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Sample records for croton floribundus spreng

  1. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  2. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  3. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  4. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  5. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  6. Crotofolane diterpenoids from Croton caracasanus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Katiuska; Compagnoneb, Reinaldo S; Riina, Ricarda; Briceño, Alexander; González, Teresa; Squitieri, Emilio; Landaetab, Carlos; Soscrún, Humberto; Suáreza, Alírica I

    2013-12-01

    Four new crotofolane-type diterpenoids, crotocarasin (A-D) (1-4), together with the known crotofolin E, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the stems of Croton caracasanus Pittier. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 3 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data analyses.

  7. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  8. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Croton schiedeanus.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; López, Jose L; Guerrero, Mario; Carrón, Rosalía; Martín, M Luisa; San Román, Luis; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2003-02-01

    Two new neo-clerodane type furano diterpenoids were isolated from the aerial part of Croton schiedeanus, besides the clerodane diterpenes cis- and trans-dehydrocrotonin, previously isolated from other species of Croton. Structural elucidation was achieved on basis of extensive NMR experiments, including X-ray diffraction analysis and molecular mechanics calculations. The previously known flavonoids ayanin and quercetin-3,7-dimethyl ether were also obtained from the extract of this plant.

  9. Bioactive diterpenoids from Croton laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Sheng; Tang, Ya-Qi; Huang, Jia-Luo; Li, Wei; Zou, Yi-Hong; Tang, Gui-Hua; Liu, Bo; Yin, Sheng

    2017-09-18

    Eight previously undescribed diterpenoids, crolaevinoids A-H, including two halimanes, four clerodanes, and two laevinanes, along with six known analogues were isolated from the twigs of Croton laevigatus. The structures of the previously undescribed were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by combination of a single crystal X-ray diffraction and CD analysis (exciton chirality and Rh2(OCOCF3)4-induced methods). Crolaevinoids A and B represent the first halimane diterpenoids with a unique lactone bridge between C-12 and C-17. All compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Furocrotinsulolide A and 3,4,15,16-diepoxy-cleroda-13(16),14-diene-12,17-olide exhibited pronounced inhibition of NO production with IC50 values of 10.4 ± 0.8 and 6.0 ± 1.0 μM, respectively, being more potent than the positive control, quercetin (IC50 = 13.1 ± 1.9 μM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTION OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATE V, PAGE 86. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  11. 33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLATE XXI, PAGE 113. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  12. 10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTIONS OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATES I, II, III, IV, PAGE 84 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  13. Complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus and associated betasatellite infecting croton (Croton bonplandianus) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Khadim; Hussain, Mazhar; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2011-06-01

    The complete sequences of a begomovirus and an associated betasatellite isolated from Croton bonplandianus originating from Pakistan were determined. The sequence of the begomovirus showed the highest level of nucleotide sequence identity (88.9%) to an isolate of papaya leaf curl virus and thus represents a new species, for which we propose the name Croton yellow vein virus (CYVV). The sequence of the betasatellite showed the highest levels of sequence identity (82 to 98.4%) to six sequences in the databases that have yet to be reported, followed by isolates of tomato leaf curl Joydebpur betasatellite (48.7 to 52.5%). This indicates that the betasatellite identified here (and the six sequences in the databases) is an isolate of a newly identified species for which the name Croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) is proposed. For the begomovirus, an analysis of the sequence indicates that it has a recombinant origin.

  14. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  15. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Diterpenoid derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K

    2015-04-01

    Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive.

  17. New clerodane diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Maosong; Cao, Di; Gao, Youheng; Li, Shuhua; Zhu, Jinping; Yang, Bao; Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Two new clerodane diterpenoids (1-2), one new clerodane diterpenoid alkaloid (3), as well as thirteen known compounds were isolated from Croton crassifolius. The structures of new compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HRMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H (1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 is firstly reported as the clerodane-type diterpenoid alkaloid in natural products. All of the compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against CT26.WT cell using the MTT method.

  18. New Cytotoxic Tigliane Diterpenoids from Croton caudatus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Ying; Yang, Kun-Xian; Yang, Xing-Wei; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Lu; Wang, Bei; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Li, Yan; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Three new tigliane-type diterpenoids were isolated from the methanolic extract of the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus, trivially named crotusins A-C (1-3). The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectral methods. These new compounds were highly oxygenated and heavily substituted. Cytotoxic activity against five human tumor cell lines was assessed for compounds 1-3 of which compound 3 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.49 to 4.19 µM against these cells, while crotusins A and B exhibited moderate activity.

  19. 40 CFR 180.341 - 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.341 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl...-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate in or on raw agricultural commodities as...

  20. An improved preparation of phorbol from croton oil.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Alberto; Gaeta, Simone; Savchenko, Andrei I; Williams, Craig M; Appendino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background: Croton oil is the only commercial source of the diterpenoid phorbol (1a), the starting material for the semi-synthesis of various diesters extensively used in biomedical research to investigate cell function and to evaluate in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. While efficient chemoselective esterification protocols have been developed for phorbol, its isolation from croton oil is technically complicated, and involves extensive manipulation of very toxic materials like the oil or its native diterpenoid fraction. Results: The preparation of a crude non-irritant phorboid mixture from croton oil was telescoped to only five operational steps, and phorbol could then be purified by gravity column chromatography and crystallization. Evidence is provided that two distinct phorboid chemotypes of croton oil exist, differing in the relative proportion of type-A and type-B esters and showing different stability to deacylation. Conclusion: The isolation of phorbol from croton oil is dangerous because of the toxic properties of the oil, poorly reproducible because of differences in its phorboid profile, and time-consuming because of the capricious final crystallization step. A solution for these issues is provided, suggesting that the poor-reproducibility of croton oil-based anti-inflammatory assays are the result of poor quality and/or inconsistent composition of croton oil.

  1. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Brasil, Davi Do Socorro Barros; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:26246738

  2. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  3. 40 CFR 180.341 - 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for residues. 180.341 Section 180.341 Protection... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.341 2,4-Dinitro-6-octylphenyl crotonate and 2,6-dinitro-4-octylphenyl crotonate; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances...

  4. New cis-clerodane diterpenoids from Croton schiedeanus.

    PubMed

    Puebla, Pilar; Correa, Sofía Ximena; Guerrero, Mario; Carron, Rosalía; San Feliciano, Arturo

    2005-03-01

    The acid fraction of extracts from the aerial part of Croton schiedeanus afforded six cis-clerodane type diterpenoids. Two of them (1 and 4) are new natural compounds. Structural elucidation was achieved on the basis of their spectral data.

  5. 26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. ENTABLATURE OVER THE ENTRANCE TO THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE X, PAGE 96 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  6. 34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLAE XXII, PAGE 114. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  7. 29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE FOR ROADWAY, PROBABLY JUST NORTH OF TARRYTOWN, PLATE XIV, PAGE 103. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  8. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  9. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-03-30

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications.

  10. Bioactive constituents from Croton sparsiflorus Morong.

    PubMed

    Shahwar, Durre; Ahmad, Naeem; Yasmeen, Asma; Khan, Muhammad Akmal; Ullah, Sami; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2015-02-01

    Whole plant extracts of Croton sparsiflorus in methanol have shown significant enzyme inhibition and antioxidant activities. Bioassay-guided isolation of chloroform fraction at pH 3 resulted in the identification of crotsparinine (1) and crotsparine (2), while sparsiflorine (3) was purified from the chloroform fraction at pH 9. The structures of the compounds were confirmed through spectral analyses (EI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited remarkable enzyme inhibition activity with IC50 values 27.01 ± 1.1, 22.26 ± 1.0 and 18.02 ± 1.3 μM in xanthine oxidase and 48.42 ± 1.5, 48.05 ± 1.4 and 7.42 ± 1.0 μM in acetylcholine esterase assays, respectively. These compounds also showed potent radical scavenging and reducing properties in DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The present results suggest the validity of the traditional uses of C. sparsiflorus in rheumatism and gout. Furthermore, the isolated noraporphine alkaloids can be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Crotogossamide, a cyclic nonapeptide from the latex of Croton gossypifolius.

    PubMed

    Quintyne-Walcott, Simone; Maxwell, Anderson R; Reynolds, William F

    2007-08-01

    A new cyclic nonapeptide, crotogossamide (1), was isolated from the latex of Croton gossypifolius. Its structure was elucidated by use of 1D and 2D NMR and MS and by hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis as cyclo(-Gly(1)-Ala(2)-Ser(3)-Gly(4)-Leu(5)-Asn(6)-Gly(7)-Ile(8)-Phe(9)-). This is the first report of a cyclic peptide from a Croton species. The known flavonoids kaempferol 3-O-rhamnopyranoside, quercitrin, and myricitrin were also isolated from the plant latex.

  12. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  13. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  14. Cytotoxic 3,4-seco-Atisane Diterpenoids from Croton barorum and Croton goudotii.

    PubMed

    Rakotonandrasana, Olga L; Raharinjato, Fanja H; Rajaonarivelo, Mialy; Dumontet, Vincent; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Bignon, Jérôme; Rasoanaivo, Philippe

    2010-10-22

    In a screening program directed to the discovery of new anticancer agents from Madagascan plants, ethyl acetate extracts of Croton barorum and C. goudotii showed strong cytotoxic activity, with 100% inhibition at 10 μg/mL in a primary screen using the murine lymphocytic leukemia P388 cell line. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new 3,4-seco-atisane diterpenoids, crotobarin (1) and crotogoudin (2). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation. Compounds 1 and 2 produced a net progression in the number of cells arrested at the G2/M growth stage in the cell cycle of the K562 human leukemia cell line at 4 μM.

  15. Dragon's blood Croton palanostigma induces genotoxic effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Maistro, Edson Luis; Ganthous, Giulia; Machado, Marina da Silva; Zermiani, Tailyn; Andrade, Sérgio Faloni de; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Perazzo, Fabio Ferreira

    2013-05-20

    Dragon's blood is a dark-red sap produced by species from the genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), which has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times in many countries, with scarce data about its safe use in humans. In this research, we studied genotoxicity and clastogenicity of Croton palanostigma sap using the comet assay and micronucleus test in cells of mice submitted to acute treatment. HPLC analysis was performed to identify the main components of the sap. The sap was administered by oral gavage at doses of 300 mg/kg, 1,000 mg/kg and 2,000 mg/kg. For the analysis, the comet assay was performed on the leukocytes and liver cells collected 24h after treatment, and the micronucleus test (MN) on bone marrow cells. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring 200 consecutive polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes (PCE/NCE ratio). The alkaloid taspine was the main compound indentified in the crude sap of Croton palanostigma. The results of the genotoxicity assessment show that all sap doses tested produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes and liver cells and also produced clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells of mice at the two higher doses tested. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. The data obtained suggest caution in the use of Croton palanostigma sap by humans considering its risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enzymes involved in crotonate metabolism in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Wofford, N.Q.

    1992-12-31

    Cell-free extracts of Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grown with crotonate in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei contained crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase activity. This activity was not detected in cell-free extracts from the butyrate-grown coculture which suggests that the long lag times observed before S. wolfei grew with crotonate were initially due to the inability to activate crotonate. Cell-free extracts of S. wolfei grown in pure culture contained high specific activities of hydrogenase and very low levels of formate dehydrogenase. The low levels suggest a biosynthetic rather than a catabolic role for the latter enzyme when S. wolfei is grown in pure culture. CO dehydrogenase activity was not detected. S. wolfei can form butyrate using a CoA transferase activity, but not by a phosphotransbutyrylase or enoate reductase activity. A c-type cytochrome was detected in S. wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture indicating the presence of an electron transport system. This is a characteristic which separates S. wolfei from other known crotonate-using bacteria.

  17. Two new natural products from Croton kongensis Gagnep.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Li, Zhaoliang; Yang, Biao; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, 14β-hydroxy-3-oxo-ent-kaur-16-ene (1), and a new nor-lignan, 8S-( - )-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dihydrofuran-8(8'H)-one (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton kongensis Gagnep. Their isolations were clarified and structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR experiments.

  18. A Novel Norclerodane Diterpenoid from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-Xin; Li, Hui-Hong; Fan, Gai-Xia; Li, Zheng-Yu; Dong, Le-Le; Li, Hong-Yu; Fei, Dong-Qing

    2015-11-01

    A chemical investigation of Croton crassifolius afforded a novel norclerodane diterpenoid (1) with an unprecedented six-membered oxygen ring between C-1 and C-12, together with three known compounds. The structure of the new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic (IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This report describes the first example of a natural norclerodane with a 4H-chromene ring system.

  19. Pyran-2-one Derivatives from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Wang, Jiajian; Liang, Yeyin; Li, Yaolan; Wang, Guocai

    2016-06-01

    One new pyran-2-one derivative [crotonpyrone C (1)] and two known ones (2-3) were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR) and HRESIMS methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic activity using a zebrafish model, but showed little activity.

  20. Structure elucidation of casbane diterpenes from Croton argyrophyllus.

    PubMed

    e Silva-Filho, Francisco Artur; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa

    2011-06-01

    Two novel casbane diterpenes 1-hydroxy-(2E,6Z,12E)-casba-2,6,12-triene-4,5-dione (1) and 6E,12E-casba-1,3,6,12-tetraen-1,4-epoxy-5-one (2) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the stems of Croton argyrophyllus. Structural characterization including the relative stereochemistry of all compounds was established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS.

  1. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TITLE PAGE. SHOWS N.Y.C. FOUNTAIN MADE POSSIBLE BY THE AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  2. 27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TUNNEL AND GATE CHAMBER AT THE HEAD OF THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE VII, PAGE 92. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  3. Environmental Impact Research Program. Doveweeds (Croton supp.) Section 7.4.2, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    woolly croton (C. capitatus), common or tropic croton (C. glandutosus), one- seed croton or prairie tea (C. monanthogynus), Texas doveweed (C. texensis...Distribution and distinguishing characteristics of woolly croton (Croton capitatus): (a) flowering branch, (b) fruit, and (c) seeds 4 ovary is 3-celled...and the capsule is 3-celled and 3- seeded except for C. monanthogynus, which is 1- seeded . When seeds mature in late fall, they are forcefully ejected

  4. Diterpenes and other constituents from Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Murillo, R M; Jakupovic, J; Rivera, J; Castro, V H

    2001-03-01

    Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae) from Guadalupe, San José, Costa Rica was collected in July 1992 and phytochemically studied (leaves, seeds, wood, bark, sap and flowers separately). Commonly known compounds such as 1-hydroxyjunenol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol, the coumarin scopoletin, the nor-terpenoids 9-dehydrovomifoliol and 2,3-dihydrovomifoliol were obtained. Taspine, two aporphinic alkaloids, the diterpenes 9(11)-dehydrokaurenic acid, hardwikiic acid, the corresponding new 12-oxo derivative as well as five clerodanes and a phorbol ester were also isolated. Three clerodanes were not previously described and their NMR spectroscopical data and MS fragmentation patterns are reported.

  5. Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.

    PubMed

    Tsacheva, Ivanka; Rostan, Joerg; Iossifova, Tania; Vogler, Bernhard; Odjakova, Mariela; Navas, Hernan; Kostova, Ivanka; Kojouharova, Michaela; Kraus, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM.

  6. Cytotoxic Orbitide from the Latex of Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Cândido-Bacani, Priscila de M; Figueiredo, Patrícia de O; Matos, Maria de F C; Garcez, Fernanda R; Garcez, Walmir S

    2015-11-25

    The bioactive ethyl acetate phase obtained from the latex of Croton urucurana Baillon afforded a novel orbitide (1), [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1, that proved active against NCI-ADR/RES (ovary, multidrug-resistance phenotype) cells with the same potency as doxorubicin (positive control) and inactive up to the highest concentration tested against nontumor NIH/3T3 cells. The structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, further supported by HRESIMS data and by application of Marfey's method for determination of the absolute configuration of its amino acid residues. This is the first orbitide obtained from C. urucurana.

  7. Diterpenoids from Croton laui and their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Biao; Zhao, Jin-Xin; Xu, Cheng-Hui; Dong, Lei; Ding, Jian; Yue, Jian-Min

    2014-04-25

    Fourteen new diterpenoids including clerodane (1-12), labdane (13), and norlabdane (14) types, as well as nine known analogues were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and that of crotonolide H (11) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Crotonolide A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against two tumor cell lines, HL-60 (human premyelocytic leukemia, IC50 9.42 μM) and P-388 (murine leukemia, IC50 7.45 μM), and crotonolide G (10) displayed significant antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Enrichment and separation of chlorogenic acid from the extract of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng by macroporous resin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Boyan; Dong, Beitao; Yuan, Xiaofan; Kuang, Qirong; Zhao, Qingsheng; Yang, Mei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    A simple and efficient chromatographic method for separation of chlorogenic acid from Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng extract was developed. The adsorption properties of nine macroporous resins were evaluated. NKA-II resin showed much better adsorption/desorption properties. The adsorption of chlorogenic acid on NKA-II resin at 25°C was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments were carried out on columns packed with NKA-II resin to optimize the separation process. The content of chlorogenic acid in the product increased to 22.17%, with a recovery yield of 82.41%.

  9. Conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates to methyl crotonate using whole cells.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, J; Holgueras Ortega, J; Sanders, J P M; Bitter, J H; Scott, E L

    2016-07-01

    Isolated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be used to produce biobased bulk chemicals. However, isolation is complex and costly. To circumvent this, whole cells containing PHA may be used. Here, PHA containing 3-hydroxybutyrate and small amounts of 3-hydroxyvalerate was produced from wastewater and used in the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer to methyl crotonate. Due to the increased complexity of whole cell reaction mixtures compared to pure PHA, the effect of 3-hydroxyvalerate content, magnesium salts and water content was studied in order to evaluate the need for downstream processing. A water content up to 20% and the presence of 3-hydroxyvalerate have no influence on the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate to methyl crotonate. The presence of Mg(2+)-ions resulted either in an increased yield or in byproduct formation depending on the counter ion. Overall, it is possible to bypass a major part of the downstream processing of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  11. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  12. Two new cembranoids from the leaves of Croton longissimus Airy Shaw.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2013-04-01

    Two new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1 and 2) along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from leaves of Croton longissimus collected in Thailand. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence and compound 4 was found by HPLC analysis to be identical to oblongionoside B-a compound isolated from Croton oblongifolius-including the absolute configuration at the C-9 position.

  13. "Ray-intrusive" laticifers in species of Croton section Cyclostigma (Euphorbiaceae)

    Treesearch

    Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Ricarda Riina; Paul E. Berry

    2009-01-01

    A description of the occurrence and structure of “ray-intrusive” laticifers in the rays of species of Croton section Cyclostigma is provided. The systematic significance of laticifers within Croton section Cyclostigma is briefly discussed in relation to the section’s known production of red latex, commonly called “dragon’s blood”. A developmental hypothesis is offered...

  14. New 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from Croton micans.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Elsa; Chavez, Katiuska; Riina, Ricarda; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Delle Monache, Franco; Suárez, Alírica I

    2012-01-01

    From the stems of Croton micans Sw., five new 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers: micansinoic acid (1), isomicansinoic acid (2), and the dimethyl (3), monomethyl (4) and monoethyl ester (5) of micansinoic acid were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data interpretation, mainly 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS. These compounds are the first 3,4-seco-ent-kaurene dimers from a Croton species.

  15. An examination of the phenol-croton oil peel: Part II. The lay peelers and their croton oil formulas.

    PubMed

    Hetter, G P

    2000-01-01

    From the turn of the century, lay face peelers, known as "skinners," ran "beautifier" salons. Beginning in the 1920s, lay peelers were using croton oil-phenol formulas in Hollywood. These persons were renowned, made a good living, and treated many, if not most, of the leading "stars" of the day. They had a treatment, a "secret," that physicians did not. Physicians brought their own wives to the peelers for their expertise. The leading lay peel personalities from the 1920s through to our time are presented. The lay peelers dominated the field until the 1960s, when legal attacks on them, often directly instigated by the newly educated physician peelers, put them at a legal disadvantage. Nevertheless, there was considerable interaction with many plastic surgeons along the way. Some plastic surgeons came into possession of the techniques and some also into knowledge of the ingredients in a formula. The author has presented the recipes of four of the renowned lay peelers, two from Hollywood, Gradé and Kelsen, and two from Miami, Coopersmith and Maschek. These recipes all have 80 to 90 percent less croton oil than the "classic" Baker formula and, therefore, wound less deeply. The Hollywood formulas were used on many celebrities both inside and outside the film world from the 1920s to the early 1990s. These lay recipes are cumbersome to prepare. The author has simplified the preparation of these lay recipes by using USP liquid phenol instead of crystals. These simple formulas are provided in a table and are as easy to prepare as the Baker formula.

  16. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  17. Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaf of Bada Rasna [Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.; Acanthaceae].

    PubMed

    Acharya, Rabinarayan; Padiya, Riddhish H; Patel, Eisha D; Rudrapa, Harisha C; Shukla, Vinaya J; Chauhan, Malati G

    2012-04-01

    Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng. (Acanthaceae), a well-known plant in traditional systems of medicine, known as "Bada Rasna" by the traditional practitioners of Odisha, is being used as Rasna for managing pain and inflammation. The detailed macroscopic and microscopic characters of the plant, except its root, are lacking. Hence, it was thought worth to study the leaves of the plant for its detailed morphological and microscopical characters, by following the standard pharmacognostical procedures. The study shows the presence of diacytic stomata in the lower epidermis of lamina, microsphenoidal and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate in the mesophyll cells, simple and glandular trichomes. The observed major diagnostic characters of the leaf may find useful for its standardization.

  18. Sectional rearrangement of arborescent clades of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in South America : evolution of arillate seeds and a new species, Croton domatifer

    Treesearch

    Ricarda Riina; Benjamin van Ee; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Alfonso Cardozo; Paul E. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Most of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect....

  19. [GC-MS analysis of chemical components in seeds oil from Croton tiglium].

    PubMed

    Lan, Mei; Wan, Ping; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Huang, Xiao-Lan

    2012-07-01

    To identify the chemical components and their relative content in seeds oil from Croton tiglium. The oil obtained by extracting of the seeds of Croton tiglium with petroleum ether was subjected to methyl-esterification or dilution with ethylether. GC-MS were used to identify the components in croton oil,peak area normalization method was used to determine the relative content of these substances in the sample. Seventeen fat acid components were identified from croton oil. The main components were linoleic acid, oleic acid, and eicosenoic acid in methyl-esterified sample, whose quantities accouted for 77.33%. In addition, five aromatic compounds were also found in the sample diluted with ethylether, such as isoborneol, fenchyl alcohol, etc. Phorbol esters, having carcinogenesis and anti-HIV-1 effects, were not been identified. There are abundant of linoleic acid, oleic acid and eicosenoic acid in the seeds oil extracted from Chinese Croton tiglium. In contrast, the active component with carcinogenesis and anti-HIV-1 might be very rare in the samples and difficult to be obtained by ordinary separating and extracting methods.

  20. Antibacterial activity of extracts of three Croton species collected in Mpumalanga region in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Selowa, S C; Shai, L J; Masoko, P; Mokgotho, M P; Magano, S R

    2009-12-30

    The antibacterial activities of three Croton species were compared using bioautography and the serial microdilution methods. The methanolic extracts of all the species had low activity against Escherichia coli. The highest activity was observed with Croton megalobotrys against Enterococcus faecalis with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.02 mg/ml. Croton steenkapianus extracts were the least active of the species investigated, only managing an MIC value of 0.625 mg/ml against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Croton megalobotrys leaf powder was serially extracted using solvents of various polarities. The lowest MIC value (0.06 mg/ml) of the serially extracted fractions was observed with acetone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The liquid-liquid fractions of the methanol extract of Croton megalobotrys were also tested. The lowest MIC value of 0.02 mg/ml was observed with n-hexane fraction against Enterococcus faecalis. The carbon tetrachloride fraction was further fractionated using column chromatography with silica as the immobile phase. The resulting seven fractions were tested for activity following the bioassay-guided practice, and it emerged that the first three fractions had active compounds against Staphylococcus aureus when the bioautography method was used.

  1. Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; de Souza, Terezinha Maria; de Paula Freire, Gabrielle; Farias, Davi Felipe; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; de Morais, Selene Maia; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed new insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species (Croton zehntneri, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton argyrophylloides, and Croton sonderianus) against Aedes aegypti mosquito. In addition, the acute toxicity upon mice was determined. All essential oils showed inhibition of egg hatching, with IC50 values ranging from 66.4 to 143.2 μg mL(-1), larvicidal activity with LC50 ranging from 25.5 to 94.6 μg mL(-1), and pupicidal action with PC50 ranging from 276.8 to over 500 μg mL(-1). Only L. sidoides, C. zehntneri, and C. argyrophylloides essential oils were able to inhibit the oviposition of female gravid mosquitoes with OD50 values of 35.3, 45.3, and 45.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. Oral acute toxicity in mice showed that C. sonderianus and C. argyrophylloides oils are nontoxic (LD50 > 6,000 mg.kg(-1)) while C. nepetaefolius, C. zehntneri, and L. sidoides oils are moderately toxic (LD50 3,840; 3,464, and 2,624 mg.kg(-1), respectively). The results indicate that these oils are promising sources of bioactive compounds, showing low or no toxicity to mammals.

  2. Bark anatomy in Croton draco var. draco (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Farías, Feliza Ramón; Williamson, June Simpson; Rodríguez, Silvia Valdés; Angeles, Guillermo; Portugal, Victor Olalde

    2009-12-01

    Many arboreal forms of the genus Croton (ca. 800 spp.), amply distributed in the Americas, have latex-producing cells in their bark, which is widely used in traditional medicine to treat skin infections and some forms of cancer. Studies validate its ethnomedicinal use-more than 20 pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites have been reported for its latex and bark-but anatomical and ecological studies are scarce. Given this species' ample distribution, laticifer abundance could be affected by the environment. We tested this for genetically similar trees growing in two types of vegetation in Veracruz, Mexico at sites commonly visited by traditional doctors. We describe the bark anatomy of C. draco, focusing on the laticifers, histochemically characterize the bark and the latex extracted from it, and document differences in laticifer abundance in the two environments. We have also identified another cell type (what we call type B) in the secretory latex system and describe it histochemically and microscopically. The location of bark cells that contain essential oils is reported here for the first time. Given the genetic similarity of the trees at both sites, the between-site variation in the number of laticifers in stem and branch bark appears to be an effect of the environment.

  3. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  4. Essential oils composition of croton species from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Nathalie A; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Carvalho, Elisangela Elena N; Domingos, Vanessa D; Lucas, Flávia Cristina A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%).

  5. Effects of urbanization on stream chemistry in the Croton Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. N.; Boyer, E. W.; Curry, D. S.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We studied the impacts of urbanization on flow paths and water quality in the Croton Watershed, a forested area east of the Hudson River that supplies about 10% of the drinking water to residents of New York City. We focused on three small sub-catchments along an urban gradient: one that is forested and undeveloped, one that is developing a residential base, and one that is fully developed with homes. To evaluate the effects of urbanization on concentration/discharge relationships, we monitored longitudinal profiles of streamflow and chemistry (cations, anions, nutrients, pH) in each catchment under varying flow conditions. Our work shows that urbanization impacts stream chemistry in several ways: by altering flow paths of water and by providing anthropogenic sources of solutes to streamflow. The urbanized catchments had a much higher fraction of quick flow contributing to the stream than the forested catchment. Solutes associated with residential development, such as road salt and septic systems, affected stream chemistry in the developed catchments. Total dissolved solids (TDS) were highest in the urban catchment and lowest in the forested catchment. Chloride, sodium, and calcium were the largest components of TDS in the urban and developing catchments, while calcium, silica, and sulfate were the largest components of TDS in the forested catchment.

  6. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing.

  7. Geophysical characterisation of Carlo's V Castle (Crotone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Carlo's V Castle, located in Crotone Town, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria Region (Italy), date back to the 13th century d.C. (Fig. 1). During its long life, the building changed several owners and sustained the damages and the consequent reconstructions due to the innumerable naval battles. Moreover, the castle suffered the action of the earthquakes which always afflict the region. With the principal aim of detecting the location, depth and geometry of the rests of destroyed structures, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in the area inside the boundary walls. The results are sixty-two one-meter-spaced, filtered and migrated radargrams arranged in four 3D data-sets. From each data-set, the most significant time-slice was extracted. To reduce the ambiguity in the GPR data interpretation, additional geophysical techniques, such as Magnetic (M), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), were carried out with a partial superimposition with the GPR data. A comparison and a joint interpretation amongst different geophysical data pointed out some very remarkable features associated to buried remains and possible buried cannonballs. With the secondary aim to check the presence of an old military walkway linking two bastions a GPR profile was carried out on the sea side boundary wall. The GPR results are in agreement with an ERT survey carried out on the same profile and consistent with the presence of an underground passage.

  8. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  9. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B.; Santos, Deborah Y. A. C.; Salatino, Maria L. F.; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J. Pena; Lago, João Henrique G.; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T. G.; de Carvalho, João E.; Furlan, Cláudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  10. Hydrogeology of the Croton-Ossining area, Westchester County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrogeology of a 29-sq-mi area surrounding the village of Croton-on-Hudson, New York, is summarized on 6 sheets at 1:12 ,000 scale that show locations of wells and test holes, surficial geology, geologic sections, bedrock geology, land use, and soil permeability. The primary stratified-drift aquifer in this area is the Croton River aquifer, which consists of outwash sand and gravel that partly fills the Croton River valley from the New Croton Dam to the Hudson River--a distance of approximately 3 miles. The valley is narrow and ranges in width from 100 to 1,900 ft, and its v-notch bedrock floor ranges from 30 to 50 ft below sea level. Detailed hydrogeologic studies during 1936-38 showed the stratigraphy to consist of an upper water-table aquifer with a saturated thickness of about 35 ft, underlain by a silt and clay confining unit 8 to o0 ft in thickness that in turn is underlain by a lower confined outwash aquifer up to 40 ft thick. Aquifer-test data and laboratory permeability tests show that the average hydraulic conductivity of the upper outwash aquifer is 475 ft/d, and that of the lower confined aquifer is about 300 ft/d. The aquifer is recharged through direct precipitation, runoff from adjacent hillsides, and leakage under the new Croton Dam. Previous studies estimate the average leakage under the dam to be 0.65 Mgal/d and the total average daily recharge to the aquifer between New Croton Dam and Quaker Bridge to be 1.73 Mgal/d. (USGS)

  11. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  12. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  13. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Croton malambo bark aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Alírica I; Compagnone, Reinaldo S; Salazar-Bookaman, Maria M; Tillett, Stephen; Delle Monache, Franco; Di Giulio, Camilo; Bruges, Gustavo

    2003-09-01

    Croton malambo (K.) bark aqueous extract, popularly known in Venezuela as "palomatias" or "torco" was tested for acute toxicity and for its anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects using tail flick and writhing syndrome tests models, respectively. Croton malambo aqueous extract (6.15 mg/kg i.p.) administered intraperitoneally had a significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects compared to acetylsalicylic acid (200mg/kg p.o.) and sodium diclofenac (5.64 mg/kg p.o.). Studies to determine correlation between chemical composition and pharmacological activity are underway.

  14. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  15. Treatment with Aqueous Extract from Croton cajucara Benth Reduces Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Éder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery. PMID:22811599

  16. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  17. Systematic significance of midrib vascular bundles in some Schefflera Spreng (Araliaceae) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.; Noraini, T.; Aida-Shafreena, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    Anatomy study was undertaken on midrib vascular bundles of six Schefflera Spreng species, namely as S. obovatilimba, S. borneensis, S.kinabaluensis, S.lineamentorum, S. opacus and S.petiolosa. The genus Schefflera belongs to the family Araliaceae. The objective of this study is to determine variations in the midrib anatomical characteristics that can be used to identify species. Leaves samples were collected from various forest reserves in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia., were fixed in AA (Acetic acid: Alcohol, in a ratio of 1:3), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, were stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, been mounted in Eupharal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown that all species have complex structure of vascular bundles. Each species has identical arrangement of vascular bundles and can be very useful for species identification. As a conclusion, variation in the midrib anatomical characteristics is outstanding and can has taxonomic value in the genus Schefflera respectively.

  18. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Laevinoids A and B: two diterpenoids with an unprecedented backbone from Croton laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; Yue, Jian-Min

    2013-09-20

    Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of a Chinese herbal plant, Croton laevigatus, yielded laevinoids A (1) and B (2) with a new rearranged ent-clerodane scaffold named as laevinane. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses with their absolute configurations being established via single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  20. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  1. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use as Components...

  2. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  3. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  4. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350 Section 175.350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS...

  5. An Ophiostoma sp. causing a vascular wilt disease of red bay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng) is also pathogenic to other species in the Lauraceae family

    Treesearch

    Stephen Fraedrich

    2007-01-01

    Extensive mortality of red bay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng) has been observed in the coastal plains of South Carolina and Georgia since 2003. Dead and dying trees exhibit wilt-like symptoms, and a fungus (an Ophiostoma sp.) and an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus [Eichhoff]) have been implicated in...

  6. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Brazilian Arnica).

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Fernanda C; Ferreira, Leidiane C; Souza, Maíra R; Grabe-Guimarães, Andrea; Paula, Carmen A; Rezende, Simone A; Saúde-Guimarães, Dênia A

    2013-03-01

    The aerial parts of Lychnophora trichocarpha Spreng. (Asteraceae) are used macerated in water or ethanol to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. In this study, anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract from aerial parts of L. trichocarpha and its ethyl acetate fraction was investigated. Sesquiterpene lactones, lychnopholide (Lyc) and eremantholide C (EreC), isolated of ethyl acetate fraction, were also assayed for in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Topical treatment with ointments containing ethanol extract, its ethyl acetate fraction and sesquiterpene lactones significantly reduced carrageenan-induced mice paw oedema. In vitro assays demonstrated that Lyc inhibited interferon -γ/lipopolysaccharide -stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in J774A.1 macrophages and increased production of IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine. The reduction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by EreC was accompanied by an increased production of IL-10 in a concentration-dependent manner in J774A.1 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of Lyc seems to involve the inhibition of production of NO and increased production of IL-10. The mechanism of the effect of EreC on the reduction of carrageenan-induced paw oedema may be attributed to inhibition of production of TNF-α and stimulation of IL-10 production. The results corroborate the use of ethanol extract from Lychnophora trichocarpha in folk medicine for anti-inflammatory action and indicate that the topical route is suitable for use.

  7. Acute and subacute oral toxicity assessment of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart ex Spreng. pulp fruit in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Traesel, Giseli Karenina; Menegati, Sara Emilia Lima Tolouei; Santos, Ariany Carvalho Dos; Souza, Roosevelt Isaias Carvalho; de Oliveira, Vinícius Soares; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida; Vieira, Maria do Carmo

    2017-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng., popularly known as "bacuri", is a native plant from the brazilian Cerrado and used in folk medicine as a pulmonary decongestant, an anti-inflammatory for joints and antipyretic. There is an expectation about the use in chronic disease of the Attalea phalerata oil since its composition is high in carotenoids and beneficial fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxicological profile of the oil extracted from Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. pulp (APO). Acute and subacute toxicity studies were performed in male and female Wistar rats according to the OECD - Guidelines 425 and 407. For the acute toxicity, one single dose of the APO (2000mg/kg) was administered by gavage to five female rats. In the subacute toxicity, four different doses (125, 250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) of the APO were administered to male and female rats for 28 consecutive days. No deaths or behavioral changes were observed during both experiments as well as no changes in organ weights, hematological, histopathological parameters. The biochemical parameters showed changes in phosphatase alkaline and albumin levels, however these values are within the normal range for the species. A significant reduction in cholesterol and triglycerides was also observed in some of the animals treated with the APO. Therefore, the LD50 is higher than 2000mg/kg and the APO oil can be considered safe at the doses tested in rats. However, further assessments are required in order to proceed to clinical studies in humans.

  8. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation.

  9. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation. PMID:21915187

  10. Molecular phylogenetics and character evolution of the "sacaca" clade: novel relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Caruzo, Maria Beatriz R; van Ee, Benjamin W; Cordeiro, Inês; Berry, Paul E; Riina, Ricarda

    2011-08-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of Croton section Cleodora (Klotzsch) Baill. were evaluated using the nuclear ribosomal ITS and the chloroplast trnL-F and trnH-psbA regions. Our results show a strongly supported clade containing most previously recognized section Cleodora species, plus some other species morphologically similar to them. Two morphological synapomorphies that support section Cleodora as a clade include pistillate flowers in which the sepals overlap to some degree, and styles that are connate at the base to varying degrees. The evolution of vegetative and floral characters that have previously been relied on for taxonomic decisions within this group are evaluated in light of the phylogenetic hypotheses. Within section Cleodora there are two well-supported clades, which are proposed here as subsections (subsection Sphaerogyni and subsection Spruceani). The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis identifies the closest relatives of the medicinally important and essential oil-rich Croton cajucara Benth. as candidates for future screening in phytochemical and pharmacological studies.

  11. RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-β) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-β requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the βC1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the βC1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that βC1 interferes with silencing mechanism.

  12. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal effect of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, L A; Silva, R M; Santos, F A; Martins, D T; Mattos, P O; Rao, V S

    2001-06-01

    The red sap obtained by slashing the bark of Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as dragon's blood, was screened for a possible antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in mice and on small intestinal transit in mice. Dragon's blood at an oral dose of 600 mg/kg caused in marked inhibition of the diarrhoeal response following castor oil administration as well as the intestinal fluid accumulation promoted by cholera toxin. At a similar dose the red sap significantly inhibited the small intestinal transit which was, however, found to be independent of the opioid mechanism. These results suggest a potential usefulness of the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. in the control of secretory diarrhoea associated pathologies. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  14. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon.

  15. Detoxification of Croton tiglium L. seeds by Ayurvedic process of Śodhana

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Prince Kumar; Nandi, Manmath Kumar; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Croton tiglium seeds, known as Jamālgoṭa in Hindi, Marathi, and Urdu is well-known for its toxicity (severe purgative action). In Ayurvedic texts, the plant is known as Kumbhinī and is used for the treatment of constipation after Śodhana (detoxification process) of the seeds with Godugdha (cow milk). Material and Methods: In the present study, C. tiglium seeds were purified with cow milk as reported in Ayurvedic classics. Phorbol esters equivalent to phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and crotonic acid contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography method in the seeds of C. tiglium before and after the purification process. Results: The content of the phorbol ester equivalent to PMA in unpurified and purified sample was found to be 5.2 mg/100 g and 1.8 mg/100 g of dried seeds of C. tiglium, respectively. The quantity of crotonic acid in unpurified seeds of C. tiglium was found to be 0.102 mg/100 g of dried seeds while it was absent in the purified seed extract of C. tiglium. Conclusion: The toxicity of C. tiglium seeds may be due to the presence of phorbol esters and crotonic acid along with other constituents. These constituents are oil soluble and may be removed by cow milk during the process of Śodhana. Reduction in the level of these constituents after the purification decreases the toxicity of C. tiglium seeds. Reduction in the oily content from the seeds of C. tiglium during the purification process is also supported by the results obtained from the physiochemical parameters. PMID:25538350

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  17. Ethanol extract of Angelica gigas inhibits croton oil-induced inflammation by suppressing the cyclooxygenase - prostaglandin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sunhee; Joo, Seong Soo; Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jeong Seon; Park, Sung Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using croton oil-induced inflammation models. Croton oil (20 µg/mL) up-regulated mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and COX-II in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, resulting in the release of high concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). EAG (1~10 µg/mL) markedly suppressed croton oil-induced COX-II mRNA expression and PGE2 production. Application of croton oil (5% in acetone) to mouse ears caused severe local erythema, edema and vascular leakage, which were significantly attenuated by oral pre-treatment with EAG (50~500 mg/kg). Croton oil dramatically increased blood levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and PGE2 without affecting tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) levels. EAG pre-treatment remarkably lowered IL-6 and PGE2, but did not alter TNF-α or NO concentrations. These results indicate that EAG attenuates inflammatory responses in part by blocking the COX-PGE2 pathway. Therefore, EAG could be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:20195064

  18. Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon's blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; de Bruyne, T; Claeys, M; Vlietinck, A; Calomme, M; vanden Berghe, D

    1993-06-01

    Dragon's blood is a red viscous latex extracted from the cortex of various Croton spp. (Euphorbiaceae), most commonly Croton lechleri, Croton draconoides (or Croton palanostigma), and Croton erythrochilus. It is used in South American popular medicine for several purposes, including wound healing. Bioassay-guided fractionation of dragon's blood, using an in vitro test system for the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, has resulted in the isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan, 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin or 4-O-methyldihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol] [1] as the biologically active principle. A related compound, 4-O-methylcedrusin [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol] [2], and the alkaloid taspine [3], also isolated from dragon's blood, were not active in the same assay. A cell proliferation assay, measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in endothelial cells, showed that compound 1 did not stimulate cell proliferation, but rather inhibited thymidine incorporation, while protecting cells against degradation in a starvation medium.

  19. Toxicity of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. leave extract by MTT and neutral red assays: influence of the test medium procedure

    PubMed Central

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Comerlato, Luana Christine; Da Silva, Marcia Vignoli; Zuanazzi, José Ângelo Silveira; Von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2016-01-01

    Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of plant extracts with potential phytotherapeutic properties. This study compared three methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Vero cells to plant extracts. Leaves of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. were used to prepare culture medium with aqueous extract, extract in culture medium and methanol extract. Toxicity was assessed using the MTT and neutral red (NR) assays. In general, alterations in the cellular functions were found in all extracts and assays. Cytotoxic effect occurred at lower doses in aqueous extract and the range of effect of the methanol extract was small. The procedure of preparing the test medium has an effect on the outcome of the assay. Cytotoxicity of plant extract can be assessed by MTT and NR assays. Aqueous extract added to the culture medium presented the best profile to assess cytotoxicity. PMID:28652844

  20. Toxicity of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. leave extract by MTT and neutral red assays: influence of the test medium procedure.

    PubMed

    Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Comerlato, Luana Christine; Da Silva, Marcia Vignoli; Zuanazzi, José Ângelo Silveira; Von Poser, Gilsane Lino; Ziulkoski, Ana Luiza

    2016-03-01

    Cytotoxicity assays using cell cultures may be an alternative to assess biological toxicity of plant extracts with potential phytotherapeutic properties. This study compared three methods to prepare culture media for the exposure of Vero cells to plant extracts. Leaves of Glandularia selloi (Spreng.) Tronc. were used to prepare culture medium with aqueous extract, extract in culture medium and methanol extract. Toxicity was assessed using the MTT and neutral red (NR) assays. In general, alterations in the cellular functions were found in all extracts and assays. Cytotoxic effect occurred at lower doses in aqueous extract and the range of effect of the methanol extract was small. The procedure of preparing the test medium has an effect on the outcome of the assay. Cytotoxicity of plant extract can be assessed by MTT and NR assays. Aqueous extract added to the culture medium presented the best profile to assess cytotoxicity.

  1. Gas-phase oxidation of methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate. kinetic study of their reactions toward OH radicals and Cl atoms.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Mariano A; Benitez-Villalba, Julio; Caballero, Norma; Blanco, María B

    2012-06-21

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of hydroxyl radicals and chlorine atoms with methyl crotonate and ethyl crotonate have been determined at 298 K and atmospheric pressure. The decay of the organics was monitored using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID), and the rate constants were determined using the relative rate method with different reference compounds. Room temperature rate coeficcients were found to be (in cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)): k(1)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (4.65 ± 0.65) × 10(-11), k(2)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(3)) = (2.20 ± 0.55) × 10(-10), k(3)(OH + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (4.96 ± 0.61) × 10(-11), and k(4)(Cl + CH(3)CH═CHC(O)OCH(2)CH(3)) = (2.52 ± 0.62) × 10(-10) with uncertainties representing ±2σ. This is the first determination of k(1), k(3), and k(4) under atmospheric pressure. The rate coefficients are compared with previous determinations for other unsaturated and oxygenated VOCs and reactivity trends are presented. In addition, a comparison between the experimentally determined k(OH) with k(OH) predicted from k vs E(HOMO) relationships is presented. On the other hand, product identification under atmospheric conditions has been performed for the first time for these unsaturated esters by the GC-MS technique in NO(x)-free conditions. 2-Hydroxypropanal, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and formic acid were positively observed as degradation products in agreement with the addition of OH to C2 and C3 of the double bond, followed by decomposition of the 2,3- or 3,2-hydroxyalkoxy radicals formed. Atmospheric lifetimes, based on of the homogeneous sinks of the unsaturated esters studied, are estimated from the kinetic data obtained in the present work.

  2. Croton membranaceus Improves Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Samuel; Afriyie, Daniel; Appiah-Danquah, Akua Bempomaa; Asia, Jonas; Asiedu, Bernice; Santa, Sheila; Doku, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 17.3 million deaths per year globally. In Ghana, CVD accounts for 22.2% of deaths. Croton membranaceus (CM) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant in Ghana is mainly used traditionally for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and measles. However, some hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects have recently been reported but not scientifically examined. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether Croton membranaceus (CM) used for prostatitis had any effect on CVD markers. Materials and Methods In experiment 1, lipid profile changes were determined. Twenty four male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were divided into 4 groups. Low (LD), intermediate (ID) and high dose (HD) groups received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. CM aqueous root extracts (CMARE) for 60 days, respectively, the controls received distilled water. In experiment 2, blood glucose levels (BGL) were determined. 21 db/db mice were divided into 3 groups of 7 mice each alongside db/+ mice (7) (negative control). Groups 1 and 2 received 250 mg/kg b.wt CMARE and metformin, respectively. Group 3 (positive control) and db/+ mice (negative control) received distilled water. Mice were monitored for 15 hours. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results Hypotriglyceridaemic effect was observed (p=0.005). High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) showed significant increases (p=0.013) and decreases (p=0.003), respectively. A significant CRP reduction was observed for ID and HD groups (p = 0.010, p = 0.011, respectively). BGL was reduced in Metformin and Croton groups (p=0.000; p= 0.006, respectively) after 3 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, CMARE has positive effects on some CVD biomarkers and a hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:26816938

  3. Synergy effects of the antibiotics gentamicin and the essential oil of Croton zehntneri.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2009-11-01

    The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to antibacterial and antibiotic modifying activity by gaseous contact. The gaseous component of the oil inhibited the bacterial growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a MID of 0.5 and<1mg/l air, respectively. The activity of the antibiotic gentamicin was increased by 42,8% against P. aeruginosa after contact with the gaseous component, showing that this oil influences the activity of the antibiotic and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

  4. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton bonplandianus from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Croton bonplandianus Baill. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 37 compounds have been identified, representing 96.2% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as beta-caryophyllene (16.7%), germacrene D (14.7%), borneol (8.3%), Z-beta-damascenone (6.(%), isobornyl acetate (6.2%), alpha-humulene (6.1%), germacrene A (5.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.5%). The oil was rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (60.1%).

  5. New clerodane diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenghong; Ning, Desheng; Wu, Xingde; Huang, Sisi; Li, Dianpeng; Lv, Shihong

    2015-03-15

    Three new nor-clerodane diterpenoids, crotoeurins A-C (1-3), together with four known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus. Among them, crotoeurin A (1) is a new nor-clerodane diterpenoid dimer with a unique cyclobutane ring via a [2+2] cycloaddition. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity on NGF-mediated PC12 cells at concentration of 10μM.

  6. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  7. In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Luilma A; Sidrim, J J C; Martins, Domingos T; Cechinel Filho, V; Rao, Vietla S

    2005-02-28

    Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.

  8. Croton insularis introduces the seco-casbane class with EBC-329 and the first casbane endoperoxide EBC-324.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Pierce, Carly J; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-21

    Investigation of Croton insularis afforded the first in class seco-casbane diterpene, EBC-329. A highly oxidised casbane, EBC-324, was also isolated. The structural motif within EBC-324, which consists of an epoxidised hemi-acetal endoperoxide, is new to the casbane family.

  9. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  10. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  11. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  12. Why are the Wetland and Surface Waters Sometimes Colored in the Croton Watershed (New York)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M.; Otz, I.; McKenzie, J. M.; Hassett, J.; Bartos, J.; Tedorov, S.; Flusche, M. A.; Lesniak, K. A.; Tasillo, J.; Cuomo, D.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton Reservoir that provides water to New York City periodically has color problems in late fall. Consequently, a synoptic sampling of 92 streams draining wetlands in the watershed was done to determine whether water color is related to dissolved organic carbon, iron and manganese concentrations. In addition, major solute concentrations were measured to evaluate overall surface-water quality. Gelbstoff color (at 440nm wavelength) and platinum-cobalt color are well correlated. These measures of color also correlate to dissolved organic carbon and dissolved iron concentrations. Proportions of sodium and chloride in surface waters are identical to that of road salt. The tight covariance between Na and Cl reflects simple dilution. A plot of chloride and nitrate concentrations also shows a direct relationship, but with substantial scatter. This scatter probably reflects biochemical processing of nitrate and different amounts of nitrate and salt contributed to subwatersheds at different scales. The Croton watershed is underlain by metasedimentary and crystalline rocks, and minor marble overlain by thin glacial drift. Concentrations of Ca and Mg are greater than that predicted by alkalinity equivalence, based on simple dissolution of carbonate minerals by carbonic acid. These greater base cation concentrations supports the hypothesis that silicate minerals provide most of the base cations in the watershed, except for the sodium released by dissolving road salt.

  13. Essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides: toxicological aspects and vasorelaxant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    de França-Neto, Aldair; Cardoso-Teixeira, Ana Carolina; Medeiros, Thiago Coutinho; Quinto-Farias, Maria do Socorro; Sampaio, Celia Maria de Souza; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Lahlou, Saad; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2012-10-01

    Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes and venereal diseases. This study examined the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. argyrophylloides (EOCA). In addition, vascular effects of the EOCA have been examined. In mice, an oral acute toxicity test revealed that EOCA could be considered as a non toxic essential oil since it showed a very high LD50 (9.84 +/- 0.01 g/kg). In the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) cytotoxic assay, the LC50 value of EOCA was 275 [165-534] microg/mL. EOCA (1-1000 microg/mL) relaxed isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine with an IC50 value of 126.7 [89.8-163.7] microg/mL. In rat mesenteric bed preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA (1-300 microg/mL) also induced a reversible, vasodilator effect with an IC50 value of 46.0 [33.3-58.7] micro/mL. It is concluded that EOCA is a very interesting agent from the point of view of the possibility of therapeutic application. This is because, whilst showing a very small acute toxicity, EOCA also showed maximal efficacy as a vascular antispasmodic agent with a pharmacological potency similar to that of other Croton species essential oils.

  14. Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana (Baill.) attenuates visceral nociception in mice.

    PubMed

    Rao, Vietla S; Gurgel, Luilma A; Lima-Júnior, Roberto C P; Martins, Domingos T O; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Santos, Flávia A

    2007-09-05

    Dragon's blood, the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) has a profound history of traditional use in conditions such as inflammation, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress. Previous studies established its anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and analgesic properties and in this study we verified its potential to suppress visceral pain, using capsaicin- and cyclophosphamide-induced models of visceral nociception. Mice that received intra-colonic capsaicin (0.3%, 50 microl/animal) or intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg) manifested spontaneous nociceptive behaviors or crises, which were significantly suppressed in animal groups treated with red sap (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or that received N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), as positive controls. In capsaicin model, the antinociception produced by 200 mg/kg red sap was found to be naloxone-sensitive (2 mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. In tests of open-field and pentobarbital-sleeping time, mice received 200mg/kg red sap showed no significant alterations in either locomotion frequency or on sleeping time, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of sedation or motor abnormality. These findings highlight the visceral antinociceptive property of Croton urucurana sap and further support its ethno-medical use to alleviate pain associated with gastrointestinal and other related disorders.

  15. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes. PMID:25435891

  16. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes.

  17. Lamotriginium crotonate and lamotriginium salicylate ethanol monosolvate: the role of solvent molecules in the packing organization.

    PubMed

    Freire, Eleonora; Echeverría, Gustavo A; Baggio, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Two lamotriginium salts, namely lamotriginium crotonate [systematic name: 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium but-2-enoate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C4H5O2(-), (III)] and lamotriginium salicylate [systematic name: 3,5-diamino-6-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,4-triazin-2-ium 2-hydroxybenzoate ethanol monosolvate, C9H8Cl2N5(+)·C7H5O3(-)·C2H5OH, (IV)] present extremely similar centrosymmetric hydrogen-bonded A...L...L...A packing building blocks (L is lamotriginium and A is the anion). The fact that salicylate salt (IV) is (ethanol) solvated, while crotonate salt (III) is not, has a profound effect on the way these elemental units aggregate to generate the final crystal structure. Possible reasons for this behaviour are analyzed and the hypothesis raised checked against similar structures in the literature.

  18. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  19. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  20. Enhancement of the Norfloxacin Antibiotic Activity by Gaseous Contact with the Essential Oil of Croton zehntneri

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, HDM; Matias, EFF; Santos, KKA; Tintino, SR; Souza, CES; Guedes, GMM; Santos, FAD; Costa, JGM; Falcão-Silva, VS; Siqueira-Júnior, JP

    2010-01-01

    This is the first on the modulation of norfloxacin antibiotic activity by the volatile compounds of an essential oil. We report the chemical composition and antibiotic modifying activity of the essential oil extracted from the leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (variety estragole), using the minimal inhibitory dose method and gaseous contact. The leaves of Croton zehntneri Pax et Hoffm (Euphorbiaceae) were subjected to hydrodistillation, and the essential oil extracted was examined with respect to the chemical composition, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and to inhibitory activity of efflux pump by gaseous contact. The main component of the essential oil of C. zehntneri was estragole (76,8%). The gaseous components of the oil enhanced the inhibition zone of norfloxacin in 39,5%. This result shows that this oil influences the antibiotic activity of norfloxacin, possibly affecting the bacterial NorA efflux system, and may be used as an adjuvant in the antibiotic therapy of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:21264094

  1. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  2. Force of habit: shrubs, trees and contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity using Croton (Euphorbiaceae) as a model system.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Rafael; van Ee, Benjamin W; Riina, Ricarda; Berry, Paul E; Wiedenhoeft, Alex C

    2017-03-01

    Wood is a major innovation of land plants, and is usually a central component of the body plan for two major plant habits: shrubs and trees. Wood anatomical syndromes vary between shrubs and trees, but no prior work has explicitly evaluated the contingent evolution of wood anatomical diversity in the context of these plant habits. Phylogenetic comparative methods were used to test for contingent evolution of habit, habitat and wood anatomy in the mega-diverse genus Croton (Euphorbiaceae), across the largest and most complete molecular phylogeny of the genus to date. Plant habit and habitat are highly correlated, but most wood anatomical features correlate more strongly with habit. The ancestral Croton was reconstructed as a tree, the wood of which is inferred to have absent or indistinct growth rings, confluent-like axial parenchyma, procumbent ray cells and disjunctive ray parenchyma cell walls. The taxa sampled showed multiple independent origins of the shrub habit in Croton , and this habit shift is contingent on several wood anatomical features (e.g. similar vessel-ray pits, thick fibre walls, perforated ray cells). The only wood anatomical trait correlated with habitat and not habit was the presence of helical thickenings in the vessel elements of mesic Croton . Plant functional traits, individually or in suites, are responses to multiple and often confounding contexts in evolution. By establishing an explicit contingent evolutionary framework, the interplay between habit, habitat and wood anatomical diversity was dissected in the genus Croton . Both habit and habitat influence the evolution of wood anatomical characters, and conversely, the wood anatomy of lineages can affect shifts in plant habit and habitat. This study hypothesizes novel putatively functional trait associations in woody plant structure that could be further tested in a variety of other taxa.

  3. Wood anatomy of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins (Monimiaceae) in two Restinga Vegetation Formations at Rio das Ostras, RJ, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Novaes, Fernanda da S; Callado, Cátia H; Pereira-Moura, Maria Verônica L; Lima, Helena R P

    2010-12-01

    This paper aimed to characterize the anatomical structure of the wood of specimens of Mollinedia glabra (Spreng.) Perkins growing in two contiguous formations of restinga vegetation at Praia Virgem, in the municipality of Rio das Ostras, RJ. Both the Open Palmae (OPS) and the Sandy Strip Closed Shrub (SSCS) formations are found in coastal regions that receive between 1,100 and 1,300 mm of rainfall per year. Sapwood samples were collected in both formations. Typical anatomical features for this species include: solitary vessels, radial multiples or clusters elements, that are circular to angular in outline, 5-15 barred scalariform perforation plates, wood parenchyma scanty, septate fiber-tracheids, and wide multiseriate rays with prismatic crystals. Statistical analyses indicated a significant increase in the frequency of vessel elements and an increase in fiber-tracheid diameters in OPS individuals. These characteristics are considered structural adaptations to increased water needs caused by a greater exposure to sunlight. Continuous pruning may be responsible for the tyloses observed in OPS plants. The greater lengths and higher frequencies of the rays in SSCS trees may be due to the greater diameters of their branches. Our results suggest that M. glabra develops structural adaptations to the restinga micro-environmental variations during its development.

  4. Renoprotective Effects of Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke in C57BL/6 LDLr-Null Mice Undergoing High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Valdinei de Oliveira; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Pires, Vanessa Aranega; Maciel, Aline Antunes; Ortmann, Caroline Flach; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2015-01-01

    Although Vitex megapotamica (Spreng.) Moldenke is used in Brazilian folk medicine as hypolipidemic drug no study has been conducted to evaluate the effects of this species in an experimental model of atherosclerosis. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible renoprotective activity of methanolic extract obtained from Vitex megapotamica (MEVM) using C57BL/6 LDLr-null mice submitted to high fat diet (HFD). MEVM was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, for three weeks, starting from the 2nd week of HFD. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diuretic activity were measured weekly. At the end of experiments the serum lipids, atherogenic index serum (AIS), oxidative stress, and markers of renal function were determined. HFD induced a significant increase in the systolic blood pressure, dyslipidemia, increase in AIS, and lipid peroxidation accompanied by an important reduction in renal function. Treatment with MEVM was able to prevent increase in SBP, total cholesterol, triglycerides, AIS, urea, and creatinine levels in LDLr-null mice. These effects were accompanied by a significant reduction in oxidative stress and renal injury. The data reported here support the potential of Vitex megapotamica as candidate to be an herbal medicine used in cardiovascular or renal diseases. PMID:25788962

  5. Local Anesthetic Activity from Extracts, Fractions and Pure Compounds from the Roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng. (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    López, Kelvin S E; Marques, André M; Moreira, Davyson DE L; Velozo, Leosvaldo S; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Guimarães, Elsie F; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C

    2016-01-01

    Piperaceae species can be found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas and many of them have been used for centuries in traditional folk medicine and in culinary. In Brazil, species of Piperaceae are commonly used in some communities as local anesthetic and analgesic. Countrified communities have known some species of the genus Ottonia as "anestesia" and it is a common habit of chewing leaves and roots of Ottonia species to relief toothache. The purpose of this study is to report our findings on new molecules entities obtained from the roots of Ottonia anisum Spreng, in which local anesthetic activity (sensory blockage) is demonstrated for the first time in vivo guinea pig model. Phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of three amides (pipercallosidine, piperine and valeramide) and in an enriched mixture of seven amides (valeramide, 4,5-dihydropiperlonguminine, N-isobutil-6-piperonil-2-hexenamide, piperovatine, dihydropipercallosidine, pipercallosidine and pipercallpsine). Our findings demonstrated the anesthetic potential for the methanolic extract from roots, its n-hexane partition and amides from O. anisum and it is in agreement with ethnobotanical survey.

  6. Involvement of nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen, Amaranthaceae, in rats.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Cristina Setim; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Rieck, Lia; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbiré; Júnior, Cirino Corrêa; Ming, Lin Chau; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

    2004-01-16

    The plants belonging to Pfaffia genus are used in folk medicine to treat gastric disturbances. This study examined the effects of an aqueous extract of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen (AEP) on the gastrointestinal tract. Wistar rats were pretreated orally (p.o.) with the AEP (125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg.kg(-1)) before induction of ulcers by hypothermic restraint stress (HRS, 3 h restraint stress at 4 degrees C), ethanol (ET, 70%; 0.5 ml/animal; p.o.) or indomethacin (IND, 20 mg.kg(-1); s.c.). Control animals received water (C) or ranitidine (60 mg.kg(-1)) p.o. The AEP protected rats against HRS and ET-induced ulcers, but was not able to protect the gastric mucosa against IND-induced ulcers. When injected into the duodenal lumen, the AEP reduced total acidity and both basal and histamine-stimulated acid secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. In addition, gastric secretion from AEP-treated animals exhibited increased concentrations of nitrite and nitrate. Treatment of animals with L-NAME (120 mg.kg(-1), p.o.) prevented both the reduction of total acidity and the increase in NOx levels promoted by AEP treatment. In conclusion, AEP effectively protected the gastric mucosa and inhibited gastric acid secretion in rats, probably by involving the histaminergic pathway and an enhanced production of nitric oxide in the stomach.

  7. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay.

  8. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  9. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  10. HPLC-based metabolomics to identify cytotoxic compounds from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against human breast cancer MCF-7Cells.

    PubMed

    Yulianto, Wahid; Andarwulan, Nuri; Giriwono, Puspo Edi; Pamungkas, Joko

    2016-12-15

    The objective of this study was to identify the active compounds in Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng which play a role to inhibit viability of breast cancer MCF-7 cells using HPLC-based metabolomics approach. Five fractions of the plant extract were observed including ethanol, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water fraction. There were 45 HPLC chromatograms resulted from 5 fractions with 3 replications and 3 wavelengths detection. The chromatograms were compared to the data of IC50 from MTT assay of each fraction against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells using metabolomics. The OPLS analysis result promptly pointed towards a chloroform fraction at retention time of 40.16-41.28min that has the greatest contribution to the cytotoxic activity. The data of mass spectra indicated that an abietane diterpene namely 7-acetoxy-6-hydroxyroyleanone was the main compound that contributed to the cytotoxic activity. This metabolomics application method can be used as a quick preliminary guideline to uncover the most dominant compound related to the bioactivity.

  11. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23533472

  12. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models.

    PubMed

    Freitas de Lima, Fernando; Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as "bacuri", is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study.

  13. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as “bacuri”, is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study. PMID:27764219

  14. Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton crassifolius and their anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Chung, Hau Yin; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Huang, Wei-Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Six diterpenoids [crassifolin J, K, L, M, N and O] along with eleven known ones were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The structure and stereochemistry of crassifolin J was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and the absolute configurations of crassifolin K-M were determined by CD spectra. Twenty-three diterpenoids from this plant were screened for their anti-angiogenic activity using a wild-type zebrafish in vivo model. Four of the known compounds were active, of which penduliflaworosin possessed the best activity relative to the positive control (SU5416). Further study demonstrated that penduliflaworosin could inhibit vessel formation on Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos.

  15. Larvicidal and nematicidal activities of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus.

    PubMed

    Torres, Maria Conceição M; Assunção, João Carlos; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria P; Andrade-Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto R; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Bezerra, Daniel P; Marinho Filho, José Delano B; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2008-12-01

    The chemical composition of the leaf essential oil of Croton regelianus collected from wild plants growing in two different sites at Ceará State (Brazil) was analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Twenty monoterpenoids, representing more than 96% of the chemical composition of the oils, were identified and quantified. The oils showed similar chemical composition but considerable variation in the levels of each constituent. Ascaridole (33.9-17.0%), p-cymene (22.3-21.6%), and camphor (13.0-3.1%) were the predominant constituents. The monoterpene ascaridole was isolated and characterized by spectroscopic data. The essential oils and the isolated compounds were tested against Aedes aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae, and the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The bioassay results show that the essential oil of C. regelianus and ascaridole were moderately active against the M. incognita, but strongly effective against both A. aegypti and Artemia sp. larvae.

  16. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively.

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  18. Two novel clerodane diterpenenes with NGF-potentiating activities from the twigs of Croton yanhuii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihang; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Li, Shen; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and analog reagents to promote the neurite outgrowth of nerve cells against the neuron degeneration are expected to be potentially useful for the medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In our focus on the discovery of bioactive diterpenes, we investigated the chemical constituents of the plant Croton yanhuii. This investigation led to the isolation and identification of two novel clerodane diterpenes (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass (ESIMS and HR-ESIMS) spectroscopic data analyses. Further biological screenings showed that both of the compounds enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.

  19. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  20. Antimicrobial, modulatory and chemical analysis of the oil of Croton limae.

    PubMed

    Leite, Tiago Rodrigues; Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa da; Santos, Antônio Carlito Bezerra Dos; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Duarte, Antonia Eliene; Costa, José Galberto Martins da

    2017-12-01

    Croton sp. are plants with a well-reported antimicrobial activity. Croton limae A.P. Gomes, M.F. Sales P.E. Berry (Euphorbiaceae), known as 'marmeleiro-prateado', is commonly used to manage abdominal pain in Brazil. This work evaluates the phytochemical composition, antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the essential oil of C. limae leaves (EOCL). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the modulation of the antibiotic activity were determined using a microdilution method. The concentration of EOCL ranged between 512 and 8 μg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Candida tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans strains were used in the MIC and modulation assays. The antibiotics, amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin, and the antifungals, amphotericin B, benzoylmetronidazole and nystatin, were used in concentrations ranging between 2500 and 2.5 μg/mL. The phytochemical analysis of the EOCL was performed through gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Only Staphylococcus aureus was inhibited by a clinically relevant concentration of EOCL (MIC 512 μg/mL). Synergism between the EOCL and amikacin against S. aureus (9.76 μg/mL) and E. coli (39.062 μg/mL); neomycin against E. coli (2.44 μg/mL); and benzoylmetronidazole against C. krusei (256 μg/mL) were observed. The GC/MS analysis identified cedrol, eucalyptol and α-pinene as the main compounds of EOCL. EOCL inhibited the growth of S. aureus and potentiated the antibiotic and antifungal effects of drugs against all bacterial and Candida strains, respectively.

  1. Three new species of Fergusonina Malloch fly (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Her. (E. baxteri (Benth.) Maiden & Blakely complex, E. dalrympleana Maiden and E. pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) flies are described from terminal leaf bud galls on Eucalyptus L'Hér. from south eastern Australia. Fergusonina omlandi Nelson and Yeates sp. nov. is the third fly from the genus Fergusonina to be described from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (...

  2. Species diversity of Fergusonina Malloch gall flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) forming leaf bud galls on snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex), with a description of a new species from Tasmania

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) fly is described from terminal leaf bud galls (TLBGs) from the Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. (snow gum) species complex. Fergusonina tasmaniensis Nelson sp.n. is the first species from the genus Fergusonina to be described from Tasmania...

  3. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  4. Essential oil of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (N. mussinii Spreng. x N. nepetella L.): a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina D; Rabbitt, Kevin; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Analysis (GC and GC/MS) of an essential oil sample obtained from dry leaves of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Steam, a hybrid species produced by crossbreeding N. mussinii Spreng. with N. nepetella L., led to the identification of 109 constituents that represented 95.9% of the oil. The major constituents were 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone (67.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.6%), germacrene D (4.8%), beta-pinene (2.7%), (E)-beta-ocimene (2.6%), 4aalpha,7beta,7aalpha-nepetalactone (2.3%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (1.0%). Chemical composition of the oil was compared, using multivariate statistical analyses (MVA) with those of the oils of other Nepeta taxa, in particular N. mussinii and N. nepetella. This was done in order to explore the mode of inheritance of the monoterpene biosynthetic apparatus of N. faassenii. Chemical composition of the volatiles of a Nepeta taxon (different populations) can be subject to variation due to environmental and geographical factors. To accommodate this fact in the MVAs, along side with N. faassenii essential oil, additional 6 oils (3 different populations of N. nuda L. and N. cataria L. from Serbia) were included in this study (isolated and analyzed (chemically and statistically)). The MVA analyses recognized N. faassenii as being closely related to both N. mussinii and N. nepetella. If the relative content of oil constituents per plant and not per chromatogram were used as variables in the MVA (this was done by simple multiplication of the yields and relative percentages of components) a higher degree of mutual similarity (in respect to the monoterpene biosynthesis) of N. faassenii to N. mussinii, than to the other parent species, was observed.

  5. Pharmacological studies on Buchanania lanzan Spreng.-A focus on wound healing with particular reference to anti-biofilm properties

    PubMed Central

    Pattnaik, Ashok; Sarkar, Ratul; Sharma, Amrita; Yadav, Kirendra Kumar; Kumar, Alekh; Roy, Paramita; Mazumder, Avijit; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the wound healing activity of the methanolic root extract of Buchanania lanzan Spreng. (B. lanzan), with a focus on antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties. Methods The extract was evaluated for its wound healing properties (excision and incision models) as evident from the analysis of tensile strength and wound contraction. The extract was also screened for antibacterial properties against different Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial strains. B. lanzan was also studied for its effect on biofilm formation and disruption of preformed biofilms. The synergistic effect of B. lanzan was determined in combination with gentamicin. Results Topical application of B. lanzan (10% w/w ointment) significantly increased (40.84%) the tensile strength in the incision wound model. B. lanzan also showed significant wound healing activity in excision model and such significant activity was observed from the 9th day. Whereas Soframycin displayed significant wound healing activity from the 6th day. It was found that root extracts of B. lanzan revealed significant inhibition against all tested pathogens. B. lanzan displayed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive (MIC 0.625 mg/mL) and Gram negative (MIC 0.625–1.25 mg/mL). B. lanzan was able to reduce biofilm formation and also caused disruption of preformed biofilms in a manner similar to ciprofloxacin. However, gentamicin was found to be ineffective against biofilms formed by Gram negative organism. According to the fractional inhibitory concentration index, B. lanzan displayed synergistic activity when it was combined with gentamicin. Conclusions From this study it may be concluded that the root extract of B. lanzan revealed significant wound healing potential, which was supported and well correlated with pronounced antibacterial activity of the tested plant parts. PMID:24093788

  6. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena; Micheli, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality.

  7. Anthropometric variables, lifestyle and sports in school-age children: comparison between the cities of Bologna and Crotone.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Brasili, P; Iuliano, T; Spiga, F

    2014-12-01

    Weight disorders are rapidly increasing in childhood. In Italy a strong geographic North-South gradient of overweight and obesity has been reported. The purpose of this study is to examine anthropometric variables, physical activity and lifestyles in school-age children in the cities of Bologna and Crotone. The sample consists of 963 children attending primary schools, aged 6-10 years. Height, weight, triceps, and subscapular skinfolds were measured for each child; body mass index (BMI) and percentage of fat mass were calculated. Physical activity was determined through an interview with each child. Another questionnaire was submitted to parents, in order to obtain information on sleep duration, means of transport and type of physical activity. In the city of Bologna, the mean values of anthropometric variables were: height (boys - 1,335 mm, girls - 1,332 mm), BMI (boys - 17.8 kg/m(2), girls - 17.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 20.6%, girls - 12.7%. In Crotone the mean values were: height (boys - 1,275 mm, girls - 1,265 mm), BMI (boys - 19.4 kg/m(2), girls - 19.3 kg/m(2)), and the proportion of overweight and obese individuals was: boys - 46.7%, girls - 49.0%. The results have demonstrated significant correlations of lifestyle and physical activity with children's weight status. In Crotone there is a larger variation of weight disorders with higher percentages of overweight children than in Bologna. The children in Crotone are engaged in sedentary activities for a significantly longer time than children in Bologna, who are more physically active. The data show a strong North-South gradient concerning not only distribution of weight status, but also lifestyles especially including participation in sports and sedentary behavior. Our study also provides meaningful suggestions how to define lifestyles in order to achieve an optimal health status during growth.

  8. EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. AND MORUS ALBA LINN. ON THE AGE OF ATTAINMENT OF PUBERTY AND OVARIAN FOLLICULOGENESIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, M. S.; Veena, T.; Swamy, M. Narayana

    2010-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. (Curry leaf) and Morus alba Linn. (Mulberry leaf) on the age of attainment of puberty, relative ovary and uterus weight and the number of ovarian surface follicles in female Wistar albino rats. The rats were reared from 20 to 70 days of age in six groups consisting of eight rats in each group. Group I and II were orally administered with 0.5 ml distilled water and 0.5 ml 10% DMSO, respectively. Group III, IV, V and VI were orally administered with methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii at 500 mg/kg b.w. and 1000 mg/kg b.w. and methanolic extracts of Morus alba at 250 mg/kg b.w. and 500 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The significant advancement in the mean age of attainment of puberty was observed along with increase in number of surface follicles on both the ovaries in Group III, IV and VI. Whereas, the relative ovary weight was non significant (P>0.05) in all the treated groups, the relative uterus weight was significant (P<0.05) in Group IV and Group VI. These observations were attributed to the effects of phytoestrogens present in the methanolic extracts of Murraya koenigii Spreng. and Morus alba Linn PMID:24825989

  9. Larvicidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. and Croton macrostachyus Del. against Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Karunamoorthi, K; Ilango, K

    2010-01-01

    Methanol leaf extracts of two Ethiopian traditional medicinal plants viz., Lomisar [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. (Poaceae)] and Bisana [vernacular name (local native language, Amharic); Croton macrostachyus Del. (Euphorbiaceae)] were screened for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis Patton, a potent malaria vector in Ethiopia. The larval mortality was observed 24 h of post treatment. Both plant extracts demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity against Anopheles arabiensis. Cymbopogon citratus extract has exhibited potent larvicidal activity than Croton macrostachyus at lower concentrations. The LC50 and LC90 values of Cymbopogon citratus were 74.02 and 158.20 ppm, respectively. From this data, a chi-square value 2.760 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. While, the LC50 and LC90 values of Croton macrostachyus were 89.25 and 224.98 ppm, respectively and the chi-square value 1.035 is significant at the P < 0.05 level. The present investigation establishes that these plant extracts could serve as potent mosquito larvicidal agents against Anopheles arabiensis. However, their mode of actions and larvicidal efficiency under the field conditions should be scrutinized and determined in the near future.

  10. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  11. Haematological profile of rats (Rattus norvegicus) induced BCG and provided leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silitonga, Melva; Silitonga, Pasar M.

    2017-08-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus Lour Spreng is a medicinal plant that has many benefits, such as an antioxidant, hepatoprotective and immunostimulan. Immune status can be seen from hematological profile. This study aims to investigate hematology profile on rats induced BCG and leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus. 24 male rats aged 3 months and weighing between 140-200 grams divided equally into six groups, P0, P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5. P0 as controle was given aquadest. The P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 treatment groups were given 19 g / kg AEP + BCG, 31.5 g / kg AEP + BCG, 19g / kg AEP, 31.5 g / kg AEP and BCG consecutively. The BCG were used as antigen. The AEP was administered orally for 30 days and 100 µl BCG were intramusculary administered on day 14 th and day 21. On day 31st, the rats we decapitated and their blood were collected for hematology (leucocyte (WBC), Erythrocyte (RBC), thrombocyte (PLT) count, Haemoglobin (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), MCV, MHC, and MHCH analysis. Data were analyzed with ANOVA. WBC increased significantly in treatment AEP 31.5 g / kg bw, 31.5 g AEP / kg bw + BCG and so were only given BCG. RBC tend to increase in all AEP treatment but tends to increase again when given a BCG. Hb increased in treatment P1, P2, T3 and P4, but the improvement was significant only in treatment P1. While PLT increase significantly in all treatments compared to the controls. HCT did not show significant differences but all of them were in the normal range. EAP without BCG and with the addition of BCG lowered ESR significantly, whereas BCG alone increased the ESR significantly. MCV increased significantly only in the treatment of P1 and show the same pattern with the MHC and MHCH. The conclusion that Plectranthus amboinicus Lour a positive impact on blood profiles with and without BCG. Plectranthus amboinicus Lour managed blood profile when administered together with BCG

  12. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A.; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability. PMID:26406615

  13. Antispasmodic effects of a new kaurene diterpene isolated from Croton argyrophylloides on rat airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Liza Araújo; Porto, Romulo Sousa; Lahlou, Saad; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande; Barbosa, Roseli; Lemos, Telma Leda Gomes; dos Santos, Hélcio Silva; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Zin, Walter Araújo; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2012-08-01

    The effects of rel-(1S,4aS,7S,8aS)-7-(1-vinyl)-tetradecahydro-1,4a-dimethylphenanthrene-7,8a-carbolactone-1-carboxylic acid (TCCA), a new ent-kaurene diterpene isolated from Croton argyrophylloides, on rat tracheal preparations were investigated. Tracheae were removed and cut into two-cartilage segments that were mounted in organ baths containing Tyrode's solution. TCCA reduced the contractions induced by electrical field stimulation, relaxed K(+)-induced contractions, and inhibited both phasic and tonic components of the K(+)- and ACh-induced contractions. TCCA reduced the serotonin-induced contraction, abolished that evoked by K(+) in the presence of epinephrine, and also reduced the ACh-induced contractions under Ca(2+)-free conditions. TCCA blocked contractions that depend on divalent cation inflow through voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels (VOCCs) and receptor-operated Ca(2+) channels (ROCCs), but had greater potency to block VOCC- than ROCC-dependent contractions or contractions induced by ACh in Ca(2+)-free conditions. TCCA relaxed the phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (1 µm) induced contraction, but with slight potency. TCCA induces an antispasmodic effect through several mechanisms including blockade of either VOCCs (with greater potency) or ROCCs, blockade of IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (with intermediate potency) and reduction of the sensitivity of contractile proteins to Ca(2+). © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Five new phorbol esters with cytotoxic and selective anti-inflammatory activities from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Din-Xiang; He, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Five new phorbol esters, (four phorbol diesters, 1-4, and one 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diester, 5), as well as four known phorbol esters analogues (6-9) were isolated and identified from the branches and leaves of Croton tiglium. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among them, compound (1) was the first example of a naturally occurring phorbol ester with the 20-aldehyde group. Compounds 2-5, and 7-9 showed potent cytotoxicity against the K562, A549, DU145, H1975, MCF-7, U937, SGC-7901, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 43 μM, while none of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on normal human cell lines 293T and LX-2, respectively. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 8.5 μM, respectively.

  15. Antinociceptive and wound healing activities of Croton adamantinus Müll. Arg. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Morais Nogueira, Lenise; Cassundé, Nathalia Maria Rodrigues; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; dos Santos, Simone Maria; Magalhães, Lucimere Paulino Machado; Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; de Sena, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Martins, René Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Leaves of Croton adamantinus have been used to treat inflammation and skin wounds in the semi-arid area of the Northeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate if the essential oil (EO) was responsible for the claimed activities; antinociceptive, wound healing and antimicrobial tests were carried out. Twenty constituents were identified in C. adamantinus EO by GC-MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR, the major compounds being methyl-eugenol (14.81%) and 1,8-cineol (13.74%). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test and the abdominal contortion assay in mice. The EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased the licking time of both phases of the formalin test when compared to the vehicle, but not to morphine (7.5 mg/kg). In the abdominal contortion assay, the EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of contortions compared to the vehicle and to indometacin (10 mg/kg). The wound healing activity was verified also using two experimental models: excisional wound and dead space. Topical treatment with the EO (1%) increased the wound contraction from the third day of treatment (compared with nitrofurazone 0.2%), while systemic treatment (50 mg/kg/day) increased granulation tissue formation and reduced the water content. C. adamantinus EO also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion method. These results corroborate the ethnobotanical use of this specie by Brazilian population.

  16. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  17. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  18. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  19. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-10-14

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  20. In vitro antituberculosis activity of diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woong Sik; Jyoti, Md Anirban; Kim, Sukyung; Nam, Kung-Woo; Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis are rich in ent-kaurane, kaurane and the grayanane class and are valuable intermediate plant metabolites with different bioactivities. In this study, we report the antituberculosis activity of these diterpenoids against both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis for the first time. All of the ent-kaurane, kaurane and grayanane diterpenoids showed high to moderate activity against Mycobacterium. The highest antituberculosis activity was observed for ent-1β,7α,14β-triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (cpp604), with MIC values of 0.78, 1.56 and 3.12-12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra, H37Rv and all other resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis examined. In addition, other ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids also showed very high activities against mycobacterium, including cpp609 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp610 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp601 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp602 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp607 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml) and cpp608 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml). From the structure-activity relationship, functional groups R3 and R5 of the ent-kaurane skeleton were found to modulate the antimycobacterial activity.

  1. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability.

  2. Isolation and characterisation of novel antioxidant constituents of Croton zambesicus leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, M A; McGaw, L J; Bezabih, M; Abegaz, B M

    2011-08-01

    A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-activity-directed fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract of Croton zambesicus leaf. Repeated column chromatography of the fraction on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of a new natural product, identified as quercetin-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether, helichrysoside-3'-methyl ether (1), along with kaempferol-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside, tiliroside (2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside, isovitexin (3) as the antioxidant constituents. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, namely NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported from this species for the first time. In the qualitative antioxidant assay, the three isolated compounds instantly bleached the DPPH (0.2% MeOH) purple colour indicating antioxidant activity. In the quantitative antioxidant assay, all the isolated compounds demonstrated weak antioxidant activity compared to quercetin and rutin used as positive control antioxidant agents. The compounds displayed little to no cytotoxicity against Vero cells in an in vitro assay. The presence of these antioxidant compounds in the leaf extract of C. zambesicus could provide a rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the management of oxidative-stress-related diseases in folk medicine.

  3. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Vaisberg, A J; Milla, M; Planas, M C; Cordova, J L; de Agusti, E R; Ferreyra, R; Mustiga, M C; Carlin, L; Hammond, G B

    1989-04-01

    Sangre de Grado extract used by Peruvian natives as a cicatrizant agent, was collected from trees of the species Croton lechleri growing in the Peruvian jungle. The Sangre de Grado was found to contain one alkaloid identified as taspine and which was shown to be the active cicatrizant principle by an in vivo test in mice. This alkaloid exhibited a dose-related cicatrizant effect and an ED50 of 0.375 mg/kg. Experiments with taspine hydrochloride in order to study its mechanism of action in cell culture systems showed that the alkaloid was non-toxic to human foreskin fibroblasts at concentrations below 150 ng/ml and that it had no effect on cell proliferation. On the other hand, taspine hydrochloride was found to increase the migration of human foreskin fibroblasts. This effect on the migration of fibroblasts is probably the mechanism by which Sangre de Grado and taspine hydrochloride accelerate the wound healing process. Using the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis system, we have been able to show that neither Sangre de Grado nor taspine hydrochloride had carcinogenic or tumour promoter activity after 17 months of treatment.

  4. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Manuel; Okuhama, Nataly N; Clark, Melinda; Angeles, Fausto M; Lao, Juan; Bustamante, Sergio; Miller, Mark J S

    2002-05-01

    Sangre de grado is an ethnomedicinal red tree sap obtained from Croton spp. that is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers, cancer and to promote wound healing. To evaluate the potential role of sangre de grado (SdG) in cancer we examined its effects on human cancer cells, AGS (stomach), HT29 and T84 (colon). Viability of cells treated with SdG (10-200 microg/ml) decreased (P<0.01) in a dose dependent manner measured over a 24-h period. Cell proliferation at 48 h decreased (P<0.01) in all cells treated with SdG (>100 microg/ml). When cells in suspension were treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) cell adherence was severely compromised (>85%). Cells treated with SdG (100 microg/ml) underwent apoptosis as detected by nucleus condensation and DNA fragmentation determined by ELISA, and flow cytometry. Morphological changes as assessed by acridine orange. These effects were similar to that observed with Taxol (30 microM). A significant alteration of microtubular architecture was equally observed in both stomach and colon cancer cells exposed to SdG (100 microg/ml). The induction of apoptosis and microtubule damage in AGS, HT29 and T84 cells suggest that sangre de grado should be evaluated further as a potential source of anti-cancer agents.

  5. Low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of essential oils and methanolic extract of Croton zambesicus leaves

    PubMed Central

    Akinlolu, Adelaja Abdulazeez; Kamaldeen, Ghazali Olaide; Francis, Deborah; Ameen, Mubarak Oloduowo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the anti-ulcer properties of Croton zambesicus leaves. Materials and Methods: Group I was control. 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of indomethacin (the ulcerogen) was administered to rats of Groups II-VII. 4 h after administrations of ulcerogen; rats of Groups III-VII were treated daily with oral administrations of 40 mg/kg/bodyweight of omeprazole, 5 and 10 mg/kg/bodyweight of essential oils, 250 and 500 mg/kg bodyweight of methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves respectively for 4 days. Rats were euthanized on day 1 (Group II) and day 5 (Groups I and III-VII); thereafter, stomach and liver samples were removed for evaluations of gastric acidity, histopathological and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) status. Results: Analyses of gastric acid assays and histopathological examinations showed dose-dependent statistically significant higher levels (P ≤ 0.05) of gastric acidity and non-restorations of the gastric mucosa layer to pre-ulceration states in rats of Groups IV-VII treated with extract doses when compared to Group III. Statistically non-significant (Group IV) or significant (Groups V-VII) higher ALT levels (P ≤ 0.05) were observed in liver samples of rats treated with doses of essential oils and methanolic extract of C. zambesicus leaves when compared to Group II. Conclusion: Our study observed low anti-ulcerogenic potentials of doses of essential oils and methanolic extracts of C. zambesicus leaves. PMID:26401355

  6. Germination of Croton urucurana L. seeds exposed to different storage temperatures and pre-germinative treatments.

    PubMed

    Scalon, Silvana P Q; Mussury, Rosilda M; Lima, Andréa A

    2012-03-01

    The present work evaluated the germinability and vigor of Croton urucurana seeds. 1) Seeds were sorted by color (caramel, gray and black) and were subjected to seven different pre-germination treatments followed by incubation at 20ºC, 25°C or 20/30°C. 2) Seeds were stored in cold chambers or at room temperature for up to 300 days and were subsequently incubated at 20/30ºC in a germination chamber or under greenhouse conditions. Only gray seeds showed significant germination rates. The highest first count percentages of total germination and the highest germination speed indices were observed in control seeds and in those which were treated with water or 200 mg.L(-1) gibberellic acid for 12 hours. Seeds stored under refrigeration showed the highest values for all of the characteristics examined, as well as less electrical conductivity of the imbibing solution. Seedlings were more vigorous when seeds were stored for 300 days in a cold chamber. The seedlings production can be increased by incubating the seeds at alternating temperatures (20/30°C). The seeds do not need pre-germination treatments.

  7. Genetic diversity analysis of Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. using AFLP molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, T G; Pereira, A M S; Coppede, J S; França, S C; Ming, L C; Bertoni, B W

    2016-02-19

    Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. is a medicinal plant native to Cerrado vegetation in Brazil, and it is popularly used to treat urogenital tract infections. The objective of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of natural C. antisyphiliticus populations using AFLP molecular markers. Accessions were collected in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Goiás. The genotyping of individuals was performed using a LI-COR® DNA Analyzer 4300. The variability within populations was found to be greater than the variability between them. The F(ST) value was 0.3830, which indicated that the populations were highly structured. A higher percentage of polymorphic loci (92.16%) and greater genetic diversity were found in the population accessions from Pratinha-MG. Gene flow was considered restricted (N(m) = 1.18), and there was no correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The populations of C. antisyphiliticus exhibited an island-model structure, which demonstrates the vulnerability of the species.

  8. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  9. Natural diterpenes from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus as photosystem II and photosystem I inhibitors in spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Aguilar, María Isabel; King-Díaz, Beatriz; de Santiago-Gómez, Jesús-Ricardo; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2007-01-01

    In our search for new natural photosynthetic inhibitors that could lead to the development of "green herbicides" less toxic to environment, the diterpene labdane-8alpha,15-diol (1) and its acetyl derivative (2) were isolated for the first time from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. They inhibited photophosphorylation, electron transport (basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled) and the partial reactions of both photosystems in spinach thylakoids. Compound 1 inhibits the photosystem II (PS II) partial reaction from water to Na(+) Silicomolibdate (SiMo) and has no effect on partial reaction from diphenylcarbazide (DPC) to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP), therefore 1 inhibits at the water splitting enzyme and also inhibits PS I partial reaction from reduced phenylmetasulfate (PMS) to methylviologen (MV). Thus, it also inhibits in the span of P(700) to Iron sulfur center X (F(X)). Compound 2 inhibits both, the PS II partial reactions from water to SiMo and from DPC to DCPIP; besides this, it inhibits the photosystem I (PS I) partial reaction from reduced PMS to MV. With these results, we concluded that the targets of the natural product 2 are located at the water splitting enzyme, and at P(680) in PS II and at the span of P(700) to F(X) in PS I. The results of compounds 1 and 2 on PS II were corroborated by chlorophyll a fluorescence.

  10. Seasonal Variability and Effects of Stormflow on Concentrations of Pesticides and their Degradates in Kisco River and Middle Branch Croton River Surface Water, Croton Reservoir System, New York, May 2000-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Seven herbicides (2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, bromacil, dicamba, diuron, imazaquin, and sulfometuron), four insecticides (carbaryl, diazinon, imidacloprid, and malathion), two fungicides (metalaxyl and myclobutanil), and caffeine (an indicator of wastewater) were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter). Four of these compounds - 2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, dicamba, and metalaxyl - were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at a concentration above 1 ug/L. Only three herbicides (2,4-D, imazethapyr, and prometon) and caffeine were detected at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L in one or more of the Middle Branch Croton River samples, and no compounds were detected above 0.4 ug/L in Middle Branch Croton River samples. No samples contained concentrations of pesticides that exceeded human health-based water-quality standards. However, samples from the Kisco River contained four insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) and one herbicide (2,4-D) in concentrations that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Aquatic-life protection criteria were generally exceeded only in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. No samples from the Middle Branch Croton River contained target compounds that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Pesticide concentrations were generally higher, and the numbers of compounds generally larger in samples from the Kisco River than in samples from the Middle Branch Croton River, probably because the Kisco River watershed has a greater population density and is more extensively developed. The highest concentrations of most compounds in both streams were detected in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. This indicates that stormflow sampling is essential in assessments of pesticide occurrence in streams that drain developed lands. The lowest

  11. Studies on the proteins from the seeds of Croton tiglium and of Jatropha curcas. Toxic properties and inhibition of protein synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F; Pession-Brizzi, A; Lorenzoni, E; Strocchi, P; Montanaro, L; Sperti, S

    1976-01-01

    1. Proteins extracted from the seeds of the Euphorbiaceae croton tiglium and Jatropha curcas were separated into three major peaks (I,II,and III) by Sephadex chromatography. 2. The crude protein from both seeds and peaks I and II from Croton and peak I from Jatropha were toxic to mice, to different extents. 3. The crude protein and peak I and peak II from both seeds, inhibited protein synthesis by a reticulocyte lysate; maximum inhibition was exerted by peak II from both seeds. None of these preparations affected protein synthesis in vitro by Ehrlich ascites cells. PMID:942394

  12. New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Eastman, Harry; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Kerubo, Leonidah O; Midiwo, Jacob O

    2016-07-01

    The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1-12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.

  13. Toxic effects of crotocaudin extracted from the medicinal plant Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Ram P; Singh, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    The compound crotocaudin extracted from the stem bark of the medicinal plant Croton tiglium Linn. was administered for 24 h or 96 h to the freshwater vector snail Lymnaea (Radix) acuminata Lamarck in order to test its toxicity. L. acuminata is the intermediate host of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica which cause immense harm to man and his domestic animals. It was observed that the molluscicidal activity of crotocaudin against L. acuminata is time- as well as dose-dependent. There was a significant negative correlation among LC50 values and exposure periods, i.e. increasing the exposure time, the LC50 value of crotocaudin decreased from 5.37 microM (24 h) > 2.08 microM (48 h) > 1.36 microM (72 h) to 1.01 microM (96 h), respectively, against L. acuminata. The toxicological experiments to proof for environmental toxicity, if any, have also been carried out on the non-target freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) [Channidae (Ophicephalidae)], which shares the habitat with L. acuminata. The sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of LC50) administered over 24 h caused significant changes in the carbohydrate and nitrogenous metabolisms in nervous, hepatopancreas, and ovotestis tissues of Lymnaea acuminata. Channa punctatus was also exposed to sublethal doses of crotocaudin (40% and 80% of 24-h LC50 of L. acuminata) for 96 h which showed significant alterations in the metabolism in muscle, liver, and gonad tissues. After withdrawal of crotocaudin the snail tissues recovered in part after 7 days and the fish tissues completely.

  14. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff

  15. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas; Vitvar, Tomas; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Hassett, James; Duncan, Jonathan; Kendall, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for δ 18O, NO 3-, and SO 42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm

  16. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  17. Chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria in two stages DMBA plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Navneet; Kale, Raosaheb K; Tiku, Ashu B

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemoprevention is a dietary or therapeutic strategy to prevent, suppress, or delay carcinogenesis either at initiation or progression level with nontoxic agents. Use of natural dietary compounds has been a major chemopreventive approach to modulate tumorigenic pathways. In the present study, we have evaluated Lagenaria siceraria (bottle gourd), a common vegetable of Indian household for its chemomodulatory potential. The fruit has been used in traditional medicine for a very long time for health benefits and to cure pain, ulcers, fever, cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. However, despite its reported beneficial effect the chemo modulatory potential of this plant has not been reported. Therefore chemopreventive effect of bottle gourd juice (BGJ) was studied against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) plus croton oil induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. The effect was studied both at antiinitiation and antiinitiation/promotion level followed by histopathological study. A dose of 2.5% and 5% given in drinking water showed significant decrease in papilloma number, papilloma incidence, papilloma multiplicity, papilloma latency, papilloma volume, and papilloma size in different size range. Histopathological study showed chemopreventive effect by minimizing loss of stratification, a decrease in number of epithelial layers, reducing dermal infiltration and protection for various cytoplasmic changes. Higher dose of BGJ was found to be more effective than lower dose and the chemopreventive effect was maximum for antiinitiation/promotion treatment. Altogether, this study reports the chemopreventive effect of Lagenaria siceraria on skin papillomagenesis for the first time and suggests that its consumption may help in suppression of skin cancer.

  18. Quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether: a vasorelaxant flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2002-10-01

    The vasorelaxant profile of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, a flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), was assessed in aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats. To gain insight into its structure-activity relationship, we compared this substance with quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether (ayanin), another flavonoid isolated from this plant, quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether, a flavonoid synthesized by us, and quercetin. In addition we examined the interaction of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether with the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. According to their pEC50 values (concentration producing a 50% inhibition of the maximal contractile response) to phenylephrine-induced precontraction in rat isolated aorta, the potency order was quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether > quercetin > quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether > quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether (4.70+/-0.18; 3.96+/-0.07; 3.64+/-0.02; 3.11+/-0.16). The relaxant effect of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether was significantly decreased by the removal of endothelium as well as by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, and by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an NO-synthase inhibitor. Therefore, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether has a NO/cGMP pathway-related profile, with increased vasorelaxant activity due to hydroxylation at positions 3 and 4 of the B ring. In addition, methylation at positions 3 and 7 with respect to quercetin of the C and A rings, respectively, seems to further enhance the vasorelaxant activity of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether.

  19. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of 7-hydroxy-calamenene-rich essential oils from Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Chaves, Francisco C M; Almeida, Catia A; Bizzo, Humberto R; Duarte, Rafael S; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2013-01-16

    Croton cajucara is a shrub native to the Amazon region locally known as "sacaca". Two morphotypes are known: white and red "sacaca". The essential oils (EO) obtained by hydrodistillation from leaves of the red morphotype were, in general, rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene (28.4%-37.5%). The effectiveness of these EO regarding the antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms was initially investigated by the drop test method, showing significant inhibition zones. Among the microorganisms tested, the essential oils rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene were more effective against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. smegmatis, Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus oryzae. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the oils were determined using the broth dilution assay. It was possible to observe that 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich oils presented high antimicrobial activity, with MIC of 4.76 × 10⁻³ μg/mL for MRSA, 4.88 μg/mL for M. tuberculosis, 39.06 μg/mL for M. smegmatis, and 0.152 μg/mL for R. oryzae and 3.63 × 10⁻⁸ μg/mL for M. circinelloides. The antioxidant activity of this EO suggests that 7-hydroxycalamenene provides more antioxidant activity according with EC(50) less than 63.59 μg/mL. Considering the bioactive potential of EOs and 7-hydroxycalamenene could be of great interest for development of antimicrobials for therapeutic use in treatment of bacterial and fungal infections in humans and/or veterinary practice.

  20. SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago).

    PubMed

    Ubillas, R; Jolad, S D; Bruening, R C; Kernan, M R; King, S R; Sesin, D F; Barrett, M; Stoddart, C A; Flaster, T; Kuo, J; Ayala, F; Meza, E; Castañel, M; McMeekin, D; Rozhon, E; Tempesta, M S; Barnard, D; Huffman, J; Smee, D; Sidwell, R; Soike, K; Brazier, A; Safrin, S; Orlando, R; Kenny, P T; Berova, N; Nakanishi, K

    1994-09-01

    SP-303, a large proanthocyanidin oligomer isolated from the latex of the plant species Croton lechleri (Eupborbiaceae) has demonstrated broad activity against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. In cell culture, SP-303 exhibits potent activity against isolates and laboratory strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FLU-A) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). Parallel assays of SP-303 and ribavirin showed comparable activity against these viruses. SP-303 also exhibits significant inhibitory activity against herpesvirus (HSV) types 1 and 2, including herpesviruses resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Inhibition was also observed against hepatitis A and B viruses. The antiviral mechanism of SP-303 seems to derive from its direct binding to components of the viral envelope, resulting in inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the plasma membrane. Antiviral effects of SP-303 were measured by three distinct methods: CPE, MTT and precursor uptake/incorporation. Cytotoxicity endpoints were markedly greater than the respective antiviral endpoints. SP-303 exhibited activity in RSV-infected cotton rats and African green monkeys, PIV-3-infected cotton rats, HSV-2 infected mice and guinea pigs and FLU-A-infected mice. The most successful routes of SP-303 administration for producing efficacy were: topical application to HSV-2- genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs, aerosol inhalation to FLU-A-infected mice and PIV-3-infected cotton rats, and oral dosage to RSV-infected cotton rats. A variety of toxicological evaluations demonstrated the safety of SP-303, particularly orally, which was predictable, since condensed tannins are a common dietary component. It is notable that the larger proanthocyanidins as a class have high antiviral activity, whereas most of the monomers are inactive. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate SP-303 as a therapeutic antiviral agent. Copyright © 1994 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart · Jena · New York. Published by

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  2. Active tectonics and mud diapirism in the Gulf of Squillace (Crotone Basin, Calabrian Arc, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artoni, A.; Capozzi, R.; Lorenzini, S.; Oppo, D.; Polonia, A.; Torelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Calabrian arc is a prominent accretionary prism in the Mediterranean sea that contains alpine metamorphic rocks and connects the southern Apennine chain of Calabria, to the north, with the Maghrebian chain of Sicily, to the southwest. Recent active deformation inside the prism is testified by the earthquakes records and by submarine mud volcanism. The latter, not yet well defined within the accretionary prism, is generally associated to deeper active tectonic structures. In order to unravel the relationships between mud volcanoes and deeper deformations a study has been carried out in the Gulf of Squillace, located in the central portion of the backstop zone of the Calabrian arc and inside the Crotone basin. The deeper tectono-stratigraphic frame has been defined by using 10 well logs, 330 kms of public seismic reflection lines and three CROP seismic lines (the project for deep crust of Italy) recently processed with prestack depth migration. The study has been carried out within the Italian PRIN 2006 Project: "Tectonic and Sedimentation in the Accretionary Complex at the Front of the Calabrian Arc (Ionian Sea)". Three major tectonic units could be distinguished; from the top to the bottom, they are: 1) a metamorphic basement nappe (Alpine/Calabrian units); 2) a complex and east-verging Apenninic-Maghrebian prism, that can be subdivided in an outer prism sealed by middle Eocene(?)/Oligocene deposits and an inner prism sealed by middle/late Miocene deposits; 3) a deeper Mesozoic to Neogene relatively undeformed block interpreted as a thinned block of continental crust that preserves Mesozoic extensional fault. Subsurface mapping of Alpine/Calabrian and Apenninic-Maghrebian units show that their leading edges are oriented NNE-SSW and their tectonic stack was completed at least in the late Miocene; since then, WNW-ESE trending Catanzaro-Squillace transcurrent faults system and out-of-sequence thrusting started to locally reshape the backstop. The Cantanzaro

  3. Bio-based n-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using metabolic engineering approaches, the biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) can be over-produced in organisms such as bacteria and plants such as switchgrass. Thermolysis of P3HB, either in isolated form or within biomass, yields crotonic acid. It is a potential bio-derived platform chemic...

  4. Comparison of methods for estimates of molecular genetic diversity in genus Croton: influence of coefficients, clustering strategies and data projection.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, M M; Freitas, J S; Vieira, J G P; Gonçalves, Z S; Souza, A M; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M

    2014-07-25

    We investigated 10 similarity (and disimilarity) coefficients in a set of 40 wild genotypes of Croton linearifolius subjected to analyses using hierarchical grouping methods, grouping methods by optimization and data projection in two-dimensional space. Genotypes were characterized by analyzing DNA polymorphism with the use of 15 ISSR and 12 RAPD markers. The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency evaluation. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the 10 coefficients evaluated were significant (P < 0.001) and indicated significant changes in genotype ranking due to type of coefficient used (0.76 ≤ rs ≤ 1). Wide variation was also observed in the efficiency of clustering methods, where the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean was the most suitable (0.3 ≤ D ≤ 1.5 ; 0.41 ≤ rc ≤ 0.77; 5.99 ≤ S ≤ 12.61). Projection efficiencies in two-dimensional space showed high-stress values (65 < S < 89%). Similar to the results observed for hierarchical clustering methods and for projection in two-dimensional space, the formation of groups with grouping methods by optimization showed variations when using different coefficients. We believe that the results confirm the influence of coefficients in studies of genetic diversity, showing the need to use criteria and standards for selecting appropriate methods for genetic studies of the genus Croton.

  5. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer.

    PubMed

    Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina N; Lahlou, Saad; Barreto, João E F; Yum, Maria E M; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Oliveira, Hermógenes D; Celedônio, Nathalia R; Feitosa, Roney G F; Duarte, Gloria P; Santos, Cláudia F; de Albuquerque, Aline A C; Leal-Cardoso, José H

    2013-06-01

    Croton zehntneri, a plant native to northeastern Brazil, is widely used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems and has rich essential oil content. The effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) and its main constituent anethole on several models of gastric lesions were studied in mice and rats. Oral treatment with EOCZ and anethole, both at doses of 30-300 mg/kg, caused similar and dose-dependent gastroprotection against ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric damage, but did not change cold-restraint stress-induced ulcers in rats. Furthermore, EOCZ and anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) similarly and significantly increased the mucus production by the gastric mucosa, measured by Alcian blue binding, in ethanol-induced ulcer model. However, at the same doses, neither EOCZ nor anethole promoted significant alteration in gastric production of non-protein sulfhydryl groups. In pylorus-ligated model, neither EOCZ nor anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the volume of gastric juice, pH, or total acidity. The results of this study show for the first time that EOCZ possesses a gastroprotective potential, an effect mostly attributed to the action of anethole. This activity is related predominantly to the ability of EOCZ and anethole to enhance the production of gastric wall mucus, an important gastroprotective factor. Furthermore, they suggest that EOCZ has potential therapeutic application for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  6. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  7. Antileishmanial activity and trypanothione reductase effects of terpenes from the Amazonian species Croton cajucara Benth (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Gerson S; Castro-Pinto, Denise B; Machado, Gerzia C; Maciel, Maria A M; Echevarria, Aurea

    2015-11-15

    Leishmaniasis comprises several infectious diseases caused by protozoa parasites of Leishmania genus. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products to treat parasitic diseases. Among them Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant found in the Amazonian region with a history of safe use in folk medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of clerodane diterpenes, trans-dehydrocrotonin (DCTN), trans-crotonin (CTN) and acetylaleuritolic acid (AAA) obtained from powdered bark of C. cajucara against promastigotes, axenic and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, the effects of DCTN and CTN on the trypanotiona reductase enzyme were also investigated. The extraction of the terpenes was carried out as previously reported (Maciel et al., 1998; 2003). The effect of the isolated compounds (DCTN, CTN and AAA) from the bark of C. cajucara was assessed in vitro against promastigotes, axenic amastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis by counting of remaining parasites in a Neubauer chamber in comparison to pentamidine used as standard drug. The action of natural products on trypanothione reductase was assessed using soluble protein fraction of promastigotes. The assays were performed by incubation with HEPES, EDTA, NADPH and trypanothione disulfide to quantify the NAPH consumption by TryR. The results showed very high efficacy, especially of the diterpene DCTN, against promastigotes (IC50 = 6.30 ± 0.06 µg/ml) and axenic amastigotes (IC50 = 19.98 ± 0.05 µg/ml) of L. amazonenesis. The cytotoxic effect of the best active natural product was evaluated on mouse peritoneal infected macrophages (IC50 = 0.47 ± 0.03 µg/ml in 24 h of culture), and the treatment revealed that DCTN never reaches toxic concentrations while reducing the infection and, most importantly, with no toxicity (>100 µg/ml with 0% of macrophage kill) when compared to

  8. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  9. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-10-11

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  10. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Francisco E. B.; de Oliveira, Dayanne R.; Bento, Elizângela B.; Leite, Laura H. I.; Souza, Daniele O.; Siebra, Ana Luiza A.; Sampaio, Renata S.; Martins, Anita O. P. B.; Ramos, Andreza G. B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J.; Figueiredo, Patricia R. L.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Rodrigues, Cristina K. S.; Sales, Valterlúcio S.; Figueiredo, Francisco R. S. D. N.; Nascimento, Emmily P.; Monteiro, Alefe B.; Amaro, Érika N.; Costa, José G. M.; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Kerntopf, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as “velame do campo,” is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine. PMID:23864894

  11. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  12. Effect of Suburban Development and Landscape Position on Water Quality in Three Small Watersheds Within the Croton System, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.; Adam, M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Internal hydrological processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Instrument clusters (throughfall collectors, suction lysimeters, monitoring wells, and shallow and deep piezometers) were installed at several locations within three small (50 - 70 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Biweekly and storm samples were analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period. The topographic index (TI) quantified landscape position; flowpath analyses determined degree of development at each cluster, using % impervious cover as the metric. Water quality degradation was observed in sites with medium and high TI values; no such effect was observed along the ridges, i.e., low TI values. At medium TI values, areas with more than 5% impervious had degraded water quality. At high TI values, the water chemistry degradation appeared at 10% or greater impervious surface

  13. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  14. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory evaluation of compounds from an aqueous extract of Croton cajucara Benth.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Adamara M; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Dal Lin, Fernando T; Kimura, Alexandre; de Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Werner, Maria Fernanda de P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Cipriani, Thales R; de Souza, Lauro M

    2017-10-25

    Croton cajucara Benth. is a medicinal plant popularly used in the Brazilian Amazonia, where it is known as sacaca, being consumed as tea, decoction or infusion of the leaves and stem bark. From a decoction of the leaves, a comprehensive phytochemical analysis was developed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Many compounds were identified for the first time in C. cajucara, such as O-glycosides of kaempferol and quercetin, flavonoid-C-glycosides, tannins and cinnamic acid derivatives. These compounds were fractionated by polarity and assayed for their anti-inflammatory activity, using a model of mice edema, induced by an intraplantar injection of carrageenan. All fractions exhibited anti-inflammatory properties. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Gas phase kinetics for the ozonolysis of n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate under atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona Colmán, Elizabeth; Blanco, María B.; Barnes, Ian; Teruel, Mariano A.

    2013-07-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions of ozone with n-butyl methacrylate, ethyl crotonate and vinyl propionate have been determined at 298 ± 1 K and atmospheric pressure. The following room temperature rate coefficients (in cm3 molecule-1 s-1 units) were obtained: k1(O3 + CH2dbnd C(CH3)C(O)OC4H9) = (1.0 ± 0.3) × 10-17, k2(O3 + CH3CHdbnd CHC(O)OCH2CH3) = (8.0 ± 1.8) × 10-18 and k3(O3 + CH3CH2C(O)OCHdbnd CH2) = (5.3 ± 1.3) × 10-18. This is the first kinetic study for these reactions at atmospheric pressure. The effect of substituent groups on the overall rate coefficients is analyzed. Free energy relationships are presented and atmospheric lifetimes are discussed.

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of Croton alabamensis (Euphorbiaceae), a rare shrub from Texas and Alabama, using DNA sequence and AFLP data.

    PubMed

    van Ee, Benjamin W; Jelinski, Nicolas; Berry, Paul E; Hipp, Andrew L

    2006-09-01

    Croton alabamensis (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) is a rare plant species known from several populations in Texas and Alabama that have been assigned to var. texensis and var. alabamensis, respectively. We performed maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analyses of DNA sequences from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S regions and chloroplast trnL-trnF regions from collections of the two varieties of C. alabamensis and from outgroup taxa. C. alabamensis emerges alone on a long branch that is sister to Croton section Corylocroton and the Cuban endemic genus Moacroton. Molecular clock analysis estimates the split of C. alabamensis from its closest relatives in sect. Corylocroton at 41 million years ago, whereas the split of the two varieties of C. alabamensis occurred sometime in the Quaternary. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analyses were performed using two selective primer pairs on a larger sampling of accessions (22 from Texas, 17 from Alabama) to further discriminate phylogenetic structure and quantify genetic diversity. Using both neighbour joining and minimum evolution, the populations from the Cahaba and Black Warrior watersheds in Alabama form two well-separated groups, and in Texas, geographically distinct populations are recovered from Fort Hood, Balcones Canyonlands, and Pace Bend Park. Most of the molecular variance is accounted for by variance within populations. Approximately equal variance is found among populations within states and between states (varieties). Genetic distance between the Texas populations is significantly less than genetic distance between the Alabama populations. Both sequence and AFLP data support the same relationships between the varieties of C. alabamensis and their outgroup, while the AFLP data provide better resolution among the different geographical regions where C. alabamensis occurs. The conservation implications of these findings are discussed.

  17. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property.

  18. Chemomodulatory Potential of Bartogenic Acid Against DMBA/Croton Oil Induced Two-Step Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chandragouda R.; Sonara, Bhavin M.; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Kalpesh R.; Patil, Dipak D.; Jadhav, Ramchandra B.; Goyal, Sameer N.; Ojha, Shreesh

    2016-01-01

    Barringtonia racemosa fruits are believed to be useful in cancer treatment in Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine. In present study, bartogenic acid (BA), a triterpenoid constituent of Barringtonia fruits was evaluated for its cytotoxicity property using the human skin carcinoma cell line (SCC-13) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The chemopreventive efficacy of BA was evaluated against the DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.BA was orally administered at the doses of 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg/day or applied topically every day for 12 weeks following DMBA application. The in vitro data from cell lines revealed that BA induces cytotoxicity against the SCC-13 cells (IC50=7.5 µM). It was found 4.05 times more selective to exert cytotoxicity against SCC-13 as compared to the PBMC (IC50=30.4 µM). The in vivo datacollected from mice model of DMBA/Croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis revealed that BA administered orally or applied topically, both reduced the precancerous skin lesions andthe incidence of tumor bearing. The oral doses of BA (2 and 4 mg/kg) and topical treatment significantly reduced the incidence and number of skin papillomas. At these doses, BA also increased the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase and induced an increase in glutathionecontent and inhibited lipid peroxidation in the skin. These findings reveal the chemopreventive efficacy of BA and also demonstrate that it contributes to the cytotoxic and antioxidative effects of Barringtonia racemosa fruits. The study also validates the traditional claims of Barringtonia fruits and provides a scientific basis of its chemopreventive property. PMID:27877231

  19. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  20. Investigations on Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. for inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Khan, Mohd. Shahid; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography fractionation of the dichloromethane extract (LCD) of Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol (1) + stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4) and laballenic acid (5). Also, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sub-fraction (LCD-F1) of this extract showed the presence of eleven (6-16) compounds. In addition to this, 3-5 and LCD-F1 were evaluated for lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Results directed that 4 and 5 were found to inhibit these mediators at half maximal inhibitory concentration of 17.12 to 57.20 μM while IC50 for LCD-F1 was found to be 15.56 to 31.71 μg/mL. Furthermore, LCD at a dose of 50, 100 and 400 mg/Kg was found to reduce significantly LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. All the results findings evoked that the anti-inflammatory effects of Leucas cephalotes is partially mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hence can be utilized for the development of anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:26535039

  1. Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarins L-Q, and a Rearranged Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoid, Neocrotocascarin, from the Stems of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Inagaki, Masanori; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    From the stems of Croton cascarilloides, further crotofolane-type diterpenoids, named crotocascarins L-Q (1-6), and a rearranged one (7), named neocrotocascarin were isolated. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence. Also, the structures of crotocascarin O (4) and neocrotocascarin (7) were determined by X-ray crystallographic analyses. As a result, neocrotocascarin (7) was found to possess a new carbon framework. A plausible mechanism for the formation of neocrotocascarin (7) is also discussed.

  2. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 μg/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 μg/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 μg/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 μg/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each.Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses.The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  3. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  4. Acaricidal activity against Tetranychus urticae and essential oil composition of four Croton species from Caatinga biome in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Neves, Ilzenayde Araújo; da Camara, Claudio Augusto Gomes

    2011-06-01

    Volatile components of essential oils from the leaves and stems of Croton jacobinensis, C. rhamnifolius, C. muscicapa and C. micans, which are medicinal plants found in the Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil, were analyzed using GC and GC/MS. The acaricidal activity of these oils against Tetranychus urticae was evaluated using the fumigation method. Oil yields from the Croton species ranged from 1.1 +/- 0.0 to 0.6 +/- 0.0%, w/w, for leaves and 0.7 +/- 0.0 to 0.1 +/- 0.0% for stems. Sesquiterpenoids were dominant in all oils, except the stem oil from C. rhamnifolius, which exhibited a high monoterpene content, and the leaf and stem oils from C. muscicapa, which were rich in phenylpropanoids. The major volatile components of the leaf and stem oils from C. jacobinensis were (Z)-alpha-atlantone (24.3 +/- 0.4%) and trans-isolongifolanone (22.8 +/- 0.5%), respectively. The most abundant constituents detected in C. rhamnifolius were alpha-cedrene epoxide (23.3 +/- 0.1%) and caryophyllene oxide (21.9 +/- 0.0%) in the leaf oil, and camphor (16.6 +/- 0.5%) and tricyclene (12.8 +/- 0.1%) in the stem oil. Foenicolin was the main compound identified in the leaf (50.6 +/- 0.2%) and stem (72.7 +/- 0.6%) oils of C. muscicapa, while alpha-bulnesene (32.9 +/- 0.2%) and guaiol (17.9 +/- 0.7%) were the principal components of C. micans oils. These oils exhibited a high degree of toxicity in the fumigation assay. The stem oils from C. jacobinensis and C. rhamnifolius exhibited high lethality rates, with LC50 values of 0.3 and 0.2 microL/L of air after 24 h, respectively. The results suggest the potential use of stem essential oil, especially from C. rhamnifolius and C. jacobinensis, for the integrated control of Tetranychus urticae.

  5. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  6. Molecular cloning and catalytic activity of a membrane-bound prenyl diphosphate phosphatase from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Guennewich, Nils; Springob, Karin; Klamrak, Anuwatchakit; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Kutchan, Toni M

    2013-07-01

    Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a bioactive acyclic diterpene with apoptotic induction activity, is the immediate precursor of the commercial anti-peptic, plaunotol (18-hydroxy geranylgeraniol), which is found in Croton stellatopilosus (Ohba). From this plant, a cDNA encoding a prenyl diphosphate phosphatase (CsPDP), which catalyses the dephosphorylation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to GGOH, was isolated using a PCR approach. The full-length cDNA contained 888bp and encoded a 33.6 kDa protein (295 amino acids) that was phylogenetically grouped into the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme family. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 6 hydrophobic transmembrane regions with 57-85% homology to the sequences of other plant PAPs. The recombinant CsPDP and its 4 truncated constructs exhibited decreasing dephosphorylation activities relative to the lengths of the N-terminal deletions. While the full-length CsPDP successfully performed the two sequential monodephosphorylation steps on GGPP to form GGOH, the larger N-terminal deletion in the truncated enzymes appeared to specifically decrease the catalytic efficiency of the second monodephosphorylation step. The information presented here on the CsPDP cDNA and factors affecting the dephosphorylation activity of its recombinant protein may eventually lead to the discovery of the specific GGPP phosphatase gene and enzyme that are involved in the formation of GGOH in the biosynthetic pathway of plaunotol in C. stellatopilosus.

  7. Water Residence Times and Their Relation to Soil and Aquifer Properties and Degree of Urbanization (Croton Water Supply Area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D.; Kendall, C.; McDonnell, J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times were determined in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1 km2 drainage area) have different amounts of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wetlands, hillslopes) . Measurements of the Oxygen-18 content of throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period of 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water, soil water and groundwater were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are small but significant differences in the isotopic content of waters in each watershed, along with soil and aquifer properties as a function of the level of urbanization. Longer groundwater residence times (up to more than 2 years) were estimated in wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to more than 1 year). In highly urbanized areas, mixing of natural runoff generation processes with urbanization effects such as the influence of septic plumes results in a complex spectrum of residence times in soil waters and groundwaters. We illustrate the possibilities of using stable isotope measurements to describe small-scale complex runoff generation processes in watersheds.

  8. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S; Velmurugan, S; Elumalai, K; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-15

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  9. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D

    2015-01-01

    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  10. DOC, Color and Disinfection By-Product Precursor Dynamics along an Urbanization Gradient, Croton Water Supply System, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Burns, D. A.; Heisig, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Hydrologic processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Biweekly and storm samples were collected and analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period at the outlet of three small (37 - 55 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Less frequent sampling for Pt/Co color and disinfection by-product precursors (DBPs) were also conducted. Median baseflow concentrations (>3 days since rainfall) of DOC were similar, ranging from 2.1 to 1.8 to 1.7 mg L -1 for the most urbanized to the forested watershed, respectively. On a unit area load basis (kg ha-1 yr-1), the range was from 8.9 to 6.4 to 5.1, again from most urbanized to forested watershed. All three watersheds showed similar storm responses, with evidence for a flushing mechanism in that DOC concentration increased with increasing discharge. Pt/Co color and DBPs (determined as both total trihalomethane and total haloacetic acid formation potentials) showed similar storm behavior, although the range of response was greater than observed for DOC, suggesting a labile DOC fraction was mobilized during storm events. The more urbanized watersheds tended to favor brominated over chlorinated forms of DBPs; the reasons for this are unclear.

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Elumalai, K.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  12. Isolation, characterization and evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of estragole, obtained from the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Andrade, Thallita C B; De Lima, Sidney G; Freitas, Rivelilson M; Rocha, Márcio S; Islam, Torequl; Da Silva, Teresinha G; Militão, Gardenia C G

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri (Euphorbiaceae) is a native aromatic plant from Northeast region of Brazil. The monoterpenoid estragole (ESL) has been isolated by classical chromatographic methods from the essential oil (EO) of C. zehnteneri leaves and characterized by GC-FID and GC-MS, its antimicrobial and cytotoxic potentials being assessed. The analysis of the EO enabled the identification of 100% of the integrated constituents, of which yield was about 1.8%. The main components identified were: eucalyptol, estragole (84.7%) and spathulenol. The dosage of 50 μg/disk of ESL presented fairly significant zones of inhibition against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The ESL presented toxicity against Artemia salina with LC50 and LC90 of 4,54 and 8,47 μg mL-1. However, in tumor inhibition assays (human cells), there were no rewarding inhibition in any of the human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, HEP-2 and NCI-H292).

  13. Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, C; Witting Schaus, F; Coussio, J; Cicca, G

    1997-10-01

    The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of 'Sangre de Drago' from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) was determined by monitoring the intensity of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence enhanced by peroxyl radicals derived from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). The TRAP index was calculated as 935.4 +/- 141 microM, measured as equivalents of Trolox concentration. On the other hand, the additive incorporation of lower concentrations yielded an instantaneous increase in chemiluminescence, suggesting a prooxidant activity at these levels. DNA sugar damage induced by Fe(II) salts was also used to determine the capacity of the latex to suppress hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation of DNA. As in the case of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence, Sangre de Drago was highly effective in reducing oxidation of DNA at higher concentrations, but showed an increase in the production of TBARS at lower doses, as compared to the control. Finally, antioxidant activity was tested using hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenates, and the latex showed an increase in light emission, suggesting the presence of prooxidant compounds.

  14. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts. Copyright © 1995 Gustav Fischer Verlag, Struttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  16. Cardiovascular Effects of the Essential Oil of Croton argyrophylloides in Normotensive Rats: Role of the Autonomic Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Santos, Thayane Rebeca; de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. (EOCA) were investigated in normotensive rats. In saline-pretreated anesthetized or conscious rats, intravenous (i.v.) injection of the EOCA induced dose-dependent hypotension. Dose-dependent tachycardia was observed only in conscious rats. In anesthetized rats, cervical bivagotomy failed to enhance EOCA-induced hypotension but unmasked significant bradycardia. In conscious rats, i.v. pretreatment with methylatropine, but not with atenolol or L-NAME, reduced both hypotensive and tachycardiac responses to EOCA. However, hexamethonium pretreatment reverted the EOCA-induced tachycardia into significant bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. In aortic ring preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA induced a concentration-dependent relaxation that was significantly reduced by vascular endothelium removal and pretreatment with atropine, indomethacin, or glibenclamide but remained unaffected by pretreatment with L-NAME or TEA. It is concluded that i.v. treatment with EOAC decreased blood pressure probably through an active vascular relaxation rather than withdrawal of sympathetic tone. Muscarinic receptor stimulation, liberation of the endothelium-derived prostacyclin, and opening KATP channels are partially involved in the aortic relaxation induced by EOCA and in turn in the mediation of EOCA-induced hypotension. EOCA-induced tachycardia in conscious rats appears to be mediated reflexly through inhibition of vagal drive to the heart. PMID:27956919

  17. Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from Croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Almeida, Catia A; Chaves, Francisco C M; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Rozental, Sonia; Bizzo, Humberto R; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2014-05-01

    The leaves and bark of Croton cajucara, a shrub from the Amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. A chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. During our studies of the C. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 7-hydroxycalamenene against Absidia cylindrospora, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, Mucor mucedo, Mucor plumbeus, Mucor ramosissimus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum ranged from 19.53 to 2500 µg/mL. The reference drug used, amphotericin B, presented a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.085 µg/mL to 43.87 µg/mL. 7-Hydroxycalamenene also altered spore differentiation and total lipid content. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed significant alterations in the cellular structure of R. oryzae.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius in rats: role of the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, S; Leal-Cardoso, J H; Magalhães, P J; Coelho-de-Souza, A N; Duarte, G P

    1999-08-01

    Cardiovascular effects of intravenous (i.v.) treatment with the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) were investigated in rats. Additionally, this study examined the importance of the autonomic nervous system in mediation of the EOCN-induced changes in mean aortic pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). In both pentobarbitone-anaesthetised and conscious rats, i.v. bolus injections of EOCN (1 to 50 mg/kg) elicited dose-dependent decreases in MAP and HR. Both decreases were of the same order of magnitude or duration, irrespective of whether the animal was under general anaesthesia. Pretreatment of anaesthetised rats with bilateral vagotomy reduced the magnitude of EOCN-induced bradycardia without affecting hypotension. Likewise, i.v. pretreatment of conscious rats with either methylatropine (1 mg/kg) or hexamethonium (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased the bradycardic effects of EOCN by the same order of magnitude. Neither compound influenced the hypotensive effects elicited by EOCN. This is the first physiological evidence that i.v. treatment with EOCN in either anaesthetised or conscious rats elicits hypotension and bradycardia. EOCN-induced bradycardia appears dependent upon the presence of an intact and functional parasympathetic nerve drive to the heart. However, EOCN-induced hypotension appears independent of the presence of an operational sympathetic nervous system. This suggests that EOCN may be a direct vasorelaxant agent.

  19. HET-CAM bioassay as in vitro alternative to the croton oil test for investigating steroidal and non-steroidal compounds.

    PubMed

    Brantner, Adelheid H; Quehenberger, Franz; Chakraborty, Asima; Polligger, Jutta; Sosa, Silvio; Della Loggia, Roberto

    2002-01-01

    In this study the irritation phenomena at the chorioallantoic membrane of incubated hen's eggs as an in vitro model (HET-CAM assay) were investigated in comparison to the in vivo croton oil test by including hydrocortisone, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, acetylsalicylic acid, rutin, quercetin, apigenin, and p-coumaric acid as steroidal and non-steroidal test substances. For the first time the two methods were compared in a valid way with the perspective of a realistic reduction of animal experiments. It should be investigated whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation exists and, if there is any possibility, to replace the in vivo model by an in vitro test system. Both bioassays were able to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory potency of the constituents tested. The determination of the anti-inflammatory activity of all compounds in the two test systems showed individual trends of inhibitory effects. However, the in vitro HET-CAM test was much more sensitive in comparison to the in vivo croton oil test. The croton oil test gave dose-effect correlations in the anti-inflammatory substances investigated. The modified HET-CAM assay did not provide clear dose-effect ratios. The HET-CAM assay is an inexpensive test being easy to manage after a short practical training. Because of its sensitivity the HET-CAM assay could be considered a suitable tool for qualitative testing of the anti-inflammatory activity of substances if no appropriate dose-effect curves are required. From these results it can be concluded that the different courses of the dose-effect curves may be primarily due to different mechanisms of action.

  20. The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Crotone Basin (southern Italy): Interplay between sedimentation, tectonics and eustasy in the frame of Calabrian Arc migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Civile, Dario; Critelli, Salvatore; Di Stefano, Agata; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Muto, Francesco; Sturiale, Giovanni; Roda, Cesare

    2012-12-01

    The Crotone Basin is the exposed part of a larger Neogene forearc basin developed in the Ionian Sea in the frame of the SE-ward migration of the Calabrian Arc, which led to the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere and the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin (central Mediterranean). Taking into account the geologic context that accompanied its accumulation, the Plio-Pleistocene part of the Crotone Basin succession is exceptionally well preserved, and consists of a suite of continental, paralic, shallow-marine and deep-marine deposits organized to form unconformity bounded stratal units that in turn compose two main tectono-stratigraphic cycles. The unconformities separating these units are well recognizable along the basin margin and tend to vanish basinwards, and they record phases of basin reorganization linked to large-scale tectonics. In particular, the basin evolution was characterized by a cyclic pattern consisting of an alternation between longer subsidence phases, that favored the accumulation of stratal units, and uplift phases that led to base-level falls and the generation of unconformities. These phases were strictly related to an alternation between active subduction of the Ionian lithosphere below the Calabrian Arc, accompanied by the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin and by extension and subsidence in the forearc basin, and regional-scale compressional and transpressional events, during which the Arc migration temporarily stopped. The younger uplift of the basin, started during middle Pleistocene and still active, was characterized by extensional tectonics, and its interplay with glacio-eustasy controlled the formation of marine terraces. Since the Plio-Pleistocene tectonic episodes affecting the Calabrian Arc during its SE-ward migration seem to be all recorded in the Crotone Basin, the recognition of their effects on the basin fill and their time constraint become both critical, representing a reference to develop a clearer picture

  1. Assessment of the Polyphenolic Content, Free Radical Scavenging, Anti-inflammatory, and Antimicrobial Activities of Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Asowata-Ayodele, Abiola M.; Otunola, Gloria A.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is one of the spice plants commonly found in almost every part of South Africa. Apart from its culinary uses, it is also traditionally used as an insect repellant and infusion for fever, flu, kidney stone treatment, cough, common cold, and chest pain. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts were determined by measuring their effects against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2’azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, phosphomolybdate, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing power. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four bacterial (two Gram-positive, two Gram-negative) strains and 9 fungal pathogens using the agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by determining the inhibition against protein denaturation and membrane stabilizing effects. Objective: The polyphenolic content, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts of the plant were evaluated. Results: A significantly high total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activities were observed in the acetone extracts of the plants. The study also revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization effects by both the aqueous and acetone extracts at the concentrations studied. The ability of L. javanica extracts to inhibit protein denaturation and maintain membrane stability could be responsible for its folkloric use. The overall antimicrobial activity indicates that both extracts were active against the bacterial strains but the acetone extract exhibited the most potent antifungal activity higher than even the reference drugs. Conclusion: Overall, the acetone extract of L. javanica exhibited a more pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects than the aqueous extract. SUMMARY The

  2. Crotocascarins I-K: Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarin γ, Isocrotofolane Glucoside and Phenolic Glycoside from the Leaves of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a methanol (MeOH) extract of the leaves of Croton cascarilloides, crotofolanes: crotocascarins I-K, nor-crotofolane: crotocascarin γ, isocrotofolane glucoside and phenolic glycoside were isolated by a combination of various separation techniques. Their structures were elucidated mainly from the NMR spectroscopic evidence. The structure of crotocascarin K was first elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and then was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Its absolute structure was finally determined by the modified Mosher's method. Isocrotofolane glucoside was found to possess a new skeleton, however, its absolute structure remains to be determined.

  3. Unprecedented 1,14-seco-crotofolanes from Croton insularis: oxidative cleavage of crotofolin C by a putative homo-Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Pierce, Carly J; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-27

    EBC-162 isolated from Croton insularis, obtained from the northern rainforest of Australia, was structurally affirmed as crotofolin C (4). Novel oxidative degradation products, EBC-233 and EBC-300, which are the first crotofolane endoperoxides, were also isolated. Both endoperoxides were found to be stable intermediates, which are proposed to undergo an unprecedented homo-Baeyer-Villiger biosynthetic rearrangement to give a new class of 1,14-seco-crotofolane diterpenes. Prolonged storage of all isolates assisted in authenticating their natural product status. Anticancer activities of reported compounds are presented.

  4. Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Wanjohi, John M; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kerubo, Leonidah O

    2013-12-01

    Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

  5. Mitochondria-dependent apoptogenic activity of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus against human BPH-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Lin, J; Peng, J; Hong, Z

    2015-01-15

    Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) is among the widely used phytotherapeutics in Ghana for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of action of CMARE remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish whether apoptosis is involved in the antiproliferative effect of CMARE on human BPH-1 cells. We determined the effect of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/mL CMARE for 24, 48, and 72 h on the viability and morphology of BPH-1 cells using the MMT assay and phase-contrast microscopy, respectively. We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of CMARE after 48 h at the cellular level using Hoescht 33258 and JC-1 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to confirm the apoptotic effects of CMARE at the molecular level. CMARE induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in the proliferation of BPH-1 cells (P < 0.05) and an alteration in their morphology and a reduction their density. Furthermore, CMARE induced dose-dependent staining of the nuclear chromatin, significant DNA fragmentation with G₀/G₁ sub-diploid cells (P < 0.01), and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cells compared to the controls after 48 h (P < 0.01). Additionally, while CMARE induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, those of Bcl2 did not change significantly. Therefore, induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of BPH-1 cells may be a possible mechanism of action of CMARE.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  7. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (p<0.05) and both presented the highest viability values. For MTT, the dragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (p<0.05). It was concluded that the dragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  8. The flavonoid apigenin from Croton betulaster Mull inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and regulates the inflammatory profile of glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo L C; Oliveira, Mona N; da Silva, Alessandra B; Pitanga, Bruno P S; Silva, Victor D A; Faria, Giselle P; Sampaio, Geraldo P; Costa, Maria de Fatima D; Braga-de-Souza, Suzana; Costa, Silvia L

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antitumor and immunomodulatory properties of the flavonoid apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), which was extracted from Croton betulaster Mull, in glioma cell culture using the high-proliferative rat C6 glioma cell line as a model. Apigenin was found to have the ability to reduce the viability and proliferation of C6 cells in a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 22.8 µmol/l, 40 times lower than that of temozolomide (1000 µmol/l), after 72 h of apigenin treatment. Even after C6 cells were treated with apigenin for 48 h, high proportions of C6 cells entered apoptosis (39.56%) and autophagy (22%) as shown by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide and acridine orange staining, respectively. In addition, the flavonoid apigenin induced cell accumulation in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and inhibited glioma cell migration efficiently. Moreover, apigenin induced astroglial differentiation and morphological changes in C6 cells, characterized by increased expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and decreased expression of nestin protein, a typical marker of neuronal precursors. The immunomodulating effects of apigenin were also characterized by a change in the inflammatory profile as evidenced by a significant decrease in interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor production and increased nitric oxide levels. Because apigenin can induce differentiation, apoptosis, and autophagy, can alter the profile of cytokines involved in regulating the immune response, and can reduce the survival, growth, proliferation, and migration of C6 cells, this flavonoid may be considered a potential antitumor drug for the adjuvant treatment of malignant gliomas.

  9. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  10. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    PubMed Central

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A.; Appiah, Alfred A.; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A.; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  11. NaH promoted [4+3] annulation of crotonate-derived sulfur ylides with thioaurones: synthesis of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-b]oxepines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youquan; Yu, Aimin; Jia, Jiru; Ma, Shanshan; Li, Ke; Wei, Yin; Meng, Xiangtai

    2017-09-26

    The [4+3] annulation reaction of crotonate-derived sulfur ylides with thioaurones has, for the first time, been reported using NaH as the base. A diverse array of 2,5-dihydrobenzo[4,5]thieno[3,2-b]oxepines is obtained in good to excellent yields. The proposed mechanism is investigated and supported by DFT calculations.

  12. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-02-06

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder.

  13. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  14. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  15. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  16. Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae): a New Potential Pest of Eucalyptus and Species Used for Atlantic Rainforest Restoration.

    PubMed

    Mafia, R G; da Silva, J B; Ramos, J F; Mafia, G V; Rosado-Neto, G H; Ferronatto, E M O

    2015-02-01

    Hylax bahiensis Bechyné (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a new pest of forest species, including eucalyptus (hybrid Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis), Joannesia princeps, Mimosa artemisiana, Croton urucurana, Croton floribundus, and Senna multijuga is recorded. The insect attack in clonal eucalyptus plantations and in forest restoration areas between 2010 and 2013 in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais, Brasil, was observed for the first time. The outbreaks generally occurred from September to March. This new potential pest can affect the growth, productivity, and quality of the trees. We recommended monitoring this leaf-eating beetle especially during the critical period of its occurrence.

  17. Identification and modulatory activity assessment of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone isolated from croton anisodontus müll. Arg.(euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria T A; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Sena, Diniz M; Santos, Hélcio S; de Mesquita, Bruna M; Albuquerque, Maria R J R; Bandeira, Paulo N; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2014-05-01

    The n-hexane extract of the stem bark of Croton anisodontus yielded 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone, a well-known substance, but isolated from this species for the first time. The antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the compound towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis strains were assessed. Antibiotics such as amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin were used in a sub-inhibitory concentration. Significant activity was observed towards P. aeruginosa and S. aureus 358, with p < 0.001 in association with amikacin. The present results place C anisodontus as an alternative source of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone with antibacterial potential.

  18. Identification of (-)(E)-N-[2(S)-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]ferulamide, a natural product isolated from Croton pullei: theoretical and experimental analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Silvana de O; Peixoto, Rosana N S; Silva, José Rogério A; Alves, Cláudio N; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; Santos, Lourivaldo S; Brasil, Davi do S B

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and its derivatives (FADs) are known for a variety of biological activities, such as photo-protective agent, antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antiplasmodial activities. During structural definition of a FAD isolated from Croton pullei, the possibility of a heterologous series made this definition difficult. In this regard, computational simulations were performed using theoretical calculations at DFT level to predict Infrared (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The IR and NMR (13)C and (1)H data were compared with the theoretical calculations performed for three structural possibilities of a heterologous series. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental data through linear regression in order to define the most probable structure and showed satisfactory values.

  19. Longitudinal Strain in the Forearc of a Rollback-Subduction System Forced to Change Length: Structural evolution of the Crotone Basin in NE Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. A.; Seeber, L.

    2009-12-01

    Calabria is a continental fragment incorporated into a forearc overriding the WNW directed subduction system. This system rolled back toward ESE across the central Mediterranean during the Neogene to form the Tyrrhenian Basin. Riding above the megathrust, forearcs seek a dynamic equilibrium between boundary stresses (drag below and lateral containments) with body stress (gravity acting on the shape of the forearc). Changes in boundary conditions are balanced by changes in the shape. The internal deformation history of the forearc, therefore, is expected to reflect changes in subduction tectonics during the evolution of the arc. We analyzed the structure of the Crotone Basin, located in northeastern Calabria, which is located in the exposed part of the forearc closest to the deformation front and to the Apennines. The main purpose was to compare the successive phases of deformation in the basin to the known evolution of the arc. We found four distinct events from the late Tortonian to the present. A widespread unconformity correlated with the onset of rollback marks a regional foundering with multidirectional normal growth faults. Following this pervasive and deeply rooted extension, the Crotone Basin experiences a period of parallel and distal sedimentation (Ponda clay). These sediments mark a relative long period (~5ma) of remarkable tectonic quiescence, even though subduction-rollback is moving the arc rapidly (3-5cm/yr) to the ESE. In addition, the forearc is shortening by progressive collision with Apulia (the Apennines) and Africa (the Maghrebides) during this time, but our study area is still far from the oblique collisions occurring at the ends of the forearc. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.3-6Ma) causes major instabilities in the accretion by loading it with evaporite deposits first and then removing the water load. Landward (westward) thrusting of the accretionary complex correlates with the Messinian in the Crotone basin and elsewhere along eastern

  20. Slow-Moving Landslide Monitoring with Multi-Temporal TerraSAR-X Data by Means of DInSAR Techniques in Crotone Province (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Confuorto, P.; Plank, S.; Di Martire, D.; Ramondini, M.; Thuro, K.; Calcaterra, D.

    2015-05-01

    The Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) is one of the most powerful devices for monitoring deformation processes on the Earth surface. Here, a dataset of TerraSAR-X StripMap imagery covering almost the whole Crotone province territory, located in the south of the Italian peninsula, has been selected and processed. The time span goes from April 2008 to June 2010. In this work, two different multitemporal interferometry (MTI) approaches and two different software packages have been used and compared in order to identify benefits/constraints of each MTI approach and each software. Such approaches are: the ‘permanent’ (or ‘persistent’, or ‘point-like’) scatterers [1] implemented on the SARscape® software [2], and the Temporal Sublook Spectral Coherence (TSSC), derived from Coherent Pixel Technique algorithm and works on SUBSOFT processor, developed by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab) group, from the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) [3-5].

  1. Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov., a novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium that uses crotonate as an electron acceptor, and emended description of the genus Anaerobaculum.

    PubMed

    Menes, Rodolfo Javier; Muxí, Lucía

    2002-01-01

    A novel anaerobic, moderately thermophilic, peptide-fermenting bacterium, strain NGA(T), was isolated from an anaerobic wool-scouring wastewater treatment lagoon. The cells were gram-negative, straight rods of 0.5-1.0 x 2.0-4.0 microm, motile by means of a single flagellum. The DNA G+C content was 51.5 mol%. The optimum pH and temperature range for growth were 6.6-7.3 and 55-60 degrees C, respectively. The optimum NaCl concentration was 0.08 g l(-1). The bacterium fermented organic acids (malate, tartrate, pyruvate, glycerol and fumarate), a few carbohydrates (starch, glucose, fructose and gluconate), Casamino acids, tryptone and yeast extract. Carbohydrates and organic acids were converted to acetate, hydrogen and CO2. The bacterium oxidized leucine to isovalerate with crotonate as an electron acceptor, but not in co-culture with Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus DSM 3720T. Thiosulfate, sulfur and cystine were reduced to sulfide and crotonate was reduced to butyrate with glucose and tryptone-yeast extract as electron donors. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain NGA(T) was related to Anaerobaculum thermoterrenum (98% similarity), the only described species of the genus. The DNA-DNA hybridization value for strain NGA(T) and A. thermoterrenum ACM 5076T was 40.8%. On the basis of these results, strain NGA(T) is proposed as a novel species of the genus Anaerobaculum, namely Anaerobaculum mobile sp. nov. The type strain is NGA(T) (= DSM 13181T =ATCC BAA-54T).

  2. Spectroscopic investigation on interaction of biogenic, Croton bonplandianum leaves extract mediated potential bactericidal silver nanoparticles with human hemoglobin and human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beg, Maidul; Maji, Anukul; Mandal, Amit Kumar; Das, Somnath; Jha, Pradeep K; Hossain, Maidul

    2017-02-28

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing demand to produce safe, cost-effective, and eco-friendly technology for nanomaterials synthesis. We report on the use of aqueous Croton bonplandianum (Family: Euphorbiaceae, Genus: Croton) leaves extract for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) without using any external reducing and stabilizing agent. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 446 nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra also supported the existence of AgNPs. An average diameter (d = ~17.4 nm) of the spherical AgNPs was determined from the transmission electron microscopic images. Hydrodynamic size (d = ~21.1 nm) was determined by dynamic light scattering. Fourier transform infrared analysis designed that the functional groups like O-H, N-H, [Formula: see text], CONH2, and COOH participated in the AgNPs formation. The negative zeta potential value (-19.3 mV) of the AgNPs indicated its dispersion and stability. The AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and 1.5 nM proved to be minimum inhibitory concentration for it. Hemolysis assay demonstrated the blood compatibility of the AgNPs toward human RBCs. The binding affinity of the AgNPs toward human hemoglobin and human serum albumin (HSA) was also determined by means of fluorescence spectroscopy. The circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the native structures of human hemoglobin and HSA remain unchanged, but its secondary structures were slightly changed upon interaction with AgNPs. Overall, it can be concluded that the AgNPs may be applied in the area of nanomedicines.

  3. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N2 and Xe cryomatrices: first observation of two high-energy trans C-O conformers and mechanistic insights.

    PubMed

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N2 and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C-O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N2 matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C-O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755-3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N2 matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C-O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C-O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C-O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C-O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C-O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  4. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N{sub 2} and Xe cryomatrices: First observation of two high-energy trans C–O conformers and mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N{sub 2} and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C–O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N{sub 2} matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C–O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755–3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N{sub 2} matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C–O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C–O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C–O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C–O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C–O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  5. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  6. Involvement of glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and heat-shock protein-70 in the gastroprotective mechanism of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; de Mello Moraes, Thiago; Kushima, Hélio; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action of the essential oil of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, nitric oxide, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds in the gastroprotective effect was determined in male Wistar rats. The minimum inhibitory concentration against H. pylori was determined in vitro. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. C. cajucara decreased ethanol-induced ulcer area in 100% of ulcers and decreased the histologic lesions. In the C. cajucara group, the area marked by heat-shock protein-70 was significantly higher than the area in the control group; this finding was not seen for vasoactive intestinal peptide. C. cajucara could not maintain glutathione levels close to those in the sham group. The gastric ulcer area of rats treated with the sulfhydryl compound blocker was decreased, but the ulcer area of rats treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor showed no alteration. The minimum inhibitory concentration obtained for C. cajucara was 125 μg/mL. These findings suggest that sulfhydryl compounds and heat-shock protein-70, but not nitric oxide, glutathione, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, are involved in the C. cajucara gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers.

  7. Characterisation of the Poly-(Vinylpyrrolidone)-Poly-(Vinylacetate-Co-Crotonic Acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) Interpolymer Complex Matrix Microparticles Encapsulating a Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Probiotic Strain.

    PubMed

    Mamvura, C I; Moolman, F S; Kalombo, L; Hall, A N; Thantsha, M S

    2011-06-01

    The method of producing poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly-(vinylacetate-co-crotonic acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) interpolymer complex matrix microparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), encapsulating bacteria, has recently been developed. This study was aimed at probing the external and internal structure of these microparticles, which can be used in food. The encapsulation efficiency and distribution of encapsulated Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 within these microparticles were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular, mostly small, smooth microparticles with no visible bacterial cells on the surface. However, some of the microparticles appeared to have porous surfaces. The results of a Microtrac S3500 particle size analyzer showed that the PVP:PVAc-CA interpolymer complex matrix microparticles encapsulating B. lactis Bb12 had an average particle size of 166.1 μm (<350 μm designated standard size for microparticles). The D 10, D 50 and D 90 values for these microparticles were 48.16, 166.06 and 382.55 μm, respectively. Both SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a high density of bacterial cells within the microparticles. An average encapsulation efficiency of 96% was achieved. Consequently, the microparticles have the potential to be evenly distributed in foods, deliver adequate amounts of probiotics and produce minimal adverse effects on the texture and mouth feel of the foods into which they are incorporated.

  8. Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants?

    PubMed

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, I R

    2011-01-01

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics.

  9. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  10. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Iurian, Sonia; Tomuta, Ioan; Moldovan, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae.

  11. Improvement of skin condition in striae distensae: development, characterization and clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Cătălina; Iurian, Sonia; Tomuta, Ioan; Moldovan, Mirela

    2017-01-01

    Striae distensae are a frequent skin condition associated with pregnancy, weight change or lack of skin elasticity. The aim of this research was to obtain a topical product containing herbal active ingredients with documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Punica granatum seed oil and Croton lechleri resin extract) and demonstrate its positive effect on prevention and treatment of striae distensae. First, the cream base formulation was optimized through experimental design. Secondly, the cream containing the two active ingredients was investigated in an interventional nonrandomized clinical trial. The clinical outcome was assessed through biophysical parameters and ultrasonographic evaluation. The state of the skin was evaluated by biophysical measurements and ultrasonography at the beginning of the study and after 3 and 6 weeks. The experimental design was successfully used to set the best ranges for the technological and formulation factors to obtain a cosmetic formulation with optimal characteristics. The study of clinical efficacy on the optimal formulation revealed an increase in the dermis thickness, hydration and elasticity values in both groups after 6 weeks of cream application. The new oil-in-water cream containing P. granatum seed oil and C. lechleri resin extract can be helpful in the prevention or improving of skin changes associated with striae. PMID:28280300

  12. Sulfide-Sulfate Mineralizations in Verzino Area (Crotone Basin, Southern Italy): New insights on localized hydrothermal fluid circulations and their relationship with tectonics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berardi, Gabriele; Lucci, Federico; Cozzupoli, Domenico; Pizzino, Luca; Cantucci, Barbara; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2010-05-01

    In this early stage of the work we present a preliminary study of hydrothermal mineralizations found in Verzino locality, Crotone Basin, Southern Appennines, (Calabria, Italy). Both geochemical and petrographic investigations were developed with the aim of understanding the genesis of the sulfide-sulfate associations present in the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" formation, deepening their relationship with fluids circulation. These mineralizations have been recognized only in two "Calanchi" morphostructures - Badlands like morphology developed by the differential erosional pattern of the "Argille Marnose del Ponda" fm. - and constituting the northwestern flank of a little valley evolved in the Miocene sedimentary sequence from "Conglomerato di S.Nicola" fm. to "Evaporiti Superiori" fm. The mineralizations are distributed along isooriented centimetric veins (with mean direction of N120) and in nodules diffused close to the veins. These hydrothermal mineralizations are constituted by an associations of Pyrite spherical nodules (millimetric to centimetric in radius with occurrences of well developed octahedral habit single crystals), sulphate crystals (Gypsum, Jarosite, NatroJarosite), Oxides (Goethite mainly), millimetric veins of Barite and micrometric Ankerite specimens. The data (mineral habits, semiquantitative compositions and x-Ray spectra), obtained by an integration of S.E.M and XRD investigations, permit us, at the current stage of the study, to hypothesize a possible hydrothermal origin (whose temperature range estimate needs further investigations) for the sulfide-sulfate mineral phases. At the moment, we exclude their primary or secondary sedimentary provenance. The comparison of our results with the previous scientific literature focused on hydrothermal sulfide-sulfate systems (Vinogradov and Stephanov, 1964; Kostov, 1968; Plummer 1971; Boles, 1978; Ferrini and Moretti 1998) allows us to propose a possible "thermal window" ranging in the interval 50°C-230

  13. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by proanthocyanidin-rich fraction from Croton celtidifolius (Euphorbiaceae): involvement of extracellular calcium influx in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    DalBó, Silvia; Goulart, Suelen; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria

    2008-06-01

    The present study investigates the mechanisms related to the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation in the relaxant effects of a proanthocyanidin-rich fraction (PRF), obtained from Croton celtidifolius Baill barks, in rat thoracic aorta rings with endothelium. In vessels pre-contracted with phenylephrine (Phe), PRF (0.1 - 100 microg/mL) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. This effect was significantly reduced by endothelium denudation, by N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine, and by 1H[1,2,3]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin. However, the vasorelaxant effect was not altered by indomethacin, atropine, tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin plus apamin. In thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with phorbol-12,13-dibuyrate, PRF also induced a concentration-dependent relaxation. The PRF-induced relaxation disappeared in the absence of extracellular calcium in the medium and decreased significantly in the presence of lanthanum. A sulfhydryl alkylating agent, N-ethylmaleimide, and a phospholipase C (PLC) blocker, neomycin, significantly decreased PRF-induced vasorelaxation. In vessels pre-contracted with Phe, the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect was not altered by quinacrine and ONO-RS-082, genistein and thyrphostin A-23, GF109203, and pertussis toxin and cholera toxin. The results suggest that the PRF-induced vasorelaxant effect is endothelium-dependent and involves the NO/cGMP pathway. We hypothesize that the activation of eNOS is due to an increase of intracellular calcium derived from PLC activation and an N-ethylmaleimide sensitive pathway.

  15. Vasorelaxation induced by the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius and its constituents in rat aorta are partially mediated by the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad; Jucá, Davi Matthews; Coelho-de-Souza, Lívia Noronha; da Frota, Pedro Thiago Tibúrcio; da Costa, Adriana Maria Gurgel; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2008-04-01

    Previously, we reported that essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) decreases blood pressure in normotensive rats, an effect that seems resulting from its vasodilatory action directly upon vascular smooth muscle. In the present study, we aimed to study the role of endothelium-nitric oxide pathway in the mediation of vasodilatory effects of EOCN and two of its constituents, methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol, using rat isolated thoracic aorta and mesenteric vascular bed preparations. EOCN (1-300 microg/mL), in a concentration-dependent manner, relaxed isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with KCl 60 mM, with an IC(50) value of 26.7 (14.7-48.2) microg/mL. Either pretreatment of the tissue with L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or mechanical endothelium removal increased significantly the IC(50) value to 66.6 (52.7-84.1) or 105.6 (91.3-122.2) microg/mL, respectively. In endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with norepinephrine, EOCN (10-200 microg/mL) produced a vasorelaxant action which was decreased by the pretreatment of the aortic rings with methylene blue, a guanylate cyclase inhibitor. In mesenteric bed preparations perfused under constant pressure, EOCN reverted the reduction of mesenteric flow caused by KCl (60 mM), an effect that was attenuated by L-NAME. Vasodilator responses to EOCN in mesenteric bed preparations were mimicked by methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol, and were also significantly reduced in the presence of L-NAME. In conclusion, EOCN has vasorelaxant effects in both a resistance vascular bed and in a conduit artery. They seem attributed, at least in part, to the actions of its main constituents methyleugenol and alpha-terpineol and appear partially dependent upon the integrity of a functional vascular endothelium. Inhibition of other transduction pathways may be involved in the mediation of these effects.

  16. Oral administration of whole dihomo-γ-linolenic acid-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae suppresses cutaneous inflammatory responses induced by croton oil application in mice.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Masubuchi, Daiki; Itoh, Maki; Teradu, Soichiro; Yazawa, Hisashi; Uemura, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids have been attracting considerable interest because of their many biological activities and important roles in human health and nutrition. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA; C20: 3n-6) is known to have an anti-inflammatory activity, but its range of effects was not well studied because of its limited natural sources. Taking advantage of genetic tractability and increasing wealth of accessible data of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we have previously constructed a DGLA-producing yeast strain by introducing two types of desaturase and one elongase genes to convert endogenous oleic acid (C18:1n-9) to DGLA. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of oral intake of heat-killed whole DGLA-producing yeast cells in the absence of lipid purification on cutaneous inflammation. Topical application of croton oil to mouse ears induces ear swelling in parallel with the increased production of chemokines and accumulation of infiltrating cells into the skin sites. These inflammatory reactions were significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by oral intake of the DGLA-producing yeast cells for only 7 days. This suppression was not observed by the intake of the γ-linolenic acid-producing (C18:3n-6, an immediate precursor of DGLA) yeast, indicating DGLA itself suppressed the inflammation. Further analysis demonstrated that DGLA exerted an anti-inflammatory effect via prostaglandin E1 formation because naproxen, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, attenuated the suppression. Since 25-fold of purified DGLA compared with that provided as a form of yeast was not effective, oral administration of the whole DGLA-producing yeast is considered to be a simple but efficient method to suppress inflammatory responses.

  17. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  18. [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 isolated from Croton urucurana latex induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    de Matos Cândido-Bacani, Priscila; Ezan, Frédéric; de Oliveira Figueiredo, Patrícia; Matos, Maria de Fátima Cepa; Rodrigues Garcez, Fernanda; Silva Garcez, Walmir; Baffet, Georges

    2017-05-05

    [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1 is a cyclic peptide isolated from Croton urucurana Baillon latex, found in midwestern Brazil, that has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects against a panel of cancer cell lines. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the crourorb A1-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells remain unknown. In this study, the effects of crourorb A1 on the viability, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration of Huh-7 (human hepatocarcinoma) cells were investigated. We evaluated the viability of Huh-7 cells treated with crourorb A1 in 2D and 3D collagen cultures and found that cells in 3D culture exhibited increased resistance to crourorb A1 compared to cells in 2D culture (IC50: 62μg/ml versus 35.75μg/ml). Crourorb A1 treatment decreases the viability of Huh-7 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner and is associated with the induction of apoptosis, in the absence of necrotic cells, through the activation of caspase-3/7 and increased expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bak, Bid, Bax, Puma, Bim, and Bad. The effects of crourorb A1 are also associated with G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and increases in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK1) and cyclin B1 expression. A significant reduction in Huh-7 cell migration induced by crourorb A1 was also observed in the presence of mitomycin C. Finally, we showed that the JNK/MAP pathway, but not ERK signaling, is involved in crourorb A1-induced hepatocarcinoma cell mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  20. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24−/low): an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Keong, Yeap Swee; Siyamak, Ebrahimi Nigjeh; Fani, Somayeh; Firoozi, Maryam; Yong, Chung Lip; Sukari, Mohamed Aspollah; Kamalidehghan, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7 breast cancer stem cells in vitro. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was investigated using Western blotting. Results Koenimbin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells was mediated by cell death-transducing signals regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential by downregulating Bcl2 and upregulating Bax, due to cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Koenimbin induced significant (P<0.05) sub-G0 phase arrest in breast cancer cells. Cytochrome c release triggered caspase-9 activation, which then activated caspase-7, leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis is closely associated with the intrinsic pathway and inhibition of NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Koenimbin significantly (P<0.05) decreased the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population in MCF7 cancer stem cells and

  1. Croton lechleri Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark essential oil as possible mutagen-protective food ingredient against heterocyclic amines from cooked food.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Damiano; Guerrini, Alessandra; Paganetto, Guglielmo; Bernacchia, Giovanni; Conforti, Filomena; Statti, Giancarlo; Maietti, Silvia; Poppi, Irene; Tacchini, Massimo; Sacchetti, Gianni

    2013-08-15

    The Amazonian Croton lechleri stem bark essential oil was tested for its anti-mutagenic potential by performing the Ames test against heterocyclic amines (HCAs), in continuing research on applicative functional profile of this phytocomplex as food ingredient (Rossi et al., 2011). Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was used with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). The anti-mutagenic properties was assayed with the following HCAs: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), the imidazoles 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-1) and 2-aminodipirydo-[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole (Glu-P-2). All HCAs with S9 induced mutagenicity at 10(-10) mol/plate. Without S9, IQ and MeIQ showed mutagenicity at 10(-8) mol/plate, MeIQx and Glu-P-1 at 10(-5) mol/plate, while Glu-P-2 was inactive. In presence of HACs (10(-9) mol/plate), C. lechleri essential oil was tested for mutagen-protective properties (concentration range: 0.01-0.10 mg/plate) taking the Highest Uneffective Dose (HUD) as threshold reference. With S9 mix, C. lechleri essential oil displayed a significant reduction of revertants at 0.05 mg/plate, from 21% to 34%. The essential oil showed mutagen-protective efficacy against IQ and MeIQ tested as direct mutagens (10(-7) mol/plate), with a revertants percentage reduction of 39% and 40%, respectively. No anti-mutagen capacity was noted for MeIQx and Glu-P-1 (10(-5) mol/plate). Since HACs are known as possible colon and liver cancer inducers, C. lechleri essential oil was tested for its cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative capacity against LoVo and HepG2 cancer cell lines showing IC50 of 74.95±0.05 μg/ml (LoVo) and 82.28±0.03 μg/ml (HepG2), displaying a promising role of this essential oil as a functional food ingredient with interesting mutagen preventing properties.

  2. Essential oil of croton nepetaefolius and its main constituent, 1,8-cineole, block excitability of rat sciatic nerve in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lima-Accioly, P M; Lavor-Porto, P R; Cavalcante, F S; Magalhães, P J C; Lahlou, S; Morais, S M; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2006-12-01

    1. The effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius (EOCN) and its major constituent, 1,8-cineole, on the compound action potential (CAP) of nerve were investigated. 2. Experiments were performed in sciatic nerves dissected from Wistar rats, mounted in a moist chamber and stimulated at a frequency of 0.2 Hz, with electric pulses of 100 micros duration at 20-40 V. Evoked CAP were displayed on an oscilloscope and recorded on a computer. The CAP control parameters were as follows: peak-to-peak amplitude 8.1 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 15); conduction velocity 83.3 +/- 4.2 m/s (n = 15); chronaxie 58.0 +/- 6.8 msec (n = 6); and rheobase 2.8 +/- 0.1 V (n = 6). 3. Lower concentrations of EOCN (100 and 300 microg/mL) and 1,8-cineole (153 and 307 microg/mL; i.e. 1 and 2 mmol/L, respectively) had no significant effects on CAP control parameters throughout the entire recording period. However, at the end of 180 min exposure of the nerve to the drug, peak-to-peak amplitude was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 27.4 +/- 6.7 and 1.7 +/- 0.8% of control values by 500 and 1000 microg/mL EOCN, respectively (n = 6), and to 76.5 +/- 4.4, 70.0 +/- 3.9 and 14.8 +/- 4.1% of control values by 614, 920 and 1227 microg/mL (i.e. 4, 6 and 8 mmol/L) 1,8-cineole, respectively (n = 6). Regarding conduction velocity, at the end of the 180 min exposure period, this parameter was significantly reduced to 85.8 +/- 7.3 and 48.7 +/- 12.3% (n = 6) of control values by 500 and 1000 microg/mL EOCN, respectively, and to 86.4 +/- 4.5 and 76.1 +/- 5.2% (n = 6) by 920 and 1227 microg/mL 1,8-cineole, respectively. Chronaxie and rheobase were significantly increased by the higher concentrations of both EOCN and 1,8-cineole. 4. It is concluded that EOCN and its main constituent 1,8-cineole block nerve excitability in a concentration-dependent manner, an effect that was totally reversible with 1,8-cineole but not with EOCN. This suggests that other constituents of EOCN, in addition to 1,8-cineole, may contribute

  3. Nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon, Color, and Disinfection Byproducts in Base Flow and Stormflow in Streams of the Croton Watershed, Westchester and Putnam Counties, New York, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Croton Watershed is unique among New York City's water-supply watersheds because it has the highest percentages of suburban development (52 percent) and wetland area (6 percent). As the City moves toward filtration of this water supply, there is a need to document water-quality contributions from both human and natural sources within the watershed that can inform watershed-management decisions. Streamwater samples from 24 small (0.1 to 1.5 mi2) subbasins and three wastewater-treatment plants (2000-02) were used to document the seasonal concentrations, values, and formation potentials of selected nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), color, and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during stormflow and base-flow conditions. The subbasins were categorized by three types of drainage efficiency and a range of land uses and housing densities. Analyte concentrations in subbasin streams differed in response to the subbasin charateristics. Nutrient concentrations were lowest in undeveloped, forested subbasins that were well drained and increased with all types of development, which included residential, urban commercial/industrial, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. These concentrations were further modified by subbasin drainage efficiency. DOC, in contrast, was highly dependent on drainage efficiency. Color intensity and DBP formation potentials were, in turn, associated with DOC and thus showed a similar response to drainage efficiency. Every constituent exhibited seasonal changes in concentration. Nutrients. Total (unfiltered) phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and nitrate were associated primarily with residential development, urban, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. Base-flow and stormflow concentrations of the TP, SRP, and nitrate generally increased with increasing housing density. TP and SRP concentrations were nearly an order of magnitude higher in stormflow than in base flow, whereas nitrate concentrations showed little difference

  4. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Greetings from the planet croton.

    PubMed

    Evans, Allyson

    2015-04-16

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Sabari et al. (2015) discover that levels of intracellular crotonyl-CoA impact the histone acylation landscape, providing deeper insight into the exotic histone modification, crotonylation, and exploring new avenues by which cellular metabolism can influence gene expression.

  6. Cytotoxic, apoptotic, and sensitization properties of ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep on human liver cancer HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Quan; Iscache, Anne Laure; Pham, Quoc Long; Gairin, Jean Edouard

    2016-04-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer, the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. A very poor prognosis and a lack of effective treatments make liver cancer a major public health problem, notably in less developed regions, particularly in eastern Asia. This fully justifies the search of new molecules and therapeutic strategies against HCC. Ent-kaurane diterpenoids are natural compounds displaying a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic effects including anticancer activity. In this study, we analyzed the pharmacological properties of a family of ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis Gagnep in human HepG2 and Hep3b cell lines, used as cellular reference models for in vitro evaluation of new molecules active on HCC. A structure-related cytotoxicity was observed against both HCC cell lines, enlighting the role of the 16-en-15-one skeleton of ent-kaurane diterpenoids. Cytotoxicity was closely correlated to apoptosis, evidenced by concentration-dependent subG1 cell accumulation, and increased annexin V expression. In addition, subtoxic concentration of ent-kaurane diterpenoid dramatically enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to doxorubicin. All together, our data bring strong support to the potential interest of ent-kaurane diterpenoids, alone or in combination with a cytotoxic agent, in cancer and more precisely against HCC.

  7. Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kenneth

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacologic evidence that may or may not support clinical and ethnomedical uses of the sap of sangre de drago (dragon's blood; Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.). Data sources used were BIOSIS, EMBASE, PubMed, TOXLIT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, manual searches, papers on file from peer-reviewed journals, textbooks available at Armana Research, Inc., and researchers in the field of South American botanical medicine. The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. Because the sap has shown low toxicity and preparations used in clinical studies were well tolerated, further clinical and pharmacologic studies are anticipated. Acknowledgment of the diversity in the chemical makeup of the sap from one geographic area to another and the recent characterization of alkaloid chemotypes of sangre de drago will require that materials developed for clinical use are standardized.

  8. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  9. Foraging behaviour of the african honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) on Annona senegalensis, Croton macrostachyus, Psorospermum febrifugum and Syzygium guineense var. guineense flowers at Ngaoundéré (Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Fohouo, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem; Djonwangwe, Denis; Brückner, Dorothea

    2008-03-01

    To determine the apicultural value of Annona senegalensis Pers. 1806 (Annonaceae), Croton macrostachyus Hochst. Ex Del. 1847 (Euphorbiaceae), Psorospermum febrifugum Spach 1836 (Hypericaceae) and Syzygium guineense (Will.) DC var. guineense 1828 (Myrtaceae), Apis mellifera adansonii Latreille 1804 (Hymenoptera: Apidae) activity was observed on their flowers in the area of Ngaoundéré, from January to May, in 2002 and 2003. Flowers of each plant species were prospected at least four days per month, between 7 am and 6 pm, for the registration of the nectar and/or pollen foraging behaviour of A. m. adansonii workers. Results show that A. m. adansonii harvested nectar and pollen of each plant species. The greatest number of workers foraging simultaneously on a plant varied from 9 in P. febrifugum to 3600 in S. g. guineense. A. m. adansonii workers were faithful to each plant species. A. senegalensis, C. macrostachyus, P. febrifugum and S. g. guineense could be cultivated and protected to increase honey production. A. senegalensis could enable beekeepers to increase their pollen production as a hive product. During foraging, A. m. adansonii workers increased pollination possibilities of each plant species.

  10. Functional expression of a putative geraniol 8-hydroxylase by reconstitution of bacterially expressed plant CYP76F45 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase CPR I from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Promden, Worrawat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2015-10-01

    While attempting to isolate the enzyme geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase, which is involved in plaunotol biosynthesis in Croton stellatopilosus (Cs), the cDNAs for a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(designated as CYP76F45) and an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from the leaf. The CYP76F45 and CsCPR I genes have open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 507- and 711-amino acid proteins with predicted relative molecular weights of 56.7 and 79.0 kDa,respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that both CYP76F45 (63–73%) and CsCPR I (79–83%) share relatively high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that CYP76F45 belongs to the CYP76 family and that CsCPR I belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPRs, with both being closely related to Ricinus communis genes. Functional characterization of both enzymes, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins,showed that only simultaneous incubation of the membrane bound proteins with the substrate geraniol (GOH) and the coenzyme NADPH could form 8-hydroxygeraniol. The enzyme mixture could also utilize acyclic sesquiterpene farnesol (FOH) with a comparable substrate preference ratio (GOH:FOH) of 54:46. The levelsof the CYP76F45 and CsCPR I transcripts in the shoots, leaves and twigs of C. stellatopilosus were correlated with the levels of a major monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, identified tentatively as 19-Evallesamine,that accumulated in these plant parts. These results suggested that CYP76F45 and CPR I function as the enzyme geraniol-8-hydroxylase (G8H), which is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid in C. stellatopilosus [corrected].

  11. Molecular cloning, bacterial expression and functional characterisation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP97C27, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CPR I, from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2014-12-01

    The cDNAs for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (designated as CYP97C27 by D. Nelson's group) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from Croton stellatopilosus leaves, which actively biosynthesise plaunotol (18-OH geranylgeraniol). CYP97C27 and CPR I contain open reading frames encoding proteins of 471 and 711 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 53 and 79kDa, respectively. By aligning the deduced sequences of CYP97C27 and CPR I with other plant species, all functional domains of CYP97C27 (heme and oxygen binding) and CPR I (CYP- and FMN, FAD, and NADPH cofactor binding) were identified. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that both CYP97C27 (85-93%) and CPR I (79-83%) share high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species, suggesting that CYP97C27 belongs to the CYP97C subfamily and that CPR I belongs to class I of the dicotyledonous CPR. Functional characterisation of both enzymes, produced in Escherichia coli (pET32a/BL21(DE3)) as recombinant proteins, showed that simultaneous incubation of CYP97C27 and CPR I with the substrate geranylgeraniol (GGOH) and coenzyme NADPH led to formation of the product plaunotol. In C. stellatopilosus, the levels of the CYP97C27 and CPR I transcripts were highly correlated with those of several mRNAs involved in the plaunotol biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that CYP97C27 and CPR I are the enzymes that catalyse the last hydroxylation step of the pathway.

  12. Variation in the population structure between a natural and a human-modified forest for a pioneer tropical tree species not restricted to large gaps

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrini, Milene; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tree species in tropical forests is generally related to the occurrence of disturbances and shifts in the local environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and biotic factors. Thus, the distribution of pioneer tree species is expected to vary according to the gap characteristics and with human disturbances. We asked whether there was variation in the distribution of a pioneer species under different environmental conditions generated by natural disturbances, and between two forests with contrasting levels of human disturbance. To answer this question, we studied the distribution patterns and population persistence of the pioneer tree species Croton floribundus in the size and age gap range of a primary Brazilian forest. Additionally, we compared the plant density of two size-classes between a primary and an early successional human-disturbed forest. Croton floribundus was found to be widespread and equally distributed along the gap-size gradient in the primary forest. Overall density did not vary with gap size or age (F-ratio = 0.062, P = 0.941), and while juveniles were found to have a higher density in the early successional forest (P = 0.021), tree density was found to be similar between forests (P = 0.058). Our results indicate that the population structure of a pioneer tree species with long life span and a broad gap-size niche preference varied between natural and human-disturbed forests, but not with the level of natural disturbance. We believe this can be explained by the extreme environmental changes that occur after human disturbance. The ecological processes that affect the distribution of pioneer species in natural and human-modified forests may be similar, but our results suggest they act differently under the contrasting environmental conditions generated by natural and human disturbances. PMID:26120431

  13. Ozone affects leaf physiology and causes injury to foliage of native tree species from the tropical Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moura, Bárbara Baêsso; Alves, Edenise Segala; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro; Schaub, Marcus; Vollenweider, Pierre

    2017-08-19

    In southern Brazil, the recent increase in tropospheric ozone (O3) concentrations poses an additional threat to the biodiverse but endangered and fragmented remnants of the Atlantic Forest. Given the mostly unknown sensitivity of tropical species to oxidative stress, the principal objective of this study was to determine whether the current O3 levels in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (MRC), downwind of São Paulo, affect the native vegetation of forest remnants. Foliar responses to O3 of three tree species typical of the MRC forests were investigated using indoor chamber exposure experiments under controlled conditions and a field survey. Exposure to 70ppb O3 reduced assimilation and leaf conductance but increased respiration in Astronium graveolens while gas exchange in Croton floribundus was little affected. Both A. graveolens and Piptadenia gonoacantha developed characteristic O3-induced injury in the foliage, similar to visible symptoms observed in >30% of trees assessed in the MRC, while C. floribundus remained asymptomatic. The underlying structural symptoms in both O3-exposed and field samples were indicative of oxidative burst, hypersensitive responses, accelerated cell senescence and, primarily in field samples, interaction with photo-oxidative stress. The markers of O3 stress were thus mostly similar to those observed in other regions of the world. Further research is needed, to estimate the proportion of sensitive forest species, the O3 impact on tree growth and stand stability and to detect O3 hot spots where woody species in the Atlantic Forest are mostly affected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The Croton-Yorktown Model of Individualized Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, George F.; Snyder, Edward B.

    1980-01-01

    The individualized learning model, discussed in this article, uses an efficient feedback mechanism which incorporates an innovative student evaluation program and a unique system of classroom management. The design provides a model for monitoring student progress. (Author/SA)

  15. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The salt water may be disposed of by impounding it in reservoirs for evaporation or by injecting it underground through oil wells, oil tests, or wells drilled for saltwater disposal. Sediments in which the salt water possibly could be injected underlie the. Dove Creek Salt Flats at depths of less than 7,000 feet.

  16. Seasonal changes of fructans in dimorphic roots of Ichthyothere terminalis (Spreng.) Blake (Asteraceae) growing in Cerrado.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Lorrayne Veloso; Ferri, Pedro Henrique; Seraphin, José Carlos; de Moraes, Moemy Gomes

    2017-11-15

    Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses. Asteraceae species accumulate fructans in storage organs, which are not only reserve, but also protecting compounds against the effects of cold and drought. Ichthyothere terminalis is one Asteraceae species abundant in cerrado rupestre, with underground organs consisting of thickened orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots. The objectives of this study were to analyze how abiotic environmental factors and plant phenology influence fructan dynamics in field grown plants, and verify if fructan metabolism differs in both root types for one year. I. terminalis accumulates inulin-type fructans in 10-40% of the dry mass in both root types. Fructan dynamics have similar patterns described for other Asteraceae species, exhibiting a proportional increase of polysaccharides with the senescence of the aerial organs. Multivariate analyzes showed that, as rainfall decreased, environmental factors had a stronger influence on metabolite levels than phenological shifts in both root types. Only slight differences were found in fructan dynamics between orthogravitropic and diagravitropic roots, suggesting they may have similar fructan metabolism regulation. However, these small differences may reflect distinct microclimatic conditions in both root types and also represent the influence of sink strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations.

  18. Effect of fragmentation on the natural genetic diversity of Theobroma speciosum Willd. ex Spreng. populations.

    PubMed

    Varella, T L; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silveira, G F; Souza, M D A; Carvalho, M L S

    2016-11-21

    Forest fragmentation reduces the effective size of natural populations, isolates individuals in the landscape, and, consequently, changes species' mating systems by increasing the degree of relatedness between individuals and inbreeding. Investigating the impact of habitat degradation on forest fragments helps to assess the genetic and ecological consequences of these changes, and allows the development of effective and sustainable conservation strategies to manage the genetic resources of species living in degraded landscapes. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic diversity of fragmented Theobroma speciosum populations using microsatellite markers. Three urban forest fragments were selected in the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, namely C/E park, J park, and Zoo Botanical park. Seventy-five individuals (25 in each fragment) were sampled by collecting their leaves for genomic DNA extraction. Polymerase chain reaction amplifications were performed using nine polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers, which amplified 84 alleles. The mean expected heterozygosity was 0.970, and it was always higher than the observed heterozygosity. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most variability occurred within populations (64%) rather than between them (36%). The Structure software and an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram revealed three distinct groups, showing that individuals were allocated to their correct populations. Genotype number 3 from C/E park, number 45 from J park, and number 51 from Zoo Botanical park could be used as stock plants in breeding programs, because they were the most dissimilar within the populations studied. The high genetic diversity levels detected in all three populations studied emphasize the importance of protecting this species in its natural habitat.

  19. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer.

  20. Acaricidal activity of alkaloid fractions of Leucas indica Spreng against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick.

    PubMed

    Divya, T M; Soorya, V C; Amithamol, K K; Juliet, S; Ravindran, R; Nair, S N; Ajithkumar, K G

    2014-03-01

    The acaricidal activity from alkaloid and non-alkaloid fractions of Leucas indica were studied against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus tick using adult immersion test under laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the engorged female R.(B.) annulatus tick were exposed to two fold serial dilutions of alkaloid extract (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) using 'dipping method' in vitro. The efficacy was assessed by measuring the percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching rate. The alkaloid fraction of the extract produced concentration dependent delayed adult tick mortality. The extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml demonstrated 66.67 per cent mortality and 55.16 per cent inhibition of fecundity. Nicotine was identified as one of the compounds of alkaloid fraction. However, it did not reveal any acaricidal activity when tested in vitro at concentrations ranging from 62.5-1000 μg/mL. Hence, the acaricidal action of L. indica is not due to nicotine. Non alkaloid fraction also did not reveal any acaricidal effects against R. (B.) annulatus tick.

  1. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  2. Population structure and genetic diversity in natural populations of Theobroma speciosum Willd. Ex Spreng (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Giustina, L D; Luz, L N; Vieira, F S; Rossi, F S; Soares-Lopes, C R A; Pereira, T N S; Rossi, A A B

    2014-02-14

    The genus Theobroma found in the Amazon region is composed of 22 species, including Theobroma speciosum, better known as cacauí. These species are constantly threatened by forest fragmentation caused by human activities and require conservation strategies and management aimed at preserving them in their natural environments. The main objective of this study was to analyze the population structure and genetic diversity within and between natural populations of T. speciosum by using ISSR molecular markers to understand the population structure of the species. Four natural populations belonging to the Amazon rainforest (BAC, CRO, FLA, and PNA), located in the State of Mato Grosso, were selected. Amplification reactions were performed using 15 ISSR primers. A total of 101 loci were found, of which 54.46% were polymorphic at the species level. The BAC population showed higher genetic diversity (H=0.095 and I=0.144) and higher percentage of polymorphism (28.71%). The populations showed an FST value of 0.604, indicating marked genetic differentiation. The highest genetic variation was found between populations. Gene flow was low between populations, indicating genetic isolation between populations.

  3. In vivo antimalarial activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour) spreng on Plasmodium berghei yoelii.

    PubMed

    Periyanayagam, K; Nirmala Devi, K; Suseela, L; Uma, A; Ismail, M

    2008-06-01

    An invivo study of aqueous extract of the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus on Plasmodium berghei yoelii was conducted on laboratory infected albino mice and compared with standard drug chloroquine. Reduction of parasitemia at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs were determined. The reduction of parasitemia after 96 hrs was 100%, 67.9% and 76.2% for standard, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract respectively. The isolation of active principle responsible for the reduction of parasitemia may give a promising drug molecule.

  4. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research.

  5. Positive inotropic effect of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng extract on an isolated perfused frog heart.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal J; Juvekar, Archana R

    2006-06-01

    Ethanolic extract of fresh leaves of M. koenigii (MKEE) showed a dose dependent positive inotropic effect on isolated frog heart. The responses to MKEE (62.5-1000 microg) were not affected in either way by theophylline, imidazole, propranolol and sildenafil. The change in potassium and sodium concentration did not alter MKEE-induced positive inotropic effect. Lignocaine did not alter the responses to MKEE significantly. Responses to MKEE were significantly inhibited when calcium concentration was reduced to half (from 1.58 to 0.79 mM) and were significantly potentiated when calcium concentration was doubled (from 1.58 to 3.16 mM). Verapamil was found to inhibit the responses significantly. The results suggest that M. koenigii induced positive inotropic effect possibly by increasing availability of calcium from extra cellular sites.

  6. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  7. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107   L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106   L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  9. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium.

  10. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  11. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in MLH extract-treated ticks, and the %IO varied from 0.07 to 34.73% with various extracts and was recorded maximum with highest concentration of MLH. The results of the current study indicate that the extracts of M. koenigii can be used for control of SP-resistant ticks.

  12. Fatty Acid Profiling and In Vitro Antihyperglycemic Effect of Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng via Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzyme Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anjali; Kumar, Anil; Upreti, Dalip Kumar; Pande, Veena; Pal, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Leucas cephalotes has been used by many tribes to treat variety of diseases and known to have many essential secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first comparative analysis of total fatty acid (FA) composition and α-amylase inhibition activity of L. cephalotes. The present study is carried out to explore the antihyperglycemic activity and FA contents of all parts of L. cephalotes. Fruits, leaves, stems, and roots part of L. cephalotes have been extracted in ethanol. Simultaneously, all plant parts have been extracted in hexane with Soxhlet extraction. Ethanolic extracts have been evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity and hexane extract have been analyzed for FA identification. The present study indicated that ethanolic extract of fruit and leaves have shown significant α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 92.86 ± 0.89 and 98.09 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. FA composition of all the parts of L. cephalotes was analyzed by GC/MS. Nineteen FAs have been identified in all parts of L. cephalotes in which palmitic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and linoleic acid were major FAs. The study indicates that L. cephalotes has significant potential to inhibit α-amylase enzyme and it is a rich source of essential FAs. L. cephalotes has significant antidiabetic activity and will be beneficial for diabetic patients to reduce the starch breakdown and helps in reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia. It can be used in the formulation of diabetic drugs.L. cephalotes is rich source of essential FAs and may be used as a nutraceutical.Ethanol extract of fruits and leaves of L. cephalotes are showed the maximum α-amylase inhibition when compared with standard drug acarbose. Abbreviations used: DM: Diabetes Mellitus, FA: Fatty Acid, FFAs: Free Fatty Acids, FAME: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, IC50: Inhibitor Concentration, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrophotometer.

  13. Fatty Acid Profiling and In Vitro Antihyperglycemic Effect of Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng via Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzyme Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anjali; Kumar, Anil; Upreti, Dalip Kumar; Pande, Veena; Pal, Mahesh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Leucas cephalotes has been used by many tribes to treat variety of diseases and known to have many essential secondary metabolites. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first comparative analysis of total fatty acid (FA) composition and α-amylase inhibition activity of L. cephalotes. Objective: The present study is carried out to explore the antihyperglycemic activity and FA contents of all parts of L. cephalotes. Material and Method: Fruits, leaves, stems, and roots part of L. cephalotes have been extracted in ethanol. Simultaneously, all plant parts have been extracted in hexane with Soxhlet extraction. Ethanolic extracts have been evaluated for antihyperglycemic activity and hexane extract have been analyzed for FA identification. Result: The present study indicated that ethanolic extract of fruit and leaves have shown significant α-amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 92.86 ± 0.89 and 98.09 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. FA composition of all the parts of L. cephalotes was analyzed by GC/MS. Nineteen FAs have been identified in all parts of L. cephalotes in which palmitic acid, oleic acid, linolenic acid, and linoleic acid were major FAs. Conclusion: The study indicates that L. cephalotes has significant potential to inhibit α-amylase enzyme and it is a rich source of essential FAs. SUMMARY L. cephalotes has significant antidiabetic activity and will be beneficial for diabetic patients to reduce the starch breakdown and helps in reduction of postprandial hyperglycemia. It can be used in the formulation of diabetic drugs.L. cephalotes is rich source of essential FAs and may be used as a nutraceutical.Ethanol extract of fruits and leaves of L. cephalotes are showed the maximum α-amylase inhibition when compared with standard drug acarbose. Abbreviations used: DM: Diabetes Mellitus, FA: Fatty Acid, FFAs: Free Fatty Acids, FAME: Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, IC50: Inhibitor Concentration, GC-MS: Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrophotometer PMID:28479721

  14. Comparative study of the leaf volatiles of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. (Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina; Palić, Radosav

    2010-09-02

    The first GC and GC/MS analyses of the essential oils hydrodistilled from dry leaves of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Vaccinium vitis-idaea enabled the identification of 338 components in total (90.4 and 91.7% of the total GC peak areas, respectively). Terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid- and carotenoid derived compounds were predominant in the two samples. Both oils were characterized by high relative percentages of α-terpineol and linalool (4.7-17.0%). Compositional data on the volatiles of the presently analyzed and some other Ericaceae taxa (literature data) were mutually compared by means of multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis). This was done in order to determine, based on the essential oil profiles, possible mutual relationships of the taxa within the family, especially that of species from the genera Arctostaphylos and Vaccinium. Results of the chemical and statistical analyses pointed to a strong relation between the genera Vaccinium and Arctostaphylos.

  15. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v.

  16. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil.

    PubMed

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino Junior, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as "marmeleiro", in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative.

  17. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic root extract of Croton zambesicus.

    PubMed

    Okokon, Jude E; Nwafor, Paul A

    2010-10-01

    The ethanolic root extract of C. zambesicus (27-81mg/kg) was evaluated for antiiflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic properties in mice. The extract (27-81mg/kg) demonstrated a weak antiinflammatory activity. However, a significant (P<0.01-0.001) analgesic and antipyretic activities were observed in all the experimental models tested. The extract may be exerting its effects through central mechanisms. These findings confirms its ethnomedical use in the treatment of malarial-associated symptoms.

  18. 6. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York, 1843. HYDROGRAPHIC MAP, NEW YORK, WESTCHESTER, AND PUTNAM, CROTON AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  19. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  20. Simultaneous determination of naphthalene and anthraquinone derivatives in Rumex nepalensis Spreng. roots by HPLC: comparison of different extraction methods and validation.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Raju; Srivastava, Amit; Jachak, Sanjay M

    2011-01-01

    Rumex nepalensis contains mainly anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives. Although HPLC methods have been reported for the analysis of anthraquinones, neither a phytochemical analysis of Rumex species nor the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in other samples has been reported so far. To develop and validate a HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives in R. nepalensis roots. Anthraquinones and naphthalenes were extracted from R. nepalensis roots by three methods (reflux, ultrasonication and pressurized liquid extraction) using methanol. Separation was achieved on an RP C₁₈ column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.05% orthophosphoric acid in water (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B) using a UV detector (254 nm). Small differences were observed in the contents of anthraquinone and naphthalene derivatives extracted by the three methods. Chrysophanol-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and nepodin were detected as major constituents. The method showed a good linearity (r² > 0.9992), high precision (RSD < 5%) and a good recovery (97-105%) of the compounds. The lowest detection limit was found to be 0.97 ng and the method was found to be robust. Reflux and ultrasonication were found to be the best suited methods for the extraction of glycosides and aglycones, respectively. The developed and validated HPLC method is simple, precise and accurate; and can hence be recommended as the method of choice for the analysis of anthraquinones and naphthalenes in R. nepalensis and other Rumex species for both quality control as well as routine analytical purposes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Chemical characterization, toxicology and mechanism of gastric antiulcer action of essential oil from Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.) Harms in the in vitro and in vivo experimental models.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Karuppusamy; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Pavan, Eduarda; de Almeida, Guilherme Vieira Botelho; de Oliveira, Ruberlei Godinho; Wagner, Theodoro; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2017-10-01

    Gallesia integrifolia is a Brazilian Amazon tree whose bark decoction is popularly used to treat peptic ulcer. The essential oil from the inner stem bark of G. integrifolia (EOGi) was chemically characterized by GC/MS. The in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated in CHO-K1 cells, while the in vivo oral acute toxicity was performed in mice. The gastroprotective effect of EOGi was assessed in acidified ethanol and piroxicam and ulcer healing on acetic acid -induced ulcer models in rodents. Anti-secretory, mucus, K(+)-ATP channels, prostaglandins (PGs), nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and in vitro Helicobacter pylori action by EOGi were evaluated. EOGi exhibited cytotoxic effects only at 72h and no acute toxicity. EOGi showed gastroprotective and ulcer healing effects. EOGi gastroprotection was attenuated by indomethacin pre-treatment. Gastric volume and total acidity were reduced, while gastric pH was elevated. EOGi increased mucus and NO productions and CAT activity, and inhibited MPO activity, TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations and augmented IL-10. EOGi was not active against H. pylori. These results indicated that EOGi is safe and exerts preventive and curative gastric ulcer effects by multitarget actions. Twenty compounds were identified and (-)-alpha-santalene was the main compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  3. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  4. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L.

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  5. Is salt stress tolerance in Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. associated with its nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbiosis? An analysis at the photosynthetic level.

    PubMed

    Batista-Santos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Alves, Paula; da Costa, Mário; Graça, Inês; Pais, Isabel P; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; Leitão, António E; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Ramalho, José C

    2015-11-01

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal tree which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia bacteria. This plant is commonly found in saline zones and is widely used to remediate marginal soils and prevent desertification. The nature of its ability to survive in extreme environments and the extent of Frankia contribution to stress tolerance remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the ability of C. glauca to cope with salt stress and the influence of the symbiosis on this trait. To this end, we analysed the impact of salt on plant growth, mineral contents, water relations, photosynthetic-related parameters and non-structural sugars in nodulated vs. non-nodulated plants. Although the effects on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance started to become measurable in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, photochemical (e.g., photosynthetic electron flow) and biochemical (e.g., activity of photosynthetic enzymes) parameters were only strongly impaired when NaCl levels reached 600 mM. These results indicate the maintenance of high tissue hydration under salt stress, probably associated with enhanced osmotic potential. Furthermore, the maintenance of photosynthetic assimilation potential (A(max)), together with the increase in the quantum yield of down-regulated energy dissipation of PSII (Y(NPQ)), suggested a down-regulation of photosynthesis instead of photo-damaging effects. A comparison of the impact of increasing NaCl levels on the activities of photosynthetic (RubisCO and ribulose-5 phosphate kinase) and respiratory (pyruvate kinase and NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase) enzymes vs. photosynthetic electron flow and fluorescence parameters, revealed that biochemical impairments are more limiting than photochemical damage. Altogether, these results indicate that, under controlled conditions, C. glauca tolerates high NaCl levels and that this capacity is linked to photosynthetic adjustments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1. PMID:27907002

  7. Influence of salt stress on essential oil yield and composition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. ssp. Laniger (Hook) Maire et Weil).

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Neffati, Mohamed; Smiti, Samira; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Araujo, Maria Eduarda M

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon is an aromatic plant valued for its citrus scent aroma. In this article, the effect of saline irrigation water on yield and quality of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. was evaluated. Compounds of essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the growth of the aerial part was not affected at a concentration of 50 mmol NaCl. Under salt stress, the content of major chemical compounds was affected differently by the treatment level.

  8. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration silages based on desert wormwood (Artemisia desertorum Spreng.) combining with early stage corn.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guomei; Bai, Chunsheng; Sun, Juanjuan; Sun, Lin; Xue, Yanlin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Heping; Yu, Zhu; Liu, Sibo; Zhang, Kewei

    2017-07-25

    This study aimed to investigate the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages based on desert wormwood (DW) combined with early stage corn (ESC) as forage and determine an optimum formula. Desert wormwood and ESC were harvested, chopped, and mixed with other ingredients according to a formula, packed into laboratory silos at densities of 500-550 g/L, and stored in the dark for 60 days. The DW proportions in the forage of TMR were 1, 0.75, 0.50, 0.25 and 0, based on fresh weight. As the proportion of DW decreased, the pH also decreased (P < 0.05), while lactic acid, lactic acid/acetic acid, crude protein, starch, and the in vitro digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber increased (P < 0.05). Ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen in the TMR silages with DW proportions of 0.75, 0.25 and 0 in the forage was more than 10%. These results indicated that the quality of the TMR silage containing DW alone as forage was poor, TMR silages containing DW proportions of 0.75 and 0.25, and ESC alone, in the forage were not well preserved. The optimum TMR silage formula contained a DW proportion of 0.5 in the forage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere.

  10. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2010-10-01

    Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito.

  11. Lippia javanica (Burm.f.) Spreng.: Traditional and Commercial Uses and Phytochemical and Pharmacological Significance in the African and Indian Subcontinent

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Lippia javanica occurs naturally in central, eastern, and southern Africa and has also been recorded in the tropical Indian subcontinent. The potential of L. javanica as herbal or recreational tea and herbal medicine and its associated phytochemistry and biological properties are reviewed. The extensive literature survey revealed that L. javanica is used as herbal tea and has ethnomedicinal applications such as in colds, cough, fever, malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, chest pains, bronchitis, and asthma. Multiple classes of phytochemicals including volatile and nonvolatile secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, amino acids, flavonoids, iridoids, and triterpenes as well as several minerals have been identified from L. javanica. Scientific studies on L. javanica indicate that it has a wide range of pharmacological activities which include anticancer, antiamoebic, antidiabetic, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiplasmodial, and pesticidal effects. Although many of the traditional uses of L. javanica have been validated by phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are still some gaps where current knowledge could be improved. Lippia javanica is popular as both herbal and recreational tea, but there is need for more precise studies to evaluate the safety and clinical value of its main active crude and pure compounds and to clarify their mechanisms of action. PMID:28115974

  12. Thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the Croton River Basin, Putnam County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Don J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Putnam County, NY Department of Health, reviewed and compiled all available well information and aerial photographs to plot: (1) the locations of the wells and springs currently on file with USGS, and (2) the thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the county. These deposits consist either of glacial sand and gravel that lie primarily in glacially enlarged valleys, or of recent accumulations of clay, sand, and organic material on flood plains and within local depressions. Plate 1 shows the locations of all wells and springs in the area that are currently on file in USGS 's computerized data base; both bedrock wells and wells that tap till or stratified material are included. Also shown are the locations and depths of the wells, the reported depth to bedrock and yield, and the yield of all springs. Plate 2 shows the thickness of the stratified deposits as determined from logs of wells that were drilled through it; plate 3 shows the amount of water that a stratified deposit may be expected to yield to a new well. These estimates are based on the reported yields of the compiled wells. (Lantz-PTT)

  13. Assessing Changes in Impervious Area Using Land Use Maps of Different Resolution in the Croton NY City Water Supply Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerlot, C.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    With the advance of remote sensing, options arise for the hydrologic modeler to access both public domain and privately contracted watershed land cover maps. Land use classification processes using aerial photographs are highly variable depending on tools and training, but distinction between impervious and pervious land cover is relatively simple. Hydrologic models will estimate different runoff timing, volume, and water quality depending on the percent imperviousness of the watershed. This research will examine how percent imperviousness varies with changes in both radiometric and spatial land cover map resolution. WinHSPF was run with four distinct land cover maps derived from remote imagery: MRLC (30 m), LULC (1 km), contracted aerial photos (1 m), and processed digital (1 M) ortho quarter quads. Comparisons were made between map percent impervious cover and runoff timing and volume. A modified export coefficient model that tracks pollutant discharge through down gradient filters examined how estimated nutrient loading changed with differences in these land cover map products. Methods are suggested for updating estimates of percent impervious cover in coarser resolution maps using field data or other means.

  14. THE POWER OF WORDS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE CIVIL RIGHTS CRISIS--UNIT FOR TEAM ONE, CROTON SCHOOL. SUMMER 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYRD, C.; AND OTHERS

    THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THE PURPOSE OF SYMBOLS AND USE WORDS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING A PARAGRAPH USING DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORDS OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF MEANING AND LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO ADD PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND OTHER AFFIXES TO A LIST OF ROOT WORDS AND UNDERSTAND WORDS AND THEIR ORIGINS. GIVEN A PARAGRAPH, THE…

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  16. Nickel, Zn and Cd localisation in seeds of metal hyperaccumulators using μ-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer; Walsh, Kerry B.; Singh, Balwant

    2009-06-01

    Metal hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plant species that accumulate exceptionally high concentrations of metals in above ground tissues without showing symptoms of phytotoxicity. Quantitative localisation of the accumulated metals in seed tissues is of considerable interest to help understand the eco-physiology of these unique plant species. We investigated the spatial localisation of metals within seeds of Ni hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. adpressus, H. floribundus subsp. floribundus and Pimelea leptospermoides and dual-metal (Cd and Zn) hyperaccumulating Thlaspi caerulescens using quantitative micro-proton induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy. Intact seeds were hand-sectioned, sandwiched between Formvar films and irradiated using the 3 MeV high energy heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO. Elemental maps of whole H. floribundus subsp. adpressus seeds showed an average Ni concentration of 5.1 × 10 3 mg kg -1 dry weight (DW) with highest Ni concentration in cotyledonary tissues (7.6 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW), followed by the embryonic axis (4.4 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). Nickel concentration in whole H. floribundus subsp. floribundus seeds was 3.5 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW without a clear pattern of Ni localisation. The average Ni concentration in whole P. leptospermoides seeds was 2.6 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW, and Ni was preferentially localised in the embryonic axis (4.3 × 10 2 mg kg -1 DW). In T. caerulescens, Cd concentrations were similar in cotyledon (4.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) and embryonic axis (3.3 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW) tissues, whereas Zn was highest in cotyledonary tissues (1.5 × 10 3 mg kg -1 DW). In all species, the presence of the accumulated metal within the cotyledonary and embryonic axis tissues indicates that the accumulated metal was able to move apoplastically within the seed.

  17. Improved resolution and sensitivity on the ANSTO microprobe and it’s application to μ-PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegele, R.; Kachenko, A. G.; Ionescu, M.; Cohen, D. D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on the improved spatial resolution of the ANSTO heavy ion microprobe, achieved through the use of a higher brightness ion source for hydrogen. The improved resolution will be demonstrated for applications of μ-PIXE. With the higher brightness source, a 3 μm resolution was achieved for μ-PIXE elemental analysis. This is illustrated in high resolution images of nickel (Ni)-hyperaccumulating Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus leaf tissues, where individual cells were clearly visible in the acquired elemental images. The higher resolution images illustrated that Ni was localised in epidermal cell walls.

  18. Posthurricane Survey of Experimental Dunes on Padre Island, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    Fimbristylis castanea 5 35 2 ______________ Scirpus americanus_____________ _______ ______ _ _______ Leguminosae ... Leguminosae _____________ Baptisa aleucophaea ___________ _________ Cassia fasciculata 4 1 T 4_____9 __ Euphorb iaceae _______ Croton capitatus - -TTI TCroton... Leguminosae ______ Baptisia leucophaea ______ ______ _______ _______ Cassia fasciculata 43_____ Euphorbiaceae______ Croton capitatus_______

  19. 3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York: New York, 1843. PLATE VI, SING SING KILL BRIDGE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  20. Effects of residential and agricultural land uses on the chemical quality of baseflow of small streams in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings— Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in baseflow were strongly affected by the predominant land use in a given basin. Land uses included forested undeveloped, unsewered residential, sewered residential, and agricultural (horse and dairy farms). A positive linear relation was indicated for chloride concentration in baseflow and the basin's annual rate of road-salt application (or density of two-lane roads). Chloride concentration exhibits a relatively stable relation to road-salt application rate or 2-lane road density throughout the year. Positive linear relations were indicated for nitrate concentration in baseflow and the basins unsewered housing density. Nitrate is characterized by a different relation to unsewered housing density for each season, with the highest observed nitrate concentrations during the winter and the lowest concentrations during the summer. Baseflow nitrate concentrations in sewered basins, and in unsewered basins with riparian wetland buffers between residential development and the stream, were lower than concentrations predicted from unsewered-housing density.

  1. Solid state NMR methods for coal science. Progress report, January 1-March 31, 1985. [(CH/sub 2/O)n; crotonic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Zilm, K.W.

    1985-03-01

    This report covers the progress made on the title project during the last quarter. Areas that we have concentrated on in the last three months include carbon-13/proton chemical shift correlation in model systems, some crucial decoupling experiments, and setting up our high field /sup 2/D NMR capability. 6 figs.

  2. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT HASTINGS: ARCH PROVIDED ACCESS TO STONE QUARRY. PLATE XVII, PAGE 106. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  3. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT JEWELS BROOK, PLATE XVI, PAGE 105. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Jewels Brook Culvert, Spanning Station Road, Irvington, Westchester County, NY

  4. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT MILL RIVER. PLATE XV, PAGE 104. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  5. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT YONKERS. PLATE SVIII, PAGE 108. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Saw Mill River Culvert, Spanning Nepperhan Avenue, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  6. 7. Photocopied December 1977, form F.B. Tower, Illustrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied December 1977, form F.B. Tower, Illustrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT SING SING, PLATE XIII, PAGE 101. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  7. Antioxidative ability and membrane integrity in salt-induced responses of Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng. in symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia Thr or supplemented with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Scotti-Campos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Costa, Mário da; Pais, Isabel P; Rodrigues, Ana P; Batista-Santos, Paula; Semedo, José N; Leitão, A Eduardo; Lidon, Fernando C; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ramalho, José C; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    The actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca tolerates extreme environmental conditions, such as high salinity. This species is also able to establish a root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria of the genus Frankia. Recent studies have shown that C. glauca tolerance to high salt concentrations is innate and linked to photosynthetic adjustments. In this study we have examined the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations (200, 400 and 600mM) on membrane integrity as well as on the control of oxidative stress in branchlets of symbiotic (NOD+) and non-symbiotic (KNO3+) C. glauca. Membrane selectivity was maintained in both plant groups at 200mM NaCl, accompanied by an increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase). Regarding cellular membrane lipid composition, linolenic acid (C18:3) showed a significant decline at 200mM NaCl in both NOD+ and KNO3+ plants. In addition, total fatty acids (TFA) and C18:2 also decreased in NOD+ plants at this salt concentration, resulting in malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Such initial impact at 200mM NaCl is probably due to the fact that NOD+ plants are subjected to a double stress, i.e., salinity and low nitrogen availability. At 400mM NaCl a strong reduction of TFA and C18:3 levels was observed in both plant groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the unsaturation degree of membrane lipids in NOD+. However, in both NOD+ and KNO3+ lipid modifications were not reflected by membrane leakage at 200 or 400mM, suggesting acclimation mechanisms at the membrane level. The fact that membrane selectivity was impaired only at 600mM NaCl in both groups of plants points to a high tolerance of C. glauca to salt stress independently of the symbiotic relation with Frankia.

  8. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory effect of the Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Spreng) R.M. King & H. Rob. aqueous extract on human lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ and TNF-α production in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, V.G.; Avelar-Freitas, B.A.; Santos, M.G.; Costa, L.A.; Silva, T.J.; Pereira, W.F.; Amorim, M.L.L.; Grael, C.F.F.; Gregório, L.E.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Brito-Melo, G.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis (Asteraceae) is a plant commonly known as arnica-do-campo and belongs to the native flora of the Brazilian Cerrado. The alcoholic extract of the plant has been used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine, but the biological mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The present study evaluated the composition of P. brasiliensis aqueous extract and its effects on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation. The extracts were prepared by sequential maceration of P. brasiliensis leaves in ethanol, ethyl acetate, and water. Extract cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue exclusion assay, and apoptosis and necrosis were measured by staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The ethanolic (ETA) and acetate (ACE) extracts showed cytotoxic effects. The aqueous extract (AQU) was not cytotoxic. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin and treated with AQU (100 μg/mL) showed reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression. AQU also inhibited lymphocyte proliferative response after nonspecific stimulation with phytohemagglutinin. The aqueous extract was analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry. Quinic acid and its derivatives 5-caffeoylquinic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, as well as the flavonoids luteolin and luteolin dihexoside, were detected. All these compounds are known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P. brasiliensis aqueous extract can inhibit the pro-inflammatory cytokine production and proliferative response of lymphocytes. These effects may be related to the presence of chemical substances with anti-inflammatory actions previously reported in scientific literature. PMID:28700031

  10. Tamandua tetradactyla Linnaeus, 1758 (Myrmecophagidae) and Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Triatominae) infection focus by Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 (Trypanosomatidae) in Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng (Arecaceae) palm tree in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Quartier, Marion; Romaña, Christine A; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Harry, Myriam

    2010-12-01

    A sylvatic infection focus of Trypanosoma rangeli, whose cycle involves the anteater Tamandua tetradactyla and triatomine insect Rhodnius robustus was observed in a pasture-dominated landscape of the rural riparian community of São Tomé located along the Tapajós river in the municipal district of Aveiro (State of Pará, Brazil), the Brazilian Amazon region. During a field work campaign with the objective of Chagas disease diagnosis in the Tapajós region, an anteater and 31 triatomines were found inhabiting in the same Attalea phalerata palm tree crown. Collected triatomines were identified as R. robustus with morphological and molecular procedures. The analysis of infection by T. rangeli using the repetitive ARN nucleolar Cl1 (sno-RNA-Cl1) gene showed that 25 triatomines of all stages were infected by T. rangeli (total infection rate of 80.6%). Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon markers was not identified. Examination of the digestive content of the triatomines demonstrated that the only feeding source found was the anteater. These results demonstrate that T. tetradactyla can be an important reservoir for T. rangeli and a good vehicle of the parasite within the Brazilian Amazon region.

  11. First report of Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and laurel wilt in Louisiana, USA: The disease continues westward on sassafras

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; C. Wood Johnson; Roger D. Menard; Thomas C. Harrington; Rabiu Olatinwo; G. Susan Best

    2015-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich & Aghayeva (Ophiostomatales: Ophiostomataceae), has spread rapidly through the coastal plains forests of the southeastern United States (USA) with devastating effects on redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng.; Laurales: Lauraceae) populations (Fraedrich et...

  12. A Summary of Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring at Selected Locations in Pools 4, 8, 13, and 26 and La Grange Pool of the Upper Mississippi River System. 1993 Annual Status Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    Najas guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus Nymphaeaceae American lotus Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. Nymphaeaceae White waterlily Nymphaea odorata Ait... Nymphaeaceae Yellow pondlily Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm Onagraceae Floating primrosewillow Jussiaea repens L. Pontederiaceae Water stargrass, Heteranthera dubia

  13. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scholytinae), and Cubeb oil as an alternative attractant

    Treesearch

    James Hanula; Brian Sullivan; David Wakarchuk

    2013-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (...

  14. Evaluation of specimen preparation techniques for micro-PIXE localisation of elements in hyperaccumulating plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Siegele, Rainer; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Singh, Balwant; Ionescu, Mihail

    2008-04-01

    Hybanthus floribundus subsp. floribundus, a rare Australian Ni-hyperaccumulating shrub and Pityrogramma calomelanos var. austroamericana, an Australian naturalized As-hyperaccumulating fern are promising species for use in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (μ-PIXE) spectroscopy was used to map the elemental distribution of the accumulated metal(loid)s, Ca and K in leaf or pinnule tissues of the two plant species. Samples were prepared by two contrasting specimen preparation techniques: freeze-substitution in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and freeze-drying. The specimens were analysed to compare the suitability of each technique in preserving (i) the spatial elemental distribution and (ii) the tissue structure of the specimens. Further, the μ-PIXE results were compared with concentration of elements in the bulk tissue obtained by ICP-AES analysis. In H. floribundus subsp. floribundus, μ-PIXE analysis revealed Ni, Ca and K concentrations in freeze-dried leaf tissues were at par with bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps illustrated that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermal tissues (1% DW) and least concentration was found in spongy mesophyll tissues (0.53% DW). Conversely, elemental distribution maps of THF freeze-substituted tissues indicated significantly lower Ni, Ca and K concentrations than freeze-dried specimens and bulk tissue concentrations. Moreover, Ni concentrations were uniform across the whole specimen and no localisation was observed. In P. calomelanos var. austroamericana freeze-dried pinnule tissues, μ-PIXE revealed statistically similar As, Ca and K concentrations as compared to bulk tissue concentrations. Elemental distribution maps showed that As localisation was relatively uniform across the whole specimen. Once again, THF freeze-substituted tissues revealed a significant loss of As compared to freeze-dried specimens and the concentrations obtained by bulk tissue analysis

  15. Autoignition and Combustion of Diesel and JP-8

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-19

    nonuniform flow fields under non- premixed conditions. The esters considered are methyl butanoate, methyl crotonate, and ethyl propionate. Methyl butanoate...under nonpremixed conditions. The esters considered are methyl butanoate, methyl crotonate, and ethyl propionate. Methyl butanoate is considered to be a...fuel stream, T1, for methyl butanoate, methyl crotonate, and ethyl propionate respec- tively are 453 (± 10) K, 448 (± 10) K, and 445 (± 10) K. The

  16. Does the Marine Corps Need an Enlisted Aviation Production Process?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Croton -on-Hudson, N.Y.: North River Press. Goldratt, Eliyahu M., and Jeff Cox. 2004. The goal : a process of ongoing improvement. 3 rev, 20th... Croton -on-Hudson: NY North River Press, 1990). From l,ynn Sines, The Comparison of the Operational Characteristics of the Theory of 42...This Thing Called Theory of Constraints ( Croton -on-Hudson, NY: North River Press. 56 Ibid. 4 57 Ibid. 5-6 58 Ibid. 6 59 Michael L. George, Lean

  17. Coosa River Storage Annex, Talladega, Alabama. Environmental Investigation Report. Volume 2 of 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    jointtail Crataegus harbisoni hawthorn Croomnia pauciflora croomia Croton alabamensis Alabama croton Cuscuta Izarperi lovevine, dodder Cypripediunz...kentuckiense Kentucky lady’s-slipper Delphinium exalt atumnz tall larkspur Echinacca laevigata purple coneflower Helianthus eggertii glade sunflower Hexastylis...flava southern rein orchid Platanth era integra yellow fringeless orchid Platanth era peramoena purple fringeless orchid Polyninnia laevigata Tennessee

  18. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, November 16, 1986-November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the growth and metabolism of Syntrophomonas wolfei in pure culture with crotonate as the energy source. S. wolfei grows in crotonate mineral salts medium without rumen fluid with cobalamin, thymine, lipoic acid and biotin added. However, after four to six transfers in this medium, growth ceases, indicating that another vitamin is required. The chemically defined medium allows large batches of S. wolfei to be grown for enzyme purification. All the enzymes involved in the oxidation of crotonyl-CoA to acetate have been detected. The pure culture of S. wolfei or coculture of S. wolfei grown with crotonate contain high activities of a crotonate: acetyl-CoA CoA-transferase activity. This activity is not detected in cocultures grown with butyrate. Thus, we believe that the reason why S. wolfei can now grow with crotonate is that an alteration or mutation occurred which allows the organism to activate this crotonate. S. wolfei also makes small amounts of H/sub 2/ when grown in pure culture with crotonate. A methyl viologen-dependent hydrogenase activity was found. We have also demonstrated the production of H/sub 2/ from 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA in cell-free extracts of S. wolfei by coupling H/sub 2/ production to CH/sub 4/ production with the addition of Methanobacterium bryantii and directly using a hydrogen electrode. These results clearly show that S. wolfei makes H/sub 2/. S. wolfei does not contain formate dehydrogenase or CO dehydrogenase activities.

  19. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  1. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  2. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN CAN BE DIVERTED AT THE WASTE WEIR TO BE DISCHARGED INTO THE CULVERT IN FOREGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Northern Waste Weir, Snowden Avenue & Van Wick Street, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  3. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. SECTION OF AQUEDUCT SHOWING CAST-IRON LINING AS USED OVER BRIDGES. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  4. 31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman Document 55, NYC: January 4, 1838. PLANS FOR CROSSING THE HARLEM RIVER BY CAST IRON PIPES OR INVERTED SYPHON. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  5. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  6. 7. Photocopied December 1977, from loose, original drawings, Jervis Library. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied December 1977, from loose, original drawings, Jervis Library. SECTIONS OF AQUEDUCTS PROPOSED BY MAJOR DOUGLASS IN HIS FIRST CONSULTANT' S REPORT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  7. 32. Photocopied December 1977, from loose, original drawings, Jervis Library. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopied December 1977, from loose, original drawings, Jervis Library. CENTERING FOR 120' ARCH JERVIS PROPOSED FOR LOW SYPHON BRIDGE, BUT DID NOT BUILD. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  8. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from Charles B. Stuart, Lives and Works of Civil and Military Engineers, New York, 1871. PORTRAIT OF MAJOR DAVID BATES DOUGLASS. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  9. Remediation System Evaluation, Brewster Wellfield Superfund Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Brewster Well Field, located on the northern bank of the East Branch Croton River (the “River”),was found in 1978 to be contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic chemicals (CVOCs) includingtetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE) and..

  10. Repair Process Improvement at the Ogden Air Logistics Center, Landing Gear Division: A Case Study in the Application of the Theory of Constraints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Eliyahu M. Goldratt . It emphasizes constraint identification and exploitation as the key to focusing limited time and resources on processes to achieve... Eliyahu M. Theory of Constraints. Croton-on-Hudson NY: North River Press, Inc., 1990. 113 Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The GaI. Croton-on-Hudson NY...addition, many of the existing validation efforts have been conducted by the Goldratt Institute and may not constitute truly independent looks at what

  11. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  12. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , on Sassafras ( Sassafras albidum ) in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Rabiu Olatinwo; C. Barton; Stephen Fraedrich; W. Johnson; J. Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich, is a lethal disease that affects members of the laurel family (Lauraceae) including avocado (Persea americana Mill), redbay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng., Nees), and sassafras (Sassafras albidum [Nutt.]). The fungus is a symbiont of an exotic ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  13. Biology and host associations of redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), exotic vector of laurel wilt killing redbay trees in the Southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Albert E. Mayfield; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Robert J. Babaglia

    2008-01-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolyhnae), and its fungal symbiont, Rafaelea sp., are new introductions to the southeastern United States responsible for the wilt of mature redbay, Persea borbonia (L) Spreng., trees. In 2006 and 2007, we investigated the...

  14. Flavonoid concentration diversity of 3 different species in the phaseoleae tribe

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The functional vegetable species including Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., and Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng are in the Phaseoleae tribe. Seeds from 10 L. purpureus and 7 M. uniflorum accessions originated from the field during 2009 and 2009 to 2010, respectively at...

  15. Effect of trap type, trap position, time of year, and beetle density on captures of the Redbay Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Treesearch

    James Hanula; Michael Ulyshen; Scott Horn`

    2011-01-01

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and its fungal symbiont Raffaellea lauricola Harrington, Fraedrich, and Aghayeva are responsible for widespread redbay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng., mortality in the southern United States. Effective traps and lures are needed to monitor spread of the beetle and...

  16. Energy content of tropical grasses and legumes grown for bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biomass samples of the tropical grasses Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Staph, Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick, Brachiaria decumbens Staph, Panicum maximum Jacq., Pennistetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng and three species of the tropical legume Stylosanthes grown in Mato Grosso do Su...

  17. Towards the development of a laurel wilt screening program in redbay (Persea borbonia)

    Treesearch

    Marc Hughes; Jason Smith

    2012-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a highly destructive disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) and other Lauraceous natives in the southeastern United States. The disease and associated vector, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus), has spread through the United States coastal plain. The presence of surviving and...

  18. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  19. Prenylated benzoic acid derivatives from the stem of Euodia lepta.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Bo; Zhou, Si-Xiang; Zhang, Qing-Ying; Wei, Wei-Feng; Li, Ming-Hui; Xing, Jian-Yong; Jiang, Yong; Tu, Peng-Fei

    2017-07-01

    Two new prenylated benzoic acid derivatives, leptoic acid A and (+)-S-anodendroic acid (1-2), along with one known compound, 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-6-carboxylic acid (3) were isolated from the stem of Euodia lepta (spreng.) Merr. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  20. Rearing redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), on semi-artifical media

    Treesearch

    M. Lake Maner; James Hanula; S. Kristine Braman

    2014-01-01

    Semi-artificial diets consisting of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng,; Laurales: Lauraceae) sawdust and various nutrients were tested for rearing Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in vitro. Comparison of 2 media, modified and standard, adapted from Biedermann et al. (2009) showed that the more...

  1. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  2. First report of laurel wilt disease caused by Raffaelea lauricola on pondspice in Florida

    Treesearch

    M. Hughes; J.A. Smith; A.E. Mayfield III; M.C. Minno; K. Shin

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is a fungal vascular disease of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other plants in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (1). The disease is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T. C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva, which is vectored by the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus...

  3. First report of Laurel Wilt caused by Rafffaelea lauricola on sassafras in Mississippi

    Treesearch

    J.J. Riggins; S.W. Fraedrich; T.C. Harrington

    2011-01-01

    Laurel wilt is caused by the fungus Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harrin., Aghayeva & Fraedrich and is lethal to redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.), sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees), and other species in the Lauraceae (1). The fungus is carried by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichh.), which is native to Asia.

  4. The association of Xyleborus glabratus and an Ophiostoma species with mortality of red bay and sassafras in the Southeastern U.S.

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Rabaglia; Stephen Fraedrich

    2007-01-01

    Extensive mortality of red bay (Persea borbonia [L.] Spreng) has been reported in coastal areas around Hilton Head Island, SC, and Savannah, GA, since the fall of 2003. In November, 2004 dead and dying red bay trees were examined on Hilton Head Island. Trees exhibited wilt-like symptoms and a distinct discoloration of the sapwood. Leaves on affected...

  5. Manuka oil and phoebe oil are attractive baits for xyleborus glabratus (coleoptera: scolytinae), the vector of Laurel Wilt

    Treesearch

    James L. Hanula; Brian Sullivan

    2008-01-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a native of Southeast Asia recently established in coastal forests of Georgia, SC and Florida It vectors a wilt fungus, Raffaeka sp., lethal to redbay trees, Persea borbonia L. Spreng, and certain other Lauraceae. No practical monitoring system exists for this beetle so we...

  6. Laurel Wilt: a new and devastating disease of redbay caused by a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay Ambrosia beetle

    Treesearch

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; Thomas C. Harrington; Robert J. Rabaglia

    2007-01-01

    The mysterious death of redbay Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) trees on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and surrounding areas was first reported in local newspapers in 2003. Thousands of redbays were dying in the low country of South Carolina, and by the end of 2004 officials on Hilton Head were estimating that they had lost 75-80% of the island...

  7. First report of laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola, on redbay (Persea borbonia) in Texas.

    Treesearch

    R. D. Menard; S. R. Clarke; Stephen Fraedrich; T. C. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C.Harr., Aghayeva, & Fraedrich, a fungal symbiont of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff), is responsible for extensive mortality of redbay (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng) and other Lauraceae native to the United States (Fraedrich et al. 2008). The beetle and fungus were introduced into the United...

  8. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  9. Heavy metals concentration in plants growing on mine tailings in Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hernández, M O; Vásquez-Murrieta, M S; Patiño-Siciliano, A; Dendooven, L

    2010-06-01

    Metal concentrations were measured in plants growing on heavily contaminated tailings from a mine active since about 1800 in San Luis Potosí (Mexico). Viguiera dentata (Cav.) Spreng., Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ort.) Rollins, Flaveria angustifolia (Cav.) Pers., F. trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr. and Sporobolusindicus (L.) R. Br. were tolerant to high As, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations. Of those, S.indicus excluded heavy metals from its shoots, while P. bipinnatifidum and F. angustifolia accumulated them. V. dentata and P. bipinnatifidum were accumulators of As, but not hyperaccumulators. It was found that V. dentata,P. bipinnatifidum, F. angustifolia, F. trinervia and S.indicus, could be used to vegetate soils contaminated with As, Cu, Pb and Zn. Ambrosiaartemisifolia could be used to remediate soils contaminated with Zn, S. amplexicaulis those with Cu and F. angustifolia and F. trinervia those with As, as they have a strong capacity to accumulate those metals.

  10. Pollen morphology of Vochysiaceae tree species in the State of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barth, Ortrud Monika; Pinto Da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes

    2014-09-01

    Tropical Vochysiaceae includes mainly trees, and also shrubs and subshrubs. Three genera and seven species are present in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. The pollen morphology of six species of trees, belonging to three genera of the Vochysiaceae A. St-Hil. family, was studied. Herbaria samples were obtained, processed and treated by standard methods. The pollen grain morphology of Callisthene, Qualea and Vochysia is distinct. Medium sized pollen grains occur in Vochysia species, and small ones in Callisthene and Qualea. Specific characteristics were considered at species level [C. castellanosii H. F. Martins, C. kuhlmannii H. F. Martins, Qualea cordata Spreng var. cordata, Q. cryptantha (Spreng) Warm. var. cryptantha, Vochysia magnifica Warm. and V. tucanorum Mart.]. The presence ofa fastigium (vestibulum) and a thin space devoid of nexine fixing the boundary of the apertural area is characteristic of Qualea and Vochysia species only.

  11. Changes in the composition of hind limb lymph after chemical injury

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Susan; Lewis, G. P.; Westcott, Barbara

    1970-01-01

    1. Lymph was collected directly from the hind limbs of rabbits and cats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. 2. Injury to the hind limb was caused by injection of one of two chemicals; either dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) which produced a mild injury, or croton oil which produced severe injury. 3. After subcutaneous injection (6 × 0·2 ml) into the right hind limb there was a good correlation between the changes in concentration of intracellular enzyme systems in the lymph draining the limb and the histological appearance of the injured tissue. DMSO caused an increase in cytoplasmic enzymes only, while after croton oil, which caused cell necrosis, there was an increase in the concentration of all intracellular enzymes examined. 4. There was an increased lymph flow accompanied by a fall in protein concentration after DMSO, while croton oil caused an increase in protein concentration and a variable effect on lymph flow. PMID:5485152

  12. The Ecology and Environmental Impacts of Hydrilla

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-15

    guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus) and egeria ( Egeria densa ) were the dominant submersed weeds. The other aquatic plants were found only in small areas of...naiad and egeria became a problem in several areas of the lake; but by late fall, the submersed weed growth was still a minor problem. Local state...species having the greatest frequencies of occurrence were egeria , southern naiad, and hydrilla. A second survey was made on May 28, 1974 to record

  13. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  14. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  15. AIRSpeed Works: Success is Possible at the Operational Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-18

    Although this was an                                                          19 Eliyahu M. Goldratt, The Haystack Syndrome (New York: Croton -on...2004, 33-36. Goldratt, Eliyahu M. The Haystack Syndrome. New York: Croton -on- Hudson, 1990. Goldratt, Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal: A

  16. Assessing Installation Ethnobotanical Resources Using Land Condition Trend Analysis (LCTA) Data: A Fort Riley, Kansas, Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    missouriensis G F Gleditsia triacanthos S B Crataegus phaenopyrum G F Glycyrrhiza lepidota S F Croton monanthogynus S F Grindelia squarrosa S B...angustifolia s X Euphorbia marginata s X Fragaria virginiana s X Fraxinus pennsylvanica s X Glycyrrhiza lepidota s X Grindelia squarrosa s X

  17. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), Jervis Library. INITIAL BRIDGE DESIGN FOR CROSSING MILL RIVER. STRUCTURE NOT BUILT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  18. MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES AT MADISON AREA PROJECT SCHOOLS, SEPTEMBER 1963 - JUNE 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, KERMIT B.

    THE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES BEGAN IN SEPTEMBER 1963 AT MADISON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, IRVING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, AND CROTON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. THE PROGRAM WAS DIVIDED INTO TWO BROAD CATEGORIES--PREVENTIVE SERVICE AND DIRECT SERVICE. THE PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOCUSSED INTERPRETATIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH THROUGH INSERVICE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS, GROUP…

  19. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580-c. 500 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Samos, Ionia, taught by Thales and Anaximander on Miletus, founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (in southern Italy) whose members, as well as having various beliefs that we would recognize as religious, believed that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature. Pythagoras observed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios ...

  20. Changes in Benthic Invertebrate Communities During the Introduction of Zebra Mussels Into an Impounded Michigan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenton, M.; Godby, N.; Rutherford, E.; Vankampen, S.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, ZM) were introduced into the Croton impoundment on the Muskegon River, MI, sometime during the late 1990s, and subsequently colonized downstream. We evaluated changes in invertebrate communities in the Muskegon River during ZM colonization. ZM were not found in benthic samples collected during 1998-1999 but densities reached 12,000 m-2 and 26,000 m-2 in 2000 and 2001 respectively, immediately below the Croton impoundment. ZM densities remained relatively low (<70 m-2) at sites 1.75 km and 8.75 km downstream. Total arthropod densities increased from 1998-99 to 2001. Trichoptera densities declined at all sites in 2000 but recovered in 2001. The relative abundance of Hyropsychidae varied between 1998-99 and 2001 at each sample site. Cheumatopsyche sp. increased significantly below Croton dam occupying spaces within and below ZM clumps, but declined at downstream sites following introduction of ZM. Chironomidae were uncommon in 1998-99 samples but were numerically dominant in 2000 and 2001 averaging 16525 m-2 over both years. Data from 2003 indicated that ZM remove 32% of suspended Chl. a in the first 500 m below Croton Dam. Thus, ZM may affect benthic invertebrate communities in impounded river systems by redistributing particulate organic matter within the system.

  1. Brasiliocroton : a new crotonoid genus of Euphorbiaceae s.s. from eastern Brazil

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Berry; Ines Cordeiro; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Maria Amelia Vitorino-Cruz; Leticia Ribes de Lima

    2005-01-01

    A new genus and species of Euphorbiaceae s.s., Brasiliocroton mamoninha, is described from two disjunct areas of lowland forest remnants in eastern and northeastern Brazil. It is a member of tribe Crotoneae and was previously confused with Croton and Micrandra. The resemblance to Micrandra is based on the branched inflorescences and terminal position of the pistillate...

  2. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  3. Nutritional features of Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, P.S.; McInerney, M.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grew poorly in a defined medium with crotonate as the energy source in the absence of rumen fluid. Thiamine, lipoic acid, biotin, cyanocobalamin, and para-aminobenzoic acid were required for growth comparable to that obtained with the rumen fluid-based medium. Iron and cobalt were also required for the growth of S. wolfei in the chemically defined medium.

  4. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  5. 78 FR 21395 - Announcement of Funding Awards, Choice Neighborhoods Grant Program, Fiscal Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...; Croton Heights/Cottage Place Gardens of Yonkers, 1511 Central Park Avenue, neighborhood. Yonkers, NY... Authority of the City Tampa, 30,000,000 Central Park Village; Central Park/Ybor neighborhood. 1529 W. Main... (project is located in San Francisco, CA). City of Roanoke Redevelopment and 200,000 Lansdown Park and...

  6. An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Engineering Management of the Royal Australian Air Force F/RF-111C Weapon System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Robert E. Fox. The Race. Croton-on-Hudson NY: North River Press Inc, 1986. 16. Hau, Chris, Wing Commander (retired), RAAF...organization’s goals and objectives. 32 Recall that goals define and state the purpose of an organization. Goldratt has a very straightforward concept of the

  7. Demonstrating the Effects of Shop Flow Process Variability on the Air Force Depot Level Reparable Item Pipeline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    DO41). AFLCR 57-4. Wright-Patterson AFB OH: HQ AFLC, 29 April 1983. 137 12. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal. Croton-On-Hudson NY: North...manufacturing process (14:411). Goldratt and Cox give another example of the same impact of variability in their book The Goal when they demonstrated what

  8. Biological Screening of Select Puerto Rican Plants for Cytotoxic and Antitumor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Karla Claudio; Rivera, Janibeth Hernández; Gutierrez, Jaymie Rivera; Rivera, Isamar Ortiz; Velez, Augusto Carvajal; Torres, Marianela Pérez; Ortiz, Mayra Pagán; Millán, Claudia A. Ospina

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and anticancer activities of extracts from 7 species of endemic and native plants from Puerto Rico. Methods The plant species selected for this study were Canella winterana, Croton discolor, Goetzea elegans, Guaiacum officinale, Pimenta racemosa, Simarouba tulae, and Thouinia striata. The dried plant material was extracted with a 1:1 mixture of CH2Cl2-MeOH. The resulting crude extract was suspended in water and extracted with solvents of different polarities. The extracts were evaluated for their cytotoxic effects against Artemia salina and 3 breast cancer cell lines. Results About 50% of the extracts evaluated against Artemia salina exhibited LC50 values of less than or equal to 200 µg/mL. The strongest activity was detected in the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Guaiacum officinale, with lethality values below 10 µg/mL. The extracts were further evaluated for their bioactivity as possible inhibitors of several breast cancer cell lines, with the extracts from Simarouba tulae and Croton discolor showing the highest percentages of growth inhibition. The dose-effect data analysis for the crude extracts of the different plants also confirms the high cytotoxicities of Guaiacum officinale, Simarouba tulae, and Croton discolor. Conclusion Based on our results, we concluded that the Simarouba, Croton, and Guaiacum plant extracts show cytotoxic and anticancer activities that merit closer investigation in order to identify the chemical compounds responsible for these bioactivities. PMID:25856874

  9. 2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT SING SING, SHOWING ALL THREE ARCHES, INCLUDING 88-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  10. A cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Itokawa, H; Ichihara, Y; Mochizuki, M; Enomori, T; Morita, H; Shirota, O; Inamatsu, M; Takeya, K

    1991-04-01

    Taspine has been isolated as a cytotoxic substance from Sangre de Grado, sap of Croton palanostigma (Euphorbiaceae), by bioassay guided fractionation. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of taspine was found to be 0.39 microgram/ml against KB cells and 0.17 microgram/ml against V-79 cells.

  11. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  12. Efficacy of vaccination with Skinner vaccine towards the prevention of herpes simplex virus induced cervical carcinoma in an experimental mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, M H; Zhou, Z; Hartley, C E; Cowan, M; Skinner, G R

    1986-12-01

    The incidence of cervical carcinoma, which had been induced by vaginal application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) with 20% croton oil, was significantly reduced in mice prevaccinated with the Skinner herpes vaccine. There was evidence of an immunological response in both vaccinated and unvaccinated mice.

  13. Base Exterior Architecture Plan: Naval Ocean Systems Center Hawaii Laboratory, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    cuttings Sedum confusum 1 Gal or 2-1/2 Gal Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Existig trees to be removed Itani 00 5ta-gii/_ ,terophylla _________ ca smnuatkix, lica...Carissa grandiflora Natal Plum(~)Codiaeum variegatumn Croton 0 Gardenia taitensis Tiare Gardenia XHibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus .0Impatiens sultani

  14. Basinwide fold evolution and geometric development of cratonic - foreland basin interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Redly, P.; Hajnal, Z. )

    1996-01-01

    Latest results of the Williston Basin Project incorporate a north-south regional seismic line, which is crossing the deepest part of the Williston Basin from Saskatchewan to South Dakota. The integration of this new profile to the two, existing east-west regional seismic sections, gives a quasi-3D image of the basin. The combined seismic data illustrate alternating extensive and compressive phases during basin development, marked by basinwide circular and radial folds. This alternating pattern of basin subsidence is the very nature of crotonic basin evolution. The structural necessity for compressive phases during crotonic basin subsidence, is shown in a regional scale interpretation that has undergone an Earth-curvature correction. The geometrical evolution of the neighboring foreland basin is also interpreted from data that has been corrected with the Earth-curvature function. It shows that basinwide folds sub-parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the basin are analogous to the circular and radial folds of the crotonic basins. These folds, in the foreland belt, are less pronounced because larger scale structural elements can overprint them. Where the crotonic and foreland basins overlap, a complex, deformed zone is present, and contains late stage volcanism, in this area. The geometry of the Williston Basin can be modeled by the Sloss-type [open quote]inverted Gaussian function[close quote] that is modified by the periodic westward tilting of the basin and the Earth-curvature function.

  15. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). An Experimental and DFT Investigation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jared M; Pilath, Heidi M; Mittal, Ashutosh; Michener, William E; Robichaud, David J; Johnson, David K

    2016-01-28

    We demonstrate a synthetic route toward the production of propene directly from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), the most common of a wide range of high-molecular-mass microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Propene, a major commercial hydrocarbon, was obtained from the depolymerization of PHB and subsequent decarboxylation of the crotonic acid monomer in good yields (up to 75 mol %). The energetics of PHB depolymerization and the gas-phase decarboxylation of crotonic acid were also studied using density functional theory (DFT). The average activation energy for the cleavage of the R'C(O)O-R linkage is calculated to be 163.9 ± 7.0 kJ mol(-1). Intramolecular, autoacceleration effects regarding the depolymerization of PHB, as suggested in some literature accounts, arising from the formation of crotonyl and carboxyl functional groups in the products could not be confirmed by the results of DFT and microkinetic modeling. DFT results, however, suggest that intermolecular catalysis involving terminal carboxyl groups may accelerate PHB depolymerization. Activation energies for this process were estimated to be about 20 kJ mol(-1) lower than that for the noncatalyzed ester cleavage, 144.3 ± 6.4 kJ mol(-1). DFT calculations predict the decarboxylation of crotonic acid to follow second-order kinetics with an activation energy of 147.5 ± 6.3 kJ mol(-1), consistent with that measured experimentally, 146.9 kJ mol(-1). Microkinetic modeling of the PHB to propene overall reaction predicts decarboxylation of crotonic acid to be the rate-limiting step, consistent with experimental observations. The results also indicate that improvements made to enhance the isomerization of crotonic acid to vinylacetic acid will improve the direct conversion of PHB to propene.

  16. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  17. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  18. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Yang, D; Woese, C R; Bryant, M P

    1993-04-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  19. Screening of Brazilian fruit aromas using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Augusto, F; Valente, A L; dos Santos Tada, E; Rivellino, S R

    2000-03-17

    Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for the qualitative analysis of the aromas of four native Brazilian fruits: cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum, Spreng.), cajá (Spondias lutea. L.), siriguela (Spondias purpurea, L.) and graviola (Anona reticulata, L). Industrialized pulps of these fruits were used as samples, and extractions with SPME fibers coated with polydimethylsiloxane, polyacrylate, Carbowax and Carboxen were carried out. The analytes identified included several alcohols, esters, carbonyl compounds and terpernoids. The highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using the Carboxen fiber.

  20. Four New 2-(2-Phenylethyl)chromone Derivatives from Chinese Agarwood Produced via the Whole-Tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang-Yang; Chen, De-Li; Wei, Jian-He; Feng, Jian; Zhang, Zheng; Yang, Yun; Zheng, Wei

    2016-10-27

    Four new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone derivatives (1-4) were isolated from the EtOH extract of Chinese agarwood produced via the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique, coming from Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (Thymelaeaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, such as UV, IR, MS, 1D as well as 2D NMR. All of the isolates were then assessed for their anti-inflammatory activities on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7. Compound 1 exhibited significant inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.6 μM.

  1. Antibacterial and antibiotic-modulation activity of six Cameroonian medicinal plants against Gram-negative multi-drug resistant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Djeussi, Doriane E; Noumedem, Jaurès A K; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Kuete, Victor

    2016-05-04

    Bacterial Infections involving multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotypes constitute a worldwide health concern. The present work was designed to assess the antibacterial properties of the methanol extracts of six medicinal plants (Anthocleista schweinfurthii, Nauclea latifolia, Boehmeria platyphylla, Caucalis melanantha, Erigeron floribundus and Zehneria scobra) and the effects of their associations with antibiotics on MDR Gram-negative bacteria over-expressing active efflux pumps. The antibacterial activities and the ability to potentiate antibiotic effects of the methanol extracts the tested plants were evaluated in vitro against twenty eight Gram-negative bacteria expressing MDR phenotypes, using broth microdilution method. The phytochemical screening of these extracts was also performed using standard methods. All tested extracts displayed moderate to low antibacterial activity on at least 14.3 % of the 28 tested bacteria, with MIC values ranged from 128 to 1024 μg/mL. The best antibacterial spectrum was observed with Naulcea latifolia bark extract. Extracts from A. schweinfurthii fruits, N. latifolia stem bark, Z. scobra and N. latifolia leaves showed synergistic effects with many antibiotics against MDR bacteria. The overall results of the present study provide information for the possible use of the studied plants, especially Nauclea latifolia in the control of Gram-negative bacterial infections including MDR species as antibacterials as well as resistance modulators.

  2. N-Alkylated dinitrones from isosorbide as cross-linkers for unsaturated bio-based polyesters.

    PubMed

    Goerz, Oliver; Ritter, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Isosorbide was esterified with acryloyl chloride and crotonic acid yielding isosorbide diacrylate (9a) and isosorbide dicrotonate (9b), which were reacted with benzaldehyde oxime in the presence of zinc(II) iodide and boron triflouride etherate as catalysts to obtain N-alkylated dinitrones 10a/b. Poly(isosorbide itaconite -co- succinate) 13 as a bio-based unsaturated polyester was cross-linked by a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition with the received dinitrones 10a/b. The 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition led to a strong change of the mechanical properties which were investigated by rheological measurements. Nitrones derived from methyl acrylate (3a) and methyl crotonate (3b) were used as model systems and reacted with dimethyl itaconate to further characterize the 1,3-dipolaric cycloaddition.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of the n-BuOH subfraction of mushroom Phellinus linteus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hyoung; Song, Yun-Seon; Kim, Seung-Kook; Kim, Byung-Chul; Lim, Chang-Jin; Park, Eun-Hee

    2004-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory and related activities of mushroom Phellinus linteus. The results show that the EtOH extract of Phellinus linteus (PLE) dose-dependently inhibited the mouse ear edema induced by croton oil. Among PLE subfractions, the n-BuOH subfraction showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in croton oil-induced ear edema test. The n-BuOH subfraction also showed highest inhibitory activity on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. PLE could significantly reduce the number of writhing induced by acetic acid in mice, indicating that PLE possesses potent antinociceptive effect mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Mycelial extract of six different Phellinus strains were found to contain anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay. These results suggest that Phellinus linteus has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities, in addition to its anti-angiogenic activity.

  4. [On the specifity and stereospecificity of the conversion of different 2,3-unsaturated acids by Clostridium kluyveri (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, H; Günther, H; Simon, H

    1975-08-01

    Further 2,3-unsaturated acids are revealed which can be reduced by Clostridium kluyveri with crotonate or butyrate as hydrogen donors. Unsaturated and saturated 3-halogenated acids are transformed into the saturated halogen-free acids. The following reaction sequence is proposed: a) hydrogenation, b) elumination of HX and c) again hydrogenation. Tiglinate ((E)-2-methyl-2-butenoate) and (E)-2-methyl-2-pentenoate are stereospecifically reduced to the (S)-2-methyl substituted acids. C. kluyveri contains endogenous material; in the presence of hydrogen acceptors such as 2,3-unsaturated acids this is degraded to acetate, and the reducing equivalents liberated hydrogenate the unsaturated acid. In a transient phase the hydration products of the unsaturated acids are present in the non-activated form in appreciable amounts. Tiglinate as well as crotonate is partially converted to ethyl methyl ketone and aceton and/or propanol, respectively.

  5. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  6. Archaeological Investigations at the San Gabriel Reservoir Districts, Central Texas. Volume 3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    jasmine ) W Cleeis drcaiwndtf T. & G. (texas virgin’s bower) S.D Delphinium virescens Nutt. var. macroceratilts (Rye.) Cory. (plains larkspur) T W...teau (Trel.) Hiler. ( teas cranesbill) 5 Oxal idcese (Wood-sorrel family) OxaliS drminmfdi Grey. (wood-sorrel) S.! Oxalis dillenfi Jacq. (wood-sorrel...Small. (texas bulinettle) T.u BP Croton lindheimerlanus Scheele T P Crt .vnanthoqynus Mlchx. (prairie tea ) T.u Eunhorbia bicolor Engeim & Gray. (snow-on

  7. Autoignition and Combustion of JP-8 and its Surrogates at Moderate Pressures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-19

    shall be accomplished using a single kerosene -based fuel, in order of precedence: JP-8, commercial jet fuel (with additive package), or commercial jet...molecular weight esters and biodiesel. The fuels tested were methyl butanoate, methyl crotonate, ethyl propionate, biodiesel, and diesel. Two types...those for the methyl esters tested here. Critical conditions of extinction and ignition for methyl butanoate were calculated using a detailed chemical

  8. The heliocentric system from the Orphic Hymns and the Pythagoreans to emperor Julian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Dacanalis, Aris; Dimitrijević, Milan, S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    The evolution of the heliocentric theory in the antiquity has been analyzed, from the first seeds in the Orphic Hymns to the emperor Julian, also called "the Apostate" in the 4th century A.D. In particular the Orphic Hymns, views of Pythagoreans, as well as the heliocentric ideas of Philolaus of Croton, Icetas, Ecphantus, Heraclides of Pontos, Anaximander, Seleucus of Seleucia, Aristarchus of Samos and Emperor Julian were analyzed.

  9. Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belen

    2016-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. Post-translational histone modifications modulate gene expression and kidney injury. Histone crotonylation is a recently described post-translational modification. We hypothesized that histone crotonylation might modulate kidney injury. Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. Kidney tissue histone crotonylation increased during AKI. This was reproduced by exposure to the protein TWEAK in cultured tubular cells. Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. For the first time, we have identified factors such as cell stress and crotonate availability that increase histone crotonylation in vivo Overall, increasing histone crotonylation might have a beneficial effect on AKI. This is the first observation of the in vivo potential of the therapeutic manipulation of histone crotonylation in a disease state. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. Post-translational histone modifications modulate gene expression and kidney injury. Histone crotonylation is a recently described post-translational modification. We hypothesized that histone crotonylation might modulate kidney injury. Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. Kidney tissue histone crotonylation increased during AKI. This was reproduced by exposure to the protein TWEAK in cultured tubular cells. Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo. Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. For the first time, we have identified factors such as cell stress and crotonate availability that increase histone crotonylation in vivo. Overall, increasing histone crotonylation might have a beneficial effect on AKI. This is the first observation of the in vivo potential of the therapeutic manipulation of histone crotonylation in a disease state. PMID:27125278

  11. 40 CFR 60.617 - Chemicals affected by subpart III.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Acetic acid 64-19-7 Acetone 67-64-1 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Acetophenone 98-86-2 Acrolein 107-02-8 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Anthraquinone 84-65-1 Benzaldehyde 100-52-7 Benzoic acid, tech 65-85-0 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 p-t-Butyl benzoic acid 98-73-7 N-Butyric acid 107-92-6 Crotonic acid 3724...

  12. Anti-inflammatory and immunological effects of Centaurea cyanus flower-heads.

    PubMed

    Garbacki, N; Gloaguen, V; Damas, J; Bodart, P; Tits, M; Angenot, L

    1999-12-15

    Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil-induced oedemas, inhibition of plasma haemolytic activity, induction of anaphylatoxin activity) showed that polysaccharides extracted from C. cyanus flower-heads had anti-inflammatory properties and interfered with complement. Moreover, these polysaccharides were found to be mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and galactose.

  13. Development and Performance of the W/Sb2O3/KIO4/Lubricant Pyrotechnic Delay in the US Army Hand-Held Signal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    were obtained from Sigma Aldrich. Stearic acid (19–5010) was obtained from Hummel Croton. A Malvern Morphologi G3S optical micros- copy particle size...35 – 40 Full Paper J. C. Poret, A. P. Shaw, C. M. Csernica, K. D. Oyler, D. P. Estes equipped with a secondary electron imaging ( SEI ) detector. The...an ongoing area of research in our laboratories. Symbols and Abbreviations HHS Hand-held signal SEM Scanning electron microscopy SEI Secondary

  14. Chemical Characterization and Toxicologic Evaluation of Airborne Mixtures. Tumorigenicity Studies of Diesel Fuel-2, Red Smoke Dye and Violet Smoke Dyes in the SENCAR Mouse Skin Tumorigenesis Bioassay System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    nitrosamides, sulfonates, sultones, and ureas. The 32 chemicals listed in Table 1 include such well known chemical carcino- gens as aflatoxin BI, bis...direct or indirect carcinogen at a subthreshold dose and is essentially irreversible. The promotion phase requires repetitive treatments after...34by initiators of mouse skin tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 29: 510-514. Hennings, H., B. Michael, and E. Patterson. 1978. Croton oil enhancement of skin

  15. A Comparison of the DISASTER (Trademark) Scheduling Software with a Simultaneous Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing Maximum Tardiness in Job Shops

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Petrini, 1992:7). Eliyahu Goldratt , founder of TOC suggests dealing with constraints through a process of five focusing steps: 1. Identify the system’s... Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Jeff Cox. The Goal. A Process of Ongoing Improvement. Croton-on-Hudson NY: North River Press, 1992. -----.and Robert E. Fox. The...Ogden ALC have both entered into limited partnerships with the Avraham Y. Goldratt Institute, developer of a TOC based 3 computerized scheduling system

  16. An Evaluation of Measurements Used to Drive Competitiveness in a Depot Maintenance Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    and apportion capacity equally among all subsystems, Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt , the chief proponent of TOC, believes firms should discover what is...Wright- Patterson AFB OH, April 1992. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. The Haystack Syndrome: Sifting Infor- mation Out of the Data Ocean. Croton-on-Hudson NY: North...River Press, 1990. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. and Robert E. Fox. "The Fundamental Measures," The Theory of Constraints Journal, 1: 1-21 (August/September

  17. Linking Target Selection to Political Objectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    experts on systems theory are not in the military but in the business world. One such expert is Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt . He has developed a logical...ignore the vast experience industry thinkers have contributed to understanding systems. One such thinker is Dr. Eliyahu Goldratt and his Theory of...Funk & Wagnalls Company, 1954. Goldratt , Eliyahu M. Theory of Constraints. Croton-on-Hudson, NY: North River Press, Inc., 1990. Keegan, J. A

  18. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerboic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1989-10-01

    Anaerobic syntrophic bacteria degrade fatty acids which are important intermediates in anaerobic degradation and methanogenesis. These bacteria grow very slowly and require the presence of a hydrogen/formate-using organism to degrade fatty acids. Thus, these bacteria serve as models to study the biochemical aspects of mutualism and the energetics of slow growing organisms. We developed methods to physically separate cells of the anaerobic, fatty acid degrader, Syntrophomonas wolfei, from cells of the hydrogen user by Percoll gradient centrifugation and to selectively lyse S. wolfei cells using lysozyme. These methods allowed the study of the physiology of S. wolfei without significant contamination by cellular components of the hydrogen user. We also obtained pure cultures of S. wolfei by adapting the organism to grow on crotonate. Fatty acids were degraded by the {beta}-oxidation pathway using a coenzyme A (CoA) transferase activity to activate the fatty acid and substrate-level phosphorylation reactions to synthesize adenosine-5{prime}-triphosphate (ATP). The substrate specificity of the CoA transferase activity in the pure culture of S. wolfei differed from that found in the coculture suggesting that the ability to use crotonate resulted from an alteration of this enzyme. S. wolfei grown alone degraded crotonate in a manner similar to that of other crotonate-fermenting anaerobes, but the molar growth yields of S. wolfei were 2 to 3 times higher than those organisms. This suggests that the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA is energy yielding. S. wolfei contained a c-type cytochrome which may be involved in this reaction. S. wolfei synthesized large amounts of the storage polymer, poly-{beta}-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Radioisotopic incorporation experiments showed that PHB was synthesized directly from the {beta}-oxidation intermediate rather than from the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules.

  19. Investigate Methods of Improving Production Throughput in a Shipyard (The National Shipbuilding Research Program)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Author, Publisher, and project staff overview. Title The Goal Authors Eliyahu M. Goldratt and Jeff Cox Publisher North-River Press, INC Croton-on...provides a successful environment to educate the reader. Goldratt and Cox are able to show that the scientific approach to management takes place in...the every day work of business managers, and in their personal lives, as well. Goldratt is world known for his “Constraints Theory” which has been

  20. [The antimicrobial activity and acute toxicity of the polymer salts of gentamycin].

    PubMed

    Solovskiĭ, M V; Zaikina, N A; Okulova, N V; Belokhvostova, A T

    2000-01-01

    By neutralization of copolymers of N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide with acrylic acid and copolymers of N-vinylpyrrolidone with crotonic and p-crotonoylaminophenoxyacetic acids in the presence of gentamycin, water-soluble polymer salts containing from 10 to 25 mass% of gentamycin were obtained. These salts regardless of gentamycin content completely retain high level of antimicrobial activity of gentamycin against Staphylococcus spp. and Escherichia coli and are characterized by less (by more than one order of magnitude) acute toxicity.

  1. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

    PubMed

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Aviello, G; Romano, B; Scalisi, C; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal (control) mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh. In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or by the alpha2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Comparative topical anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoids and cannabivarins.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Aurelia; Giangaspero, Anna; Sosa, Silvio; Negri, Roberto; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Casano, Salvatore; Della Loggia, Roberto; Appendino, Giovanni

    2010-10-01

    A selection of seven phytocannabinoids representative of the major structural types of classic cannabinoids and their corresponding cannabivarins was investigated for in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity in the Croton oil mouse ear dermatitis assay. Differences in the terpenoid moiety were far more important for anti-inflammatory activity than those at the C-3 alkyl residue, suggesting the involvement not only of cannabinoid receptors, but also of other inflammatory end-points targeted by phytocannabinoids.

  3. Topical antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of Scutia buxifolia Reissek gel and stability study.

    PubMed

    Boligon, Aline Augusti; da Rosa Moreira, Laís; Piana, Mariana; de Campos, Marli Matiko Anraku; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan

    2017-02-01

    Scutia buxifolia Reissek (Rhamnaceae), popularly known in Brazil as "coronilha", is a plant species used in folk medicine for several disorders, including inflammation. However, no studies have been done with this species to confirm its topical anti-inflammatory action. In this study we evaluate the topical antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of the gel containing crude extract (CE) and the gel containing ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of S. buxifolia on croton oil or UVB radiation-induced ear edema in mice, and perform gel stability study. Antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated through ear edema induced by irritant agent croton oil, UVB irradiation-induced skin injury model and neutrophil infiltration. The gel stability study was performed by analyzing organoleptical aspects, pH, viscosity, and quantification of quercetin and rutin by HPLC. The topical treatment with S. buxifolia gel reduced the ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity. Antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. buxifolia were obtained with concentrations of 0.3, 1 and 3%, with maximal inhibition in the concentration of 1% for gel containing CE (inhibitions of 100, 73±0.05 and 97±0.08% for croton oil- or UVB irradiation-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively) and EtOAc fraction (inhibitions of 79±0.05, 73±0.05 and 89±0.04% for croton oil- or UVB irradiation-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase activity, respectively). Such effects may be attributed, at least in part, to rutin and quercetin, as well as other compounds found in this species. No important changes were detected in the stability study, in all aspects analyzed in temperature below 25°C. Our results demonstrate that topically applied S. buxifolia gel presented anti-inflammatory effects, provided that it was maintained at a temperature below 25°C.

  4. Loniceroside C, an antiinflammatory saponin from Lonicera japonica.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Wie Jong; Han, Chang Kyun; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kang, Sam Sik; Son, Kun Ho

    2003-03-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, loniceroside C was isolated from the aerial parts of Lonicera japonica. Its structure was established to be 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl hederagenin 28-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester by spectroscopic techniques and chemical transformations. Loniceroside C showed in vivo antiinflammatory activity against mouse ear edema provoked by croton oil.

  5. The Effect of Consolidating Two-Level Reparable Inventories on Aggregate Inventory Requirements and Mission Capability.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    performance goals cannot be overemphasized. As Eliyaha M. Goldratt observed in The Haystack Syndrome, "Tell me how you measure me and I will tell...you how I will behave. If you measure me in an illogical way do not complain about illogical behavior" ( Goldratt 1990:26). The current logistics...Business Logistics. St. Paul: West Publishing Company, 1992. Goldratt , Elyiahu M. The Havstack Syndrome. Croton-on-the-Hudson NY: North River Press

  6. Correlation of Mutagenic, Carcinogenic and Co-Carcinogenic Effects of Chemical Substances. Granuloma Pouch Assay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-25

    of a single dose treatment with procarbazine of GP cells during the time of maximal growth was investigated. Local fibrosarcomas were induced...regardless whether the carcinogen was given (t) Zbinden, G. and Maler, P. Single dose carcinogenicity of procarbazine in rats. Cancer letters in press - ii...locally (into the pouch) or systemically. The administration of croton oil before procarbazine increased the tumor yield. This is the first time that

  7. Co-carcinogenicity of promoting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Vose, C.W.; Coombs, M.M.; Bhatt, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described to investigate whether coadministration of a promoting agent would enhance the carcinogenicity of a repeatedly administered complete carcinogen. Topical application of the strong carcinogen 15,16-dihydro-11-methylcyclopenta(a)phenanthren-17-one (I) in toluene containing 1% v/v croton oil is about five times more effective than applications in toluene alone, as judged from the respective mean latent periods. A similar effect is also apparent for benzo(a)pyrene.

  8. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  9. Hydrograph sensitivity to estimates of map impervious cover: a WinHSPF BASINS case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, Theodore A.; Somerlot, Christopher; Hassett, James M.

    2003-04-01

    The BASINS geographic information system hydrologic toolkit was designed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are often derived by combining water quantity estimates with pollutant concentration estimates. In this paper the BASINS toolkit PLOAD and WinHSPF sub-models are briefly described, and then a 0·45 km2 headwater watershed in the New York Croton River area is used for a case study illustrating a full WinHSPF implementation. The goal of the Croton study was to determine the sensitivity of WinHSPF hydrographs to changes in land cover map inputs. This scenario occurs when scaling the WinHSPF model from the smaller 0·45 km2 watershed to the larger 1000 km2 management basin of the entire Croton area. Methods used to test model sensitivity include first calibrating the WinHSPF hydrograph using research-monitored precipitation and discharge data together with high spatial resolution and accuracy land cover data of impervious and pervious areas, and then swapping three separate land cover files, known as GIRAS, MRLC, and DOQQ data, into the calibrated model. Research results indicated that the WinHSPF land cover swapping had peak flow sensitivity in December 2001 hydrographs between 35% underestimation and 20% overestimation, and that errors in land-cover-derived runoff ratios for storm totals and peak flows tracked with the land cover data estimates of impervious area.

  10. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  11. An Improved Experimental Model of Hemorrhoids in Rats: Evaluation of Antihemorrhoidal Activity of an Herbal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Thippeswamy, Agadi HireMath; Baig, Mirza Rizwan; Kavya, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated. In the first set, extravasation of EB dye, TNF-α, IL-6, and rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was determined. In the second set, severity of score, RAC, and histopathology were evaluated. Results. The elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and extravasations of EB dye were decreased with the Pilex treatment. The cytoarchitecture of rectoanal portion of the animals treated with Pilex was near to normal. Conclusion. The improved experimental model of hemorrhoid is useful in quantifying the inflammatory exudates and extent of inflammation. In this improved experimental model Pilex showed antihemorrhoidal activity, which further validates its clinical usage. PMID:25006493

  12. An improved experimental model of hemorrhoids in rats: evaluation of antihemorrhoidal activity of an herbal formulation.

    PubMed

    Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Rafiq, Mohamed; Thippeswamy, Agadi HireMath; Baig, Mirza Rizwan; Kavya, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated. In the first set, extravasation of EB dye, TNF- α , IL-6, and rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was determined. In the second set, severity of score, RAC, and histopathology were evaluated. Results. The elevated levels of TNF- α , IL-6, and extravasations of EB dye were decreased with the Pilex treatment. The cytoarchitecture of rectoanal portion of the animals treated with Pilex was near to normal. Conclusion. The improved experimental model of hemorrhoid is useful in quantifying the inflammatory exudates and extent of inflammation. In this improved experimental model Pilex showed antihemorrhoidal activity, which further validates its clinical usage.

  13. Anticarcinogenic effects of Solanum lycopersicum fruit extract on Swiss albino and C57 Bl mice.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R C; Jain, Rachana; Raja, Wasim; Ovais, M

    2009-01-01

    In the present studies, the effect of Solanum lycopersicum extract on DMBA induced skin papillomas and B6 F10 melanomas was studied. Topical single application of DMBA at the dose of 4 mg/kg b.wt. followed by 1 % croton oil for 16 weeks produced a 100% incidence of skin papillomas which started appearing from the 6th week onwards. The mice which additionally received S. lycopersicum extract at 0.6 g/kg 2 day/week for 16 weeks showed a significant decrease in the number and incidence of tumors (p<0.05), with a delay in their appearance to week 10. Histopathological examination showed well and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas in the group which received DMBA + Croton oil treatment whereas hyperkeratosis and hyperplasia were more prevalent in DMBA + Croton oil + Lycopersicum extract treated animals. In a second experiment the effect of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with S. lycopersicum extract was studied in B16F10 melanoma tumour bearing mice. The inhibition rate was 25.9% in the cyclophosphamide treated group but this increased to 37.7% with S. lycopersicum. The life span of tumour bearing animals was also increased. Thus in two models, S. lycopersicum extract exerted protective potential against skin tumors.

  14. Sporobacterium olearium gen. nov., sp. nov., a new methanethiol-producing bacterium that degrades aromatic compounds, isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester.

    PubMed

    Mechichi, T; Labat, M; Garcia, J L; Thomas, P; Patel, B K

    1999-10-01

    A strictly chemo-organotrophic, anaerobic bacterium was isolated from an olive mill wastewater treatment digester on syringate and designated strain SR1T. The cells were slightly curved rods, stained Gram-positive and possessed terminal spores. Strain SR1T utilized crotonate, methanol and a wide range of aromatic compounds including 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (TMB), 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (TMC), syringate, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetate (TMPA), 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylpropionate (TMPP), ferulate, sinapate, vanillate, 3,4-dimethoxybenzoate, 2,3-dimethoxybenzoate, gallate, 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate (THB), pyrogallol, phloroglucinol and quercetin as carbon and energy sources. Acetate and butyrate were produced from aromatic compounds, methanol and crotonate whereas methanethiol (MT) was produced from methoxylated aromatic compounds and methanol. Strain SR1T had a G + C content of 38 mol% and grew optimally between 37 and 40 degrees C at pH 7.2 on a crotonate-containing medium. Phylogenetically, strain SR1T was a member of cluster XIVa of the Clostridiales group and shared a sequence similarity of 90% with Clostridum aminovalericum and Eubacterium fissicatena. Consequently, its precise neighbourliness to any one of them depended on the selection of strains of the cluster. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence presented in this paper, the designation of strain SR1T as Sporobacterium olearium gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SR1T (= DSM 12504T).

  15. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei: Progress report, March 15, 1985--June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    We developed methods to physically separate cells of the anaerobic, fatty acid degrade, Syntrophomonas wolfei, from cells of the hydrogen user by Percoll gradient centrifugation and to selectively lyse S. wolfei cells using lysozyme. These methods allowed the study of the physiology of S. wolfei without significant contamination. Fatty acids were degraded by the B-oxidation pathway using a coenzyme A (CoA) transferase activity to activate the fatty acid and substrate- level phosphorylation reactions to synthesize. The substrate specificity of the CoA transferase activity in the pure culture of S. wolfei differed from that found in the coculture suggesting that the ability to use crotonate resulted from an alteration of this enzyme. S. wolfei grown alone degraded crotonate in a manner similar to that of other crotonate-fermenting anaerobes, but the molar growth yields of S. wolfei were 2 to 3 times higher than those organisms. This suggests that the reduction of crotonyl-CoA to butyryl-CoA is energy yielding. S. wolfei contained a c-type cytochrome which may be involved in this reaction. S. wolfei synthesized large amounts of the storage polymer, poly-B-hydroxybutyrate.

  16. Tephrosia purpurea alleviates phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion response in murine skin.

    PubMed

    Saleem, M; Ahmed Su; Alam, A; Sultana, S

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, considerable emphasis has been placed on identifying new cancer chemopreventive agents, which could be useful for the human population. Tephrosia purpurea has been shown to possess significant activity against hepatotoxicity, pharmacological and physiological disorders. Earlier we showed that Tephrosia purpurea inhibits benzoyl peroxide-mediated cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity. In the present study, we therefore assessed the effect of Tephrosia purpurea on 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbal-13-acetate (TPA; a well-known phorbol ester) induced cutaneous oxidative stress and toxicity in murine skin. The pre-treatment of Swiss albino mice with Tephrosia purpurea prior to application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cutaneous carcinogenesis. Skin tumor initiation was achieved by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA) (25 microg per animal per 0.2 ml acetone) to mice. Ten days later tumor promotion was started by twice weekly topical application of croton oil (0.5% per animal per 0.2 ml acetone, v /v). Topical application of Tephrosia purpurea 1 h prior to each application of croton oil (phorbol ester) resulted in a significant protection against cutaneous carcinogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. The animals pre-treated with Tephrosia purpurea showed a decrease in both tumor incidence and tumor yield as compared to the croton oil (phorbol ester)-treated control group. In addition, a significant reduction in TPA-mediated induction in cutaneous ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H]thymidine incorporation was also observed in animals pre-treated with a topical application of Tephrosia purpurea. The effect of topical application of Tephrosia purpurea on TPA-mediated depletion in the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic molecules in skin was also evaluated and it was observed that topical application of Tephrosia purpurea prior to TPA resulted in the significant recovery of

  17. Protection and storage of chlorophyll in overwintering evergreens.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, A M; Ball, M C

    2000-09-26

    How evergreen species store and protect chlorophyll during exposure to high light in winter remains unexplained. This study reveals that the evergreen snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) stores and protects its chlorophylls by forming special complexes that are unique to the winter-acclimated state. Our in vivo spectral and kinetic characterizations reveal a prominent component of the chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum around 715 nm at 77 K. This band coincides structurally with a loss of chlorophyll and an increase in energy-dissipating carotenoids. Functionally, the band coincides with an increased capacity to dissipate excess light energy, absorbed by the chlorophylls, as heat without intrathylakoid acidification. The increased heat dissipation helps protect the chlorophylls from photo-oxidative bleaching and thereby facilitates rapid recovery of photosynthesis in spring.

  18. Momordica cochinchinensis Aril Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Petchsak, Phuchong; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2015-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (MC) has been used in traditional medicine due to its high carotenoid content. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of MC on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A lycopene-enriched aril extract of MC (AE) showed cytotoxicity and antiestrogenicity to MCF-7 cells. On DAPI staining, AE induced cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation were evident. With flow cytometric analysis, AE increased the percentage of cells in an early apoptosis stage when compared with the control group. RT-PCR analysis showed AE to significantly increase the expression of the proapoptotic bax gene without effect on expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. Moreover, AE enhanced caspase 6, 8 and 9 activity. Taken together, we conclude that AE of MC fruit has anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of signaling.

  19. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  1. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  2. I remember you: a role for memory in social cognition and the functional neuroanatomy of their interaction.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; Mar, Raymond A

    2012-01-05

    Remembering events from the personal past (autobiographical memory) and inferring the thoughts and feelings of other people (mentalizing) share a neural substrate. The shared functional neuroanatomy of these processes has been demonstrated in a meta-analysis of independent task domains (Spreng, Mar & Kim, 2009) and within subjects performing both tasks (Rabin, Gilboa, Stuss, Mar, & Rosenbaum, 2010; Spreng & Grady, 2010). Here, we examine spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD signal during rest from two separate regions key to memory and mentalizing, the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction, respectively. Activity in these two regions was then correlated with the entire brain in a resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Although the left hippocampus and right temporal parietal junction were not correlated with each other, both were correlated with a distributed network of brain regions. These regions were consistent with the previously observed overlap between autobiographical memory and mentalizing evoked brain activity found in past studies. Reliable patterns of overlap included the superior temporal sulcus, anterior temporal lobe, lateral inferior parietal cortex (angular gyrus), posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial and ventral prefrontal cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and the amygdala. We propose that the functional overlap facilitates the integration of personal and interpersonal information and provides a means for personal experiences to become social conceptual knowledge. This knowledge, in turn, informs strategic social behavior in support of personal goals. In closing, we argue for a new perspective within social cognitive neuroscience, emphasizing the importance of memory in social cognition. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Study on prevention of two-stage skin carcinogenesis by Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract and the role of its chemical constituent, gentisic acid, in the inhibition of tumour promotion response and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, S; Khan, N; Sultana, S

    2004-02-01

    We designed the present study to investigate the role of gentisic acid in the chemopreventive activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis extract on 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-mediated carcinogenesis in mouse skin via 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced tumour promotion response and oxidative stress. Single topical application of DMBA followed by twice weekly applications of croton oil after one week for 20 weeks resulted in 100% incidence of tumours in animals in 15 weeks. However, application of H. rosa sinensis extract 30 minutes prior to the application of croton oil twice weekly for 20 weeks caused significant reduction in the number of tumours per mouse and the percentage of tumour-bearing mice. Also, the latency period for the appearance of the first tumour was delayed on H. rosa sinensis pretreatment. A single topical application of TPA caused significant depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes, while malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, H2O2 content, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and DNA synthesis were significantly increased. Interestingly, pretreatment of H. rosa sinensis extract (3.5 mg and 7 mg/kg body weight) and gentisic acid (2.0 microg and 4.0 microg/0.2 ml acetone per animal) restored the levels of GSH, and its metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes (P<0.05). There was also a statistically significant reduction in MDA formation and H2O2 content (P<0.05) at both doses. Although inhibition of ODC activity by gentisic acid was not dose-dependent, thymidine incorporation in DNA (P<0.05) was dose-dependently recovered by the plant extract and its chemical constituent. We therefore propose that gentisic acid has a role in the modulatory activity of H. rosa sinensis extract.

  4. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-tumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone). Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse) was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 μg, 35 μg, and 52.5 μg per animal) were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom) and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. PMID:27799739

  5. Desulfonatronospira sulfatiphila sp. nov., and Desulfitispora elongata sp. nov., two novel haloalkaliphilic sulfidogenic bacteria from soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Chernyh, Nikolai A

    2017-02-01

    Two novel haloalkaliphilic bacteria with dissimilatory sulfidogenic metabolism were recovered from syntrophic associations obtained from anaerobic sediments of hypersaline soda lakes in Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia). Strain ASO3-2T was a member of a sulfidogenic syntrophic association oxidizing acetate at extremely haloalkaline conditions, and was isolated in pure culture using formate as electron donor and sulfate as electron acceptor. It was identified as representing a novel member of the genus Desulfonatronospira within the Deltaproteobacteria. In contrast to the two known species of this genus, the novel isolate was able to grow with formate as electron donor and sulfate, as well as with sulfite, as electron acceptor. Strain Acr1T was a minor component in a soda lake syntrophic association converting benzoate to methane and acetate. It became dominant in a subculture fed with crotonate. While growing on crotonate, strain Acr1T formed unusually long cells filled with polyhydroxyalkanoate-like granules. Its metabolism was limited to fermentation of crotonate and pyruvate and the ability to utilize thiosulfate and sulfur/polysulfide as electron acceptor. Strain Acr1T was identified as representing a novel member of the genus Desulfitispora in the class Clostridia. Both isolates were obligately haloalkaliphilic with extreme salt tolerance. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, the novel sulfidogenic isolates from soda lakes are proposed to represent two novel species: Desulfonatronospira sulfatiphila sp. nov. (ASO3-2T=DSM 100427=UNIQEM U993T) and Desulfitispora elongata sp. nov. (Acr1T=DSM 29990=UNIQEM U994T).

  6. Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Gallo, Laura; Capasso, Francesco; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-06-01

    Cannabichromene (CBC) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that inhibits endocannabinoid inactivation and activates the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Both endocannabinoids and TRPA1 may modulate gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the effect of CBC on mouse intestinal motility in physiological and pathological states. Inflammation was induced in the mouse small intestine by croton oil. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR; upper gastrointestinal transit, colonic propulsion and whole gut transit were evaluated in vivo; contractility was evaluated in vitro by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh or electrical field stimulation (EFS). Croton oil administration was associated with decreased levels of anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) and palmitoylethanolamide, up-regulation of TRPA1 and CB₁ receptors and down-regulation of CB₂ receptors. Ex vivo CBC did not change endocannabinoid levels, but it altered the mRNA expression of TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors. In vivo, CBC did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. In vitro, CBC reduced preferentially EFS- versus ACh-induced contractions. Both in vitro and in vivo, the inhibitory effect of CBC was not modified by cannabinoid or TRPA1 receptor antagonists. CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Garcinia gardneriana (Planchon & Triana) Zappi. (Clusiaceae) as a topical anti-inflammatory alternative for cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Otuki, Michel F; Bernardi, Camila A; Prudente, Arthur S; Laskoski, Kerly; Gomig, Franciane; Horinouchi, Cintia D S; Guimarães, Claudio L; Ferreira, Juliano; Delle-Monache, Franco; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Cabrini, Daniela A

    2011-07-01

    Garcinia gardneriana is popularly used in skin disorders; therefore, this article investigated the effect of G. gardneriana extracts from leaves, bark and seeds and two isolated compounds in ear oedema and leucocytes migration caused by croton oil. The topical application of the extract of G. gardneriana leaves was able to reduce (70 ± 3%, and ID(50) 0.33 mg/ear) ear oedema, while the seeds (51 ± 5%) and the wood (60 ± 12%) extracts were less effective. In a time-course evaluation, the leaf extract (1 mg/ear) was effective when applied 2 hr before and until 3 hr after the stimulation, presenting a higher effectiveness when applied right after croton oil (83 ± 7% inhibition). In addition, the leaf extract was able to diminish the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in 64 ± 13%, which suggests the inhibition of leucocyte infiltration that was confirmed by histological analysis. Also, both biflavonoids isolated from the leaves of G. gardneriana, fukugetin (or morelloflavone) and 13-naringenin-II 8-eriodictyol (GB-2a), were able to reduce ear oedema, with ID(50) values of 0.18 (0.10-0.28) and 0.22 (0.15-0.31) mg/ear, respectively, besides the inhibition of MPO activity of 52 ± 6% and 64 ± 5%, respectively. Using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, the leaf extract, fukugetin and GB-2a topically applied to the ear treated with croton oil reduced 52 ± 15%, 63 ± 17% and 83 ± 4%, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen species of the skin. Thus, these results reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of G. gardneriana leaves for topical usage, and both biflavonoids are responsible for this effect. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  8. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  9. Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Angelo A; Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Gallo, Laura; Capasso, Francesco; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabichromene (CBC) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that inhibits endocannabinoid inactivation and activates the transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1). Both endocannabinoids and TRPA1 may modulate gastrointestinal motility. Here, we investigated the effect of CBC on mouse intestinal motility in physiological and pathological states. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Inflammation was induced in the mouse small intestine by croton oil. Endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol), palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide levels were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors were analysed by quantitative RT-PCR; upper gastrointestinal transit, colonic propulsion and whole gut transit were evaluated in vivo; contractility was evaluated in vitro by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh or electrical field stimulation (EFS). KEY RESULTS Croton oil administration was associated with decreased levels of anandamide (but not 2-arachidonoyl glycerol) and palmitoylethanolamide, up-regulation of TRPA1 and CB1 receptors and down-regulation of CB2 receptors. Ex vivo CBC did not change endocannabinoid levels, but it altered the mRNA expression of TRPA1 and cannabinoid receptors. In vivo, CBC did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. In vitro, CBC reduced preferentially EFS- versus ACh-induced contractions. Both in vitro and in vivo, the inhibitory effect of CBC was not modified by cannabinoid or TRPA1 receptor antagonists. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS CBC selectively reduces inflammation-induced hypermotility in vivo in a manner that is not dependent on cannabinoid receptors or TRPA1. PMID:22300105

  10. Two Pathways for Glutamate Biosynthesis in the Syntrophic Bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh M.; Xie, Xiulan; Feng, Xueyang; Tang, Yinjie J.; Mouttaki, Housna; McInerney, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of crotonate, benzoate, and cyclohexane carboxylate by Syntrophus aciditrophicus grown syntrophically with Methanospirillum hungatei provides a model to study syntrophic cooperation. Recent studies revealed that S. aciditrophicus contains Re-citrate synthase but lacks the common Si-citrate synthase. To establish whether the Re-citrate synthase is involved in glutamate synthesis via the oxidative branch of the Krebs cycle, we have used [1-13C]acetate and [1-14C]acetate as well as [13C]bicarbonate as additional carbon sources during axenic growth of S. aciditrophicus on crotonate. Our analyses showed that labeled carbons were detected in at least 14 amino acids, indicating the global utilization of acetate and bicarbonate. The labeling patterns of alanine and aspartate verified that pyruvate and oxaloacetate were synthesized by consecutive carboxylations of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). The isotopomer profile and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the obtained [13C]glutamate, as well as decarboxylation of [14C]glutamate, revealed that this amino acid was synthesized by two pathways. Unexpectedly, only the minor route used Re-citrate synthase (30 to 40%), whereas the majority of glutamate was synthesized via the reductive carboxylation of succinate. This symmetrical intermediate could have been formed from two acetates via hydration of crotonyl-CoA to 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. 4-Hydroxybutyrate was detected in the medium of S. aciditrophicus when grown on crotonate, but an active hydratase could not be measured in cell extracts, and the annotated 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase (SYN_02445) lacks key amino acids needed to catalyze the hydration of crotonyl-CoA. Besides Clostridium kluyveri, this study reveals the second example of a microbial species to employ two pathways for glutamate synthesis. PMID:26431966

  11. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  12. (-)-α-Bisabolol attenuates visceral nociception and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Leite, Gerlânia de O; Leite, Laura H I; Sampaio, Renata de S; Araruna, Mariana Késsia A; de Menezes, Irwin Rose A; da Costa, José Galberto M; Campos, Adriana R

    2011-03-01

    The study examined the antiinflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the sesquiterpene (-)-α-bisabolol (BISA). The antiinflammatory effect was evaluated on acute models of dermatitis induced by Croton oil, arachidonic acid, phenol and capsaicin, respectively, in mouse ear. BISA inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. BISA was assessed in two established mouse models of visceral nociception. Mice were pretreated orally with BISA, and the pain-related behavioral responses to intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide or to intracolonic mustard oil were analyzed. BISA showed a dose-unrelated significant antinociception. Collectively, the results suggest that BISA may be an topical antiinflammatory and visceral antinociceptive agent.

  13. Rail and Motor Outloading Capability Study. Fort Devens, Massachusetts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    siding (far left) 50 32 Concrete and gravel end-loading ramp, fuel tank area . 55 33 Concrete and gravel end-loading ramp, Commissary Road...55 34 Concrete and gravel end ramp between NG spurs 4 and 5 . 55 35 Warehouse T-1436 loading dock . . . .. 56 vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS - cont Figure...Same. mllus rve..:r-- (for fi’-~t 3 jays) Inciuaes meet for 2 Portable 3 cRO-ton timber end rArmnn, re- flatcars ) maira 13 concrete or asohalt crossings

  14. ERRATUM: "Cosmic Evolution of Radio Selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field" (2009, ApJ, 696, 24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bondi, M.; Bîrzan, L.; Carilli, C. L.; Ciliegi, P.; Elvis, M.; Impey, C. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Paglione, T.; Salvato, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The scale of the volume-averaged heating rate for the VLA-COSMOS AGN, presented in Figure 14 of the paper, requires a systematic (positive) correction due to a bug in the code used to produce this plot. The modified figure is shown below. We would like to note that the applied correction does not alter any results presented in the paper, but only strengthens the agreement between the observations and the Croton et al. (2006) cosmological model in terms of the relevance of radio mode AGN feedback in the process of massive galaxy formation.

  15. Isolation of cytotoxic metabolites from targeted peruvian amazonian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Aponte, José C; Vaisberg, Abraham J; Rojas, Rosario; Caviedes, Luz; Lewis, Walter H; Lamas, Gerardo; Sarasara, César; Gilman, Robert H; Hammond, Gerald B

    2008-01-01

    The antiproliferative bioassay-guided fractionation of five Peruvian plants, Doliocarpus dentatus, Picramnia sellowii, Strychnos mitscherlichii, Iryanthera juruensis, and Croton alnifolius, led to the isolation and identification of their different major cytotoxic constituents, betulinic acid (1), nataloe-emodin (2), bisnordihydrotoxyferine (4), 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxydihydrochalcone (5), and 2',4'-dihydroxy-4,6'-dimethoxydihydrochalcone (6) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (7), respectively. Eight human tumor cell lines and two nontumorigenic cell lines were used in this investigation. Their in vitro activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is also reported.

  16. Essential oil of Myrtus communis inhibits inflammation in rats by reducing serum IL-6 and TNF-alpha.

    PubMed

    Maxia, Andrea; Frau, Maria Assunta; Falconieri, Danilo; Karchuli, Manvendra Singh; Kasture, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    The topical antiinflammatory activity of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. was studied using croton oil induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice, and cotton pellet induced granuloma, and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rats. On topical application, the oil exhibited a significant decrease in the ear edema as well as MPO activity. The oil also inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma and serum TNF-alpha and IL-6. It can be concluded that the essential oil of Myrtus communis reduces leukocyte migration to the damaged tissue and exhibits antiinflammatory activity.

  17. U.S. Air Force Physician Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Process of Ongoing Improvement Revised Edition, Goldratt , Eliyahu M., and Cox, Jeff, North River Press, Croton-on-Hudson, N.Y., 1984,1986. 14. Facts...clearly illustrated in The Goal by Goldratt and Cox. In that ex- cellent book, the ’goal’ of any business enterprise is to make money. All other goals...the Corps. They are meta -actualized. On the other hand, most of the physicians on active duty in the Air Force today have entered by volunteering or

  18. Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon's blood.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z P; Cai, Y; Phillipson, J D

    1994-12-01

    Three in-vitro assays have been adopted to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-bacterial activity of the blood-red sap of Croton lechleri from Ecuador, and to examine its effect upon the proliferation of endothelial cells. The sap was found not to be cytotoxic. Several simple phenolic compounds and diterpenes showed a potent anti-bacterial activity. The sap has little effect upon the proliferation of endothelial cells, and no single active ingredient was identified. A mechanism for the wound-healing property of the sap has been proposed.

  19. Bioactivity of certain medicinal latexes used by the Ese'ejas.

    PubMed

    Mongelli, E; Desmarchelier, C; Giulietti, A; Coussio, J; Ciccia, G

    1995-07-28

    Latexes from Croton erythrochilus, Ficus inspidia and Sapium marmieri used traditionally as medicinal by the Ese'ejas were analyzed for bioactivity. The assays run were: the brine shrimp toxicity microplate bioassay, the wheat rootlet growth inhibition and the DNA-methyl green bioassay. The three latexes showed cytotoxicity to the brine shrimp and concentration-related growth inhibition. No interaction with the DNA-methyl green complex was observed with any of the three latex samples. The field bioassays described has demonstrated to be useful for supporting ethnobotanical information.

  20. Analysis of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate in Rhizobium japonicum Bacteroids by Ion-Exclusion High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography and UV Detection †

    PubMed Central

    Karr, Dale B.; Waters, James K.; Emerich, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Ion-exclusion high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids. The products in the acid digest of PHB-containing material were fractionated by HPLC on Aminex HPX-87H ion-exclusion resin for organic acid analysis. Crotonic acid formed from PHB during acid digestion was detected by its intense absorbance at 210 nm. The Aminex-HPLC method provides a rapid and simple chromatographic technique for routine analysis of organic acids. Results of PHB analysis by Aminex-HPLC were confirmed by gas chromatography and spectrophotometric analysis. PMID:16346443

  1. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice.

  2. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-11

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  3. Convenient access to new chiral ferroceno-(iso)quinolines.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Victor; Fort, Yves

    2005-09-30

    [Chemical reaction: see text] New chiral pyridine derivatives possessing the planar chirality of the ferrocene have been prepared by means of an aldolization-crotonization reaction. This very simple reaction has been applied to the synthesis of isomers 1-4 that differ in the position of the nitrogen atom on the pyridine ring. Following the same procedure, asymmetric synthesis of 1 has been achieved using an enantiopure ferrocenylzinc intermediate. This method has also allowed the preparation of a chiral analogue of 2,2'-bipyridine.

  4. Base Exterior Architecture Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    Sedlum confusum 00 2-112 Gal Hibiscus rosa-silensis 1 Gal Murraya paniculata u ,-s to be removed 1181 x 00 A.%~ ~ Of\\o SLNnkI -V- -V. Cof 1368 136 1...Carissa grandiflora Natal Plum Codlasumn variegatumn Croton 0Gardenia taitensis Tiare Gardenia DxHibiscus rosa-sinensis Hibiscus 0Impatiens sultani... Hibiscus 1 Gal. or 2-1/2 Gal. Impatiens 1 Gal. Ixora 1 Gal. no Texas Privet 5 Gal. Mock Orange 1 Gal. Oleander 1 Gal. Tobira 2-1/2 to 5 Gal. Bird of Paradise

  5. Effect of community structure on the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Progress report, March 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1991-06-01

    The physiology of fatty acid metabolism and the kinetics of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic bacteria were studied. We have shown that: a threshold for benzoate degradation by a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophus buswellii and Desulfovibrio strain G11 exists and the value of the threshold depends on the amount of benzoate and acetate suggesting a thermodynamic limitation. Syntrophomonas wolfei has the enzymatic ability to produce formate and that low levels of formate are made during growth in pure culture with crotonate or in coculture with butyrate. However, the high specific activities of hydrogenase compared to formate dehydrogenase indicate that hydrogen rather than formate is the intermediate involved in the interspecies transfer of reducing equivalents. We have isolated Syntrophus buswellii and a novel anaerobic bacteria that catalyzes an aryl-ether cleavage reaction using crotonate as the energy source. Several novel obligately halophilic anaerobes from hypersaline oil reservoir brines were isolated and characterized. Two of these degraded pyrogallate with the production of acetate. We have shown that S. wolfei synthesizes poly-{beta}hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by two routes, directly from a {beta}-oxidation intermediate without cleaving a C-C bond and by the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. The formation of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA needed for PHA synthesis occurs by the activity of a acetoacetyl-CoA reductase rather than a enoyl-CoA hydratase. The genes for PHA synthesis in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli.

  6. Hydrologic response as a function of suburbanization in three northeastern watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-12-01

    Three small watersheds (< 70 ha) within NYC's 1000 sq km Croton drinking water supply area have been instrumented to investigate how fate and transport processes are affected by suburban density. Instrumentation includes nests of lysimeters, piezometers, wells, surface runoff collectors, throughfall collectors, along with instrumented weirs and meteorological stations Each of the watersheds have similar base soils, undisturbed land cover, topographic relief, and climatic conditions, but range from no development to nearly 7 houses per hectare. The development is comprised of road networks with storm sewer systems and single-family residences with drinking water wells and on-site septic treatment and disposal systems. Baseflow and storm sampling have revealed that water quality constituent concentrations, such as nutrients, organic carbon, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential, along with flow magnitude are distinct between the three watersheds. This poster explains observed changes in monitored hydrology and chemistry as a function of alterations in internal processing (e.g., fate), and flow paths (e.g., transport). Additional intercomparisons of hydrologic response are made between these three highly instrumented watersheds and 22 Croton headwater watersheds with similar land use categories.

  7. Three Methods for Simulating Septic Loading in a Residential Watershed with HSPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Suburban development in the New York City Croton water supply district has introduced new pollution sources and runoff flowpaths into the watershed, and ultimately has created new water quality management challenges. Nutrient loading from septic systems, or on-site wastewater systems, is one of the pollution concerns for receiving waters within the Croton supply area, and the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) water quality model is being tested for optimal methods to simulate this distributed loading source. In the first method, HSPF utilizes the available nutrient simulation mechanism within the pervious subsurface and groundwater nutrients routine for residential land cover. In the second method, HSPF utilizes point source loading mechanisms into the receiving open water bodies (channels, lakes etc.) to reflect distributed septic systems effect. And in the third method, HSPF was adjusted to incorporate a new loading mechanism that handles septic system effects in the pervious land area. This research examines the benefits and constraints to management and scientific interpretation of each of the three septic loading simulation methods.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  9. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  10. Polyacrylamide-based semi-interpenetrating networks for entrapment of laccase and their use in azo dye decolorization.

    PubMed

    Koklukaya, Selva Zeynep; Sezer, Serdar; Aksoy, Serpil; Hasirci, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    In this study, laccase from Trametes versicolor was immobilized in poly(acrylamide-crotonic acid)/sodium alginate [P(AAm-CrA)/alginate], poly(acrylamide-crotonic acid)/K-carrageenan [(P(AAm-CrA)/K-car)], poly(acrylamide-citraconic acid)/sodium alginate (P(AAm-CA)/alginate), and poly(acrylamide-citraconic acid)/K-carrageenan (P(AAm-CA)/K-car) semi-interpenetrating network by entrapment method. Optimum pH and temperatures values were determined between 5.0-6.0 and 40-50 °C for free laccase (FL) and immobilized laccases, respectively. After 42 days of storage at 4 °C, FL and immobilized laccases retained their original activities in the range of 55%-73%. Percent decolorization of Acid Orange 52 by free enyzme and enyzmes immobilized in hydrogels was found between 63% and 39%. Percent decolorization of Acid Orange 52 in the presence of mediator by free enyzme was found 73% and enyzmes immobilized in hydrogels were found as 73%. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Inhibitory effect of salvinorin A, from Salvia divinorum, on ileitis-induced hypermotility: cross-talk between κ-opioid and cannabinoid CB1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Cascio, M G; Aviello, G; Huben, K; Zjawiony, J K; Marini, P; Romano, B; Di Marzo, V; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Salvinorin A, the active component of the hallucinogenic herb Salvia divinorum, inhibits intestinal motility through activation of κ-opioid receptors (KORs). However, this compound may have target(s) other than the KORs in the inflamed gut. Because intestinal inflammation upregulates cannabinoid receptors and endogenous cannabinoids, in the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the endogenous cannabinoid system in salvinorin A-induced delay in motility in the inflamed gut. Experimental approach: Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of a fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; direct or indirect activity at cannabinoid receptors was evaluated by means of binding, enzymic and cellular uptake assays. Key results: Salvinorin A as well as the KOR agonist U-50488 reduced motility in croton oil treated mice. The inhibitory effect of both salvinorin A and U-50488 was counteracted by the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine and by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant. Rimonabant, however, did not counteract the inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility in control mice. Binding experiments showed very weak affinity of salvinorin A for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 and no inhibitory effect on 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide hydrolysis and cellular uptake. Conclusions and implications: The inhibitory effect of salvinorin A on motility reveals a functional interaction between cannabinoid CB1 receptors and KORs in the inflamed—but not in the normal—gut in vivo. PMID:18622408

  12. Epidermal RelA specifically restricts contact allergen-induced inflammation and apoptosis in skin.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Snehlata; Herzberg, Benjamin; Pofahl, Ruth; Krieg, Thomas; Haase, Ingo

    2014-10-01

    Strong inhibition of NF-κB signaling in the epidermis results in spontaneous skin inflammation in mice and men. As there is evidence for linkage between polymorphisms within the NF-κB signaling pathway and human inflammatory skin phenotypes, we asked whether partial functional inhibition of NF-κB signaling in epidermal keratinocytes can modulate clinically relevant skin inflammation. We therefore mutated rela specifically in the epidermis of mice (RelA(E-MUT) mice). These mice show no inflammatory phenotype. Induction of contact allergy, but not croton oil-induced irritant dermatitis, resulted in stronger ear swelling and increased epidermal thickness in RelA(E-MUT) mice. Both contact allergen and croton oil treatment led to increased expression of calgranulins A and B (S100A8/A9) in RelA(E-MUT) mice. Epidermal hyperproliferation in RelA(E-MUT) mice was non-cell autonomous as cultured primary epidermal keratinocytes from RelA(E-MUT) mice showed reduced proliferation compared with controls. These results demonstrate that epidermal RelA specifically regulates delayed-type hypersensitivity-induced skin inflammation. In addition, we describe here an essential but nonspecific function of RelA in the protection of epidermal keratinocytes from apoptosis. Our study identifies functions of NF-κB signaling in the epidermis and corroborates a specific role of epidermal keratinocytes in the regulation of skin inflammation.

  13. Inhibitory effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on the anti-adrenergic response elicited by ayanin in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Martín, M L; Carrón, R; San Román, L; Reguero, M T; Arteaga, L

    2002-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the anti-adrenergic response elicited by ayanin, a flavonoid compound isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, in the pithed rat, and the inhibitory effect of NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and its acute toxicity profile in mice. In pithed rats ayanin (5 - 50 mg/kg i. v.) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the pressor and chronotropic responses induced by intravenous noradrenaline administration (0.25 microg/kg). This anti-adrenergic response was completely abolished by prior treatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg i.v ) and the inhibitory effect of L-NAME was reversed after intravenous administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i. v.). No lethal or major toxic effects were observed in mice receiving i. p. administration of ayanin up to a dose of 500 mg/kg. Our findings confirm that ayanin exerts protective cardiovascular effects against the increase in blood pressure and heart rate mainly through a mechanism that depends on the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway without acute toxic effects. These results suggest that extracts of Croton schiedeanus, the native south American plant from which ayanin was isolated, might be beneficial in cardiovascular disease.

  14. Chemopreventive action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P K

    2010-01-01

    Syzygium cumini L. is widely used for the treatment of diabetes in various parts of India. The protective efficacy of S. cumini seed extract (SCE) against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was tested in the present study. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) and continued till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks) caused a 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice treated with the SCE (125 mg/ kg/ b.wt./ animal /day) in either the peri (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after the application of DMBA) or post-initiation (i.e. from the day of start of croton oil treatment and continued till the end of the experiment) phases demonstrated significant reduction in cumulative numbers of papillomas and tumor incidence (75%). The average latency period in the SCE treated group was also significantly increased (Pre Group - 11.1 weeks; Post Group - 10.9 weeks) as compared with the carcinogen control group (7.9). Results from the present study indicate that the anticarcinogenic activity of SCE during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status. Thus, SCE can be considered as a readily accessible, promising novel cancer chemopreventive agent.

  15. Thioredoxin Ameliorates Cutaneous Inflammation by Regulating the Epithelial Production and Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hai; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Fukunaga, Atsushi; Ono, Ryusuke; Nishigori, Chikako; Yodoi, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Human thioredoxin-1 (TRX) is a 12-kDa protein with redox-active dithiol in the active site -Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys-. It has been demonstrated that systemic administration and transgenic overexpression of TRX ameliorate inflammation in various animal models, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not well characterized. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of topically applied recombinant human TRX (rhTRX) in a murine irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) induced by croton oil. Topically applied rhTRX was distributed only in the skin tissues under both non-inflammatory and inflammatory conditions, and significantly suppressed the inflammatory response by inhibiting the production of cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-α, Il-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, and MCP-1. In an in vitro study, rhTRX also significantly inhibited the formation of cytokines and chemokines produced by keratinocytes after exposure to croton oil and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. These results indicate that TRX prevents skin inflammation via the inhibition of local formation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. As a promising new approach, local application of TRX may be useful for the treatment of various skin and mucosal inflammatory disorders. PMID:24058364

  16. [Advances on the effects of the compounds of a phytotherapic agent (COLIMIL) on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice].

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Capasso, R; Palumeri, E; Tarasco, V; Locatelli, E; Capasso, F

    2008-06-01

    Phytotherapic agents, such as herbal formulations containing Matricariae recutita flowers (chamomile) extract, Foeniculum vulgare fruit (fennel) extract and Melissa officinalis aerial parts (lemon balm) extract have beneficial effects on gastrointestinal tract in colicky infants. However, the mechanism is largely unexplored and, particularly, it is not clear if it affects intestinal motility. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of different herbal formulations containing Matricariae recutita extract, Foeniculum vulgare extract and Melissa officinalis extract on upper gastrointestinal transit in mice in vivo. Gastrointestinal transit was measured in male ICR mice and in croton oil-treated mice after the oral administration of herbal formulations containing chamomile, fennel and lemon balm (ColiMil) and chamomile and lemon balm (ColiMil experimental). The herbal formulations tested (0.4-0.8 mL/mouse) dose-dependently and significantly inhibited gastrointestinal transit both in control and in croton oil-treated mice. Chamomile extract and lemon balm extract reduced significantly intestinal motility, but not fennel. At similar concentration ColiMil evoked a more consistent response than ColiMil experimental. Our findings directly demonstrate in vivo the effect of a combination of herbal formulations on intestinal motility. The observed inhibitory effect might be studied with clinical studies to test the efficacy of these compounds in the treatment of colicky infants.

  17. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Richard, Sawadogo Wamtinga; Marius, Lompo; Noya, Somé; Innocent Pierre, Guissou; Germaine, Nacoulma-Ouedraogo Odile

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the general acute, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya Nees (Acanthaceae). Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and croton oil-induced ear edema in rats were used for the evaluation of general acute anti-inflammatory effects. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia in mice were used to evaluate the analgesic and antipyretic activities respectively. The extract at doses of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mgkg(-1) for carrageenan test and doses of 0.5 mg/ear for croton oil test induced a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of paw and ear edemas in rats. In the analgesic and antipyretic tests, the extract has shown a significant inhibition of writhes and hyperpyrexia with all the doses used when compared to the untreated control group. These results clearly show the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of the methanol extract of Lepidagathis anobrya and give the scientific basis for its traditional use. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of action and the components responsible for these pharmacological effects.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizas in coastal sand dunes of the Paraguaná Peninsula, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, C; Cuenca, G

    2005-12-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization was measured in the most abundant plant species of the Paraguaná Peninsula, northwestern Venezuela. These plant species included: Acacia tortuosa, Argusia gnaphalodes, Croton punctatus, Croton rhamnifolius, Egletes prostrata, Melochia tomentosa, Panicum vaginatum, Scaevola plumieri, Sporobolus virginicus, Suriana maritima, Leptothrium rigidum, and Fimbristylis cymosa. Mycorrhizal colonization was assessed using the Trouvelot et al. (1986) method that allows for simultaneous evaluation of frequency of colonization (%F), intensity of colonization (%M), and the proportion of arbuscules (%A) and vesicles (%V) present in the roots. Average frequency of colonization was 69%. The highest frequency of colonization was around 92% in C. rhamnifolius and A. tortuosa; in the other species, it varied from 49 to 86%. L. rigidum and F. cymosa were considered nonmycorrhizal because its colonization was very scarce and at all times appeared without arbuscules. Average intensity of colonization was 7%. The highest intensity of colonization was 18% in C. rhamnifolius. In the other species, it varied from 3 to 15%. Paspalum vaginatum, A. gnaphalodes, M. tomentosa, and S. maritima had their fungal structures tightly packed in modified little ovoid roots. In general, frequency of AM colonization was high and similar to those reported for other tropical ecosystems, whereas the intensity of AM colonization was low and similar to values obtained in analogous studies in disturbed ecosystems.

  19. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of skin tumor of mice treated with several medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Huma; Dixit, Savita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the differences between cancerous tissue, drug treated tissue and its corresponding normal tissue by infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods Methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica, Ocimum sanctum, Aloe barbandesis, Tinospora cordifolia and Triticum aestivum were assessed for the isolation and purification of active compound. After that, combine crude and combine isolated samples were prepared. Skin tumor was induced by topical application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene and promoted by croton oil in Swiss albino mice. To assess the chemopreventive potential of different drugs, it was administered at a concentration of 400 mg/kg body weight daily up to 16 weeks. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis was used to differentiate the drug treated tissues with the normal and cancerous tissue. In the present study, spectra of different tissues were recorded in the range of 400-4 000 cm−1. Results The results of the present study have shown that the remarkable difference exists between the IR spectra of normal, drugs treated and cancerous tissue in terms of frequencies and intensities of prominent bands of cellular biomolecules. Conclusions Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests the chemopreventive effect of above treated drugs and the best result was observed in combine crude sample and in combine isolated sample or synergistic effect of individual crude and isolated extract in 7, 12-dimethyl benz (a) anthracene croton oil induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

  20. Enhancement of the contact hypersensitivity reaction by acute morphine administration at the elicitation phase.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C J; How, T; Lysle, D T

    1999-11-01

    The present study investigated the effects of morphine on the irritant contact sensitivity (ICS) and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction. ICS was induced by croton oil application on the pinnae of naïve rats. Morphine injected prior to croton oil application did not affect the ICS response when assessed by measurements of pinnae thickness. CHS was induced by applying the antigen 2,4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) to the pinnae of rats sensitized to DNFB. Rats received an injection of morphine prior to either initial antigen exposure (sensitization) or antigen reexposure (challenge). Morphine prior to challenge, but not sensitization, resulted in a pronounced enhancement of the CHS response as measured by pinna thickness. Quantitative PCR also showed increased IFN-gamma mRNA levels in the inflamed tissue of morphine-treated rats. Naltrexone blocked the morphine-induced enhancement of the CHS response. The differential effects of morphine suggest that opioids have a more pronounced effect on in vivo immune responses that involve immunological memory. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jackson, B E; Bhupathiraju, V K; Tanner, R S; Woese, C R; McInerney, M J

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  2. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  3. Disassembly and reassembly of polyhydroxyalkanoates: recycling through abiotic depolymerization and biotic repolymerization.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jaewook; Strong, Nathaniel I; Galega, Wakuna M; Sundstrom, Eric R; Flanagan, James C A; Woo, Sung-Geun; Waymouth, Robert M; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-10-01

    An abiotic-biotic strategy for recycling of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is evaluated. Base-catalyzed PHA depolymerization yields hydroxyacids, such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), and alkenoates, such as crotonate; catalytic thermal depolymerization yields alkenoates. Cyclic pulse addition of 3HB to triplicate bioreactors selected for an enrichment of Comamonas, Brachymonas and Acinetobacter. After each pulse, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) transiently appeared: accumulation of P3HB correlated with hydrolysis of polyphosphate; consumption of P3HB correlated with polyphosphate synthesis. Cells removed from the cyclic regime and incubated with 3HB under nitrogen-limited conditions produced P3HB (molecular weight>1,000,000Da) at 50% of the cell dry weight (<8h). P3HB also resulted from incubation with acetate, crotonate, or a mixture of hydrolytic depolymerization products. Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) resulted from incubation with valerate or 2-pentenoate. A recycling strategy where abiotic depolymerization of waste PHAs yields feedstock for customized PHA re-synthesis appears feasible, without the need for energy-intensive feedstock purification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Energetics of end product excretion in anaerobic bacteria and the metabolism of fatty acids by Syntrophomonas wolfei. Progress report, January 31-December 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    This work addresses the metabolism of fatty acids and the energetics of growth of the anaerobic, syntrophic, fatty acid-degrading bacterium, Syntrophomonas wolfei. S. wolfei degrades C/sub 4/ to C/sub 8/ straight chain fatty acids to acetate and H/sub 2/ or acetate, propionate and H/sub 2/; isoheptanoate is degraded to isovalerate, acetate, and H/sub 2/. S. wolfei can not use any common bacterial energy source that will allow it to grow in pure culture. A significant breakthrough in the cultivation of S. wolfei was achieved. Long term (3 months) incubation of S. wolfei cocultures in medium with crotonate selects for a population of S. wolfei cells that can use this compound. These cultures contain large numbers of S. wolfei cells and very few cells of the methanogen. Pure cultures of S. wolfei do not use butyrate. However, when pure cultures of S. wolfei are incubated in the presence of H/sub 2/-using bacteria, butyrate is degraded to acetate and H/sub 2/. These data show that the cells present in the pure cultures are in fact S. wolfei. Growth of S. wolfei with crotonate is faster and much higher cell densities are obtained. Thus, large amounts of cell material will be available for biochemical studies. 3 refs.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-Butanol Extract from Ipomoea stolonifera In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping; Ji, Bin; Wang, Jinzhi; Bai, Xueting; Shi, Ganggang

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese traditional medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of I. stolonifera has not been elucidated. For this reason, the anti-inflammatory activity of n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS) was evaluated in vivo by using acute models (croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy) and chronic models (cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma, and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rat arthritis). Results indicated that oral administration of BE-IS significantly attenuated croton oil-induced ear edema, decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced carrageenan-induced exudates and cellular migration, inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation and improved CFA-induced arthritis. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that BE-IS decreased the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the activity of anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in vivo, and reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. Results obtained in vivo and in vitro demonstrate that BE-IS has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of Ipomoea stolonifera in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24752203

  6. Assessing Receiving Water Quality Impacts due to Flow Path Alteration in Residential Catchments, using the Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolosoff, S. E.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton water supply system, responsible for supplying approximately 10% of New York City's water, provides an opportunity for exploration into the impacts of significant terrestrial flow path alteration upon receiving water quality. Natural flow paths are altered during residential development in order to allow for construction at a given location, reductions in water table elevation in low lying areas and to provide drainage of increased overland flow volumes. Runoff conducted through an artificial drainage system, is prevented from being attenuated by the natural environment, thus the pollutant removal capacity inherent in most natural catchments is often limited to areas where flow paths are not altered by development. By contrasting the impacts of flow path alterations in two small catchments in the Croton system, with different densities of residential development, we can begin to identify appropriate limits to the re-routing of runoff in catchments draining into surface water supplies. The Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model (SWMM) will be used as a tool to predict the runoff quantity and quality generated from two small residential catchments and to simulate the potential benefits of changes to the existing drainage system design, which may improve water quality due to longer residence times.

  7. Histological case-control study of peeling-induced skin changes by different peeling agents in surgically subcutaneous undermined skin flaps in facelift patients.

    PubMed

    Gonser, P; Kaestner, S; Jaminet, P; Kaye, K

    2017-06-27

    A histological evaluation of peeling-induced skin changes in subcutaneous undermined preauricular facial skin flaps of nine patients was performed. There were three treatment groups: Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) 25%, TCA 40% and phenol/croton oil; one group served as control. Two independent evaluators determined the epidermal and dermal thickness and the depth of necrosis (micrometre). The percentual tissue damage due to the peeling was calculated, and a one-sample t-test for statistical significance was performed. On the basis of the histomorphological changes, peeling depth was classified as superficial, superficial-partial, deep-partial and full thickness chemical burn. The histological results revealed a progression of wound depth for different peeling agents without full thickness necrosis. TCA peels of up to 40% can be safely applied on subcutaneous undermined facial skin flaps without impairing the vascular patency, producing a predictable chemical burn, whereas deep peels such as phenol/croton oil peels should not be applied on subcutaneous undermined skin so as to not produce skin slough or necrosis by impairing vascular patency. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Elsholtzia splendens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Son, Kun Ho; Chang, Hyeun Wook; Bae, KiHwan; Kang, Sam Sik; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2003-03-01

    Elsholtzia splendens Nakai has been used in North-East Asia as an ingredient of folk medicines for treating cough, headache and inflammation. The present investigation was carried out to establish its in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using several animal models of inflammation and pain. The 75% ethanol extract of the aerial part of E. splendens significantly inhibited mouse croton oil-induced, as well as arachidonic acid-induced, ear edema by oral administration (44.6% inhibition of croton oil-induced edema at 400 mg/kg). This plant material also showed significant inhibitory activity against the mouse ear edema induced by multiple treatment of phorbol ester for 3 days, which is an animal model of subchronic inflammation. In addition, E. splendens exhibited significant analgesic activity against mouse acetic acid-induced writhing (50% inhibition at 400 mg/kg), while indomethacin (5 mg/kg) demonstrated 95% inhibition. E. splendens (5-100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited PGE2 production by pre-induced cyclooxygenase-2 of lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition might be one of the cellular mechanisms of anti-inflammation.

  9. Immunogenicity and cross-reactivity of syngeneic murine melanomas

    SciTech Connect

    Donawho, C.; Kripke, M.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers induced in mice by chemical carcinogens or ultraviolet radiation are often antigenic but rarely induce cross-protective immunity when tested by in vivo transplantation methods. We wished to determine whether melanocytic skin tumors behave similarly or whether they exhibit cross-reactive antigens in vivo. Three melanomas induced in C3H/HeNCr(MTV-) mice by initiation with ultraviolet radiation and promotion with croton oil or initiation with 7,12-dimethyl-benz(a)anthracene and promotion with 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate or croton oil plus ultraviolet radiation were tested for immunogenicity and cross-reactivity in vivo. The three melanomas were highly immunogenic, and all induced some degree of protection against the other melanomas. Non-melanoma skin cancers induced by the same carcinogens were less immunogenic and did not immunize against the melanomas. We conclude that unlike other skin cancers, melanocytic tumors induced by chemical carcinogens and ultraviolet radiation are highly cross-reactive in vivo and thus represent a unique subset of murine skin cancers.

  10. On-line derivatization for resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: detection of aliphatic aldehydes and amines via reactive coupling of aromatic photo ionization labels.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Mühlberger, Fabian; Whaley, Alexander; Adam, Thomas; Zimmermann, Ralf; Rohwer, Egmont; Walte, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) is a powerful technique for the on-line analysis of aromatic compounds with unique features regarding selectivity and sensitivity. Aliphatic compounds, however, are difficult to address by REMPI due to their unfavorable photo ionization properties. This paper describes the proof of concept for an on-line derivatization approach for converting nonaromatic target analytes into specific, photoionizable aromatic derivatives that are readily detectable by REMPI-TOFMS. A multichannel silicone trap or poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) open tubular capillary was used as a reaction medium for the derivatization of volatile alkyl aldehydes and alkylamines with aromatic "photoionization labels"and to concentrate the resulting aromatic derivatives. The aldehydes formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and crotonal, which when underivatized are poorly detectable by REMPI, were converted into their easily photoionizable phenylhydrazone derivatives by the on-line reaction with phenylhydrazine as reagent. Similarly, the methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylamines were converted into their REMPI-ionizable benzaldehyde alkylimine derivatives by the on-line reaction with benzaldehyde as reagent. The derivatives were thermally desorbed from the PDMS matrix and transferred into the REMPI-TOFMS for detection. The REMPI-TOFMS detection limits obtained for acetaldehyde; acrolein; crotonal; and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butylamine using this photo ionization labeling method were in the sub-parts-per-million range and, thus, readily below the permissible exposure limits set by OSHA.

  11. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  12. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    PubMed

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  13. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela L da; Luft, Carolina; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Amaral, Robson H; Melo, Denizar A da Silva; Donadio, Márcio V F; Nunes, Fernanda B; de Azambuja, Marcos S; Santana, João C; Moraes, Cristina M B; Mello, Ricardo O; Cassel, Eduardo; Pereira, Marcos Aurélio de Almeida; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO), however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo) the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential.

  14. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Kmoníèková, Eva; Zídek, Zdenìk

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  15. Curative effect of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on experimental hemorrhoids in rats.

    PubMed

    Dey, Yadu Nandan; Wanjari, Manish M; Kumar, Dharmendra; Lomash, Vinay; Jadhav, Ankush D

    2016-11-04

    Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson (Family- Araceae) is a crop of south East Asian origin. In India, its tuber is widely used in ethnomedicinal practices by different tribes for the treatment of piles (hemorrhoids). The present study evaluated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on croton oil induced hemorrhoids in rats. The methanolic extract was standardized with the major phenolic compound, betulinic acid, by HPLC. The hemorrhoids were induced by applying 6% croton oil preparation in the ano-rectal region. Rats were orally administered methanolic and aqueous extract at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg, each for 7 days. Pilex (200mg/kg) was used as reference anti-hemorrhoidal drug. Hemorrhoids were assessed on eighth day by measuring hemorrhoidal and biochemical parameters along with histology of ano-rectal tissue. Croton oil application caused induction of hemorrhoids as indicated by significant (p<0.001) increase in plasma exudation of Evans blue in ano-rectal tissue, macroscopic severity score and ano-rectal coefficient as compared to normal rats. It significantly (p<0.001) elevated lactate dehydrogenase and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) levels in serum and increased myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in ano-rectal tissue along with marked histological damage as compared to normal rats. Treatment with tuber extracts and pilex significantly (p<0.05-p<0.001) ameliorated Evans blue exudation, hemorrhoidal parameters and other biochemical parameters with attenuation of tissue damage compared to hemorrhoid control rats. The results indicate that tuber extracts exhibited curative action on hemorrhoids. The aqueous extract showed more pronounced effect than methanolic extract. The effects may be attributed to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Results indicate that tuber of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius exhibited curative action on hemorrhoids through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

  16. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  17. Biological screening of rain forest plot trees from Palawan Island (Philippines).

    PubMed

    Horgen, F D; Edrada, R A; de los Reyes, G; Agcaoili, F; Madulid, D A; Wongpanich, V; Angerhofer, C K; Pezzuto, J M; Soejarto, D D; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-01-01

    Study plots totaling 0.2 Ha were established in primary forest in the highlands of central Palawan Island, Philippines. Samples of various anatomical parts [typically leaf + twig (If/tw), stem bark (sb), and root (rt)] were collected from all tree species represented within the plots by individuals having a diameter at breast height > or = 10 cm. In all, 211 distinct samples were obtained from 68 tree species, representing 35 families (not including samples from 4 indeterminate species). Methanol extracts of these samples were tested in in vitro antiplasmodial, brine shrimp toxicity, and cytotoxicity assays. The following samples showed an IC50 < or = 10 microg/mL against either chloroquine-sensitive or chloroquine-resistant clones of Plasmodium falciparum: Acronychia laurifolia (sb), Agathis celebica (lf/tw), Aglaia sp. 1 (sb), Aglaia sp. 2 (lf/tw, rt), Bhesa sp. 1 (rt), Cinnamomum griffithii (lf/tw), Croton leiophyllus (rt), Dysoxylum cauliflorum (rt), Garcinia macgregorii (sb), Lithocarpus sp. 1 (rt, sb), Meliosma pinnata ssp. macrophylla (lf/tw, rt), Myristica guatteriifolia (lf/tw), Ochrosia glomerata (rt, sb), Swintonia foxworthyi (lf/tw), Syzygium sp. 1 (rt), Turpinia pomifera (rt), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (sb). Secondly, those samples which displayed > or = 50% immobilization of brine shrimp at 100 microg/mL were: Acronychia laurifolia (lf/tw/fruit, rt, sb), Agathis celebica (lf/tw, sb), Aglaia sp. 1 (lf/tw), Alphonsea sp. 1 (rt), Ardisia iwahigensis (lf/tw), Arthrophyllum ahernianum (lf/tw, rt, sb), Castanopsis cf. evansii (rt), Cinnamomum griffithii (lf/tw, rt), Croton argyratus (lf/tw), C. leiophyllus (lf/tw, rt), Dysoxylum cauliflorum (fruit, lf/tw, rt), Euonymus javanicus (rt), Glochidion sp. 1 (rt), Polyosma sp. 1 (rt), Symplocos polyandra (rt), Timonius gammillii (sb), and Xanthophyllum flavescens (rt). Lastly, samples which exhibited an IC50 < or = 20 microg/mL against one or more of the cancer cell lines employed (LU1, KB, KB-V1, P-388, LNCa

  18. Pre-clinical evidences of Pyrostegia venusta in the treatment of vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Moreira, C G; Carrenho, L Z B; Pawloski, P L; Soley, B S; Cabrini, D A; Otuki, M F

    2015-06-20

    Leaves of Pyrostegia venusta are popularly used to treat vitiligo; however, none in vivo study showed its ability. The overall objective of the present study was to evaluate the antiinflammatory and hyperpigmentant activities of hydroethanolic (HE) extract of leaves from P. venusta in animal models of vitiligo induced by croton oil and monobenzone. The antiinflamatory and antioxidative effects of topical and oral administration of HE extract of P. venusta were evaluated in Swiss mice on edema model induced by croton oil, and further the N-acetyl-b-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, cell infiltration, and cytokine and reactive species oxygen (ROS) levels. The involvement on mice pigmentation, cell infiltration and cytokine levels were evaluated on vitiligo model induced by monobenzone in C56BL/6 mice. HE of P. venusta by gavage (300 mg/kg) reduced NAG activity in 32.5 ± 5% on mouse ear edema induced by croton oil. Similarly, cell infiltration was lower (42.3 ± 5.9%) when compared to control group, as well as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, in 44.1 ± 9.7%, 71.9 ± 22.2% and to basal levels, respectively. Topical treatment with HE of P. venusta (10%) diminished cell infiltration (67.7 ± 7.1%) and ROS levels (total reduction). P. venusta either by gavage (300 mg/Kg) or topically (10%) increased epidermal melanin level (116.5 ± 13% and 100 ± 16.9%, respectively), diminished dermal depigmentation (36.0 ± 6.7% and 38.2 ± 6.2%, respectively), as well as tissue TNF-α levels (68.2 ± 11.6% and 99.2 ± 12.1%, respectively) and cell infiltration (basal levels and 94.3 ± 9.17%, respectively). However, only topical treatment with HE of P. venusta altered melanin specific marker in hair follicles. For the first time these data show that topical and oral administrations of P. venusta have significant antiinflammatory and hyperpigmentant effects, demonstrating different topical and systemic effects through two

  19. Projected effects of proposed salinity-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the upper Brazos River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional digital-computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of steady and transient conditions in which the density effects of salt water are considered. The models were used to project the effects of the 100- year impoundment of salt water in Kiowa Peak Lake and Croton Lake on the freshwater system. Rises in aquifer head of 10 to 50 feet are projected only for areas near each dan and along each lake shoreline. The maximum migration of salt water downstream from each dam is projected to be about 1 mile. The modeling efforts in this study did not include the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion nor consideration of possible changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer due to physical and chemical interactions in the salt-water and fresh-water environments.

  20. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.