C) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), higher +1 charge state yields in the 200 keV region and fewer beam losses are observed compared to nitrogen or argon stripping. To investigate the feasibility of even lower beam energies for 14C analyses the stripping characteristics of carbon in helium need to be further studied. Using two different AMS systems at ETH Zurich (myCADAS and MICADAS), ion beam transmissions of carbon ions for the charge states -1, +1, +2 and +3 were measured in the range of 258 keV down to 30 keV. The correction for beam losses and the extraction of charge state yields and charge exchange cross sections will be presented. An increase in population of the +1 charge state towards the lowest measured energies up to 75% was found as well as agreement with previous data from literature. The findings suggest that more compact radiocarbon AMS systems are possible and could provide even higher efficiency than current systems operating in the 200 keV range.

  7. Using resonance Raman cross-section data to estimate the spin state populations of Cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Mak, Piotr J; Zhu, Qianhong; Kincaid, James R

    2013-12-01

    The cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are heme proteins responsible for the oxidation of xenobiotics and pharmaceuticals and the biosynthesis of essential steroid products. In all cases, substrate binding initiates the enzymatic cycle, converting ferric low spin (LS) to high-spin (HS), with the efficiency of the conversion varying widely for different substrates, so documentation of this conversion for a given substrate is an important objective. Resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy can effectively yield distinctive frequencies for the ν3 "spin state marker" bands. Here, employing a reference cytochrome P450 (CYP101), the intensities of the ν3 modes (ILS) and (IHS) relative to an internal standard (sodium sulfate) yield relative populations for the two spin states; i.e., a value of 1.24 was determined for the ratio of the relative cross sections for the ν3 modes. Use of this value was then shown to permit a reliable calculation of relative populations of the two spin states from rR spectra of several other Cytochromes P450. The importance of this work is that, using this information, it is now possible to conveniently document by rR the spin state population without conducting separate experiments requiring different analytical methods, instrumentation and additional sample. PMID:24443630

  8. Complex angular momentum theory of state-to-state integral cross sections: resonance effects in the F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction.

    PubMed

    Sokolovski, D; Akhmatskaya, E; Echeverría-Arrondo, C; De Fazio, D

    2015-07-28

    State-to-state reactive integral cross sections (ICSs) are often affected by quantum mechanical resonances, especially near a reactive threshold. An ICS is usually obtained by summing partial waves at a given value of energy. For this reason, the knowledge of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane is not sufficient for a quantitative description of the patterns produced by resonance. Such description is available in terms of the poles of an S-matrix element in the complex plane of the total angular momentum. The approach was recently implemented in a computer code ICS_Regge, available in the public domain [Comput. Phys. Commun., 2014, 185, 2127]. In this paper, we employ the ICS_Regge package to analyse in detail, for the first time, the resonance patterns predicted for integral cross sections (ICSs) of the benchmark F + HD → HF(v' = 3) + D reaction. The v = 0, j = 0, Ω = 0 → v' = 3, j' = 0, 1, 2, and Ω' = 0, 1, 2 transitions are studied for collision energies from 58.54 to 197.54 meV. For these energies, we find several resonances, whose contributions to the ICS vary from symmetric and asymmetric Fano shapes to smooth sinusoidal Regge oscillations. Complex energies of metastable states and Regge pole positions and residues are found by Padé reconstruction of the scattering matrix elements. The accuracy of the ICS_Regge code, relation between complex energies and Regge poles, various types of Regge trajectories, and the origin of the J-shifting approximation are also discussed.

  9. Wilderness preservation: a cross-cultural comparison of Canada and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Dubasak, M.

    1987-01-01

    Conservation is an evolving, trans-national concept that incorporates a philosophy of resource use. Its expression takes different forms and reflects its host culture. This dissertation uses Canada and the United States to study the variations of conservation that exist in two national settings. It makes three main points: (1) cumulative effects of environmental neglect, a reassessment of values, and issues specific to each country were responsible for heightened interest in conservation during the 1960's; (2) characteristics of conservation and the means by which its goals were pursued were specific to national culture; in both countries, demands for citizen participation grew along with interest in conservation, but important differences in political culture mandated differences in strategy and tactics; and (3) Canadian conservationists looked to the United States for ideas and strategies, but they were not always appropriate to Canadian circumstances. Without a national preservation tradition, Canadian conservationist use of American examples was not always relevant to attempts to develop a Canadian constituency for preservations. This study focuses on wilderness preservation because it was the dominant component of conservation in the United States in the 1960s and experienced its first surge of interest in Canada at the same time.

  10. Factors affecting dystocia in Brahman-cross heifers in subtropical southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bellows, R A; Genho, P C; Moore, S A; Chase, C C

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine relative relationships among factors affecting dystocia in Brahman-cross heifers. Body and pelvic measurements were obtained in mid-June (when heifers were approximately 17 mo old), 45 d after a 60-d breeding season. Heifers studied were 207 Red Brangus, 209 Simbrah, and 250 Braford bred to Black Angus bulls; calving began on December 1. Heifers grazed stockpiled bahia and hemarthria grass or ryegrass supplemented with 0.9 kg of 32% protein cottonseed meal and 1.8 kg of mill-run black strap molasses daily during calving. Calvings were scored (1 = no difficulty to 4 = major difficulty). A random sample of birth weights were obtained on 131 and 210 calves in 1992 and 1993. Data were analyzed within year by SAS procedures. Breed differences in dam size and pelvic measurements were highly significant. Residual correlations between body weight and pelvic area were .20 and .35 (both P < .01) for 1991 and 1992. Dystocia incidence was 6.9% in 1992 and 10.5% in 1993, with higher incidence in males than in females (1992, 10.6 vs 3.1%, P = .08; 1993, 15.6 vs 4.2%, P < .01, male vs female, respectively). Male birth weight exceeded (P < .01) that of females (26.7 vs 24.3 kg, 1992; 28.1 vs 26.1 kg, 1993). Correlations among dam size and calf birth weight were not significant. Birth weight was significantly correlated with dystocia score (.19 and .49, 1992 and 1993). Path analyses of influences on dystocia found birth weight, dam heart girth, and body weight significant in 1992, but only birth weight significant in 1993. Regression of calving score on birth weight was curvilinear and significant in both years, with the birth weight inflection point at 22 kg. We conclude that dam body size data obtained following the breeding season were of minor value in determining dystocia, but birth weight was consistently important.

  11. Willingness to pay for cross-border health insurance between the United States and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas; Ojeda, Gilbert; Castañeda, Xóchitl

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the demand for a binational health plan comprising preventive and ambulatory care in the United States and comprehensive care in Mexico. The results show that 62 percent of the surveyed population were interested in the product, and 57 percent were willing to pay $75-$125 a month if services in Mexico were provided in public hospitals. Only 23 percent were willing to pay $150-$250 a month for the same plan if services in Mexico were offered through private providers. The strongest predictors of willingness to pay were having insured dependents in Mexico and sending them remittances for health purposes. PMID:18180492

  12. A novel method for static equation-of state-development: equation of state of a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) network to 10 GPa.

    PubMed

    Dattelbaum, Dana M; Jensen, Jeremy D; Schwendt, Ana M; Kober, Edward M; Lewis, Matthew W; Menikoff, Ralph

    2005-04-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) equation-of-state (EOS) information for polymers and polymeric composites is valuable for predicting their response to extreme conditions. An obstacle in determining equations of state for polymeric materials is the lack of a simple, static experimental method for acquiring PVT data for solid networks and liquids at pressures greater than several kilobars. Here, we report a novel approach in determining static EOS for polymers using high-pressure diamond-anvil cells coupled with optical microscopy and image analysis. Results are presented for a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer, Sylgard 184. Static isothermal results were fitted to empirical and semiempirical equations of state, including the Tait, Birch-Murnaghan, and Vinet forms. Static PV data were also converted to pseudoshock velocity-pseudoparticle velocity (U(s)-u(p)) for comparison to dynamic Hugoniot data. A linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit U(s)=s(T)u(p)+c(T) gives c(T)=1.572 km/s and s(T)=1.703. s(T) is related to the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus B(0) (') by s(T)=(B(0) (')+1)/4 and B(0) (')=5.8. A comparison of the static and shock data is given, along with an estimate of the Grüneisen parameter, and a discussion of the free volume content in the polymer network, and limitations of this novel method.

  13. A novel method for static equation-of state-development: Equation of state of a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) network to 10 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Jensen, Jeremy D.; Schwendt, Ana M.; Kober, Edward M.; Lewis, Matthew W.; Menikoff, Ralph

    2005-04-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) equation-of-state (EOS) information for polymers and polymeric composites is valuable for predicting their response to extreme conditions. An obstacle in determining equations of state for polymeric materials is the lack of a simple, static experimental method for acquiring PVT data for solid networks and liquids at pressures greater than several kilobars. Here, we report a novel approach in determining static EOS for polymers using high-pressure diamond-anvil cells coupled with optical microscopy and image analysis. Results are presented for a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer, SylgardR 184. Static isothermal results were fitted to empirical and semiempirical equations of state, including the Tait, Birch-Murnaghan, and Vinet forms. Static PV data were also converted to pseudoshock velocity-pseudoparticle velocity (Us-up) for comparison to dynamic Hugoniot data. A linear Rankine-Hugoniot fit Us=sTup+cT gives cT=1.572km/s and sT=1.703. sT is related to the pressure derivative of the bulk modulus B0' by sT=(B0'+1)/4 and B0'=5.8. A comparison of the static and shock data is given, along with an estimate of the Grüneisen parameter, and a discussion of the free volume content in the polymer network, and limitations of this novel method.

  14. Herbal remedy in the treatment of malaria: cross sectional survey of residents of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Idowu, E T; Mafe, M A; Otubanjo, O A; Adeneye, A K

    2006-06-01

    Semi structured questionnaires. designed to capture information on the type. composition, method of preparation. dosage, mode of administration. and frequency of use of herbal preparations in malaria treatment, were administered to 1,593 adults of the 3 main ethnic groups and a forth group comprising other smaller ethnic groups designated as "others", all resident in Lagos metropolis in a cross sectional survey. The 1,593 respondents were made up of 892 males and 701 females and their ages ranged from 19 to 60 years. A high percentage in all the ethnic groups especially the Yorubas admitted to the use of herbs in treating malaria [Yoruba (69%), Hausa (47%). others (32%) and Igbo (30%)1. Effectiveness of herbs in treating malaria episodes featured as the major factor for their use. as claimed by the majority (>50%) of the respondents in each of the ethnic groups, while cost consideration was the next most important factor. Other factors mentioned included the absence of side effect in herbal use. to avoid the itchy side effect and ineffectiveness of chloroquine and some other anti-malarials. An appreciable percentage across the ethnic groups had no idea of the constituents of the herbal remedies they use for treating their malaria episodes since they buy these from traditional herbalists. Varied combinations of these herbs in combination with different types of fruits and other substances are claimed to be used, the main ones of which are Azardiracha indica and pineapple. A large majority of respondents in all the ethnic groups claimed to use the same herbs for the treatment and prevention of malaria and great improvement is experienced after use [Hausas (90%). Igbos (83%). Yorubas (77%) and the others (88%)]. There is usually no specific dose or dose regimen. however a high proportion in all the ethnic groups use herbal preparation thrice a day and a few of the respondents take unspecified measures at arbitrary intervals. The lack of standards in the use of these

  15. Factors affecting dystocia in Brahman-cross heifers in subtropical southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Bellows, R A; Genho, P C; Moore, S A; Chase, C C

    1996-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine relative relationships among factors affecting dystocia in Brahman-cross heifers. Body and pelvic measurements were obtained in mid-June (when heifers were approximately 17 mo old), 45 d after a 60-d breeding season. Heifers studied were 207 Red Brangus, 209 Simbrah, and 250 Braford bred to Black Angus bulls; calving began on December 1. Heifers grazed stockpiled bahia and hemarthria grass or ryegrass supplemented with 0.9 kg of 32% protein cottonseed meal and 1.8 kg of mill-run black strap molasses daily during calving. Calvings were scored (1 = no difficulty to 4 = major difficulty). A random sample of birth weights were obtained on 131 and 210 calves in 1992 and 1993. Data were analyzed within year by SAS procedures. Breed differences in dam size and pelvic measurements were highly significant. Residual correlations between body weight and pelvic area were .20 and .35 (both P < .01) for 1991 and 1992. Dystocia incidence was 6.9% in 1992 and 10.5% in 1993, with higher incidence in males than in females (1992, 10.6 vs 3.1%, P = .08; 1993, 15.6 vs 4.2%, P < .01, male vs female, respectively). Male birth weight exceeded (P < .01) that of females (26.7 vs 24.3 kg, 1992; 28.1 vs 26.1 kg, 1993). Correlations among dam size and calf birth weight were not significant. Birth weight was significantly correlated with dystocia score (.19 and .49, 1992 and 1993). Path analyses of influences on dystocia found birth weight, dam heart girth, and body weight significant in 1992, but only birth weight significant in 1993. Regression of calving score on birth weight was curvilinear and significant in both years, with the birth weight inflection point at 22 kg. We conclude that dam body size data obtained following the breeding season were of minor value in determining dystocia, but birth weight was consistently important. PMID:8818787

  16. Cross-sectional study of pulmonary function in carbon black workers in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.M.; Diaz, J.F.; Fyfe, I.M.; Ingalls, T.H.

    1988-04-01

    Since a proportion of airborne carbon black particles is of respirable size, the possibility that it may affect pulmonary function was investigated in 913 employees of 6 carbon black producers in the United States. Exposure was estimated by combining the mean total dust exposures of each job category with the length of time workers had spent in each job, giving a measurement expressed in mg/m3.months. Pulmonary function was measured by spirometry. The major variables affecting pulmonary function were age and cigarette smoking. When the effects of age and smoking were controlled in an age-specific, two-way analysis of variance, no consistent effects of total dust exposure were detectable in these workers. This study provided no evidence that exposure to total dust under the conditions pertaining in the contemporary carbon black industry had detrimental effects on the pulmonary function of men employed in the production and handling of this product.

  17. Adiabatic fast passage application in solid state NMR study of cross relaxation and molecular dynamics in heteronuclear systems.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2MHz and 28.411MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins (1)H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins (19)F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal. PMID:26705906

  18. Adiabatic fast passage application in solid state NMR study of cross relaxation and molecular dynamics in heteronuclear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, M.; Woźniak-Braszak, A.; Jurga, K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2 MHz and 28.411 MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins 1H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins 19F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal.

  19. Adiabatic fast passage application in solid state NMR study of cross relaxation and molecular dynamics in heteronuclear systems.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, M; Woźniak-Braszak, A; Jurga, K

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the benefits of using fast adiabatic passage for the study of molecular dynamics in the solid state heteronuclear systems in the laboratory frame. A homemade pulse spectrometer operating at the frequency of 30.2MHz and 28.411MHz for protons and fluorines, respectively, has been enhanced with microcontroller direct digital synthesizer DDS controller [1-4]. This work briefly describes how to construct a low-cost and easy-to-assemble adiabatic extension set for homemade and commercial spectrometers based on recently very popular Arduino shields. The described set was designed for fast adiabatic generation. Timing and synchronization problems are discussed. The cross-relaxation experiments with different initial states of the two spin systems have been performed. Contrary to our previous work [5] where the steady-state NOE experiments were conducted now proton spins (1)H are polarized in the magnetic field B0 while fluorine spins (19)F are perturbed by selective saturation for a short time and then the system is allowed to evolve for a period in the absence of a saturating field. The adiabatic passage application leads to a reversal of magnetization of fluorine spins and increases the amplitude of the signal.

  20. Measurement of the WW+WZ Production Cross Section Using the Lepton+Jets Final State at CDF II

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, T.; Adelman, J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    We report two complementary measurements of the diboson (WW + WZ) cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using p{bar p} collision data at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second method uses more of the kinematic information in the event through matrix-element calculations of the signal and background processes and has a higher sensitivity. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4{sigma} and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results from both methods gives {sigma}{sub WW+WZ} = 16.0 {+-} 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  1. Measurement of the WW + WZ production cross section using the lepton + jets final state at CDF II.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; di Giovanni, G P; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Group, R C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramanov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Peiffer, T; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Renz, M; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Roy, P; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Rutherford, B; Saarikko, H; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M A; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shalhout, S Z; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Shimojima, M; Shiraishi, S; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Simonenko, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; St Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Strycker, G L; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Suslov, I; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, R; Tang, J; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Thom, J; Thome, J; Thompson, G A; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Ttito-Guzmán, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Totaro, P; Tourneur, S; Trovato, M; Tsai, S-Y; Tu, Y; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Uozumi, S; van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Vellidis, C; Vidal, M; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vogel, M; Volobouev, I; Volpi, G; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wakisaka, T; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Weinelt, J; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilbur, S; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wolfe, H; Wright, T; Wu, X; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, X; Zheng, Y; Zucchelli, S

    2010-03-12

    We report two complementary measurements of the WW + WZ cross section in the final state consisting of an electron or muon, missing transverse energy, and jets, performed using pp collision data at square root of s = 1.96 TeV collected by the CDF II detector. The first method uses the dijet invariant mass distribution while the second more sensitive method uses matrix-element calculations. The result from the second method has a signal significance of 5.4sigma and is the first observation of WW + WZ production using this signature. Combining the results gives sigma(WW + WZ) = 16.0 +/- 3.3 pb, in agreement with the standard model prediction.

  2. Long-lived excited states of zwitterionic copper(I) complexes for photoinduced cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shelar, Deepak Prakash; Han, Xian-Zhu; Li, Ting-Ting; Guan, Xiangguo; Lu, Wei; Liu, Kun; Chen, Yong; Fu, Wen-Fu; Che, Chi-Ming

    2015-01-12

    Four heteroleptic copper(I) complexes containing phenanthroline and monoanionic nido-carborane-diphosphine ligands have been prepared and structurally characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction. These complexes exhibit intense absorptions in the visible range and excited-state lifetimes on the microsecond scale. Their application in visible-light-induced cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions was investigated. Preliminary studies showed that one of the four copper(I) complexes is an efficient catalyst for photoinduced oxidative C-H functionalization using oxygen as oxidant. Furthermore, α-functionalized tertiary amines were obtained in good-to-excellent yields by light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of a mixture of our Cu(I) complex, tertiary amines, and a variety of nucleophiles (nitroalkane, acetone, or indoles) under aerobic conditions. Electron paramagnetic resonance measurements provided evidence for the formation of superoxide radical anions (O2(-⋅)) rather than singlet oxygen ((1)O2) during these photocatalytic reactions. PMID:25413572

  3. Cross-linked carbon network with hierarchical porous structure for high performance solid-state electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yongliang; Huang, Liang; Xiao, Xu; Yao, Bin; Hu, Zhimi; Li, Tianqi; Liu, Kang; Zhou, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The development of portable electronics strongly requires flexible, lightweight, and inexpensive energy-storage devices with high power density, long cycling stability, and high reliability. In this work, we prepare a flexible solid-state electrochemical capacitor using cross-linked hierarchical porous carbon network as electrode material via electrospinning and carbonization process. This device can reversibly deliver a maximum energy density of 10.18 W h/kg with excellent cycling stability which achieves 95% capacitance retention after 20000 charge/discharge cycles. Moreover, it also demonstrates outstanding mechanical flexibility and excellent capacitance retention even when the device is repeatedly bended 10000 cycles under 90°. All of these results suggest its promising perspective in flexible energy storage device.

  4. A method for estimating time-dependent acoustic cross-sections of bubbles and bubble clouds prior to the steady state

    PubMed

    Clarke; Leighton

    2000-04-01

    Models for the acoustic cross-sections of gas bubbles undergoing steady-state pulsation in liquid have existed for some time. This article presents a theoretical scheme for estimating the cross-sections of single bubbles, and bubble clouds, from the start of insonation onward. In this period the presence of transients can significantly alter the cross-section from the steady-state value. The model combines numerical solutions of the Herring-Keller model with appropriate damping values to calculate the extinction cross-section of a bubble as a function of time in response to a continuous harmonic sound field (it is also shown how the model can be adapted to estimate the time-dependent scatter cross-section). The model is then extended to determine the extinction cross-section area of multiple bubbles of varying population distributions assuming no bubble-bubble interactions. The results have shown that the time taken to reach steady state is dependent on the closeness of the bubble to resonance, and on the driving pressure amplitude. In the response of the population as a whole, the time to reach steady state tends to decrease with increasing values of the driving pressure amplitude; and with the increasing values of the ratio of the numbers of bubbles having radii much larger than resonance to the number of resonant bubbles. The implications of these findings for the use of acoustic pulses are explored.

  5. Cross-cultural comparison of patients undergoing ACL reconstruction in the United States and Norway.

    PubMed

    Magnussen, Robert A; Granan, Lars-Petter; Dunn, Warren R; Amendola, Annunziato; Andrish, Jack T; Brophy, Robert; Carey, James L; Flanigan, David; Huston, Laura J; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C; McCarty, Eric C; Marx, Robert G; Matava, Matthew J; Parker, Richard D; Vidal, Armando; Wolcott, Michelle; Wolf, Brian R; Wright, Rick W; Spindler, Kurt P; Engebretsen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Data from large prospectively collected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cohorts are being utilized to address clinical questions regarding ACL injury demographics and outcomes of ACL reconstruction. These data are affected by patient and injury factors as well as surgical factors associated with the site of data collection. The aim of this article is to compare primary ACL reconstruction data from patient cohorts in the United States and Norway, demonstrating the similarities and differences between two large cohorts. Primary ACL reconstruction data from the Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) in the United States and the Norwegian National Knee Ligament Registry (NKLR) were compared to identify similarities and differences in patient demographics, activity at injury, preoperative Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), time to reconstruction, intraarticular pathology, and graft choice. Seven hundred and thirteen patients from the MOON cohort were compared with 4,928 patients from the NKLR. A higher percentage of males (NKLR 57%, MOON 52%; P < 0.01) and increased patient age (NKLR 27 years, MOON 23 years; P\\0.001) were noted in the NKLR population. The most common sports associated with injury in the MOON cohort were basketball (20%), soccer (17%), and American football (14%); while soccer (42%), handball (26%), and downhill skiing (10%) were most common in the NKLR. Median time to reconstruction was 2.4 (Interquartile range [IQR] 1.2-7.2) months in the MOON cohort and 7.9 (IQR 4.2-17.8) months in the NKLR cohort (P < 0.001). Both meniscal tears (MOON 65%, NKLR 48%; P < 0.001) and articular cartilage defects (MOON 46%, NKLR 26%; P < 0.001) were more common in the MOON cohort. Hamstring autografts (MOON 44%, NKLR 63%) and patellar tendon autografts (MOON 42%, NKLR 37%) were commonly utilized in both cohorts. Allografts were much more frequently utilized in the MOON cohort (MOON 13%, NKLR 0.04%; P < 0.001). Significant diversity in patient

  6. Cross-National Differences in Goals for Retirement: the Case of India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Hershey, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    In the present investigation, a comparison is made between the retirement goals of working Indian adults and previously published data on the retirement goals of working adults in the United States. Participants were 158 Indian respondents between 21 and 60 years of age. Each respondent completed a questionnaire in which they reported the nature of the goals they held for retirement. For the most part, the types of the goals enumerated by workers from India were similar to those of Americans. However, Indians were found to focus more on financial stability and self-related goals, whereas Americans tended to focus on leisure and exploration activities. Moreover, Indian workers reported fewer retirement goals and their goals were less concrete than those reported by Americans. Findings are discussed in terms of the way culturally-based differences and similarities in retirement systems can impact some aspects of future goals (e.g., frequency; concreteness), but not other aspects of goal structures (e.g., goal content).

  7. Cross-National Differences in Goals for Retirement: the Case of India and the United States.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ritu; Hershey, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    In the present investigation, a comparison is made between the retirement goals of working Indian adults and previously published data on the retirement goals of working adults in the United States. Participants were 158 Indian respondents between 21 and 60 years of age. Each respondent completed a questionnaire in which they reported the nature of the goals they held for retirement. For the most part, the types of the goals enumerated by workers from India were similar to those of Americans. However, Indians were found to focus more on financial stability and self-related goals, whereas Americans tended to focus on leisure and exploration activities. Moreover, Indian workers reported fewer retirement goals and their goals were less concrete than those reported by Americans. Findings are discussed in terms of the way culturally-based differences and similarities in retirement systems can impact some aspects of future goals (e.g., frequency; concreteness), but not other aspects of goal structures (e.g., goal content). PMID:27432371

  8. A Cross-Dispersed Medium-Resolution Spectrograph for Appalachian State Univeristy's 32-inch Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluttz, K. A.; Gray, R. O.

    2003-12-01

    We have designed and constructed an economical medium-resolution spectrograph to be used on the 32-inch telescope of Appalachian State University's Dark Sky Observatory (DSO). The primary function of this instrument will be to study shell and emission-line stars. However, we will also use this instrument for chemical abundance studies and radial velocities. The basic design is that of an Ebert spectrograph with a single 6-inch mirror acting as both the collimator and camera. The primary dispersion is accomplished by a reflection grating, and order separation is accomplished by a grism. The spectrograph has been designed so that three wavelength regions are simultaneously imaged on the CCD camera. When the Hα line is centered in the third order, Hβ and lines of Fe II multiplet 42 -- often enhanced in shell and emission-line stars -- appear in the fourth order and the fifth order contains both the Ca II K & H lines. To facilitate abundance measurements, a telluric-free region near 6400Å is available in the third order by tilting the main diffraction grating. Preliminary tests have shown that the resolution of the new spectrograph is 0.42Å in the third order (R ≈ 15,000). This relatively high resolution will allow studies to be conducted at DSO which have not previously been possible with the instrumentation currently in use. Several optical components for this spectrograph were purchased with grants from the Fund for Astrophysical Research and the University Research Council.

  9. Family, welfare state generosity and the vulnerability of older adults: A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Moor, Nienke; de Graaf, Paul M; Komter, Aafke

    2013-12-01

    The availability of family can be considered a protective factor for aging well. In this article, we examine to what extent the family situation of older people creates vulnerability with respect to their quality of life. Because not everyone is vulnerable to the same degree, we try to identify the conditions under which older people benefit more from having family resources. Based on the resources perspective, we argue that the impact of family resources on life satisfaction is stronger for older people with fewer resources at both the individual level (material, physical and non-familial social resources) and the country level (welfare state services targeted at older adults). To test our hypotheses we make use of the fourth wave of the European Values Study, and the MULTILINKS Social Policy Indicators database. In general our data offer support for the idea that the presence of intimate family ties (with partner and children) can be considered an important resource for achieving psychological well-being, whereas their absence or loss may act as a constraint. Our vulnerability argument is partly supported by the findings. Partner resources are more important for the life satisfaction of older people with a low education and health problems. Similarly, having children only improves the life-satisfaction of lower educated older adults. However, family resources are not more important for older people with fewer material resources or for older people living in countries with low services levels targeted at older adults.

  10. Basolateral amygdala CB1 cannabinoid receptors are involved in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ofogh, Sattar Norouzi; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sardari, Maryam; Ghasemzadeh, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol and morphine are largely co-abused and affect memory formation. The present study intended to investigate the involvement of cannabinoid CB1 receptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. Adult male Wistar rats received bilateral cannulation of the BLA, and memory retrieval was measured in step-through type passive avoidance apparatus. Our results showed that post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morphine (6mg/kg) induced amnesia. Pre-test administration of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) significantly improved morphine-induced memory impairment, suggesting that there is cross state-dependent memory retrieval between morphine and ethanol. It should be considered that pre-test administration of ethanol (0.1 and 0.5g/kg, i.p.) by itself had no effect on memory retrieval in the passive avoidance task. Interestingly, pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of different doses of WIN55,212-2 (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3μg/rat), a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist, plus an ineffective dose of ethanol (0.1g/kg, i.p.) improved morphine-induced memory impairment. Intra-BLA microinjection of AM251 (0.4-0.6ng/rat), a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, inhibited the improved effect of ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) on morphine response. Pre-test intra-BLA microinjection of WIN55,212-2 or AM251 had no effect on memory retrieval or morphine-induced amnesia. Taken together, it can be concluded that morphine and ethanol can induce state-dependent memory retrieval. In addition, the BLA endocannabinoid system mediates via CB1 receptors the functional interaction of morphine and ethanol state-dependent memory retrieval which may depend on the rewarding effects of the drugs. PMID:27327764

  11. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.

  12. Cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2 - An application of the Schwinger multichannel variational method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lima, M. A. P.; Gibson, T. L.; Mckoy, V.; Huo, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    In this and the two accompanying letters, the results of calculations of the cross sections for electron impact excitation of the b 3Sigma(+)u state of H2, for collision energies from near threshold to 30 eV, are presented. These results are obtained using a multichannel extension of the Schwinger variational principle at the two-state level. The quantitative agreement between the integral cross sections of these three studies is very good. Inclusion of correlation terms in the scattering wavefunctions, which relax the orthogonality between bound and continuum orbitals, is seen to affect the cross sections substantially. Although a comparison of these calculated cross sections with available experimental data is encouraging, some seious discrepancies exist.

  13. Measurement of relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of the helium 4 2s and 4 2p states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of helium by 200-eV electrons into the 4 2s and 4 2p states were measured via a fast delayed coincidence technique. Results show good agreement with the relative cross sections for single electron excitation of helium and hydrogen. An application of the results of the measurement to the development of ultraviolet intensity standard is suggested. This technique involves the use of known branching ratios, a visible light flux reference, and the measured relative cross sections.

  14. The Use of Social Media by State Tobacco Control Programs to Promote Smoking Cessation: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Heather; Kim, Annice E; Curry, Laurel; Allen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of evidence-based cessation services through social media sites may increase their utilization by smokers. Data on social media adoption and use within tobacco control programs (TCPs) have not been reported. Objective This study examines TCP use of and activity levels on social media, the reach of TCP sites, and the level of engagement with the content on sites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study of state TCP social media sites and their content was conducted. Results In 2013, 60% (30/50) of TCPs were using social media. Approximately one-quarter (26%, 13/50) of all TCPs used 3 or more social media sites, 24% (12/50) used 2, and 10% (5/50) used 1 site. Overall, 60% (30/50) had a Facebook page, 36% (18/50) had a Twitter page, and 40% (20/50) had a YouTube channel. The reach of social media was different across each site and varied widely by state. Among TCPs with a Facebook page, 73% (22/30) had less than 100 likes per 100,000 adults in the state, and 13% (4/30) had more than 400 likes per 100,000 adults. Among TCPs with a Twitter page, 61% (11/18) had less than 10 followers per 100,000 adults, and just 1 state had more than 100 followers per 100,000 adults. Seven states (23%, 7/30) updated their social media sites daily. The most frequent social media activities focused on the dissemination of information rather than interaction with site users. Social media resources from a national cessation media campaign were promoted infrequently. Conclusions The current reach of state TCP social media sites is low and most TCPs are not promoting existing cessation services or capitalizing on social media’s interactive potential. TCPs should create an online environment that increases participation and 2-way communication with smokers to promote free cessation services. PMID:25014311

  15. State-resolved differential and integral cross sections for the Ne + H2 (+) (v = 0-2, j = 0) → NeH(+) + H reaction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Yao, Cui-Xia; He, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Pei-Yu

    2016-05-14

    State-to-state quantum dynamic calculations for the proton transfer reaction Ne + H2 (+) (v = 0-2, j = 0) are performed on the most accurate LZHH potential energy surface, with the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method including the Coriolis coupling. The J = 0 reaction probabilities for the title reaction agree well with previous results in a wide range of collision energy of 0.2-1.2 eV. Total integral cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experiment data. Vibrational excitation of the reactant is much more efficient in enhancing the reaction cross sections than translational and rotational excitation. Total differential cross sections are found to be forward-backward peaked with strong oscillations, which is the indication of the complex-forming mechanism. As the collision energy increases, state-resolved differential cross section changes from forward-backward symmetric peaked to forward scattering biased. This forward bias can be attributed to the larger J partial waves, which makes the reaction like an abstraction process. Differential cross sections summed over two different sets of J partial waves for the v = 0 reaction at the collision energy of 1.2 eV are plotted to illustrate the importance of large J partial waves in the forward bias of the differential cross sections.

  16. State-resolved differential and integral cross sections for the Ne + H2+ (v = 0-2, j = 0) → NeH+ + H reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Yao, Cui-Xia; He, Xiao-Hu; Zhang, Pei-Yu

    2016-05-01

    State-to-state quantum dynamic calculations for the proton transfer reaction Ne + H2+ (v = 0-2, j = 0) are performed on the most accurate LZHH potential energy surface, with the product Jacobi coordinate based time-dependent wave packet method including the Coriolis coupling. The J = 0 reaction probabilities for the title reaction agree well with previous results in a wide range of collision energy of 0.2-1.2 eV. Total integral cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experiment data. Vibrational excitation of the reactant is much more efficient in enhancing the reaction cross sections than translational and rotational excitation. Total differential cross sections are found to be forward-backward peaked with strong oscillations, which is the indication of the complex-forming mechanism. As the collision energy increases, state-resolved differential cross section changes from forward-backward symmetric peaked to forward scattering biased. This forward bias can be attributed to the larger J partial waves, which makes the reaction like an abstraction process. Differential cross sections summed over two different sets of J partial waves for the v = 0 reaction at the collision energy of 1.2 eV are plotted to illustrate the importance of large J partial waves in the forward bias of the differential cross sections.

  17. Ab Initio Multiple Spawning Method for Intersystem Crossing Dynamics: Spin-Forbidden Transitions between (3)B1 and (1)A1 States of GeH2.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Dmitry A; Pruitt, Spencer R; Keipert, Kristopher; Gordon, Mark S; Varganov, Sergey A

    2016-05-12

    Dynamics at intersystem crossings are fundamental to many processes in chemistry, physics, and biology. The ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) method was originally developed to describe internal conversion dynamics at conical intersections where derivative coupling is responsible for nonadiabatic transitions between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. Here, the applicability of the AIMS method is extended to intersystem crossing dynamics in which transitions between electronic states with different spin multiplicities are mediated by relativistic spin-orbit coupling. In the direct AIMS dynamics, the nuclear wave function is expanded in the basis of frozen multidimensional Gaussians propagating on the coupled electronic potential energy surfaces calculated on the fly. The AIMS method for intersystem crossing is used to describe the nonadiabatic transitions between the (3)B1 and (1)A1 states of GeH2. The potential energies and gradients were obtained at the CASSCF(6,6)/6-31G(d) level of theory. The spin-orbit coupling matrix elements were calculated with the configuration interaction method using the two-electron Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The excited (3)B1 state lifetime and intersystem crossing rate constants were estimated by fitting the AIMS state population with the first-order kinetics equation for a reversible unimolecular reaction. The obtained rate constants are compared with the values predicted by the statistical nonadiabatic transition state theory with transition probabilities calculated using the Landau-Zener and weak coupling formulas.

  18. The Reversal of Fortunes: Trends in County Mortality and Cross-County Mortality Disparities in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Ezzati, Majid; Friedman, Ari B; Kulkarni, Sandeep C; Murray, Christopher J. L

    2008-01-01

    Background Counties are the smallest unit for which mortality data are routinely available, allowing consistent and comparable long-term analysis of trends in health disparities. Average life expectancy has steadily increased in the United States but there is limited information on long-term mortality trends in the US counties This study aimed to investigate trends in county mortality and cross-county mortality disparities, including the contributions of specific diseases to county level mortality trends. Methods and Findings We used mortality statistics (from the National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS]) and population (from the US Census) to estimate sex-specific life expectancy for US counties for every year between 1961 and 1999. Data for analyses in subsequent years were not provided to us by the NCHS. We calculated different metrics of cross-county mortality disparity, and also grouped counties on the basis of whether their mortality changed favorably or unfavorably relative to the national average. We estimated the probability of death from specific diseases for counties with above- or below-average mortality performance. We simulated the effect of cross-county migration on each county's life expectancy using a time-based simulation model. Between 1961 and 1999, the standard deviation (SD) of life expectancy across US counties was at its lowest in 1983, at 1.9 and 1.4 y for men and women, respectively. Cross-county life expectancy SD increased to 2.3 and 1.7 y in 1999. Between 1961 and 1983 no counties had a statistically significant increase in mortality; the major cause of mortality decline for both sexes was reduction in cardiovascular mortality. From 1983 to 1999, life expectancy declined significantly in 11 counties for men (by 1.3 y) and in 180 counties for women (by 1.3 y); another 48 (men) and 783 (women) counties had nonsignificant life expectancy decline. Life expectancy decline in both sexes was caused by increased mortality from lung cancer

  19. Crossing the dividing surface of transition state theory. II. Recrossing times for the atom–diatom interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lorquet, J. C.

    2014-04-07

    We consider a triatomic system with zero total angular momentum and demonstrate that, no matter how complicated the anharmonic part of the potential energy function, classical dynamics in the vicinity of a saddle point is constrained by symmetry properties. At short times and at not too high energies, recrossing dynamics is largely determined by elementary local structural parameters and thus can be described in configuration space only. Conditions for recrossing are given in the form of inequalities involving structural parameters only. Explicit expressions for recrossing times, valid for microcanonical ensembles, are shown to obey interesting regularities. In a forward reaction, when the transition state is nonlinear and tight enough, one-fourth of the trajectories are expected to recross the plane R = R{sub *} (where R{sub *} denotes the position of the saddle point) within a short time. Another fourth of them are expected to have previously recrossed at a short negative time, i.e., close to the saddle point. These trajectories do not contribute to the reaction rate. The reactive trajectories that obey the transition state model are to be found in the remaining half. However, no conclusion can be derived for them, except that if recrossings occur, then they must either take place in the distant future or already have taken place in the remote past, i.e., far away from the saddle point. Trajectories that all cross the plane R = R{sub *} at time t = 0, with the same positive translational momentum P{sub R{sub *}} can be partitioned into two sets, distinguished by the parity of their initial conditions; both sets have the same average equation of motion up to and including terms cubic in time. Coordination is excellent in the vicinity of the saddle point but fades out at long (positive or negative) times, i.e., far away from the transition state.

  20. Development of a cryo-SEM system enabling direct observation of the cross sections of an emulsion adhesive in a moist state during the drying process.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshiko; Ranner, Robert; Mimietz-Oeckler, Saskia; Nishino, Yuri; Miyazawa, Atsuo

    2015-12-01

    In order to analyse the internal structures of multi-component fluid materials such as emulsions (including the inter-particle spacing) by cryo-electron microscopy, it is necessary to observe their smooth cross-sectional surfaces over wide areas. We have developed a system that involves the following steps: preservation of the structure of an emulsion adhesive using freeze fixation in its normal (moist) state and during the drying process after being coated, preparation of cross sections of the internal structure using a cryo-ultramicrotome and then transferral of the cross sections into a cryo-scanning electron microscope for observation via a cryo-transfer system. This system allows the direct observation of the cross sections of emulsions and of several fluid materials.

  1. Psychometric characteristics of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in an Argentinean sample: a cross-cultural contribution.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Biglieri, Ricardo; Vetere, Giselle Lorena

    2011-05-01

    Although studies in several populations have provided support for Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSQW) reliability and validity, factor analysis studies carried out on different populations show divergent results. The aim of this article is to contribute with the cross-cultural literature on PSWQ. This report describes two studies examining the psychometric characteristics of a revised Argentinean version of the PSWQ. In the first study, items of original PSWQ were translated into Spanish and then back-translated into English. Then, in order to examine its reliability and factorial structure, the instrument was completed by 400 community participants. The second study included two groups of participants as follows: patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and patients with other anxiety disorders (AC). Results revealed appropriated test-retest reliability over a four-week period, high internal consistency, and good convergent and discriminant validity for PSWQ. In concordance with some results reported in previous studies, a single factorial structure was confirmed for the Argentinean version of PSWQ. By the other hand, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was made to evaluate the ability of PSWQ to discriminate GAD from individuals with others anxiety disorders. A total score of 63 simultaneously optimized sensitivity and specificity in discriminating GAD patients from patients with others anxiety disorders.

  2. Broadband Adiabatic Inversion Pulses for Cross-Polarization in Wideline Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kristopher J.; Lupulescu, Adonis; Lucier, Bryan E. G.; Frydman, Lucio; Schurko, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient acquisition of wideline solid-state NMR powder patterns is a continuing challenge. In particular, when the breadth of the powder pattern is much larger than the cross-polarization (CP) excitation bandwidth, transfer efficiencies suffer and experimental times are greatly increased. Presented herein is a CP pulse sequence with an excitation bandwidth that is up to ten times greater than that available from a conventional spin-locked CP pulse sequence. The pulse sequence, broadband adiabatic inversion CP (BRAIN-CP), makes use of the broad, uniformly large frequency profiles of inversion chirped pulses, to provide these same characteristics to the polarization transfer process. A detailed theoretical analysis is given, providing insight into the polarization transfer process involved in BRAIN-CP. Experiments on spin-1/2 nuclei including 119Sn, 199Hg and 195Pt nuclei are presented, and the large bandwidth improvements possible with BRAIN-CP are demonstrated. Furthermore, it is shown that BRAIN-CP can be combined with broadband frequency-swept versions of the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill experiment (for instance with WURST-CPMG, or WCPMG for brevity); the combined BRAIN-CP/WCPMG experiment then provides multiplicative signal enhancements of both CP and multiple-echo acquisition over a broad frequency region. PMID:23023623

  3. A Cross-Sectional Study of Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Sponsorship in Airports across Europe and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Andrea; Navas-Acien, Ana; Pang, Yuanjie; Lopez, Maria Jose; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Stillman, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco advertising, promotion, and sponsorship (TAPS) bans are effective and are increasingly being implemented in a number of venues and countries, yet the state of TAPS in airports and their effect on airport smoking behavior is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of TAPS in airports across Europe and the US, and to begin to examine the relationship between TAPS and smoking behaviors in airports. We used a cross-sectional study design to observe 21 airports in Europe (11) and the US (10). Data collectors observed points of sale for tobacco products, types of products sold, advertisements and promotions, and branding or logos that appeared in the airport. Tobacco products were sold in 95% of all airports, with significantly more sales in Europe than the US. Advertisements appeared mostly in post-security areas; however, airports with advertisements in pre-security areas had significantly more smokers observed outdoors than airports without advertisements in pre-security areas. Tobacco branding appeared in designated smoking rooms as well as on non-tobacco products in duty free shops. TAPS are widespread in airports in Europe and the US and might be associated with outdoor smoking, though further research is needed to better understand any relationship between the two. This study adds to a growing body of research on tobacco control in air transit and related issues. As smoke-free policies advance, they should include comprehensive TAPS bans that extend to airport facilities. PMID:27690072

  4. Differential and integrated cross sections for excitation to the 3s, 3p, and 3d states of atomic hydrogen by electron impact below the n=4 threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Bray, Igor; Stelbovics, Andris T.; Williams, J. F.; Mikosza, A. G.

    2006-08-15

    Integrated cross sections for the electron-impact excitation of ground-state hydrogen to the 3s, 3p, and 3d final states have been calculated using propagating exterior complex scaling and convergent close-coupling methods at energies between the n=3 and 4 excitation thresholds. The calculations are in excellent agreement and demonstrate that exterior complex scaling methods can accurately reproduce the resonance structure and magnitude of the excitation cross sections below the ionization threshold. Measurements of the separate 3s, 3p, and 3d differential cross sections were made at 12.24 eV, and are consistent with both calculations within a total experimental uncertainty of about 35%.

  5. Attitude of Academic Staff in Nigerian Tertiary Educational Institutions to Student Evaluation of Instruction (SEI): A Case Study of Cross River State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaka, Idaka I.; Joshua, Monday T.

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the attitude of academic staff in Nigerian tertiary educational institutions to student evaluation of instruction (SEI) and to find out the variable factors that influenced the expressed attitude of members of the academic staff, using Cross River State University as a case study. The study was a survey and so a…

  6. Influence of Marital Stressors on Role Performance of Married Academic Women in Tertiary Institutions in Cross River State and Need for Counselling Therein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okpechi, Philip A.; Usani, Michael Okoi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of marital stressors on role performance of married academic women of tertiary institutions in Cross River State. In order to accomplish the purpose of the study, two objectives and corresponding two hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. The survey research design was adopted in the study. A total of…

  7. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receipt of the notice, a hearing in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 211, subpart B. (25 Stat... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8...

  8. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receipt of the notice, a hearing in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 211, subpart B. (25 Stat... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8...

  9. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receipt of the notice, shall be given an appeal in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 214. (25... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8...

  10. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receipt of the notice, shall be given an appeal in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 214. (25... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8...

  11. 36 CFR 212.8 - Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receipt of the notice, a hearing in accordance with the provisions of 36 CFR part 211, subpart B. (25 Stat... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission to cross lands and easements owned by the United States and administered by the Forest Service. 212.8 Section 212.8...

  12. Instructional Supervisory Practices and Teachers' Role Effectiveness in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, Mary Anike; Eyiene, Ameh; Egbai, Mercy E.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between instructional supervisory practices and teachers' role effectiveness in public secondary schools in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State. Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study…

  13. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  14. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    .0%). Conclusions Data suggests that T. gondii infections continue to decline in the United States, but the overall infection rate remains substantial at nearly 7%. Despite the limitations in the Continuous NHANES cross-sectional survey, the association between well water use and T. gondii infection warrants further research. PMID:25012250

  15. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated

  16. State-Level Trends and Correlates for Cross-Sector Collaboration on School Nutrition and Physical Education Activities, 2000–2012

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Melissa N.; MacLehose, Richard; Nelson, Toben F.; Nanney, Marilyn S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cross-sector collaboration on child obesity prevention is common, yet little research has examined the context of collaboration at the state level. This study describes secular trends in collaboration between state agency staff responsible for school nutrition and physical education activities and other organizations from 2000 to 2012. Methods Data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study were used to describe collaboration between state agency staff and 13 types of public, private, and nonprofit organizations. Breadth of collaboration in 2012 was examined across political, social, and economic conditions. Results Collaboration between state agency staff and other organization types increased from 2000 to 2006 and decreased or stabilized from 2006 to 2012. Breadth of collaboration was greater in states with a physical education coordinator, higher levels of poverty, higher prevalence of childhood obesity, and more public health funding. Breadth was similar across states by census region, political party of governor, majority party in state legislature, percentage non-Hispanic white population, high school graduation rate, and unemployment rate. Conclusion Cross-sector collaboration on school nutrition and physical education was widespread and did not vary substantially across most political, social, and economic measures. Expanded monitoring and surveillance of state-level collaboration would assist efforts to understand how state agencies work across sectors and whether this collaboration affects the support they provide to schools. PMID:27442994

  17. Generation of Northern Parana High Ti/Y Basalts By Progressive Lithospheric Thinning Above a "Gough"-like Mantle Source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peate, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Stratigraphic and geochronologic data show that the high Ti/Y magma types (Pitanga & Paranapanema) of NW Paraná are the youngest magmatic phase in the Paraná-Etendeka flood basalt province and comprise ~50% of the total erupted volume. They are more homogeneous than low Ti/Y basalts in SE Paraná and the Etendeka, with a restricted range in Sr-Nd-Pb isotope composition (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7063; ɛNd -5 to -3; 206Pb/204Pb 17.7-18.2). Subtle differences between Pitanga and Paranapanema (Th/Ta, 206Pb/204Pb) are consistent with minor crustal assimilation. Pitanga show greater incompatible element enrichment compared to Paranapanema (Ti/Y 440-590 vs. 325-510; La/Yb 9.3-12.2 vs. 5.9-9.0), and have greater MREE/HREE enrichment (Dy/Yb 2.1-2.5 vs. 1.8-2.1). Boreholes and surface profiles reveal a consistent temporal transition from Pitanga to Paranapanema lavas, and the decrease in Dy/Yb requires a shallowing of the mean depth of melting, consistent with lithospheric thinning. Pitanga and Paranapanema lavas show Dupal characteristics (elevated Δ7/4Pb 8-13), distinct from Tristan hot-spot and S Atlantic MORB compositions, but similar to the EM-I endmember composition from Walvis Ridge DSDP Site 525A. Previous workers suggested a common origin for Parana high Ti/Y magmas and DSDP Site 525A in continental lithospheric mantle. However, recent comprehensive sampling of the Tristan - Gough - Walvis Ridge - Rio Grande Rise hotspot track has revealed spatial geochemical zonation with a northern "Tristan"-track and a southern "Gough"-track, and the "Tristan" component (Δ7/4Pb 3-6) is only found in samples < 70 Ma (Hoernle et al. 2015). The early hotspot track history is dominated by the "Gough" component (Δ7/4Pb 6-13), inferred to be derived from the African LLSVP, and this material has the compositional features (Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes, elevated La/Nb and Th/Nb) required for the mantle source for the Pitanga and Paranapanema magma types of the 135 Ma Paraná flood basalt

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 9 (BLOOVT01020009) on State Route 102, crossing the Nulhegan River, Bloomfield, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BLOOVT01020009 on State Route 102 crossing the Nulhegan River, Bloomfield, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the White Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in northeastern Vermont. The 144-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest except for the downstream right bank area which is shrub and brush land. The Nulhegan River flows into the Connecticut River 210 feet downstream of this bridge. In the study area, the Nulhegan River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.005 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 164 ft and an average channel depth of 5 ft. The predominant channel bed material is cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 152 mm (0.498 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 6, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. This was due to numerous point bars and side bars indicating an unstable thalweg. The State Route 102 crossing of the Nulhegan River is a 134-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 130-foot steel-truss span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, August 4, 1994). The field measured clear span was 131.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with rip-rapped spill-through slopes. The

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 40 (ANDOVT00110040) on State Route 11, crossing Lyman Brook, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110040 on State Route 11 crossing Lyman Brook, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 4.18-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, Lyman Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.03 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 42 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 86.0 mm (0.282 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 9, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Route 11 crossing of Lyman Brook is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 27-foot concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 24.8 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 0 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 30 degrees. The scour protection measures at the site included type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 44 (CHESVT00110044) on State Route 11, crossing Andover Brook, Chester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESVT00110044 on State Route 11 crossing Andover Brook, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 12.6-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with dense woody vegetation on the immediate banks except the downstream left bank of the bridge which is forested. In the study area, Andover Brook has an incised, meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 74 ft and an average bank height of 8 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 83.6 mm (0.274 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 11, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Route 11 crossing of Andover Brook is a 58-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 56-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 52.9 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 35 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 45 degrees. A scour hole 1.8 ft

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 5 (DUMMVT00300005) on State Route 30, crossing Stickney Brook, Dummerston, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure DUMMVT00300005 on State Route 30 crossing Stickney Brook, Dummerston, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 6.31-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest and brush. In the study area, Stickney Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.04 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 80 ft and an average bank height of 7 ft. The channel bed material is predominantly cobble with a median grain size (D50) of 80.3 mm (0.264 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 12, 1996, indicated that the reach was aggrading. The State Route 30 crossing of Stickney Brook is a 84-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 82-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 30, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 79.7 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with spill-through embankments. The channel is skewed approximately 5 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees. A scour hole 0.5 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along the toe of the right spill-through slope during

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (CHESVT01030016) on State Route 103, crossing the Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESVT01030016 on State Route 103 crossing the Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 15.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture except for the downstream right overbank which is forested. In the study area, the Williams River has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.008 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average bank height of 6 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 67.5 mm (0.222 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 16, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Route 103 crossing of the Williams River is a 162-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of three steel-beam spans (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 13, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 157.7 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments and piers with no wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 55 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is also 55 degrees. The scour protection measures at the site included

  3. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 144 (ROCHVT01000144) on State Route 100, crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ROCHVT01000144 on State Route 100 crossing the White River, Rochester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in central Vermont. The 68.9-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with forest on the valley walls. In the study area, the White River has a meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.003 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 119 ft and an average channel depth of 4 ft. The predominant channel bed material is gravel and cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 72.5 mm (0.238 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on July 22, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to a cut-bank present on the upstream left bank and wide point bars upstream and downstream in the vicinity of this site. The State Route 100 crossing of the White Riveris a 103-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 101-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 8, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutment walls with spill-through embankments in front of each abutment wall and no wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 10 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-toroadway is

  4. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 49 (WALLVT01030049) on State Highway 103, crossing Freeman Brook, Wallingford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Severance, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure WALLVT01030049 on State Highway 103 crossing Freeman Brook, Wallingford, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 11.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is pasture with trees and brush on the immediate banks except for the upstream left overbank which is tree covered. A levee composed of stone fill was constructed along the upstream left bank in order to keep flow from reaching the flood plain left (south) of the brook. In the study area, Freeman Brook has an incised, straight channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 56 ft and an average channel depth of 6 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobbles with a median grain size (D50) of 62.9 mm (0.206 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on October 10, 1995, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Highway 103 crossing of the Freeman Brook is a 54-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 50-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 15, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 25 degrees to

  5. Spontaneous poisoning by Hovenia dulcis in dairy cattle in Southwest Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Fabricio; Possa, Marina Gabriela; Faccin, Mayane; Gruchouskei, Leonardo; Fonseca-Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Pípole, Fernando; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Elias, Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Livestock poisoning by plants is a frequent occurrence which determines severe losses, such as the fall in the milk and meat production, the cost of expensive treatments, the state of immunosuppression, or even the animal's death. Cattle ingest toxic plants only when there is food shortage, when they cannot select what they eat, or when they ingest food for preference, which is the case of Hovenia dulcis fruits, very rich in sucrose. This plant is widely distributed in the southern and southeastern Brazilian regions. In literature, there are some cases of severe human liver injury associated with a long-term of H. dulcis leaf and fruit tea intake, and only one report regarding spontaneous poisoning of goats caused by this plant ingestion. However, its toxic effects associated with spontaneous ingestion by cattle have never been reported. This paper reports the first case of spontaneous poisoning in cattle by H. dulcis, which occurred in a dairy farm in southwest Paraná, Brazil. Three cattle individuals showed anorexia, ruminal atony, severe diarrhea and neurological tournament, head pressing, blindness, ataxia, and circling. The necropsy of the animals was done, and the remaining alterations were restricted to the digestive system and brain. The clinical signs presented by the animals are characteristic of polioencephalomalacia (PEM), caused by changes in the thiamine metabolism. Furthermore, clinical signs, gross, and microscopic lesions as well as the large amount of the plant throughout the digestive segment led to a diagnosis.

  6. Importance of Preserving Cross-correlation in developing Statistically Downscaled Climate Forcings and in estimating Land-surface Fluxes and States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Bhowmik, R.; Arumugam, S.

    2015-12-01

    Multivariate downscaling techniques exhibited superiority over univariate regression schemes in terms of preserving cross-correlations between multiple variables- precipitation and temperature - from GCMs. This study focuses on two aspects: (a) develop an analytical solutions on estimating biases in cross-correlations from univariate downscaling approaches and (b) quantify the uncertainty in land-surface states and fluxes due to biases in cross-correlations in downscaled climate forcings. Both these aspects are evaluated using climate forcings available from both historical climate simulations and CMIP5 hindcasts over the entire US. The analytical solution basically relates the univariate regression parameters, co-efficient of determination of regression and the co-variance ratio between GCM and downscaled values. The analytical solutions are compared with the downscaled univariate forcings by choosing the desired p-value (Type-1 error) in preserving the observed cross-correlation. . For quantifying the impacts of biases on cross-correlation on estimating streamflow and groundwater, we corrupt the downscaled climate forcings with different cross-correlation structure.

  7. Cross-matching TB and AIDS registries: TB patients with HIV co-infection, United States, 1993-1994.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M; McCray, E; Onorato, I M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Because of limited reporting of HIV status in case reports to the national tuberculosis (TB) surveillance system, the authors conducted this study to estimate the proportion of US TB cases with HIV co-infection and to describe demographic and clinical characteristics of co-infected patients. METHODS: The 50 states, New York City, and Puerto Rico submitted the results of cross-matches of TB registries and HIV-AIDS registries. The authors determined the number of TB cases reported for 1993-1994 that were listed in HIV-AIDS registries and analyzed data on demographic and clinical characteristics by match status. RESULTS: Of 49,938 TB cases reported for 1993-1994, 6863 (14%) were listed in AIDS or HIV registries. The proportions of TB-AIDS cases among TB cases varied by reporting area, from 0% to 31%. Anti-TB drug resistance was higher among TB-AIDS cases, particularly resistance to isoniazid and rifampin (multidrug resistance) and rifampin alone, In some areas with low proportions of multidrug-resistant TB cases, however, the difference in multidrug resistance between TB-AIDS patients and non-AIDS TB patients was not found. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of TB cases with HIV co-infection, particularly in some areas, underscores the importance of the HIV-AIDS epidemic for the epidemiology of TB. Efforts to improve HIV testing as well as reporting of HIV status for TB patients should continue to ensure optimum management of coinfected patients, enhance surveillance activities, and promote judicious resource allocation and targeted prevention and control activities. PMID:10476997

  8. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P < 0.01). Discordance between what motivational factors health workers considered important and their perceptions of actual presence of these factors were also highest in Uttar Pradesh in the public sector, where all 17 items had greater discordance for public sector workers than for workers in the private sector (P < 0.001). Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non

  9. Vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections for the D + H sub 2 yields DH + H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Continetti, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    In this thesis, crossed-molecular-beams studies of the reaction D + H{sub 2} {yields} DH + H at collision energies of 0.53 and 1.01 eV are reported. Chapter 1 provides a survey of important experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of the hydrogen exchange reaction. Chapter 2 discusses the development of the excimer-laser photolysis D atom beam source that was used in these studies and preliminary experiments on the D + H{sub 2} reaction. In Chapter 3, the differential cross section measurements are presented and compared to recent theoretical predictions. The measured differential cross sections for rotationally excited DH products showed significant deviations from recent quantum scattering calculations, in the first detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical differential cross sections. These results indicate that further work on the H{sub 3} potential energy surface, particularly the bending potential, is in order.

  10. Measurement of the ttbar production cross section in the all-jets final state in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$=8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-03-08

    The cross section for tt production in the all-jets final state is measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the LHC with the CMS detector, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 fb-1. The inclusive cross section is found to be 275.6 ±6.1 (stat) ± 37.8 (syst) ± 7.2 (lumi) pb. The normalized differential cross sections are measured as a function of the top quark transverse momenta, pT, and compared to predictions from quantum chromodynamics. The results are reported at detector, parton, and particle levels. In all cases, the measured top quark pTmore » spectra are significantly softer than theoretical predictions.« less

  11. Asymmetric simultaneous phase-inversion cross-polarization in solid-state MAS NMR: Relaxing selective polarization transfer condition between two dilute spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhengfeng; Fu, Riqiang; Li, Jianping; Yang, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Double cross polarization (DCP) has been widely used for heteronuclear polarization transfer between 13C and 15N in solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR. However, DCP is such sensitive to experimental settings that small variations or deviations in RF fields would deteriorate its efficiency. Here, we report on asymmetric simultaneous phase-inversion cross polarization (referred as aSPICP) for selective polarization transfer between low-γ 13C and 15N spins. We have demonstrated through simulations and experiments using biological solids that the asymmetric duration in the simultaneous phase-inversion cross polarization scheme leads to efficient polarization transfer between 13C and 15N even with large chemical shift anisotropies in the presence of B1 field variations or mismatch of the Hartmann-Hahn conditions. This could be very useful in the aspect of long-duration experiments for membrane protein studies at high fields.

  12. Measurement of the toverline{{t}} production cross section in the all-jets final state in pp collisions at √{s}=8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Awad, A.; El Sawy, M.; Mahrous, A.; Radi, A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garcia, J. Garay; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. 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T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Paneva, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Negrete, M. Olmedo; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; MacNeill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; McColl, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes de Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, J. R.; Ackert, A.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, L. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Xiao, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Majumder, D.; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Bierwagen, K.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; McGinn, C.; Mironov, C.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira de Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Primavera, F.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; de Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The cross section for toverline{{t}} production in the all-jets final state is measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 {TeV} at the LHC with the CMS detector, in data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 {fb}^{-1}. The inclusive cross section is found to be 275.6 ± 6.1 {(stat)} ± 37.8 {(syst)} ± 7.2 {(lumi)} { pb}. The normalized differential cross sections are measured as a function of the top quark transverse momenta, pT, and compared to predictions from quantum chromodynamics. The results are reported at detector, parton, and particle levels. In all cases, the measured top quark pT spectra are significantly softer than theoretical predictions.

  13. A crossed-beam study of the state-resolved dynamics of CH( X sup 2. Pi. )+D sub 2. I. The inelastic scattering channel

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, R.G.; Liu, K. )

    1990-08-15

    The state-to-state integral cross sections for the inelastic scattering of CH({ital X} {sup 2}{Pi}) and D{sub 2} to produce rotationally excited CH({ital X} {sup 2}{Pi}) product have been measured in a crossed-beam apparatus by the laser-induced fluorescence method. Two types of measurements were performed: (1) the translational energy dependence of an individual quantum state of the product and (2) the state distribution of the products at fixed and well-defined translational energy. For the inelastic scattering channel, the cross sections gradually increased from a dynamical threshold to a broad maximum and then slowly decreased as the translational energy increases. Evidence for multiple-impact rotational rainbows was found and a possible frequency-locking phenomenon between the two receding rotors resulted. Moderate orbital alignment was observed except for the highest rotational levels of the product. By comparing and contrasting the kinematically similar system CH({ital X} {sup 2}{Pi})+He, the influence of a strongly attractive potential energy surface on the inelastic scattering of CH+D{sub 2} was inferred. Combining the results of the inelastic scattering and the isotopic exchange channels (the following paper) provide an unprecedented look into the dynamics of collisions between CH({ital X} {sup 2}{Pi}) and D{sub 2}.

  14. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. Methods This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Results Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p < 0.05) between region and urban sprawl for total and obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Conclusions Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer

  15. Application of remote-sensing data to groundwater exploration: A case study of the Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, A. E.; Okereke, C. S.; Teme, S. C.; Esu, E. O.

    The Cross River State, Nigeria, is underlain by the Precambrian-age crystalline basement complex and by rocks of Cretaceous to Tertiary age. The exploration for groundwater in this area requires a systematic technique in order to obtain optimum results, but the non-availability of funds and facilities has made it extremely difficult to carry out site investigations prior to the drilling of water wells. Therefore, the failure rate is as high as 80%. In order to delineate areas that are expected to be suitable for future groundwater development, black and white radar imagery and aerial photographs were used to define some hydrological and hydrogeological features in parts of the study area. Lineament and drainage patterns were analysed using length density and frequency. Lineament-length density ranges from 0.04-1.52 lineament frequency is 0.11-5.09 drainage-length density is 0.17-0.94, and the drainage frequency is 0.16-1.53. These range of values reflect the differences in the probability of groundwater potentials. Results were then used to delineate areas of high, medium, and low groundwater potential. Study results also indicate that correlations exist between lineament and drainage patterns, lithology, water temperature, water conductivity, well yield, transmissivity, longitudinal conductance, and the occurrence of groundwater. Résumé La géologie de l'Etat de Cross River (Nigéria) est constituée d'un socle cristallin d'âge précambrien et de roches datées du Crétacé au Tertiaire. Dans cette région, l'exploration des eaux souterraines nécessite une analyse systématique pour obtenir les meilleurs résultats ; cependant le manque de moyens a rendu particulièrement difficile les recherches de sites de forage destinés au captage de l'eau. C'est pourquoi le taux d'échec a atteint 80%. Afin de délimiter les zones susceptibles de permettre la future mise en valeur des eaux souterraines, des images radar et des photos aériennes en noir et blanc ont

  16. The Portrayal of Older People in Television Advertisements: A Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of the United States and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Byoungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2,295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1,436 ads from South Korea--was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual…

  17. Measurement of the near-threshold e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD cross section using initial-state radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhlova, G.; Balagura, V.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T.; Adachi, I.; Brodzicka, J.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kibayashi, A.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    We report measurements of the exclusive cross section for e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}DD, where D=D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, in the center-of-mass energy range from the DD threshold to 5 GeV with initial-state radiation. The analysis is based on a data sample collected with the Belle detector with an integrated luminosity of 673 fb{sup -1}.

  18. OPPORTUNITIES TO CONSTRAIN ASTROPHYSICAL REACTION RATES FOR THE s-PROCESS VIA DETERMINATION OF THE GROUND-STATE CROSS-SECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, T.; Mohr, P.; Dillmann, I.; Plag, R.

    2011-09-10

    Modern models of s-process nucleosynthesis in stars require stellar reaction rates of high precision. Most neutron-capture cross-sections in the s-process have been measured, and for an increasing number of reactions the required precision is achieved. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the stellar rates are constrained equally well, because only the capture of the ground state of a target is measured in the laboratory. Captures of excited states can contribute considerably to stellar rates that are already at typical s-process temperatures. We show that the ground-state contribution X to a stellar rate is the relevant measure to identify reactions that are or could be well constrained by experiments and apply it to (n,{gamma}) reactions in the s-process. We further show that the maximum possible reduction in uncertainty of a rate via determination of the ground-state cross-section is given directly by X. An error analysis of X is presented, and it is found that X is a robust measure with mostly small uncertainties. Several specific examples (neutron capture of {sup 79}Se, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 121}Sn, {sup 187}Os, and {sup 193}Pt) are discussed in detail. The ground-state contributions for a set of 412 neutron-capture reactions around the s-process path are presented in a table. This allows identification of reactions that may be better constrained by experiments and that cannot be constrained solely by measuring ground-state cross-sections (and thus require supplementary studies). General trends and implications are discussed.

  19. Measuring electron-impact cross sections of water: elastic scattering and electronic excitation of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Midori; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Kato, Hidetoshi; Ferreira da Silva, Fillipe; Limão-Vieira, Paulo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Here, we report elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron scattering from water in the incident energy range of 2-100 eV. Furthermore, we present a complete study on the electronic excitation of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 states at electron impact energies of 15, 20, and 30 eV and in the scattering angle range of 10° - 130°. Integral cross sections (ICSs) are determined from the DCSs. Measuring elastic DCSs in various experimental conditions confirmed the reproducibility of the data. The present results agree with the data previously obtained from a conventional collimating tube gas source. Ambiguities associated with the unfolding procedure of the electron energy loss (EEL) spectra for the electronic excitations have been reduced by comparison against the EEL spectrum at high electron impact energy and for small scattering angle. The reliability of the extracted DCSs is improved significantly for optically forbidden contributions from the overlap of the ã3B1 and Ã1B1 electronic states. The BEf-scaling model is also confirmed to produce the integral cross section for the optical allowed transition of the Ã1B1 state in the intermediate electron energy region above 15 eV.

  20. Validity of approximate methods in molecular scattering. III - Effective potential and coupled states approximations for differential and gas kinetic cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monchick, L.; Green, S.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensionality-reducing approximations, the j sub z-conserving coupled states (sometimes called the centrifugal decoupling) method and the effective potential method, were applied to collision calculations of He with CO and with HCl. The coupled states method was found to be sensitive to the interpretation of the centrifugal angular momentum quantum number in the body-fixed frame, but the choice leading to the original McGuire-Kouri expression for the scattering amplitude - and to the simplest formulas - proved to be quite successful in reproducing differential and gas kinetic cross sections. The computationally cheaper effective potential method was much less accurate.

  1. Absolute Photoionization Cross Section with an Ultra-high Energy Resolution for Ne in the Region of 1s Rydberg States

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M.; Morishita, Y.; Suzuki, I. H.; Saito, N.; Oura, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Okada, K.; Matsudo, T.; Gejo, T.

    2007-01-19

    The high-resolution absolute photoabsorption cross section with an absolute photon energy scale for Ne in the energy region of 864-872 eV (1s-1np Rydberg states) has been measured using a multi-electrode ionization chamber and monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The natural lifetime width of Ne 1s-13p resonance state has been obtained to be 252 {+-} 5 meV. The Ne+ (1s-1) ionization potential is determined to be 870.16 {+-} 0.04 eV by using the Rydberg formula. These absolute values are supposed to be more reliable than those previously reported.

  2. State-Selective and Total Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Collisions of Multiply Charged Ions with Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad; Belkić, Dževad

    2013-11-01

    The four-body boundary corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is used to calculate the single electron capture cross sections for collisions between fully stripped ions (He2+, Be4+, B5+ and C6+) and helium target at intermediate and high impact energies. The main goal of this study is to assess the usefulness of the CB1-4B method at intermediate and high impact energies for these collisions. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  3. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and higher health-insurance prices.... *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of Montana. James...

  4. Identity Exploration, Commitment, and Distress: A Cross National Investigation in China, Taiwan, Japan, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Steven L.; You, Yu-Fang; Schwartz, Seth; Teo, Grace; Mochizuki, Kohei

    2011-01-01

    This study tested cross cultural measurement equivalence of three identity constructs by testing the factor invariance among participants from four nations. Data from measures of identity exploration, commitment, and distress were collected from university students in Mainland China (n = 85), Taiwan (n = 117), Japan (n = 117), and the United…

  5. Studying Cross-Cultural Differences in Temperament in the First Year of Life: United States and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montirosso, Rosario; Cozzi, Patrizia; Putnam, Samuel P.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Borgatti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    An Italian translation of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (IBQ-R) was developed and evaluated with 110 infants, demonstrating satisfactory internal consistency, discriminant validity, and construct validity in the form of gender and age differences, as well as factorial integrity. Cross-cultural differences were subsequently evaluated…

  6. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  7. Cross-National Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Software Piracy: A Comparative Study of Students from the United States and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawlinson, David R.; Lupton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Students' attitudes and perceptions regarding the use of unlicensed software are important to educators and businesses. Students have a proven propensity to pirate software and other intellectual property. By understanding how attitudes and perceptions toward software piracy differ among university students in a cross-national context, educators…

  8. Cross-Cultural Similarities and Differences in Dynamic Stereotypes: A Comparison between Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Annett; Diekman, Amanda B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined cross-cultural similarities and differences in beliefs about men and women of the past, present, and future. These "dynamic stereotypes," or beliefs that a group's present characteristics differ from its past or future characteristics, correspond to the actual role change experienced by the group (Diekman & Eagly, 2000).…

  9. Involvement of dorsal hippocampal and medial septal nicotinic receptors in cross state-dependent memory between WIN55, 212-2 and nicotine or ethanol in mice.

    PubMed

    Alijanpour, S; Rezayof, A

    2013-08-15

    The present study examined whether nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus and medial septum (MS) are involved in cross state-dependent memory retrieval between WIN55, 212-2 (WIN, a non-selective CB1/CB2 receptor agonist) and nicotine or ethanol. Memory retrieval was measured in one-trial step-down type passive avoidance apparatus in male adult mice. Pre-training intraperitoneal administration of WIN (0.1-1mg/kg) dose-dependently impaired memory retrieval when it was tested 24h later. Pre-test systemic administration of nicotine (0.6 and 0.7mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.5g/kg, i.p.) improved WIN-induced memory impairment, suggesting a cross state-dependent memory retrieval between the drugs. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of nicotine (1 and 2μg/mouse) before systemic administration of an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) or ethanol (0.25g/kg) significantly reversed WIN-induced memory impairment. Pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of mecamylamine (1 and 3μg/mouse) inhibited cross state-dependent memory between WIN and nicotine or ethanol. Moreover, pre-test intra-MS microinjection of nicotine (1 and 2μg/mouse) in combination with systemic administration of a lower dose of nicotine (0.5mg/kg), but not ethanol (0.25g/kg), improved memory impairment induced by pre-training administration of WIN. On the other hand, in the animals that received pre-training WIN and pre-test systemic administration of nicotine (0.7mg/kg), but not ethanol (0.5g/kg), pre-test intra-MS microinjection of mecamylamine (1-5μg/mouse) inhibited WIN-nicotine state-dependent memory retrieval. It should be noted that pre-test intra-CA1 or intra-MS microinjection of nicotine or mecamylamine by itself had no effect on memory retrieval and also could not reverse memory impairment induced by pre-training administration of WIN. It can be concluded that WIN and nicotine or WIN and ethanol can induce state-dependent memory retrieval. In

  10. Effects of Off-Resonance Irradiation, Cross-Relaxation, and Chemical Exchange on Steady-State Magnetization and Effective Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsley, Peter B.; Monahan, W. Gordon

    2000-04-01

    In the presence of an off-resonance radiofrequency field, recovery of longitudinal magnetization to a steady state is not purely monoexponential. Under reasonable conditions with zero initial magnetization, recovery is nearly exponential and an effective relaxation rate constant R1eff = 1/T1eff can be obtained. Exact and approximate formulas for R1eff and steady-state magnetization are derived from the Bloch equations for spins undergoing cross-relaxation and chemical exchange between two sites in the presence of an off-resonance radiofrequency field. The relaxation formulas require that the magnetization of one spin is constant, but not necessarily zero, while the other spin relaxes. Extension to three sites with one radiofrequency field is explained. The special cases of off-resonance effects alone and with cross-relaxation or chemical exchange, cross-relaxation alone, and chemical exchange alone are compared. The inaccuracy in saturation transfer measurements of exchange rate constants by published formulas is discussed for the creatine kinase reaction.

  11. Cross sections of collisional excitation transfer in collisions of rare-earth metal atoms in screened excited states with atoms of inert gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, V. A.; Gerasimov, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    We present and apply a method to determine the collisional excitation transfer (CET) cross sections in collisions of rare-earth metal (REM) atoms in the screened excited states 4fN - 15d6s2 with ground-state atoms of inert gases. The method is based on the fact that the upper laser levels are collisionally populated from the close-lying resonant levels, which are excited by electron impact, in REM vapour lasers. An experimental measurement of only one laser parameter (average lasing power) is required to determine the cross sections. The CET cross sections from the screened level 4f12(3H5)5d3/26s2, with energy E = 22 791.176 cm-1, to the unscreened 4f12(3H6)6s26p1/2 (E = 22 468.046 cm-1) and screened 4f13(2F07/2)5d6s(3D) (E = 22 559.502 cm-1) levels of thulium atoms in the collisions with helium atoms are estimated as an example.

  12. First measurement of top quark pair production cross-section in muon plus hadronic tau final states

    SciTech Connect

    Sumowidagdo, Suharyo

    2007-11-01

    This dissertation presents the first measurement of top quark pair production cross-section in events containing a muon and a tau lepton. The measurement was done with 1 fb-1 of data collected during April 2002 through February 2006 using the D0 detector at the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois. Events containing one isolated muon, one tau which decays hadronically, missing transverse energy, and two or more jets (at least one of which must be tagged as a heavy flavor jet) were selected. Twenty-nine candidate events were observed with an expected background of 9.16 events. The top quark pair production cross-section is measured to be σ(t$\\bar{t}$) = 8.0$+2.8\\atop{-2.4}$(stat)$+1.8\\atop{ -1.7}$(syst) ± 0.5(lumi) pb. Assuming a top quark pair production cross-section of 6.77 pb for Monte Carlo signal top events without a real tau, the measured σ x BR is σ(t$\\bar{t}$) x BR(t$\\bar{t}$ → μ + τ + 2v + 2b) = 0.18$+0.13\\atop{-0.11}$(stat)$+0.09\\atop{-0.09}$(syst) ± 0.01(lumi) pb.

  13. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10). PMID:20366141

  14. Precise Measurement of the e+e-→π+π-(γ) Cross Section with the Initial State Radiation Method at BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D. N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I. L.; Tackmann, K.; Tanabe, T.; Hawkes, C. M.; Soni, N.; Watson, A. T.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Barrett, M.; Khan, A.; Randle-Conde, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Bukin, A. D.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Bondioli, M.; Curry, S.; Eschrich, I.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Lund, P.; Mandelkern, M.; Martin, E. C.; Stoker, D. P.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Yasin, Z.; Sharma, V.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Mazur, M. A.; Richman, J. D.; Beck, T. W.; Eisner, A. M.; Heusch, C. A.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schalk, T.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Wang, L.; Winstrom, L. O.; Cheng, C. H.; Doll, D. A.; Echenard, B.; Fang, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Narsky, I.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Piatenko, T.; Porter, F. C.; Andreassen, R.; Mancinelli, G.; Meadows, B. T.; Mishra, K.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Hirschauer, J. F.; Nagel, M.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Feltresi, E.; Hauke, A.; Jasper, H.; Karbach, T. M.; Merkel, J.; Petzold, A.; Spaan, B.; Wacker, K.; Kobel, M. J.; Nogowski, R.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Latour, E.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Watson, J. E.; Andreotti, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cecchi, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Franchini, P.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Petrella, A.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Morii, M.; Adametz, A.; Marks, J.; Schenk, S.; Uwer, U.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Volk, A.; Dauncey, P. D.; Tibbetts, M.; Behera, P. K.; Charles, M. J.; Mallik, U.; Cochran, J.; Crawley, H. B.; Dong, L.; Eyges, V.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rosenberg, E. I.; Rubin, A. E.; Gao, Y. Y.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; D'Orazio, A.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Firmino da Costa, J.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Serrano, J.; Sordini, V.; Stocchi, A.; Wang, L. L.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Bingham, I.; Burke, J. P.; Chavez, C. A.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Clarke, C. K.; di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Paramesvaran, S.; Wren, A. C.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Hafner, A.; Alwyn, K. E.; Bailey, D.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; West, T. J.; Yi, J. I.; Anderson, J.; Chen, C.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Simi, G.; Tuggle, J. M.; Dallapiccola, C.; Salvati, E.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Fisher, P. H.; Henderson, S. W.; Sciolla, G.; Spitznagel, M.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Zhao, M.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Schram, M.; Biassoni, P.; Lazzaro, A.; Lombardo, V.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Zhao, H. W.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; Nicholson, H.; de Nardo, G.; Lista, L.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Raven, G.; Snoek, H. L.; Jessop, C. P.; Knoepfel, K. J.; Losecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Corwin, L. A.; Honscheid, K.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Morris, J. P.; Rahimi, A. M.; Sekula, S. J.; Blount, N. L.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Igonkina, O.; Kolb, J. A.; Lu, M.; Rahmat, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Strube, J.; Torrence, E.; Castelli, G.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Del Amo Sanchez, P.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Perez, A.; Prendki, J.; Sitt, S.; Gladney, L.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Morganti, M.; Neri, N.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Lu, C.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Jackson, P. D.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Renga, F.; Voena, C.; Ebert, M.; Hartmann, T.; Schröder, H.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Franek, B.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Esteve, L.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Kozanecki, W.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Zito, M.; Allen, M. T.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cenci, R.; Coleman, J. P.; Convery, M. R.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kaminski, J.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Li, S.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Marsiske, H.; Messner, R.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; O'Grady, C. P.; Ofte, I.; Perl, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Schwiening, J.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S. K.; Thompson, J. M.; Va'Vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Weaver, M.; West, C. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Yarritu, A. K.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Chen, X. R.; Liu, H.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Edwards, A. J.; Miyashita, T. S.; Ahmed, S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Pan, B.; Saeed, M. A.; Zain, S. B.; Soffer, A.; Spanier, S. M.; Wogsland, B. J.; Eckmann, R.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schilling, C. J.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Drummond, B. W.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Pelliccioni, M.; Bomben, M.; Bosisio, L.; Cartaro, C.; Della Ricca, G.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Azzolini, V.; Lopez-March, N.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Milanes, D. A.; Oyanguren, A.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bhuyan, B.; Choi, H. H. F.; Hamano, K.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Ilic, J.; Latham, T. E.; Mohanty, G. B.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Chen, X.; Dasu, S.; Flood, K. T.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wu, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e+e-→π+π-(γ) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232fb-1 of data collected with the BABAR detector at e+e- center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e+e-→μ+μ-γ(γ). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the ππ cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1±2.2(stat)±3.1(syst))×10-10.

  15. Precise measurement of the e+e- --> pi+pi-(gamma) cross section with the initial state radiation method at BABAR.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prencipe, E; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Martinelli, M; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Hooberman, B; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Lynch, G; Osipenkov, I L; Tackmann, K; Tanabe, T; Hawkes, C M; Soni, N; Watson, A T; Koch, H; Schroeder, T; Asgeirsson, D J; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Barrett, M; Khan, A; Randle-Conde, A; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Atmacan, H; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Vitug, G M; Yasin, Z; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Martinez, A J; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wang, L; Winstrom, L O; Cheng, C H; Doll, D A; Echenard, B; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Ongmongkolkul, P; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Bloom, P C; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Hirschauer, J F; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Wagner, S R; Ayad, R; Toki, W H; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Karbach, T M; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Kobel, M J; Nogowski, R; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Bernard, D; Latour, E; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Playfer, S; Watson, J E; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Fioravanti, E; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Munerato, M; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Santoro, V; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Contri, R; Guido, E; Lo Vetere, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Morii, M; Adametz, A; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bernlochner, F U; Lacker, H M; Lueck, T; Volk, A; Dauncey, P D; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Arnaud, N; D'Orazio, A; Davier, M; Derkach, D; Firmino da Costa, J; Grosdidier, G; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Malaescu, B; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, L L; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Burke, J P; Chavez, C A; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; Clarke, C K; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Sigamani, M; Cowan, G; Paramesvaran, S; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Fritsch, M; Gradl, W; Hafner, A; Alwyn, K E; Bailey, D; Barlow, R J; Jackson, G; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Dallapiccola, C; Salvati, E; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Henderson, S W; Sciolla, G; Spitznagel, M; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Schram, M; Biassoni, P; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Stracka, S; Cremaldi, L; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sonnek, P; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Nguyen, X; Simard, M; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Onorato, G; Sciacca, C; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Knoepfel, K J; LoSecco, J M; Wang, W F; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Sekula, S J; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Castelli, G; Gagliardi, N; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; del Amo Sanchez, P; Ben-Haim, E; Bonneaud, G R; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Marchiori, G; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Prendki, J; Sitt, S; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Lopes Pegna, D; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Anulli, F; Baracchini, E; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Emery, S; Esteve, L; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bard, D J; Bartoldus, R; Benitez, J F; Cenci, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Franco Sevilla, M; Fulsom, B G; Gabareen, A M; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Lindquist, B; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; Neal, H; Nelson, S; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; West, C A; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Wulsin, H W; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Ziegler, V; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; White, R M; Wilson, J R; Bellis, M; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Miyashita, T S; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Zain, S B; Soffer, A; Spanier, S M; Wogsland, B J; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Wray, B C; Drummond, B W; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Bianchi, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Choi, H H F; Hamano, K; King, G J; Kowalewski, R; Lewczuk, M J; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Gershon, T J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Puccio, E M T; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Vuosalo, C O; Wu, S L

    2009-12-01

    A precise measurement of the cross section of the process e(+)e(-) --> pi(+)pi(-)(gamma) from threshold to an energy of 3 GeV is obtained with the initial state radiation (ISR) method using 232 fb(-1) of data collected with the BABAR detector at e(+)e(-) center-of-mass energies near 10.6 GeV. The ISR luminosity is determined from a study of the leptonic process e(+)e(-) --> mu(+)mu(-)gamma(gamma). The leading-order hadronic contribution to the muon magnetic anomaly calculated using the pipi cross section measured from threshold to 1.8 GeV is (514.1 +/- 2.2(stat) +/- 3.1(syst)) x 10(-10).

  16. Reversibility of Intersystem Crossing in the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) States of Methylene, CH_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh T.; Sears, Trevor; Hall, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The lowest energy singlet ( {a}1A1) and triplet ( {X}3B1) electronic states of methylene, CH_2, are only separated by 3150 wn, but differ greatly in chemical reactivity. Overall methylene reaction rates and chemical behavior are therefore strongly dependent on collisionally-mediated singlet-triplet interconversion. Collisions with inert partners tend to depopulate the excited singlet state and populate vibrationally excited triplet levels in CH_2. This process is generally considered as irreversible for large molecules, however, this is not the case for small molecules such as CH_2. An investigation of the decay kinetics of CH_2 in the presence of argon and various amounts of oxygen has been carried out using transient frequency modulation (FM) absorption spectroscopy, to monitor ortho and para rotational levels in both the {a}1A1(000) and {a}1A1(010) states. In the {a}1A1(000) state, all observed rotational levels follow double exponential decay kinetics, a direct consequence of reversible intersystem crossing. The relative amplitude of the slower decay component is an indicator of how quickly the reverse crossing from excited triplet levels becomes significant during the reaction and relaxation of singlet methylene. The para rotational levels show more obvious signs of reversibility than ortho rotational levels. Adding oxygen enhances the visibility of reversibility for both ortho and para levels. However, in the {a}1A1(010) state where the FM signal is 5-10 times smaller than the {a}1A1(000) state, there is no evidence of double exponential decay kinetics. Acknowledgments: Work at Brookhaven National Laboratory was carried out under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 and DE-SC0012704 with the U.S. Department of Energy and supported by its Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.

  17. Teachers' Use of Classroom Management Procedures in the United States and Greece: A Cross-Cultural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin-Little, K. Angeleque; Little, Steven G.; Laniti, Mariana

    2007-01-01

    A survey was conducted of teachers' classroom management practices in the United States and Greece. The United States sample consisted of 149 teachers in Arizona, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The Greek sample consisted of 97 teachers in Athens and the surrounding area. The survey asked questions regarding teachers' use of…

  18. A Cross-Country Comparison of Virtual Discussion Board Use in United States and Costa Rican Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, Kari; Saxon, Terrill F.; Trumble, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the use of virtual discussion boards in various educational settings in the United States and Costa Rica. Participants included professors of education, in-service and pre-service teachers in the United States and Costa Rica where a survey was used that included demographic, knowledge, attitude, and…

  19. Understanding Behavior Disorders: Their Perception, Acceptance, and Treatment--A Cross-Cultural Comparison between India and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborti-Ghosh, Sumita

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions, identification and treatment of students with behavior problems or disorders in India and the United States. Participants in the study were students and teachers in the United States and India. A qualitative approach included in-depth interviews and participant observations. These were…

  20. Intersystem crossing-branched excited-state intramolecular proton transfer for o-nitrophenol: An ab initio on-the-fly nonadiabatic molecular dynamic simulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Yu, Le; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Yu, Jianguo; Cao, Zexing

    2016-01-01

    The 6SA-CASSCF(10, 10)/6-31G (d, p) quantum chemistry method has been applied to perform on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping simulation with global switching algorithm and to explore excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reactions for the o-nitrophenol molecule within low-lying electronic singlet states (S0 and S1) and triplet states (T1 and T2). The decisive photoisomerization mechanisms of o-nitrophenol upon S1 excitation are found by three intersystem crossings and one conical intersection between two triplet states, in which T1 state plays an essential role. The present simulation shows branch ratios and timescales of three key processes via T1 state, non-hydrogen transfer with ratio 48% and timescale 300 fs, the tunneling hydrogen transfer with ratios 36% and timescale 10 ps, and the direct hydrogen transfer with ratios 13% and timescale 40 fs. The present simulated timescales might be close to low limit of the recent experiment results. PMID:27221650

  1. Intersystem crossing-branched excited-state intramolecular proton transfer for o-nitrophenol: An ab initio on-the-fly nonadiabatic molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Yu, Le; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Yu, Jianguo; Cao, Zexing

    2016-05-01

    The 6SA-CASSCF(10, 10)/6-31G (d, p) quantum chemistry method has been applied to perform on-the-fly trajectory surface hopping simulation with global switching algorithm and to explore excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reactions for the o-nitrophenol molecule within low-lying electronic singlet states (S0 and S1) and triplet states (T1 and T2). The decisive photoisomerization mechanisms of o-nitrophenol upon S1 excitation are found by three intersystem crossings and one conical intersection between two triplet states, in which T1 state plays an essential role. The present simulation shows branch ratios and timescales of three key processes via T1 state, non-hydrogen transfer with ratio 48% and timescale 300 fs, the tunneling hydrogen transfer with ratios 36% and timescale 10 ps, and the direct hydrogen transfer with ratios 13% and timescale 40 fs. The present simulated timescales might be close to low limit of the recent experiment results.

  2. Measurement of the Near-Threshold e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*){+-}}D{sup (*){+-}} Cross Section using Initial-State Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pakhlova, G.; Balagura, V.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mizuk, R.; Pakhlov, P.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T.; Abe, K.; Adachi, I.; Gershon, T.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.

    2007-03-02

    We report a measurement of the exclusive e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}D{sup (*){+-}}D*{sup {+-}} cross section as a function of center-of-mass energy near the D{sup (*)}{+-}D*{sup {+-}} threshold with initial-state radiation. A partial reconstruction technique is used to increase the efficiency and to suppress background. The analysis is based on a data sample collected with the Belle detector with an integrated luminosity of 547.8 fb{sup -1}.

  3. Cross-linking of CD4 in a TCR/CD3-juxtaposed inhibitory state: a pFRET study.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, G; Weaver, J L; Pine, P S; Rao, P E; Aszalos, A

    1995-01-01

    Instances when T cell activation via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex is suppressed by anti-CD4 Abs are generally attributed either to the topological separation of CD4-p56lck from CD3, or their improper apposition. Photobleaching fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements permitted direct analysis of these alternatives on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Distinction between changes of relative antigen densities or positioning was made possible by simultaneously recording donor and acceptor fluorescence in the energy transfer experiment performed on homogeneous populations of flow-sorted cells. We show here that CD4 stays in the molecular vicinity of CD3, while anti-CD3 stimulation is suppressed by anti-CD4 or cross-linked HIV gp120. Our data suggest that cross-linking of CD4 through particular epitopes is capable of inhibiting activation driven by Abs binding to specific sites on CD3 without major topological sequestration of the Ags, in such a way that additional positive signals will also be affected. Thus, these and other related cases of negative signaling via CD4 may be interpreted in terms of functional uncoupling rather than a wide physical separation of CD4 from the T cell receptor-CD3 complex. PMID:7538802

  4. High-value alcohols and higher-oxidation-state compounds by catalytic Z-selective cross-metathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Khan, R. Kashif M.; Torker, Sebastian; Yu, Miao; Mikus, Malte S.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    Olefin metathesis catalysts provide access to molecules that are indispensable to physicians and researchers in the life sciences. A persisting problem, however, is the dearth of chemical transformations that directly generate acyclic Z allylic alcohols, including products that contain a hindered neighbouring substituent or reactive functional units such as a phenol, an aldehyde, or a carboxylic acid. Here we present an electronically modified ruthenium-disulfide catalyst that is effective in generating such high-value compounds by cross-metathesis. The ruthenium complex is prepared from a commercially available precursor and an easily generated air-stable zinc catechothiolate. Transformations typically proceed with 5.0 mole per cent of the complex and an inexpensive reaction partner in 4-8 hours under ambient conditions; products are obtained in up to 80 per cent yield and 98:2 Z:E diastereoselectivity. The use of this catalyst is demonstrated in the synthesis of the naturally occurring anti-tumour agent neopeltolide and in a single-step stereoselective gram-scale conversion of a renewable feedstock (oleic acid) to an anti-fungal agent. In this conversion, the new catalyst promotes cross-metathesis more efficiently than the commonly used dichloro-ruthenium complexes, indicating that its utility may extend beyond Z-selective processes.

  5. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Methods Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Results Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. Conclusion State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional

  6. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting 14 states and the District of Columbia. Participants Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Primary outcome Demographic characteristics of cited drivers were assessed. Rates of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers per year for various cell phone use while driving violations were calculated. Results Drivers were cited for hand-held use violations (n=2.5 million) more than texting (n=14 682) or young driver all cell phone bans (n=342). Among states that provided data for all traffic violations, cell phone use while driving citations comprised 1% of all written citations. Regardless of ban type, males (68.2%) were cited more frequently than females. Drivers 25–64 years of age (90.8%) were more likely to be cited for hand-held phone use. The average yearly rate of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers from 2010–2013 was 5.8 for texting bans, 2607 for hand-held bans, and 9954 for any traffic violation. Conclusions Among cited drivers, age and sex differences existed by the type of ban violated. State-level enforcement appeared sparse. Due to the potential serious consequences of cell phone use while driving in the USA, more enforcement and targeted public safety campaigns are likely needed. PMID:27301485

  7. Intersystem Crossing Pathway in Quinoline-Pyrazole Isomerism: A Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Study on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hui; Lan, Sheng-Cheng; Zhu, Chaoyuan; Lin, Sheng-Hsien

    2015-06-18

    The dynamics of the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) reaction of quinoline-pyrazole (QP) isomers, designated as QP-I and QP-II, has been investigated by means of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). A lower barrier has been found in the potential energy curve for the lowest singlet excited state (S1) along the proton-transfer coordinate of QP-II compared with that of QP-I; however, this is at variance with a recent experimental report [J. Phys. Chem. A 2010, 114, 7886-7891], in which the authors proposed that the ESIPT reaction would only proceed in QP-I due to the absence of a PT emission for QP-II. Therefore, several deactivating pathways have been investigated to determine whether fluorescence quenching occurs in the PT form of QP-II (PT-II). The S1 state of PT-II has nπ* character, which is a well-known dark state. Moreover, the energy gap between the S1 and T2 states is only 0.29 eV, implying that an intersystem crossing (ISC) process would occur rapidly following the ESIPT reaction. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the ESIPT could successfully proceed in QP-II and that the PT emission would be quenched by the ISC process.

  8. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; Stepanyan, S.; Zhao, Z. W.; Adhikari, K. P.; Aghasyan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bennett, R. P.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Branford, D.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Contalbrigo, M.; D’Angelo, A.; Daniel, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Dey, B.; Dickson, R.; Djalali, C.; Doughty, D.; Dupre, R.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Fradi, A.; Gabrielyan, M. Y.; Gevorgyan, N.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guler, N.; Guo, L.; Gyurjyan, V.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Heddle, D.; Hicks, K.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Khetarpal, P.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Mao, Y.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mokeev, V.; Munevar, E.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Ni, A.; Niculescu, G.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Phelps, E.; Pogorelko, O.; Pozdniakov, S.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ricco, G.; Rimal, D.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Sabatié, F.; Saini, M. S.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Seraydaryan, H.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Stepanyan, S. S.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Tang, W.; Taylor, C. E.; Tedeschi, D. J.; Ungaro, M.; Voutier, E.; Watts, D. P.; Weinstein, L. B.; Weygand, D. P.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhao, B.

    2012-01-30

    We searched for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ⁻π⁻-decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ⁻π⁻ system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ⁻⁻(1860) with a consecutive decay intoΞ⁻π⁻ in the photon-energy range 4.5GeVγ<5.5GeV.

  9. Upper limits for the photoproduction cross section for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark state off the deuteron

    DOE PAGES

    Egiyan, H.; Langheinrich, J.; Gothe, R. W.; Graham, L.; Holtrop, M.; Lu, H.; Mattione, P.; Mutchler, G.; Park, K.; Smith, E. S.; et al

    2012-01-30

    We searched for the Φ⁻⁻(1860) pentaquark in the photoproduction process off the deuteron in the Ξ⁻π⁻-decay channel using CLAS. The invariant-mass spectrum of the Ξ⁻π⁻ system does not indicate any statistically significant enhancement near the reported mass M=1.860 GeV. The statistical analysis of the sideband-subtracted mass spectrum yields a 90%-confidence-level upper limit of 0.7 nb for the photoproduction cross section of Φ⁻⁻(1860) with a consecutive decay intoΞ⁻π⁻ in the photon-energy range 4.5GeVγ<5.5GeV.

  10. Cross-cultural comparison of successful aging definitions between Chinese and Hmong elders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Annie L.; Seal, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the definitions of successful aging according to Chinese and Hmong elders living in Milwaukee, WI. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 44 elders (Hmong n=21 and Chinese n=23). Findings show some similarities in the Chinese and Hmong elders’ definitions though specific cultural differences exist. Chinese elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, positive attitudes, shedding responsibilities, positive family relationships, financial stability, social engagement, religious faith, and accomplishments and volunteer work. Hmong elders emphasized physical health and mobility, mental health, harmonious relationships, positive family relationships, tangible family support, financial stability, social engagement, and religious faith. Cross-cultural comparisons of the findings highlight the cultural heterogeneity between these two subgroups. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:24710950

  11. Floquet topological systems in the vicinity of level crossings: Reservoir induced coherence of the Floquet density matrix and steady-state entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mitra, Aditi

    Results are presented for a Floquet topological system for the case where the separation between quasi-energy levels becomes small, and in particular, comparable to the coupling strength to an external reservoir. For this case, even at steady-state, the reduced density matrix in the Floquet basis has non-zero off-diagonal elements, with the strength of the off-diagonal elements increasing as one approaches the level crossings. The steady-state reduced density matrix has oscillations at integer multiples of the periodic drive, and a Fourier decomposition allows the extraction of the occupation of the Floquet quasi-energy levels, which also depends on the coupling to the reservoir. The lack of detailed balance is quantified in terms of an entropy production rate. Supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, under Award No. DE-SC0010821.

  12. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward-Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  13. Experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy final state electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amami, Sadek; Ozer, Zehra N.; Dogan, Mevlut; Yavuz, Murat; Varol, Onur; Madison, Don

    2016-09-01

    There have been several studies of electron-impact ionization of inert gases for asymmetric final state energy sharing and normally one electron has an energy significantly higher than the other. However, there have been relatively few studies examining equal energy final state electrons. Here we report experimental and theoretical triple differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of Ar (3p) for equal energy sharing of the outgoing electrons. Previous experimental results combined with some new measurements are compared with distorted wave born approximation (DWBA) results, DWBA results using the Ward–Macek (WM) approximation for the post collision interaction (PCI), and three-body distorted wave (3DW) which includes PCI without approximation. The results show that it is crucially important to include PCI in the calculation particularly for lower energies and that the WM approximation is valid only for high energies. The 3DW, on the other hand, is in reasonably good agreement with data down to fairly low energies.

  14. Evaluating Students' Understanding of Kinetic Particle Theory Concepts Relating to the States of Matter, Changes of State and Diffusion: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Chandrasegaran, A. L.; Crowley, Julianne; Yung, Benny H. W.; Cheong, Irene P.-A.; Othman, Jazilah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the understanding of three key conceptual categories relating to the kinetic particle theory: (1) intermolecular spacing in solids, liquids and gases, (2) changes of state and intermolecular forces and (3) diffusion in liquids and gases, amongst 148 high school students from Brunei, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore using 11…

  15. A Modified Alderman-Grant Coil makes possible an efficient cross-coil probe for high field solid-state NMR of lossy biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Christopher V.; Yang, Yuan; Glibowicka, Mira; Wu, Chin H.; Park, Sang Ho; Deber, Charles M.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2009-11-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a cross-coil double-resonance probe for solid-state NMR experiments on lossy biological samples at high magnetic fields are described. The outer coil is a Modified Alderman-Grant Coil (MAGC) tuned to the 1H frequency. The inner coil consists of a multi-turn solenoid coil that produces a B 1 field orthogonal to that of the outer coil. This results in a compact nested cross-coil pair with the inner solenoid coil tuned to the low frequency detection channel. This design has several advantages over multiple-tuned solenoid coil probes, since RF heating from the 1H channel is substantially reduced, it can be tuned for samples with a wide range of dielectric constants, and the simplified circuit design and high inductance inner coil provides excellent sensitivity. The utility of this probe is demonstrated on two electrically lossy samples of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers (bicelles) that are particularly difficult for conventional NMR probes. The 72-residue polypeptide embedding the transmembrane helices 3 and 4 of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) (residues 194-241) requires a high salt concentration in order to be successfully reconstituted in phospholipid bicelles. A second application is to paramagnetic relaxation enhancement applied to the membrane-bound form of Pf1 coat protein in phospholipid bicelles where the resistance to sample heating enables high duty cycle solid-state NMR experiments to be performed.

  16. The Turbulent Cascade and Proton Heating in the Solar Wind at 1 AU: Comparison with Observed Proton Heating and Dynamics of High Cross Helicity States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stawarz, J. E.; Smith, C. W.; Vasquez, B. J.; Forman, M. A.; Tessein, J.; MacBride, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    We examine the convergence of third-order structure function expressions derived to measure the rate of turbulent energy cascade within the solar wind using Advanced Composition Explorer observations from 1 AU over the years 1998 through 2007. We find that a minimum of a year of data is normally required to get good convergence and statistically significant results. We then apply these findings to ten years of observations spanning both solar minimum and solar maximum conditions. We compare the computed energy cascade rates with previously determined rates of proton heating at 1 AU as determined from the radial gradient of the proton temperature to be proportional to the product of wind speed and proton temperature. We find good agreement with a moderate excess of energy within the cascade that is consistent with previous estimates for thermal electron heating in the solar wind. In keeping with earlier analyses of the dissipation spectrum, we postulate that electron heating by the turbulent cascade is less than and at most equal to the rate of proton heating. We extend the analysis to study high cross-helicity states. In these cases we find a significant back transfer of energy within the inertial range that moves energy from small to large scales. This back transfer is primarily operating on what the second-order structure functions show to be the energetically dominant, outward-propagating modes causing a reinforcement of the observed cross helicity of this component. We further identify isolated regions of low shear such as high-speed winds far from interaction or expansion regions as the most common location of high cross-helicity states. In the process we search for evidence of changing spectral forms for the measured power spectra that would be consistent with recent theories of "unbalanced" turbulence and find questionable evidence that requires additional consideration.

  17. Is Longing Only for Germans? A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Sehnsucht in Germany and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Wiest, Maja; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    "Sehnsucht", the longing or yearning for ideal yet seemingly unreachable states of life, is a salient topic in German culture and has proven useful for understanding self-regulation across adulthood in a German sample (e.g., Scheibe, Freund, & Baltes, 2007). The current study tested whether findings for German samples could be generalized to the…

  18. Face and Facework in Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetzel, John; Ting-Toomey, Stella; Masumoto, Tomoko; Yokochi, Yumiko; Pan, Xiaohui; Takai, Jiro; Wilcox, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Investigates face and facework during conflicts among undergraduate students across four national cultures: China, Germany, Japan, and the United States. Presents major findings concerning self-construals; power distance; individualistic, small-power distance cultures; large-power distance cultures; and relational closeness and status. Discusses…

  19. GTA Preparation as a Model for Cross-Tier Collaboration at North Carolina State University: A Program Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedukovich, Casie; Hall, Megan

    2016-01-01

    This program profile describes recent changes to the process for preparing graduate teaching instructors (GTAs) in North Carolina State University's first-year writing program. The authors--one a nontenure-track faculty member and the other a tenure-track faculty member--describe the philosophical, ethical, and practical concerns in scaling…

  20. Equally inequitable? A cross-national comparative study of racial health inequalities in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; Darity, William; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zuberi, Daniyal; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-07-01

    Prior research suggests that racial inequalities in health vary in magnitude across societies. This paper uses the largest nationally representative samples available to compare racial inequalities in health in the United States and Canada. Data were obtained from ten waves of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 162,271,885) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 19,906,131) from 2000 to 2010. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios, and risk differences across racial groups for a range of health outcomes in each country. Patterns of racial health inequalities differed across the United States and Canada. After adjusting for covariates, black-white and Hispanic-white inequalities were relatively larger in the United States, while aboriginal-white inequalities were larger in Canada. In both countries, socioeconomic factors did not explain inequalities across racial groups to the same extent. In conclusion, while racial inequalities in health exist in both the United States and Canada, the magnitudes of these inequalities as well as the racial groups affected by them, differ considerably across the two countries. This suggests that the relationship between race and health varies as a function of the societal context in which it operates.

  1. PreK-6 Teachers' Beliefs about Inclusive Practices in the United States and South Korea: Cross Cultural Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyunjeong

    2013-01-01

    The educational practice known as inclusion, which is based on values of equal opportunity and diversity, enables students with disabilities to attend the same general education classes as typically developing peers. Inclusion is a legal requirement in the United States and South Korea, but factors facilitating inclusion likely differ across…

  2. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact" culture of Bali. The…

  3. Talking about Internal States in Mother-Child Reminiscing Influences Children's Self-Representations: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Doan, Stacey N.; Song, Qingfang

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relation of mother-child discussions of internal states during reminiscing to the development of trait and evaluative self-representations in 131 European American and Chinese immigrant 3-year olds. Mothers and children discussed one positive and one negative event, and children were interviewed for self-descriptions.…

  4. Equally inequitable? A cross-national comparative study of racial health inequalities in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Ramraj, Chantel; Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; Darity, William; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zuberi, Daniyal; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-07-01

    Prior research suggests that racial inequalities in health vary in magnitude across societies. This paper uses the largest nationally representative samples available to compare racial inequalities in health in the United States and Canada. Data were obtained from ten waves of the National Health Interview Survey (n = 162,271,885) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 19,906,131) from 2000 to 2010. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios, and risk differences across racial groups for a range of health outcomes in each country. Patterns of racial health inequalities differed across the United States and Canada. After adjusting for covariates, black-white and Hispanic-white inequalities were relatively larger in the United States, while aboriginal-white inequalities were larger in Canada. In both countries, socioeconomic factors did not explain inequalities across racial groups to the same extent. In conclusion, while racial inequalities in health exist in both the United States and Canada, the magnitudes of these inequalities as well as the racial groups affected by them, differ considerably across the two countries. This suggests that the relationship between race and health varies as a function of the societal context in which it operates. PMID:27239704

  5. A Cross-Cultural Investigation of Students' Preferences for Lecturers' Personalities in Britain, Malaysia and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian; Maakip, Ismail; Ahmad, Sharani; Hudani, Nurul; Voo, Peter S. K.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Garwood, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    This study examined students' preferences for lecturers' personalities on three continents. Two-hundred and 35 university students in Malaysia, 347 university students in Britain and 139 university students in the United States provided ratings of 30 desirable and undesirable lecturer trait characteristics, which were coded into an internally…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Career Maturity of Korean and United States High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ki-Hak

    2001-01-01

    High school students in Korea (n=331) and the United States (n=266) completed the Career Attitude Maturity Inventory in Korean or English versions. Constructs of career maturity were similar across both cultures. Level of maturity was culture related: U.S. students had greater confidence; Koreans were more prepared. (Contains 28 references.) (SK)

  7. Utah State University: Cross-Discipline Training through the Graduate Studies Program in Auditory Learning & Spoken Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, K. Todd

    2010-01-01

    Since 1946, Utah State University (USU) has offered specialized coursework in audiology and speech-language pathology, awarding the first graduate degrees in 1948. In 1965, the teacher training program in deaf education was launched. Over the years, the Department of Communicative Disorders and Deaf Education (COMD-DE) has developed a rich history…

  8. Total and state-to-state electron capture and excitation cross-sections for Li+, Be{}^{2+}, and {{\\rm{B}}}^{3+} colliding with {\\rm{H}}(1\\;s) at low-to-intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-Gutiérrez, F. J.; Cabrera-Trujillo, R.

    2016-01-01

    The electron capture process plays an important role as a diagnostic tool for measuring the temperature, plasma rotation, and impurity densities of plasma in tokamaks. In this work we report the electron capture and excitation cross-sections for Li+, Be{}2+, and {{{B}}}3+ colliding with atomic hydrogen in the collision energy range 0.25-25 keV/amu. For this, we solve numerically the time dependent Schrödinger equation by using a finite difference approach. We model the ion projectile interaction with the target using a pseudopotential obtained within a Hartree-Fock method. We use classical trajectories, obtained self-consistently, for the projectile at collision energies lower than 2 keV/amu and a straight line trajectory at high collision energies. We report new results for the total, n=2,3, and 4 state projectile electron capture cross-section, as well as the n = 2-state target excitation cross-section. We find a good agreement between our cross-section results when compared with available theoretical and experimental data found in the literature. Finally, we find that the electron capture probability, as a function of the impact parameter, shows Stückelberg oscillations at low collision energies for the n = 2 of Be+ and n = 3 of {{{B}}}2+, in the radial range (large impact parameters). Our results assess the validity of the adiabatic basis set at low collision energies and confirm the use of a finite difference method as an accurate approach to study a time-dependent process in charge exchange collisions. A discussion of our results is provided.

  9. Mathiasite-loveringite and priderite in mantle xenoliths from the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil: genesis and constraints on mantle metasomatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Vidyã; Janasi, Valdecir; Svisero, Darcy; Nannini, Felix

    2014-12-01

    Alkali-bearing Ti oxides were identified in mantle xenoliths enclosed in kimberlite-like rocks from Limeira 1 alkaline intrusion from the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, southeastern Brazil. The metasomatic mineral assemblages include mathiasite-loveringite and priderite associated with clinopyroxene, phlogopite, ilmenite and rutile. Mathiasite-loveringite (55-60 wt.% TiO2; 5.2-6.7 wt.% ZrO2) occurs in peridotite xenoliths rimming chromite (˜50 wt.% Cr2O3) and subordinate ilmenite (12-13.4 wt.% MgO) in double reaction rim coronas. Priderite (Ba/(K+Ba)< 0.05) occurs in phlogopite-rich xenoliths as lamellae within Mg-ilmenite (8.4-9.8 wt.% MgO) or as intergrowths in rutile crystals that may be included in sagenitic phlogopite. Mathiasite-loveringite was formed by reaction of peridotite primary minerals with alkaline melts. The priderite was formed by reaction of peridotite minerals with ultrapotassic melts. Disequilibrium textures and chemical zoning of associated minerals suggest that the metasomatic reactions responsible for the formation of the alkali-bearing Ti oxides took place shortly prior the entrainment of the xenoliths in the host magma, and is not connected to old (Proterozoic) mantle enrichment events.

  10. Cross-national comparison of adolescent drinking and cannabis use in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Pickett, William; Boyce, Will; ter Bogt, Tom F.M.; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2009-01-01

    Background This research examined the prevalence of drinking and cannabis use among adolescents in the United States, Canada, and the Netherlands, countries with substantially different laws and policies relating to these substances. Method Laws regarding drinking and marijuana use were rated for each country. Substance use prevalence data among 10th graders from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Survey conducted in each country in 2005–06 were examined. Results Laws regarding alcohol and cannabis were found to be strictest in the United States, somewhat less strict in Canada, and least strict in the Netherlands. On most measures of drinking, rates were lower in the United States than in Canada or the Netherlands. With United States as the referent, relative risks (RR) for monthly drinking were 1.30 (1.11–1.53) for Canadian boys and 1.55 (1.31–1.83) for girls, and 2.0 (1.73–2.31) for Dutch boys and 1.92 (1.62–2.27) for Dutch girls. Drunkenness was also higher among Canadian boys and girls and Dutch boys. However, rates of cannabis use did not differ between the countries, except that Dutch girls were less likely to use cannabis in the past year (RR= .67; 0.46–0.96). Conclusions The lower prevalence of adolescent drinking and drunkenness (except among Dutch girls) in the United States is consistent with the contention that strict drinking policies may limit drinking among 10th graders. However, the finding that marijuana use rates did not differ across countries is not consistent with the contention that prohibition-oriented policies deter use or that liberal marijuana policies are associated with elevated adolescent use. Based on these findings, the case for strict laws and policies is considerably weaker for marijuana than for alcohol. PMID:19303761

  11. Analysis of state-to-state differential cross sections in two-dimensional Xe-CO{sub 2} scattering with long-range effects

    SciTech Connect

    Pliego, J.R. Jr.; Belchior, J.C.; Braga, J.P.

    1996-09-01

    Differential rotational cross sections as a function of {Delta}{ital j} and the scattering angle are calculated using the two-dimensional (2D) close-coupled equations and a comparison with the 2D classical trajectory method is presented. A full potential, i.e., including repulsive and attractive forces, is used and the analysis of rainbow structure is discussed in detail. The rainbow positions have been identified by following the classical trajectory and it has been found that the rainbows can be attributed mainly to the attractive part of the interaction potential. The 2D ellipsoid model [Phys. Rev. A {bold 22}, 2617 (1980)] is also applied to analyze the rainbow trajectory and did not predict the same number of rainbows obtained via 2D classical trajectory. In addition, it showed a large deviation for the angular region of the first impact. This model, as expected, was able to explain a larger {Delta}{ital j} transition when attractive forces were included. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 53 (WILMVT01000053) on State Route 100, crossing Cold Brook, Wilmington, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1997-01-01

    to-roadway also is zero degrees. The scour protection measure at the site was type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) on the upstream banks, the upstream wingwalls, and the downstream left wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1995). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.6 to 2.7 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 4.8 to 10.9 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the left abutment for the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing

  13. Photophysics of the geminate polaron-pair state in copper phthalocyanine organic photovoltaic blends: evidence for enhanced intersystem crossing.

    PubMed

    Snedden, Edward W; Monkman, Andrew P; Dias, Fernando B

    2013-04-01

    Geminate polaron-pair recombination directly to the triplet state of the small dye molecule copper(II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H,31H- phthalocyanine (CuPC) and exciton trapping in CuPC domains, combine to reduce the internal quantum efficiency of free polaron formation in the bulk-heterojunction blends of CuPC doped with [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as the electron acceptor.

  14. Final Report - From Measurements to Models: Cross-Comparison of Measured and Simulated Behavioral States of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Del Genio, Anthony D; Hoffman, Forrest M; Hargrove, Jr, William W

    2007-10-22

    The ARM sites and the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) were constructed to make measurements of the atmosphere and radiation system in order to quantify deficiencies in the simulation of clouds within models and to make improvements in those models. While the measurement infrastructure of ARM is well-developed and a model parameterization testbed capability has been established, additional effort is needed to develop statistical techniques which permit the comparison of simulation output from atmospheric models with actual measurements. Our project establishes a new methodology for objectively comparing ARM measurements to the outputs of leading global climate models and reanalysis data. The quantitative basis for this comparison is provided by a statistical procedure which establishes an exhaustive set of mutually-exclusive, recurring states of the atmosphere from sets of multivariate atmospheric and cloud conditions, and then classifies multivariate measurements or simulation outputs into those states. Whether measurements and models classify the atmosphere into the same states at specific locations through time provides an unequivocal comparison result. Times and locations in both geographic and state space of model-measurement agreement and disagreement will suggest directions for the collection of additional measurements at existing sites, provide insight into the global representativeness of the current ARM sites (suggesting locations and times for use of the AMF), and provide a basis for improvement of models. Two different analyses were conducted: One, using the Parallel Climate Model, focused on an IPCC climate change scenario and clusters that characterize long-term changes in the hydrologic cycle. The other, using the GISS Model E GCM and the ARM Active Remotely Sensed Cloud Layers product, explored current climate cloud regimes in the Tropical West Pacific.

  15. Cross section measurements of high-p{sub T} dilepton final-state processes using a global fitting method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Budd, S.; Ciobanu, C. I.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Gerberich, H.; Grundler, U.; Junk, T. R.; Kraus, J.; Liss, T. M.; Marino, C. P.; Pitts, K.; Rogers, E.; Taffard, A.; Veramendi, G.; Zhang, X.; Adelman, J.; Brubaker, E.; Fedorko, W. T.; Furic, I.

    2008-07-01

    We present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {+-}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {+-}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of pp{yields}tt, pp{yields}W{sup +}W{sup -}, and pp{yields}Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV. We perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. Our results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(tt)=8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -})=16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0}{yields}{tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -})=291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  16. Cross Section Measurements of High-p(T) Dilepton Final-State Processes Using a Global Fitting Method

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria U., Santander /Carnegie Mellon U.

    2006-12-01

    The authors present a new method for studying high-p{sub T} dilepton events (e{sup {+-}}e{sup {-+}}, {mu}{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}, e{sup {+-}}{mu}{sup {-+}}) and simultaneously extracting the production cross sections of p{bar p} {yields} t{bar t}, p{bar p} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -}, and p{bar p} {yields} Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. They perform a likelihood fit to the dilepton data in a parameter space defined by the missing transverse energy and the number of jets in the event. The results, which use 360 pb{sup -1} of data recorded with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, are {sigma}(t{bar t}) = 8.5{sub -2.2}{sup +2.7} pb, {sigma}(W{sup +}W{sup -}) = 16.3{sub -4.4}{sup +5.2} pb, and {sigma}(Z{sup 0} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -}) = 291{sub -46}{sup +50} pb.

  17. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 12 (CHESVT01030012) on State Highway 103, crossing the Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Robert H.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    northerly pier) and from 13.5 to 17.1 ft along Pier 2 (southerly pier). The worst case pier scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured -streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  18. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 12 (NEWFVT00300012) on State Route 30, crossing Smith Brook, Newfane, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Medalie, Laura

    1997-01-01

    Contraction scour for modelled flows ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 7.6 to 14.1 ft. The worst-case abutment scour also occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  19. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 81 (JAMAVT01000081) on State Route 100, crossing the Winhall River, Jamaica, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    The contraction scour ranged from 0.0 to 2.6 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the incipient road-overtopping discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 7.9 to 21.9 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  20. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 2 (STAMVT01000002) on State Route 100 crossing Roaring Brook, Stamford, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 feet. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 4.2 to 9.3 feet. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge at the left abutment. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  1. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 99 (LUDLVT01000099) on State Highway 99, crossing Branch Brook, Ludlow, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, Scott A.

    1996-01-01

    Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 1.5 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 1.0 to 7.4 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  2. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 6 (BRISVT01160006) on State Highway 116, crossing Little Notch Brook, Bristol, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.; Burns, Ronda L.

    1997-01-01

    Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 3.2 to 4.3 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 6.0 to 10.0 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  3. Investigating risk factors of traffic casualties at private highway-railroad grade crossings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Kirolos

    2016-10-01

    Private highway-railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) are intersections of highways and railroads on roadways that are not maintained by a public authority. Since no public authority maintains private HRGCs, fatal and injury crashes at these locations are of concern. However, no study has been conducted at private HRGCs to identify the safety issues that might exist and how to alleviate them. This study identifies the significant predictors of traffic casualties (including both injuries and fatalities) at private HRGCs in the U.S. using six years of nationwide crashes from 2009 to 2014. Two levels of injury severity were considered, injury (including fatalities and injuries) and no injury. The study investigates multiple predictors, e.g., temporal crash characteristics, geometry, railroad, traffic, vehicle, and environment. The study applies both the mixed logit and binary logit models. The mixed logit model was found to outperform the binary logit model. The mixed logit model revealed that drivers who did not stop, railroad equipment that struck highway users, higher train speeds, non-presence of advance warning signs, concrete road surface type, and cloudy weather were associated with an increase in injuries and fatalities. For example, a one-mile-per-hour higher train speed increases the probability of fatality by 22%. On the contrary, male drivers, PM peak periods, and presence of warning devices at both approaches were associated with a fatality reduction. Potential strategies are recommended to alleviate injuries and fatalities at private HRGCs.

  4. Investigating risk factors of traffic casualties at private highway-railroad grade crossings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Kirolos

    2016-10-01

    Private highway-railroad grade crossings (HRGCs) are intersections of highways and railroads on roadways that are not maintained by a public authority. Since no public authority maintains private HRGCs, fatal and injury crashes at these locations are of concern. However, no study has been conducted at private HRGCs to identify the safety issues that might exist and how to alleviate them. This study identifies the significant predictors of traffic casualties (including both injuries and fatalities) at private HRGCs in the U.S. using six years of nationwide crashes from 2009 to 2014. Two levels of injury severity were considered, injury (including fatalities and injuries) and no injury. The study investigates multiple predictors, e.g., temporal crash characteristics, geometry, railroad, traffic, vehicle, and environment. The study applies both the mixed logit and binary logit models. The mixed logit model was found to outperform the binary logit model. The mixed logit model revealed that drivers who did not stop, railroad equipment that struck highway users, higher train speeds, non-presence of advance warning signs, concrete road surface type, and cloudy weather were associated with an increase in injuries and fatalities. For example, a one-mile-per-hour higher train speed increases the probability of fatality by 22%. On the contrary, male drivers, PM peak periods, and presence of warning devices at both approaches were associated with a fatality reduction. Potential strategies are recommended to alleviate injuries and fatalities at private HRGCs. PMID:27474873

  5. Proposed rulemaking on the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Cross-statement of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-05

    The US DOE cross-statement in the matter of proposed rulemaking in the storage and disposal of nuclear wastes is presented. It is concluded from evidence contained in the document that: (1) spent fuel can be disposed of in a manner that is safe and environmentally acceptable; (2) present plans for establishing geological repositories are an effective and reasonable means of disposal; (3) spent nuclear fuel from licensed facilities can be stored in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner on-site or off-site until disposal facilities are ready; (4) sufficient additional storage capacity for spent fuel will be established; and (5) the disposal and interim storage systems for spent nuclear fuel will be integrated into an acceptable operating system. It was recommended that the commission should promulgate a rule providing that the safety and environmental implications of spent nuclear fuel remaining on site after the anticipated expiration of the facility licenses involved need not be considered in individual facility licensing proceedings. A prompt finding of confidence in the nuclear waste disposal and storage area by the commission is also recommeded. (DMC)

  6. [The application of the emulsified turpentine baths for the correction of the functional state of the cross-country skiers].

    PubMed

    Garnov, I O; Kuchin, A V; Loginova, T P; Varlamova, N G; Boiko, E R

    2016-01-01

    The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners. The lack of relevant information motivated the study reported in the present article. The main objective of the study involving 10 subjects was to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified emulsified turpentine baths as a method by which to restore and enhance the physical capacity of the professional cross-country skiers. The physical capacity of the athletes was evaluated from the results of the bicycle ergometer exercise test with the use of the «Oxycon Pro» system. The data obtained suggest that a course of the emulsified turpentine baths increases the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, improves the physical capacity, and enhances the functional reserves of the body in the anaerobic zone.

  7. [The application of the emulsified turpentine baths for the correction of the functional state of the cross-country skiers].

    PubMed

    Garnov, I O; Kuchin, A V; Loginova, T P; Varlamova, N G; Boiko, E R

    2016-01-01

    The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners. The lack of relevant information motivated the study reported in the present article. The main objective of the study involving 10 subjects was to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified emulsified turpentine baths as a method by which to restore and enhance the physical capacity of the professional cross-country skiers. The physical capacity of the athletes was evaluated from the results of the bicycle ergometer exercise test with the use of the «Oxycon Pro» system. The data obtained suggest that a course of the emulsified turpentine baths increases the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, improves the physical capacity, and enhances the functional reserves of the body in the anaerobic zone. PMID:27213946

  8. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 13 (IRAVT013300133) on State Route 133, crossing an Ira Brook Tributary, Ira, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    There was no computed contraction scour for any of the modelled flows. Abutment scour ranged from 3.6 to 4.7 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in tables 1 and 2. A cross-section of the scour computed at the bridge is presented in figure 8. Scour depths were calculated assuming an infinite depth of erosive material and a homogeneous particle-size distribution. It is generally accepted that the Froehlich equation (abutment scour) gives “excessively conservative estimates of scour depths” (Richardson and others, 1995, p. 47). Usually, computed scour depths are evaluated in combination with other information including (but not limited to) historical performance during flood events, the geomorphic stability assessment, existing scour protection measures, and the results of the hydraulic analyses. Therefore, scour depths adopted by VTAOT may differ from the computed values documented herein.

  9. Floquet topological systems in the vicinity of band crossings: Reservoir-induced coherence and steady-state entropy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mitra, Aditi

    2016-06-01

    Results are presented for an open Floquet topological system represented by Dirac fermions coupled to a circularly polarized laser and an external reservoir. It is shown that when the separation between quasienergy bands becomes small, and comparable to the coupling strength to the reservoir, the reduced density matrix in the Floquet basis, even at steady state, has nonzero off-diagonal elements, with the magnitude of the off-diagonal elements increasing with the strength of the coupling to the reservoir. In contrast, the coupling to the reservoir only weakly affects the diagonal elements, hence inducing an effective coherence. The steady-state reduced density matrix synchronizes with the periodic drive, and a Fourier analysis allows the extraction of the occupation probabilities of the Floquet quasienergy levels. The lack of detailed balance at steady state is quantified in terms of an entropy-production rate, and it is shown that this equals the heat current flowing out of the system and into the reservoir. It is also shown that the entropy-production rate mainly depends on the off-diagonal components of the Floquet density matrix. Thus, a stronger coupling to the reservoir leads to an enhanced entropy-production rate, implying a more efficient removal of heat from the system, which in turn helps the system maintain coherence. Analytic expressions in the vicinity of the Dirac point are derived which highlights these results, and also indicates how the reservoir may be engineered to enhance the coherence of the system.

  10. Cross-sections for populating excited states in 150-153Sm via the (p,d) and (p,t) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humby, P.; Simon, A.; Beausang, C. W.; Gell, K.; Tarlow, T.; Vyas, G.; Ross, T. J.; Hughes, R. O.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; Koglin, J.; Ota, S.; Allmond, J. M.; McCleskey, M.; McCleskey, E.; Saastamoinen, A.; Chyzh, R.; Dag, M.

    2014-09-01

    Light ion transfer reactions were used to populate low/medium spin states in 150-154Sm via the (p,p' γ), (p,d γ) and (p,t γ) reactions. The 25 MeV proton beam, with an average current of 1 nA, was provided by the K-150 Cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University. The outgoing charged particles and coincident gamma-rays were detected using the STARLiTeR arrays. STARs (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction studies), a highly segmented ΔE-E silicon telescope, provides particle identification as well as the energies, times and angular distributions of the protons, deuterons and tritons in the exit channels. LiTeR (Livermore Texas Richmond array), an array of six BGO shielded HPGe clover detectors, records the energy, time and angular distribution of the coincident gamma rays, providing excellent selectivity of the states of interest. Preliminary results for the cross-sections for direct population of states in 150-153Sm will be presented. Light ion transfer reactions were used to populate low/medium spin states in 150-154Sm via the (p,p' γ), (p,d γ) and (p,t γ) reactions. The 25 MeV proton beam, with an average current of 1 nA, was provided by the K-150 Cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University. The outgoing charged particles and coincident gamma-rays were detected using the STARLiTeR arrays. STARs (Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction studies), a highly segmented ΔE-E silicon telescope, provides particle identification as well as the energies, times and angular distributions of the protons, deuterons and tritons in the exit channels. LiTeR (Livermore Texas Richmond array), an array of six BGO shielded HPGe clover detectors, records the energy, time and angular distribution of the coincident gamma rays, providing excellent selectivity of the states of interest. Preliminary results for the cross-sections for direct population of states in 150-153Sm will be presented. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy

  11. Energy transfer upon collision of selectively excited CO{sub 2} molecules: State-to-state cross sections and probabilities for modeling of atmospheres and gaseous flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, A. Faginas-Lago, N.; Pacifici, L.; Grossi, G.

    2015-07-21

    Carbon dioxide molecules can store and release tens of kcal/mol upon collisions, and such an energy transfer strongly influences the energy disposal and the chemical processes in gases under the extreme conditions typical of plasmas and hypersonic flows. Moreover, the energy transfer involving CO{sub 2} characterizes the global dynamics of the Earth-atmosphere system and the energy balance of other planetary atmospheres. Contemporary developments in kinetic modeling of gaseous mixtures are connected to progress in the description of the energy transfer, and, in particular, the attempts to include non-equilibrium effects require to consider state-specific energy exchanges. A systematic study of the state-to-state vibrational energy transfer in CO{sub 2} + CO{sub 2} collisions is the focus of the present work, aided by a theoretical and computational tool based on quasiclassical trajectory simulations and an accurate full-dimension model of the intermolecular interactions. In this model, the accuracy of the description of the intermolecular forces (that determine the probability of energy transfer in molecular collisions) is enhanced by explicit account of the specific effects of the distortion of the CO{sub 2} structure due to vibrations. Results show that these effects are important for the energy transfer probabilities. Moreover, the role of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom is found to be dominant in the energy exchange, while the average contribution of translations, under the temperature and energy conditions considered, is negligible. Remarkable is the fact that the intramolecular energy transfer only involves stretching and bending, unless one of the colliding molecules has an initial symmetric stretching quantum number greater than a threshold value estimated to be equal to 7.

  12. Energy transfer upon collision of selectively excited CO2 molecules: State-to-state cross sections and probabilities for modeling of atmospheres and gaseous flows.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, A; Faginas-Lago, N; Pacifici, L; Grossi, G

    2015-07-21

    Carbon dioxide molecules can store and release tens of kcal/mol upon collisions, and such an energy transfer strongly influences the energy disposal and the chemical processes in gases under the extreme conditions typical of plasmas and hypersonic flows. Moreover, the energy transfer involving CO2 characterizes the global dynamics of the Earth-atmosphere system and the energy balance of other planetary atmospheres. Contemporary developments in kinetic modeling of gaseous mixtures are connected to progress in the description of the energy transfer, and, in particular, the attempts to include non-equilibrium effects require to consider state-specific energy exchanges. A systematic study of the state-to-state vibrational energy transfer in CO2 + CO2 collisions is the focus of the present work, aided by a theoretical and computational tool based on quasiclassical trajectory simulations and an accurate full-dimension model of the intermolecular interactions. In this model, the accuracy of the description of the intermolecular forces (that determine the probability of energy transfer in molecular collisions) is enhanced by explicit account of the specific effects of the distortion of the CO2 structure due to vibrations. Results show that these effects are important for the energy transfer probabilities. Moreover, the role of rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom is found to be dominant in the energy exchange, while the average contribution of translations, under the temperature and energy conditions considered, is negligible. Remarkable is the fact that the intramolecular energy transfer only involves stretching and bending, unless one of the colliding molecules has an initial symmetric stretching quantum number greater than a threshold value estimated to be equal to 7.

  13. State-resolved collision energy dependence of Penning ionization cross sections for N sub 2 and CO sub 2 by He*2 sup 3 S

    SciTech Connect

    Ohno, K.; Takami, T.; Mitsuke, K. ); Ishida, T. )

    1991-02-15

    The state-resolved collision-energy dependences of Penning ionization cross sections {sigma}({ital E}) were measured in an energy range (60{lt}{ital E}{lt}400 meV) for N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} with He*2{sup 3}{ital S} by using a very high-intensity He* beam (1.8{times}10{sup 15} s{sup {minus}1} sr{sup {minus}1}) and detecting energy-analyzed electrons as functions of time-of-flight of He*. The partial ionization cross sections for {Pi} states (N{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital A}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital u}}, CO{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital X}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital g}}, {ital A}{sup 2}{Pi}{sub {ital u}}) were observed to increase more rapidly with the increase of the collision energy than those for {Sigma} states (N{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital X}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital g}}, {ital B}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital u}}, CO{sup +}{sub 2}{ital B}:{ital B}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital u}},{ital C}{sup 2}{Sigma}{sup +}{sub {ital g}}). In the studied energy range, the repulsive walls for end-on collisions were indicated to be harder than those for side-on collisions. The directional peculiarity of the potential surfaces was related to the anisotropy in the hybridization of He* orbitals interacting with the target molecules.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 25 (BRNAVT00120025) on State Highway 12, crossing Locust Creek, Barnard, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.; Weber, Matthew A.

    1996-01-01

    abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 30 degrees to the opening while the opening-skew-to-roadway is 45 degrees. A scour hole 1 ft deeper than the mean thalweg depth was observed along a bedrock outcrop near the upstream left wingwall during the Level I assessment. The scour protection measures in place at the site are type-1 stone fill (less than 12 inches diameter) along the left abutment, upstream right bank, and both downstream banks; type-2 stone fill (less than 36 inches diameter) at the downstream side of the right road approach and upstream left bank; type-3 stone fill (less than 48 inches diameter) at the upstream end of the upstream right wingwall and downstream end of downstream left wingwall; type-5 (wall/ artificial levee) at the upstream end of the upstream left wingwall. Additional details describing conditions at the site are included in the Level II Summary and Appendices D and E. Scour depths and rock rip-rap sizes were computed using the general guidelines described in Hydraulic Engineering Circular 18 (Richardson and others, 1993). Total scour at a highway crossing is comprised of three components: 1) long-term streambed degradation; 2) contraction scour (due to accelerated flow caused by a reduction in flow area at a bridge) and; 3) local scour (caused by accelerated flow around piers and abutments). Total scour is the sum of the three components. Equations are available to compute depths for contraction and local scour and a summary of the results of these computations follows. Contraction scour for all modelled flows ranged from 0.0 to 1.4 ft. The worst-case contraction scour occurred at the 100-year discharge. Abutment scour ranged from 8.5 to 20.9 ft. The worst-case abutment scour occurred at the 500-year discharge. Additional information on scour depths and depths to armoring are included in the section titled “Scour Results”. Scoured-streambed elevations, based on the calculated scour depths, are presented in

  15. Dental Health Status and Treatment Needs of Police Personnel of a North Indian State: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sohi, RK; Gambhir, RS; Sogi, GM; Veeresha, KL; Randhawa, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Police personnel form the backbone for safety and security of a community hence their health is of utmost importance. Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the oral health status and treatment needs of police personnel employed in police stations of three districts within 35 km radius around Maharishi Markandeshwar University, Mullana. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on all the available police personnel at various police stations. Final sample size comprised of 652 subjects. The data were recorded on modified World Health Organization format (1997). Results: The mean age of subjects was 41.02 years (standard deviation = 12.29), 98.9% (645/652) were males and 1.1% (7/652) were females. The prevalence of dental caries was 54.3% (352/652) and the mean decayed, missing and filled teeth was 3.05. Mean number of teeth requiring filling and extraction were 0.44 and 0.67 respectively. Only 2.92% (19/652) of subjects possessed prosthesis in mandibular arch and a same number of individuals possessed prosthesis in maxillary arch. Regarding highest community periodontal index (CPI) score, 23.6% (153/652) subjects had a healthy periodontium whereas maximum subjects (61.3%, 398/652) had a CPI score 2. Conclusion: Prevalence of dental caries was quite high. Despite a high prosthetic need, only a small number of subjects possessed dental prosthesis. Overall periodontal status was satisfactory with a high number of subjects having completely healthy periodontium. PMID:25221706

  16. Inverse Association between Diabetes and Altitude: A Cross Sectional Study in the Adult Population of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Woolcott, Orison O.; Castillo, Oscar A.; Gutierrez, Cesar; Elashoff, Robert M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether geographical elevation is inversely associated with diabetes, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Design and Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of publicly available online data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2009. Final dataset included 285,196 US adult subjects. Odds ratios were obtained from multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Results Among US adults (≥20 years old), the odds ratio for diabetes were 1.00 between 0−499 m of altitude (reference), 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.01) between 500−1,499 m, and 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96) between 1,500−3,500 m, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, ethnicity, self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption, self-reported physical activity, current smoking status, level of education, income, health status, employment status, and county-level information on migration rate, urbanization, and latitude. The inverse association between altitude and diabetes in the US was found among men [0.84 (0.76 to 0.94)], but not women [1.09 (0.97 to 1.22)]. Conclusions Among US adults, living at high altitude (1,500−3,500 m) is associated with lower odds of having diabetes than living between 0−499 m, while adjusting for multiple risk factors. Our findings suggest that geographical elevation may be an important factor linked to diabetes. PMID:24890677

  17. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    PubMed

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  18. Is longing only for Germans? A cross-cultural comparison of Sehnsucht in Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Wiest, Maja; Freund, Alexandra M

    2011-05-01

    Sehnsucht, the longing or yearning for ideal yet seemingly unreachable states of life, is a salient topic in German culture and has proven useful for understanding self-regulation across adulthood in a German sample (e.g., Scheibe, Freund, & Baltes, 2007). The current study tested whether findings for German samples could be generalized to the more individualistic and agentic U.S. American culture. Four samples of U.S. American and German participants (total N = 1,276) age 18 to 81 years reported and rated their 2 most important life longings and completed measures of subjective well-being and health. Measurement equivalence was established at the level of factor loadings for central life longing characteristics. German and U.S. American participants did not differ in self-reported ease of identifying personal life longings or their intensity. In comparison to Germans, however, U.S. Americans associated life longings less with utopian, unattainable states and reported less salience of the concept in everyday life. Associations with measures of adaptation suggest that life longings can be both functional and dysfunctional for development in both cultures.

  19. Is longing only for Germans? A cross-cultural comparison of Sehnsucht in Germany and the United States.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Susanne; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Wiest, Maja; Freund, Alexandra M

    2011-05-01

    Sehnsucht, the longing or yearning for ideal yet seemingly unreachable states of life, is a salient topic in German culture and has proven useful for understanding self-regulation across adulthood in a German sample (e.g., Scheibe, Freund, & Baltes, 2007). The current study tested whether findings for German samples could be generalized to the more individualistic and agentic U.S. American culture. Four samples of U.S. American and German participants (total N = 1,276) age 18 to 81 years reported and rated their 2 most important life longings and completed measures of subjective well-being and health. Measurement equivalence was established at the level of factor loadings for central life longing characteristics. German and U.S. American participants did not differ in self-reported ease of identifying personal life longings or their intensity. In comparison to Germans, however, U.S. Americans associated life longings less with utopian, unattainable states and reported less salience of the concept in everyday life. Associations with measures of adaptation suggest that life longings can be both functional and dysfunctional for development in both cultures. PMID:21219068

  20. Limpet Shells from the Aterian Level 8 of El Harhoura 2 Cave (Témara, Morocco): Preservation State of Crossed-Foliated Layers

    PubMed Central

    Nouet, Julius; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Nehrke, Gernot; Campmas, Emilie; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil; Nespoulet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of mollusks by the first anatomically modern humans is a central question for archaeologists. This paper focuses on level 8 (dated around ∼ 100 ka BP) of El Harhoura 2 Cave, located along the coastline in the Rabat-Témara region (Morocco). The large quantity of Patella sp. shells found in this level highlights questions regarding their origin and preservation. This study presents an estimation of the preservation status of these shells. We focus here on the diagenetic evolution of both the microstructural patterns and organic components of crossed-foliated shell layers, in order to assess the viability of further investigations based on shell layer minor elements, isotopic or biochemical compositions. The results show that the shells seem to be well conserved, with microstructural patterns preserved down to sub-micrometric scales, and that some organic components are still present in situ. But faint taphonomic degradations affecting both mineral and organic components are nonetheless evidenced, such as the disappearance of organic envelopes surrounding crossed-foliated lamellae, combined with a partial recrystallization of the lamellae. Our results provide a solid case-study of the early stages of the diagenetic evolution of crossed-foliated shell layers. Moreover, they highlight the fact that extreme caution must be taken before using fossil shells for palaeoenvironmental or geochronological reconstructions. Without thorough investigation, the alteration patterns illustrated here would easily have gone unnoticed. However, these degradations are liable to bias any proxy based on the elemental, isotopic or biochemical composition of the shells. This study also provides significant data concerning human subsistence behavior: the presence of notches and the good preservation state of limpet shells (no dissolution/recrystallization, no bioerosion and no abrasion/fragmentation aspects) would attest that limpets were gathered alive with tools by

  1. Greater Repertoire and Temporal Variability of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) Modes in Resting-State Neuromagnetic Recordings among Children with Reading Difficulties.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Laskaris, Nikolaos A; Simos, Panagiotis G; Fletcher, Jack M; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Cross-frequency, phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC) between neuronal oscillations at rest may serve as the substrate that supports information exchange between functionally specialized neuronal populations both within and between cortical regions. The study utilizes novel algorithms to identify prominent instantaneous modes of cross-frequency coupling and their temporal stability in resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 25 students experiencing severe reading difficulties (RD) and 27 age-matched non-impaired readers (NI). Phase coherence estimates were computed in order to identify the prominent mode of PAC interaction for each sensor, sensor pair, and pair of frequency bands (from δ to γ) at successive time windows of the continuous MEG record. The degree of variability in the characteristic frequency-pair PAC(f1-f2) modes over time was also estimated. Results revealed a wider repertoire of prominent PAC interactions in RD as compared to NI students, suggesting an altered functional substrate for information exchange between neuronal assemblies in the former group. Moreover, RD students showed significant variability in PAC modes over time. This temporal instability of PAC values was particularly prominent: (a) within and between right hemisphere temporo-parietal and occipito-temporal sensors and, (b) between left hemisphere frontal, temporal, and occipito-temporal sensors and corresponding right hemisphere sites. Altered modes of neuronal population coupling may help account for extant data revealing reduced, task-related neurophysiological and hemodynamic activation in left hemisphere regions involved in the reading network in RD. Moreover, the spatial distribution of pronounced instability of cross-frequency coupling modes in this group may provide an explanation for previous reports suggesting the presence of inefficient compensatory mechanisms to support reading. PMID:27199698

  2. Limpet Shells from the Aterian Level 8 of El Harhoura 2 Cave (Témara, Morocco): Preservation State of Crossed-Foliated Layers.

    PubMed

    Nouet, Julius; Chevallard, Corinne; Farre, Bastien; Nehrke, Gernot; Campmas, Emilie; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; El Hajraoui, Mohamed Abdeljalil; Nespoulet, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of mollusks by the first anatomically modern humans is a central question for archaeologists. This paper focuses on level 8 (dated around ∼ 100 ka BP) of El Harhoura 2 Cave, located along the coastline in the Rabat-Témara region (Morocco). The large quantity of Patella sp. shells found in this level highlights questions regarding their origin and preservation. This study presents an estimation of the preservation status of these shells. We focus here on the diagenetic evolution of both the microstructural patterns and organic components of crossed-foliated shell layers, in order to assess the viability of further investigations based on shell layer minor elements, isotopic or biochemical compositions. The results show that the shells seem to be well conserved, with microstructural patterns preserved down to sub-micrometric scales, and that some organic components are still present in situ. But faint taphonomic degradations affecting both mineral and organic components are nonetheless evidenced, such as the disappearance of organic envelopes surrounding crossed-foliated lamellae, combined with a partial recrystallization of the lamellae. Our results provide a solid case-study of the early stages of the diagenetic evolution of crossed-foliated shell layers. Moreover, they highlight the fact that extreme caution must be taken before using fossil shells for palaeoenvironmental or geochronological reconstructions. Without thorough investigation, the alteration patterns illustrated here would easily have gone unnoticed. However, these degradations are liable to bias any proxy based on the elemental, isotopic or biochemical composition of the shells. This study also provides significant data concerning human subsistence behavior: the presence of notches and the good preservation state of limpet shells (no dissolution/recrystallization, no bioerosion and no abrasion/fragmentation aspects) would attest that limpets were gathered alive with tools by

  3. Extracting the photoproduction cross sections off the neutron, via the γn→π-p reaction, from deuteron data with final-state interaction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, V. E.; Briscoe, W. J.; Gao, H.; Kudryavtsev, A. E.; Strakovsky, I. I.

    2011-09-01

    The incoherent pion photoproduction reaction γd→π-pp is considered theoretically in a wide energy region Eth≤Eγ≤2700 MeV. The model applied contains the impulse approximation as well as the NN and πN final-state-interaction (FSI) amplitudes. The aim of the paper is to study a reliable way for getting the information on elementary γn→π-p reaction cross sections beyond the impulse approximation for γd→π-pp. For the elementary γN→πN, NN→NN, and πN→πN amplitudes, the results of The George Washington University (GW) Data Analysis Center (DAC) are used. There are no additional theoretical constraints. The calculated cross sections dσ/dΩ(γd→π-pp) are compared with existing data. The procedure used to extract information on the differential cross section dσ/dΩ(γn→π-p) on the neutron from the deuteron data using the FSI correction factor R is discussed. The calculations for R versus π-p center-of-mass (CM) angle θ1 of the outgoing pion are performed at different photon-beam energies with kinematic cuts for a “quasifree” process γn→π-p. The results show a sizable FSI effect R≠1 from the S-wave part of pp-FSI at small angles close to θ1˜0: this region narrows as the photon energy increases. At larger angles, the effect is small (|R-1|≪1) and agrees with estimations of FSI in the Glauber approach.

  4. Greater Repertoire and Temporal Variability of Cross-Frequency Coupling (CFC) Modes in Resting-State Neuromagnetic Recordings among Children with Reading Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Dimitriadis, Stavros I.; Laskaris, Nikolaos A.; Simos, Panagiotis G.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Papanicolaou, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-frequency, phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC) between neuronal oscillations at rest may serve as the substrate that supports information exchange between functionally specialized neuronal populations both within and between cortical regions. The study utilizes novel algorithms to identify prominent instantaneous modes of cross-frequency coupling and their temporal stability in resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG) data from 25 students experiencing severe reading difficulties (RD) and 27 age-matched non-impaired readers (NI). Phase coherence estimates were computed in order to identify the prominent mode of PAC interaction for each sensor, sensor pair, and pair of frequency bands (from δ to γ) at successive time windows of the continuous MEG record. The degree of variability in the characteristic frequency-pair PACf1−f2 modes over time was also estimated. Results revealed a wider repertoire of prominent PAC interactions in RD as compared to NI students, suggesting an altered functional substrate for information exchange between neuronal assemblies in the former group. Moreover, RD students showed significant variability in PAC modes over time. This temporal instability of PAC values was particularly prominent: (a) within and between right hemisphere temporo-parietal and occipito-temporal sensors and, (b) between left hemisphere frontal, temporal, and occipito-temporal sensors and corresponding right hemisphere sites. Altered modes of neuronal population coupling may help account for extant data revealing reduced, task-related neurophysiological and hemodynamic activation in left hemisphere regions involved in the reading network in RD. Moreover, the spatial distribution of pronounced instability of cross-frequency coupling modes in this group may provide an explanation for previous reports suggesting the presence of inefficient compensatory mechanisms to support reading. PMID:27199698

  5. Geomorphic response to channel modifications of Skuna River at the State Highway 9 crossing at Bruce, Calhoun County, Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.V.; Turnipseed, D.P.

    1994-01-01

    Skuna River at State Highway 9 at Bruce, Calhoun County, Mississippi, has geomorphically responded to channel modifications by lowering of the channel bed through degradation, which heightened and steepened channel banks and induced widening. Skuna River Canal (Skuna River) has typically degraded about 16.5 feet and widened about 150 feet from 1925 (when constructed) to 1992. Old Skuna River has degraded and widened about 11 feet and 40 feet, respectively, from 1921 to 1991. Skuna River Canal tributary has degraded about 6 feet from 1921 to 1991. Most of the geomorphic response on the Old River and the tributary seems to be a consequence of modifications of the canal. The bankfull discharge of the canal has increased about 1,450 percent, and the channel slope has decreased about 34 percent from 1925 to 1989. The bankfull stream power has been decreasing since 1980. The bankfull channel width-depth ratio has been increasing since 1975, which indicates the canal has been widening more than degrading since 1975. As much as 1 foot of additional degradation and 40 feet of additional widening are projected through 2010 on Skuna River Canal in the vicinity of State Highway 9. About 70 feet of additional widening could occur before the canal reaches quasi-equilibrium, which will likely be reached after 2010. If Old Skuna River and Skuna River Canal tributary degrade as much as the canal, which is doubtful, then about 6 and 11 feet of additional degradation could occur by 2010 on the Old Skuna River and the tributary, respectively, at State Highway 9. Old Skuna River and the tributary could both widen an additional 30 feet in the next 10 to 20 years. The channel low-stage thalweg of Skuna River Canal is beginning to meander around sandbars inducing lateral erosion of the channel banks. The widening projections in this report do not directly account for lateral erosion and are considered to be a minimum for the typical channel reach. Lateral erosion will likely have a

  6. Unraveling the time cross correlations of an emitter switching between two states with the same fluorescence intensity.

    PubMed

    Eloi, F; Frederich, H; Leray, A; Buil, S; Quélin, X; Ji, B; Giovanelli, E; Lequeux, N; Dubertret, B; Hermier, J-P

    2015-11-16

    The autocorrelation function of the fluorescence intensity of a nanoemitter is measured with the standard Hanbury-Brown and Twiss setup. Time-tagging of the photodetection events during all the experiment has opened new possibilities in terms of post-selection techniques that enable to go beyond the blinking and antibunching characterization. Here, we first present a new method developed to investigate in detail the antibunching of a fluorophore switching between two emitting states. Even if they exhibit the same fluorescence intensity, their respective amount of antibunching can be measured using the gap between their respective decay rates. The method is then applied to a nanoemitter consisting in a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a plasmonic resonator. The relative quantum efficiency of the charged and neutral biexcitons are determined.

  7. Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression Among Foreign-Born HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Medical Care in the United States: A Complex Sample, Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tanya R; Lin, Xia; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Immigrants to the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared with native-born persons. Navigating access to healthcare in the United States can be challenging for foreign-born persons, and HIV treatment outcomes may be suboptimal for these persons. We compared characteristics of and assessed disparities in clinical outcomes of foreign-born persons in care for HIV in the United States. The Medical Monitoring Project is a complex sample, cross-sectional survey designed to be nationally representative of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Using data from 2009, 2010, and 2011, we conducted descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between foreign-born status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and between foreign-born status and viral suppression. In all, 13.4% of HIV-infected persons were self-identified as foreign-born; the most common regions of birth were Central America and Mexico (45.4%) and the Caribbean (16.0%). Nearly 90% of foreign-born persons were diagnosed with HIV after entry into the United States. Compared with US-born persons, foreign-born persons were more likely to be younger, Hispanic, less educated, and uninsured. The prevalence of ART prescription (prevalence ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.02) was not significantly different between foreign-born and US-born persons. A higher percentage of foreign-born persons achieved viral suppression compared with US-born persons (prevalence ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.09). No major disparities in ART prescription and viral suppression were found between foreign-born and US-born HIV-infected persons receiving medical care, despite higher percentages being uninsured. PMID:26986128

  8. Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Suppression Among Foreign-Born HIV-Infected Persons Receiving Medical Care in the United States: A Complex Sample, Cross-Sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Myers, Tanya R; Lin, Xia; Skarbinski, Jacek

    2016-03-01

    Immigrants to the United States are more likely to be diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared with native-born persons. Navigating access to healthcare in the United States can be challenging for foreign-born persons, and HIV treatment outcomes may be suboptimal for these persons. We compared characteristics of and assessed disparities in clinical outcomes of foreign-born persons in care for HIV in the United States. The Medical Monitoring Project is a complex sample, cross-sectional survey designed to be nationally representative of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Using data from 2009, 2010, and 2011, we conducted descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regression to assess associations between foreign-born status and antiretroviral therapy (ART) prescription, and between foreign-born status and viral suppression. In all, 13.4% of HIV-infected persons were self-identified as foreign-born; the most common regions of birth were Central America and Mexico (45.4%) and the Caribbean (16.0%). Nearly 90% of foreign-born persons were diagnosed with HIV after entry into the United States. Compared with US-born persons, foreign-born persons were more likely to be younger, Hispanic, less educated, and uninsured. The prevalence of ART prescription (prevalence ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.02) was not significantly different between foreign-born and US-born persons. A higher percentage of foreign-born persons achieved viral suppression compared with US-born persons (prevalence ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.09). No major disparities in ART prescription and viral suppression were found between foreign-born and US-born HIV-infected persons receiving medical care, despite higher percentages being uninsured.

  9. Hospitals, finance, and health system reform in Britain and the United States, c. 1910-1950: historical revisionism and cross-national comparison.

    PubMed

    Gorsky, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Comparative histories of health system development have been variously influenced by the theoretical approaches of historical institutionalism, political pluralism, and labor mobilization. Britain and the United States have figured significantly in this literature because of their very different trajectories. This article explores the implications of recent research on hospital history in the two countries for existing historiographies, particularly the coming of the National Health Service in Britain. It argues that the two hospital systems initially developed in broadly similar ways, despite the very different outcomes in the 1940s. Thus, applying the conceptual tools used to explain the U.S. trajectory can deepen appreciation of events in Britain. Attention focuses particularly on working-class hospital contributory schemes and their implications for finance, governance, and participation; these are then compared with Blue Cross and U.S. hospital prepayment. While acknowledging the importance of path dependence in shaping attitudes of British bureaucrats toward these schemes, analysis emphasizes their failure in pressure group politics, in contrast to the United States. In both countries labor was also crucial, in the United States sustaining employment-based prepayment and in Britain broadly supporting system reform.

  10. Coherent state approach to the cross-collisional effects in the population dynamics of a two-mode Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viscondi, Thiago F.; Furuya, K.; de Oliveira, M. C.

    2009-09-01

    We reanalyze the non-linear population dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a double well trap considering a semiclassical approach based on a time dependent variational principle applied to coherent states associated to SU(2) group. Employing a two-mode local approximation and hard sphere type interaction, we show in the Schwinger's pseudo-spin language the occurrence of a fixed point bifurcation that originates a separatrix of motion on a sphere. This separatrix corresponds to the borderline between two dynamical regimes of Josephson oscillations and mesoscopic self-trapping. We also consider the effects of interaction between particles in different wells, known as cross-collisions. Such terms are usually neglected for traps sufficiently far apart, but recently it has been shown that they contribute to the effective tunneling constant with a factor growing linearly with the particle number. This effect changes considerably the effective tunneling of the system for sufficiently large number of trapped atoms, in perfect accord with experimental data. Finally, we identify analytically the transition parameter associated to the bifurcation in the generalized phase space of the model with cross-collision terms, and show how the dynamical regime depends on the initial conditions of the system and the collisional parameters values.

  11. Simultaneous cross polarization to 13C and 15N with 1H detection at 60 kHz MAS solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bibhuti B.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe high resolution MAS solid-state NMR experiments that utilize 1H detection with 60 kHz magic angle spinning; simultaneous cross-polarization from 1H to 15N and 13C nuclei; bidirectional cross-polarization between 13C and 15N nuclei; detection of both amide nitrogen and aliphatic carbon 1H; and measurement of both 13C and 15N chemical shifts through multi-dimensional correlation experiments. Three-dimensional experiments correlate amide 1H and alpha 1H selectively with 13C or 15N nuclei in a polypeptide chain. Two separate three-dimensional spectra correlating 1Hα/13Cα/1HN and 1HN/15N/1Hα are recorded simultaneously in a single experiment, demonstrating that a twofold savings in experimental time is potentially achievable. Spectral editing using bidirectional coherence transfer pathways enables simultaneous magnetization transfers between 15N, 13Cα(i) and 13C‧(i-1), facilitating intra- and inter-residue correlations for sequential resonance assignment. Non-uniform sampling is integrated into the experiments, further reducing the length of experimental time.

  12. Measurement of WW + WZ production cross section and study of the dijet mass spectrum in the ℓν + jets final state at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Cavaliere, Viviana

    2010-01-01

    We present the measurement of the WW and WZ production cross section in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, in a final state consisting of an electron or muon, neutrino and jets. The data analyzed were collected by the CDF II detector at the Tevatron collider and correspond to 4.3 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The analysis uses a fit to the dijet mass distribution to extract the diboson contribution. We observe 1582 ± 275(stat.) ± 107(syst.) diboson candidate events and measure a cross section of σWW/WZ = 18.1 ± 3.3(stat.) ± 2.5(syst.) pb, consistent with the Standard Model prediction of 15.9 ± 0.9 pb. The best fit to the dijet mass of the known components shows a good agreement with the data except for the [120, 160] GeV/c2 mass range, where an excess is observed. We perform detailed checks of our background model and study the significance of the excess, assuming an additional gaussian component with a width compatible with the expected dijet mass resolution. A standard Δχ2 test of the presence of the additional component, returns a p-value of 4.2 x 10-4 when standard sources of systematics are considered, corresponding to a significance of 3.3{sigma}.

  13. The Hydrophobic Effect Contributes to the Closed State of a Simplified Ion Channel through a Conserved Hydrophobic Patch at the Pore-Helix Crossing

    PubMed Central

    Yonkunas, Michael; Kurnikova, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Ion selectivity-filter structures are strikingly similar throughout the large family of K++ channels and other p-loop-like receptors (i.e., glutamate receptors). At the same time, the triggers for opening these channels, or gating, are diverse. Two questions that remain unanswered regarding these channels are: (1) what force(s) stabilize the closed non-conducting channel-pore conformation? And (2) what is the free energy associated with transitioning from a closed (non-conducting) to an open (conducting) channel-pore conformation? The effects of charge and hydrophobicity on the conformational states of a model tetrameric biological ion channel are shown utilizing the amino acid sequence from the K+ channel KcsA as the model “channel”. Its widely conserved hydrophobic bundle crossing located adjacent to the lipid head-groups at the intracellular side of the membrane was calculated to have a 5 kcal/mol free energy difference between modeled open and closed conformations. Simulated mutants of amino acids within the hydrophobic region significantly contribute to the size of this difference. Specifically for KcsA, these residues are part of the pH sensor important for channel gating and our results are in agreement with published electrophysiology data. Our simulations support the idea that the hydrophobic effect contributes significantly to the stability of the closed conformation in tetrameric ion channels with a hydrophobic bundle crossing positioned in proximity to the lipid head groups of the biological membrane. PMID:26640439

  14. The portrayal of older people in television advertisements: a cross-cultural content analysis of the United States and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Oungkwan; Kim, Bong-Chul; Han, Sangpil

    2006-01-01

    A cross-cultural content analysis of 2295 prime-time television ads--859 ads from the United States and 1436 ads from South Korea-was conducted to examine the differences in the portrayal of older people between U.S. and Korean ads. In two countries, the underrepresentation of older people in ads was found in terms of proportions of the actual population. The findings also showed that older people are more likely to play major roles in Korean television ads than in U.S. ads. In terms of the attributes of older people depicted in ads, differences between U.S. and Korean ads were also found. The results showed that Korean television ads are likely to more positively depict older people than American television ads are. These findings supported the basic assumption of cross-cultural advertising, in which the differences in cultural values between the two cultures are related to the differences in the contents of their advertisements. However, the problems of underrepresentation and stereotypes in the portrayal of older people were still identified both in Korean and U.S. prime-time television ads.

  15. Dynamics of H/sup +/ + Kr and H/sup +/ + Xe elastic and charge-transfer collisions: State-selected differential cross sections at low collision energies

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.; Dueren, R.; Friedrich, B.; Niedner, G.; Noll, M.; Toennies, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    Elastic and charge-transfer scattering of protons by Kr and Xe targets has been investigated in a crossed-beam experiment at collision energies E/sub c.m./ = 30.6 and 51.7 eV. The charge-transfer collisions led to the formation of Kr/sup +/( /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/, /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1) and Xe/sup +/( /sup 2/P/sub 3/2/, /sup 2/P/sub 1/2/)+H(n = 1,n = 2) products respectively. Interference patterns in the state-selected relative differential cross sections were clearly resolved and have been ascribed to primary and secondary rainbows and/or Stueckelberg-type oscillations. The H/sup +/+Xe collisions have also been investigated theoretically by the exact close-coupling method. A good agreement between theory and experiment has been found. A novel method for determining the absolute H-atom detection efficiency is suggested.

  16. Structures of Highly Twisted Amides Relevant to Amide N-C Cross-Coupling: Evidence for Ground-State Amide Destabilization.

    PubMed

    Pace, Vittorio; Holzer, Wolfgang; Meng, Guangrong; Shi, Shicheng; Lalancette, Roger; Szostak, Roman; Szostak, Michal

    2016-10-01

    Herein, we show that acyclic amides that have recently enabled a series of elusive transition-metal-catalyzed N-C activation/cross-coupling reactions are highly twisted around the N-C(O) axis by a new destabilization mechanism of the amide bond. A unique effect of the N-glutarimide substituent, leading to uniformly high twist (ca. 90°) irrespective of the steric effect at the carbon side of the amide bond has been found. This represents the first example of a twisted amide that does not bear significant steric hindrance at the α-carbon atom. The (15) N NMR data show linear correlations between electron density at nitrogen and amide bond twist. This study strongly supports the concept of amide bond ground-state twist as a blueprint for activation of amides toward N-C bond cleavage. The new mechanism offers considerable opportunities for organic synthesis and biological processes involving non-planar amide bonds.

  17. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    PubMed

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework. PMID:26842398

  18. Unraveling Triplet Excitons Photophysics in Hyper-Cross-Linked Polymeric Nanoparticles: Toward the Next Generation of Solid-State Upconverting Materials.

    PubMed

    Monguzzi, Angelo; Mauri, Michele; Frigoli, Michel; Pedrini, Jacopo; Simonutti, Roberto; Larpent, Chantal; Vaccaro, Gianfranco; Sassi, Mauro; Meinardi, Francesco

    2016-07-21

    The technological application of sensitized upconversion based on triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) requires the transition from systems operating in liquid solutions to solid-state materials. Here, we demonstrate that the high upconversion efficiency reported in hyper-cross-linked nanoparticles does not originate from residual mobility of the embedded dyes as it happens in soft hosts. The hyper-reticulation from one side blocks the dyes in fixed positions, but on the other one, it suppresses the nonradiative spontaneous decay of the triplet excitons, reducing intramolecular relaxations. TTA is thus enabled by an unprecedented extension of the triplet lifetime, which grants long excitons diffusion lengths by hopping among the dye framework and gives rise to high upconversion yield without any molecular displacement. This finding paves the way for the design of a new class of upconverting materials, which in principle can operate at excitation intensities even lower than those requested in liquid or in rubber hosts. PMID:27388582

  19. Cross-Cutting Studies and State-of-the-Practice Reviews: Archive and Use of ITS-Generated Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, PS

    2002-07-31

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) provide and use information about transportation conditions to improve system performance in such areas as safety, mobility, efficiency and environmental impacts. Typically, ITS generates massive amounts of data about the state of travel that are used primarily by transportation authorities to effectively operate and manage their transportation systems, and by private individuals and industry to manage trips. These primary uses provide short-term, real-time information regarding the transportation systems current conditions and driver and passenger choices. A broad spectrum of stakeholders could benefit from ITS-generated data to meet their data needs in planning, operations and maintenance, administration, training, modeling, simulations, and development of control strategies. In the context of ADUS, the term ''ITS-generated data'' refers to those data generated by ITS that are primarily used ''in managing system operations and providing information on system conditions and choices to the public.'' Specifically, ADUS refers to data generated from any one of the nine components that make up the ITS infrastructure: (1) freeway management, (2) incident management, (3) arterial management, (4) electronic fare payment, (5) electronic toll collection, (6) transit management, (7) highway-rail intersections, (8) emergency management, and (9) regional multimodal traveler information. The overall objectives of this project are to provide information and reports that can: (1) Provide awareness and education for associated ITS and non-ITS related partners, users, and customers regarding real and potential improvements in transportation decisions through: the use of archived ITS-generated data, the integration of ITS-generated and non-ITS data and data systems, and the sharing of archived ITS-generated data with other potential users. (2) Be used to develop future Technical and Institutional Synthesis Studies outlined in Wave II of the

  20. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis

  1. A cross-cultural examination of use of corporal punishment on children: a focus on Sweden and the United States.

    PubMed

    Solheim, J S

    1982-01-01

    It appears that Sweden and the United States may be a study in contrasts regarding the sanction and use of corporal punishment on children. A 1979 study of American parents noted that 81% of them employed corporal punishment with children. A different study done in Sweden in 1978 noted that only 26% of parents used corporal punishment with children. What points to the differences in these parenting patterns within the two countries? In addition, a 1977 U.S. Supreme Court case entitled Ingraham vs. Wright ruled that "schools are empowered to carry out corporal punishment." This court case involved two high school boys in Florida who had been repeatedly struck with wooden paddles. In contrast, Sweden had statutes which prohibited corporal punishment of children in their secondary schools as early as the 1920s. In 1957, the country passed a law which defined corporal punishment as unacceptable for small children in the schools. Then, in 1979, the Swedish government passed a statute prohibiting corporal punishment by parents. Are there differences in the way the two countries view law and its uses? Or, do the cultures sanction violence in general or just violence against children in different ways? This article examines some of the similarities and differences found in American and Swedish treatment of children and proposes what appear to be extreme differences in the way the countries and their people approach corporal punishment.

  2. Polarized light scattering with the Paschen-back effect, level-crossing of fine structure states, and partial frequency redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sowmya, K.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sampoorna, M.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch

    2014-10-01

    The quantum interference between the fine structure states of an atom modifies the shapes of the emergent Stokes profiles in the second solar spectrum. This phenomenon has been studied in great detail both in the presence and absence of magnetic fields. By assuming a flat-spectrum for the incident radiation, the signatures of this effect have been explored for arbitrary field strengths. Even though the theory which takes into account the frequency dependence of the incident radiation is well developed, it is restricted to the regime in which the magnetic splitting is much smaller than the fine structure splitting. In the present paper, we carry out a generalization of our scattering matrix formalism including the effects of partial frequency redistribution for arbitrary magnetic fields. We test the formalism using available benchmarks for special cases. In particular, we apply it to the Li I 6708 Å D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} line system, for which observable effects from the Paschen-Back regime are expected in the Sun's spectrum.

  3. A cross-cultural examination of use of corporal punishment on children: a focus on Sweden and the United States.

    PubMed

    Solheim, J S

    1982-01-01

    It appears that Sweden and the United States may be a study in contrasts regarding the sanction and use of corporal punishment on children. A 1979 study of American parents noted that 81% of them employed corporal punishment with children. A different study done in Sweden in 1978 noted that only 26% of parents used corporal punishment with children. What points to the differences in these parenting patterns within the two countries? In addition, a 1977 U.S. Supreme Court case entitled Ingraham vs. Wright ruled that "schools are empowered to carry out corporal punishment." This court case involved two high school boys in Florida who had been repeatedly struck with wooden paddles. In contrast, Sweden had statutes which prohibited corporal punishment of children in their secondary schools as early as the 1920s. In 1957, the country passed a law which defined corporal punishment as unacceptable for small children in the schools. Then, in 1979, the Swedish government passed a statute prohibiting corporal punishment by parents. Are there differences in the way the two countries view law and its uses? Or, do the cultures sanction violence in general or just violence against children in different ways? This article examines some of the similarities and differences found in American and Swedish treatment of children and proposes what appear to be extreme differences in the way the countries and their people approach corporal punishment. PMID:6892295

  4. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  5. De-excitation dynamics of Rydberg states in O2: I. Total cross sections for O I fluorescence emission following predissociation of 2σ- 1u(c4Σ- u)nσg3Σ-u states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebel, H.; Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H.; Demekhin, Ph V.; Lagutin, B. M.; Sukhorukov, V. L.

    2002-02-01

    Absolute cross sections for the total fluorescence emission between 97 and 131 nm by atomic oxygen formed after the photoexcitation of 2σ-1u(c4Σ- u)nσg3Σ- u Rydberg states in O2 and their successive predissociation were measured for the first time. The dissociation lifetimes and fluorescence yields were estimated using a stepwise model and the potential curve of the O2+2σ- 1u(c4Σ-u) state known from Beebe et al (Beebe N H F, Thulstrup E W and Andersen A 1976 J. Chem. Phys. 64 2080). The calculated lifetimes of the vibrational levels v = 0 and 1 of the 2σ-1u(c4Σ- u) state are 3.4×10-12 and 6.3×10-14 s, respectively. They agree with the measured data of Evans et al (Evans M, Stimson S, Ng C Y and Hsu C-W 1998 J. Chem. Phys. 109 1285) and are consistent with the results of the present experiment. The calculated lifetimes support the model of `fast' dissociation of the O2+2σ- 1u(c4Σ-u), v states in contrast to the earlier model of `slow' dissociation of Tanaka and Yoshimine (Tanaka K and Yoshimine M 1979 J. Chem. Phys. 70 1626).

  6. Environmental risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Converse, R R; Wade, T J

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori imparts a considerable burden to public health. Infections are mainly acquired in childhood and can lead to chronic diseases, including gastric ulcers and cancer. The bacterium subsists in water, but the environment's role in transmission remains poorly understood. The nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was examined for environmental risk factors associated with H. pylori seroprevalence. Data from 1999-2000 were examined and weighted to represent the US population. Multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with seropositivity. Self-reported general health condition was inversely associated with seropositivity. Of participants aged <20 years, seropositivity was significantly associated with having a well as the source of home tap water (aOR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-2·6) and living in a more crowded home (aOR 2·3, 95% CI 1·5-3·7). Of adults aged ⩾20 years, seropositivity was not associated with well water or crowded living conditions, but adults in soil-related occupations had significantly higher odds of seropositivity compared to those in non-soil-related occupations (aOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·2-2·9). Exposures to both well water and occupationally related soil increased the effect size of adults' odds of seropositivity compared to non-exposed adults (aOR 2·7, 95% CI 1·3-5·6). Environmental exposures (well-water usage and occupational contact with soil) play a role in H. pylori transmission. A disproportionate burden of infection is associated with poor health and crowded living conditions, but risks vary by age and race/ethnicity. These findings could help inform interventions to reduce the burden of infections in the United States.

  7. Does phosphate release limit the ATPases of soleus myofibrils? Evidence that (A)M. ADP.Pi states predominate on the cross-bridge cycle.

    PubMed

    Iorga, Bogdan; Candau, Robin; Travers, Franck; Barman, Tom; Lionne, Corinne

    2004-01-01

    The ATPases (+/-Ca2+) of myofibrils from rabbit soleus (a slow muscle) and psoas (a fast muscle) have different Ea: -Ca2+, 78 and 60 kJ/mol and +Ca2+, 155 and 71 kJ/mol, respectively. At physiological temperatures, the two types of myofibrillar ATPase are very similar and yet the mechanical properties of the muscles are different (Candau et al. (2003) Biophys J 85: 3132-3141). Muscle contraction relies on specific interactions of the different chemical states on the myosin head ATPase pathway with the thin filament. An explanation for the Ea data is that different states populate the pathways of the two types of myofibril because the rate limiting steps are different. Here, we put this to the test by a comparison of the transient kinetics of the initial steps of the ATPases of the two types of myofibril at 4 degrees C. We used two methods: rapid flow quench ('cold ATP chase': titration of active sites, ATP binding kinetics, k(cat); 'Pi burst': ATP cleavage kinetics) and fluorescence stopped-flow (MDCC-phosphate binding protein for free Pi; myofibrillar tryptophan fluorescence for myosin head-thin filament detachment and ATP cleavage kinetics). We find that, as with psoas myofibrils, the most populated state on the cross-bridge cycle of soleus myofibrils, whether relaxed or activated, is (A)M.ADP.Pi. We propose a reaction pathway that includes several (A)M.ADP.Pi sub-states that are either 'weak' or 'strong', depending on the mechanical condition. PMID:15548866

  8. Joint Inversion of Geoid Anomaly and Teleseismic P-Wave Delay Times: Modeling Density and Velocity Perturbations Beneath the Parana Magmatic Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, C. A. M.; Ussami, N.; Ritsema, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Parana Magmatic Province (PMP) is one of the largest continental igneous provinces (LIP) on Earth. It is well dated at 133 Ma preceding the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, but the causative geodynamic processes are still poorly understood. Although a low-velocity anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography in the northeast region of the PMP and interpreted as a fossil conduct of a mantle plume that is related to the flood basalt eruptions, geochemical data indicate that such magmatism is caused by the melting of a heterogeneous and enriched lithospheric mantle with no deep plume participation. Models of density perturbations in the upper mantle estimated from joint inversion of geoid anomalies and P-wave delay times will offer important constraints on mantle dynamics. A new generation of accurate global geopotential models derived from satellite-missions (e.g. GRACE, GOCE) allows us to estimate density distribution within the Earth from geoid inversion. In order to obtain the residual geoid anomaly related to the density structure of the mantle, we use the EGM2008 model removing estimated geoid perturbations owing to variations in crustal structure (i.e., topographical masses, Moho depth, thickness of sediments and basalts). Using a spherical-Earth approximation, the density model space is represented by a set of tesseroids and the velocity model is parameterized in nodes of a spherical grid where cubic B-splines are utilized as an interpolation function. To constrain the density inversion, we add more than 10,000 manually picked teleseismic P-wave delay times. During the inversion procedure, density and P-wave velocity are linked through the optimization of a constant linear factor correlating density and velocity perturbation. Such optimization will be performed using a probability density function (PDF) [Tarantola, 2005]. We will present the preliminary results of this joint inversion scheme and hypothesize on the geodynamic processes responsible for

  9. Exploring 3D structure of human gonadotropin hormone receptor at antagonist state using homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and cross-docking studies.

    PubMed

    Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Khoddami, Minasadat; Negahdaripour, Manica; Mehdizadeh, Arash; Tatar, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Human gonadotropin hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, is the target of many medications used in fertility disorders. Obtaining more structural information about the receptor could be useful in many studies related to drug design. In this study, the structure of human gonadotropin receptor was subjected to homology modeling studies and molecular dynamic simulation within a DPPC lipid bilayer for 100 ns. Several frames were thereafter extracted from simulation trajectories representing the receptor at different states. In order to find a proper model of the receptor at the antagonist state, all frames were subjected to cross-docking studies of some antagonists with known experimental values (Ki). Frame 194 revealed a reasonable correlation between docking calculated energy scores and experimental activity values (|r| = 0.91). The obtained correlation was validated by means of SSLR and showed the presence of no chance correlation for the obtained model. Different structural features reported for the receptor, such as two disulfide bridges and ionic lock between GLU90 and LYS 121 were also investigated in the final model.

  10. Cross-cultural comparisons of attitudes toward schizophrenia amongst the general population and physicians: a series of web-based surveys in Japan and the United States.

    PubMed

    Richards, Misty; Hori, Hiroaki; Sartorius, Norman; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-02-28

    Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward schizophrenia are suggested, while no studies have compared such attitudes between the United States and Japan. In our previous study in Japan (Hori et al., 2011), 197 subjects in the general population and 112 physicians (excluding psychiatrists) enrolled in a web-based survey using an Internet-based questionnaire format. Utilizing the identical web-based survey method in the United States, the present study enrolled 172 subjects in the general population and 45 physicians. Participants' attitudes toward schizophrenia were assessed with the English version of the 18-item questionnaire used in our previous Japanese survey. Using exploratory factor analysis, we identified four factors labeled "social distance," "belief of dangerousness," "underestimation of patients' abilities," and "skepticism regarding treatment." The two-way multivariate analysis of covariance on the four factors, with country and occupation as the between-subject factors and with potentially confounding demographic variables as the covariates, revealed that the general population in the US scored significantly lower than the Japanese counterparts on the factors "social distance" and "skepticism regarding treatment" and higher on "underestimation of patients' abilities." Our results suggest that culture may have an important role in shaping attitudes toward mental illness. Anti-stigma campaigns that target culture-specific biases are considered important.

  11. Crossing behavior of the singlet and triplet State of the negatively charged magneto-exciton in a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    MUNTEANU,F.M.; KIM,YONGMIN; PERRY,C.H.; RICKEL,D.G.; SIMMONS,JERRY A.; RENO,JOHN L.

    2000-01-27

    Polarized magneto-photoluminescence (MPL) measurements on a high mobility {delta}-doped GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well from 0--60 T at temperatures between 0.37--2.1 K are reported. In addition to the neutral heavy hole magneto-exciton (X{sup 0}), the singlet (X {sub s}{sup {minus}}) and triplet (X {sub t}{sup {minus}}) states of the negatively charged magneto-exciton are observed in both polarizations. The energy dispersive and time-resolved MPL data suggest that their development is fundamentally related to the formation of the neutral magneto-exciton. At a magnetic field of 40 T the singlet and the triplet states cross as a result of the role played by the higher Landau levels and higher energy subbands in their energetic evolution, confirming theoretical predictions. The authors also observed the formation of two higher energy peaks. One of them is completely right circularly polarized and its appearance can be considered a result of the electron-hole exchange interaction enhancement with an associated electron g-factor of 3.7 times the bulk value. The other peak completely dominates the MPL spectrum at fields around 30 T. Its behavior with magnetic field and temperature indicates that it may be related to previous anomalies observed in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes.

  12. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: A cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Ciairano, Silvia; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (Mage=15.69, S.D.=0.87) from Italy (n=827), the Netherlands (n=675), and United States (n=360), including measures of NSSI, substance use, internal (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness), and interpersonal factors (i.e., peer victimization, peer preference). After controlling for socio-demographic differences, similar prevalence of NSSI was found across the three samples, with approximately 24% of the adolescents reporting at least one NSSI episode within the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that adolescents' victimization and higher levels of depressive symptoms and family-related loneliness were associated concurrently with NSSI comparably in all three samples. However, multi-group analyses indicated that the association between NSSI and substance use varied significantly across samples, indicating that NSSI related more strongly to substance use (i.e., cigarette smoking and frequent marijuana use) in the sample from the United States rather than the samples from the Netherlands and Italy. Findings provide evidence of NSSI and suggest high similarities in rates and correlates across samples from different countries. Future research should further explore NSSI cross-nationally. PMID:22436348

  13. Adolescent non-suicidal self-injury: a cross-national study of community samples from Italy, the Netherlands and the United States.

    PubMed

    Giletta, Matteo; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Ciairano, Silvia; Prinstein, Mitchell J

    2012-05-15

    This study examined rates and correlates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across three non-clinical adolescent samples from different countries. Surveys were administered to 1862 adolescents (M(age)=15.69, S.D.=0.87) from Italy (n=827), the Netherlands (n=675), and United States (n=360), including measures of NSSI, substance use, internal (i.e., depressive symptoms, loneliness), and interpersonal factors (i.e., peer victimization, peer preference). After controlling for socio-demographic differences, similar prevalence of NSSI was found across the three samples, with approximately 24% of the adolescents reporting at least one NSSI episode within the last year. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that adolescents' victimization and higher levels of depressive symptoms and family-related loneliness were associated concurrently with NSSI comparably in all three samples. However, multi-group analyses indicated that the association between NSSI and substance use varied significantly across samples, indicating that NSSI related more strongly to substance use (i.e., cigarette smoking and frequent marijuana use) in the sample from the United States rather than the samples from the Netherlands and Italy. Findings provide evidence of NSSI and suggest high similarities in rates and correlates across samples from different countries. Future research should further explore NSSI cross-nationally.

  14. Effects of different metabolic states and surgical models on glucose metabolism and secretion of ileal L-cell peptides: protocol for a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Alper; Dixon, John B; Pouwels, Sjaak; Celik, Bahri Onur; Karaca, Fatih Can; Gupta, Adarsh; Santoro, Sergio; Ugale, Surendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus are increasing worldwide, reaching pandemic proportions. The understanding of the role of functional restriction and gut hormones can be a beneficial tool in treating obesity and diabetes. However, the exact hormonal profiles in different metabolic states and surgical models are not known. Methods and analysis The HIPER-1 Study is a single-centre cross-sectional study in which 240 patients (in different metabolic states and surgical models) will receive an oral mixed-meal tolerance test (OMTT). At baseline and after 30, 60 and 120 min, peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels and glucose and insulin sensitivity will be measured. The primary end point of the study will be the area under the glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY curves after the OMTT. Secondary study end points will include examination of the difference in plasma levels of the distal ileal hormones in subjects with various health statuses and in patients who have been treated with different surgical techniques. Ethics and dissemination An independent ethics committee, the Institutional Review Board of Istanbul Sisli Kolan International Hospital, Turkey, has approved the study protocol. Dissemination will occur via publication, national and international conference presentations, and exchanges with regional, provincial and national stakeholders. Trial registration number NCT02532829; Pre-results. PMID:26975937

  15. Exploring 3D structure of human gonadotropin hormone receptor at antagonist state using homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and cross-docking studies.

    PubMed

    Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Khoddami, Minasadat; Negahdaripour, Manica; Mehdizadeh, Arash; Tatar, Mohsen; Ghasemi, Younes

    2016-09-01

    Human gonadotropin hormone receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, is the target of many medications used in fertility disorders. Obtaining more structural information about the receptor could be useful in many studies related to drug design. In this study, the structure of human gonadotropin receptor was subjected to homology modeling studies and molecular dynamic simulation within a DPPC lipid bilayer for 100 ns. Several frames were thereafter extracted from simulation trajectories representing the receptor at different states. In order to find a proper model of the receptor at the antagonist state, all frames were subjected to cross-docking studies of some antagonists with known experimental values (Ki). Frame 194 revealed a reasonable correlation between docking calculated energy scores and experimental activity values (|r| = 0.91). The obtained correlation was validated by means of SSLR and showed the presence of no chance correlation for the obtained model. Different structural features reported for the receptor, such as two disulfide bridges and ionic lock between GLU90 and LYS 121 were also investigated in the final model. PMID:27561920

  16. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, A E; Slade, G D; John, M T; Steele, J G; Suominen-Taipale, A L; Lahti, S; Nuttall, N M; Allen, P Finbarr

    2013-01-01

    Background The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens. Methods Data were from nationally representative surveys in the UK (n=4064), Finland (n=5078), Germany (n=1454) and Australia (n=2292) conducted from 1998 to 2002. The typology of Korpi and Palme classifies these countries into four different welfare states. In each survey, subjects completed the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire, which evaluates the adverse consequence of dental conditions on quality of life. For each country, survey estimation commands were used to create linear regression models that estimated the slope of the gradient between four quartiles of income and OHIP-14 severity scores. Parameter estimates for income gradients were contrasted across countries using Wald χ2 tests specifying a critical p value of 0.008, equivalent to a Bonferroni correction of p<0.05 for the six pairwise tests. Results Statistically significant income gradients in OHIP-14 severity scores were found in all countries except Germany. A global test confirmed significant cross-national differences in the magnitude of income gradients. In Australia, where a flat rate of benefits targeted the poor, the mean OHIP-14 severity score reduced by 1.7 units (95% CI −2.15 to −1.34) with each increasing quartile of household income, a significantly steeper gradient than in other countries. Conclusion The coverage and generosity of welfare state benefits appear to influence levels of inequality in population oral health quality of life. PMID:19351621

  17. Perceptions of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) and barriers to adherence in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to both mother and foetus. Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a strategy where pregnant women in malaria-endemic countries receive full doses of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), whether or not they have malaria. The Nigerian government adopted IPTp as a national strategy in 2005; however, major gaps affecting perception, uptake, adherence, and scale-up remain. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in peri-urban and rural communities in Nasarawa and Cross River States in Nigeria. Study instruments were based on the socio-ecological model and its multiple levels of influences, taking into account individual, community, societal, and environmental contexts of behaviour and social change. Women of reproductive age, their front-line care providers, and (in Nasarawa only) their spouses participated in focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews. Facility sampling was purposive to include tertiary, secondary and primary health facilities. Results The study found that systems-based challenges (stockouts; lack of provider knowledge of IPTp protocols) coupled with individual women’s beliefs and lack of understanding of IPT contribute to low uptake and adherence. Many pregnant women are reluctant to seek care for an illness they do not have. Those with malaria often prefer to self-medicate through drug shops or herbs, though those who seek clinic-based treatment trust their providers and willingly accept medicine prescribed. Conclusions Failing to deliver complete IPTp to women attending antenatal care is a missed opportunity. While many obstacles are structural, programmes can target women, their communities and the health environment with specific interventions to increase IPTp uptake and adherence. PMID:24059757

  18. Optimization of cross-polarization at low radiofrequency fields for sensitivity enhancement in solid-state NMR of membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles.

    PubMed

    Koroloff, Sophie N; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2015-07-01

    Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) of oriented membrane proteins (MPs) is capable of providing structural and dynamic information at nearly physiological conditions. However, NMR experiments performed on oriented membrane proteins generally suffer from low sensitivity. Moreover, utilization of high-power radiofrequency (RF) irradiations for magnetization transfer may give rise to sample heating, thereby decreasing the efficiency of conventional cross-polarization schemes. Here we have optimized the recently developed repetitive cross-polarization (REP-CP) sequence (Tang et al., 2011) to further increase the magnetization transfer efficiency for membrane proteins reconstituted in magnetically aligned bicelles and compared its performance to single-contact Hartmann-Hahn cross-polarization (CP), CP-MOIST and the adiabatic transfer. It has been found that employing the REP-CP sequence at RF amplitudes of 19kHz instead of the commonly used higher RF fields (>45kHz) enhances the efficiency of REP-CP. An additional 30% signal can be obtained as compared to the previously published REP-CP, and 20% when compared to the re-optimized REP-CP at 50kHz RF fields. Moreover, the (15)N signal gain of low-power REP-CP was found to be 40% over the adiabatic CP and up to 80% over CP-MOIST. Thus, the low-power REP-CP sequence surpasses all of the previous CP schemes in addition of having the tremendous advantage of reducing the RF powers by a factor of seven, thereby preserving the liquid-like bicelle sample. By contrast, in purely static (NAL crystal) and semi-rigid systems (Pf1 phage), the adiabatic CP was found to be more effective. Periodic oscillations of the intensity profile (distinct from the transient oscillations) as a function of the CP contact time and B1 RF field strengths were observed during the REP-CP optimization with the oscillations becoming more pronounced with lower RF fields. Many-spin simulations were performed to explain the oscillations and their periodicity.

  19. Pump-dump-probe and pump-repump-probe ultrafast spectroscopy resolves cross section of an early ground state intermediate and stimulated emission in the photoreactions of the Pr ground state of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ann E; Lincoln, Craig N; van Wilderen, Luuk J G W; van Thor, Jasper J

    2012-01-26

    The primary photoreactions of the red absorbing ground state (Pr) of the cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis PCC 6803 involve C15═C16 Z-E photoisomerization of its phycocyanobilin chromophore. The first observable product intermediate in pump-probe measurements of the photocycle, "Lumi-R", is formed with picosecond kinetics and involves excited state decay reactions that have 3 and 14 ps time constants. Here, we have studied the photochemical formation of the Lumi-R intermediate using multipulse picosecond visible spectroscopy. Pump-dump-probe (PDP) and pump-repump-probe (PRP) experiments were carried out by employing two femtosecond visible pulses with 1, 14, and 160 ps delays, together with a broadband dispersive visible probe. The time delays between the two excitation pulses have been selected to allow interaction with the dominant (3 and 14 ps) kinetic phases of Lumi-R formation. The frequency dependence of the PDP and PRP amplitudes was investigated at 620, 640, 660, and 680 nm, covering excited state absorption (λ(max) = 620 nm), ground state absorption (λ(max) = 660 nm), and stimulated emission (λ(max) = 680 nm) cross sections. Experimental double difference transient absorbance signals (ΔΔOD), from the PDP and PRP measurements, required corrections to remove contributions from ground state repumping. The sensitivity of the resulting ΔΔOD signals was systematically investigated for possible connectivity schemes and photochemical parameters. When applying a homogeneous (sequentially decaying) connectivity scheme in both the 3 and 14 ps kinetic phases, evidence for repumping of an intermediate that has an electronic ground state configuration (GSI) is taken from the dump-induced S1 formation with 620, 640, and 660 nm wavelengths and 1 and 14 ps repump delays. Evidence for repumping a GSI is also seen, for the same excitation wavelengths, when imposing a target connectivity scheme proposed in the literature for the 1 ps repump delay. In

  20. The Ar-HCl potential energy surface from a global map-facilitated inversion of state-to-state rotationally resolved differential scattering cross sections and rovibrational spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geremia, J. M.; Rabitz, H.

    2001-11-01

    A recently developed global, nonlinear map-facilitated quantum inversion procedure is used to obtain the interaction potential for Ar-HCl(v=0) based on the rotationally resolved state-to-state inelastic cross sections of Lorenz, Westley, and Chandler [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 481 (2000)] as well as rovibrational spectral data. The algorithm adopted here makes use of nonlinear potential→observable maps to reveal the complete family of surfaces that reproduce the observed scattering and spectral data to within its experimental error. A nonlinear analysis is performed on the error propagation from the measured data to the recovered family of potentials. The family of potentials extracted from the inversion data is compared to the Hutson H6(4,3,0) surface [Phys. Chem. 96, 4237 (1992)], which was unable to fully account for the inelastic scattering data [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2, 481 (2000)]. There is excellent agreement with H6(4,3,0) in the attractive well, where Hutson's surface is considered most reliable. There is also good long-range agreement. However, it is shown that H6(4,3,0) predicts too soft a wall for the linear Ar-HCl configuration and significantly too steep a wall for linear Ar-ClH. These differences account for the systematically backscattered inelastic cross sections computed using the H6(4,3,0) surface. The new, nonlinear inversion results provide a global Ar-HCl interaction potential with reliable error bars that are consistent with all of the experimental data.

  1. Medium-resolution studies of extreme ultraviolet emission from N2 by electron impact - Vibrational perturbations and cross sections of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; James, Geoffrey K.; Franklin, Brian O.; Shemansky, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the electron-impact-induced fluorescence spectrum of N2 in the extreme ultraviolet is studied at a spectral resolution of up to 0.03 nm. The optically thin experiment obtained the highest-resolution electron-impact emission spectrum of the Rydberg and valence states of N2. The spectral measurements provide the emission cross sections of each of the vibrational transitions of the Carroll-Yoshino and the Birge-Hopfield-II band systems. Laboratory vibrational-excitation cross sections arising from the mutual perturbation of the c4-prime 1Sigma(+)u and b-prime 1Sigma(+)u states by homogeneous configuration interactions are measured from 10 to 400 eV, and a modified Born approximation analytic model is given for them. The analysis leads to accurate band-system oscillator strengths. The relative emission and excitation cross sections each of the vibrational levels are compared. In addition, low-resolution measurements of the cross section of the atomic dissociation fragments (NI, NII, NIII) from 40 to 102 nm are made, and medium-resolution measurements are made of the emission cross section of the c4 1Pi(u), c5-prime 1Sigma(+)u, c5 1Pi(u), and c6-prime 1Sigma(+)u to X 1Sigma(+)g (0,0) transitions.

  2. [Prevalence and factors associated with violence suffered by incarcerated women for drug trafficking in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a cross-sectional study].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Valquíria Pereira; da Silva, Maria Arleide; Noronha Neto, Carlos; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois; Chaves, Cynthia Vasconcelos; Bello, Rodrigo Pereira

    2014-07-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with the violence suffered by women accused of drug trafficking in the 24 months prior to incarceration in the Women's Penal Colony in the State of Pernambuco. A cross-sectional study including 290 women aged 18 and above, with up to twelve months imprisonment, was performed for the data collection period. A questionnaire was applied to research the socioeconomic and demographic variables and the characteristics of violence and drug trafficking. All of the participants signed a consent form. The association between variables and intensity of exposure and response were determined by the chi-square test and the values (p < 0.05) were considered statistically significant. The study revealed that 71.4% of women were young; 78.9% non white, 85.8% unmarried with children, 83.3% had low education and 72.6% had income below the minimum wage. Furthermore, 56.9% were users of illicit drugs and 67.5% participated by performing some role in drug trafficking. A high prevalence of some form of violence suffered were observed in the population studied and the partner was the most frequent perpetrator (44.1%), calling for the authorities to pay greater attention in the actions of prevention of such violence. PMID:25014304

  3. Recovery of optical cross-section perturbations in dense-scattering media by transport-theory-based imaging operators and steady-state simulated data.

    PubMed

    Chang, J; Graber, H L; Barbour, R L; Aronson, R

    1996-07-10

    We present a useful strategy for imaging perturbations of the macroscopic absorption cross section of dense-scattering media using steady-state light sources. A perturbation model based on transport theory is derived, and the inverse problem is simplified to a system of linear equations, WΔμ = ΔR, where W is the weight matrix, Δμ is a vector of the unknown perturbations, and ΔR is the vector of detector readings. Monte Carlo simulations compute the photon flux across the surfaces of phantoms containing simple or complex inhomogeneities. Calculation of the weight matrix is also based on the results of Monte Carlo simulations. Three reconstruction algorithms-conjugate gradient descent, projection onto convex sets, and the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique, with or without imposed positivity constraints-are used for image reconstruction. A rescaling technique that improves the conditioning of the weight matrix is also developed. Results show that the analysis of time-independent data by a perturbation model is capable of resolving the internal structure of a dense-scattering medium. Imposition of positivity constraints improves image quality at the cost of a reduced convergence rate. Use of the rescaling technique increases the initial rate of convergence, resulting in accurate images in a smaller number of iterations.

  4. Crossed molecular beam study on the ground state reaction of atomic boron [B((2)P(j))] with hydrogen cyanide [HCN(X(1)sigma(+))].

    PubMed

    Jones, Brant; Matsyutenko, Pavlo; Su, Nung C; Chang, Agnes H H; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2010-09-01

    The linear boronisocyanide species, [BNC(X(1)Sigma(+))], represents the simplest triatomic molecule with three distinct, neighboring main group atoms of the second row of the periodic table of the elements: boron, carbon, and nitrogen. This makes boronisocyanide a crucial benchmark system to understand the chemical bonding and the electronic structure of small molecules, in particular when compared to the isoelectronic tricarbon molecule, [CCC(X(1)Sigma(g)(+))]. However, a clean, directed synthesis of boronisocyanide-a crucial prerequisite to study the properties of this molecule-has remained elusive so far. Here, we combine crossed molecular beam experiments of ground state boron atoms ((2)P(j)) with hydrogen cyanide with electronic structure calculations and reveal that the boronisocyanide molecule, [BNC(X(1)Sigma(+))], is formed as the exclusive product under gas phase single collision conditions. We also show that higher energy isomers such as the hitherto unnoticed, ring-strained cyclic BNC(X(3)A') structure, which is isoelectronic to the triplet, cyclic tricarbon molecule, [C(3)(X(3)A(2)')], do exist as local minima. Our studies present the first directed synthesis and observation of gas phase boronisocyanide providing a doorway for further fundamental studies on one of the simplest triatomic molecules composed solely of group III-V elements.

  5. Simulation of the impacts land use and land cover changes - LUCC on the hydrological response of the Ji-Parana Basin with MGB-INPE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, D. A.; Tomasella, J.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological response results from innumerous processes interacting at different spatial and temporal scales and with various intensities. Since the hydrological impacts of Land use and land cover change (LUCC) and climate variability (CV) are strongly dependent on soil water flow pathways, an adequate representation of the runoff generation mechanisms are crucial to assess the hydrological impacts of LUCC and CV on a basin scale. Model responses to LUCC depend on structure and parameterizations used in the model. There are two basic methodologies adopted to define the structure of the hydrological model: downward and upward approaches. Upward approach is more appropriate for identifying causal relationships, but their results are highly affected by assumptions used in the development of the model. Besides, model structure and parameters values definition are strongly affected by scale issues and their inter-relationships. Downward approach is more appropriate for studying the effects of LUCC, but casual relationships are more difficult to identify. MGB-INPE model was developed based on the Large Scale Basins Model of Brazilian Institute of Hydraulic Research (MGB-IPH). It uses the Xinanjiang Model approach for soil water capacity distribution at each cell combined with TopModel philosophy. Both methodologies follow a downward approach: the hydrologic response of the basin is associated with patterns of self-organization observed at the basin-scale. The model was applied in the Ji-Parana Basin (JPB), a 30.000-km2 basin in the SW Amazonia. The JPB is part of the Deforestation Arc of Amazonia in Brazil and it has lost more than 50 % of his forest cover since the 80's. Simulations were performed between 1982 and 2005 considering annual land use and land cover change. MGB-INPE model was able to represent the impact of LUCC in the runoff generation process and its dependence with basin topography. Simulation results agree with observational studies: LUCC impacts in fast

  6. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing-End Detail - Cumberland Covered Bridge, Spanning Mississinewa River, Matthews, Grant County, IN

  7. Directional patterns of cross frequency phase and amplitude coupling within the resting state mimic patterns of fMRI functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kurt E; Wander, Jeremiah D; Ko, Andrew L; Casimo, Kaitlyn; Grabowski, Thomas J; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Darvas, Felix

    2016-03-01

    Functional imaging investigations into the brain's resting state interactions have yielded a wealth of insight into the intrinsic and dynamic neural architecture supporting cognition and behavior. Electrophysiological studies however have highlighted the fact that synchrony across large-scale cortical systems is composed of spontaneous interactions occurring at timescales beyond the traditional resolution of fMRI, a feature that limits the capacity of fMRI to draw inference on the true directional relationship between network nodes. To approach the question of directionality in resting state signals, we recorded resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) from four human subjects undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. Using a seed-point based approach, we employed phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) and biPhase Locking Values (bPLV), two measures of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) to explore both outgoing and incoming connections between the seed and all non-seed, site electrodes. We observed robust PAC between a wide range of low-frequency phase and high frequency amplitude estimates. However, significant bPLV, a CFC measure of phase-phase synchrony, was only observed at specific narrow low and high frequency bandwidths. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of outgoing PAC connectivity were most closely associated with the rsfMRI connectivity maps. Our results support the hypothesis that PAC is relatively ubiquitous phenomenon serving as a mechanism for coordinating high-frequency amplitudes across distant neuronal assemblies even in absence of overt task structure. Additionally, we demonstrate that the spatial distribution of a seed-point rsfMRI sensorimotor network is strikingly similar to specific patterns of directional PAC. Specifically, the high frequency activities of distal patches of cortex owning membership in a rsfMRI sensorimotor network were most likely to be entrained to the phase of a low frequency rhythm engendered from the

  8. Cross sectoral impacts on water availability at +2 °C and +3 °C for east Mediterranean island states: The case of Crete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroulis, A. G.; Grillakis, M. G.; Daliakopoulos, I. N.; Tsanis, I. K.; Jacob, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble pan-European projections under a 2 °C global warming relative to the preindustrial period reveal a more intense warming in south Eastern Europe by up to +3 °C, thus indicating that impacts of climate change will be disproportionately high for certain regions. The Mediterranean is projected as one of the most vulnerable areas to climatic and anthropogenic changes with decreasing rainfall trends and a continuous gradual warming causing a progressive decline of average stream flow. Many Mediterranean regions are currently experiencing high to severe water stress induced by human and climate drivers. Changes in average climate conditions will increase this stress notably because of a 10-30% decline in freshwater resources. For small island states, where accessibility to freshwater resources is limited the impact will be more pronounced. Here we use a generalized cross-sectoral framework to assess the impact of climatic and socioeconomic futures on the water resources of an Eastern Mediterranean island. A set of representative regional climate models simulations from the EURO-CORDEX initiative driven by different RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 GCMs are used to form a comparable set of results and a useful basis for the assessment of uncertainties related to impacts of 2° warming and above. A generalized framework of a cross-sectoral water resources analysis was developed in collaboration with the local water authority exploring and costing adaptation measures associated with a set of socioeconomic pathways (SSPs). Transient hydrological modeling was performed to describe the projected hydro-climatological regime and water availability for each warming level. The robust signal of less precipitation and higher temperatures that is projected by climate simulations results to a severe decrease of local water resources which can be mitigated by a number of actions. Awareness of the practical implications of plausible hydro-climatic and socio-economic scenarios in the

  9. The Turbulent Cascade and Proton Heating in the Solar Wind at 1 AU with Emphasis on High Cross Helicity States (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. W.; Forman, M. A.; Stawarz, J. E.; Vasquez, B. J.; Tessein, J.; MacBride, B. T.

    2009-12-01

    The spectrum of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations has been widely studied for 40 years. The spectrum of velocity fluctuations has been studied for as long, but perhaps with less intensity. The observations seem so simple and easily characterized: power law forms with spectral indices consistent with predictions of MHD turbulence theory. Granted, magnetic and velocity fluctuations have different spectral forms at 1 AU, but Roberts et al. [2007] claim this ends by 5 AU. Hidden beneath the seemingly simple power spectral forms are a broad range of different dynamics operating throughout the spectrum but dominating at different spatial scales. We see the geometry of the large-scale fluctuations ordered by wind speed [Dasso et al., 2005] while the small scales show no such ordering [Hamilton et al., 2008]. MacBride et al. [2008] uses third-moment assessments of the energy cascade rate to show there is a strong cascade away from field-aligned wave vectors at the large scales in fast winds, although the slow winds show a more nearly isotropic cascade. Third-moment analyses of high cross-helicity states [Stawarz et al., 2009 and this meeting] show a remarkable backtransfer of energy associated with the dominant outwardly propagating component that works to reinforce the existing high cross helicity. All the while anisotropies such as those predicted by Goldreich and Sridhar [1995] are subtle and at best existing at the smallest scales of the inertial range where geometry analysis support the underlying assumptions [Hamilton et al., 2008]. What is most remarkable throughout these studies is the broad range of dynamics that are operating to modify the 3D spectrum while the measured power spectrum remains largely unperturbed and highly reproducible. References: Dasso et al., Astrophys. J. Lett., 635, L181--L184, 2005. Goldreich and Sridhar, Astrophys. J., 438, 763--775, 1995. Hamilton et al., J. Geophys. Res., 113, A01106, doi:10.1029/2007JA012559 2008. MacBride et

  10. Jessor's Problem Behavior Theory: Cross-National Evidence from Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Chen, Pan; Jenkins, Dusty D.; Burcu, Esra; Torrente, Ginesa; Sheu, Chuen-Jim

    2010-01-01

    Jessor (2008) has recently called attention to "description" versus "explanation" in cross-cultural and cross-national comparative scholarship on adolescent development, particularly, the etiology of adolescent problem behaviors. In the current study, we were interested in testing to what extent problem behavior theory replicated in samples of…

  11. Cross-Cultural Immersion in China: Preparing Pre-Service Elementary Teachers to Work with Diverse Student Populations in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yali; Meyers, Laura; Meyers, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Cross-cultural immersion experiences have been considered to be an effective way to prepare American pre-service teachers for culturally responsive pedagogical practices. The literature review shows few studies have investigated pre-service teachers' cross-cultural experiences in non-English speaking countries, specifically Asian countries. This…

  12. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 38 (ANDOVT00110038) on State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Striker, Lora K.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110038 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south central Vermont. The 5.65-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. Upstream and downstream of the study site banks and overbanks are forested. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 44 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 54.0 mm (0.177 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 5, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable. The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 33-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 31-foot concrete T-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The channel is skewed approximately 55 degrees to the opening while the measured opening-skew-to-roadway is 45 degrees. There were no scour problems observed during the Level I assessment. Type-4 stone fill (less than 60 inches diameter) and type-3 stone fill

  13. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 46 (CHESVT00110046) on Vermont State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure CHESVT00110046 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Chester, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.The site is in the Green Mountain and New England Upland sections of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 28.0-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forested on the upstream left and downstream right overbanks. The upstream right and downstream left overbanks are pasture while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation.In the study area, the the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.013 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 81 ft and an average bank height of 11 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to bedrock with a median grain size (D50) of 70.7 mm (0.232 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 12, 1996, indicated that the reach was stable.The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 118-ft-long, two-lane steel stringer type bridge consisting of a 114-foot steel plate deck (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 109 ft.The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 41 (ANDOVT00110041) on State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.; Hammond, Robert E.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110041 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in southeastern Vermont. The 12.1-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is grass on the upstream right overbank while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. The upstream left overbank and downstream right overbank are brushland. The downstream left overbank is forested. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.018 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 71 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulders with a median grain size (D50) of 85.0 mm (0.279 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on September 10, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable due to a cut-bank present on the upstream right bank and a wide channel bar with vegetation in the upstream reach. The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 46-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of a concrete 44-foot tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 29, 1995). The opening length of

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 35, (ANDOVT00110035) on State Route 11, crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Ronda L.; Wild, Emily C.

    1998-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure ANDOVT00110035 on State Route 11 crossing the Middle Branch Williams River, Andover, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (Federal Highway Administration, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in appendix D. The site is in the Green Mountain section of the New England physiographic province in south-central Vermont. The 4.65-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover is forest on the left bank and small trees and brush on the right bank upstream and downstream of the bridge. In the study area, the Middle Branch Williams River has an incised, meandering channel with a slope of approximately 0.02 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 57 ft and an average bank height of 4 ft. The channel bed material ranges from gravel to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 31.4 mm (0.103 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 28, 1996, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable. There are cut-banks upstream and downstream of the bridge and an island in the channel upstream. The State Route 11 crossing of the Middle Branch Williams River is a 28-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 24-ft concrete tee-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 28, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 23.6 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with

  16. Phantom Crossing DGP Gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Koichi; Komiya, Zen

    2010-08-12

    We propose a phantom crossing Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model. In our model, the effective equation of state of the DGP gravity crosses the phantom divide line. We demonstrate crossing of the phantom divide does not occur within the framework of the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner. By extending their model, we construct a model that realizes crossing of the phantom divide. DGP models can account for late-time acceleration of the universe without dark energy. Phantom Crossing DGP model is more compatible with recent observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SNIa), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) than the original DGP model or the DGP model developed by Dvali and Turner.

  17. Prevalence of anaemia among Quranic school (Khalawi) students (Heiran)in Wad El Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, Central Sudan: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Eltayeb, Mohammed Saeed Elsamani; Elsaeed, Awad Eseed; Mohamedani, Ahmed Abdalla; Assayed, Abbas Abdalrahman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This is a cross sectional descriptive community-based study. The aim was to assess the prevalence of anaemia among quranic schoolchildren in khalawi Wad EL Magboul village, rural Rufaa, Gezira State, central Sudan. Methods A sample of 180 male participants were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the hematological parameters and blood films for malaria parasites. Urine and stool analyses were also done. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Results The mean age of participants was 12.31 years (SD +/- 2.26). The mean Hb value was 11.75g/dl and it was statistically significant correlation when compared with the mean Hb reference value (13.5g/dl) P value 0,000 (95% CI). Regarding period of stay in the khalwa up to the time of the study, 88 (49.28%) for one year, 54 (30.24%) for 2 years, 22 (12.32%) for 3 years and 16 (8.96%) for more than 3 years. About 77 students (42.78%) were pale on clinical examination. The Mean Cell Hemoglobin (MCH) mean value was 25.58 pg ( 3.55). Many conditions known to be associated with anemia were found; 49 students (27.2%) had a positive blood films for falciparum malaria, 14 students (7.8%) were found to have haematuria and ova of S. haematobium, In169 students (93.4%) stool examination was negative , while 11 students (6.6%) had intestinal worms (Enterobius vermicularis). Conclusion Majority of the study participants had iron deficiency anaemia, followed by haemolytic, macrocytic and sickle cell anaemia. This might have negative health and educational implications. PMID:27800099

  18. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  19. Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Care Practice Among Adolescents - A State Wide Cross- Sectional Study in Manipur, North Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Wahengbam, Brucelee Singh; Nandkeoliar, Tanya; Lyngdoh, Daiasharailang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization global strategy of promoting oral health have shown vast improvements in developed countries but the scenario is glum among underprivileged communities due to lacunae in implementation of these promotional programs. Manipur, a North Eastern state in India, is one such marginalized area. Aim The study aimed to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards oral health in 15-18 year adolescents residing in Manipur together with the association of these variables to sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 810 healthy adolescents drawn from various primary health care centers spanning in all the nine districts of Manipur. A closed ended questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data was used in the survey. Results Of the total participants 90.9% had high knowledge, 79.8% had favorable attitude and 70.4% had adequate practice towards oral health. Education of the parents and respondents was the only factor significantly associated with all three variables, knowledge, attitude and practice. Significant and positive linear correlation between knowledge-attitude (r=0.369, p<0.01) knowledge-practice (r=0.405, p<0.01) and attitude-practice (r =0.353, p<0.01), were observed. Conclusion An overwhelming majority of the respondents had high knowledge, favorable attitude and sound practice with respect to oral health. A positive linear correlation exists between the knowledge, attitude and practice. Evidence based reinforcement programs should be introduced to further reduce the gap between knowledge, attitude and practice. The study will also serve as a reference value for use in future evaluation to help measure the effectiveness of the planned activities. Future research needs to focus on establishing the dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of Manipuri youth. PMID:27504414

  20. Social determinants and psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional population based study.

    PubMed

    Markwick, Alison; Ansari, Zahid; Sullivan, Mary; McNeil, John

    2015-03-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults in the Australian state of Victoria have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts. We sought to explain this inequality, focussing on the social determinants of health. We used population-based survey data from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone survey of 34,168 randomly selected adults. We defined psychological distress as a score of 22 or more on the Kessler 10 Psychological Distress scale. We used logistic regression to identify socio-demographic characteristics and social capital indicators that were associated with psychological distress. We then created multivariable models to explore the association between psychological distress and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status that incorporated all significant socioeconomic status (SES) and social capital variables, adjusting for all non-SES socio-demographic characteristics. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians (24.5%) were more than twice as likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (11.3%) to have psychological distress (odds ratio (OR) = 2.56, 95% confidence interval; 1.67-3.93). Controlling for SES, negative perceptions of the residential neighbourhood, lack of social support from family, social and civic distrust, and all non-SES socio-demographic variables (age, sex, marital status, household composition, and rurality), rendered the previously statistically significant inequality in the prevalence of psychological distress, between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Victorians and their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts, insignificant at the p = 0.05 level (OR = 1.50; 0.97-2.32). Psychological distress is an important health risk factor for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults that has yet to be widely acknowledged and addressed. Addressing the

  1. Adaptation and cross-cultural validation of the United States Primary Care Assessment Tool (expanded version) for use in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Abdul-Rauf; le Grange, Cynthia; Bhagwan, Susheela; Manga, Nayna

    2015-01-01

    Background Measuring primary care is important for health sector reform. The Primary Care Assessment Tool (PCAT) measures performance of elements essential for cost-effective care. Following minor adaptations prior to use in Cape Town in 2011, a few findings indicated a need to improve the content and cross-cultural validity for wider use in South Africa (SA). Aim This study aimed to validate the United States of America-developed PCAT before being used in a baseline measure of primary care performance prior to major reform. Setting Public sector primary care clinics, users, practitioners and managers in urban and rural districts in the Western Cape Province. Methods Face value evaluation of item phrasing and a combination of Delphi and Nominal Group Technique (NGT) methods with an expert panel and user focus group were used to obtain consensus on content relevant to SA. Original and new domains and items with > = 70% agreement were included in the South African version – ZA PCAT. Results All original PCAT domains achieved consensus on inclusion. One new domain, the primary healthcare (PHC) team, was added. Three of 95 original items achieved < 70% agreement, that is consensus to exclude as not relevant to SA; 19 new items were added. A few items needed minor rephrasing with local healthcare jargon. The demographic section was adapted to local socio-economic conditions. The adult PCAT was translated into isiXhosa and Afrikaans. Conclusion The PCAT is a valid measure of primary care performance in SA. The PHC team domain is an important addition, given its emphasis in PHC re-engineering. A combination of Delphi and NGT methods succeeded in obtaining consensus on a multi-domain, multi-item instrument in a resource- constrained environment. PMID:26245610

  2. False Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The asterism formed by the four stars δ and κ Velorum, and ɛ and ι Carinae, all of the second magnitude, which make up a cross of about 10°×6°. It is so named because it is sometimes mistaken for the Southern Cross (Crux) by observers unfamiliar with the southern sky. There is a superficial resemblance, but Crux is more compact (about 7°×5°) and comprises rather brighter stars. The two crosses ca...

  3. Theoretical investigation of intersystem crossing between the a{sup ~1}A{sub 1} and Χ{sup ~3}B{sub 1} states of CH{sub 2} induced by collisions with helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Lifang; Alexander, Millard H.; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2014-08-14

    Collisional energy transfer between the ground (Χ{sup ~3}B{sub 1}) and first excited (a{sup ~1}A{sub 1}) states of CH{sub 2} is facilitated by strong mixing of the rare pairs of accidentally degenerate rotational levels in the ground vibrational manifold of the a{sup ~} state and the (020) and (030) excited bending vibrational manifolds of the X{sup ~} state. The simplest model for this process involves coherent mixing of the scattering T-matrix elements associated with collisional transitions within the unmixed a{sup ~} and X{sup ~} states. From previous calculations in our group, we have determined cross sections and room-temperature rate constants for intersystem crossing of CH{sub 2} by collision with He. These are used in simulations of the time dependence of the energy flow, both within and between the X{sup ~} and a{sup ~} vibronic manifolds. Relaxation proceeds through three steps: (a) rapid equilibration of the two mixed-pair levels, (b) fast relaxation within the a{sup ~} state, and (c) slower relaxation among the levels of the X{sup ~} state. Collisional transfer between the fine-structure levels of the triplet (X{sup ~}) state is very slow.

  4. Application of a grid numerical method to calculate state-selective cross sections for electron capture in Be4 ++H (1 s ) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, A.; Suárez, J.; Illescas, Clara; Errea, L. F.; Méndez, L.

    2016-09-01

    Charge-transfer n partial cross sections have been calculated for collisions of Be4 + with H (1 s ) by means of a versatile lattice method that is applicable in a wide energy range (between 1 and 500 keV/u). The cross sections, which include up to the high-lying n =8 level, are compared to existing semiclassical calculations in order to quantify the accuracy of the results. The reliability of the lattice method at high impact energies is confirmed by comparison with classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations. It is found that the n partial cross sections larger than 10-18 cm2, calculated using the lattice method, agree with differences smaller than 15% with those from the method considered the most accurate at each energy. The calculation yields as well accurate total electron capture cross sections, which are studied in detail at E =100 keV/u to obtain a converged value.

  5. Vertical Profiles Of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th And {sup 40}K Activities In Rocks From The Irati Formation Of The Parana Sedimentary Basin, Southern Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, Ademar de O.; Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2008-08-07

    Naturally occurring radioisotopes are present in different concentrations in sedimentary rocks, reflecting the origin of the sediments, the depositional environment, and more recent events such as weathering and erosion. Using a high-resolution {gamma}-ray spectrometry methodology, sedimentary rocks were measured to assess the concentration activities of the natural radioisotopes. The surveyed rocks are from the Irati formation in the Parana sedimentary basin, which are exposed by an abandoned, open-pit limestone mine, in the city of Sapopema, southern Brazil. The exposed vertical profile is 5 m, and its stratigraphy is represented by an alternation of limestone and bituminous shale (layers being a few decimeters thick), and some millimeter rhythm layers with limestone and bituminous shale laminas. Eleven samples were collected along this profile, each of them dried in the open air during 48 hours, sieved through 4 mm mesh and sealed in cylindrical recipients. Measurements were accomplished using a 66% relative efficiency HPGE detector connected to a standard gamma ray spectrometry electronic chain. The detector efficiency in the range of 60 to 1800 keV was carried out with the certified IAEA-385 sediment sample. The Lower Limit of Detection (LLD) to the system is 2.40 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 1.84 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 4.20 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Activity concentrations were determined for {sup 226}Ra (from 16.22 to 151.55 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (from 2.93 to 56.12 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}) and {sup 40}K (from 38.45 to 644.63 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1}). The layers enriched with organic matter presented the higher values of activity. The measured concentrations of the natural radioisotopes were lower for limestone samples (average values and respective deviations were 22.81{+-}0.22 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 4.21{+-}0.07 Bq{center_dot}kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 50

  6. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulesza, Joel A.; Arzu Alpan, F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  7. Using relative survival measures for cross-sectional and longitudinal benchmarks of countries, states, and districts: the BenchRelSurv- and BenchRelSurvPlot-macros

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of screening programs is to discover life threatening diseases in as many patients as early as possible and to increase the chance of survival. To be able to compare aspects of health care quality, methods are needed for benchmarking that allow comparisons on various health care levels (regional, national, and international). Objectives Applications and extensions of algorithms can be used to link the information on disease phases with relative survival rates and to consolidate them in composite measures. The application of the developed SAS-macros will give results for benchmarking of health care quality. Data examples for breast cancer care are given. Methods A reference scale (expected, E) must be defined at a time point at which all benchmark objects (observed, O) are measured. All indices are defined as O/E, whereby the extended standardized screening-index (eSSI), the standardized case-mix-index (SCI), the work-up-index (SWI), and the treatment-index (STI) address different health care aspects. The composite measures called overall-performance evaluation (OPE) and relative overall performance indices (ROPI) link the individual indices differently for cross-sectional or longitudinal analyses. Results Algorithms allow a time point and a time interval associated comparison of the benchmark objects in the indices eSSI, SCI, SWI, STI, OPE, and ROPI. Comparisons between countries, states and districts are possible. Exemplarily comparisons between two countries are made. The success of early detection and screening programs as well as clinical health care quality for breast cancer can be demonstrated while the population’s background mortality is concerned. Conclusions If external quality assurance programs and benchmark objects are based on population-based and corresponding demographic data, information of disease phase and relative survival rates can be combined to indices which offer approaches for comparative analyses between

  8. Changes in HIV and syphilis prevalence among female sex workers from three serial cross-sectional surveys in Karnataka state, South India

    PubMed Central

    Isac, Shajy; Ramesh, B M; Rajaram, S; Washington, Reynold; Bradley, Janet E; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Beattie, Tara S; Blanchard, James F; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper examined trends over time in condom use, and the prevalences of HIV and syphilis, among female sex workers (FSWs) in South India. Design Data from three rounds of cross-sectional surveys were analysed, with HIV and high-titre syphilis prevalence as outcome variables. Multivariable analysis was applied to examine changes in prevalence over time. Setting Five districts in Karnataka state, India. Participants 7015 FSWs were interviewed over three rounds of surveys (round 1=2277; round 2=2387 and round 3=2351). Women who reported selling sex in exchange for money or gifts in the past month, and aged between 18 and 49 years, were included. Interventions The surveys were conducted to monitor a targeted HIV prevention programme during 2004–2012. The main interventions included peer-led community outreach, services for the treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and empowering FSWs through community mobilisation. Results HIV prevalence declined significantly from rounds 1 to 3, from 19.6% to 10.8% (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.48, p<0.001); high-titre syphilis prevalence declined from 5.9% to 2.4% (AOR=0.50, p<0.001). Reductions were observed in most substrata of FSWs, although reductions among new sex workers, and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, were not statistically significant. Condom use ‘always’ with occasional clients increased from 73% to 91% (AOR=1.9, p<0.001), with repeat clients from 52% to 86% (AOR=5.0, p<0.001) and with regular partners from 12% to 30% (AOR=4.2, p<0.001). Increased condom use was associated with exposure to the programme. However, condom use with regular partners remained low. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV infection and high-titre syphilis among FSWs have steadily declined with increased condom use. Further reductions in prevalence will require intensification of prevention efforts for new FSWs and those soliciting clients using mobile phones or from home, as well as

  9. Sickness absence poses a threat to the Swedish Welfare State: a cross-sectional study of sickness absence and self-reported illness

    PubMed Central

    Sundquist, Jan; Al-Windi, Ahmad; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Background The increasing cost of public social sickness insurance poses a serious economic threat to the Swedish welfare state. In recent years, expenditures for social insurance in general, as well as social sickness insurance in particular, have risen steeply in Sweden. This cross-sectional study analyzed the association between sickness absence (SA) and self-reported reduced working capacity due to a longstanding illness (>3 months), as well between SA and a number of other health problems. Methods Self-reported data on longstanding illness and resultant reduced working capacity, socioeconomic factors, working environment, psychosomatic complaints, anxiety, and general health were obtained for 22,281 employed (paid) persons aged 25 to 64 years. These data were retrieved from the Swedish Living Conditions Survey for 1995 to 2002. National civic registration numbers, replaced with serial numbers to ensure anonymity, were used to link these data to individual-level SA records from the National Social Insurance Board. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of the main outcome variable for the three levels of the SA variable (0–28, 29–90, >90 days/year). Results There was an obvious increasing gradient in length of SA and increasing odds of reporting reduced working capacity. Odds ratios ranged from 3.5 to 19.0; i.e., those with more than ninety days of SA had 19.0 times higher odds of reporting reduced working capacity than those with 0–28 days of SA a year. This very strong association changed less than 10% after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and working environment characteristics. A total of 48.7% of persons on sick leave ≥ 29 days reported no longstanding illness and reduced working capacity. Of these persons, about 43% reported one or more other health problem. Conclusion We confirmed that longstanding illness that results in self-reported reduced working capacity is an important variable related to length of SA

  10. Antioxidant state and mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian and Swedish men: concomitant cross sectional study of men aged 50.

    PubMed Central

    Kristenson, M.; Ziedén, B.; Kucinskienë, Z.; Elinder, L. S.; Bergdahl, B.; Elwing, B.; Abaravicius, A.; Razinkovienë, L.; Calkauskas, H.; Olsson, A. G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate possible risk factors and mechanisms behind the four times higher and diverging mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuanian compared with Swedish middle aged men. DESIGN: Concomitant cross sectional comparison of randomly selected 50 year old men without serious acute or chronic disease. Methods and equipment were identical or highly standardised between the centres. SETTING: Linköping (Sweden) and Vilnius (Lithuania). SUBJECTS: 101 and 109 men aged 50 in Linköping and Vilnius respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Anthropometric data, blood pressure, smoking, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation, and plasma concentrations of fat soluble antioxidant vitamins. RESULTS: Systolic blood pressure was higher (141 v 133 mm Hg, P < 0.01), smoking habits were similar, and plasma total cholesterol (5.10 v 5.49 mmol/l, P < 0.01) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.30 v 3.68 mmol/l, P < 0.01) lower in men from Vilnius compared with those from Linköping. Triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Lp(a) lipoprotein concentrations did not differ between the two groups. The resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidation was lower in the men from Vilnius; lag phase was 67.6 v 79.5 minutes (P < 0.001). Also lower in the men from Vilnius were mean plasma concentrations of lipid soluble antioxidant vitamins (beta carotene 377 v 510 nmol/l, P < 0.01; lycopene 327 v 615 nmol/l, P < 0.001; and lipid adjusted gamma tocopherol 0.25 v 0.46 mumol/mmol, P < 0.001. alpha Tocopherol concentration did not differ). Regression analysis showed that the lag phase was still significantly shorter by 10 minutes in men from Vilnius when the influence of other known factors was taken into account. CONCLUSIONS: The high mortality from coronary heart disease in Lithuania is not caused by traditional risk factors alone. Mechanisms related to antioxidant state may be important. PMID

  11. A measurement of. Delta. sigma. sub L (np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Beddo, M.E.

    1990-10-01

    A measurement off {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np), the difference between neutron-proton total cross sections in pure longitudinal spin states, is described. The results will help determine the isospin-zero (I = 0) scattering amplitudes, which are not well known above laboratory energies of 500 MeV, whereas the isospin-one (I = 1) amplitudes are fairly well-determined to 1 GeV. Data points were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at Los Alamos, New Mexico, for five neutron beam energies: 484, 568, 634,720 and 788 MeV; they are the first in this energy range. Polarized neutrons were produced by charge-exchange of polarized protons on a liquid deuterium target (LD{sub 2}). Large-volume neutron counters detected the neutrons that passed through a polarized proton target. The counters subtended a range of solid angles large enough to allow extrapolation of the scattered neutrons to 0{degree}. Two modifications to the LAMPF accelerator system which were made for this work are described. They included a beam buncher,'' which modified the normal rf-time structure of the proton beam and allowed for the selection of peak-energy neutrons by time-of-flight means, and a computerized beam steering program, which reduced systematic effects due to beam motion at the LD{sub 2} target. The experimental values of {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) are found to be consistent with other np data, including preliminary data from SIN and Saclay, but not with some results from Argonne which used a polarized proton beam and a polarized deuteron target. The I = 0 component was extracted from {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(np) using existing pp data (I = 1), with the unexpected result that {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 0) was found to be essentially identical in shape to {Delta}{sigma}{sub L}(I = 1). The significance of this is not yet understood.

  12. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. Objective To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools’ emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. Methods This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Results Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools—159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools—107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Conclusions Schools’ preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed

  13. Micronutrient Deficiencies and Related Factors in School-Aged Children in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study in Libo Kemkem and Fogera Districts, Amhara Regional State

    PubMed Central

    Herrador, Zaida; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Buño, Antonio; Gómez-Rioja, Rubén; Iturzaeta, Jose Manuel; de Armas, Lisset Fernandez; Benito, Agustín; Aseffa, Abraham; Moreno, Javier; Cañavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The present study describes the distribution of selected micronutrients and anaemia among school-aged children living in Libo Kemkem and Fogera (Amhara State, Ethiopia), assessing differences by socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out during May–December 2009. Socio-demographic characteristics, health status and dietary habits were collected. Biomarkers were determined for 764 children. Bivariate and multivariable statistical methods were employed to assess micronutrient deficiencies (MD), anaemia, and their association with different factors. Results More than two thirds of the school-aged children (79.5%) had at least one MD and 40.5% had two or more coexisting micronutrient deficiencies. The most prevalent deficiencies were of zinc (12.5%), folate (13.9%), vit A (29.3%) and vit D (49%). Anaemia occurred in 30.9% of the children. Children living in rural areas were more likely to have vit D insufficiency [OR: 5.9 (3.7–9.5)] but less likely to have folate deficiency [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.4)] and anaemia [OR: 0.58 (0.35–0.97)]. Splenomegaly was positively associated with folate deficiency and anaemia [OR: 2.77 (1.19–6.48) and 4.91 (2.47–9.75)]. Meat and fish consumption were inversely correlated with zinc and ferritin deficiencies [OR: 0.2 (0.1–0.8) and 0.2 (0.1–0.9)], while oil consumption showed a negative association with anaemia and deficiencies of folate and vitamin A [0.58 (0.3–0.9), OR: 0.5 (0.3–0.9) and 0.6 (0.4–0.9)]. Serum ferritin levels were inversely correlated to the presence of anaemia (p<0.005). Conclusion There is a high prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and vitamin D insufficiency and a moderate prevalence of zinc and folate deficiencies in school-aged children in this area. The inverse association of anaemia and serum ferritin levels may be due to the presence of infectious diseases in the area. To effectively tackle malnutrition

  14. Effect of 457 nm Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser on the Polymerization Composite Resins: Microhardness, Cross-Link Density, and Polymerization Shrinkage

    PubMed Central

    Son, Sung-Ae; Park, Jeong-Kil; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Ko, Ching-Chang; Jeong, Chang-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of the present study was to test the usefulness of 457 nm diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser as a light source to cure composite resins. Materials and methods: Five different composite resins were light cured using three different light-curing units (LCUs): a DPSS 457 nm laser (LAS), a light-emitting diode (LED), and quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) units. The light intensity of LAS was 560 mW/cm2, whereas LED and QTH LCUs was ∼900 mW/cm2. The degree of polymerization was tested by evaluating microhardness, cross-link density, and polymerization shrinkage. Results: Before water immersion, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 40.8 to 84.7 HV and from 31.7 to 79.0 HV on the top and bottom surfaces, respectively, and these values were 3.3–23.2% and 2.9–31.1% lower than the highest microhardness obtained using LED or QTH LCUs. Also, laser-treated specimens had lower top and bottom microhardnesses than the other LCUs treated specimens by 2.4–19.4% and 1.4–27.8%, respectively. After ethanol immersion for 24 h, the microhardness of laser-treated specimens ranged from 20.3 to 63.2 HV on top and bottom surfaces, but from 24.9 to 71.5 HV when specimens were cured using the other LCUs. Polymerization shrinkage was 9.8–14.7 μm for laser-treated specimens, and these were significantly similar or lower (10.2–16.0 μm) than those obtained using the other LCUs. Conclusions: The results may suggest that the 457 nm DPSS laser can be used as a light source for light-curing dental resin composites. PMID:25549163

  15. Measurement of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Aoki, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Atkins, S.; Atramentov, O.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Théry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-Guerra, G. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Oteroy y Garzón, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stolin, V.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Strom, D.; Stutte, L.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Takahashi, M.; Tanasijczuk, A.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y.-T.; Tschann-Grimm, K.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verdier, P.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weber, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; White, A.; Wicke, D.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, W.-C.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Zhao, T.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2012-06-12

    We study the processes pp̄→WZ→l±νl⁺l⁻ and pp̄→ZZ→l⁺l⁻νν¯, where l=e or μ. Using 8.6 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50+0.63–0.66 pb which is consistent with, but slightly larger than, the prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64±0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ→l⁺l⁻l⁺l⁻ channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44+0.35–0.34 pb.

  16. Measurement of the WZ and ZZ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions

    DOE PAGES

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Aoki, M.; et al

    2012-06-12

    We study the processes pp̄→WZ→l±νl⁺l⁻ and pp̄→ZZ→l⁺l⁻νν¯, where l=e or μ. Using 8.6 fb⁻¹ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50+0.63–0.66 pb which is consistent with, but slightly larger than, the prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64±0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ→l⁺l⁻l⁺l⁻ channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44+0.35–0.34 pb.

  17. Cross sections of ground and isomeric states for (n,p) reaction on Sm-154 between 13.57 and 14.83MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the activation cross sections were measured for the (154)Sm(n,p)(154g)Pm, and (154)Sm(n,p)(154m)Pm reactions at several neutron energies between 13.57 and 14.83MeV, which were produced by the neutron generator (SAMES T-400) through the (3)H((2)H,n)(4)He reaction. The production of short-lived activity and the spectra accumulation were performed by the cyclic activation technique. Induced gamma-ray activities were measured using a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer equipped with a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. In the cross section measurements, corrections were made regarding the effects of gamma-ray attenuation, dead-time, fluctuation of neutron flux, and low energy neutrons. The measured cross sections were compared with data reported in literature as well as model calculations using the code TALYS 1.6. PMID:27149398

  18. A measurement of the $WZ$ and $ZZ$ production cross sections using leptonic final states in 8.6 fb$^{-1}$ of $p\\bar{p}$ collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Aoki, Masato; Askew, Andrew Warren; /Florida State U. /Stockholm U.

    2012-01-01

    We study the processes p{bar p} {yields} WZ {yields} {ell}{nu}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} and p{bar p} {yields} ZZ {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{nu}{bar {nu}}, where {ell} = e or {mu}. Using 8.6 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron collider, we measure the WZ production cross section to be 4.50{sub -0.66}{sup +0.63} pb which is consistent with, but slightly above a prediction of the standard model. The ZZ cross section is measured to be 1.64 {+-} 0.46 pb, in agreement with a prediction of the standard model. Combination with an earlier analysis of the ZZ {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} channel yields a ZZ cross section of 1.44{sub -0.34}{sup +0.35} pb.

  19. Cross sections of ground and isomeric states for (n,p) reaction on Sm-154 between 13.57 and 14.83MeV neutrons.

    PubMed

    Reyhancan, Iskender Atilla

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the activation cross sections were measured for the (154)Sm(n,p)(154g)Pm, and (154)Sm(n,p)(154m)Pm reactions at several neutron energies between 13.57 and 14.83MeV, which were produced by the neutron generator (SAMES T-400) through the (3)H((2)H,n)(4)He reaction. The production of short-lived activity and the spectra accumulation were performed by the cyclic activation technique. Induced gamma-ray activities were measured using a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer equipped with a high-purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. In the cross section measurements, corrections were made regarding the effects of gamma-ray attenuation, dead-time, fluctuation of neutron flux, and low energy neutrons. The measured cross sections were compared with data reported in literature as well as model calculations using the code TALYS 1.6.

  20. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Pressurized Water Reactor Standard Core Loading Benchmark Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzu Alpan, F.; Kulesza, Joel A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper compares contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a pressurized water reactor calculational benchmark problem with a standard out-in core loading. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and used the Oak Ridge National Laboratory two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library for the calculations. In this paper, a Westinghouse three-dimensional discrete ordinates code with parallel processing, the RAPTOR-M3G code was used. A variety of cross section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE-93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the broad-group ALPAN-VII.0 cross-section library developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculation-to-calculation reaction rates using the BUGLE-93 cross-section library at the thermal shield, pressure vessel, and cavity capsules, for eleven dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 5% was observed, with the exception of 65Cu(n,2n) in the pressure vessel capsule that had a 90% relative difference with respect to the reference results. It is thought that the 65Cu(n,2n) reaction rate reported in the reference for the pressure vessel capsule is not correct. In considering the libraries developed after BUGLE-93, a maximum relative difference of 12% was observed in reaction rates, with respect to the reference results, for 237Np(n,f) in the cavity capsule using BUGLE-B7.