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Sample records for croton floribundus spreng

  1. Ozone-Induced Responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): Metabolic Cross-Talk between Volatile Organic Compounds and Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3. PMID:25165889

  2. Ozone-induced responses in Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae): metabolic cross-talk between volatile organic compounds and calcium oxalate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Gustavson, Poliana; Bolsoni, Vanessa Palermo; de Oliveira, Debora Pinheiro; Guaratini, Maria Tereza Gromboni; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Marabesi, Mauro Alexandre; Alves, Edenise Segala; de Souza, Silvia Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Here, we proposed that volatile organic compounds (VOC), specifically methyl salicylate (MeSA), mediate the formation of calcium oxalate crystals (COC) in the defence against ozone (O3) oxidative damage. We performed experiments using Croton floribundus, a pioneer tree species that is tolerant to O3 and widely distributed in the Brazilian forest. This species constitutively produces COC. We exposed plants to a controlled fumigation experiment and assessed biochemical, physiological, and morphological parameters. O3 induced a significant increase in the concentrations of constitutive oxygenated compounds, MeSA and terpenoids as well as in COC number. Our analysis supported the hypothesis that ozone-induced VOC (mainly MeSA) regulate ROS formation in a way that promotes the opening of calcium channels and the subsequent formation of COC in a fast and stable manner to stop the consequences of the reactive oxygen species in the tissue, indeed immobilising the excess calcium (caused by acute exposition to O3) that can be dangerous to the plant. To test this hypothesis, we performed an independent experiment spraying MeSA over C. floribundus plants and observed an increase in the number of COC, indicating that this compound has a potential to directly induce their formation. Thus, the tolerance of C. floribundus to O3 oxidative stress could be a consequence of a higher capacity for the production of VOC and COC rather than the modulation of antioxidant balance. We also present some insights into constitutive morphological features that may be related to the tolerance that this species exhibits to O3.

  3. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  4. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-08-13

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g).

  5. Biological Activities of the Essential Oil from Erigeron floribundus.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Riccardo; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Sorci, Leonardo; Maggi, Filippo; Ranjbarian, Farahnaz; Biapa Nya, Prosper C; Petrelli, Dezemona; Vitali, Luca A; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Hofer, Anders; Cappellacci, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Erigeron floribundus (Asteraceae) is an herbaceous plant widely used in Cameroonian traditional medicine to treat various diseases of microbial and non-microbial origin. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro biological activities displayed by the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of E. floribundus, namely the antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiproliferative activities. Moreover, we investigated the inhibitory effects of E. floribundus essential oil on nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NadD), a promising new target for developing novel antibiotics, and Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for Human African trypanosomiasis. The essential oil composition was dominated by spathulenol (12.2%), caryophyllene oxide (12.4%) and limonene (8.8%). The E. floribundus oil showed a good activity against Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone diameter, IZD of 14 mm, minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC of 512 µg/mL). Interestingly, it inhibited the NadD enzyme from S. aureus (IC50 of 98 µg/mL), with no effects on mammalian orthologue enzymes. In addition, T. brucei proliferation was inhibited with IC50 values of 33.5 µg/mL with the essential oil and 5.6 µg/mL with the active component limonene. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity on HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells with an IC50 value of 14.89 µg/mL, and remarkable ferric reducing antioxidant power (tocopherol-equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC = 411.9 μmol·TE/g). PMID:27529211

  6. Quantitative elemental localisation in leaves and stems of nickel hyperaccumulating shrub Hybanthusfloribundus subsp. floribundus using micro-PIXE spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachenko, Anthony G.; Singh, Balwant; Bhatia, Naveen P.; Siegele, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Hybanthusfloribundus (Lindl.) F.Muell. subsp. floribundus is a native Australian nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulating shrub and a promising species for rehabilitation and phytoremediation of Ni tailings. Spatial localisation and quantification of Ni in leaf and stem tissues of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus was studied using micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) spectroscopy. Young plants, grown in a potting mix under controlled glasshouse conditions were exposed to Ni concentrations of 0 and 26 mM kg-1 for 20 weeks. Leaf and stem samples were hand-sectioned and freeze-dried prior to micro-PIXE analysis. Elemental distribution maps of leaves revealed Ni concentration of 7800 mg kg-1 dry weight (DW) in whole leaf sections, which was identical to the bulk tissue analysis. Elemental maps showed that Ni was preferentially localised in the adaxial epidermis (10,000 mg kg-1 DW) and reached a maximum of up to 10,000 mg kg-1 DW in the leaf margin. Freeze-dried stem sections from the same plants contained lower Ni than leaf tissues (1800 mg kg-1 versus 7800 mg kg-1 DW, respectively), however did not resolve a clear pattern of compartmentalisation across different anatomical regions. Our results suggest localisation in epidermal cells is an important physiological mechanism involved in Ni accumulation and tolerance in leaves of H.floribundus subsp. floribundus.

  7. Alcmaeon of Croton.

    PubMed

    Debernardi, Alberto; Sala, Elena; D'Aliberti, Giuseppe; Talamonti, Giuseppe; Franchini, Antonia Francesca; Collice, Massimo

    2010-02-01

    IN THE LATTER half of the sixth century BC, Croton was the site of the most famous medical school in Magna Graecia, where diseases of the human body were examined in a scientific and experimental manner instead of by using the contemporary supernatural, nearly magical concepts. Alcmaeon was one of the most active physicians interested in human physiology in the medical tradition of Croton. Although Alcmaeon was devoted to science and was a skillful experimentalist, little is known about his life and his exact birth date. The relative isolation of Alcmaeon from the great philosophical currents of his time probably facilitated his unprejudiced methodology and may have prevented him from disclosing his theories and demonstrating their value. He pioneered the concept of the relationship between the brain and the mind and was the first to identify the brain as the center of understanding and the essential organ for perceptions, sensations, and thoughts. Through systematic observations, Alcmaeon brought many things to light about the characteristics of the eye and the presence of channels connecting head sensory organs to the brain. He stated that the soul was immortal and introduced the tekmairesthai doctrine, through which the ideas of anamnesis and prognosis gave birth. We highlight his contributions to medical thought, and especially to neuroscience, which reveal Alcmaeon to be a thinker of considerable originality and one of the greatest philosophers, naturalists, and neuroscientists of all time. PMID:20087125

  8. Crotofolane diterpenoids from Croton caracasanus.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Katiuska; Compagnoneb, Reinaldo S; Riina, Ricarda; Briceño, Alexander; González, Teresa; Squitieri, Emilio; Landaetab, Carlos; Soscrún, Humberto; Suáreza, Alírica I

    2013-12-01

    Four new crotofolane-type diterpenoids, crotocarasin (A-D) (1-4), together with the known crotofolin E, were isolated from a dichloromethane extract of the stems of Croton caracasanus Pittier. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, and the structure of 3 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray data analyses.

  9. Landfill capping: The Croton Point Landfill experience

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasaraghaven, R.; Gavin, J.M.; Landi, A.M.; Ritchie, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Croton Point Landfill Capping involved the installation of an impermeable, geosynthetic cap and the attendant geotechnical cover soils over a 113 acre hazardous waste landfill in Croton-On-Hudson, New York. The remediation process - Remedial Investigation, Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Remedial Design and Remedial Construction lasted six years. This paper sets forth some of the insights and experiences gained during that process and provides some practical recommendations. In particular, the paper evaluates the Croton Landfill experience in regard to Health and Safety; Stormwater Control; erosion and sediment control; QA/QC; leachate treatment and disposal; and wildlife control.

  10. Chemical composition and amoebicidal activity of Croton pallidulus, Croton ericoides, and Croton isabelli (Euphorbiaceae) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Vunda, Sita Luvangadio Lukoki; Sauter, Ismael Pretto; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Bordignon, Sérgio A Loreto; Rott, Marilise Brittes; Apel, Miriam A; von Poser, Gilsane Lino

    2012-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae genus that causes amoebic keratitis which is a painful sight-threatening disease of the eyes. Its treatment is difficult, and the search for new drugs is very important. Here, essential oils obtained from the aerial parts of Croton pallidulus, Croton isabelli, and Croton ericoides (Euphorbiaceae), native plants of Southern Brazil, were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The essential oils of C. pallidulus and C. isabelli were characterized by the presence of sesquiterpenes: germacrene D (15.5 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.2 %), and β-caryophyllene (13.1 %) in C. pallidulus and bicyclogermacrene (48.9 %) in C. isabelli. The essential oil of C. ericoides presented mainly monoterpenes, β-pinene (39.0 %) being the main component. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of the essential oils against A. polyphaga trophozoites. The essential oil of C. ericoides was the most active, killing 87 % of trophozoites at the concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The essential oil of C. pallidulus killed only 29 % of the trophozoites at the same concentration. The essential oil of C. isabelli presented the lowest activity, killing only 4 % of the trophozoites at the concentration of 10 mg/mL. The essential oils of the three species showed cytotoxic effect by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method in Vero cells. The oil of C. ericoides, which showed the highest amoebicidal activity, was the most cytotoxic on these mammalian cells.

  11. A new multiflorane triterpenoid ester from Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.

    PubMed

    De Shan, M; Hu, L H; Chen, Z L

    2001-01-01

    A new triterpenoid ester 3,29-di-O-(p-methoxy)benzoylmultiflora-8-ene-3 alpha,29-diol-7-one from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng has been isolated. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and confirmed by X-ray crystallography. PMID:11561447

  12. A new multiflorane triterpenoid ester from Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.

    PubMed

    De Shan, M; Hu, L H; Chen, Z L

    2001-01-01

    A new triterpenoid ester 3,29-di-O-(p-methoxy)benzoylmultiflora-8-ene-3 alpha,29-diol-7-one from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng has been isolated. Its structure was elucidated by spectroscopic evidence and confirmed by X-ray crystallography.

  13. 33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLATE XXI, PAGE 113. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  14. 16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTION OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATE V, PAGE 86. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  15. 10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. SECTIONS OF THE CROTON AQUEDUCT, PLATES I, II, III, IV, PAGE 84 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  16. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Kieu, Nguyen Thi Minh; Kuze, Noriko; Tomisaka, Kazue; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids in Gac fruit (Momordica Cochinchinensis spreng) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were measured. Lycopene was found to be predominantly present in the Gac seed membrane at a concentration of up to 380 microg/g of seed membrane. The concentration of lycopene in the Gac seed membrane was about ten-fold higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruit and vegetables, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene. PMID:12506992

  17. Carotenoid pigments in GAC fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG).

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiromitsu; Kieu, Nguyen Thi Minh; Kuze, Noriko; Tomisaka, Kazue; Van Chuyen, Nguyen

    2002-11-01

    The carotenoids in Gac fruit (Momordica Cochinchinensis spreng) were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the concentrations of beta-carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin were measured. Lycopene was found to be predominantly present in the Gac seed membrane at a concentration of up to 380 microg/g of seed membrane. The concentration of lycopene in the Gac seed membrane was about ten-fold higher than that in known lycopene-rich fruit and vegetables, indicating that Gac fruit could be a new and potentially valuable source of lycopene.

  18. Alkenes with antioxidative activities from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qin-Ge; Xu, Kun; Sang, Zhi-Pei; Wei, Rong-Rui; Liu, Wen-Min; Su, Ya-Lun; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Ji, Teng-Fei; Li, Lu-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Four new alkenes (1-4), and six known alkenes (5-12) were isolated from Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and references. Compounds (1-12) were evaluated for antioxidative activities. Among them, compounds 1, 2, 4, and 7 exhibited significant antioxidative activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay with IC50=21.4-49.5 μM. The known compounds (5-12) were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  19. Chemical constituents of Croton oligandrum (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Abega, Destaing F; Kapche, Deccaux W F G; Ango, Patrick Y; Mapitse, Renameditswe; Yeboah, Samuel O; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T

    2014-01-01

    A new clerodane diterpene derivative named crotonoligaketone was obtained from the stem bark of Croton oligandrum along with eight known compounds including crotonadiol, imbricatadiol, crotonzambefuran B, 7-acetoxytrachiloban-18-oic acid, 3-O-acetylaleuritolic acid, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were established on the basis of their spectral data and by comparison with those reported in the literature.

  20. Diterpenoid derivatives of Kenyan Croton sylvaticus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K

    2015-04-01

    Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive.

  1. Cytotoxic phorbol esters of Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Wang, Lun; Li, Fu; Yu, Kai; Wang, Ming-Kui

    2013-05-24

    Chemical investigation of the seeds of Croton tiglium afforded eight new phorbol diesters (three phorbol diesters, 1-3, and five 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 4-8), together with 11 known phorbol diesters (nine phorbol diesters, 9-17, and two 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diesters, 18 and 19). The structures of compounds 1-8 were determined by spectroscopic data information and chemical degradation experiments. The cytotoxic activities of the phorbol diesters were evaluated against the SNU387 hepatic tumor cell line, and compound 3 exhibited the most potent activity (IC50 1.2 μM).

  2. New clerodane diterpenoids from Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Maosong; Cao, Di; Gao, Youheng; Li, Shuhua; Zhu, Jinping; Yang, Bao; Zhou, Lian; Zhou, Yuan; Jin, Jing; Zhao, Zhongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Two new clerodane diterpenoids (1-2), one new clerodane diterpenoid alkaloid (3), as well as thirteen known compounds were isolated from Croton crassifolius. The structures of new compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HRMS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (1)H (1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Compound 3 is firstly reported as the clerodane-type diterpenoid alkaloid in natural products. All of the compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against CT26.WT cell using the MTT method.

  3. Biological activities of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Rosario, Diele Magno; Silva Veiga, Andreza Socorro; Barros Brasil, Davi Do Socorro; Silveira, Fernando Tobias; Dolabela, Maria Fâni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Different species of Croton are used in traditional Amazonian medicine. Among the popular uses are treatment of bacterial diseases, poorly healing wounds and fevers. Objective: This study evaluated the antileishmanial, antiplasmodial and antimicrobial activities of the extracts and diterpenes of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch (Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Leaves and bark were extracted with dichloromethane and methanol. The bark dichloromethane extract (BDE) was chromatographed on a column, obtaining cordatin and aparisthman. The extracts and diterpenes were assayed thought agar disk diffusion method and their bactericidal or fungicidal effects were evaluated by minimum bactericidal or fungicidal concentration. The antiplasmodial activity was evaluated after 24 and 72 h of exposition. The antileishmanial activity was performed on promastigotes forms of Leishmania amazonensis. Results: The bark methanol extract (BME) and cordatin were not active against any microbial strains tested; BDE and leaves methanol extract (LME) were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and aparisthman was positive for Candida albicans. In the determination of the minimum bactericidal concentration, neither of them were active in the highest concentration tested. The extracts and diterpenes were inactive in Plasmodium falciparum, except the LME in 72 h. Any extract was shown to be active in promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. Conclusion: These results indicate that the BDE and LME did not inhibit the bacterial growth, then they probably had bacteriostatic effect. LME presented activity in P. falciparum. PMID:27041867

  4. 34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT CLENDINNING VALLEY, PLAE XXII, PAGE 114. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  5. 29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. AQUEDUCT BRIDGE FOR ROADWAY, PROBABLY JUST NORTH OF TARRYTOWN, PLATE XIV, PAGE 103. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  6. 26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. ENTABLATURE OVER THE ENTRANCE TO THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE X, PAGE 96 - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  7. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng: Botanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological and Nutritional Significance.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Greetha; Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani

    2016-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a perennial herb belonging to the family Lamiaceae which occurs naturally throughout the tropics and warm regions of Africa, Asia and Australia. This herb has therapeutic and nutritional properties attributed to its natural phytochemical compounds which are highly valued in the pharmaceutical industry. Besides, it has horticultural properties due to its aromatic nature and essential oil producing capability. It is widely used in folk medicine to treat conditions like cold, asthma, constipation, headache, cough, fever and skin diseases. The leaves of the plant are often eaten raw or used as flavoring agents, or incorporated as ingredients in the preparation of traditional food. The literature survey revealed the occurrence 76 volatiles and 30 non-volatile compounds belonging to different classes of phytochemicals such as monoterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, phenolics, flavonoids, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Studies have cited numerous pharmacological properties including antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor, wound healing, anti-epileptic, larvicidal, antioxidant and analgesic activities. Also, it has been found to be effective against respiratory, cardiovascular, oral, skin, digestive and urinary diseases. Yet, scientific validation of many other traditional uses would be appreciated, mainly to discover and authenticate novel bioactive compounds from this herb. This review article provides comprehensive information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and nutritional importance of P. amboinicus essential oil and its various solvent extracts. This article allows researchers to further explore the further potential of this multi-utility herb for various biomedical applications. PMID:27043511

  8. Carotenoids retention in processed curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng).

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Varnashree Boraiah; Subban, Nagarajan

    2013-02-01

    Lutein content and β-carotene content of dried curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng) by various methods [microwave, combo, infrared (IR), hot air oven, freeze drying, cross flow tray drying, sun and shade drying] have been evaluated. The dried leaves were treated with ice-cold acetone to get the extracts (0.69-3.64% w/w) on dry weight basis. Lutein content and β-carotene content of all these extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an established method and found in the range of 8.2-99.5 mg/100 g and 2.9-19.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The results indicated that the microwave processed leaves contain higher levels of lutein (99.4 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (19.2 mg/100 g) compared with other drying methods. The cross flow dried (8.2 mg/100 g and 3.5 mg/100 g) and IR dried samples (23 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g) retained minimum amount of lutein and β-carotene, respectively.

  9. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  10. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, V.R.; Dhanamani, M.; Sudhamani, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium. PMID:22557324

  11. Bioactive constituents from Croton sparsiflorus Morong.

    PubMed

    Shahwar, Durre; Ahmad, Naeem; Yasmeen, Asma; Khan, Muhammad Akmal; Ullah, Sami; Rahman, Atta-ur

    2015-02-01

    Whole plant extracts of Croton sparsiflorus in methanol have shown significant enzyme inhibition and antioxidant activities. Bioassay-guided isolation of chloroform fraction at pH 3 resulted in the identification of crotsparinine (1) and crotsparine (2), while sparsiflorine (3) was purified from the chloroform fraction at pH 9. The structures of the compounds were confirmed through spectral analyses (EI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR). The isolated compounds 1-3 exhibited remarkable enzyme inhibition activity with IC50 values 27.01 ± 1.1, 22.26 ± 1.0 and 18.02 ± 1.3 μM in xanthine oxidase and 48.42 ± 1.5, 48.05 ± 1.4 and 7.42 ± 1.0 μM in acetylcholine esterase assays, respectively. These compounds also showed potent radical scavenging and reducing properties in DPPH and FRAP assays, respectively. The present results suggest the validity of the traditional uses of C. sparsiflorus in rheumatism and gout. Furthermore, the isolated noraporphine alkaloids can be useful in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. [The spectrum characteristics of an invasion plant: Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wen-ting; Zhou, Guan-hua; Wen, Zhen-he

    2010-07-01

    Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng. (EAS) is a toxic invasion plant and has caused significant economic and environmental impacts in China. The EAS has the characteristics of widely distributing and quickly spreading. The traditional detecting and supervising methods become invalid when applied for managing the spatial distribution of EAS. Based on the analyzing results of the spectrum features of EAS, the present paper tried to structure the identifying models by remote sensing. The main objective of this paper is to develop an available method for detecting and mapping the spatial distribution of EAS. The study shows that the spectrum of EAS has two reflecting peaks and one absorbing trough. The corresponding wavelengths of those peaks are 560, 730 and 674 nm, respectively. The absorption characteristics of EAS at 647 nm are that the absorbing depth is 0.504 3-1.910 3, the absorbing width is 13.778 9-17.251 8 nm and the area at the left absorption band is greater than the right, and the corresponding area ratio of left to right is 1.771 9-2.444 1. The white flowers of EAS make the reflectance higher at visible bands, and the first-order derivatives of EAS spectral show a wave peak at 420 nm. Compared with the spectral feature of other representative materials, the absorbing characteristics at 647 nm, such as absorption width and absorption depth, and the peak at 420 nm of derivatives spectral are special features of EAS spectral, which can be used as remotely sensed parameters for detecting and mapping the EAS at florescence. PMID:20827985

  13. Enzymes involved in crotonate metabolism in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Wofford, N.Q.

    1992-12-31

    Cell-free extracts of Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grown with crotonate in pure culture or in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei contained crotonyl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase activity. This activity was not detected in cell-free extracts from the butyrate-grown coculture which suggests that the long lag times observed before S. wolfei grew with crotonate were initially due to the inability to activate crotonate. Cell-free extracts of S. wolfei grown in pure culture contained high specific activities of hydrogenase and very low levels of formate dehydrogenase. The low levels suggest a biosynthetic rather than a catabolic role for the latter enzyme when S. wolfei is grown in pure culture. CO dehydrogenase activity was not detected. S. wolfei can form butyrate using a CoA transferase activity, but not by a phosphotransbutyrylase or enoate reductase activity. A c-type cytochrome was detected in S. wolfei grown in pure culture or in coculture indicating the presence of an electron transport system. This is a characteristic which separates S. wolfei from other known crotonate-using bacteria.

  14. Conversion of polyhydroxyalkanoates to methyl crotonate using whole cells.

    PubMed

    Spekreijse, J; Holgueras Ortega, J; Sanders, J P M; Bitter, J H; Scott, E L

    2016-07-01

    Isolated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) can be used to produce biobased bulk chemicals. However, isolation is complex and costly. To circumvent this, whole cells containing PHA may be used. Here, PHA containing 3-hydroxybutyrate and small amounts of 3-hydroxyvalerate was produced from wastewater and used in the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate monomer to methyl crotonate. Due to the increased complexity of whole cell reaction mixtures compared to pure PHA, the effect of 3-hydroxyvalerate content, magnesium salts and water content was studied in order to evaluate the need for downstream processing. A water content up to 20% and the presence of 3-hydroxyvalerate have no influence on the conversion of the 3-hydroxybutyrate to methyl crotonate. The presence of Mg(2+)-ions resulted either in an increased yield or in byproduct formation depending on the counter ion. Overall, it is possible to bypass a major part of the downstream processing of PHA for the production of biobased chemicals. PMID:27023381

  15. Pyran-2-one Derivatives from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Wang, Jiajian; Liang, Yeyin; Li, Yaolan; Wang, Guocai

    2016-06-01

    One new pyran-2-one derivative [crotonpyrone C (1)] and two known ones (2-3) were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius. Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic (IR, UV, 1D and 2D NMR) and HRESIMS methods. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic activity using a zebrafish model, but showed little activity.

  16. Two new natural products from Croton kongensis Gagnep.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lin; Meng, Zhaoqing; Li, Zhaoliang; Yang, Biao; Wang, Zhenzhong; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A new diterpenoid, 14β-hydroxy-3-oxo-ent-kaur-16-ene (1), and a new nor-lignan, 8S-( - )-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyl)-dihydrofuran-8(8'H)-one (4), along with five known compounds were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton kongensis Gagnep. Their isolations were clarified and structures were elucidated by the extensive spectroscopic analyses, especially 2D NMR experiments.

  17. A Novel Norclerodane Diterpenoid from the Roots of Croton crassifolius.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-Xin; Li, Hui-Hong; Fan, Gai-Xia; Li, Zheng-Yu; Dong, Le-Le; Li, Hong-Yu; Fei, Dong-Qing

    2015-11-01

    A chemical investigation of Croton crassifolius afforded a novel norclerodane diterpenoid (1) with an unprecedented six-membered oxygen ring between C-1 and C-12, together with three known compounds. The structure of the new compound was elucidated based on spectroscopic (IR, 1D, and 2D NMR) and HR-ESI-MS techniques. This report describes the first example of a natural norclerodane with a 4H-chromene ring system.

  18. Photocarcinogenesis promotion studies with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and croton oil.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J H

    1988-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that BPO can promote chemically initiated tumor formation in SENCAR mice. In addition, a number of chemicals have been shown to promote and/or enhance UVR induced carcinogenesis. This study examined the effect of BPO on UVR initiated tumor formation. One hundred and forty-eight Uscd mice received 270 mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation to the posterior halves of their backs 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Four weeks later the mice were divided into 4 groups. Group I received croton oil in acetone applications to the back 5 times a week for the duration of the study. Group II received acetone, Group III received the BPO diluent, and Group IV received the BPO in an aqueous diluent applications as in Group I. One mouse in Group II (acetone) and one in Group IV (BPO) developed tumors in unirradiated skin. In the UVR initiated skin 38% of the survivors developed tumors in Group I (croton oil), whereas 5% did in Group II (acetone), 8% in Group III (BPO base), and 8% group IV (BPO). Thus under the circumstances of this study croton oil did promote UV initiated tumor formation but BPO did not. These results are consistent with those recently reported by Iversen.

  19. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f smithIllistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TITLE PAGE. SHOWS N.Y.C. FOUNTAIN MADE POSSIBLE BY THE AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  20. 27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopied October 1976, from b.f.Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York, Wiley and Putnam, 1843. TUNNEL AND GATE CHAMBER AT THE HEAD OF THE AQUEDUCT, PLATE VII, PAGE 92. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  1. Diterpenoids from Croton laui and their cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Biao; Zhao, Jin-Xin; Xu, Cheng-Hui; Dong, Lei; Ding, Jian; Yue, Jian-Min

    2014-04-25

    Fourteen new diterpenoids including clerodane (1-12), labdane (13), and norlabdane (14) types, as well as nine known analogues were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui. Their structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, and that of crotonolide H (11) was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Crotonolide A (1) exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against two tumor cell lines, HL-60 (human premyelocytic leukemia, IC50 9.42 μM) and P-388 (murine leukemia, IC50 7.45 μM), and crotonolide G (10) displayed significant antibacterial activity against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Cytotoxic Orbitide from the Latex of Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Cândido-Bacani, Priscila de M; Figueiredo, Patrícia de O; Matos, Maria de F C; Garcez, Fernanda R; Garcez, Walmir S

    2015-11-25

    The bioactive ethyl acetate phase obtained from the latex of Croton urucurana Baillon afforded a novel orbitide (1), [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1, that proved active against NCI-ADR/RES (ovary, multidrug-resistance phenotype) cells with the same potency as doxorubicin (positive control) and inactive up to the highest concentration tested against nontumor NIH/3T3 cells. The structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, further supported by HRESIMS data and by application of Marfey's method for determination of the absolute configuration of its amino acid residues. This is the first orbitide obtained from C. urucurana.

  3. Cytotoxic Orbitide from the Latex of Croton urucurana.

    PubMed

    Cândido-Bacani, Priscila de M; Figueiredo, Patrícia de O; Matos, Maria de F C; Garcez, Fernanda R; Garcez, Walmir S

    2015-11-25

    The bioactive ethyl acetate phase obtained from the latex of Croton urucurana Baillon afforded a novel orbitide (1), [1-9-NαC]-crourorb A1, that proved active against NCI-ADR/RES (ovary, multidrug-resistance phenotype) cells with the same potency as doxorubicin (positive control) and inactive up to the highest concentration tested against nontumor NIH/3T3 cells. The structure elucidation was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, further supported by HRESIMS data and by application of Marfey's method for determination of the absolute configuration of its amino acid residues. This is the first orbitide obtained from C. urucurana. PMID:26561866

  4. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  6. Two new cembranoids from the leaves of Croton longissimus Airy Shaw.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Lhieochaiphant, Duangporn; Lhieochaiphant, Sorasak

    2013-04-01

    Two new cembrane-type diterpenoids (1 and 2) along with five known compounds (3-7) were isolated from leaves of Croton longissimus collected in Thailand. Their structures were elucidated from spectroscopic evidence and compound 4 was found by HPLC analysis to be identical to oblongionoside B-a compound isolated from Croton oblongifolius-including the absolute configuration at the C-9 position.

  7. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  8. Croton ruizianus: platelet proaggregating activity of two new pregnane glycosides.

    PubMed

    Piacente, S; Belisario, M A; Del Castillo, H; Pizza, C; De Feo, V

    1998-03-01

    The MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Croton ruizianus afforded two new pregnane glycosides 1 and 2, together with the morphinandienone alkaloids flavinantine (3) and O-methylflavinantine (4). Their structures were elucidated by NMR experiments including 1H-1H (1D TOCSY and 2D DQF-COSY) and 1H-13C (HSQC, HMBC) spectroscopy. The proaggregating activity of the MeOH extract and the isolates were evaluated. Although the MeOH extract and pregnane glycosides (at different doses) were found to promote platelet aggregation, flavinantine (3) and O-methylflavinantine (4) showed only slight activity. The ability of the MeOH extract and the four compounds to act synergistically with thrombin was also evaluated. All the tested compounds were successful in augmenting the aggregating effect of thrombin, although to different degrees.

  9. [Diterpenes and other components of Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae)].

    PubMed

    Fuentes, J C; Castro, V; Jakupovic, J; Murillo, R

    2004-03-01

    The roots of Croton hirtus (Euphorbiaceae) collected in Paraiso, Cartago (Costa Rica) afforded, in addition to the few known metabolites, 20 new compounds: the bis-nor dolabradane 1, the dolabradanes 2 and 3, the kauranes 4-7, the cyclopropakauranes 8 and 9, the hirtusanes 10-15, the germacradiene esters 16-18 and the C-25 compound 21, presumably formed by a Diels-Alder reaction between compound 18 and a monoterpene. All structures were elucidated using high field 1D and 2D NMR techniques. MS fragmentation patterns are here reported. The absolute configurations of 4 and 9 were elucidated by using circular dichroism. The separation was performed with modern chromatographic technics.

  10. Further insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species against Aedes aegypti L.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Glauber Pacelli Gomes; de Souza, Terezinha Maria; de Paula Freire, Gabrielle; Farias, Davi Felipe; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; de Morais, Selene Maia; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-05-01

    This study assessed new insecticidal activities of essential oils from Lippia sidoides and Croton species (Croton zehntneri, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton argyrophylloides, and Croton sonderianus) against Aedes aegypti mosquito. In addition, the acute toxicity upon mice was determined. All essential oils showed inhibition of egg hatching, with IC50 values ranging from 66.4 to 143.2 μg mL(-1), larvicidal activity with LC50 ranging from 25.5 to 94.6 μg mL(-1), and pupicidal action with PC50 ranging from 276.8 to over 500 μg mL(-1). Only L. sidoides, C. zehntneri, and C. argyrophylloides essential oils were able to inhibit the oviposition of female gravid mosquitoes with OD50 values of 35.3, 45.3, and 45.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. Oral acute toxicity in mice showed that C. sonderianus and C. argyrophylloides oils are nontoxic (LD50 > 6,000 mg.kg(-1)) while C. nepetaefolius, C. zehntneri, and L. sidoides oils are moderately toxic (LD50 3,840; 3,464, and 2,624 mg.kg(-1), respectively). The results indicate that these oils are promising sources of bioactive compounds, showing low or no toxicity to mammals.

  11. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  12. Antifungal activity of 4-substituted crotonic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L; Gawiak, D E

    1976-08-01

    Twenty-three 4-substituted crotonic acid esters were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. For the analogues of the methyl ester containing substituents in the 4 position, the following order of fungitoxicity was observed: I greater than Br greater than Cl greater than CH3S greater than CH3O greater than F=H. Of the homologues of the esters of the 4-iodo and 4-bromo compounds which included methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl, n-pentyl, and n-hexyl, ethyl 4-iodocrotonate was most toxic to the four fungi at pH 7.0 in the presence of 10% beef serum (C. albicans, 18mug/ml, A. niger, 40 mug/ml, M. mucedo, 5 mug/ml, T. mentagrophytes, 4 mug/ml). It is believed that the mechanism of fungitoxicity is due, in part, to a nucleophilic reaction involving SH-containing compounds. This is based on the correlation of fungitoxicity with the order of leaving groups in the nucleophilic reaction and the protection against the toxicity of the test compounds to the fungi by cysteine and glutathione.

  13. Geophysical characterisation of Carlo's V Castle (Crotone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Rizzo, E.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Carlo's V Castle, located in Crotone Town, on the Ionian coast of the Calabria Region (Italy), date back to the 13th century d.C. (Fig. 1). During its long life, the building changed several owners and sustained the damages and the consequent reconstructions due to the innumerable naval battles. Moreover, the castle suffered the action of the earthquakes which always afflict the region. With the principal aim of detecting the location, depth and geometry of the rests of destroyed structures, a systematic Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey was carried out in the area inside the boundary walls. The results are sixty-two one-meter-spaced, filtered and migrated radargrams arranged in four 3D data-sets. From each data-set, the most significant time-slice was extracted. To reduce the ambiguity in the GPR data interpretation, additional geophysical techniques, such as Magnetic (M), and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), were carried out with a partial superimposition with the GPR data. A comparison and a joint interpretation amongst different geophysical data pointed out some very remarkable features associated to buried remains and possible buried cannonballs. With the secondary aim to check the presence of an old military walkway linking two bastions a GPR profile was carried out on the sea side boundary wall. The GPR results are in agreement with an ERT survey carried out on the same profile and consistent with the presence of an underground passage.

  14. Antidermatophytic Activity of Ethanolic Extract from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han Chien; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Lee, Wen-Ju; Yap, Hui-Yi; Wang, Shao-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophytosis, which is caused mainly by genera of Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, and Microsporum, is a frequent dermatological problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Investigations were carried out in this study to evaluate the antidermatophytic activity of the stems, leaves, and seeds of Croton tiglium, one of the traditional medicine plants indigenous to Asia. Ethanolic extracts of the stems, leaves, and seeds of C. tiglium were prepared by cold soak or heat reflux methods. The antidermatophytic activities of the extracts were evaluated by disc diffusion and microdilution susceptibility assays against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, and Epidermophyton floccosum. The active components in the extracts were analyzed and identified by GC-MS. All ethanolic extracts of C. tiglium showed some antifungal activities against the three dermatophytes. The ethanolic stem extract had the greatest inhibitory activities against T. mentagrophytes and E. floccosum with MICs at 0.16 mg/mL and had a lower activity against T. rubrum (MIC: 0.31 mg/mL). Oleic acid and hexadecanoic acid were found to be the major constituents in the stem extract that demonstrated strong antidermatophytic activities. The ethanolic extracts of stem or seed of C. tiglium exhibit strong antidermatophytic activities and, thus, could be considered for application on treating skin fungal infections after appropriate processing. PMID:27446946

  15. Antiproliferative activity of flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J Pena; Lago, João Henrique G; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T G; de Carvalho, João E; Furlan, Cláudia M

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1-F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1-F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes.

  16. Essential oils composition of croton species from the Amazon.

    PubMed

    Turiel, Nathalie A; Ribeiro, Alcy F; Carvalho, Elisangela Elena N; Domingos, Vanessa D; Lucas, Flávia Cristina A; Carreira, Léa Maria M; Andrade, Eloisa Helena A; Maia, José Guilherme S

    2013-10-01

    The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%).

  17. Effects of urbanization on stream chemistry in the Croton Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. N.; Boyer, E. W.; Curry, D. S.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    We studied the impacts of urbanization on flow paths and water quality in the Croton Watershed, a forested area east of the Hudson River that supplies about 10% of the drinking water to residents of New York City. We focused on three small sub-catchments along an urban gradient: one that is forested and undeveloped, one that is developing a residential base, and one that is fully developed with homes. To evaluate the effects of urbanization on concentration/discharge relationships, we monitored longitudinal profiles of streamflow and chemistry (cations, anions, nutrients, pH) in each catchment under varying flow conditions. Our work shows that urbanization impacts stream chemistry in several ways: by altering flow paths of water and by providing anthropogenic sources of solutes to streamflow. The urbanized catchments had a much higher fraction of quick flow contributing to the stream than the forested catchment. Solutes associated with residential development, such as road salt and septic systems, affected stream chemistry in the developed catchments. Total dissolved solids (TDS) were highest in the urban catchment and lowest in the forested catchment. Chloride, sodium, and calcium were the largest components of TDS in the urban and developing catchments, while calcium, silica, and sulfate were the largest components of TDS in the forested catchment.

  18. Antiproliferative Activity of Flavonoids from Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Kátia Pereira; Motta, Lucimar B.; Santos, Deborah Y. A. C.; Salatino, Maria L. F.; Salatino, Antonio; Ferreira, Marcelo J. Pena; Lago, João Henrique G.; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia T. G.; de Carvalho, João E.; Furlan, Cláudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Croton sphaerogynus is a shrub from the Atlantic Rain Forest in southeastern Brazil. A lyophilized crude EtOH extract from leaves of C. sphaerogynus, obtained by maceration at room temperature (seven days), was suspended in methanol and partitioned with hexane. The purified MeOH phase was fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 yielding five fractions (F1–F5) containing flavonoids, as characterized by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analyses. The antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract, MeOH and hexane phases, and fractions F1–F5 was evaluated on in vitro cell lines NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung), MCF-7 (breast cancer), and U251 (glioma). The MeOH phase showed activity (mean log GI50 0.54) higher than the hexane phase and EtOH extract (mean log GI50 1.13 and 1.19, resp.). F1 exhibited activity against NCI-H460 (nonsmall cell lung) (GI50 1.2 μg/mL), which could be accounted for the presence of flavonoids and/or diterpenes. F4 showed moderate activity (mean log GI50 1.05), while F5 showed weak activity (mean log GI50 1.36). It is suggested that the antiproliferative activity of the crude EtOH extract and MeOH phase is accounted for a synergistic combination of flavonoids and diterpenes. PMID:26075219

  19. Geographic distribution of three alkaloid chemotypes of Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Milanowski, Dennis J; Winter, Rudolph E K; Elvin-Lewis, Memory P F; Lewis, Walter H

    2002-06-01

    Three known alkaloids, isoboldine (2), norisoboldine (1), and magnoflorine (8), have been isolated for the first time from Croton lechleri, a source of the wound healing latex "sangre de grado". An HPLC system was developed, and a large number of latex and leaf samples of C. lechleri from 22 sites in northern Peru and Ecuador were analyzed to gain an understanding of the natural variation in alkaloid content for the species. Up to six alkaloids were found to occur in the leaves including, in addition to those listed above, thaliporphine (3), glaucine (4), and taspine (9), whereas the latex contained only 9. Taspine (9) is the component that has been previously found to be responsible for the wound healing activity of C. lechleri latex, and its mean concentration throughout the range examined was found to be 9% of the latex by dry weight. In addition, three chemotypes are defined based on the alkaloid content of the leaves, and the geographic distribution of these chemotypes is discussed along with a quantitative analysis of the alkaloid content as a function of chemotype.

  20. Hydrogeology of the Croton-Ossining area, Westchester County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The hydrogeology of a 29-sq-mi area surrounding the village of Croton-on-Hudson, New York, is summarized on 6 sheets at 1:12 ,000 scale that show locations of wells and test holes, surficial geology, geologic sections, bedrock geology, land use, and soil permeability. The primary stratified-drift aquifer in this area is the Croton River aquifer, which consists of outwash sand and gravel that partly fills the Croton River valley from the New Croton Dam to the Hudson River--a distance of approximately 3 miles. The valley is narrow and ranges in width from 100 to 1,900 ft, and its v-notch bedrock floor ranges from 30 to 50 ft below sea level. Detailed hydrogeologic studies during 1936-38 showed the stratigraphy to consist of an upper water-table aquifer with a saturated thickness of about 35 ft, underlain by a silt and clay confining unit 8 to o0 ft in thickness that in turn is underlain by a lower confined outwash aquifer up to 40 ft thick. Aquifer-test data and laboratory permeability tests show that the average hydraulic conductivity of the upper outwash aquifer is 475 ft/d, and that of the lower confined aquifer is about 300 ft/d. The aquifer is recharged through direct precipitation, runoff from adjacent hillsides, and leakage under the new Croton Dam. Previous studies estimate the average leakage under the dam to be 0.65 Mgal/d and the total average daily recharge to the aquifer between New Croton Dam and Quaker Bridge to be 1.73 Mgal/d. (USGS)

  1. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  2. A new triterpenoid saponin from the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zheng-Hong; Ning, De-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Lei; Pan, Bo; Li, Dian-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl spathodic acid (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the root of Croton lachnocarpus Benth., together with four known compounds. These compounds were characterised on the basis of their spectral data and compatible with values in the literature. Compound 1 was the first triterpenoid glucoside isolated from the genus Croton. The known compound myriaboric acid (2) showed cytotoxic activity against human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cell line with an IC50 value of 42.2 μM.

  3. Systematic significance of midrib vascular bundles in some Schefflera Spreng (Araliaceae) species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor-Syaheera, M. Y.; Noraini, T.; Aida-Shafreena, A. P.

    2014-09-01

    Anatomy study was undertaken on midrib vascular bundles of six Schefflera Spreng species, namely as S. obovatilimba, S. borneensis, S.kinabaluensis, S.lineamentorum, S. opacus and S.petiolosa. The genus Schefflera belongs to the family Araliaceae. The objective of this study is to determine variations in the midrib anatomical characteristics that can be used to identify species. Leaves samples were collected from various forest reserves in Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia., were fixed in AA (Acetic acid: Alcohol, in a ratio of 1:3), the midrib parts then were sectioned using sliding microtome, were stained in Safranin and Alcian blue, been mounted in Eupharal and were observed under light microscope. Findings in this study have shown that all species have complex structure of vascular bundles. Each species has identical arrangement of vascular bundles and can be very useful for species identification. As a conclusion, variation in the midrib anatomical characteristics is outstanding and can has taxonomic value in the genus Schefflera respectively.

  4. Chemical analysis and nutritional assessment of Teramnus labialis (L.) Spreng. (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, M B; Thangadurai, D; Vendan, K T; Ramesh, N

    1999-01-01

    Seeds of Teramnus labialis (L.) Spreng. (Fabaceae), used as food by Malayali tribals in the Kollihills of Salem District, Tamil Nadu in South India, were investigated for their nutritional value. These seeds were analyzed for proximate composition, total (true) seed proteins, seed protein fractions, amino acid composition, fatty acid composition, minerals and antinutritional factors. Crude protein, crude fat, ash, and nitrogen free extracts constituted 22.86%, 6.10%, 4.62%, and, 58.15%, respectively, of the seed weight. The caloric value of 100 g dry matter of seed material was 378.94 kcal. The essential amino acids lysine, leucine + isoleucine, arginine, valine and histidine were present in relatively large quantities. The unsaturated fatty acids constituted more than 60% of the crude fat. Concentrations of minerals such as potassium, magnesium, calcium, and, phosphorus were high. Antinutritional factors such as total free phenols, tannins, L-DOPA, hydrogen cyanide and phytic acid were present in minute quantities. These antinutritional factors are potentially eliminated using the conventional method of soaking the seeds in water, boiling with water and decanting prior to consumption.

  5. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids. PMID:14733508

  6. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively. PMID:25367308

  7. Carotenoids concentration of Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit oil using cross-flow filtration technology.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huỳnh Cang; Truong, Vinh; Debaste, Frédéric

    2014-11-01

    Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) fruit, a traditional fruit in Vietnam and other countries of eastern Asia, contains an oil rich in carotenoids, especially lycopene and β-carotene. Carotenoids in gac fruit oil were concentrated using cross-flow filtration. In total recycle mode, effect of membrane pore size, temperature, and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on permeate flux and on retention coefficients has been exploited. Resistance of membrane, polarization concentration, and fouling were also analyzed. Optimum conditions for a high permeate flux and a good carotenoids retention are 5 nm, 2 bars, and 40 °C of membrane pore size, TMP, and temperature, respectively. In batch mode, retentate was analyzed through index of acid, phospholipids, total carotenoids content (TCC), total antioxidant activity, total soluble solids, total solid content, color measurement, and viscosity. TCC in retentate is higher 8.6 times than that in feeding oil. Lipophilic antioxidant activities increase 6.8 times, while hydrophilic antioxidant activities reduce 40%. The major part of total resistance is due to polarization (55%) while fouling and intrinsic membrane contribute about 30% and 24%, respectively.

  8. Fatty acid and carotenoid composition of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) fruit.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Betty K; Turner, Charlotta; Chapman, Mary H; McKeon, Thomas A

    2004-01-28

    In this study, we analyzed fatty acid and carotenoid composition of fruit tissues, including seed (which are surrounded by a bright red, oily aril) of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac in Vietnam. Carotenoid content was analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC, using a C(30) column and a method separating cis- and trans-isomers of the major carotenoids in this fruit. Mean values obtained in aril tissues were 1342 microg trans-, 204 microg cis-, and 2227 microg total lycopene; 597 microg trans-, 39 microg cis-, and 718 microg total beta-carotene; and 107 microg alpha-carotene/g FW. Mesocarp contained 11 microg trans-, 5 microg cis-beta-carotene/g FW, trace amounts of alpha-carotene, and no lycopene. Gac aril contained 22% fatty acids by weight, composed of 32% oleic, 29% palmitic, and 28% linoleic acids. Seeds contained primarily stearic acid (60.5%), smaller amounts of linoleic (20%), oleic (9%), and palmitic (5-6%) acids, and trace amounts of arachidic, cis-vaccenic, linolenic, and palmitoleic, eicosa-11-enoic acids, and eicosa-13-enoic (in one fruit only) acids.

  9. Treatment with aqueous extract from Croton cajucara Benth reduces hepatic oxidative stress in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Graziella Ramos; Di Naso, Fábio Cangeri; Porawski, Marilene; Marcolin, Eder; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Richter, Marc Francois; Marroni, Cláudio Augusto; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2012-01-01

    Croton cajucara Benth is a plant found in Amazonia, Brazil and the bark and leaf infusion of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidative stress as well as the therapeutic effect of Croton cajucara Benth (1.5 mL of the C. cajucara extract i.g.) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Croton cajucara Benth was tested as an aqueous extract for its phytochemical composition, and its antioxidant activity in vitro was also evaluated. Lipid peroxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione reductase activities were measured in the hepatic tissue, as well as the presence activation of p65 (NF-κB), through western blot. Phytochemical screening of Croton cajucara Benth detected the presence of flavonoids, coumarins and alkaloids. The extract exhibited a significant antioxidant activity in the DPPH-scavenging and the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. Liver lipid peroxidation increased in diabetic animals followed by a reduction in the Croton-cajucara-Benth-treated group. There was activation of p65 nuclear expression in the diabetic animals, which was attenuated in the animals receiving the Croton cajucara Benth aqueous extract. The liver tissue in diabetic rats showed oxidative alterations related to the streptozotocin treatment. In conclusion the Croton cajucara Benth aqueus extract treatment effectively reduced the oxidative stress and contributed to tissue recovery.

  10. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  11. Laevinoids A and B: two diterpenoids with an unprecedented backbone from Croton laevigatus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Cai; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Hong-Bing; Yue, Jian-Min

    2013-09-20

    Chemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract of a Chinese herbal plant, Croton laevigatus, yielded laevinoids A (1) and B (2) with a new rearranged ent-clerodane scaffold named as laevinane. The structures of 1 and 2 were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses with their absolute configurations being established via single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.

  12. Tannic acid mitigates the DMBA/croton oil-induced skin cancer progression in mice.

    PubMed

    Majed, Ferial; Rashid, Summya; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Nafees, Sana; Ali, Nemat; Ali, Rashid; Khan, Rehan; Hasan, Syed Kazim; Mehdi, Syed Jafar; Sultana, Sarwat

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world and also one of the major causes of death worldwide. The toxic environmental pollutant 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) is a skin-specific carcinogen. Tannic acid (TA) is reported to be effective against various types of chemical-induced toxicities and carcinogenesis as well. In the present study, we have evaluated the therapeutic potential of tannic acid in DMBA + croton oil-induced skin cancer in Swiss albino mice. Protective effect of TA against skin cancer was evaluated in terms of antioxidant enzymes activities, lipid peroxidation, histopathological changes and expression of inflammation and early tumour markers. DMBA + croton oil causes depletion of antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.001) and elevation of early inflammatory and tumour promotional events. TA prevents the DMBA + croton oil-induced toxicity through a protective mechanism that involves the reduction of oxidative stress as well as COX-2, i-NOS, PCNA protein expression and level of proinflammatory cytokine such as IL-6 release at a very significant level (p < 0.001). It could be concluded from our results that TA attenuates DMBA + croton oil-induced tumour promotional potential possibly by inhibiting oxidative and inflammatory responses and acts as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative agent.

  13. A thermostable α-galactosidase from Lenzites elegans (Spreng.) ex Pat. MB445947: purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Sampietro, Diego; Quiroga, Emma; Sgariglia, Melina; Soberón, José; Vattuone, Marta A

    2012-08-01

    An α-galactosidase was isolated from a culture filtrate of Lenzites elegans (Spreng.) ex Pat. MB445947 grown on citric pectin as carbon source. It was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. The relative molecular mass of the native purified enzyme was 158 kDa determined by gel filtration and it is a homodimer (Mr subunits = 61 kDa). The optimal temperature for enzyme activity was in the range 60-80 °C. This α-galactosidase showed a high thermostability, retaining 94 % of its activity after preincubation at 60 °C for 2 h. The optimal pH for the enzyme was 4.5 and it was stable from pH 3 to 7.5 when the preincubation took place at 60 °C for 2 h. It was active against several α-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, α-D-melibiose, raffinose and stachyose. The α-galactosidase is a glycoprotein with 26 % of structural sugars. Galactose was a non-competitive inhibitor with a Ki = 22 mM versus p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactoside and 12 mM versus α-D-melibiose as substrates. Glucose was a simple competitive inhibitor with a Ki = 10 mM. Cations such as Hg(2+) and p-chloromercuribenzoate were also inhibitors of this activity, suggesting the presence of -SH groups in the active site of the enzyme. On the basis of the sequence of the N-terminus (SPDTIVLDGTNFALN) the studied α-galactosidase would be a member of glycosyl hydrolase family 36 (GH 36). Given the high optimum temperature and heat stability of L. elegans α-galactosidase, this fungus may become a useful source of α-galactosidase production for multiple applications.

  14. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation. PMID:21915187

  15. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activities of the Aqueous Extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Both In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Yung-Jia; Huang, Tai-Hung; Chiu, Chuan-Sung; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chen, Ya-Wen; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. is a native Labiatae plant of Taiwan. The plants are commonly used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of cough, fever, sore throats, mumps, and mosquito bite. The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the aqueous extract from Plectranthus amboinicus (PA) in vivo and in vitro. PA inhibited pain induced by acetic acid and formalin, and inflammation induced by carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory effect of PA was related to modulating antioxidant enzymes' activities in the liver and decreasing the Malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2) in edema-paw tissue in mice. In vitro studies show that PA inhibited the proinflammatory mediators in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PA blocked the degradation of IκB-α and nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit. Finally, the amount of carvacrol in the aqueous extract of PA was 1.88 mg/g extract. Our findings suggest that PA has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These effects were mediated by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediators through blocking NF-κB activation. Meanwhile, the effects observed in this study provide evidence for folkloric uses of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. in relieving pain and inflammation. PMID:21915187

  16. RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-β) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-β requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the βC1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the βC1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that βC1 interferes with silencing mechanism. PMID:25086625

  17. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  18. RNAi mediated gene silencing against betasatellite associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Anurag Kumar; Marwal, Avinash; Nehra, Chitra; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar; Sharma, Pradeep; Gaur, Rajarshi Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Plant viruses encode suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing, an adaptive antiviral defense responses that confines virus infection. Previously, we identified single-stranded DNA satellite (also known as DNA-β) of ~1,350 nucleotides in length associated with Croton yellow vein mosaic begomovirus (CYVMV) in croton plants. The expression of genes from DNA-β requires the begomovirus for packaged, replication, insect transmission and movement in plants. The present study demonstrates the effect of the βC1 gene on the silencing pathway as analysed by using both transgenic systems and transient Agrobacterium tumefaciens based delivery. Plants that carry an intron-hairpin construct covering the βC1 gene accumulated cognate small-interfering RNAs and remained symptom-free after exposure to CYVMV and its satellite. These results suggest that βC1 interferes with silencing mechanism.

  19. Flavonoids from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook.

    PubMed

    Zou, Guo-An; Su, Zhi-Heng; Zhang, Hong-Wu; Wang, Yuan; Yang, Jun-Shan; Zou, Zhong-Mei

    2010-02-26

    A new flavone, named crotoncaudatin (1), was isolated from the stems of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook., together with nine known analogues: 3,5,6,7,8,3',4'-heptamethoxyflavone (2), tangeretin (3), nobiletin (4), 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxy-flavone (5), sinensetin (6), kaempferol (7), tiliroside (8), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (9) and rutin (10). The structures of the above compounds were established by a combination of spectroscopic methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HMQC and HMBC spectra. All compounds were isolated from and identified in this species for the first time and compounds 1-6 are new for the genus Croton.

  20. Discovering Karima (Euphorbiaceae), a New Crotonoid Genus from West Tropical Africa Long Hidden within Croton

    PubMed Central

    Cheek, Martin; Challen, Gill; Lebbie, Aiah; Banks, Hannah; Barberá, Patricia; Riina, Ricarda

    2016-01-01

    Croton scarciesii (Euphorbiaceae-Crotonoideae), a rheophytic shrub from West Africa, is shown to have been misplaced in Croton for 120 years, having none of the diagnostic characters of that genus, but rather a set of characters present in no known genus of the family. Pollen analysis shows that the new genus Karima belongs to the inaperturate crotonoid group. Analysis of a concatenated molecular dataset combining trnL-F and rbcL sequences positioned Karima as sister to Neoholstia from south eastern tropical Africa in a well-supported clade comprised of genera of subtribes Grosserineae and Neoboutonieae of the inaperturate crotonoid genera. Several morphological characters support the relationship of Karima with Neoholstia, yet separation is merited by numerous characters usually associated with generic rank in Euphorbiaceae. Quantitative ecological data and a conservation assessment supplement illustrations and descriptions of the taxon. PMID:27049519

  1. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  2. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Croton lobatus L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Fasola, Taiye Remi; Ukwenya, Blessing; Oyagbemi, Ademola Adetokunbo; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Ajibade, Temitayo Olabisi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Croton lobatus contains a high amount of antioxidant phytochemicals that probably account for its wide use as food and medicine in the traditional communities of West Africa. Methods: The study evaluated the modulatory role of methanol extract of Croton lobatus leaf on alloxan-induced diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications. Male rats were randomly selected and assigned to one of six groups (A to F) of eight animals each: A (distilled water); B (corn oil); C (Alloxan); D (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 Croton lobatus); E: (Alloxan + 200 mg kg-1 C. lobatus); and F (Alloxan + 100 mg kg-1 glibenclamide). Results: Acute toxicity studies revealed no mortality of rats at the administration of different doses of extract up to the 5,000 mg kg-1 dose. Histology of the pancreas showed focal area of necrosis, and fatty infiltration in diabetic untreated rats, but these lesions were absent in pancreas of rats treated with C. lobatus extract. Conclusion: Methanol leaf extract of C. lobatus reduced arteriogenic risk factors, improved antioxidant status, restored the observable pathological lesions associated with experimental diabetes in rats, and thus offers a new therapeutic window as herbal therapy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated cardiovascular complications. PMID:27757266

  3. Ethanol extract of Angelica gigas inhibits croton oil-induced inflammation by suppressing the cyclooxygenase - prostaglandin pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunhee; Joo, Seong Soo; Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jeong Seon; Park, Sung Kyeong; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2010-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using croton oil-induced inflammation models. Croton oil (20 microg/mL) up-regulated mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and COX-II in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, resulting in the release of high concentrations of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). EAG (1 approximately 10 microg/mL) markedly suppressed croton oil-induced COX-II mRNA expression and PGE(2) production. Application of croton oil (5% in acetone) to mouse ears caused severe local erythema, edema and vascular leakage, which were significantly attenuated by oral pre-treatment with EAG (50 approximately 500 mg/kg). Croton oil dramatically increased blood levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and PGE(2) without affecting tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) levels. EAG pre-treatment remarkably lowered IL-6 and PGE(2), but did not alter TNF-alpha or NO concentrations. These results indicate that EAG attenuates inflammatory responses in part by blocking the COX - PGE(2) pathway. Therefore, EAG could be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Ethanol extract of Angelica gigas inhibits croton oil-induced inflammation by suppressing the cyclooxygenase - prostaglandin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sunhee; Joo, Seong Soo; Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Kim, Tae Kyun; Kim, Jeong Seon; Park, Sung Kyeong

    2010-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of an ethanol extract of Angelica gigas (EAG) were investigated in vitro and in vivo using croton oil-induced inflammation models. Croton oil (20 µg/mL) up-regulated mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and COX-II in the macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, resulting in the release of high concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). EAG (1~10 µg/mL) markedly suppressed croton oil-induced COX-II mRNA expression and PGE2 production. Application of croton oil (5% in acetone) to mouse ears caused severe local erythema, edema and vascular leakage, which were significantly attenuated by oral pre-treatment with EAG (50~500 mg/kg). Croton oil dramatically increased blood levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and PGE2 without affecting tumor-necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide (NO) levels. EAG pre-treatment remarkably lowered IL-6 and PGE2, but did not alter TNF-α or NO concentrations. These results indicate that EAG attenuates inflammatory responses in part by blocking the COX-PGE2 pathway. Therefore, EAG could be a promising candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:20195064

  5. Croton membranaceus Improves Some Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes in Genetic Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, Samuel; Afriyie, Daniel; Appiah-Danquah, Akua Bempomaa; Asia, Jonas; Asiedu, Bernice; Santa, Sheila; Doku, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 17.3 million deaths per year globally. In Ghana, CVD accounts for 22.2% of deaths. Croton membranaceus (CM) Mull. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), a medicinal plant in Ghana is mainly used traditionally for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and measles. However, some hypoglycaemic and hypotensive effects have recently been reported but not scientifically examined. Aim The study aimed at establishing whether Croton membranaceus (CM) used for prostatitis had any effect on CVD markers. Materials and Methods In experiment 1, lipid profile changes were determined. Twenty four male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) were divided into 4 groups. Low (LD), intermediate (ID) and high dose (HD) groups received 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. CM aqueous root extracts (CMARE) for 60 days, respectively, the controls received distilled water. In experiment 2, blood glucose levels (BGL) were determined. 21 db/db mice were divided into 3 groups of 7 mice each alongside db/+ mice (7) (negative control). Groups 1 and 2 received 250 mg/kg b.wt CMARE and metformin, respectively. Group 3 (positive control) and db/+ mice (negative control) received distilled water. Mice were monitored for 15 hours. Data collected were analysed using SPSS version 20. Results Hypotriglyceridaemic effect was observed (p=0.005). High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) showed significant increases (p=0.013) and decreases (p=0.003), respectively. A significant CRP reduction was observed for ID and HD groups (p = 0.010, p = 0.011, respectively). BGL was reduced in Metformin and Croton groups (p=0.000; p= 0.006, respectively) after 3 hours. Conclusion In conclusion, CMARE has positive effects on some CVD biomarkers and a hypoglycaemic effect. PMID:26816938

  6. New labdane diterpenoids from Croton laui and their anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Chen, Li-Feng; Chen, Neng-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Nan; Jiang, Si-Qi; Jiang, Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-10-01

    Nine new labdane diterpenoids (1-9) were isolated from the aerial parts of Croton laui, along with eight known analogues (10-17). Their structures were identified on the basis of the spectral data (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR), and the structure of 8 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. In addition, compounds 1, 4, 7, 8, and 14 showed weak anti-inflammatory activities in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. PMID:27575472

  7. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton gossypiifolius from Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Alírica I; Oropeza, Marly; Vásquez, Luis; Tillett, Stephen; Compagnone, Reinaldo S

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil from leaves of Croton gossypiifolius Vahl. (Euphorbiaceae) was obtained by hydrodistillation, and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats' indices. Fifty-one compounds accounting for 92% of the oil were detected, and 47 of them were identified. The oil was dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes with the major presence of alpha-cedrene oxide (18.6%), spathulenol (16.3%), valencene (5.8%), geranyl-pentanoate (5.3%), alpha-cadinol (4.0%), germacrene D (3.5%) and longifolene (3.3%).

  8. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  9. New clerodane diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhenghong; Ning, Desheng; Wu, Xingde; Huang, Sisi; Li, Dianpeng; Lv, Shihong

    2015-03-15

    Three new nor-clerodane diterpenoids, crotoeurins A-C (1-3), together with four known ones were isolated from the twigs and leaves of Croton euryphyllus. Among them, crotoeurin A (1) is a new nor-clerodane diterpenoid dimer with a unique cyclobutane ring via a [2+2] cycloaddition. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and the stereochemistry of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 1-3 exhibited neurite outgrowth-promoting activity on NGF-mediated PC12 cells at concentration of 10μM.

  10. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Croton bonplandianus from India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-02-01

    The essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Croton bonplandianus Baill. was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 37 compounds have been identified, representing 96.2% of the total oil. The main constituents were identified as beta-caryophyllene (16.7%), germacrene D (14.7%), borneol (8.3%), Z-beta-damascenone (6.(%), isobornyl acetate (6.2%), alpha-humulene (6.1%), germacrene A (5.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (4.5%). The oil was rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (60.1%).

  11. Croton insularis introduces the seco-casbane class with EBC-329 and the first casbane endoperoxide EBC-324.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Krenske, Elizabeth H; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Pierce, Carly J; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-21

    Investigation of Croton insularis afforded the first in class seco-casbane diterpene, EBC-329. A highly oxidised casbane, EBC-324, was also isolated. The structural motif within EBC-324, which consists of an epoxidised hemi-acetal endoperoxide, is new to the casbane family.

  12. Mild pyrolysis of P3HB/Switchgrass blends for the production of bio-oil enriched with crotonic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mild pyrolysis of switchgrass/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) blends that mimic P3HB-producing switchgrass lines was studied in a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor with the goal of simultaneously producing crotonic acid and switchgrass-based bio-oil. Factors such as pyrolysis temperature, residenc...

  13. Essential oil of Croton argyrophylloides: toxicological aspects and vasorelaxant activity in rats.

    PubMed

    de França-Neto, Aldair; Cardoso-Teixeira, Ana Carolina; Medeiros, Thiago Coutinho; Quinto-Farias, Maria do Socorro; Sampaio, Celia Maria de Souza; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Lahlou, Saad; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2012-10-01

    Croton argyrophylloides Muell. Arg. is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat diabetes and venereal diseases. This study examined the acute toxicity and cytotoxicity of the essential oil of C. argyrophylloides (EOCA). In addition, vascular effects of the EOCA have been examined. In mice, an oral acute toxicity test revealed that EOCA could be considered as a non toxic essential oil since it showed a very high LD50 (9.84 +/- 0.01 g/kg). In the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) cytotoxic assay, the LC50 value of EOCA was 275 [165-534] microg/mL. EOCA (1-1000 microg/mL) relaxed isolated endothelium-intact aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine with an IC50 value of 126.7 [89.8-163.7] microg/mL. In rat mesenteric bed preparations precontracted with phenylephrine, EOCA (1-300 microg/mL) also induced a reversible, vasodilator effect with an IC50 value of 46.0 [33.3-58.7] micro/mL. It is concluded that EOCA is a very interesting agent from the point of view of the possibility of therapeutic application. This is because, whilst showing a very small acute toxicity, EOCA also showed maximal efficacy as a vascular antispasmodic agent with a pharmacological potency similar to that of other Croton species essential oils.

  14. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  15. Why are the Wetland and Surface Waters Sometimes Colored in the Croton Watershed (New York)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, D. I.; Otz, M.; Otz, I.; McKenzie, J. M.; Hassett, J.; Bartos, J.; Tedorov, S.; Flusche, M. A.; Lesniak, K. A.; Tasillo, J.; Cuomo, D.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton Reservoir that provides water to New York City periodically has color problems in late fall. Consequently, a synoptic sampling of 92 streams draining wetlands in the watershed was done to determine whether water color is related to dissolved organic carbon, iron and manganese concentrations. In addition, major solute concentrations were measured to evaluate overall surface-water quality. Gelbstoff color (at 440nm wavelength) and platinum-cobalt color are well correlated. These measures of color also correlate to dissolved organic carbon and dissolved iron concentrations. Proportions of sodium and chloride in surface waters are identical to that of road salt. The tight covariance between Na and Cl reflects simple dilution. A plot of chloride and nitrate concentrations also shows a direct relationship, but with substantial scatter. This scatter probably reflects biochemical processing of nitrate and different amounts of nitrate and salt contributed to subwatersheds at different scales. The Croton watershed is underlain by metasedimentary and crystalline rocks, and minor marble overlain by thin glacial drift. Concentrations of Ca and Mg are greater than that predicted by alkalinity equivalence, based on simple dissolution of carbonate minerals by carbonic acid. These greater base cation concentrations supports the hypothesis that silicate minerals provide most of the base cations in the watershed, except for the sodium released by dissolving road salt.

  16. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  17. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.

    PubMed

    Risco, Ester; Ghia, Felipe; Vila, Roser; Iglesias, José; Alvarez, Elida; Cañigueral, Salvador

    2003-09-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.

  18. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils. PMID:20645733

  19. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes. PMID:25435891

  20. Crotonis Fructus and Its Constituent, Croton Oil, Stimulate Lipolysis in OP9 Adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Seong; Kim, Ha-Rim; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Young-Rae; Moon, Hyoung-Chul; Ryu, Do-Gon; Yang, Sei-Hoon; Lee, Guem-San; Song, Je-Ho; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Crotonis fructus (CF) is the mature fruit of Croton tiglium L. and has been used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbance in Asia. It is well known that the main component of CF is croton oil (CO). The present study is to investigate the effects of CF extracts (CFE) and CO on lipolysis in OP9 adipocytes. Methods. Glycerol release to the culture supernatants was used as a marker of adipocyte lipolysis. Results. Treatment with various concentrations of CFE and CO stimulates glycerol release in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in glycerol release by CFE is more potent than isoproterenol, which is a β-adrenergic agonist as a positive control in our system. The increased lipolysis by CFE and CO was accompanied by an increase of phosphorylated hormone sensitive lipase (pHSL) but not nonphosphorylated HSL protein and mRNA. Pretreatment with H89, which is a protein kinase A inhibitor, significantly abolished the CFE- and CO-induced glycerol release in OP9 adipocytes. These results suggest that CFE and CO may be a candidate for the development of a lipolysis-stimulating agent in adipocytes. PMID:25435891

  1. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  2. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  3. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23533472

  4. Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Martins; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Cibele Barreto Mano; Aguiar, Milena Braga; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Valença Junior, José Telmo; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-01-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12 h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100 mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays. PMID:23533472

  5. Biotechnological prospecting of foliar endophytic fungi of guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng.) with antibacterial and antagonistic activity against phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Polonio, J C; Almeida, T T; Garcia, A; Mariucci, G E G; Azevedo, J L; Rhoden, S A; Pamphile, J A

    2015-01-01

    Mikania glomerata (Spreng.), popularly known as "guaco", is a plant from the Asteraceae family that has many therapeutic properties. The use of medicinal plants has been examined in studies on endophytic diversity and bioprospecting; endophytes inhabit the interior of plants without harming them. Microorganism-host complex interactions are related to the production of compounds that may confer resistance to pathogens or to production of bioactive compounds or growth regulators. In this study, we evaluated foliar endophytic fungi of M. glomerata to examine the control of plant pathogens, molecular identification, and production of compounds with antimicrobial activity. In the antagonism test, 6-mm diameter disks were placed equidistant from the endophyte and plant pathogen, and pathogen growth area was measured. The endophytic strains G-01, G-02, and G-03 were effective against Fusarium solani and Didymella bryoniae. The endophyte rDNA regions corresponding to internal transcribed spacer 1-5.8S-internal transcribed spacer 2 were sequenced, and the results were compared with sequences deposited in the NCBI database. The G-01, G-02, and G-03 strains were identified as Diaporthe citri. This identification was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. The crude extract of the secondary metabolites of the G-01 strain was tested against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus; the metabolites showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The endophytes tested in this study have potential for use in biotechnological applications.

  6. Enhancement of immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine by a supplement of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bao, G; Hu, S

    2009-11-01

    The study evaluated the immunological effect of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds (ECMS) on the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. Forty-eight chickens were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Each chicken was immunized with ND vaccine mixed with 0, 20, 40, or 80 microg of ECMS on d 35. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 postimmunization. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect ELISA assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results indicated that humoral immune response was enhanced by ECMS 14 d postimmunization. Eighty micrograms of ECMS was the best dose with the ND vaccine and was significantly different from the other groups 21 d after immunization. No significant differences were found in the cellular immune response, whereas the 80 microg of ECMS group had higher values than the other groups 35 d after immunization. No side effect was found on the growth performance during the experiment. PMID:19834078

  7. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2011-08-01

    Three fractions (peel, pulp and aril) of gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were investigated for their phytochemicals (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein and phenolic compounds) and their antioxidant activity. The results showed that the aril had the highest contents for both lycopene and beta-carotene, whilst peel (yellow) contained the highest amount of lutein. Two major phenolic acid groups: hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic were identified and quantified. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found in all fractions. Ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most evident in pulp. Myricetin was the only flavonoid found in all fractions. Apigenin was the most predominant flavonoid in pulp (red), whereas rutin and luteolin gave the highest content in aril. The extracts of different fractions exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The aril extract showed the highest FRAP value. The greatest antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts were at immature stage, whereas those in the seed extracts increased from mature stage to ripe stage. The contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid in peel and pulp decreased during the fruit development stage (immature>ripe fruit) and subsequently displayed lower antioxidant capacity, except for the seed. PMID:25214106

  8. Study of the genetic diversity and structure of a natural population of Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez. using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Costa, L S; Reiniger, L R S; Heinzmann, B M; Amaral, L P; Serrote, C M L

    2015-01-01

    Nectandra megapotamica (Spreng.) Mez. is a tree species that naturally occurs in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of a natural population of 12 N. megapotamica individuals using random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Eleven primers were used in this study, producing 81 bands, of which 98.99% were polymorphic. Analysis using STRUCTURE defined three different clusters (K = 3), results that were consistent with those of principal coordinates analysis. Both Nei's genetic diversity (h = 0.33) and Shannon's diversity index (I = 0.49) were relatively high. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that 24.89% of the genetic variability was among clusters, while the remaining 75.11% was within clusters. The Mantel test showed a weak correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.25, P = 0.105). Overall, the results revealed high levels of genetic diversity within clusters and high genetic differentiation among clusters without any spatial pattern of genetic variability. In addition, gene flow was independent of the geographical distribution and was compatible with the hierarchical island model. PMID:26782488

  9. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and essential oil, eugenol.

    PubMed

    Tragoolpua, Y; Jatisatienr, A

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an extract from the flower buds of Eugenia caryophyllus (Spreng.) Bullock & S. G. Harrison and the essential oil, eugenol, were evaluated for their anti-herpes simplex virus properties on standard HSV-1(F), standard HSV-2(G) and ten HSV isolates. The plaque reduction assay showed that HSV-1(F), HSV-2(G), two HSV-1 isolates (2, 30) and four HSV-2 isolates (1, 2, 3, 21) were inhibited by E. caryophyllus. Only HSV-1 isolates 1 and 30 were inhibited by eugenol. Thus, strains or isolates of viruses may affect the range of inhibition. Moreover, particles of HSV standard strains were directly inactivated by E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The total virus yield of HSV standard strains and isolates at 30 h also declined after treatment with E. caryophyllus and eugenol. The E. caryophyllus extract exerted higher antiviral replication on HSV-2(G) than on HSV-1(F). The inhibition of the viral yield of HSV-1 isolates was higher than standard HSV-1(F) and standard HSV-2(G) was also inhibited more than most of the HSV-2 isolates. The anti-HSV activity of eugenol against HSV-1(F) and HSV isolates was stronger than with the E. caryophyllus crude extract. However, the percentage inhibition was more pronounced on HSV-1(F) than on HSV-2(G). Moreover, HSV-1(1) and HSV-2(1, 32) could not replicate when eugenol was included in the assay. PMID:17628885

  10. Enhancement of immune responses to Newcastle disease vaccine by a supplement of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, C; Bao, G; Hu, S

    2009-11-01

    The study evaluated the immunological effect of extract of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds (ECMS) on the immune response against Newcastle disease (ND) in chickens. Forty-eight chickens were divided into 4 groups (n = 12). Each chicken was immunized with ND vaccine mixed with 0, 20, 40, or 80 microg of ECMS on d 35. Blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 postimmunization. Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect ELISA assay and the 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide method. Results indicated that humoral immune response was enhanced by ECMS 14 d postimmunization. Eighty micrograms of ECMS was the best dose with the ND vaccine and was significantly different from the other groups 21 d after immunization. No significant differences were found in the cellular immune response, whereas the 80 microg of ECMS group had higher values than the other groups 35 d after immunization. No side effect was found on the growth performance during the experiment.

  11. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of different fruit fractions (peel, pulp, aril and seed) of Thai gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Kubola, Jittawan; Siriamornpun, Sirithon

    2011-08-01

    Three fractions (peel, pulp and aril) of gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were investigated for their phytochemicals (lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein and phenolic compounds) and their antioxidant activity. The results showed that the aril had the highest contents for both lycopene and beta-carotene, whilst peel (yellow) contained the highest amount of lutein. Two major phenolic acid groups: hydroxybenzoic acids and hydroxycinnamic were identified and quantified. Gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were found in all fractions. Ferulic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most evident in pulp. Myricetin was the only flavonoid found in all fractions. Apigenin was the most predominant flavonoid in pulp (red), whereas rutin and luteolin gave the highest content in aril. The extracts of different fractions exhibited different levels of antioxidant activity in the systems tested. The aril extract showed the highest FRAP value. The greatest antioxidant activities of peel and pulp extracts were at immature stage, whereas those in the seed extracts increased from mature stage to ripe stage. The contents of total phenolic and total flavonoid in peel and pulp decreased during the fruit development stage (immature>ripe fruit) and subsequently displayed lower antioxidant capacity, except for the seed.

  12. Extract of Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng Promoted the Hair Growth through Regulating the Expression of IGF-1

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Moon; Kim, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ho

    2015-01-01

    Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (ATRES) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, and asthma. In this study, we investigated the hair growth promoting activities of ATRES on telogenic C57BL6/N mice. Hair growth was significantly increased in the dorsal skin of ethanol extract of ATRES treated mouse group compared with the control mouse group. To enrich the hair promoting activity, an ethanol-insoluble fraction was further extracted in sequence with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and distilled water. Interestingly, we found that extraction with n-butanol is most efficient in producing the hair promoting activity. In addition, the soluble fraction of the n-butanol extract was further separated by silica gel chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC) resulting in isolating four single fractions which have hair growth regeneration potential. Furthermore, administration of ATRES extracts to dorsal skin area increased the number of hair follicles compared with control mouse group. Interestingly, administration of ATRES extract stimulated the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) but not of keratin growth factor (KGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Taken together, these results suggest that ATRES possesses strong hair growth promoting potential which controls the expression of IGF-1. PMID:26078771

  13. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  14. Study on the Cytotoxic, Genotoxic and Clastogenic Potential of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. Oil Pulp In Vitro and In Vivo Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Lima Tolouei Menegati, Sara Emilia; Karenina Traesel, Giseli; Souza de Araújo, Flávio Henrique; Honaiser Lescano, Caroline; Moraes Peixoto, Sara; Mao Silva, Felipe Ariel; Heredia Vieira, Silvia Cristina; do Carmo Vieira, Maria; Oesterreich, Silvia Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. (Arecaceae), popularly known as “bacuri”, is used in Brazilian folk medicine. Its oil is used orally to relieve pulmonary congestion and joint pain. In topical applications, it is applied as an effective hair tonic and anti-dandruff. The in natura pulp and its nuts are used as food because of its nutritional value. Despite its use in folk medicine, there is a lack of data regarding its in vivo/in vitro cytotoxic/genotoxic and clastogenic effects. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of Attalea phalerata Mart. ex Spreng. oil (APMO) in vitro and in vivo. For the analysis of cytotoxic potential, the Artemia salina and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethizzol-zyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assays were performed. Possible cytotoxic, genotoxic and clastogenic effects of APMO intake were determined by performing the comet and micronucleus assays. Male and female Wistar rats were orally treated with doses of 125, 250, 500 or 1000 mg.kg-1 of the APMO daily for 28 consecutive days (four weeks). The results showed that the APMO did not induce cell death in the experiments of Artemia salina and MTT, indicating that it has no cytotoxicity. The APMO did not cause significant damage to the DNA of the rats in the four doses used when compared to the negative control group (saline + Tween® 80). The APMO did not present any significant increase in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs) for the four tested doses. When compared to the positive control group, all groups (comet and micronucleus tests) were statistically different. These data suggest that the administration of Attalea phalerata Mart oil. ex Spreng does not cause cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and clastogenicity in experimental models in vitro and in vivo following oral administration in this study. PMID:27764219

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena; Micheli, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality-selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  16. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Study in Pulp and Seeds of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Santana Silva, Raner José; Oliveira Jordão do Amaral, Daniel; Barbosa de Paula, Márcia Fabiana; Ludke Falcão, Loeni; Legavre, Thierry; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum [Willd. ex Spreng.] Schum) is a species of high economic importance in Brazil with great potential at international level due to the multiple uses of both its seeds and pulp in the industry of sweets and cosmetics. For this reason, the cupuassu breeding program focused on the selection of genotypes with high pulp and seed quality—selection associated with the understanding of the mechanisms involved in fruit formation. Gene expression is one of the most used approaches related to such understanding. In this sense, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool, since it rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. The analysis by qPCR and the correct interpretation of data depend on signal normalization using reference genes, i.e. genes presenting a uniform pattern of expression in the analyzed samples. Here, we selected and analyzed the expression of five genes from cupuassu (ACP, ACT, GAPDH, MDH, TUB) to be used as candidates for reference genes on pulp and seed of young, maturing and mature cupuassu fruits. The evaluation of the gene expression stability was obtained using the NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper programs. In general, our results indicated that the GAPDH and MDH genes constituted the best combination as reference genes to analyze the expression of cupuassu samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of reference gene definition in cupuassu, and these results will support subsequent analysis related to gene expression studies in cupuassu plants subjected to different biotic or abiotic conditions as well as serve as a tool for diversity analysis based on pulp and seed quality. PMID:27501324

  17. Essential oil of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (N. mussinii Spreng. x N. nepetella L.): a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina D; Rabbitt, Kevin; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Analysis (GC and GC/MS) of an essential oil sample obtained from dry leaves of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Steam, a hybrid species produced by crossbreeding N. mussinii Spreng. with N. nepetella L., led to the identification of 109 constituents that represented 95.9% of the oil. The major constituents were 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone (67.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.6%), germacrene D (4.8%), beta-pinene (2.7%), (E)-beta-ocimene (2.6%), 4aalpha,7beta,7aalpha-nepetalactone (2.3%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (1.0%). Chemical composition of the oil was compared, using multivariate statistical analyses (MVA) with those of the oils of other Nepeta taxa, in particular N. mussinii and N. nepetella. This was done in order to explore the mode of inheritance of the monoterpene biosynthetic apparatus of N. faassenii. Chemical composition of the volatiles of a Nepeta taxon (different populations) can be subject to variation due to environmental and geographical factors. To accommodate this fact in the MVAs, along side with N. faassenii essential oil, additional 6 oils (3 different populations of N. nuda L. and N. cataria L. from Serbia) were included in this study (isolated and analyzed (chemically and statistically)). The MVA analyses recognized N. faassenii as being closely related to both N. mussinii and N. nepetella. If the relative content of oil constituents per plant and not per chromatogram were used as variables in the MVA (this was done by simple multiplication of the yields and relative percentages of components) a higher degree of mutual similarity (in respect to the monoterpene biosynthesis) of N. faassenii to N. mussinii, than to the other parent species, was observed.

  18. Essential oil of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Stearn (N. mussinii Spreng. x N. nepetella L.): a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko; Blagojević, Polina D; Rabbitt, Kevin; Menezes, Fabio de Sousa

    2011-07-01

    Analysis (GC and GC/MS) of an essential oil sample obtained from dry leaves of Nepeta x faassenii Bergmans ex Steam, a hybrid species produced by crossbreeding N. mussinii Spreng. with N. nepetella L., led to the identification of 109 constituents that represented 95.9% of the oil. The major constituents were 4aalpha,7alpha,7aalpha-nepetalactone (67.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.6%), germacrene D (4.8%), beta-pinene (2.7%), (E)-beta-ocimene (2.6%), 4aalpha,7beta,7aalpha-nepetalactone (2.3%) and (E)-beta-farnesene (1.0%). Chemical composition of the oil was compared, using multivariate statistical analyses (MVA) with those of the oils of other Nepeta taxa, in particular N. mussinii and N. nepetella. This was done in order to explore the mode of inheritance of the monoterpene biosynthetic apparatus of N. faassenii. Chemical composition of the volatiles of a Nepeta taxon (different populations) can be subject to variation due to environmental and geographical factors. To accommodate this fact in the MVAs, along side with N. faassenii essential oil, additional 6 oils (3 different populations of N. nuda L. and N. cataria L. from Serbia) were included in this study (isolated and analyzed (chemically and statistically)). The MVA analyses recognized N. faassenii as being closely related to both N. mussinii and N. nepetella. If the relative content of oil constituents per plant and not per chromatogram were used as variables in the MVA (this was done by simple multiplication of the yields and relative percentages of components) a higher degree of mutual similarity (in respect to the monoterpene biosynthesis) of N. faassenii to N. mussinii, than to the other parent species, was observed. PMID:21834248

  19. Antiallergic and Antiarthritic Effects of Stem Bark Extract of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng) Monachino (Tiliaceae) in Murine Models

    PubMed Central

    Obiri, David D.; Osafo, Newman; Abotsi, Regina E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Various parts of Glyphaea brevis (Spreng) Monachino (Tiliaceae) find a use in traditional medicine in the treatment of pain and oedema among others. This study evaluates the anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antiarthritic effects of a 70% (v/v) aqueous ethanol extract of the stem bark of Glyphaea brevis in murine models. Materials and Methods. The effect of the aqueous ethanol extract of Glyphaea brevis extract (GBE) was assessed on the maximal and total oedema responses in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice to evaluate the acute anti-inflammatory actions of the extract. Systemic anaphylaxis was induced with compound 48/80 and survival rates monitored for 1 h in mice with prior treatment with GBE to assess the anti-allergic action of the extract. The indirect antihistamine effect of GBE was evaluated on clonidine-induced catalepsy. Rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model was used to study GBE's antiarthritic action. Results. GBE significantly suppressed the mean maximal swelling and the total paw swellings over 6 h in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema when administered either prophylactically or therapeutically. GBE dose dependently increased the time for compound 48/80-induced mortality. Administered either prophylactically or therapeutically, GBE inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy while it had no effect on haloperidol-induced catalepsy. GBE caused a significant dose-dependent suppression of Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. Conclusion. Glyphaea brevis inhibits the in vivo degranulation of mast cells and thereby suppress allergy. In addition it exhibits anti-inflammatory action and attenuates Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis. The results of this work contribute to validate the traditional use of Glyphaea brevis in the management of inflammatory disorders. PMID:24167739

  20. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  1. Volatiles, a glutarimide alkaloid and antimicrobial effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Rosana N S; Guilhon, Giselle M S P; das Graças B Zoghbi, Maria; Araújo, Isabella S; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Santos, Lourivaldo S; do S B Brasil, Davi

    2013-01-01

    Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively). Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.

  2. Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton crassifolius and their anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Chung, Hau Yin; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Huang, Wei-Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Six diterpenoids [crassifolin J, K, L, M, N and O] along with eleven known ones were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The structure and stereochemistry of crassifolin J was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and the absolute configurations of crassifolin K-M were determined by CD spectra. Twenty-three diterpenoids from this plant were screened for their anti-angiogenic activity using a wild-type zebrafish in vivo model. Four of the known compounds were active, of which penduliflaworosin possessed the best activity relative to the positive control (SU5416). Further study demonstrated that penduliflaworosin could inhibit vessel formation on Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos.

  3. Tigliane diterpenes from Croton mauritianus as inhibitors of chikungunya virus replication.

    PubMed

    Corlay, Nina; Delang, Leen; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Neyts, Johan; Clerc, Patricia; Smadja, Jacqueline; Guéritte, Françoise; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided purification of an EtOAc extract of the leaves of Croton mauritianus using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of 12-O-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (1) and the new 12-O-decanoyl-7-hydroperoxy-phorbol-5-ene-13-acetate (2), along with loliolide, vomifoliol, dehydrovomifoliol, annuionone D and bluemol C. The planar structure and the relative configuration of compound 2 were elucidated based on spectroscopic analysis, including 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited chikungunya virus-induced cell death in cell culture with EC50s of 2.4±0.3 and 4.0±0.8 μM, respectively.

  4. Two novel clerodane diterpenenes with NGF-potentiating activities from the twigs of Croton yanhuii.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihang; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Li, Shen; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-06-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and analog reagents to promote the neurite outgrowth of nerve cells against the neuron degeneration are expected to be potentially useful for the medical treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In our focus on the discovery of bioactive diterpenes, we investigated the chemical constituents of the plant Croton yanhuii. This investigation led to the isolation and identification of two novel clerodane diterpenes (1 and 2). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and mass (ESIMS and HR-ESIMS) spectroscopic data analyses. Further biological screenings showed that both of the compounds enhanced NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth from PC12 cells.

  5. Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D; Bruni, R; Bianchi, N; Chiarabelli, C; Gambari, R; Medici, A; Lista, A; Paganetto, G

    2003-03-01

    Sangre de Drago is a red viscous latex extracted from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) cortex, renowned in South American popular medicine for its wound-healing properties. The in vitro antiproliferative effects were determined on the human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells line (IC50 = 2.5 +/- 0.3 microg ml(-1)). The mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of C. lechleri sap was examined by means of the Ames/Salmonella test. No mutagenic activity was found on the Salmonella typhimurium strains T98 and T100, either with or without S9 activation. On the other hand, the sap showed an inhibitory effect against the mutagenic activity of the indirectly acting mutagen 2-Aminoanthracene in presence of S9 and a moderate protective activity against directly acting mutagens Sodium Azide and 2-Nitrofluorene. Therefore we suggest that C. lechleri sap interacts with the enzymes of the S9 mix, thereby inhibiting the transformation of 2-Aminoantracene into its active forms.

  6. Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex.

    PubMed

    Rossi, D; Bruni, R; Bianchi, N; Chiarabelli, C; Gambari, R; Medici, A; Lista, A; Paganetto, G

    2003-03-01

    Sangre de Drago is a red viscous latex extracted from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) cortex, renowned in South American popular medicine for its wound-healing properties. The in vitro antiproliferative effects were determined on the human myelogenous leukemia K562 cells line (IC50 = 2.5 +/- 0.3 microg ml(-1)). The mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of C. lechleri sap was examined by means of the Ames/Salmonella test. No mutagenic activity was found on the Salmonella typhimurium strains T98 and T100, either with or without S9 activation. On the other hand, the sap showed an inhibitory effect against the mutagenic activity of the indirectly acting mutagen 2-Aminoanthracene in presence of S9 and a moderate protective activity against directly acting mutagens Sodium Azide and 2-Nitrofluorene. Therefore we suggest that C. lechleri sap interacts with the enzymes of the S9 mix, thereby inhibiting the transformation of 2-Aminoantracene into its active forms. PMID:12725567

  7. Chemomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil Against DMBA/Croton Oil-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Ritu; Goyal, P K

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential of flaxseed oil to prevent chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Cancer was induced on 2-stage skin carcinogenesis model by single topical application of 7,12 dimethylbenz [a]anthracene (DMBA), as, initiator, and two weeks later it was promoted by croton oil treatment thrice a week on the dorsal surface of mice for 16 weeks. Flaxseed oil (FSO; 100µL/animal/d) was orally administered 1 week before and 1 week after DMBA application (Peri-initiation stage). The animals of the FSO-administered group showed a significant reduction in tumor incidence (76.67%), cumulative number of tumors (37), tumor yield (3.7), and tumor burden (4.81) when compared with the carcinogen-treated control animals. Biochemical parameters in skin and liver tissue such as LPO and phase I enzymes were significantly (P < .01) reduced in the FSO-treated experimental group, whereas the phase II enzymes (GST, DT-diaphorase) and antioxidant parameters (GSH, GPx, SOD, catalase, and vitamin C) exhibited a significant (P < .01) elevation when compared with the animals of the carcinogen-treated control group. Histopathological alterations in the carcinogen-treated control animals were also observed in the form of epidermal hyperplasia, keratinized pearl formation, and acanthosis in skin and tumors, whereas these were found to be reduced after FSO administration. The results of the present study demonstrate that the oral administration of FSO has the potential to modulate the levels of LPO, antioxidants, and detoxification enzymes in the DMBA-croton oil-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice.

  8. Tectonosedimentary evolution of the Crotone basin, Italy: Implications for Calabrian Arc geodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Smale, J.L. ); Rio, D. ); Thunell, R.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Analysis of outcrop, well, and offshore seismic data has allowed the Neogene tectonosedimentary evolution of an Ionian Sea satellite basin to be outlined. The Crotone basin contains a series of postorogenic sediments deposited since Serravallian time atop a complex nappe system emplaced in the early Miocene. The basin's evolution can be considered predominantly one of distension in a fore-arc setting punctuated by compressional events. The earliest sediments (middle-late Miocene) consist of conglomerates, marls, and evaporites infilling a rapidly subsiding basin. A basin-wide Messinian unconformity and associated intraformational folding mark the close of this sedimentary cycle. Reestablishment of marine conditions in the early Pliocene is documented by sediments which show a distinct color banding and apparent rhythmicity, which may represent the basin margin to lowermost Pliocene marl/limestone rhythmic couplets present in southern Calabria. A bounding unconformity surface of middle Pliocene age (3.0 Ma), which corresponds to a major northwest-southeast compressional event, closes this depositional sequence. The basin depocenter shifted markedly toward the southeast, and both chaotic and strong subparallel reflector seismic facies of wide-ranging thicknesses fill the depositional topography created during this tectonic episode. Basin subsidence decreases dramatically in the late Pliocene and cessates in response to basin margin uplift in the early Pleistocene. The chronostratigraphic hierarchy of these depositional sequences allows them to constrain the deformational history of the basin. In addition, similar depositional hierarchies in adjacent basins (i.e., Paola, Cefalu, and Tyrrhenian Sea) allow them to tie the stratigraphy and evolution of the Crotone basin to the geodynamic evolution of the Calabrian arc system.

  9. Host range and genetic diversity of croton yellow vein mosaic virus, a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causing leaf curl disease in tomato.

    PubMed

    Pramesh, D; Mandal, Bikash; Phaneendra, Chigurupati; Muniyappa, V

    2013-03-01

    Croton yellow vein mosaic virus (CYVMV) is a widely occurring begomovirus in Croton bonplandianum, a common weed in the Indian subcontinent. In this study, CYVMV (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) was transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci) to as many as 35 plant species belonging to 11 families, including many vegetables, tobacco varieties, ornamentals and weeds. CYVMV produced bright yellow vein symptoms in croton, whereas in all the other host species, the virus produced leaf curl symptoms. CYVMV produced leaf curl in 13 tobacco species and 22 cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum and resembled tobacco leaf curl virus (TobLCV) in host reactions. However, CYVMV was distinguished from TobLCV in four differential hosts, Ageratum conyzoides, C. bonplandianum, Euphorbia geniculata and Sonchus bracyotis. The complete genome sequences of four isolates originating from northern, eastern and southern India revealed that a single species of DNA-A and a betasatellite, croton yellow vein mosaic betasatellite (CroYVMB) were associated with the yellow vein mosaic disease of croton. The sequence identity among the isolates of CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB occurring in diverse plant species was 91.8-97.9 % and 83.3-100 %, respectively. The CYVMV DNA-A and CroYVMB generated through rolling-circle amplification of the cloned DNAs produced typical symptoms of yellow vein mosaic and leaf curling in croton and tomato, respectively. The progeny virus from both the croton and tomato plants was transmitted successfully by B. tabaci. The present study establishes the etiology of yellow vein mosaic disease of C. bonplandianum and provides molecular evidence that a weed-infecting monopartite begomovirus causes leaf curl in tomato.

  10. Antileishmanial Activity of a Linalool-Rich Essential Oil from Croton cajucara

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Rodrigues, Igor de Almeida; Soares, Rosangela Maria A.; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Lopes, Angela Hampshire C. S.

    2003-01-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of a linalool-rich essential oil from the leaves of Croton cajucara against Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. Morphological changes in L. amazonensis promastigotes treated with 15 ng of essential oil per ml were observed by transmission electron microscopy; leishmanial nuclear and kinetoplast chromatin destruction, followed by cell lysis, was observed within 1 h. Pretreatment of mouse peritoneal macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these macrophages and L. amazonensis, with a concomitant increase by 220% in the level of nitric oxide production by the infected macrophages. Treatment of preinfected macrophages with 15 ng of essential oil per ml reduced by 50% the interaction between these cells and the parasites, which led to a 60% increase in the amount of nitric oxide produced by the preinfected macrophages. These results provide new perspectives on the development of drugs with activities against Leishmania, as linalool-rich essential oil is a strikingly potent leishmanicidal plant extract (50% lethal doses, 8.3 ng/ml for promastigotes and 8.7 ng/ml for amastigotes) which inhibited the growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes at very low concentrations (MIC, 85.0 pg/ml) and which presented no cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. PMID:12760864

  11. Antitumor activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton regelianus and its component ascaridole.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Daniel P; Marinho Filho, José D B; Alves, Ana Paula N N; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel O; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L; Torres, Maria Conceição M; Silveira, Edilberto R; Viana, Francisco A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2009-08-01

    Croton regelianus Muell. Arg., popularly known as 'velame-de-cheiro', is a native plant from the Northeast of Brazil used in folk medicine to treat diseases of different kinds, including malignant tumors. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the essential oil from the leaves of C. regelianus and ascaridole, one of the main constituents, were investigated. In vitro, the essential oil and ascaridole displayed cytotoxicity, showing IC(50) values in the range of 22.2 to 48.0 microg/ml in HL-60 and SF-295 cell lines for the essential oil, and 6.3 to 18.4 microg/ml in HL-60 and HCT-8 cells lines for ascaridole, respectively. The in vivo study, using sarcoma 180 as a tumor model, demonstrated inhibition rates of 28.1 and 31.8% for essential oil, at the 50 and 100 mg/kg, while ascaridole inhibition rates were 33.9% at 10 mg/kg and 33.3% at 20-mg/kg doses. Histopathological examination showed that the organs were only weakly affected by the treatment. In conclusion, ascaridole has an interesting antitumor activity in sarcoma 180 murine model, probably related to the described cytotoxic activity, and, moreover, its presence in the essential oil from the leaves of C. regelianus could explain, at least in part, the ethnopharmacological use of this plant in the treatment of cancer.

  12. In vitro antituberculosis activity of diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Woong Sik; Jyoti, Md Anirban; Kim, Sukyung; Nam, Kung-Woo; Ha, Thi Kim Quy; Oh, Won Keun; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Diterpenoids from the Vietnamese medicinal plant Croton tonkinensis are rich in ent-kaurane, kaurane and the grayanane class and are valuable intermediate plant metabolites with different bioactivities. In this study, we report the antituberculosis activity of these diterpenoids against both susceptible and resistant strains of M. tuberculosis for the first time. All of the ent-kaurane, kaurane and grayanane diterpenoids showed high to moderate activity against Mycobacterium. The highest antituberculosis activity was observed for ent-1β,7α,14β-triacetoxykaur-16-en-15-one (cpp604), with MIC values of 0.78, 1.56 and 3.12-12.5 µg/ml against H37Ra, H37Rv and all other resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis examined. In addition, other ent-kaurane-type diterpenoids also showed very high activities against mycobacterium, including cpp609 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp610 (1.56 µg/ml), cpp601 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp602 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml), cpp607 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml) and cpp608 (3.12-6.25 µg/ml). From the structure-activity relationship, functional groups R3 and R5 of the ent-kaurane skeleton were found to modulate the antimycobacterial activity.

  13. Eight new diterpenoids and two new nor-diterpenoids from the stems of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Toyoda, Hiroki; Harinantenaina, Liva; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Shinzato, Takakazu; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    From the stems of Croton cascarilloides, eight new diterpenoids, named crotocascarins A-H (1-8), having a crotofolane skeleton were isolated along with two new nor-diterpenoids (9 and 10), named crotocascarins α and β, derived through rearrangement of the crotofolane skeleton. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by means of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses. The absolute structures of the diterpene moiety were determined by application of the circular dichroism (CD) rule for the γ-lactone ring. The relative structures of the two crotofolanes (1 and 2) and one rearranged compound (9) were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analyses. Compounds 1, 2 and 9 possessed 2-methylbutyric acid in their molecules, the absolute configuration of which was found to be 2S by comparison of its HPLC behavior with that of an authentic sample. Therefore, the absolute structures of these crotocascarins (1, 2 and 9) were unambiguously determined. The absolute structures of crotofolanes are reported for the first time in this paper.

  14. Antinociceptive and wound healing activities of Croton adamantinus Müll. Arg. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Rafael Matos; de Morais Nogueira, Lenise; Cassundé, Nathalia Maria Rodrigues; Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; dos Santos, Simone Maria; Magalhães, Lucimere Paulino Machado; Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; de Sena, Kêsia Xisto da Fonseca Ribeiro; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Martins, René Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Leaves of Croton adamantinus have been used to treat inflammation and skin wounds in the semi-arid area of the Northeast of Brazil. In order to evaluate if the essential oil (EO) was responsible for the claimed activities; antinociceptive, wound healing and antimicrobial tests were carried out. Twenty constituents were identified in C. adamantinus EO by GC-MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR, the major compounds being methyl-eugenol (14.81%) and 1,8-cineol (13.74%). Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the formalin test and the abdominal contortion assay in mice. The EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) decreased the licking time of both phases of the formalin test when compared to the vehicle, but not to morphine (7.5 mg/kg). In the abdominal contortion assay, the EO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of contortions compared to the vehicle and to indometacin (10 mg/kg). The wound healing activity was verified also using two experimental models: excisional wound and dead space. Topical treatment with the EO (1%) increased the wound contraction from the third day of treatment (compared with nitrofurazone 0.2%), while systemic treatment (50 mg/kg/day) increased granulation tissue formation and reduced the water content. C. adamantinus EO also showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus in disk diffusion method. These results corroborate the ethnobotanical use of this specie by Brazilian population.

  15. Leaf uptake of methyl ethyl ketone and croton aldehyde by Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum saplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Akira; Tobe, Seita; Shimizu, Sachie

    2013-05-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is an abundant ketone in the urban atmosphere and croton aldehyde (CA) is a strong irritant to eye, nose, and throat. The use of plants able to absorb these compounds is one suggested mitigation method. In order to investigate this method, we determined the uptake rate of these compounds by leaves of two tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii and Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki. Using a flow-through chamber method, we found that these species were capable of absorbing both compounds. We also confirmed that the uptake rate of these compounds normalized to the fumigated concentration (AN) was higher at higher light intensities and that there was a linear relationship between AN and stomatal conductance (gS) for both tree species. In concentration-varying experiments, the uptake of MEK and CA seemed to be restricted by partitioning of MEK between leaf water and air. The ratio of the intercellular VOC concentration (Ci) to the fumigated concentration (Ca) for CA was zero, and the ratio ranged from 0.63 to 0.76 for MEK. The more efficient CA uptake ability may be the result of higher partitioning of CA into leaf water. Our present and previous results also suggest that plant MEK uptake ability was different across plant species, depending on the VOC conversion speed inside leaves.

  16. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability.

  17. Water residence times and nutrient budgets across an urbanizing gradient (Croton water supply area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY, were examined. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different level of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes) . Measurements of the comprehensive chemical suite incl. components of nitrogen budget in the throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period up to 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are significant differences in the chemical composition and decrease of nitrification intensity and of mean streamwater residence time along the increasing watershed development. Within each watershed, longer water residence times (up to over 2 years) were estimated in the wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to over 1 year). The results can be used in watershed management and planning of the further urbanization of this water supply area.

  18. Five new phorbol esters with cytotoxic and selective anti-inflammatory activities from Croton tiglium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Feng; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Liu, Yan-Qun; Li, Din-Xiang; He, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Yong-Hong; Zhou, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Five new phorbol esters, (four phorbol diesters, 1-4, and one 4-deoxy-4α-phorbol diester, 5), as well as four known phorbol esters analogues (6-9) were isolated and identified from the branches and leaves of Croton tiglium. Their structures were elucidated mainly by extensive NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric analysis. Among them, compound (1) was the first example of a naturally occurring phorbol ester with the 20-aldehyde group. Compounds 2-5, and 7-9 showed potent cytotoxicity against the K562, A549, DU145, H1975, MCF-7, U937, SGC-7901, HL60, Hela, and MOLT-4 cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 1.0 to 43 μM, while none of the compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on normal human cell lines 293T and LX-2, respectively. In addition, compound 3 exhibited moderate COX-1 and COX-2 inhibition, with IC50 values of 0.14 and 8.5 μM, respectively.

  19. Prostate-specific targeting of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Asiedu-Gyekye, I J; Tackie, R; Adjei, S

    2014-09-01

    Croton membranaceus Müll.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) treatment. The study aimed at investigating organs that the aqueous root extracts of C. membranaceus (CMARE) target, which is absent in literature. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (100-140 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Group 1, the control group received distilled water. Groups 2, 3 and 4 received 30, 150 and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt CMARE respectively (oral gavage). Rats fed 90 days the standard chow diet ad libitum. Upon sacrifice, major organs were histologically examined and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) biochemically determined. Only the prostate was abnormal. Histologically, H&E staining revealed thickness and infoldings of the epithelial cells shrinking with increasing dose. The 30 mg kg(-1) group showed low columnar or flattened epithelium cells, whereas the columnar epithelium infoldings of the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt and 300 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups were virtually nonexistent. The acini of the control, 30 mg kg(-1) b.wt group and the 150 mg kg(-1) b.wt groups showed clear pinkish secretion. However, secretion of the high-dose group appeared light pink in colour and the stroma cells appeared much darker than all the treated and control group. C. membranaceus targets the prostate with significant PSA reduction (P < 0.01).

  20. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme.

  1. Isolation and characterisation of novel antioxidant constituents of Croton zambesicus leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, M A; McGaw, L J; Bezabih, M; Abegaz, B M

    2011-08-01

    A 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-activity-directed fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract of Croton zambesicus leaf. Repeated column chromatography of the fraction on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of a new natural product, identified as quercetin-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether, helichrysoside-3'-methyl ether (1), along with kaempferol-3-O-β-6″(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside, tiliroside (2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside, isovitexin (3) as the antioxidant constituents. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques, namely NMR (1D and 2D) and mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 are reported from this species for the first time. In the qualitative antioxidant assay, the three isolated compounds instantly bleached the DPPH (0.2% MeOH) purple colour indicating antioxidant activity. In the quantitative antioxidant assay, all the isolated compounds demonstrated weak antioxidant activity compared to quercetin and rutin used as positive control antioxidant agents. The compounds displayed little to no cytotoxicity against Vero cells in an in vitro assay. The presence of these antioxidant compounds in the leaf extract of C. zambesicus could provide a rationale for the ethnomedicinal use of the plant in the management of oxidative-stress-related diseases in folk medicine.

  2. Crofelemer, an Antisecretory Antidiarrheal Proanthocyanidin Oligomer Extracted from Croton lechleri, Targets Two Distinct Intestinal Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Namkung, Wan

    2010-01-01

    Crofelemer, a purified proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from the bark latex of Croton lechleri, is in clinical trials for secretory diarrheas of various etiologies. We investigated the antisecretory mechanism of crofelemer by determining its effect on the major apical membrane transport and signaling processes involved in intestinal fluid transport. Using cell lines and measurement procedures to isolate the effects on individual membrane transport proteins, crofelemer at 50 μM had little or no effect on the activity of epithelial Na+ or K+ channels or on cAMP or calcium signaling. Crofelemer inhibited the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel with maximum inhibition of ∼60% and an IC50 ∼7 μM. Crofelemer action at an extracellular site on CFTR produced voltage-independent block with stabilization of the channel closed state. Crofelemer did not affect the potency of glycine hydrazide or thiazolidinone CFTR inhibitors. Crofelemer action resisted washout, with <50% reversal of CFTR inhibition after 4 h. Crofelemer was also found to strongly inhibit the intestinal calcium-activated Cl− channel TMEM16A by a voltage-independent inhibition mechanism with maximum inhibition >90% and IC50 ∼6.5 μM. The dual inhibitory action of crofelemer on two structurally unrelated prosecretory intestinal Cl− channels may account for its intestinal antisecretory activity. PMID:19808995

  3. Effects of Croton rhamnifolioides essential oil on Aedes aegypti oviposition, larval toxicity and trypsin activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Geanne K N; Dutra, Kamilla A; Lira, Camila S; Lima, Bheatriz N; Napoleão, Thiago H; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Maranhão, Claudia A; Brandão, Sofia S F; Navarro, Daniela M A F

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous reports are available concerning the larvicidal potential of essential oils, very few investigations have focused on their mechanisms of action. In the present study, we have investigated the chemical composition of the leaf oil of Croton rhamnifolioides during storage and its effects on oviposition and survival of larvae of the dengue fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. In addition, we have established a possible mechanism of action for the larvicidal activity of the essential oil. GC-MS analyses revealed marked differences in the composition of oil that had been freshly isolated and that of a sample that had been stored in a sealed amber-glass vial under refrigeration for three years. However, both fresh and stored oil exhibited substantial larvicidal activities with LC50 values of 122.35 and 89.03 ppm, respectively, and oviposition deterrent effects against gravid females at concentrations of 50 and 100 µg·mL-1. These results demonstrate that the larvicidal effect of the essential oil was unchanged during three years of storage even though its chemical composition altered. Hence, the essential oil could be used in the preparation of commercial products. In addition, we observed that the trypsin-like activity of mosquito larvae was inhibited in vitro by the essential oil of C. rhamnifolioides, suggesting that the larvicidal effect may be associated with inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25317582

  4. Croton megalocarpus oil: a feasible non-edible oil source for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kafuku, Gerald; Lam, Man Kee; Kansedo, Jibrail; Lee, Keat Teong; Mbarawa, Makame

    2010-09-01

    This study presents the feasibility of converting a non-edible oil source native to the Africa region -croton megalocarpus oil to methyl esters (biodiesel) using sulfated tin oxide enhanced with SiO(2) (SO(4)(2-)/SnO(2)-SiO(2)) as super acid solid catalyst. This study was conducted using design of experiment (DoE), specifically, response surface methodology based on three-variable central composite design (CCD) with alpha (alpha)=2. The reaction parameters studied are: reaction temperature (60-180 degrees C), reaction period (1-3h) and methanol to oil ratio (1:6-1:24). Although the oil was found to contain high free fatty acid, however, yield up to 95% was obtained without any pre-treatment step with the following reaction conditions: 180 degrees C, 2h and 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, while keeping constant catalyst concentration and stirring speed at 3 wt.% and 350-360 rpm, respectively.

  5. Refining DNA Barcoding Coupled High Resolution Melting for Discrimination of 12 Closely Related Croton Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Suwannapoom, Chatmongkon; Ounjai, Sarawut; Rora, Jantarika A.; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    DNA barcoding coupled high resolution melting (Bar-HRM) is an emerging method for species discrimination based on DNA dissociation kinetics. The aim of this work was to evaluate the suitability of different primer sets, derived from selected DNA regions, for Bar-HRM analysis of species in Croton (Euphorbiaceae), one of the largest genera of plants with over 1,200 species. Seven primer pairs were evaluated (matK, rbcL1, rbcL2, rbcL3, rpoC, trnL and ITS1) from four plastid regions, matK, rbcL, rpoC, and trnL, and the nuclear ribosomal marker ITS1. The primer pair derived from the ITS1 region was the single most effective region for the identification of the tested species, whereas the rbcL1 primer pair gave the lowest resolution. It was observed that the ITS1 barcode was the most useful DNA barcoding region overall for species discrimination out of all of the regions and primers assessed. Our Bar-HRM results here also provide further support for the hypothesis that both sequence and base composition affect DNA duplex stability. PMID:26406615

  6. Seasonal Variability and Effects of Stormflow on Concentrations of Pesticides and their Degradates in Kisco River and Middle Branch Croton River Surface Water, Croton Reservoir System, New York, May 2000-February 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Seven herbicides (2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, bromacil, dicamba, diuron, imazaquin, and sulfometuron), four insecticides (carbaryl, diazinon, imidacloprid, and malathion), two fungicides (metalaxyl and myclobutanil), and caffeine (an indicator of wastewater) were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L (micrograms per liter). Four of these compounds - 2,4-D, 2,4-D methyl ester, dicamba, and metalaxyl - were detected in at least one sample from the Kisco River at a concentration above 1 ug/L. Only three herbicides (2,4-D, imazethapyr, and prometon) and caffeine were detected at concentrations above 0.1 ug/L in one or more of the Middle Branch Croton River samples, and no compounds were detected above 0.4 ug/L in Middle Branch Croton River samples. No samples contained concentrations of pesticides that exceeded human health-based water-quality standards. However, samples from the Kisco River contained four insecticides (carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion) and one herbicide (2,4-D) in concentrations that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Aquatic-life protection criteria were generally exceeded only in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. No samples from the Middle Branch Croton River contained target compounds that exceeded water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Pesticide concentrations were generally higher, and the numbers of compounds generally larger in samples from the Kisco River than in samples from the Middle Branch Croton River, probably because the Kisco River watershed has a greater population density and is more extensively developed. The highest concentrations of most compounds in both streams were detected in stormflow samples collected in June, September, and December 2000. This indicates that stormflow sampling is essential in assessments of pesticide occurrence in streams that drain developed lands. The lowest

  7. New ent-Clerodane and Abietane Diterpenoids from the Roots of Kenyan Croton megalocarpoides Friis & M. G. Gilbert.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Mulholland, Dulcie A; Eastman, Harry; Jacob, Melissa R; Khan, Shabana I; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias; Kerubo, Leonidah O; Midiwo, Jacob O

    2016-07-01

    The roots of the endangered medicinal plant Croton megalocarpoides collected in Kenya were investigated and twenty-two compounds isolated. Among them were twelve new ent-clerodane (1-12) and a new abietane (13) diterpenoids, alongside the known crotocorylifuran (4 a), two known abietane and four known ent-trachylobane diterpenoids, and the triterpenoids, lupeol and acetyl aleurotolic acid. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, HRMS and ECD. The isolated compounds were evaluated against a series of microorganisms (fungal and bacteria) and also against Plasmodium falciparum, however no activity was observed.

  8. Quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether: a vasorelaxant flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; San Román, L

    2002-10-01

    The vasorelaxant profile of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, a flavonoid isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht (Euphorbiaceae), was assessed in aortic rings isolated from Wistar rats. To gain insight into its structure-activity relationship, we compared this substance with quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether (ayanin), another flavonoid isolated from this plant, quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether, a flavonoid synthesized by us, and quercetin. In addition we examined the interaction of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether with the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. According to their pEC50 values (concentration producing a 50% inhibition of the maximal contractile response) to phenylephrine-induced precontraction in rat isolated aorta, the potency order was quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether > quercetin > quercetin 3,4',7-trimethyl ether > quercetin 3,3',4',7-tetramethyl ether (4.70+/-0.18; 3.96+/-0.07; 3.64+/-0.02; 3.11+/-0.16). The relaxant effect of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether was significantly decreased by the removal of endothelium as well as by methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, and by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an NO-synthase inhibitor. Therefore, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether has a NO/cGMP pathway-related profile, with increased vasorelaxant activity due to hydroxylation at positions 3 and 4 of the B ring. In addition, methylation at positions 3 and 7 with respect to quercetin of the C and A rings, respectively, seems to further enhance the vasorelaxant activity of quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether.

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  10. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Douglas; Vitvar, Tomas; McDonnell, Jeffrey; Hassett, James; Duncan, Jonathan; Kendall, Carol

    2005-09-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for δ 18O, NO 3-, and SO 42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm

  11. Croton antisyphiliticus Mart. attenuates the inflammatory response to carrageenan-induced pleurisy in mice.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Gustavo Oliveira; Vicente, Geison; de Carvalho, Francieli Kanumfre; Heller, Melina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) from the aerial parts of Croton antisyphiliticus, its fractions and isolated compounds derived from it on the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The aerial parts of C. antisyphiliticus were dried, macerated and extracted with ethanol to obtain the CHE, which was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction using solvents with increasing polarity to obtain hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EA) and aqueous (Aq) fractions. Vitexin and quinic acid were isolated from Aq fraction. Capillary electrophoresis analysis, physical characteristics and spectral data produced by infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and mass spectrometry analyses were used to identify and elucidate the structure of the isolated compounds. The experimental model of pleurisy was induced in mice by a single intrapleural injection of carrageenan (1 %). Leukocytes, exudate concentrations, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and adenosine-deaminase (ADA) activities and nitrate/nitrite (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) levels were determined in the pleural fluid leakage at 4 h after pleurisy induction. Animals pre-treated with CHE, Hex, EA, Aq, vitexin and quinic acid exhibited decreases in leukocytes, exudate concentrations, MPO and ADA activities and NOx levels (p < 0.05). Also CHE, Hex, EA and vitexin but not quinic acid inhibited TNF-α and IL-17 levels (p < 0.05). C. antisyphiliticus caused anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the activated leukocytes, exudate concentrations, NOx, TNF-α, and IL-17 levels. The compounds vitexin and quinic acid may be responsible for this anti-inflammatory action.

  12. SP-303, an antiviral oligomeric proanthocyanidin from the latex of Croton lechleri (Sangre de Drago).

    PubMed

    Ubillas, R; Jolad, S D; Bruening, R C; Kernan, M R; King, S R; Sesin, D F; Barrett, M; Stoddart, C A; Flaster, T; Kuo, J; Ayala, F; Meza, E; Castañel, M; McMeekin, D; Rozhon, E; Tempesta, M S; Barnard, D; Huffman, J; Smee, D; Sidwell, R; Soike, K; Brazier, A; Safrin, S; Orlando, R; Kenny, P T; Berova, N; Nakanishi, K

    1994-09-01

    SP-303, a large proanthocyanidin oligomer isolated from the latex of the plant species Croton lechleri (Eupborbiaceae) has demonstrated broad activity against a variety of DNA and RNA viruses. In cell culture, SP-303 exhibits potent activity against isolates and laboratory strains of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FLU-A) and parainfluenza virus (PIV). Parallel assays of SP-303 and ribavirin showed comparable activity against these viruses. SP-303 also exhibits significant inhibitory activity against herpesvirus (HSV) types 1 and 2, including herpesviruses resistant to acyclovir and foscarnet. Inhibition was also observed against hepatitis A and B viruses. The antiviral mechanism of SP-303 seems to derive from its direct binding to components of the viral envelope, resulting in inhibition of viral attachment and penetration of the plasma membrane. Antiviral effects of SP-303 were measured by three distinct methods: CPE, MTT and precursor uptake/incorporation. Cytotoxicity endpoints were markedly greater than the respective antiviral endpoints. SP-303 exhibited activity in RSV-infected cotton rats and African green monkeys, PIV-3-infected cotton rats, HSV-2 infected mice and guinea pigs and FLU-A-infected mice. The most successful routes of SP-303 administration for producing efficacy were: topical application to HSV-2- genital lesions in mice and guinea pigs, aerosol inhalation to FLU-A-infected mice and PIV-3-infected cotton rats, and oral dosage to RSV-infected cotton rats. A variety of toxicological evaluations demonstrated the safety of SP-303, particularly orally, which was predictable, since condensed tannins are a common dietary component. It is notable that the larger proanthocyanidins as a class have high antiviral activity, whereas most of the monomers are inactive. Clinical trials are ongoing to evaluate SP-303 as a therapeutic antiviral agent.

  13. Effects of suburban development on runoff generation in the Croton River basin, New York, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, D.; Vitvar, T.; McDonnell, J.; Hassett, J.; Duncan, J.; Kendall, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of impervious area, septic leach-field effluent, and a riparian wetland on runoff generation were studied in three small (0.38-0.56 km 2) headwater catchments that represent a range of suburban development (high density residential, medium density residential, and undeveloped) within the Croton River basin, 70 km north of New York City. Precipitation, stream discharge, and groundwater levels were monitored at 10-30 min intervals for 1 year, and stream water and groundwater samples were collected biweekly for ??18O, NO3-, and SO42- analysis for more than 2 years during an overlapping period in 2000-2002. Data from 27 storms confirmed that peak magnitudes increased and recession time decreased with increasing development, but lags in peak arrival and peak discharge/mean discharge were greatest in the medium density residential catchment, which contains a wetland in which storm runoff is retained before entering the stream. Baseflow during a dry period from Aug. 2001-Feb. 2002 was greatest in the high-density residential catchment, presumably from the discharge of septic effluent through the shallow groundwater system and into the stream. In contrast, moderate flows during a wet period from Mar.-Aug. 2002 were greatest in the undeveloped catchment, possibly as a result of greater subsurface storage or greater hydraulic conductivity at this site. The mean residence time of baseflow was about 30 weeks at all three catchments, indicating that human influence was insufficient to greatly affect the groundwater recharge and discharge properties that determine catchment residence time. These results suggest that while suburban development and its associated impervious surfaces and storm drains accelerate the transport of storm runoff into streams, the combined effects of remnant natural landscape features such as wetlands and human alterations such as deep groundwater supply and septic systems can change the expected effects of human development on storm runoff

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Obey, Jackie K; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7-22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125-250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens.

  15. Bio-based n-butanol prepared from poly-3-hydroxybutyrate: optimization of the reduction of n-butyl crotonate to n-butanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using metabolic engineering approaches, the biopolymer poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) can be over-produced in organisms such as bacteria and plants such as switchgrass. Thermolysis of P3HB, either in isolated form or within biomass, yields crotonic acid. It is a potential bio-derived platform chemic...

  16. Comparison of methods for estimates of molecular genetic diversity in genus Croton: influence of coefficients, clustering strategies and data projection.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, M M; Freitas, J S; Vieira, J G P; Gonçalves, Z S; Souza, A M; Cerqueira-Silva, C B M

    2014-01-01

    We investigated 10 similarity (and disimilarity) coefficients in a set of 40 wild genotypes of Croton linearifolius subjected to analyses using hierarchical grouping methods, grouping methods by optimization and data projection in two-dimensional space. Genotypes were characterized by analyzing DNA polymorphism with the use of 15 ISSR and 12 RAPD markers. The distance measurements were compared by the Spearman correlation test, projection in two-dimensional space and grouping efficiency evaluation. The Spearman correlation coefficients between the 10 coefficients evaluated were significant (P < 0.001) and indicated significant changes in genotype ranking due to type of coefficient used (0.76 ≤ rs ≤ 1). Wide variation was also observed in the efficiency of clustering methods, where the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean was the most suitable (0.3 ≤ D ≤ 1.5 ; 0.41 ≤ rc ≤ 0.77; 5.99 ≤ S ≤ 12.61). Projection efficiencies in two-dimensional space showed high-stress values (65 < S < 89%). Similar to the results observed for hierarchical clustering methods and for projection in two-dimensional space, the formation of groups with grouping methods by optimization showed variations when using different coefficients. We believe that the results confirm the influence of coefficients in studies of genetic diversity, showing the need to use criteria and standards for selecting appropriate methods for genetic studies of the genus Croton.

  17. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its major constituent anethole display gastroprotective effect by increasing the surface mucous layer.

    PubMed

    Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina N; Lahlou, Saad; Barreto, João E F; Yum, Maria E M; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Oliveira, Hermógenes D; Celedônio, Nathalia R; Feitosa, Roney G F; Duarte, Gloria P; Santos, Cláudia F; de Albuquerque, Aline A C; Leal-Cardoso, José H

    2013-06-01

    Croton zehntneri, a plant native to northeastern Brazil, is widely used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal problems and has rich essential oil content. The effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) and its main constituent anethole on several models of gastric lesions were studied in mice and rats. Oral treatment with EOCZ and anethole, both at doses of 30-300 mg/kg, caused similar and dose-dependent gastroprotection against ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric damage, but did not change cold-restraint stress-induced ulcers in rats. Furthermore, EOCZ and anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) similarly and significantly increased the mucus production by the gastric mucosa, measured by Alcian blue binding, in ethanol-induced ulcer model. However, at the same doses, neither EOCZ nor anethole promoted significant alteration in gastric production of non-protein sulfhydryl groups. In pylorus-ligated model, neither EOCZ nor anethole (both at 30 and 300 mg/kg) had a significant effect on the volume of gastric juice, pH, or total acidity. The results of this study show for the first time that EOCZ possesses a gastroprotective potential, an effect mostly attributed to the action of anethole. This activity is related predominantly to the ability of EOCZ and anethole to enhance the production of gastric wall mucus, an important gastroprotective factor. Furthermore, they suggest that EOCZ has potential therapeutic application for the treatment of gastric ulcers.

  18. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  19. Essential oil of Croton zehntneri and its main constituent anethole block excitability of rat peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    da Silva-Alves, Kerly Shamyra; Ferreira-da-Silva, Francisco Walber; Coelho-de-Souza, Andrelina Noronha; Albuquerque, Aline Alice Cavalcante; do Vale, Otoni Cardoso; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique

    2015-03-01

    Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeast Brazil and employed by local people to treat various diseases. The leaves of this plant have a rich content of essential oil. The essential oil of C. zehntneri samples, with anethole as the major constituent and anethole itself, have been reported to have several pharmacological activities such as antispasmodic, cardiovascular, and gastroprotective effects and inducing the blockade of neuromuscular transmission and antinociception. Since several works have demonstrated that essential oils and their constituents block cell excitability and in view of the multiple effects of C. zehntneri essential oil and anethole on biological tissues, we undertook this investigation aiming to characterize and compare the effects of this essential oil and its major constituent on nerve excitability. Sciatic nerves of Wistar rats were used. They were mounted in a moist chamber, and evoked compound action potentials were recorded. Nerves were exposed in vitro to the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole (0.1-1 mg/mL) up to 180 min, and alterations in excitability (rheobase and chronaxie) and conductibility (peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity) parameters of the compound action potentials were evaluated. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole blocked, in a concentration-dependent manner with similar pharmacological potencies (IC50: 0.32 ± 0.07 and 0.22 ± 0.11 mg/mL, respectively), rat sciatic nerve compound action potentials. Strength-duration curves for both agents were shifted upward and to the right compared to the control curve, and the rheobase and chronaxie were increased following essential oil and anethole exposure. The time courses of the essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole effects on peak-to-peak amplitude of compound action potentials followed an exponential decay and reached a steady state. The essential oil of C. zehntneri and anethole caused a similar reduction in

  20. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  1. Investigations on Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. for inhibition of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators in murine macrophages and in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Neeraj K.; Khan, Mohd. Shahid; Bhutani, Kamlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Silica gel column chromatography fractionation of the dichloromethane extract (LCD) of Leucas cephalotes (Roth.) Spreng. led to the isolation of five compounds namely β-sitosterol (1) + stigmasterol (2), lupeol (3), oleanolic acid (4) and laballenic acid (5). Also, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of sub-fraction (LCD-F1) of this extract showed the presence of eleven (6-16) compounds. In addition to this, 3-5 and LCD-F1 were evaluated for lipopolysachharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in RAW 264.7 and J774A.1 cells. Results directed that 4 and 5 were found to inhibit these mediators at half maximal inhibitory concentration of 17.12 to 57.20 μM while IC50 for LCD-F1 was found to be 15.56 to 31.71 μg/mL. Furthermore, LCD at a dose of 50, 100 and 400 mg/Kg was found to reduce significantly LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production in female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. All the results findings evoked that the anti-inflammatory effects of Leucas cephalotes is partially mediated through the suppression of pro-inflammatory mediators and hence can be utilized for the development of anti-inflammatory candidates. PMID:26535039

  2. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    PubMed

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  3. Anti-oxidative and cholinesterase inhibitory effects of leaf extracts and their isolated compounds from two closely related Croton species.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-02-01

    A comparative evaluation of the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Croton gratissimus and Croton zambesicus (subgratissimus) and compounds isolated from the extracts was carried out to determine their potential and suitability or otherwise as a substitute for each other in the management of oxidative and neurodegenerative conditions. Different antioxidant assays (DPPH, FRAP, β-carotene-linoleic and the lipid peroxidation models) and the microplate assay for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition were carried out separately to study the activities of the crude leaf extracts and four solvent fractions from each of the two Croton species. Bioassay guided fractionation was used to target antioxidant constituents of the crude extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of 20% aqueous methanol extract of C. gratissimus on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 columns resulted in the isolation of kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2), apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3) and kampferol (4). The extract of C. zambesicus yielded quercetin-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside-3'-methyl ether (helichrysoside- 3'-methyl ether, 1), kaempferol-3-O-β-6''(p-coumaroyl) glucopyranoside (tiliroside, 2) and apigenin-6-C-glucoside (isovitexin, 3). Three of the isolated compounds and their different combinations were also included in the bioassays. In all the assays performed, the antioxidant capacity and AChE inhibitory effects of C. zambesicus extracts were weaker than those of C. gratissimus. This suggests that C. gratissimus may not be substituted by C. zambesicus, despite the similarity in some of their constituents. Generally, the combinations made from the isolated compounds showed better activities in most of the assays compared to the individual isolated compounds. This suggests mechanisms such as synergism and/or additive effects to be taking place. This study established low, moderate and high antioxidant

  4. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Francisco E. B.; de Oliveira, Dayanne R.; Bento, Elizângela B.; Leite, Laura H. I.; Souza, Daniele O.; Siebra, Ana Luiza A.; Sampaio, Renata S.; Martins, Anita O. P. B.; Ramos, Andreza G. B.; Tintino, Saulo R.; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J.; Figueiredo, Patricia R. L.; Oliveira, Larissa R.; Rodrigues, Cristina K. S.; Sales, Valterlúcio S.; Figueiredo, Francisco R. S. D. N.; Nascimento, Emmily P.; Monteiro, Alefe B.; Amaro, Érika N.; Costa, José G. M.; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Kerntopf, Marta R.

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as “velame do campo,” is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine. PMID:23864894

  5. Antiulcerogenic Activity of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Croton campestris A. St.-Hill in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Francisco E B; de Oliveira, Dayanne R; Bento, Elizângela B; Leite, Laura H I; Souza, Daniele O; Siebra, Ana Luiza A; Sampaio, Renata S; Martins, Anita O P B; Ramos, Andreza G B; Tintino, Saulo R; Lacerda-Neto, Luiz J; Figueiredo, Patricia R L; Oliveira, Larissa R; Rodrigues, Cristina K S; Sales, Valterlúcio S; Figueiredo, Francisco R S D N; Nascimento, Emmily P; Monteiro, Alefe B; Amaro, Erika N; Costa, José G M; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin R A; Kerntopf, Marta R

    2013-01-01

    Croton campestris A. St.-Hill., popularly known as "velame do campo," is a species native to the savannah area of Northeast Brazil, which is used by traditional communities in folk medicine for variety of health problems, especially detoxification, inflammation, and gastritis. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. campestris leaves (HELCC) was assessed for its antiulcerogenic effect in gastric lesion models and effect on intestinal motility in mice, and possible mechanisms of action were examined. HELCC showed significant gastroprotective action in all models of gastric ulcer evaluated; the results suggest that this action probably involves the nitric oxide pathway. HELCC did not show alteration of intestinal motility in mice. It was also found that C. campestris represents a promising natural source with important biological potential, justifying some of its uses in folk medicine.

  6. Solid-state 13C NMR and molecular modeling studies of acetyl aleuritolic acid obtained from Croton cajucara Benth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva San Gil, Rosane Aguiar; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; da Cunha Pinto, Angelo; do Espírito Santo Gomes, Fabiano; de Castro Dantas, Tereza Neuma; Maciel, Maria Aparecida Medeiros

    2008-08-01

    Solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C NMR) with magic-angle spinning (MAS) and with cross-polarization and magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS) spectra, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were used to obtain structural data from a sample of acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA) extracted from the stem bark of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) and recrystallized from acetone. Since solid-state 13C NMR results suggested the presence of more than one molecule in the unitary cell for the AAA, DSC analysis and molecular modeling calculations were used to access this possibility. The absence of phase transition peaks in the DSC spectra and the dimeric models of AAA simulated using the semi-empirical PM3 method are in agreement with that proposal.

  7. Effect of Suburban Development and Landscape Position on Water Quality in Three Small Watersheds Within the Croton System, New York.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Endreny, T. A.; Wolosoff, S.; Adam, M.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Internal hydrological processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Instrument clusters (throughfall collectors, suction lysimeters, monitoring wells, and shallow and deep piezometers) were installed at several locations within three small (50 - 70 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Biweekly and storm samples were analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period. The topographic index (TI) quantified landscape position; flowpath analyses determined degree of development at each cluster, using % impervious cover as the metric. Water quality degradation was observed in sites with medium and high TI values; no such effect was observed along the ridges, i.e., low TI values. At medium TI values, areas with more than 5% impervious had degraded water quality. At high TI values, the water chemistry degradation appeared at 10% or greater impervious surface

  8. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus.

  9. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  10. In vivo wound healing activity of Dragon's Blood (Croton spp.), a traditional South American drug, and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Pieters, L; De Bruyne, T; Van Poel, B; Vingerhoets, R; Totté, J; Vanden Berghe, D; Vlietinck, A

    1995-07-01

    The wound healing activity of dragon'sblood (Croton spp.), in Spanish 'sangre de drago‛ or 'sangre de grado‛, a traditional South American drug, and some of its constituents, including the alkaloid taspine (1), the dihydrobenzufuran lignan 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin (2) and proantho-cyanidins, was evaluated in vivo on rats, and compared with the wound healing actitivy of synthetic proanthocyanidins. The beneficial effect of dragon's blood on wound healing was confirmed. Dragon's blood stimulated contraction of the wound, formation of a crust, formation of new collagen, and regeneration of the epithelial layer. 3',4-O-Dimethylcedrusin also improved wound healing in vivo by stimulating the formation of fibroblasts and collagen, but crude dragon's blood was more effective. This was due to the proanthocyanidins, present in dragon's blood, which stimulate contraction of the wound and precipitate with proteins forming a dark crust covering the wound, but which delay wound repair by a decreased formation of new fibroblasts.

  11. [Croton oil-induced hemorrhoid model in rat: comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of diflucortolone valerate with other glucocorticoids].

    PubMed

    Nishiki, K; Nishinaga, K; Kudoh, D; Iwai, K

    1988-10-01

    A hemorrhoid model was prepared by means of application of croton oil onto the recto-anus of rats. Cotton swab soaked with the inducer, which consisted of water, pyridine, diethylether and 6% croton oil in diethylether, was inserted into the anus. The following conditions were found to be optimal for preparing the model: cotton swab containing 0.16 ml of the inducer solution was applied to the anus of a 6 week-old rat (body wt. about 140 g) for 10 sec. The edema developed linearly until 7-8 hr after application, and the severity of the edema was sustained almost constantly for more than 24 hr. Macroscopic observations at 6 hr p. a. revealed homogeneous and consistent inflammation in the recto-anus applied region. Histological observation showed appearance of edema, infiltration of fibrin, inflammatory cells, vasodilation, blood congestion and medium to high degrees of necrosis in the mucosal epithelium. Thus this model was useful for evaluating the effect of anti-hemorrhoidal drugs on intumescence and vasodilatation. The efficacy of diflucortolone valerate, hydrocortisone caproate and hydrocortisone was evaluated in this model. Wet weight and vasopermeability increased by the inducer was suppressed strongly by simultaneous application of the corticoids, and the degree of suppression was parallel with the potency of the glucocorticoid activity. Compared to Scheriproct, Posterisan forte, Posterisan and Borraginol N, Neriproct showed the strongest effects in the protection against and treatment of the experimental hemorrhoid. Scheriproct, which was less active than Neriproct, was also found to have higher efficacy than the others. PMID:3243508

  12. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property.

  13. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities of leaf extract of Croton bonplandianus Baill. against lung cancer cell line A549.

    PubMed

    Bhavana, J; Kalaivani, M K; Sumathy, A

    2016-06-01

    The acetone extract (AcE) of the Croton bonplandianus Baill., an exotic weed of the Euphorbiaceae family was studied for cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest in A549 cell line and antioxidant capacities using MTT assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB staining), cell cycle analysis and DPPH radical scavenging assay respectively. Based on the cytotoxic activity, the extract was tested for the apoptotic effect using AO/EB and Hoechst 33258 staining. The apoptosis was characterized by chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. Further, to determine the stage of cell death, cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and AcE was found to arrest G2/M phase in a dose dependent manner. The number of cells in G2/M phase increases with concurrent accumulation of cells in sub G₀/G₁phase indicates the induction of apoptosis at G2M phase. The free radical scavenging activity of the AcE against DPPH was considerably significant. The cytotoxic, apoptotic and antioxidant effect of the AcE could be well correlated with the presence of potent free radical scavenging secondary metabolites such as phenols (43 ± 0.05 µg/mL), flavonoids (3.5 ± 0.07 µg/mL) and tannin (0.36 ± 0.1 µg/mL). Our study has shown that A549 cells were more sensitive to AcE with an IC₅₀ of 15.68 ± 0.006 µg/mL compared to the standard drug 2.20 ± 0.008 µg/mL (cisplatin). The results suggest that Croton bonplandianus could serve as a potential source of alternative therapeutic agent for treating cancer. Further research is required to isolate the active principle compound and determination of its anticancer property. PMID:27468464

  14. Direct effect of croton oil on intestinal epithelial cells and colonic smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Lan, Mei; Wu, Han-Ping; Shi, Yong-Quan; Lu, Ju; Ding, Jie; Wu, Kai-Cun; Jin, Jian-Ping; Fan, Dai Ming

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the direct effect of croton oil (CO) on human intestinal epithelial cell (HIEC) and guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells in vitro. METHODS: Growth curves of HIEC were drawn by MTT colorimetry. The dynamics of cell proliferation was analyzed with flow cytometry, and morphological changes were observed under light and electron microscopy after long-term (6 weeks) treatment with CO.Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was detected by dot blot in HIEC treated with CO. Genes related to CO were screened by DD-PCR, and the direct effect of CO on the contractility of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was observed. RESULTS: High concentration (20-40 mg·L-1) CO inhibited cell growth significantly (1, 3, 5, 7 d OD sequence: (20 mg·L-1 ) 0.040 ± 0.003, 0.081 ± 0.012, 0.147 ± 0.022,0.024 ± 0.016; (40 mg·L-1) 0.033 ± 0.044, 0.056 ± 0.012, 0.104 ± 0.010, 0.189 ± 0.006; OD control 0.031 ± 0.008, 0.096 ± 0.012, 0.173 ± 0.009, 0.300 ± 0.016, P < 0.01), which appeared to be related directly to the dosage. Compared with the control, the fraction number of cells in G1 phase decreased from 0.60 to 0.58, while that in S phase increased from 0.30 to 0.34 and DNA index also increased after 6 weeks of treatment with CO (the dosage was increased gradually from 4 to 40 mg·L-1). Light microscopic observation revealed that cells had karyomegaly, less plasma and karyoplasm lopsidedness. Electron microscopy also showed an increase in cell proliferation and in the quantity of abnormal nuclei with pathologic mitosis. Expression of COX-2 mRNA decreased significantly in HIEC treated with CO. Thirteen differential cDNA fragments were cloned from HIEC treated with CO, one of which was 100 percent homologous with human mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit II. The length of isolated guinea pig colonic smooth muscle cells was significantly shortened after treatment with CO (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: At a high CO concentration ( > 20 mg·L-1

  15. In situ fourier transform infrared study of crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic acid, and maleic anhydride oxidation on a V-P-O industrial catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Wenig, R.W.; Schrader, G.L.

    1987-10-22

    Crotyl alcohol, maleic acid, crotonic (2-butenoic) acid, and maleic anhydride were fed to an in situ infrared cell at 300/sup 0/C containing a P/V = 1.1 vanadium-phosphorous-oxide (V-P-O) catalyst used for the selective oxidation of n-butane. Crotyl alcohol was used as a mechanistic probe for the formation of reactive olefin species observed during previous n-butane and 1-butene studies. Crotonic acid, maleic acid, and maleic anhydride were fed as probes for the existence of other possible adsorbed intermediates. Olefin species and maleic acid are proposed as possible reaction intermediates in n-butane selective oxidation to maleic anhydride. The involvement of peroxide species in the oxidation of butadiene to maleic acid is also discussed.

  16. Oxygenative and Dehydrogenative [3 + 3] Benzannulation Reactions of α,β-Unsaturated Aldehydes and γ-Phosphonyl Crotonates Mediated by Air: Regioselective Synthesis of 4-Hydroxybiaryl-2-carboxylates.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prabhakar Ramchandra; Nanubolu, Jagadeesh Babu; Menon, Rajeev S

    2016-02-19

    Regioselective synthesis of 4-hydroxybiphenyl-2-carboxylates via the base-mediated oxygenative [3 + 3] benzannulation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and γ-phosphonyl crotonates is reported. A hydroxyl group is installed in the final product on the originally phosphorus-bound carbon via a novel oxygenative and dehydrogenative transformation. The reaction proceeds rapidly in an open flask, uses atmospheric oxygen as an oxidant, and affords good yields of substituted biaryl phenols. PMID:26859060

  17. Structural Evolution of the Crotone Basin: Successive Shortening and Extension Episodes Parallel to the Calabrian Forearc (South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M.; Seeber, L.

    2008-12-01

    At 10-12 Ma, the continental fragment of Calabria separated from Sardinia and became the crystalline core of a forearc in a NW-directed subduction system that is being consuming the Mesozoic (Neo-Tethys) oceanic lithosphere. The southeastward rollback of this arc has left in its wake the Tyrrhenian Sea by back-arc spreading. This system is confined between the continental margins of Africa and its Apulian promontory and created matching oblique-collision orogens (Sicilian Maghrebides and Apennines, respectively) along the margins. These progressive collisions shortened the arc because the gap between the margins narrowed to the SE. However, the arc is now lengthening after passing the point of closest approach of Sicily and Apulia, probably in the Quaternary. We seek evidence of this and other neotectonic episodes in the evolution of the forearc in the Crotone basin, which is situated on the accretionary E side of Calabria. A widespread unconformity correlated with the onset of rollback marks a regional foundering controlled by multidirectional extensional growth faults. These faults are consistently capped by the Messinian evaporite sequence. This sequence ends with a widespread unconformity that marks the final desiccation of the Ionian Sea ~5Ma. Mechanical changes due to drop in pore pressure and backward tilting of the accretionary wedge due to flexural unloading may be responsible for the landward emplacement of an accretionary mélange on the NE side of the Crotone Basin and the deposition of a characteristic conglomerate that locally caps the evaporites. After a well known mid-Pliocene basin-forming extensional event, we find evidence for a basin- wide contraction affecting the entire Neogene sequence up to the mid-to-late Pliocene. Vergence ranges from N to NW from east to west across the basin and is consistent with longitudinal shortening of the forearc. The shortening structures are cut or reactivated(?) by extensional faulting which we associate with

  18. Concentrations of pesticides and pesticide degradates in the Croton River Watershed in southeastern New York, July-September 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, Patrick J.; Bode, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-seven pesticides and (or) pesticide degradates were detected in baseflow samples collected from 47 stream sites in the Croton River Watershed (374 square miles) in southeastern New York in the summer of 2000. The Croton Reservoir provides about 10 percent of New York City's water supply. Maximum concentrations of most pesticides detected did not exceed 0.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, was conducted from July through September 2000 and entailed analysis of the samples for more than 150 pesticides and their degradates. Nine compounds were detected at a concentration greater than 0.10 ?g/L; three of these were insecticides (diazinon, carbaryl, and imidacloprid), one was a fungicide (mycobutanil), and five were herbicides (simazine, 2,4-D, diuron, hexazinone, and 2,4-D methyl esther). Only two of these compounds (simazine and 2,4-D) were detected at a concentration exceeding 1 ?g/L; the simazine concentration exceeded the New York State surface-water standard of 0.5 ?g/L. Two insecticides (diazinon and azinphos-methyl) exceeded aquatic-life-protection standard in one sample each. Concentrations of three insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and malathion) were more than 50 percent of the aquatic-life-protection standards in one sample each. Total concentrations of insecticides and herbicides (the sum of the concentrations, whereby all concentrations below the detection limit were set to zero), and the concentrations of the herbicide prometon and the insecticide diazinon, were highest in samples from watersheds with population densities greater than 510 per square mile (21 sites); therefore, the presence of these compounds is attributable to urban, residential, and other developed land uses. The data obtained in this study are useful for making general comparisons among watersheds with differing land uses, but the concentrations represent

  19. Effects of 7-hydroxycalamenene isolated from Croton cajucara essential oil on growth, lipid content and ultrastructural aspects of Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Mariana M B; Almeida, Catia A; Chaves, Francisco C M; Campos-Takaki, Galba M; Rozental, Sonia; Bizzo, Humberto R; Alviano, Celuta S; Alviano, Daniela S

    2014-05-01

    The leaves and bark of Croton cajucara, a shrub from the Amazon region, have been used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, malaria, and gastrointestinal and liver disorders. The essential oil from the leaves, rich in linalool, presented antileishmanial and antimicrobial activities. A chemotype of this species was found with an essential oil rich in 7-hydroxycalamenene. During our studies of the C. cajucara essential oil, we isolated 7-hydroxycalamenene at > 98 % purity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of 7-hydroxycalamenene against Absidia cylindrospora, Cunninghamella elegans, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides, Mucor mucedo, Mucor plumbeus, Mucor ramosissimus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum ranged from 19.53 to 2500 µg/mL. The reference drug used, amphotericin B, presented a minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 0.085 µg/mL to 43.87 µg/mL. 7-Hydroxycalamenene also altered spore differentiation and total lipid content. Ultrastructural analysis by transmission electron microscopy showed significant alterations in the cellular structure of R. oryzae.

  20. Chemical composition and efficacy of dichloromethane extract of Croton sphaerogynus Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Righi, Adne A; Motta, Lucimar B; Klafke, Guilherme M; Pohl, Paula C; Furlan, Cláudia M; Santos, Deborah Y A C; Salatino, Maria L F; Negri, Giuseppina; Labruna, Marcelo B; Salatino, Antonio

    2013-02-18

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, causing high economic impact on cattle production. The control of tick infestations is regarded worldwide as critical and has been based on the use of organophosphates, synthetic pyretroids, amitraz and recently ivermectin and fipronil. The present study reports the analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the constituents of leaf extracts of Croton sphaerogynus and results of acaricidal activity against the cattle tick R. microplus. The larval package test using the serial dilutions 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0% and 20.0% (v/v) gave mortality rates 2.25%, 8.26%, 8.81%, 24.80%, 83.66% and 99.32%, respectively. Relevant constituents identified were abietanes, podocarpenes and clerodane type furano diterpenes. The present work may represent a possibility of attainment of natural substances useful for the control of R. microplus. PMID:23200750

  1. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.; Velmurugan, S.; Elumalai, K.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  2. Molecular cloning and catalytic activity of a membrane-bound prenyl diphosphate phosphatase from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Nualkaew, Natsajee; Guennewich, Nils; Springob, Karin; Klamrak, Anuwatchakit; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Kutchan, Toni M

    2013-07-01

    Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a bioactive acyclic diterpene with apoptotic induction activity, is the immediate precursor of the commercial anti-peptic, plaunotol (18-hydroxy geranylgeraniol), which is found in Croton stellatopilosus (Ohba). From this plant, a cDNA encoding a prenyl diphosphate phosphatase (CsPDP), which catalyses the dephosphorylation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) to GGOH, was isolated using a PCR approach. The full-length cDNA contained 888bp and encoded a 33.6 kDa protein (295 amino acids) that was phylogenetically grouped into the phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme family. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 6 hydrophobic transmembrane regions with 57-85% homology to the sequences of other plant PAPs. The recombinant CsPDP and its 4 truncated constructs exhibited decreasing dephosphorylation activities relative to the lengths of the N-terminal deletions. While the full-length CsPDP successfully performed the two sequential monodephosphorylation steps on GGPP to form GGOH, the larger N-terminal deletion in the truncated enzymes appeared to specifically decrease the catalytic efficiency of the second monodephosphorylation step. The information presented here on the CsPDP cDNA and factors affecting the dephosphorylation activity of its recombinant protein may eventually lead to the discovery of the specific GGPP phosphatase gene and enzyme that are involved in the formation of GGOH in the biosynthetic pathway of plaunotol in C. stellatopilosus.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Croton sparsiflorus morong leaf extract and their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Kathiravan, V; Ravi, S; Ashokkumar, S; Velmurugan, S; Elumalai, K; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad

    2015-03-15

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. Especially, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) synthesized by the leaf extract lead the biological activity. In the present work, the synthesized Ag NPs by using the leaf extract of Croton sparsiflorus morong Ag NPs were characterized by using UV-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) along with Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) Spectroscopy and Fourier Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy, respectively. UV-Vis peak at 457 nm confirmed the Ag NPs due to the absorption. Cubic structural analysis and 16 nm particle size of the Ag NPs were calculated by using XRD analysis. The surface morphology along with the presence of Ag NPs was identified by using FE-SEM and EDX, respectively. The FT-IR study revealed with the functional groups of the Ag NPs. Finally, the present research has been explored to exhibit the significant antimicrobial activities.

  4. Croton argenteus preparation inhibits initial growth, mitochondrial respiration and increase the oxidative stress from Senna occidentalis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Rech, Katlin S; Silva, Cristiane B; Kulik, Juliana D; Dias, Josiane F G; Zanin, Sandra M W; Kerber, Vitor A; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Dalarmi, Luciane; Santos, Gedir O; Simionatto, Euclésio; Lima, Cristina P; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Miguel, Marilis D

    2015-01-01

    Senna ocidentalis is a weed, native to Brazil, considered to infest crops and plantations, and is responsible for yield losses of several crops, particularly soybean. The aim of this work was to evaluate if the Croton argenteus extract and fractions possess phytotoxic activity on S. ocidentalis. The crude ethanolic extract (CEE) and its hexanic (HF), chloroformic (CLF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were tested in germination, growth, oxidative stress increase, Adenosine triphosphate, L-malate and succinate synthesis. The crude extract and its fractions slowed down the germination of S. ocidentalis and decreased the final percentage of germination. Oxidative stress was also increased in the seedlings, by an increase of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation; and it became clear that the ethyl acetate fraction was more phytotoxic. The results indicate that the crude extract and fractions of C. argenteus compromise the mitochondrial energy metabolism, by the inhibition of mitochondrial ATP production, with a decrease in the production of L-malate and succinate. The ethyl acetate fraction of C. argenteus showed high activity on germination and growth, and these effects take place by means of mitochondrial metabolism alterations and increase the oxidative stress, leading the seedling death.

  5. Water Residence Times and Their Relation to Soil and Aquifer Properties and Degree of Urbanization (Croton Water Supply Area, NY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D.; Kendall, C.; McDonnell, J.

    2002-05-01

    Water residence times were determined in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1 km2 drainage area) have different amounts of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on roads and slow flow through subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wetlands, hillslopes) . Measurements of the Oxygen-18 content of throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were performed bi-weekly over a period of 2 years. Mean water residence times of the stream water, soil water and groundwater were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes. There are small but significant differences in the isotopic content of waters in each watershed, along with soil and aquifer properties as a function of the level of urbanization. Longer groundwater residence times (up to more than 2 years) were estimated in wetland zones without direct communication with streams in comparison to hillslope areas (up to more than 1 year). In highly urbanized areas, mixing of natural runoff generation processes with urbanization effects such as the influence of septic plumes results in a complex spectrum of residence times in soil waters and groundwaters. We illustrate the possibilities of using stable isotope measurements to describe small-scale complex runoff generation processes in watersheds.

  6. Effects of Sangre de Drago from Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg. on the production of active oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, C; Witting Schaus, F; Coussio, J; Cicca, G

    1997-10-01

    The total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) of 'Sangre de Drago' from Croton lechleri (Euphorbiaceae) was determined by monitoring the intensity of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence enhanced by peroxyl radicals derived from thermolysis of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane). The TRAP index was calculated as 935.4 +/- 141 microM, measured as equivalents of Trolox concentration. On the other hand, the additive incorporation of lower concentrations yielded an instantaneous increase in chemiluminescence, suggesting a prooxidant activity at these levels. DNA sugar damage induced by Fe(II) salts was also used to determine the capacity of the latex to suppress hydroxyl radical-mediated degradation of DNA. As in the case of luminol enhanced chemiluminescence, Sangre de Drago was highly effective in reducing oxidation of DNA at higher concentrations, but showed an increase in the production of TBARS at lower doses, as compared to the control. Finally, antioxidant activity was tested using hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence in rat liver homogenates, and the latex showed an increase in light emission, suggesting the presence of prooxidant compounds.

  7. Identification of minor secondary metabolites from the latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and evaluation of their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    De Marino, Simona; Gala, Fulvio; Zollo, Franco; Vitalini, Sara; Fico, Gelsomina; Visioli, Francesco; Iorizzi, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Dragon's blood (Sangre de drago), a viscous red sap derived from Croton lechleri Muell-Arg (Euphorbiaceae), is extensively used by indigenous cultures of the Amazonian basin for its wound healing properties. The aim of this study was to identify the minor secondary metabolites and test the antioxidant activity of this sustance. A bioguided fractionation of the n-hexane, chloroform, n-butanol, and aqueous extracts led to the isolation of 15 compounds: three megastigmanes, four flavan-3-ols, three phenylpropanoids, three lignans, a clerodane, and the alkaloid taspine. In addition to these known molecules, six compounds were isolated and identified for the first time in the latex: blumenol B, blumenol C, 4,5-dihydroblumenol A, erythro-guaiacyl-glyceryl-beta-O-4'- dihydroconiferyl ether, 2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2-methoxyphenoxy]-propane-1,3-diol and floribundic acid glucoside. Combinations of spectroscopic methods ((1)H-, (13)C- NMR and 2D-NMR experiments), ESI-MS, and literature comparisons were used for compound identification. In vitro antioxidant activities were assessed by DPPH, total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation assays. Flavan-3-ols derivatives (as major phenolic compounds in the latex) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.

  8. Experimental defoliation affects male but not female reproductive performance of the tropical monoecious plant Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Narbona, Eduardo; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Monoecious plants have the capacity to allocate resources separately to male and female functions more easily than hermaphrodites. This can be advantageous against environmental stresses such as leaf herbivory. However, studies showing effects of herbivory on male and female functions and on the interaction with the plant's pollinators are limited, particularly in tropical plants. Here, the effects of experimental defoliation were examined in the monoecious shrub Croton suberosus (Euphorbiaceae), a wasp-pollinated species from a Mexican tropical dry forest. Methods Three defoliation treatments were applied: 0 % (control), 25 % (low) or 75 % (high) of plant leaf area removed. Vegetative (production of new leaves) and reproductive (pistillate and staminate flower production, pollen viability, nectar production, fruit set, and seed set) performance variables, and the abundance and activity of floral visitors were examined. Key Results Defoliated plants overcompensated for tissue loss by producing more new leaves than control plants. Production of staminate flowers gradually decreased with increasing defoliation and the floral sex ratio (staminate : pistillate flowers) was drastically reduced in high-defoliation plants. In contrast, female reproductive performance (pistillate flower production, fruit set and seed set) and pollinator visitation and abundance were not impacted by defoliation. Conclusions The asymmetrical effects of defoliation on male and female traits of C. suberosus may be due to the temporal and spatial flexibility in the allocation of resources deployed by monoecious plants. We posit that this helps to maintain the plant's pollination success in the face of leaf herbivory stress. PMID:20519239

  9. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Havt, Alexandre; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as "quebra-faca" and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, "quebra-faca" use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  10. DOC, Color and Disinfection By-Product Precursor Dynamics along an Urbanization Gradient, Croton Water Supply System, New York, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassett, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Burns, D. A.; Heisig, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Hydrologic processes in suburban watersheds and their effects on water quality warrant investigation. Biweekly and storm samples were collected and analyzed for base cations, selected anions, and DOC over a one-year period at the outlet of three small (37 - 55 ha) watersheds (one forested, two with different degrees of suburban development) in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York. Less frequent sampling for Pt/Co color and disinfection by-product precursors (DBPs) were also conducted. Median baseflow concentrations (>3 days since rainfall) of DOC were similar, ranging from 2.1 to 1.8 to 1.7 mg L -1 for the most urbanized to the forested watershed, respectively. On a unit area load basis (kg ha-1 yr-1), the range was from 8.9 to 6.4 to 5.1, again from most urbanized to forested watershed. All three watersheds showed similar storm responses, with evidence for a flushing mechanism in that DOC concentration increased with increasing discharge. Pt/Co color and DBPs (determined as both total trihalomethane and total haloacetic acid formation potentials) showed similar storm behavior, although the range of response was greater than observed for DOC, suggesting a labile DOC fraction was mobilized during storm events. The more urbanized watersheds tended to favor brominated over chlorinated forms of DBPs; the reasons for this are unclear.

  11. Antinociceptive Effect of the Essential Oil Obtained from the Leaves of Croton cordiifolius Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Lenise de Morais; da Silva, Monalisa Ribeiro; dos Santos, Simone Maria; de Albuquerque, Julianna Ferreira Cavalcanti; Ferraz, Igor Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Thaíse Torres; Mota, Carlos Renato França de Carvalho; Araújo, Renata Mendonça; Viana, Glauce Socorro de Barros; Martins, René Duarte; Ximenes, Rafael Matos

    2015-01-01

    Croton cordiifolius Baill. is a shrub known as “quebra-faca” and is used to treat inflammation, pain, wounds, and gastrointestinal disturbances in the semiarid region in the northeast of Brazil. In an ethnobotanical survey in the state of Pernambuco, “quebra-faca” use was cited in 33% of the interviews. Thus, we decided to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil from C. cordiifolius (CcEO). Chemical analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 1,8-cineole (25.09%) and α-phellandrene (15.43%) as major constituents. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using murine models of chemically induced pain (writhing induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, and glutamate tests). Opioid and central nervous systems (CNS) involvement were also investigated. Regarding antinociceptive activity, CcEO (50 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the number of writhing responses induced by acetic acid and decreased the licking times in both phases of the formalin test. CcEO also was evaluated in capsaicin- and glutamate-induced nociception. While no effect was observed in the capsaicin test, CcEO (100 mg/kg) was effective in the glutamate test. Naloxone, an opioid antagonist, did not affect the antinociceptive activity of CcEO in writhing test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive effect of CcEO could be explained, at least in part, by inhibition of the glutamatergic system. PMID:25821494

  12. Assessment of the Polyphenolic Content, Free Radical Scavenging, Anti-inflammatory, and Antimicrobial Activities of Acetone and Aqueous Extracts of Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Asowata-Ayodele, Abiola M.; Otunola, Gloria A.; Afolayan, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lippia javanica (Burm.F.) Spreng is one of the spice plants commonly found in almost every part of South Africa. Apart from its culinary uses, it is also traditionally used as an insect repellant and infusion for fever, flu, kidney stone treatment, cough, common cold, and chest pain. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts were determined by measuring their effects against 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2’azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), nitric oxide, phosphomolybdate, lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing power. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against four bacterial (two Gram-positive, two Gram-negative) strains and 9 fungal pathogens using the agar well diffusion and microdilution methods. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by determining the inhibition against protein denaturation and membrane stabilizing effects. Objective: The polyphenolic content, free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of the aqueous and acetone extracts of the plant were evaluated. Results: A significantly high total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activities were observed in the acetone extracts of the plants. The study also revealed a concentration-dependent inhibition of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization effects by both the aqueous and acetone extracts at the concentrations studied. The ability of L. javanica extracts to inhibit protein denaturation and maintain membrane stability could be responsible for its folkloric use. The overall antimicrobial activity indicates that both extracts were active against the bacterial strains but the acetone extract exhibited the most potent antifungal activity higher than even the reference drugs. Conclusion: Overall, the acetone extract of L. javanica exhibited a more pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects than the aqueous extract. SUMMARY The

  13. The Plio-Pleistocene evolution of the Crotone Basin (southern Italy): Interplay between sedimentation, tectonics and eustasy in the frame of Calabrian Arc migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Civile, Dario; Critelli, Salvatore; Di Stefano, Agata; Maniscalco, Rosanna; Muto, Francesco; Sturiale, Giovanni; Roda, Cesare

    2012-12-01

    The Crotone Basin is the exposed part of a larger Neogene forearc basin developed in the Ionian Sea in the frame of the SE-ward migration of the Calabrian Arc, which led to the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere and the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin (central Mediterranean). Taking into account the geologic context that accompanied its accumulation, the Plio-Pleistocene part of the Crotone Basin succession is exceptionally well preserved, and consists of a suite of continental, paralic, shallow-marine and deep-marine deposits organized to form unconformity bounded stratal units that in turn compose two main tectono-stratigraphic cycles. The unconformities separating these units are well recognizable along the basin margin and tend to vanish basinwards, and they record phases of basin reorganization linked to large-scale tectonics. In particular, the basin evolution was characterized by a cyclic pattern consisting of an alternation between longer subsidence phases, that favored the accumulation of stratal units, and uplift phases that led to base-level falls and the generation of unconformities. These phases were strictly related to an alternation between active subduction of the Ionian lithosphere below the Calabrian Arc, accompanied by the spreading of the Tyrrhenian back-arc Basin and by extension and subsidence in the forearc basin, and regional-scale compressional and transpressional events, during which the Arc migration temporarily stopped. The younger uplift of the basin, started during middle Pleistocene and still active, was characterized by extensional tectonics, and its interplay with glacio-eustasy controlled the formation of marine terraces. Since the Plio-Pleistocene tectonic episodes affecting the Calabrian Arc during its SE-ward migration seem to be all recorded in the Crotone Basin, the recognition of their effects on the basin fill and their time constraint become both critical, representing a reference to develop a clearer picture

  14. Unprecedented 1,14-seco-crotofolanes from Croton insularis: oxidative cleavage of crotofolin C by a putative homo-Baeyer-Villiger rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Maslovskaya, Lidiya A; Savchenko, Andrei I; Pierce, Carly J; Gordon, Victoria A; Reddell, Paul W; Parsons, Peter G; Williams, Craig M

    2014-10-27

    EBC-162 isolated from Croton insularis, obtained from the northern rainforest of Australia, was structurally affirmed as crotofolin C (4). Novel oxidative degradation products, EBC-233 and EBC-300, which are the first crotofolane endoperoxides, were also isolated. Both endoperoxides were found to be stable intermediates, which are proposed to undergo an unprecedented homo-Baeyer-Villiger biosynthetic rearrangement to give a new class of 1,14-seco-crotofolane diterpenes. Prolonged storage of all isolates assisted in authenticating their natural product status. Anticancer activities of reported compounds are presented.

  15. Alienusolin, a new 4α-deoxyphorbol ester derivative, and crotonimide C, a new glutarimide alkaloid from the Kenyan Croton alienus.

    PubMed

    Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Wanjohi, John M; Midiwo, Jacob O; Kerubo, Leonidah O

    2013-12-01

    Two novel compounds, alienusolin, a 4α-deoxyphorbol ester (1), crotonimide C, a glutarimide alkaloid derivative (2), and ten known compounds, julocrotine (3), crotepoxide (4), monodeacetyl crotepoxide (5), dideacetylcrotepoxide, (6), β-senepoxide (7), α-senepoxide (8), (+)-(2S,3R-diacetoxy-1-benzoyloxymethylenecyclohex-4,6-diene (9), benzyl benzoate (10), acetyl aleuritolic (11), and 24-ethylcholesta-4,22-dien-3-one (12) were isolated from the Kenyan Croton alienus. The structures of the compounds were determined using NMR, GCMS, and HRESIMS studies.

  16. Crotocascarins I-K: Crotofolane-Type Diterpenoids, Crotocascarin γ, Isocrotofolane Glucoside and Phenolic Glycoside from the Leaves of Croton cascarilloides.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Susumu; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Hideaki; Inagaki, Masanori; Takeda, Yoshio; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    From the 1-BuOH-soluble fraction of a methanol (MeOH) extract of the leaves of Croton cascarilloides, crotofolanes: crotocascarins I-K, nor-crotofolane: crotocascarin γ, isocrotofolane glucoside and phenolic glycoside were isolated by a combination of various separation techniques. Their structures were elucidated mainly from the NMR spectroscopic evidence. The structure of crotocascarin K was first elucidated by spectroscopic analysis and then was confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Its absolute structure was finally determined by the modified Mosher's method. Isocrotofolane glucoside was found to possess a new skeleton, however, its absolute structure remains to be determined.

  17. Field and experimental evidence for coseismic ruptures along shallow creeping faults in forearc sediments of the Crotone Basin, South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, Fabrizio; Aldega, Luca; De Paola, Nicola; Faoro, Igor; Storti, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Large seismic slip occurring along shallow creeping faults in tectonically active areas represents an unsolved paradox, which is largely due to our poor understanding of the mechanics governing creeping faults, and to the lack of documented geological evidence showing how coseismic rupturing overprints creep in near-surface conditions. In this contribution we integrate field, petrophysical, mineralogical and friction data to characterize the signature of coseismic ruptures propagating along shallow creeping faults affecting unconsolidated forearc sediments of the seismically active Crotone Basin, in South Italy. Field observations of fault zones show widespread foliated cataclasites in fault cores, locally overprinted by sharp slip surfaces decorated by thin (0.5-1.5 cm) black gouge layers. Compared to foliated cataclasites, black gouges have much lower grain size, porosity and permeability, which may have facilitated slip weakening by thermal fluid pressurization. Moreover, black gouges are characterized by distinct mineralogical assemblages compatible with high temperatures (180-200°C) due to frictional heating during seismic slip. Foliated cataclasites and black gouges were also produced by laboratory friction experiments performed on host sediments at sub-seismic (≤ 0.1 m/s) and seismic (1 m/s) slip rates, respectively. Black gouges display low friction coefficients (0.3) and velocity-weakening behaviours, as opposed to high friction coefficients (0.65) and velocity-strengthening behaviours shown by the foliated cataclasites. Our results show that narrow black gouges developed within foliated cataclasites represent a potential diagnostic marker for episodic seismic activity in shallow creeping faults. These findings can help understanding the time-space partitioning between aseismic and seismic slip of faults at shallow crustal levels, impacting on seismic hazard evaluation of subduction zones and forearc regions affected by destructive earthquakes and

  18. Toxicological evaluation of essential oil from the leaves of Croton tetradenius (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti and Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karine da Silva; E Silva, Sandra Lúcia da Cunha; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; Gualberto, Simone Andrade; da Cruz, Rômulo Carlos Dantas; Dos Santos, Frances Regiane; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2016-09-01

    For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg kg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50 = 0.152 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 0.297 mg mL(-1)) and on adults (LC50 = 1.842 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 3.156 mg mL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24 h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49 %) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50 = 200 mg kg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50 = 500 mg kg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study. PMID:27169864

  19. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract

    PubMed Central

    Asare, George Awuku; Afriyie, Daniel; Ngala, Robert A.; Appiah, Alfred A.; Anang, Yvonne; Musah, Iddi; Adjei, Samuel; Bamfo-Quaicoe, Kwabena; Sule, Derick; Gyan, Ben A.; Arhin, Peter; Edoh, Dominic A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients' results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved (P = 0.001). Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL (P = 0.002); fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL (P = 0.045); and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  (P = 0.023). C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. PMID:26106434

  20. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of essential oil from the leaves of Croton tetradenius (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti and Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karine da Silva; E Silva, Sandra Lúcia da Cunha; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; Gualberto, Simone Andrade; da Cruz, Rômulo Carlos Dantas; Dos Santos, Frances Regiane; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2016-09-01

    For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg kg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50 = 0.152 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 0.297 mg mL(-1)) and on adults (LC50 = 1.842 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 3.156 mg mL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24 h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49 %) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50 = 200 mg kg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50 = 500 mg kg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study.

  2. Mitochondria-dependent apoptogenic activity of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus against human BPH-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Lin, J; Peng, J; Hong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) is among the widely used phytotherapeutics in Ghana for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of action of CMARE remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish whether apoptosis is involved in the antiproliferative effect of CMARE on human BPH-1 cells. We determined the effect of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/mL CMARE for 24, 48, and 72 h on the viability and morphology of BPH-1 cells using the MMT assay and phase-contrast microscopy, respectively. We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of CMARE after 48 h at the cellular level using Hoescht 33258 and JC-1 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to confirm the apoptotic effects of CMARE at the molecular level. CMARE induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in the proliferation of BPH-1 cells (P < 0.05) and an alteration in their morphology and a reduction their density. Furthermore, CMARE induced dose-dependent staining of the nuclear chromatin, significant DNA fragmentation with G₀/G₁ sub-diploid cells (P < 0.01), and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cells compared to the controls after 48 h (P < 0.01). Additionally, while CMARE induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, those of Bcl2 did not change significantly. Therefore, induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of BPH-1 cells may be a possible mechanism of action of CMARE.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  4. Attenuation of DMBA/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma by Apodytes dimidiata mediated by its antioxidant and antimutagenic potential.

    PubMed

    Divya, Menon K; Salini, Sasidharan; Meera, Nair; Lincy, Lawrence; Seema, Menon; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C; Babu, Thekkekara D

    2016-09-01

    Context Considering the role of cellular oxidative stress in mutations and subsequent transformation, phytochemicals with antioxidant potential has become a primary choice as chemopreventives. Apodytes dimidiata E. Mey. Ex. Arn (Icacinaceae), a widely used plant in Zulu traditional medicine, is reported to possess antioxidant activity. Objective To investigate the chemopreventive efficacy of methanol extract of A. dimidiata leaf (AMF). Materials and methods Antimutagenic potential of AMF (25, 50 and 75 μg/plate) was evaluated by the Ames test. The ability of AMF (100 and 250 mg/kg orally) on restoration of depleted antioxidant status by sodium fluoride (NaF) was analysed on BALB/c mice. 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene/croton oil induced mouse skin papilloma model was studied up to 20 weeks to analyse the anticarcinogenic effect of AMF (1%, 3% and 5% topically, twice weekly for 6 weeks). Phytochemicals of AMF were characterized by GC-MS. Results AMF (75 μg/plate) reverted 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NPDA) induced mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains, TA 98, 100 and 102 by 74.8%, 72.5% and 69.3%, respectively. Against sodium azide, the percentage reversion was 80.4, 71.3 and 71.3. In mice, AMF (250 mg/kg for 4 days) increased the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities by 48.71% and 30.3% against the NaF-induced drop. GSH level was improved by 48.59% with a concomitant decrease in TBARS (57.67%). The skin papilloma reduction was 79.32% for 5% AMF. Squalene, dodecanoic, tetradecanoic and hexadecanoic acids are the known antioxidant and chemopreventive molecules identified by GC-MS. Discussion and conclusion Antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of AMF might have contributed to its anticarcinogenic potential. PMID:26878464

  5. Anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials of Croton membranaceus observed during sub-chronic toxicity studies

    PubMed Central

    Afriyie, Dan K.; Asare, George A.; Bugyei, Kwasi; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac; Gyan, Ben A.; Adjei, Samuel; Addo, Phyllis; Sittie, Archibald; Nyarko, Alexander K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Croton membranaceus (CM) is used for benign prostate hyperplasia treatment. Objective: Sub-chronic toxicity studies are non-existent and provided the basis for this study. Materials and Methods: 90 days oral administration of a low dose (LD) (30 mg/kg b. wt.), medium dose (MD) (150 mg/kg b. wt.), and high dose (HD) (300 mg/kg b. wt.) CM aqueous root extract to 3 groups (n=6 each) of male Sprague-Dawley rats, alongside a control group, was undertaken. Urinalysis, hepato-renal function tests, lipid profile, cardiac enzymes, and routine hematology tests were performed. Results: Triglyceride levels (C=1.05±0.19, LD=0.64±0.08, MD=0.55±0.04, HD=0.50±0.02 mmol/L) were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Very low density lipoprotein (C=0.48±0.09, LD=0.29±0.04, MD=0.25±0.02, HD=0.23±0.01 mmol/L) decreased significantly (P<0.05). Cardiac enzymes-creatinine kinase (C=568±172, LD=315±79, MD=441±209, HD=286±81 IU/L) decreased markedly (P<0.05) alongside lactate dehydrogenase (C=2675±875, LD=1667±1229, MD=1186±442, HD=855±239 IU/L) (P<0.05). Conclusion: C. membranaceus aqueous root extract is non-toxic but demonstrates anti-atherogenic and anti-ischemic potentials. PMID:23598919

  6. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  7. Topical application of Gallic acid suppresses the 7,12-DMBA/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis by modulating anti-oxidants and MMP-2/MMP-9 in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vimala; Venkatesan, Balaji; Tumala, Anusha; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-04-01

    Gallic acid (GA - 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid), a dietary anti-oxidant has been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro. Herein, we investigated the in vivo chemo preventive activity of GA on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/Croton oil induced two-step skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the 16 weeks of experimental period. In addition, LDH-isozyme shift, skin collagen content, activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/MMP-9) enzymes and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant were studied in the skin and serum of experimental mice. Tumor incidence was significantly increased in the DMBA/Croton oil induced mice (100%; p<0.001) when compared to GA co-treated mice (60%; p<0.01) and 5-FU treated mice (50%; p<0.01). Skin collagen content, MMPs activities, LDH-isoenzymes and MMP-2/-9 expressions were increased in DMBA/Croton oil induced skin while decreased levels of enzymatic (GST, SOD, CAT & GPx) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant (GSH) were noticed. On the other hand, GA co-treatment exhibited a significant protection by reverting back the altered levels of LDH-isoenzymes, antioxidants, collagen and MMP-2/MMP-9 activities. The results of this study indicate that topical application of GA inhibits DMBA/Croton oil induced two-stage skin carcinogenic process by modulating the antioxidants and MMPs (-2 & -9) in the mouse skin.

  8. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P.; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-01-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  9. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-02-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder. PMID:24427514

  10. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  11. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude root and fruit extracts of Croton macrostachyus (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Laychiluh Bantie

    2015-07-01

    Euphorbiaceae (Croton macrostachyus H.; bā dòu) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria, gonorrhea, diabetes, wounds, fungal infections, and helminths. No scientific investigations have been performed to substantiate these claims. This study aimed to investigate the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract of the fruit and the root of Croton macrostachyus H. in a rodent model of malaria. The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei was used to inoculate healthy 8-week-old male Swiss albino mice weighing 23-27 g. Each of the hydroalcoholic crude extracts (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg, and 600 mg/kg) were administered to different groups of mice. The parameters of parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were determined using Peter's test and Rane's test. Both extracts significantly inhibited parasitemia and increased survival time in infected mice. Maximum suppression and prolongation were obtained at the highest doses used in the study. The crude extracts prevented loss of weight and temperature, but did not affect the packed cell volume. This study suggests that the root and fruit extracts of the plant both have promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei in a dose-dependent manner, which supports the folkloric use of the plant for treating malaria.

  12. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA/croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-κB, MMPs, and infiltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vimala; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) are implicated as a vital regulator of cancer cell growth and tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANP opposes the cancer growth in in-vivo remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ANP on 7, 12-dimethyl benzanthracence (DMBA)/Croton oil- induced two-step skin carcinogenic mouse model. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the experimental period of 16 weeks. ANP (1 μg/kg body weight/alternate days for 4 weeks) was injected subcutaneously from the 13th week of DMBA/Croton oil induction. ANP treatment markedly inhibited the skin tumor growth (P<0.001). A significant reduction in the level of NF-κB activation (P<0.001), infiltrating mast cell count (P<0.01) and MMP-2/-9 (P<0.001, respectively) were noticed in the ANP treated mice skin tissue. Further, ANP treatment revert back the altered levels of serum LDH-4, C-reactive protein (CRP), and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and CAT activities) to near normal level. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ANP opposes the skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the inflammatory response and MMPs.

  13. Croton megalocarpus oil-fired micro-trigeneration prototype for remote and self-contained applications: experimental assessment of its performance and gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dawei; Roskilly, Anthony P; Yu, Hongdong

    2013-02-01

    According to the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook 2011, 60 per cent of the population in Africa, some 587 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, lacked access to electricity in 2009. We developed a 6.5 kWe micro-trigeneration prototype, on the basis of internal combustion engine with pure Croton megalocarpus oil (CMO) fuelling, which configures a distributed energy system to generate power, heating and cooling from a single sustainable fuel source for remote users. Croton megalocarpus is an indigenous tree in East and South Africa which has recently attracted lots of interests as a biofuel source because of its high oil-yield rate. The direct and local use of CMO, instead of CMO biodiesel converted by the transesterification process, minimizes the carbon footprints left behind because of the simple fuel production of CMO. The experimental assessment proves that the prototype fuelled with CMO achieves similar efficiency as with diesel. Also, with the elevation of the oil injection temperature, the gaseous and particulate emissions of CMO could be ameliorated to some extent as improvement of the atomization in the spray and the combustion in the engine cylinder.

  14. The inhibitory effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on gastrointestinal transit during croton oil-induced intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Pol, O.; Valle, L.; Ferrer, I.; Puig, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The peripheral effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists were investigated in a model of intestinal inflammation induced by intragastric administration of croton oil (CO). Our hypothesis was that inflammation would 'sensitize' adrenoceptors in peripheral and/or central terminals of myenteric and submucous plexus neurones, and enhance systemic effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. 2. Male swiss CD-1 mice, received intragastrically CO (0.05 ml), castor oil (CA, 0.1 ml) or saline (SS) 3 h before the study: gastrointestinal transit (GIT) was evaluated 20 min afterwards with a charcoal meal. The presence of inflammation was assessed by electron microscopy. 3. The intragastric administration of CA or CO caused an increase in GIT and weight loss, but only CO induced an inflammatory response. Both clonidine (imidazoline1/alpha(2)-agonist) and UK-14304 (alpha(2)-agonist) produced dose-related inhibitions of GIT in all groups. During inflammatory diarrhoea (CO), potencies of systemic (s.c.) clonidine and UK-14304 were significantly increased 3.5 and 2.1 times, respectively, while potencies remained unaltered in the presence of diarrhoea without inflammation (CA). The effects were reversed by administration (s.c.) of receptor-specific adrenoceptor antagonists, but not by naloxone. 4. Clonidine was 8.3 (SS) and 2.8 (CO) times more potent when administered intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.), than when administered s.c. Inflammation of the gut did not alter the potency of i.c.v. clonidine, demonstrating that enhanced effects of s.c. clonidine are mediated by peripheral receptors. During inflammation, i.c.v. efaroxan did not antagonize low doses of s.c. clonidine (ED20 and ED50S), but partially reversed ED80S, further supporting the peripheral effects of the agonists in CO treated animals. 5. The results demonstrate that inflammation of the gut enhances the potency of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists by a peripheral mechanism. The results also suggest that the inflammatory

  15. Protective effect of Croton caudatus Geisel leaf extract against experimental visceral leishmaniasis induces proinflammatory cytokines in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dey, Somaditya; Mukherjee, Debarati; Chakraborty, Sondipon; Mallick, Suvadip; Dutta, Aritri; Ghosh, Joydip; Swapana, Ningombam; Maiti, Swatilekha; Ghorai, Narayan; Singh, Chingakham Brajakishor; Pal, Chiranjib

    2015-01-01

    In the present state of overwhelming emergence of drug-unresponsive phenotypes of Leishmania donovani and persistent severe toxicity in conventional anti-leishmanial therapy, in search for novel leads, the aim of this study has been fixed to identify the active extract(s) of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook effective against the parasitic protozoans in vitro and in vivo. C. caudatus Geisel. is often used by Chakma and Hmar community, the local tribes of north-east India for medicinal and veterinary purposes. Among the five semi-purified extracts tested, C. caudatus leaves, extracted in hexane and subsequently semi-purified in a column packed with silica gel (70-130 µM; mesh size 60 A°) using ethyl acetate-hexane solvent (9:1), was found to be the most effective growth inhibitor (JDHex) against the Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes. JDHex significantly altered the biochemical parameters (protein, lipid and carbohydrates) in promastigotes followed by the morphological changes, DNA condensation and subsequent apoptosis in L. donovani. In consequent steps, it has been also proved that JDHex reduced the replication of intracellular amastigotes with concomitant release of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α in vitro. Significantly, the 50% inhibitory concentration of JDHex was estimated much lower against the intracellular amastigotes (2.5 µg/mL) in comparison to promastigotes (10 µg/mL). JDHex was also found efficient in reducing parasite burden in spleen and liver when treated in vivo and increased the intracellular IFN-γ and decreased the IL-10 in CD4+ T cells in splenocytes of orally treated animals. The results of this study support the importance in exploration of novel anti-leishmanial leads from C. caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. against the L. donovani (MHOM/IN/83/AG83) infection. Partial chemical characterization of JDHex revealed the presence of terpenoids. However, the further chemical

  16. Identification and modulatory activity assessment of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone isolated from croton anisodontus müll. Arg.(euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria T A; Teixeira, Alexandre M R; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Sena, Diniz M; Santos, Hélcio S; de Mesquita, Bruna M; Albuquerque, Maria R J R; Bandeira, Paulo N; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2014-05-01

    The n-hexane extract of the stem bark of Croton anisodontus yielded 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone, a well-known substance, but isolated from this species for the first time. The antimicrobial and modulatory activities of the compound towards Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, C. krusei and C. tropicalis strains were assessed. Antibiotics such as amikacin, gentamicin and neomycin were used in a sub-inhibitory concentration. Significant activity was observed towards P. aeruginosa and S. aureus 358, with p < 0.001 in association with amikacin. The present results place C anisodontus as an alternative source of 2-hydroxy-3,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone with antibacterial potential.

  17. Identification of (−)(E)-N-[2(S)-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl]ferulamide, a Natural Product Isolated from Croton Pullei: Theoretical and Experimental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Silvana de O.; Peixoto, Rosana N.S.; Silva, José Rogério A.; Alves, Cláudio N.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Brasil, Davi do S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) and its derivatives (FADs) are known for a variety of biological activities, such as photo-protective agent, antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antiplasmodial activities. During structural definition of a FAD isolated from Croton pullei, the possibility of a heterologous series made this definition difficult. In this regard, computational simulations were performed using theoretical calculations at DFT level to predict Infrared (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data. The IR and NMR 13C and 1H data were compared with the theoretical calculations performed for three structural possibilities of a heterologous series. The theoretical results were compared with the experimental data through linear regression in order to define the most probable structure and showed satisfactory values. PMID:22272139

  18. Longitudinal Strain in the Forearc of a Rollback-Subduction System Forced to Change Length: Structural evolution of the Crotone Basin in NE Calabria, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, M. A.; Seeber, L.

    2009-12-01

    Calabria is a continental fragment incorporated into a forearc overriding the WNW directed subduction system. This system rolled back toward ESE across the central Mediterranean during the Neogene to form the Tyrrhenian Basin. Riding above the megathrust, forearcs seek a dynamic equilibrium between boundary stresses (drag below and lateral containments) with body stress (gravity acting on the shape of the forearc). Changes in boundary conditions are balanced by changes in the shape. The internal deformation history of the forearc, therefore, is expected to reflect changes in subduction tectonics during the evolution of the arc. We analyzed the structure of the Crotone Basin, located in northeastern Calabria, which is located in the exposed part of the forearc closest to the deformation front and to the Apennines. The main purpose was to compare the successive phases of deformation in the basin to the known evolution of the arc. We found four distinct events from the late Tortonian to the present. A widespread unconformity correlated with the onset of rollback marks a regional foundering with multidirectional normal growth faults. Following this pervasive and deeply rooted extension, the Crotone Basin experiences a period of parallel and distal sedimentation (Ponda clay). These sediments mark a relative long period (~5ma) of remarkable tectonic quiescence, even though subduction-rollback is moving the arc rapidly (3-5cm/yr) to the ESE. In addition, the forearc is shortening by progressive collision with Apulia (the Apennines) and Africa (the Maghrebides) during this time, but our study area is still far from the oblique collisions occurring at the ends of the forearc. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.3-6Ma) causes major instabilities in the accretion by loading it with evaporite deposits first and then removing the water load. Landward (westward) thrusting of the accretionary complex correlates with the Messinian in the Crotone basin and elsewhere along eastern

  19. In vivo antimalarial activity of the crude leaf extract and solvent fractions of Croton macrostachyus Hocsht. (Euphorbiaceae) against Plasmodium berghei in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The issue of resistance in malarial infection makes development of novel drugs a necessity. An alternative source for discovering such drugs is natural products. Croton macrostachyus H. (Euphorbiaceae) is used in Ethiopian folklore medicine for the treatment of malaria and found to possess antimalarial activity in vitro. However, no further scientific investigations have been carried out to substantiate the claim. This study therefore aimed at investigating the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of 80% methanol extract and solvent fractions of the leaves of Croton macrostachyus H. in rodent model of malaria. Methods A rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, was used to inoculate healthy male Swiss Albino mice of age 6–8 weeks and weight 23–27 g. A hydro-alcoholic crude extract and the solvent fractions (chloroform, methanol and aqueous) were administered at different doses 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg. Parameters, including parasitemia, survival time, body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume were then determined using standard tests such as Peter’s and Rane’s test. Results Chemoprotective effect exerted by the crude extract and fractions ranged between 44-91% and 12-76%, respectvely. The chemotherapeutic effect of the crude extract and chloroform fraction was in the range of 39-83% and 66-82%, respectively. Maximum effect in both tests was observed with the larger dose of the crude extract and chloroform fraction. The crude extract prevented loss of weight and reduction in temperature but did not affect packed cell volume. However, the chloroform fraction did also reverse reduction in packed cell volume due to the absence of saponins in the fraction. Conclusions The results collectively indicate that the plant has a promising antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei, which upholds the earlier in vitro findings as well as its folkloric use. Thus, it could be considred as a potential source to develop new antimalarial agents. PMID

  20. Composite sedimentary record of falling stages of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic cycles in a shelf setting (Crotone basin, south Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massari, F.; Sgavetti, M.; Rio, D.; D'Alessandro, A.; Prosser, G.

    1999-08-01

    A thick Pleistocene shelf and nearshore cyclical succession was deposited in the S. Mauro sub-basin of the Crotone basin (southern Italy). The regressive units of the cycles are mostly represented by coastal siliciclastic and bioclastic prograding wedges showing a clinoform geometry. These are separated by blanket-like deposits of high lateral persistence recording major transgressive episodes. The aim of this paper is (1) to describe facies patterns and depositional setting of two prograding wedges, particularly focussing on their polycyclic internal architecture, (2) to analyze these units within a sequence-stratigraphic framework, and (3) to speculate on the possible origin of the small-scale cyclicity. The two wedges analyzed in this paper consist of a number of shingles. Individual shingles consist of two physically connected units: (1) a relatively thin package of sigmoid clinoforms, grading into (2) a volumetrically dominant package of oblique-tangential clinoforms with toplap terminations. The shingles are bounded by seaward-dipping surfaces with sigmoid clinoform geometry, which are ravinement surfaces updip, passing into conformable flooding surfaces downdip. The wedges are thus organized into high-frequency, small-scale sequences, each comprising transgressive, highstand and falling-stage systems tracts. As a whole, individual prograding wedges are interpreted as forced-regressive units, as the shoreline was subject to an overall shift basinwards and downwards along a low-angle trajectory, in spite of the repeated minor relative sea-level rises. Tectonic subsidence, and particularly the syndepositional growth of gentle synclines, are thought to have been the key factors allowing the preservation of these forced-regressive units. Progradation of the wedges took place in a high-energy wave climate characterized by high frequency of storms and very efficient alongshore redistribution of sediments. Recurrent, storm-driven, offshore currents led to intense

  1. Near-infrared and ultraviolet induced isomerization of crotonic acid in N{sub 2} and Xe cryomatrices: First observation of two high-energy trans C–O conformers and mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Kuş, Nihal; Fausto, Rui

    2014-12-21

    E-crotonic acid was isolated in cryogenic solid N{sub 2} and xenon matrices, and subjected to Laser ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) irradiations. In the deposited matrices, the two low-energy cis C–O E-cc and E-ct conformers, which are the only forms significantly populated in the gas phase, were observed. UV irradiation (λ= 250 nm) of the compound in N{sub 2} matrix allows for experimental detection, not just of the two low-energy cis C–O isomers of Z-crotonic acid previously observed in the experiments carried out in argon matrix [Z-cc and Z-ct; R. Fausto, A. Kulbida, and O. Schrems, J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 91, 3755–3770 (1995)] but also of the never observed before high-energy forms of both E- and Z-crotonic acids bearing the carboxylic acid group in the trans arrangement (E-tc and Z-tc conformers). In turn, NIR irradiation experiments in the N{sub 2} matrix allow to produce the high-energy E-tc trans C–O conformer in a selective way, from the initially deposited E-cc form. The vibrational signatures of all the 6 rotameric structures of the crotonic acids experimentally observed, including those of the new trans C–O forms, were determined and the individual spectra fully assigned, also with support of theoretically obtained data. On the other hand, as found before for the compound isolated in argon matrix, the experiments performed in xenon matrix failed to experimental detection of the trans C–O forms. This demonstrates that in noble gas matrices these forms are not stable long enough to allow for their observation by steady state spectroscopy techniques. In these matrices, the trans C–O forms convert spontaneously into their cis C–O counterparts, by tunnelling. Some mechanistic details of the studied processes were extracted and discussed.

  2. Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants?

    PubMed

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, I R

    2011-01-01

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics. PMID:21952959

  3. Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C; Prendergast, Hew D V

    2004-02-01

    "Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.

  4. The epimer of kaurenoic acid from Croton antisyphiliticus is cytotoxic toward B-16 and HeLa tumor cells through apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, V C; Pereira, S I V; Coppede, J; Martins, J S; Rizo, W F; Beleboni, R O; Marins, M; Pereira, P S; Pereira, A M S; Fachin, A L

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has become the leading cause of death in developing countries due to increased life expectancy of the population and changes in lifestyle. Studies on active principles of plant have motivated researchers to develop new antitumor agents that are specific and effective for treatment of neoplasms. Kaurane diterpenes are considered important compounds in the development of new and highly effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agents due to their cytotoxic properties in the induction of apoptosis. We evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic activity of the epimer of kaurenoic acid (EKA) isolated from the medicinal plant Croton antisyphiliticus (Euphorbiaceae) toward tumor cell lines HeLa and B-16 and normal fibroblasts 3T3. Based on analyses with the MTT test, EKA showed cytotoxic activity, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 59.41, 68.18 and 60.30 µg/mL for the B-16, HeLa and 3T3 cell lines, respectively. The assay for necrotic or apoptotic cells by differential staining showed induction of apoptosis in all three cell lines. We conclude that EKA is not selective between tumor and normal cell lines; the mechanism of action of EKA is induction of apoptosis, which is part of the innate mechanism of cell defense against neoplasia.

  5. Radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis essential oils and their major constituents: estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maddalena; Mondin, Andrea; Chen, Zheng; Miranda, Fabricio Mendes; do Nascimento, Baraquizio Braga; Schirato, Giulia; Pastore, Paolo; Froldi, Guglielmina

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils (EOs) from the Brazilian species Croton zehntneri, Pterodon emarginatus and Schinopsis brasiliensis were examined for their chemical constituents, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The composition of EOs was determined by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry analysis, while the antioxidant activity was evaluated through the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (both Gram-negative), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) and Candida parapsilosis (fungus). The main components of C. zehntneri, P. emarginatus and S. brasiliensis were identified as estragole, trans-anethole, β-caryophyllene and myrcene. Among the EOs, P. emarginatus showed the highest antioxidant activity, with an IC50 of 7.36 mg/mL and a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 3748 μmol/g determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, respectively. All EOs showed low activities against the bacterial strains tested, whereas the C. zehntneri oil and its main constituent estragole exhibited an appreciable antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis.

  6. Characterisation of the Poly-(Vinylpyrrolidone)-Poly-(Vinylacetate-Co-Crotonic Acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) Interpolymer Complex Matrix Microparticles Encapsulating a Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Probiotic Strain.

    PubMed

    Mamvura, C I; Moolman, F S; Kalombo, L; Hall, A N; Thantsha, M S

    2011-06-01

    The method of producing poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly-(vinylacetate-co-crotonic acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) interpolymer complex matrix microparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), encapsulating bacteria, has recently been developed. This study was aimed at probing the external and internal structure of these microparticles, which can be used in food. The encapsulation efficiency and distribution of encapsulated Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 within these microparticles were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular, mostly small, smooth microparticles with no visible bacterial cells on the surface. However, some of the microparticles appeared to have porous surfaces. The results of a Microtrac S3500 particle size analyzer showed that the PVP:PVAc-CA interpolymer complex matrix microparticles encapsulating B. lactis Bb12 had an average particle size of 166.1 μm (<350 μm designated standard size for microparticles). The D 10, D 50 and D 90 values for these microparticles were 48.16, 166.06 and 382.55 μm, respectively. Both SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a high density of bacterial cells within the microparticles. An average encapsulation efficiency of 96% was achieved. Consequently, the microparticles have the potential to be evenly distributed in foods, deliver adequate amounts of probiotics and produce minimal adverse effects on the texture and mouth feel of the foods into which they are incorporated. PMID:26781573

  7. Koenimbin, a natural dietary compound of Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng: inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and targeting of derived MCF7 breast cancer stem cells (CD44+/CD24−/low): an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadipour, Fatemeh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohan, Syam; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Keong, Yeap Swee; Siyamak, Ebrahimi Nigjeh; Fani, Somayeh; Firoozi, Maryam; Yong, Chung Lip; Sukari, Mohamed Aspollah; Kamalidehghan, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Background Inhibition of breast cancer stem cells has been shown to be an effective therapeutic strategy for cancer prevention. The aims of this work were to evaluate the efficacy of koenimbin, isolated from Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng, in the inhibition of MCF7 breast cancer cells and to target MCF7 breast cancer stem cells through apoptosis in vitro. Methods Koenimbin-induced cell viability was evaluated using the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Nuclear condensation, cell permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release were observed using high-content screening. Cell cycle arrest was examined using flow cytometry, while human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were used to investigate the mechanism of apoptosis. Protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl2, and heat shock protein 70 were confirmed using Western blotting. Caspase-7, caspase-8, and caspase-9 levels were measured, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity was assessed using a high-content screening assay. Aldefluor™ and mammosphere formation assays were used to evaluate the effect of koenimbin on MCF7 breast cancer stem cells in vitro. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was investigated using Western blotting. Results Koenimbin-induced apoptosis in MCF7 cells was mediated by cell death-transducing signals regulating the mitochondrial membrane potential by downregulating Bcl2 and upregulating Bax, due to cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Koenimbin induced significant (P<0.05) sub-G0 phase arrest in breast cancer cells. Cytochrome c release triggered caspase-9 activation, which then activated caspase-7, leading to apoptotic changes. This form of apoptosis is closely associated with the intrinsic pathway and inhibition of NF-κB translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Koenimbin significantly (P<0.05) decreased the aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cell population in MCF7 cancer stem cells and

  8. In vitro cytocidal effects of the essential oil from Croton cajucara (red sacaca) and its major constituent 7- hydroxycalamenene against Leishmania chagasi

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis is the most serious form of leishmaniasis and can be lethal if left untreated. Currently available treatments for these parasitic diseases are frequently associated to severe side effects. The leaves of Croton cajucara are used as an infusion in popular medicine to combat several diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that the linalool-rich essential oil from C. cajucara (white sacaca) is extremely efficient against the tegumentary specie Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, we investigated the effects of the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from the leaves of C. cajucara (red sacaca) against Leishmania chagasi, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Methods Promastigotes were treated with different concentrations of the essential oil for determination of its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effects of the essential oil on parasite ultrastructure were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate its efficacy against infected cells, mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi promastigotes were treated with the inhibitory and sub-inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil. Results The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil and its purified component 7-hydroxycalamenene against L. chagasi were 250 and 15.6 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed important nuclear and kinetoplastic alterations in L. chagasi promastigotes. Pre-treatment of macrophages and parasites with the essential oil reduced parasite/macrophage interaction by 52.8%, while it increased the production of nitric oxide by L. chagasi-infected macrophages by 80%. Conclusion These results indicate that the 7-hydroxycalamenene-rich essential oil from C. cajucara is a promising source of leishmanicidal compounds. PMID:24088644

  9. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea. PMID:15234776

  10. A novel extract SB-300 from the stem bark latex of Croton lechleri inhibits CFTR-mediated chloride secretion in human colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Horst; Machen, Terry E; Widdicombe, Jonathan H; Carlson, Thomas J S; King, Steven R; Chow, John W S; Illek, Beate

    2004-08-01

    An oligomeric proanthocyanidin (SP-303) extracted from the bark latex of the tree Croton lechleri (family Euphorbiaceae) is a potent inhibitor of cholera toxin-induced fluid accumulation and chloride secretion. The manufacturing process for SP-303 was optimized and simplified to produce an increased yield of the herbal extract. The novel extract (named SB-300) contained on average 70.6+/-7.2% SP-303 by weight (mean +/- S.D.; n=56 lots). Here, we describe the effectiveness of SB-300 on cAMP-regulated chloride secretion, which is mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl- channel (CFTR) in human colonic T84 cells. Exposure of the apical surface to SB-300 blocked forskolin-stimulated Cl- secretion by 92.2+/-3.0% with a half-maximal inhibition constant (KB) of 4.8+/-0.8 microM. For SP-303, stimulated Cl- currents were decreased by 98.0+/-7.2 % and KB averaged 4.1+/-1.3 microM. There was no significant difference between the blocking kinetics of SP-303 and SB-300. Forskolin-stimulated whole cell Cl- currents were effectively blocked by extracellular addition of SB-300 (63+/-8.5%; n=3) and to a similar extent by SP-303 (83 +/- 0.6%; n=2; at 50 microM each). Both extracts inhibited a time- and voltage-independent Cl- conductance, which indicated the involvement of CFTR Cl- channels. We conclude that both SP-303 (used in Provir) and SB-300 (used in NSF Normal Stool Formula) are novel natural products that target the CFTR Cl- channel. SB-300 is a low cost herbal extract and may present a complementary and alternative medicine approach for the treatment of fluid loss in watery diarrhea.

  11. Evaluation of the effect of aqueous extract of Croton urucurana Baillon (Euphorbiaceae) on the hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of Bothrops jararaca, using new techniques to quantify hemorrhagic activity in rat skin.

    PubMed

    Esmeraldino, L E; Souza, A M; Sampaio, S V

    2005-08-01

    Aqueous extracts of Croton urucurana (Sangra D'agua), a plant popularly considered a cicatrizant, were analyzed for anti-Bothrops jararaca venom activity. The plant extracts antagonized the hemorrhagic activity of the venom and proanthocyanidins were involved in this activity. Two new methods for the quantification of hemorrhagic activity evoked by bothropic venoms were employed. The first consists of graphic computer analysis of the hemorrhagic halo evoked in rats by dorsal intradermic administration of venom. The second method involves quantification of the hemoglobin present in the hemorrhagic halo. Based on the results, we suggest that these methods, easily implemented in the laboratory routine, allow for quantification of venom-induced hemorrhagic activity. In addition, this study demonstrates that the rich extracts of proanthocyanidins are powerful inhibitors of bothropic venom metalloproteinases.

  12. Searching for native tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Domingos, Marisa; Bulbovas, Patricia; Camargo, Carla Z S; Aguiar-Silva, Cristiane; Brandão, Solange E; Dafré-Martinelli, Marcelle; Dias, Ana Paula L; Engela, Marcela R G S; Gagliano, Janayne; Moura, Barbara B; Alves, Edenise S; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Gomes, Eduardo P C; Furlan, Claudia M; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G

    2015-07-01

    This study summarizes the first effort to search for bioindicator tree species and respective potential biomarkers for future assessment of potential mixed pollution effects on the highly diverse Atlantic Forest in SE-Brazil. Leaves of the three most abundant species inventoried in a phytosociological survey (Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha and Astronium graveolens) were collected in four forest remnants during winter and summer (2012). Their potential bioindicator attributes were highlighted using a screening of morphological, chemical and biochemical markers. The leaf surface structure and/or epicuticular wax composition pointed the accumulator properties of C. floribundus and P. gonoacantha. C. floribundus is a candidate for assessing potential accumulation of Cu, Cd, Mn, Ni, S and Zn. P. gonoacantha is a candidate to monitor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Increased levels of secondary metabolites and decreased antioxidant capacity in leaves of A. graveolens may support its value as a bioindicator for oxidative pollutants by visible dark stipplings. PMID:25818087

  13. Nutrients, Dissolved Organic Carbon, Color, and Disinfection Byproducts in Base Flow and Stormflow in Streams of the Croton Watershed, Westchester and Putnam Counties, New York, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    The Croton Watershed is unique among New York City's water-supply watersheds because it has the highest percentages of suburban development (52 percent) and wetland area (6 percent). As the City moves toward filtration of this water supply, there is a need to document water-quality contributions from both human and natural sources within the watershed that can inform watershed-management decisions. Streamwater samples from 24 small (0.1 to 1.5 mi2) subbasins and three wastewater-treatment plants (2000-02) were used to document the seasonal concentrations, values, and formation potentials of selected nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), color, and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during stormflow and base-flow conditions. The subbasins were categorized by three types of drainage efficiency and a range of land uses and housing densities. Analyte concentrations in subbasin streams differed in response to the subbasin charateristics. Nutrient concentrations were lowest in undeveloped, forested subbasins that were well drained and increased with all types of development, which included residential, urban commercial/industrial, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. These concentrations were further modified by subbasin drainage efficiency. DOC, in contrast, was highly dependent on drainage efficiency. Color intensity and DBP formation potentials were, in turn, associated with DOC and thus showed a similar response to drainage efficiency. Every constituent exhibited seasonal changes in concentration. Nutrients. Total (unfiltered) phosphorus (TP), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and nitrate were associated primarily with residential development, urban, golf-course, and horse-farm land uses. Base-flow and stormflow concentrations of the TP, SRP, and nitrate generally increased with increasing housing density. TP and SRP concentrations were nearly an order of magnitude higher in stormflow than in base flow, whereas nitrate concentrations showed little difference

  14. ent-kaurane diterpenoids from Croton tonkinensis induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by reactive oxygen species and dual-specificity JNK kinase MKK4.

    PubMed

    Thuong, Phuong Thien; Khoi, Nguyen Minh; Ohta, Saho; Shiota, Shinichiro; Kanta, Hironori; Takeuchi, Kenji; Ito, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    To search for new chemotherapeutic agents to treat colorectal cancer, we isolated a number of natural ent-kaurane diterpenoids from the plant Croton tonkinensis. Among them, only CeKDs with the 15-oxo-16-ene moiety induced the apoptosis of colorectal cancer cell lines Caco-2 and LS180. The active CeKD induced the activation of ERK and JNK, but the inactive ones induced that of ERK, but not that of JNK. It thus appears that JNK seemed to play an important role in the apoptotic activity of the active compounds. The dualspecificity JNK kinase MKK4 was activated in both colorectal cancer cells treated with the active CeKD, but MKK7 was not activated. Further, the active CeKD, but not the inactive one, enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both cells. CeKD-induced cell apoptosis and ROS generation, as well as JNK activation, were inhibited by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine. These findings suggest that ROS stimulated the phosphorylation of JNK mediated by MKK4 and played a critical role in CeKD-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

  15. The tsunami-like sea level disturbance in Crotone harbor, Italy, after the Mw6.5 strike-slip earthquake of 17 November 2015 in Lefkada Isl., Ionian Sea, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, Tatyana; Annunziato, Alessandro; Charalampakis, Marinos; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Tonini, Roberto; Gerardinger, Andrea; Papadopoulos, Gerassimos A.

    2016-04-01

    On 17 November 2015 an Mw6.5 earthquake ruptured offshore Lefkada Isl. in Ionian Sea, Greece, causing two human victims, minor damage and several ground failures including coastal landslides. Fault plane solutions released by CMT/Harvard, NOA and other institutes have indicated that the faulting style was strike-slip right-lateral, which is quite typical for the area, as for example, the Mw6.3 event that occurred on August 14, 2003, in exactly the same fault zone. In spite of the very low tsunami potential commonly associated to this faulting mechanism, a tsunami-like sea level change was recorded after the earthquake by one tide-gauge in the Crotone harbor, Italy. Preliminary tsunami numerical simulations were performed to reproduce the observed signal. The spectral analysis of the synthetic mareograms close to the entrance of the harbor shows the presence of some peaks that could justify the relation between the natural port resonance and the observed wave amplification. Of particular interest is the coupling between the tsunami energy and the natural modes of basin oscillation enhancing tsunami wave amplitude in harbors through resonance, as shown in some historical events in the Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere. This research is a contribution to the EU-FP7 tsunami research project ASTARTE (Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe), grant agreement no: 603839, 2013-10-30.

  16. Functional expression of a putative geraniol 8-hydroxylase by reconstitution of bacterially expressed plant CYP76F45 and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase CPR I from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Promden, Worrawat; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2015-10-01

    While attempting to isolate the enzyme geranylgeraniol 18-hydroxylase, which is involved in plaunotol biosynthesis in Croton stellatopilosus (Cs), the cDNAs for a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase(designated as CYP76F45) and an NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from the leaf. The CYP76F45 and CsCPR I genes have open reading frames (ORFs) encoding 507- and 711-amino acid proteins with predicted relative molecular weights of 56.7 and 79.0 kDa,respectively. Amino acid sequence comparison showed that both CYP76F45 (63–73%) and CsCPR I (79–83%) share relatively high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species.Phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed that CYP76F45 belongs to the CYP76 family and that CsCPR I belongs to Class I of dicotyledonous CPRs, with both being closely related to Ricinus communis genes. Functional characterization of both enzymes, each expressed separately in Escherichia coli as recombinant proteins,showed that only simultaneous incubation of the membrane bound proteins with the substrate geraniol (GOH) and the coenzyme NADPH could form 8-hydroxygeraniol. The enzyme mixture could also utilize acyclic sesquiterpene farnesol (FOH) with a comparable substrate preference ratio (GOH:FOH) of 54:46. The levelsof the CYP76F45 and CsCPR I transcripts in the shoots, leaves and twigs of C. stellatopilosus were correlated with the levels of a major monoterpenoid indole alkaloid, identified tentatively as 19-Evallesamine,that accumulated in these plant parts. These results suggested that CYP76F45 and CPR I function as the enzyme geraniol-8-hydroxylase (G8H), which is likely to be involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid in C. stellatopilosus [corrected].

  17. Molecular cloning, bacterial expression and functional characterisation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP97C27, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, CPR I, from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    PubMed

    Sintupachee, Siriluk; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Sitthithaworn, Worapan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2014-12-01

    The cDNAs for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (designated as CYP97C27 by D. Nelson's group) and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (designated as CPR I based on its classification) were isolated from Croton stellatopilosus leaves, which actively biosynthesise plaunotol (18-OH geranylgeraniol). CYP97C27 and CPR I contain open reading frames encoding proteins of 471 and 711 amino acids with predicted molecular masses of 53 and 79kDa, respectively. By aligning the deduced sequences of CYP97C27 and CPR I with other plant species, all functional domains of CYP97C27 (heme and oxygen binding) and CPR I (CYP- and FMN, FAD, and NADPH cofactor binding) were identified. Amino acid sequence comparison indicated that both CYP97C27 (85-93%) and CPR I (79-83%) share high sequence identities with homologous proteins in other plant species, suggesting that CYP97C27 belongs to the CYP97C subfamily and that CPR I belongs to class I of the dicotyledonous CPR. Functional characterisation of both enzymes, produced in Escherichia coli (pET32a/BL21(DE3)) as recombinant proteins, showed that simultaneous incubation of CYP97C27 and CPR I with the substrate geranylgeraniol (GGOH) and coenzyme NADPH led to formation of the product plaunotol. In C. stellatopilosus, the levels of the CYP97C27 and CPR I transcripts were highly correlated with those of several mRNAs involved in the plaunotol biosynthetic pathway, suggesting that CYP97C27 and CPR I are the enzymes that catalyse the last hydroxylation step of the pathway.

  18. Variation in the population structure between a natural and a human-modified forest for a pioneer tropical tree species not restricted to large gaps.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Milene; Dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-06-01

    The distribution of tree species in tropical forests is generally related to the occurrence of disturbances and shifts in the local environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and biotic factors. Thus, the distribution of pioneer tree species is expected to vary according to the gap characteristics and with human disturbances. We asked whether there was variation in the distribution of a pioneer species under different environmental conditions generated by natural disturbances, and between two forests with contrasting levels of human disturbance. To answer this question, we studied the distribution patterns and population persistence of the pioneer tree species Croton floribundus in the size and age gap range of a primary Brazilian forest. Additionally, we compared the plant density of two size-classes between a primary and an early successional human-disturbed forest. Croton floribundus was found to be widespread and equally distributed along the gap-size gradient in the primary forest. Overall density did not vary with gap size or age (F-ratio = 0.062, P = 0.941), and while juveniles were found to have a higher density in the early successional forest (P = 0.021), tree density was found to be similar between forests (P = 0.058). Our results indicate that the population structure of a pioneer tree species with long life span and a broad gap-size niche preference varied between natural and human-disturbed forests, but not with the level of natural disturbance. We believe this can be explained by the extreme environmental changes that occur after human disturbance. The ecological processes that affect the distribution of pioneer species in natural and human-modified forests may be similar, but our results suggest they act differently under the contrasting environmental conditions generated by natural and human disturbances.

  19. Variation in the population structure between a natural and a human-modified forest for a pioneer tropical tree species not restricted to large gaps

    PubMed Central

    Silvestrini, Milene; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maës

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of tree species in tropical forests is generally related to the occurrence of disturbances and shifts in the local environmental conditions such as light, temperature, and biotic factors. Thus, the distribution of pioneer tree species is expected to vary according to the gap characteristics and with human disturbances. We asked whether there was variation in the distribution of a pioneer species under different environmental conditions generated by natural disturbances, and between two forests with contrasting levels of human disturbance. To answer this question, we studied the distribution patterns and population persistence of the pioneer tree species Croton floribundus in the size and age gap range of a primary Brazilian forest. Additionally, we compared the plant density of two size-classes between a primary and an early successional human-disturbed forest. Croton floribundus was found to be widespread and equally distributed along the gap-size gradient in the primary forest. Overall density did not vary with gap size or age (F-ratio = 0.062, P = 0.941), and while juveniles were found to have a higher density in the early successional forest (P = 0.021), tree density was found to be similar between forests (P = 0.058). Our results indicate that the population structure of a pioneer tree species with long life span and a broad gap-size niche preference varied between natural and human-disturbed forests, but not with the level of natural disturbance. We believe this can be explained by the extreme environmental changes that occur after human disturbance. The ecological processes that affect the distribution of pioneer species in natural and human-modified forests may be similar, but our results suggest they act differently under the contrasting environmental conditions generated by natural and human disturbances. PMID:26120431

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF LEUCAS CEPHALOTES (ROTH) SPRENG. LEAF

    PubMed Central

    Madhukiran, B.L.; Vijaya, Lakshmi K.; Uma, Maheswari Devi P.

    2002-01-01

    Leucas cephalotes a common ethanomedicinal plant, is used by folklore of Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh for fevers and urinary tract infections. In the present study leaves of L. cephalotes were shade dried, powerdered and extracts were made by Soxhlet Extractor using different organic solvents like hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and ethylacetate. The antimicrobial activity of these organic extracts was evaluated against pathogenic organisms of staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae. These isolates were obtained from clinical specimens like urine, blood and pus of Sri Venkateshwara Institute of Medical Sciences, Tirupati. The zone of inhibition was determined for these pathogenic microorganism by using specific standards and respective controls for determining Minimum inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Among these tested organic extracts, hexane and methanolic extracts showed prominent antibacterial activity index for each tested extract has been calculated. PMID:22557062

  1. Psychopharmacological screening of Pfaffia glomerata Spreng. (Amarathanceae) in rodents.

    PubMed

    de-Paris, F; Neves, G; Salgueiro, J B; Quevedo, J; Izquierdo, I; Rates, S M

    2000-11-01

    The alcoholic extract of Pfaffia glomerata roots (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), and 500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg, per os) was studied in several behavioral animal models for the evaluation of central activity: open field, barbiturate sleeping time, pentilenotetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions, elevated plus-maze, step-down inhibitory avoidance and forced swimming test. The acute treatment (500 mg/kg, i.p.) interfered with the open-field habituation, decreased sleep latency and increased barbiturate-induced sleeping time, protected partially the animals of PTZ-induced convulsions, decreased the memory retention in step-down inhibitory avoidance, and did not have an important effect in the elevated plus-maze test and forced swimming test. The same extract at 1000 mg/kg per os did not cause any effect in barbiturate sleeping time and pentilenotetrazole-induced convulsions models. Thus, the effect on the memory was deeper evaluated in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. When administered by intraperitoneal route, the extract showed a dose-dependent effect causing full amnesia at 1000 mg/kg. On the other hand, when it was given by oral route at 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg, no influence on the memory retention was observed. These results suggest that the alcoholic extract of P. glomerata roots presents different effects depending on the route of administration: by i.p route, it seems to be a central nervous system depressant agent; by oral route, it seems to be ineffective, at least in the tested doses.

  2. The Croton-Yorktown Model of Individualized Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, George F.; Snyder, Edward B.

    1980-01-01

    The individualized learning model, discussed in this article, uses an efficient feedback mechanism which incorporates an innovative student evaluation program and a unique system of classroom management. The design provides a model for monitoring student progress. (Author/SA)

  3. Natural sources of salinity in the Brazos River, Texas with particular reference to the Croton and salt Croton Creek basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.C.; Hughes, Leon S.; Yost, I.D.

    1964-01-01

    The salt water may be disposed of by impounding it in reservoirs for evaporation or by injecting it underground through oil wells, oil tests, or wells drilled for saltwater disposal. Sediments in which the salt water possibly could be injected underlie the. Dove Creek Salt Flats at depths of less than 7,000 feet.

  4. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations.

  5. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', associated with witches'-broom of Cassia italica (Mill.) Spreng. in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Saady, Nadiya Abubakar; Khan, Akhtar Jamal; Calari, Alberto; Al-Subhi, Ali Masoud; Bertaccini, Assunta

    2008-02-01

    Samples from plants of Cassia italica exhibiting typical witches'-broom symptoms (Cassia witches'-broom; CWB) were examined for the presence of plant pathogenic phytoplasmas by PCR amplification using universal phytoplasma primers. All affected plants yielded positive results. RFLP analyses of rRNA gene products indicated that the phytoplasmas detected were different from those described previously. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that CWB represents a distinct lineage and shares a common ancestor with 'Candidatus Phytoplasma phoenicium'. Molecular comparison revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the four CWB strains (IM-1, IM-2, IM-3 and IM-4) identified in symptomatic C. italica samples were nearly identical (99.6-100 % similarity). The closest relatives were members of the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma ribosomal group (16SrIX; 95-97 % sequence similarity). On the basis of unique 16S rRNA gene sequences and biological properties, the phytoplasma associated with witches'-broom of C. italica in Oman represents a coherent but discrete novel phytoplasma, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma omanense', with GenBank/DDBJ/EMBL accession number EF666051 representing the reference strain.

  6. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics. PMID:26126944

  7. In vivo antimalarial activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour) spreng on Plasmodium berghei yoelii.

    PubMed

    Periyanayagam, K; Nirmala Devi, K; Suseela, L; Uma, A; Ismail, M

    2008-06-01

    An invivo study of aqueous extract of the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus on Plasmodium berghei yoelii was conducted on laboratory infected albino mice and compared with standard drug chloroquine. Reduction of parasitemia at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract for 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs and 96 hrs were determined. The reduction of parasitemia after 96 hrs was 100%, 67.9% and 76.2% for standard, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of aqueous extract respectively. The isolation of active principle responsible for the reduction of parasitemia may give a promising drug molecule. PMID:19301696

  8. Effect of subinihibitory and inhibitory concentrations of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng essential oil on Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Braga, Milena Aguiar; de Oliveira, Francisco F M; Santiago, Gilvandete M P; Carvalho, Cibele B M; Brito e Cabral, Paula; de Melo Santiago, Thiago; Sousa, Jeanlex S; Barros, Eduardo Bedê; do Nascimento, Ronaldo Ferreira; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida T

    2012-08-15

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activity and some mechanisms used by subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil, obtained from leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus, against a standard strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 5 multiresistant clinical isolates of the bacteria. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), the rate of kill and the pH sensitivity of the essential oil were determined by microdilution tests performed in 96-well plates. Subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of the essential oil were tested in order to check its action on K. pneumoniae membrane permeability, capsule expression, urease activity and cell morphology. The MIC and MBC of the essential oil were 0.09±0.01%. A complete inhibition of the bacterial growth was observed after 2 h of incubation with twice the MIC of the essential oil. A better MIC was found when neutral or alkaline pH broth was used. Alteration in membrane permeability was found by the increase of crystal violet uptake when the bacteria were incubated with twice the MIC levels of the essential oil. The urease activity could be prevented when all the subinhibitory concentrations were tested in comparison to the untreated group (p<0.001). Alteration of the bacterial morphology besides inhibition of the capsule expression was verified by atomic force microscopy, and Anthony's stain method, respectively. Our data allow us to conclude that the essential oil of P. amboinicus can be a good candidate for future research. PMID:22776104

  9. Isolation and prebiotic activity of inulin-type fructan extracted from Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng) Pedersen roots.

    PubMed

    Caleffi, Edilainy Rizzieri; Krausová, Gabriela; Hyršlová, Ivana; Paredes, Larry Ladislao Ramos; dos Santos, Marcelo Müller; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Gonçalves, Regina Aparecida Correia; de Oliveira, Arildo José Braz

    2015-09-01

    Pfaffia glomerata (Amaranthaceae) is popularly known as "Brazilian ginseng." Previous studies have shown that fructose is the major carbohydrate component present in its roots. Inulin-type fructans, polymers of fructose, are the most widespread and researched prebiotics. Here, we isolated and chemically characterized inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots and investigated its potential prebiotic effect. Fructans were isolated and their structures were determined using colorimetric, chromatography, polarimetry, and spectroscopic analysis. The degree of polymerization (DP) was determined, and an in vitro prebiotic test was performed. The structure of inulin was confirmed by chromatography and spectroscopic analysis and through comparison with existing data. Representatives from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium utilized inulin from P. glomerata, because growth was significantly stimulated, while this ability is strain specific. The results indicated that inulin extracted from P. glomerata roots represents a promising new source of inulin-type prebiotics.

  10. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer. PMID:26252798

  11. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Tien, Pham Gia; Kayama, Fujio; Konishi, Fumio; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kasono, Keizo; Hung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Kuroki, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, San-E; Van, Chuyen Nguyen; Kawakami, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    The antitumor activity of the crude water extract from Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. A water extract prepared from 0.75 and 0.25 mg dry weight of Gac fruit per gram body weight was given daily to Balb/c mice (n=15/group). The water extract inhibited the growth of the colon 26-20 adenocarcinoma cell line, transplanted in Balb/c mice, reducing wet tumor weight by 23.6%. Histological and immunohistochemical results indicated that Gac water extract reduced the density of blood vessels around the carcinoma. The water extract also produced a marked suppression of cell proliferation in colon 26-20 and HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a significant accumulation of cells in the S phase by water extract. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin A, Cdk2, p27waf1/Kip1 were down-regulated, whereas the protein level of p21waf1/Cip1 was not decreased. Treatment of colon 26-20 cells with Gac extract induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. The antitumor component was confirmed as a protein with molecular weight of 35 kDa, retained in the water-soluble high molecular weight fraction. Thus, the bioactive antitumor compound in Gac extract is a protein, which is distinct from lycopene, another compound in Gac fruit with potential antitumor activity. PMID:15753981

  12. Lippia javanica (Burm F) Spreng: its general constituents and bioactivity on mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Nzira, L; Per, M; Peter, F; Claus, B

    2009-04-01

    Mosquito repellent plants are used in the rural areas of Zimbabwe despite the fact that very few of them have been biologically evaluated. Leaves of the plant Lippia javanica, were collected from Mumurwi village, Zimbabwe and evaluated for repellency against laboratory reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Major plant compounds were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and Mass Spectrometry (MS). Fraction 'A' contained coumarins, flavonoids and essential oils and offered a protection time of 8 and 5.5hrs in choice and non-choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'B1' contained flavonoids with a protection time of 1 and 0.5hrs in choice and non choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'B2' contained coumarins and essential oils and offered a protection time of 2hrs in either test. No major compounds were identified from the following fractions: 'C1', 'C2', 'D1', 'E1', 'E2', 'F1' and 'F2' and all of them failed to give 100% repellence. The 'C1' supernatant fraction contained coumarins and provided protection from mosquito bites for 1 and 0.5 hrs in choice and non-choice experiments respectively. Fraction 'C2' did not have the major compounds but gave a protection time of 1 hr in either experiment. Fraction 'D2' contained essential oils only and it provided a protection time of 2.5hrs in choice experiments. Analysis by MS showed the presence of alpha pinene, 1,3-5 cycloheptatriene, beta phellandrene, (+)-2-carene, 3-carene, eucalyptol and caryophyllene oxide. L. javanica offered protection from mosquito bites for 8hrs (choice) and 5.5hrs (non choice experiments). The combined presence of coumarins, flavonoids and essential oils have an additive effect compared with individual plant fractions. PMID:19696732

  13. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. (Rutaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Vats, Manisha; Singh, Harneet; Sardana, Satish

    2011-01-01

    Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity. PMID:24031791

  14. Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.).

    PubMed

    Tran, Xuan T; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-03-01

    The aril around the seeds of Gac fruit is rich in fatty acids and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene). Understanding how these qualities are affected by fruit maturity at harvest may identify indices for quality assessment. Some physical and chemical properties of Gac fruit were determined for fruit harvested between 8 and 16 weeks after pollination (WAP). Fruit respiration rates and ethylene production rates were assessed after harvest and up to 20 days in storage at 20°C. Fruit harvested at 14 WAP had the highest oil (0.27 ± 0.02 g/g DW), lycopene content (0.45 ± 0.09 mg/g FW), and β-carotene content (0.33 ± 0.05 mg/g FW) which declined by 16 WAP. External skin color and aril TSS were indicative of oil and carotenoid contents in aril. Skin color, TSS and potentially firmness were good indices of fruit quality. Harvesting less mature fruit at 12 WAP would be practical as the fruit were firmer and more capable of transport; however, quality during postharvest ripening may be limited. Fruits continued to ripen after they were harvested and an ethylene peak in the least mature fruit may reflect a climacteric behavior but this needs further investigation.

  15. Inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis by water extract of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng).

    PubMed

    Tien, Pham Gia; Kayama, Fujio; Konishi, Fumio; Tamemoto, Hiroyuki; Kasono, Keizo; Hung, Nguyen Thi Kim; Kuroki, Masatoshi; Ishikawa, San-E; Van, Chuyen Nguyen; Kawakami, Masanobu

    2005-04-01

    The antitumor activity of the crude water extract from Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis) was investigated in vivo and in vitro. A water extract prepared from 0.75 and 0.25 mg dry weight of Gac fruit per gram body weight was given daily to Balb/c mice (n=15/group). The water extract inhibited the growth of the colon 26-20 adenocarcinoma cell line, transplanted in Balb/c mice, reducing wet tumor weight by 23.6%. Histological and immunohistochemical results indicated that Gac water extract reduced the density of blood vessels around the carcinoma. The water extract also produced a marked suppression of cell proliferation in colon 26-20 and HepG2 cells. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated a significant accumulation of cells in the S phase by water extract. Immunoblotting showed that cyclin A, Cdk2, p27waf1/Kip1 were down-regulated, whereas the protein level of p21waf1/Cip1 was not decreased. Treatment of colon 26-20 cells with Gac extract induced necrosis rather than apoptosis. The antitumor component was confirmed as a protein with molecular weight of 35 kDa, retained in the water-soluble high molecular weight fraction. Thus, the bioactive antitumor compound in Gac extract is a protein, which is distinct from lycopene, another compound in Gac fruit with potential antitumor activity.

  16. Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seed extract suppresses breast cancer growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Yanmin; Liu, Yanping; Yang, Xiaoyan Ou; Zhan, Yingzhuan

    2015-10-01

    The herb Momordica cochinchinensis has been used for a variety of purposes, and been shown to have anti‑cancer properties. The present study assessed the potency and the underlying mechanisms of action of the ethyl acetate extract of seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (ESMC2) on breast cancer cells. Therefore, the effects of ESMC2 on the cell viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of MDA‑MB‑231 cells were investigated. The results showed that ESMC2 exerted a marked growth inhibitory effect on the cells. Cell cycle arrest in G2 phase following treatment with ESMC2 was associated with a marked increase in the protein levels of cyclin B1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and a decrease in cyclin D1 expression. In addition, ESMC2 dose‑dependently induced cell apoptosis, which was mediated via upregulation of the apoptosis-associated proteins p53, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein, Bcl-2 homologous antagonist killer and Bcl-2-associated death promoter expression, as well as downregulation of nuclear factor kappa B, Bcl‑2 and myeloid cell leukemia‑1. Furthermore, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Akt phosphorylation were decreased by ESMC2 in a dose‑dependent manner, indicating that ESMC2 exerted its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase/JNK pathway. Furthermore, nude mouse xenotransplant models were used to evaluate the tumor growth inhibitory effects of ESMC2. The possible chemical components of ESMC2 were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 12 compounds were detected from the major peaks based on the similarity index with entries of a compound database. The results of the present study may aid in the development of novel therapies for breast cancer.

  17. Old sleeping Sicilian beauty: seed germination in the palaeoendemic Petagnaea gussonei (Spreng.) Rauschert (Saniculoideae, Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    De Castro, O; Gianguzzi, L; Carucci, F; De Luca, A; Gesuele, R; Guida, M

    2015-09-01

    Petagnaea gussonei (Apiaceae) is a perennial herbaceous species endemic to northeast Sicily (Nebrodi Mountains). It is considered a remnant of the Sicilian Tertiary flora, and is endangered according to the Red List. There is no information in the literature about the germinability of its seeds, even though seed production is know to occur. The aim of this study was to obtain data to better understand seed germination of this species and its biological implications. Thus, several approaches were employed: vitality analyses, gibberellic acid supply, germination and soil microbial flora analyses via end-point and qPCR. The results suggest that seed germination occurs after ca. 1.5 years at a rate of ca. 11%. The seeds can be classified as physiologically dormant, and probably require prolonged cold stratification for germination. Because seed germination is low, it is likely that agamic reproduction represents an important mean for its conservation and survival. These results have important implications for P. gussonei survival and should be considered in possible re-introduction attempts aimed at restoring threatened populations. PMID:25847095

  18. Artoindonesianins Q-T, four isoprenylated flavones from Artocarpus champeden Spreng. (Moraceae).

    PubMed

    Syah, Yana M; Achmad, Sjamsul A; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Hakim, Euis H; Makmur, Lukman; Mujahidin, Didin

    2002-12-01

    Four isoprenylated flavones, artoindonesianins Q-T, were isolated from the heartwood of Artocarpus champeden Roxb. The structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data.

  19. Effects of maturity on physicochemical properties of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.).

    PubMed

    Tran, Xuan T; Parks, Sophie E; Roach, Paul D; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh H

    2016-03-01

    The aril around the seeds of Gac fruit is rich in fatty acids and carotenoids (lycopene and β-carotene). Understanding how these qualities are affected by fruit maturity at harvest may identify indices for quality assessment. Some physical and chemical properties of Gac fruit were determined for fruit harvested between 8 and 16 weeks after pollination (WAP). Fruit respiration rates and ethylene production rates were assessed after harvest and up to 20 days in storage at 20°C. Fruit harvested at 14 WAP had the highest oil (0.27 ± 0.02 g/g DW), lycopene content (0.45 ± 0.09 mg/g FW), and β-carotene content (0.33 ± 0.05 mg/g FW) which declined by 16 WAP. External skin color and aril TSS were indicative of oil and carotenoid contents in aril. Skin color, TSS and potentially firmness were good indices of fruit quality. Harvesting less mature fruit at 12 WAP would be practical as the fruit were firmer and more capable of transport; however, quality during postharvest ripening may be limited. Fruits continued to ripen after they were harvested and an ethylene peak in the least mature fruit may reflect a climacteric behavior but this needs further investigation. PMID:27004120

  20. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  1. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF < 5) to highly enriched (EF ≥ 5) leaf samples of P. gonoacantha with regard to BaA and PHE in all of the forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries. PMID:26657363

  2. Foliar accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in native tree species from the Atlantic Forest (SE-Brazil).

    PubMed

    Dias, Ana Paula L; Rinaldi, Mirian C S; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic to living organisms. They can accumulate on foliar surfaces due to their affinity with apolar organic compounds, which enables the use of native plant species as sentinels of atmospheric PAH deposition in polluted ecosystems. The present study extends the knowledge about this subject in the tropical region by focusing on the PAH accumulation in the foliage of dominant tree species (Astronium graveolens, Croton floribundus, Piptadenia gonoacantha) in four remnants of Semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest surrounded by diversified sources of PAHs and located in the cities of Campinas, Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópilis (central-eastern part of São Paulo State, SE-Brazil). Leaves of the tree species were collected in the forest remnants during the wet and dry seasons (2011 to 2013). All samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector for identification of 14 PAHs. The native tree species showed distinct capacities to accumulate PAHs. All of them accumulated proportionally more light PAHs than heavy PAHs, mainly during the dry period. P. gonoacantha was the most effective accumulator species. Higher accumulations of most of the PAHs occurred during the dry periods. The predominance of moderately (1 ≤ EF < 5) to highly enriched (EF ≥ 5) leaf samples of P. gonoacantha with regard to BaA and PHE in all of the forest remnants indicated that vehicular sources were widely distributed in the entire region. The predominance of the moderate to high enrichment of ACE in leaf samples from the forest remnants located in Paulínia, Holambra and Cosmópolis indicated that they were also affected by emissions from petrochemical industries.

  3. In vitro and in vivo leishmanicidal activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 10(6) promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10(7) L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 10(6) L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  4. Chemical Composition and Physical Characteristics of the Essential Oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus (L.) Spreng of Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yentema, Onadja; Alioune, Ouedraogo; Abdoul Dorosso, Samate

    Essential oils have a significant role in the society where they are variously used in fields such as medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics, chemical and food-processing industries. This justifies interest which they cause and thus systematic studies are undertaken on aromatic species, allowing without any doubt their use advisedly. This study concerns the characterization of the essential oil of Cymbopogon schoenanthus of Burkina Faso, extracted by drive with the water vapor in a distillation operation. The analysis of the chemical composition is carried out by Gas Chromatography. It shows that the 16 made up ones identified account for 65. 2% of the essential oil composition. These compounds belong to the two classes regularly met in essential oils: the mono ones and sesquiterpenes. However, proportion of monoterpenes (53. 2%) is higher than that of sesquiterpenes (12%). Among the identified compounds two monoterpenes (the piperitone and δ-2-carene) remain the principal components in the essential oil. Then the authors determine the density d = 0.9057 by double weighing, the optical activity α = +28.175 by polarimetry and the refractive index n = 1.465 by an interferometric method which they describe. Cymbopogon schoenanthus is an aromatic plant of the family of Poaceae very often used in traditional pharmacopoeia for internal as well as external treatments.

  5. Human perceptions of landscape change: The case of a monodominant forest of Attalea speciosa Mart ex. Spreng (Northeast Brazil).

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Gabriela M A; Ramos, Marcelo A; Araújo, Elcida L; Baldauf, Cristina; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2016-05-01

    From the perception of human populations, we can assess the changes occurring in certain landscapes and the factors that cause those changes. Such studies have proven helpful in increasing the knowledge of the history of a landscape, recognizing past formations and projecting its future. Our research objective was to determine how a landscape dominated by the palm tree Attalea speciosa, a species of ecological, economic, and cultural importance, has been changing over time by synthesizing and comparing historical documents and local perceptions. This study was conducted in Araripe Environmental Protection Area, Northeast Region, Brazil. To understand local landscape change, we interviewed active harvesters in four communities in which A. speciosa use has been documented. Historical documents were evaluated as a complement to the interview data. According to local informants, areas previously used for cultivation and animal husbandry that were abandoned or decimated by droughts in the region may have fostered the expansion of a monodominant A. speciosa forest. Furthermore, other forms of landscape management resulting from human population growth may also have affected the current and past distribution of this forest.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Leishmanicidal Activity of Astronium fraxinifolium (Schott) and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Silvio César Gomes; Teixeira, Maria Jania; Lopes Júnior, José Evaldo Gonçalves; de Morais, Selene Maia; Torres, Alba Fabiola; Braga, Milena Aguiar; Rodrigues, Raphael Oliveira; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; Martins, Alice Costa; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate antileishmanial activity of Astronium fraxinifolium and Plectranthus amboinicus. For the in vitro tests, essential oil of P. amboinicus (OEPA) and ethanolic extracts from A. fraxinifolium (EEAF) were incubated with 106  promastigotes of L. (Viannia) braziliensis. The OEPA was able to reduce the parasite growth after 48 h; nonetheless, all the EEAFs could totally abolish the parasite growth. For the in vivo studies, BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 107  L. braziliensis promastigotes. Treatment was done by administering OEPA intralesionally (i.l.) for 14 days. No difference was found in lesion thickness when those animals were compared with the untreated animals. Further, golden hamsters were infected s.c. with 106  L. braziliensis promastigotes. The first protocol of treatment consisted of ethanolic leaf extract from A. fraxinifolium (ELEAF) administered i.l. for 4 days and a booster dose at the 7th day. The animals showed a significant reduction of lesion thickness in the 6th week, but it was not comparable to the animals treated with Glucantime. The second protocol consisted of 15 daily intralesional injections. The profiles of lesion thickness were similar to the standard treatment. In conclusion, in vivo studies showed a high efficacy when the infected animals were intralesionally treated with leaf ethanolic extract from A. fraxinifolium. PMID:24829921

  7. In vitro acaricidal activity of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng (Rutaceae) extracts against synthetic pyrethroid-resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay Kumar; Jyoti; Vemu, Bhaskar; Singh, Harkirat; Prerna, Mranalini; Daundkar, Prashant S; Sharma, S K; Dumka, V K

    2015-04-01

    Larval packet test was used for detection of resistance status against cypermethrin and deltamethrin, the most commonly used synthetic pyrethroids in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Faridkot district, Punjab (India). The slope of mortality, lethal concentration for 50 % (LC50) and resistance levels were determined from the regression graphs of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of increasing concentrations of cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Results indicated presence of resistance of levels I and II against cypermethrin (resistance factor (RF) = 2.82) and deltamethrin (RF = 8.44), respectively. Adult immersion test was used to assess the acaricidal activity of aqueous (MLAq), ethanol (MLE), chloroform (MLC), acetone (MLA) and hexane (MLH) extracts of leaves of Murraya koenigii against these synthetic pyrethroid (SP)-resistant engorged adult females of R. (B.) microplus by determination of per cent adult mortality, reproductive index (RI), per cent inhibition of oviposition (%IO) and hatching rate. The per cent mortality caused by various extracts at concentrations ranging from 0.625 to 10.0% varied from 0.0 to 100.0% with maximum per cent mortality of 10.0, 100.0, 70.0, 40.0 and 10.0 recorded against MLAq, MLE, MLC, MLA and MLH, respectively. Among all extracts, the highest acaricidal property against SP-resistant R. (B.) microplus was exhibited by the MLE as it showed the minimum LC50 [95% confidence limit (CL)] values of 2.97% (2.82-3.12%), followed by MLC as 10.26% (8.84-11.91 %) and MLA as 18.22% (16.18-20.52%). The average egg mass weight recorded in live ticks treated with various concentrations of different extracts was lower than the respective control group ticks and was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in ticks treated with MLH extract. However, no significant effect on hatchability of eggs of treated groups when compared to control was recorded. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the RI was recorded in MLH extract-treated ticks, and the %IO varied from 0.07 to 34.73% with various extracts and was recorded maximum with highest concentration of MLH. The results of the current study indicate that the extracts of M. koenigii can be used for control of SP-resistant ticks. PMID:25633856

  8. Anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and HPLC-MS analysis of polyphenol from extracts of Nelsonia canescens (Lam.) Spreng.

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Nabèrè; Meda, Roland Nâg-Tiero; Hilou, Adama; Guenné, Samson; Konaté, Kiessoum; Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrébeogo, Martin; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the anti-acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities and to evaluate the major polyphenolic compounds of Nelsonia canescens extracts. Methods The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was assessed using a kinetic inhibition standard method. Two methods, ABTS and lipid peroxidation, were used to estimate the antioxidant capacity. Polyphenols profile of the plant extract has been determined with a HPLC-MS method. Results The results showed that butanol extract exhibited the best anti-acetylcholinesterase activity with inhibition percentage of (55.62±1.49)%. The best 3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate radical cation scavenging capacity was found for ethyl acetate extract with a value of (56.20±0.77) mg equivalent trolox/g while the crude extract showed the highest inhibition of the rat liver lipid peroxidation (52.57±1.20)%. Polyphenols profile revealed the presence of five phenol acids (p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid and gentisic acid) and three flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin, quercetin). Conclusions All the extracts of Nelsonia canescens exhibited antioxidant and AChE inhibition capacities. The active compounds identified and quantified in this species are mainly responsible for these in vitro biological activities and allow to justify its widely use in Burkina Faso traditional medicine.

  9. Chloroplastic oxidative burst induced by tenuazonic acid, a natural photosynthesis inhibitor, triggers cell necrosis in Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Yin, Chunyan; Qiang, Sheng; Zhou, Fenyan; Dai, Xinbin

    2010-03-01

    Tenuazonic acid (TeA), a nonhost-specific phytotoxin produced by Alternaria alternata, was determined to be a novel natural photosynthesis inhibitor owning several action sites in chloroplasts. To further elucidate the mode of its action, studies were conducted to assess the production and involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the toxic activity of TeA. A series of experiments indicated that TeA treatment can induce chloroplast-derived ROS generation including not only (1)O(2) but also superoxide radical, H(2)O(2) and hydroxyl radicals in Eupatorium adenophorum mesophyll cells, resulting from electron leakage and charge recombination in PSII as well as thylakoid overenergization due to inhibition of the PSII electron transport beyond Q(A) and the reduction of end acceptors on the PSI acceptor side and chloroplast ATPase activity. The initial production of TeA-induced ROS was restricted to chloroplasts and accompanied with a certain degree of chloroplast damage. Subsequently, abundant ROS were quickly dispersed throughout whole cell and cellular compartments, causing a series of irreversible cellular harm such as chlorophyll breakdown, lipid peroxidation, plasma membrane rupture, chromatin condensation, DNA cleavage, and organelle disintegration, and finally resulting in rapid cell destruction and leaf necrosis. These results show that TeA causing cell necrosis of host-plants is a result of direct oxidative damage from chloroplast-mediated ROS eruption.

  10. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v.

  11. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil.

    PubMed

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino Junior, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Queiroga Neto, Vicente

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as "marmeleiro", in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative.

  12. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil from Croton oblongifolius and its Antibacterial Activity against Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Tadtong, Sarin; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2015-08-01

    The essential oil of C. oblongifolius Roxb. stem bark was obtained by hydrodistillation. Chemical analysis by GC-MS identified 29 compounds. Terpinen-4-ol (17.8%) was a major component, together with α-guaiene (7.9%), E-caryophyllene (7.0%), myrcene (6.7%), (+)-cyclosativene (5.1%), sabinene (4.8%), aciphyllene (4.7%), pogostol (4.6%), gamma-terpinene (3.4%), α-muurolol (3.2%) and germecrene D (3.2%). The essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes ATCC 6919 with an MIC of 0.125%, v/v. PMID:26434141

  13. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

  14. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per square inch of coated surface. (ii) The chloroform-soluble portion of the n-heptane extractives of the coated film obtained with n-heptane at 70 °F for...

  15. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per square inch of coated surface. (ii) The chloroform-soluble portion of the n-heptane extractives of the...

  16. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per square inch of coated surface. (ii) The chloroform-soluble portion of the n-heptane extractives of the...

  17. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per square inch of coated surface. (ii) The chloroform-soluble portion of the n-heptane extractives of the...

  18. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this section. (1) Specifications. (i) The chloroform-soluble portion of the water extractives of the coated film obtained with distilled water at 120 °F for 24 hours does not exceed 0.5 milligram per square inch of coated surface. (ii) The chloroform-soluble portion of the n-heptane extractives of the...

  19. 6. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York, 1843. HYDROGRAPHIC MAP, NEW YORK, WESTCHESTER, AND PUTNAM, CROTON AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  20. Sensitivity of populations of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in relation to human development in northern Paraná, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N

    2012-08-01

    Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human

  1. Larvicidal activity of Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet and Ageratina adenophora (Spreng.) King & H. Rob. plant extracts against arboviral and filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Samuel, Lallianrawna; Lalrotluanga; Muthukumaran, Rajendra Bose; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Senthilkumar, Nachimuthu

    2014-06-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus Say, an arboviral and filarial vector, is one of the most widespread mosquitoes in the world, and insecticide-resistant populations have been reported worldwide. Due to the emergence of resistance in C. quinquefasciatus plant based products or plant extracts may be alternative sources in integrated vector management program. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activities of crude solvent extracts prepared from flowers and leaves of Ipomoea cairica and Ageratina adenophora against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus as target species. The plant extracts were prepared with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol solvents using sequential extraction method to determine the best extractant for subsequent isolation and characterization of active ingredient. The total yield of plant extract in the Soxhlet extraction ranged between 0.79% and 19.35%. The qualitative phytochemical study of the plant extracts from different solvents showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, saponins and tannins in different combinations. I. cairica and A. adenophora plant extracts were found to be effective against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus causing 77-100% mortality at 48h. Highest mortality was observed at 500ppm and the order of larvicidal action was observed to be of methanol extract of I. cairica flower>petroleum ether extract of A. adenophora leaf>chloroform extract of I. cairica leaf. High mortality (100%) with low LC50 and LT50 were observed in methanolic flower extract (LC50 - 8.43ppm; LT50 - 2.51h at 48h) of I. cairica, and petroleum ether (LC50 - 133.56ppm; LT50 - 9.45h at 48h) leaf extract of A. adenophora. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) values gradually decreased with the exposure periods, lethal time (LT50 and LT90) decreased with the concentration in bioassay experiment with the crude plant extracts. There was a significant correlation (three-way factorial ANOVA) was noticed among concentration of the plant extracts, exposure time and solvent extraction in relation to larval mortality (P<0.0001), which indicates that larval mortality is concentration dependent as well as time-dependent. Further in-depth study is needed to identify and characterize the active components present in the plant solvent extracts and implement the effective arboviral and filarial mosquito vector management program.

  2. Chemical composition and larvicidal activity of the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against Anopheles stephensi: a malarial vector mosquito.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, Annadurai; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2010-10-01

    Essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus was studied for its chemical composition and larvicidal potential against the malarial vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Totally 26 compounds were identified by GC and GC-MS. The major chemical compounds were carvacrol (28.65%) followed by thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), ρ-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%) and β-selinene (2.01%). The larvicidal assay was conducted to record the LC(50) and LC(90) values and the larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The LC(50) values of the oil were 33.54 (after 12 h) and 28.37 ppm (after 24 h). The LC(90) values of the oil were 70.27 (after 12 h) and 59.38 ppm (after 24 h). The results of the present study showed that the essential oil of P. amboinicus is one of the inexpensive and eco-friendly sources of natural mosquito larvicidal agent to control/reduce the population of malarial vector mosquito. PMID:20668876

  3. Indole acetic acid production by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. and their variation in extragenic repetitive DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Bedhya; Mustafa, Mariam; Manohar, Sneha; Patil, Savita V; Jayamohan, Nellickal Subramanian; Kumudini, Belur Satyan

    2015-06-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas (FP) is a heterogenous group of growth promoting rhizobacteria that regulate plant growth by releasing secondary metabolic compounds viz., indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide. In the present study, IAA producing FPs from the rhizosphere of Plectranthus amboinicus were characterized morphologically, biochemically and at the molecular level. Molecular identification of the isolates were carried out using Pseudomonas specific primers. The effect of varying time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h), Trp concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg x ml(-1)), temperature (10, 26, 37 and 50 ± 2 degrees C) and pH (6, 7 and 8) on IAA production by 10 best isolates were studied. Results showed higher IAA production at 72 h incubation, at 300 μg x ml(-1) Trp concentration, temperature 26 ± 2 degrees C and pH 7. TLC with acidified ethyl acetate extract showed that the IAA produced has a similar Rf value to that of the standard IAA. Results of TLC were confirmed by HPLC analysis. Genetic diversity of the isolates was also studied using 40 RAPD and 4 Rep primers. Genetic diversity parameters such as dominance, Shannon index and Simpson index were calculated. Out of 40 RAPD primers tested, 9 (2 OP-D series and 7 OP-E series) were shortlisted for further analysis. Studies using RAPD, ERIC, BOX, REP and GTG5 primers revealed that isolates exhibit significant diversity in repetitive DNA sequences irrespective of the rhizosphere. PMID:26155673

  4. Is salt stress tolerance in Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. associated with its nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbiosis? An analysis at the photosynthetic level.

    PubMed

    Batista-Santos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Alves, Paula; da Costa, Mário; Graça, Inês; Pais, Isabel P; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; Leitão, António E; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Ramalho, José C

    2015-11-01

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal tree which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia bacteria. This plant is commonly found in saline zones and is widely used to remediate marginal soils and prevent desertification. The nature of its ability to survive in extreme environments and the extent of Frankia contribution to stress tolerance remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the ability of C. glauca to cope with salt stress and the influence of the symbiosis on this trait. To this end, we analysed the impact of salt on plant growth, mineral contents, water relations, photosynthetic-related parameters and non-structural sugars in nodulated vs. non-nodulated plants. Although the effects on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance started to become measurable in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, photochemical (e.g., photosynthetic electron flow) and biochemical (e.g., activity of photosynthetic enzymes) parameters were only strongly impaired when NaCl levels reached 600 mM. These results indicate the maintenance of high tissue hydration under salt stress, probably associated with enhanced osmotic potential. Furthermore, the maintenance of photosynthetic assimilation potential (A(max)), together with the increase in the quantum yield of down-regulated energy dissipation of PSII (Y(NPQ)), suggested a down-regulation of photosynthesis instead of photo-damaging effects. A comparison of the impact of increasing NaCl levels on the activities of photosynthetic (RubisCO and ribulose-5 phosphate kinase) and respiratory (pyruvate kinase and NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase) enzymes vs. photosynthetic electron flow and fluorescence parameters, revealed that biochemical impairments are more limiting than photochemical damage. Altogether, these results indicate that, under controlled conditions, C. glauca tolerates high NaCl levels and that this capacity is linked to photosynthetic adjustments.

  5. Enhancement of immune responses to infectious bursal disease vaccine by supplement of an extract made from Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Z I; Xiao, C W; Hu, S H; Habib, M; Soomro, N A

    2010-06-01

    The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS. PMID:20460658

  6. Is salt stress tolerance in Casuarina glauca Sieb. ex Spreng. associated with its nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbiosis? An analysis at the photosynthetic level.

    PubMed

    Batista-Santos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Rodrigues, Ana P; Semedo, José N; Alves, Paula; da Costa, Mário; Graça, Inês; Pais, Isabel P; Scotti-Campos, Paula; Lidon, Fernando C; Leitão, António E; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I; Ramalho, José C

    2015-11-01

    Casuarina glauca is an actinorhizal tree which establishes root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia bacteria. This plant is commonly found in saline zones and is widely used to remediate marginal soils and prevent desertification. The nature of its ability to survive in extreme environments and the extent of Frankia contribution to stress tolerance remain unknown. Thus, we evaluated the ability of C. glauca to cope with salt stress and the influence of the symbiosis on this trait. To this end, we analysed the impact of salt on plant growth, mineral contents, water relations, photosynthetic-related parameters and non-structural sugars in nodulated vs. non-nodulated plants. Although the effects on photosynthesis and stomatal conductance started to become measurable in the presence of 200 mM NaCl, photochemical (e.g., photosynthetic electron flow) and biochemical (e.g., activity of photosynthetic enzymes) parameters were only strongly impaired when NaCl levels reached 600 mM. These results indicate the maintenance of high tissue hydration under salt stress, probably associated with enhanced osmotic potential. Furthermore, the maintenance of photosynthetic assimilation potential (A(max)), together with the increase in the quantum yield of down-regulated energy dissipation of PSII (Y(NPQ)), suggested a down-regulation of photosynthesis instead of photo-damaging effects. A comparison of the impact of increasing NaCl levels on the activities of photosynthetic (RubisCO and ribulose-5 phosphate kinase) and respiratory (pyruvate kinase and NADH-dependent malate dehydrogenase) enzymes vs. photosynthetic electron flow and fluorescence parameters, revealed that biochemical impairments are more limiting than photochemical damage. Altogether, these results indicate that, under controlled conditions, C. glauca tolerates high NaCl levels and that this capacity is linked to photosynthetic adjustments. PMID:26245981

  7. Enhancement of immune responses to infectious bursal disease vaccine by supplement of an extract made from Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. seeds.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Z I; Xiao, C W; Hu, S H; Habib, M; Soomro, N A

    2010-06-01

    The immunological effect of an extract from Momordica cochinchinensis seed (ECMS) on immune responses against infectious bursal disease (IBD) in chickens was evaluated. Fifty-two birds were equally divided into 4 groups and immunized with inactivated IBD vaccine alone (controls) or IBD vaccine emulsified with ECMS (20, 40, and 80 microg). Serum IgG antibody levels against IBD and BW were measured on 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d after immunization. The ELISA results revealed that the chickens that received 20 microg of ECMS had significantly enhanced antibody levels on 14, 21, 28, and 35 d when compared with controls (P<0.05). A significant increase in mitogenic stimulated lymphocyte proliferation was also recorded in all ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). No adverse effect of ECMS was noted on growth performance, although average weight gain was significantly higher in 20 microg (7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 d) and 40 or 80 microg (14 d) of ECMS groups as compared with controls (P<0.05; P<0.01). Further studies are suggested for the investigation of immunological effects of ECMS.

  8. Effects of Mikania glomerata Spreng. and Mikania laevigata Schultz Bip. ex Baker (Asteraceae) extracts on pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress caused by acute coal dust exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Freitas, T.P.; Silveira, P.C.; Rocha, L.G.; Rezin, G.T.; Rocha, J.; Citadini-Zanette, V.; Romao, P.T.; Dal-Pizzol, F.; Pinho, R.A.; Andrade, V.M.; Streck, E.L.

    2008-12-15

    Several studies have reported biological effects of Mikania glomerata and Mikania laevigata, used in Brazilian folk medicine for respiratory diseases. Pneumoconiosis is characterized by pulmonary inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In this work, we evaluated the effect of pretreatment with M. glomerata and M. laevigata extracts (MGE and MLE, respectively) (100 mg/kg, s.c.) on inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in lung of rats subjected to a single coal dust intratracheal instillation. Rats were pretreated for 2 weeks with saline solution, MGE, or MLE. On day 15, the animals were anesthetized, and gross mineral coal dust or saline solutions were administered directly in the lung by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen days after coal dust instillation, the animals were killed. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was obtained; total cell count and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were determined. In the lung, myeloperoxidase activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) level, and protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl contents were evaluated. In BAL of treated animals, we verified an increased total cell count and LDH activity. MGE and MLE prevented the increase in cell count, but only MLE prevented the increase in LDH. Myeloperoxidase and TBARS levels were not affected, protein carbonylation was increased, and the protein thiol levels were decreased by acute coal dust intratracheal administration. The findings also suggest that both extracts present an important protective effect on the oxidation of thiol groups. Moreover, pretreatment with MGE and MLE also diminished lung inflammatory infiltration induced by coal dust, as assessed by histopathologic analyses.

  9. Influence of salt stress on essential oil yield and composition of lemon grass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng. ssp. Laniger (Hook) Maire et Weil).

    PubMed

    Khadhri, Ayda; Neffati, Mohamed; Smiti, Samira; Nogueira, José Manuel F; Araujo, Maria Eduarda M

    2011-01-01

    Cymbopogon is an aromatic plant valued for its citrus scent aroma. In this article, the effect of saline irrigation water on yield and quality of Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. was evaluated. Compounds of essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and/or (13)C-NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that the growth of the aerial part was not affected at a concentration of 50 mmol NaCl. Under salt stress, the content of major chemical compounds was affected differently by the treatment level.

  10. Genetic resources of the functional food, teramnus labialis (L.f.) spreng for improving seed number, flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teramnus labialis is used as food in India and has potential to be used as a functional food vegetable in the U.S.A. Photoperiod-sensitive T. labialis accessions were grown in the greenhouse from 2010 to 2011 and evaluated for flavonol content, oil %, and fatty acid compositions. Significant variati...

  11. THE POWER OF WORDS WITH EMPHASIS ON THE CIVIL RIGHTS CRISIS--UNIT FOR TEAM ONE, CROTON SCHOOL. SUMMER 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BYRD, C.; AND OTHERS

    THE STUDENT SHOULD BE ABLE TO EXPRESS THE PURPOSE OF SYMBOLS AND USE WORDS IN SPEAKING AND WRITING A PARAGRAPH USING DIFFERENT FORMS OF WORDS OF DIFFERENT SHADES OF MEANING AND LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY. HE SHOULD BE ABLE TO ADD PREFIXES, SUFFIXES, AND OTHER AFFIXES TO A LIST OF ROOT WORDS AND UNDERSTAND WORDS AND THEIR ORIGINS. GIVEN A PARAGRAPH, THE…

  12. Thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the Croton River Basin, Putnam County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, Don J.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Putnam County, NY Department of Health, reviewed and compiled all available well information and aerial photographs to plot: (1) the locations of the wells and springs currently on file with USGS, and (2) the thickness and potential well yield of the stratified deposits in the county. These deposits consist either of glacial sand and gravel that lie primarily in glacially enlarged valleys, or of recent accumulations of clay, sand, and organic material on flood plains and within local depressions. Plate 1 shows the locations of all wells and springs in the area that are currently on file in USGS 's computerized data base; both bedrock wells and wells that tap till or stratified material are included. Also shown are the locations and depths of the wells, the reported depth to bedrock and yield, and the yield of all springs. Plate 2 shows the thickness of the stratified deposits as determined from logs of wells that were drilled through it; plate 3 shows the amount of water that a stratified deposit may be expected to yield to a new well. These estimates are based on the reported yields of the compiled wells. (Lantz-PTT)

  13. Assessing Changes in Impervious Area Using Land Use Maps of Different Resolution in the Croton NY City Water Supply Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerlot, C.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    With the advance of remote sensing, options arise for the hydrologic modeler to access both public domain and privately contracted watershed land cover maps. Land use classification processes using aerial photographs are highly variable depending on tools and training, but distinction between impervious and pervious land cover is relatively simple. Hydrologic models will estimate different runoff timing, volume, and water quality depending on the percent imperviousness of the watershed. This research will examine how percent imperviousness varies with changes in both radiometric and spatial land cover map resolution. WinHSPF was run with four distinct land cover maps derived from remote imagery: MRLC (30 m), LULC (1 km), contracted aerial photos (1 m), and processed digital (1 M) ortho quarter quads. Comparisons were made between map percent impervious cover and runoff timing and volume. A modified export coefficient model that tracks pollutant discharge through down gradient filters examined how estimated nutrient loading changed with differences in these land cover map products. Methods are suggested for updating estimates of percent impervious cover in coarser resolution maps using field data or other means.

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest of Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding how people of diverse cultural backgrounds have traditionally used plants and animals as medicinal substances during displacements is one of the most important objectives of ethnopharmacological studies. An ethnopharmacological survey conducted among migrants living in the Southeast Atlantic Forest remnants (Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil) is presented herein. Methods Ethnographical methods were used to select and interview the migrants, and botanical and zoological techniques were employed to collect the indicated resources. Results We interviewed five migrants who described knowledge on 12 animals and 85 plants. Only 78 plants were present in Diadema, they belong to 37 taxonomic families; 68 were used exclusively for medicinal purposes, whereas 10 were reported to be toxic and/or presented some restriction of use. These taxa were grouped into 12 therapeutic categories (e.g., gastrointestinal disturbances, inflammatory processes or respiratory problems) based on the 41 individual complaints cited by the migrants. While the twelve animal species were used by the migrants to treat nine complaints; these were divided into six categories, the largest of which related to respiratory problems. None of the animal species and only 57 of the 78 plant species analysed in the present study were previously reported in the pharmacological literature; the popular knowledge concurred with academic findings for 30 of the plants. The seven plants [Impatiens hawkeri W. Bull., Artemisia canphorata Vill., Equisetum arvensis L., Senna pendula (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, Zea mays L., Fevillea passiflora Vell. and Croton fuscescens Spreng)] and the two animals (Atta sexdens and Periplaneta americana) that showed maintenance of use among migrants during their displacement in Brazilian territory, have not been studied by pharmacologists yet. Conclusions Thus, they should be highlighted and focused in further pharmacology and phytochemical studies

  15. 3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York: New York, 1843. PLATE VI, SING SING KILL BRIDGE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  16. 49. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York, 1843. DISTRIBUTING RESERVIOR, PLATE XX. 5' x 7' negative - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  17. 44. Photocopied December 1977, from the original document found in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopied December 1977, from the original document found in Jervis' 'Proposition' notebook, Jervis Library. RECORD OF PROPOSITION RECEIVED ON SECTION 96 OF THE OLD CROTON AQUEDUCT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  18. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT YONKERS. PLATE SVIII, PAGE 108. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Saw Mill River Culvert, Spanning Nepperhan Avenue, Yonkers, Westchester County, NY

  19. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT MILL RIVER. PLATE XV, PAGE 104. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  20. 7. Photocopied December 1977, form F.B. Tower, Illustrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopied December 1977, form F.B. Tower, Illustrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT SING SING, PLATE XIII, PAGE 101. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  1. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT JEWELS BROOK, PLATE XVI, PAGE 105. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Jewels Brook Culvert, Spanning Station Road, Irvington, Westchester County, NY

  2. 1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied October 1976, from F.B. Tower, Illistrations of the Croton Aqueduct, New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1843. CROTON AQUEDUCT AT HASTINGS: ARCH PROVIDED ACCESS TO STONE QUARRY. PLATE XVII, PAGE 106. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  3. Effects of residential and agricultural land uses on the chemical quality of baseflow of small streams in the Croton Watershed, southeastern New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Findings— Concentrations of selected chemical constituents in baseflow were strongly affected by the predominant land use in a given basin. Land uses included forested undeveloped, unsewered residential, sewered residential, and agricultural (horse and dairy farms). A positive linear relation was indicated for chloride concentration in baseflow and the basin's annual rate of road-salt application (or density of two-lane roads). Chloride concentration exhibits a relatively stable relation to road-salt application rate or 2-lane road density throughout the year. Positive linear relations were indicated for nitrate concentration in baseflow and the basins unsewered housing density. Nitrate is characterized by a different relation to unsewered housing density for each season, with the highest observed nitrate concentrations during the winter and the lowest concentrations during the summer. Baseflow nitrate concentrations in sewered basins, and in unsewered basins with riparian wetland buffers between residential development and the stream, were lower than concentrations predicted from unsewered-housing density.

  4. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. PMID:26838808

  5. Antioxidative ability and membrane integrity in salt-induced responses of Casuarina glauca Sieber ex Spreng. in symbiosis with N2-fixing Frankia Thr or supplemented with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Scotti-Campos, Paula; Duro, Nuno; Costa, Mário da; Pais, Isabel P; Rodrigues, Ana P; Batista-Santos, Paula; Semedo, José N; Leitão, A Eduardo; Lidon, Fernando C; Pawlowski, Katharina; Ramalho, José C; Ribeiro-Barros, Ana I

    2016-06-01

    The actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca tolerates extreme environmental conditions, such as high salinity. This species is also able to establish a root-nodule symbiosis with N2-fixing bacteria of the genus Frankia. Recent studies have shown that C. glauca tolerance to high salt concentrations is innate and linked to photosynthetic adjustments. In this study we have examined the impact of increasing NaCl concentrations (200, 400 and 600mM) on membrane integrity as well as on the control of oxidative stress in branchlets of symbiotic (NOD+) and non-symbiotic (KNO3+) C. glauca. Membrane selectivity was maintained in both plant groups at 200mM NaCl, accompanied by an increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase). Regarding cellular membrane lipid composition, linolenic acid (C18:3) showed a significant decline at 200mM NaCl in both NOD+ and KNO3+ plants. In addition, total fatty acids (TFA) and C18:2 also decreased in NOD+ plants at this salt concentration, resulting in malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Such initial impact at 200mM NaCl is probably due to the fact that NOD+ plants are subjected to a double stress, i.e., salinity and low nitrogen availability. At 400mM NaCl a strong reduction of TFA and C18:3 levels was observed in both plant groups. This was accompanied by a decrease in the unsaturation degree of membrane lipids in NOD+. However, in both NOD+ and KNO3+ lipid modifications were not reflected by membrane leakage at 200 or 400mM, suggesting acclimation mechanisms at the membrane level. The fact that membrane selectivity was impaired only at 600mM NaCl in both groups of plants points to a high tolerance of C. glauca to salt stress independently of the symbiotic relation with Frankia. PMID:27070734

  6. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2.

  7. 19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopied December 1977, from 'Report of J.B.J.', Vol I, Jervis Library. CROSS SECTION OF CROTON DAM AS ORIGINALLY BUILT, SHOWING FORE-EMBANKMENT AND 1 TO 1-1/4 SLOPE ON DOWN RIVER SIDE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  8. 2. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied October 1976, from Theoph Schramke, Description of the New York Croton Aqueduct, New York and Berlin, At the Authors, 1845. 4'x 5' negative CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF HIGH BRIDGE, SHOWING PIER SECTIONS, ELEVATIONS, AND ARCH CENTERING. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Harlem River Crossing, Spanning Harlem River, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  9. Extraction of oil from Euphorbia Lagascae seeds by screw pressing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Euphorbia lagascae (Spreng.) is a drought tolerant plant native to Spain. Euphorbia seeds contain 45-50% oil with 60-65% of its fatty acids as vernolic (12S,13R-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic) acid. Vernolic acid has wide applications in paints and coatings, plasticizers, adhesives, polymers, and lubrican...

  10. Lantana montevidensis Essential Oil: Chemical Composition and Mosquito Repellent Activity against Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oil (EO) of Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. (L. sellowiana Link & Otto) was investigated for its chemical composition and mosquito repellent activity. The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of aerial plant parts was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major constituents we...

  11. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  12. Review of traditional and non-traditional medicinal genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU collection evaluated for flavonoid concentrations and anthocyanin indexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-traditional medicinal species include velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), Desmodium species, Termanus labialis (L.f.) Spreng. and the traditional species consists of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). There is a need to identify plant sources of flavonoids and anthocyanins since they have s...

  13. STIMULATION OF REDUCTIVE DECHLORINATION OF TETRA- CHLOROETHENE (PCE) IN ANAEROBIC AQUIFER MICROCOSMS BY ADDITION OF SHORT-CHAIN ORGANIC ACIDS OR ALCOHOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of the addition of common fermentation products on the dehalogenation of tetrachloroethene was studied in methanogenic slurries made with aquifer solids. Lactate, propionate, crotonate, butyrate, and ethanol stimulated dehalogenation activity, while acetate, methanol, ...

  14. 5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. SECTION OF AQUEDUCT SHOWING CAST-IRON LINING AS USED OVER BRIDGES. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  15. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose drawing in Jervis Library. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose drawing in Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF ORIGINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH BRIDGE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Harlem River Crossing, Spanning Harlem River, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  16. 31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopied December 1977, from plate in board of Alderman Document 55, NYC: January 4, 1838. PLANS FOR CROSSING THE HARLEM RIVER BY CAST IRON PIPES OR INVERTED SYPHON. - Old Croton Aqueduct, New York County, NY

  17. 3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING EAST. DISCHARGE OUTLET IS VISIBLE AT CENTER. WASTE WEIR BUILDING IS AT RIGHT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  18. 1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY, WITH WASTE WEIR VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  19. 4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST. WATER IN THE AQUEDUCT CAN CAN BE DIVERTED AT THE WASTE WEIR TO BE DISCHARGED INTO THE CULVERT IN FOREGROUND. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Northern Waste Weir, Snowden Avenue & Van Wick Street, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  20. Isolation and characterization of new ceramides from aerial parts of Lepidaploa cotoneaster.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Edlene O; Meira, Marilena; do Vale, Ademir E; David, Jorge M; de Queiróz, Luciano P; David, Juceni P

    2012-06-01

    Two new ceramides were isolated from the bulbs of Lepidaploa cotoneaster (Willd. ex Spreng.) H. Rob. [Vernonia cotoneaster (Willd. ex Spreng.) Less.)], in addition to germanicol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, 3-beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-sitosterol, lupeol, lupeoyl acetate and tiliroside. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectral techniques (MS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HSQC, HMBC, DEPT, and TOCSY) and were compared with data reported in literature, and were established as 2S*,2'R*,3S*,4R*,11E)-N-[2'-hydroxyhenicosanoyl]-2-amino-nonadec-11-ene-1,3,4-triol (1) and (2S*,2'R*,3S*,4R*,8E)-N-[2'-hydroxytricosanoyl]-2-amino-nonadec-8-ene-1,3,4-triol (2). To establish the structure and to locate the double bond, the methyl ester of the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) derivatives were prepared for both ceramides.

  1. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts. PMID:11849838

  2. Cytotoxic effect of Argentine medicinal plant extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Ruffa, M J; Ferraro, G; Wagner, M L; Calcagno, M L; Campos, R H; Cavallaro, L

    2002-03-01

    Methanolic extracts from Achyrocline satureioides (Dc.) Lam, Aristolochia macroura Gomez, Lithraea molleoides (Vell.) Engl., Schinus molle L., unlike those from Celtis spinosa Spreng, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Petiveria alliacea L., and Plantago major L. showed cytotoxic activity against a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, Hep G2. Schinus molle L. was the most active (IC50=50+/-7 microg/ml). These results call for further studies of these extracts.

  3. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  4. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model.

  5. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from original in 'Report of J.B.J.,'Vol. I, Jervis Library. ELEVATION OF SING SING KILL BRIDGE, SHOWING ORIGINAL PLAN FOR AN 80-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  6. 2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing, Jervis Library. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF AQUEDUCT BRIDGE AT SING SING, SHOWING ALL THREE ARCHES, INCLUDING 88-FOOT ARCH. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Sing Sing Kill Bridge, Spanning Aqueduct Street & Broadway, Ossining, Westchester County, NY

  7. 1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopied December 1977, from loose original engineering drawing (pencil), Jervis Library. INITIAL BRIDGE DESIGN FOR CROSSING MILL RIVER. STRUCTURE NOT BUILT. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Culvert, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  8. Nutritional features of Syntrophomonas wolfei

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, P.S.; McInerney, M.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Syntrophomonas wolfei subsp. wolfei grew poorly in a defined medium with crotonate as the energy source in the absence of rumen fluid. Thiamine, lipoic acid, biotin, cyanocobalamin, and para-aminobenzoic acid were required for growth comparable to that obtained with the rumen fluid-based medium. Iron and cobalt were also required for the growth of S. wolfei in the chemically defined medium.

  9. MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES AT MADISON AREA PROJECT SCHOOLS, SEPTEMBER 1963 - JUNE 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASH, KERMIT B.

    THE MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES BEGAN IN SEPTEMBER 1963 AT MADISON JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL, IRVING ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, AND CROTON ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. THE PROGRAM WAS DIVIDED INTO TWO BROAD CATEGORIES--PREVENTIVE SERVICE AND DIRECT SERVICE. THE PREVENTIVE SERVICES FOCUSSED INTERPRETATIONS OF MENTAL HEALTH THROUGH INSERVICE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR TEACHERS, GROUP…

  10. Pythagoras of Samos (c. 580-c. 500 BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mathematician, born in Samos, Ionia, taught by Thales and Anaximander on Miletus, founded a philosophical and religious school in Croton (in southern Italy) whose members, as well as having various beliefs that we would recognize as religious, believed that at its deepest level, reality is mathematical in nature. Pythagoras observed that vibrating strings produce harmonious tones when the ratios ...

  11. Changes in Benthic Invertebrate Communities During the Introduction of Zebra Mussels Into an Impounded Michigan River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenton, M.; Godby, N.; Rutherford, E.; Vankampen, S.

    2005-05-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, ZM) were introduced into the Croton impoundment on the Muskegon River, MI, sometime during the late 1990s, and subsequently colonized downstream. We evaluated changes in invertebrate communities in the Muskegon River during ZM colonization. ZM were not found in benthic samples collected during 1998-1999 but densities reached 12,000 m-2 and 26,000 m-2 in 2000 and 2001 respectively, immediately below the Croton impoundment. ZM densities remained relatively low (<70 m-2) at sites 1.75 km and 8.75 km downstream. Total arthropod densities increased from 1998-99 to 2001. Trichoptera densities declined at all sites in 2000 but recovered in 2001. The relative abundance of Hyropsychidae varied between 1998-99 and 2001 at each sample site. Cheumatopsyche sp. increased significantly below Croton dam occupying spaces within and below ZM clumps, but declined at downstream sites following introduction of ZM. Chironomidae were uncommon in 1998-99 samples but were numerically dominant in 2000 and 2001 averaging 16525 m-2 over both years. Data from 2003 indicated that ZM remove 32% of suspended Chl. a in the first 500 m below Croton Dam. Thus, ZM may affect benthic invertebrate communities in impounded river systems by redistributing particulate organic matter within the system.

  12. Effect of stalk and leaf extracts from Euphorbiaceae species on Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria Goretti Araújo de; Maia, Ismália Cassandra Costa; Sousa, Bruna Dantas de; Morais, Selene Maia de; Freitas, Sílvia Maria

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of essential oil aqueous solutions (hydrolates) obtained by steam distillation of stalks and leaves of Croton argyrophylloides, Croton nepetaefolius, Croton sonderianus and Croton zehntneri against Aedes aegypti larvae. Twenty-five larvae of third instar were placed in plastic beckers, containing the hydrolates (50 mL), in a four repetitions scheme. Water was used as control and the number of dead larvae was counted after 24 hours. The data obtained were submitted to Variance Analysis and Tukey test. Significant differences were observed among the hydrolates from different species and from different parts of each plant (p < 0.001). The hydrolates of stalk and leaf from C. nepetaefolius and C. zehntneri and leaf hydrolate of C. argyrophylloides presented 100% mortality against larvae. The compounds present in C. zenhtneri and C. nepetaefolius are oxygenated phenylpropanoids that are more soluble in water than the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes detected in the oils of C. argyrophylloides and C. sonderianus. This study showed that all species analyzed presented compounds with larvicidal properties, with differences between each plant parts. PMID:17119677

  13. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHTOFWAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING AQUEDUCT RIGHT-OF-WAY PASSING OVER RAILROAD LINE FROM STONE QUARRY. TRACKS ARE GONE BUT RIGHT-OF-WAY IS STILL VISIBLE. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Quarry Railroad Bridge, Aqueduct Lane at Williams Street, Hastings-on-Hudson, Westchester County, NY

  14. Biological control of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) using coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Amal I; El Arnaouty, Said A; Attia, Angel R; Abd Alla, Asmaa El-Metwally

    2010-03-01

    The coccinellid predator, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was used to control the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on the croton ornamental shrubs, Codiaeum variegatum L. at Giza governorate, Egypt. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, 50 adults/Croton shrub, were released once on October 27, 2008 in the open field. Obtained results indicated that percentages of reduction among the egg masses, nymphs and adults of P. citri, one month after releasing the predator reached to 41.5, 42.3 and 57.5%, respectively. Two months later, the corresponding rates were 80.6, 86.5 and 91.5%. Finally, after three months of releasing the predator, reduction rates reached to 100% for all stages of the pest. The associated natural enemies in the field were consisted of three predaceous insects and one parasitic species. The insect predators secured were the hemerobiid predator, Sympherobius amicus Navas; the coccinellid predator, Scymnus syriacus (Mars.) and the chrysopid predator, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens). The parasitic species was the encyrtid, Coccidoxenoides peregrinus (Timberlake). The aforementioned natural enemies were found feeding on the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri infesting croton shrubs. In the second season, 2009 there is no mealybug, P. citri individuals were found on the croton shrubs.

  15. 2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW SHOWING WASTE WEIR AT MILL RIVER. MILL RIVER CULVERT (HAER NY-112) IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT HAND CORNER. - Old Croton Aqueduct, Mill River Waste Weir, U.S. Route 9 at Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, Tarrytown, Westchester County, NY

  16. Assignment of fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria to Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov. on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, H.; Yang, D.; Woese, C. R.; Bryant, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    After enrichment from Chinese rural anaerobic digestor sludge, anaerobic, sporing and nonsporing, saturated fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria were isolated as cocultures with H2- and formate-utilizing Methanospirillum hungatei or Desulfovibrio sp. strain G-11. The syntrophs degraded C4 to C8 saturated fatty acids, including isobutyrate and 2-methylbutyrate. They were adapted to grow on crotonate and were isolated as pure cultures. The crotonate-grown pure cultures alone did not grow on butyrate in either the presence or the absence of some common electron acceptors. However, when they were reconstituted with M. hungatei, growth on butyrate again occurred. In contrast, crotonate-grown Clostridium kluyveri and Clostridium sticklandii, as well as Clostridium sporogenes, failed to grow on butyrate when these organisms were cocultured with M. hungatei. The crotonate-grown pure subcultures of the syntrophs described above were subjected to 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Several previously documented fatty acid-beta-oxidizing syntrophs grown in pure cultures with crotonate were also subjected to comparative sequence analyses. The sequence analyses revealed that the new sporing and nonsporing isolates and other syntrophs that we sequenced, which had either gram-negative or gram-positive cell wall ultrastructure, all belonged to the phylogenetically gram-positive phylum. They were not closely related to any of the previously known subdivisions in the gram-positive phylum with which they were compared, but were closely related to each other, forming a new subdivision in the phylum. We recommend that this group be designated Syntrophomonadaceae fam. nov.; a description is given.

  17. Direct Production of Propene from the Thermolysis of Poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB). An Experimental and DFT Investigation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jared M; Pilath, Heidi M; Mittal, Ashutosh; Michener, William E; Robichaud, David J; Johnson, David K

    2016-01-28

    We demonstrate a synthetic route toward the production of propene directly from poly(β-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), the most common of a wide range of high-molecular-mass microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Propene, a major commercial hydrocarbon, was obtained from the depolymerization of PHB and subsequent decarboxylation of the crotonic acid monomer in good yields (up to 75 mol %). The energetics of PHB depolymerization and the gas-phase decarboxylation of crotonic acid were also studied using density functional theory (DFT). The average activation energy for the cleavage of the R'C(O)O-R linkage is calculated to be 163.9 ± 7.0 kJ mol(-1). Intramolecular, autoacceleration effects regarding the depolymerization of PHB, as suggested in some literature accounts, arising from the formation of crotonyl and carboxyl functional groups in the products could not be confirmed by the results of DFT and microkinetic modeling. DFT results, however, suggest that intermolecular catalysis involving terminal carboxyl groups may accelerate PHB depolymerization. Activation energies for this process were estimated to be about 20 kJ mol(-1) lower than that for the noncatalyzed ester cleavage, 144.3 ± 6.4 kJ mol(-1). DFT calculations predict the decarboxylation of crotonic acid to follow second-order kinetics with an activation energy of 147.5 ± 6.3 kJ mol(-1), consistent with that measured experimentally, 146.9 kJ mol(-1). Microkinetic modeling of the PHB to propene overall reaction predicts decarboxylation of crotonic acid to be the rate-limiting step, consistent with experimental observations. The results also indicate that improvements made to enhance the isomerization of crotonic acid to vinylacetic acid will improve the direct conversion of PHB to propene. PMID:26698331

  18. Apoptosis Effect of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Cheah, Shiau-Chuen; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Syam, Suvitha; Shamsuddin, Noorasyikin; Rais Mustafa, Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Murraya koenigii Spreng has been traditionally claimed as a remedy for cancer. The current study investigated the anticancer effects of girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from Murraya koenigii Spreng, on A549 lung cancer cells in relation to apoptotic mechanistic pathway. Girinimbine was isolated from Murraya koenigii Spreng. The antiproliferative activity was assayed using MTT and the apoptosis detection was done by annexin V and lysosomal stability assays. Multiparameter cytotoxicity assays were performed to investigate the change in mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c translocation. ROS, caspase, and human apoptosis proteome profiler assays were done to investigate the apoptotic mechanism of cell death. The MTT assay revealed that the girinimbine induces cell death with an IC50 of 19.01 μM. A significant induction of early phase of apoptosis was shown by annexin V and lysosomal stability assays. After 24 h treatment with 19.01 μM of girinimbine, decrease in the nuclear area and increase in mitochondrial membrane potential and plasma membrane permeability were readily visible. Moreover the translocation of cytochrome c also was observed. Girinimbine mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through up- and downregulation of apoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins. There was a significant involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Moreover, the upregulation of p53 as well as the cell proliferation repressor proteins, p27 and p21, and the significant role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling were also identified. Moreover the caspases 3 and 8 were found to be significantly activated. Our results taken together indicated that girinimbine may be a potential agent for anticancer drug development. PMID:23573145

  19. Two new species of the genus Deltophora Janse, 1950 (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Houhun; Wang, Zhibo; Sattler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Two Chinese species of the genus Deltophora Janse (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), both in obligate mutualism with the plant genus Phyllanthus L. (Phyllanthaceae), are newly described: Deltophora phyllanthicella Li et Sattler sp. n., from Hainan, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus rheophyticus Gilbert et Li; Deltophora polliniferens Li et Sattler sp. n., from Guangdong, a pollinator of its larval host Phyllanthus cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. The adults and the male and female genital structures of both species are described and illustrated. The presence of a fully developed 1st instar larva in the female abdomen of Deltophora phyllanthicella is recorded as the first such case in Gelechiidae. PMID:27395482

  20. Slope variation and population structure of tree species from different ecological groups in South Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Edmilson; Garcia, Cristina C; Pimenta, José A; Torezan, José M D

    2010-09-01

    Size structure and spatial arrangement of 13 abundant tree species were determined in a riparian forest fragment in Paraná State, South Brazil (23°16'S and 51°01'W). The studied species were Aspidosperma polyneuron Müll. Arg., Astronium graveolens Jacq. and Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng) Harms (emergent species); Alseis floribunda Schott, Ruprechtia laxiflora Meisn. and Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. (shade-intolerant canopy species); Machaerium paraguariense Hassl, Myroxylum peruiferum L. and Chrysophyllum gonocarpum (Mart. & Eichler ex Miq.) Engl. (shade-tolerant canopy species); Sorocea bonplandii (Baill.) Bürger, Trichilia casaretti C. Dc, Trichilia catigua A. Juss. and Actinostemon concolor (Spreng.) Müll. Arg. (understory small trees species). Height and diameter structures and basal area of species were analyzed. Spatial patterns and slope correlation were analyzed by Moran's / spatial autocorrelation coefficient and partial Mantel test, respectively. The emergent and small understory species showed the highest and the lowest variations in height, diameter and basal area. Size distribution differed among emergent species and also among canopy shade-intolerant species. The spatial pattern ranged among species in all groups, except in understory small tree species. The slope was correlated with spatial pattern for A. polyneuron, A. graveolens, A. floribunda, R. laxiflora, M. peruiferum and T. casaretti. The results indicated that most species occurred in specific places, suggesting that niche differentiation can be an important factor in structuring the tree community.

  1. [Allergic reaction after contact with Hura crepitans (sandbox tree)].

    PubMed

    Thumm, E J; Bayerl, C; Goerdt, S

    2002-03-01

    We describe a 36-year-old female patient with angioedema-like swellings and rhinoconjunctivitis for 1 year occurring exclusively at her home. The clinical history revealed no correlation with foods, food additives, drugs, or aeroallergens. The complaints always started immediately after contact with the sandbox tree (Hura crepitans) placed in her apartment. Scratch testing resulted in a two-fold positive reaction towards leaves and stem, while five controls remained negative. Thus we suggest the reaction of the patient to be allergic in nature. Hura crepitans belongs to the family of Euphorbiaceae, whose largest genera are Euphorbia and Croton. The toxic reactions to the milky sap, the so-called latex, of these plants are caused by ingredients such as phorbol esters, croton oil, lectins, and terpens. Various terpens are also well known as allergens. Phytotoxic and phytoallergic reactions are growing increasingly important and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in dermatology.

  2. Density functional theory study of electroreductive hydrocoupling of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Kise, Naoki

    2006-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The electroreductive hydrocoupling of methyl cinnamate, methyl crotonate, cumarin, and benzalacetone was studied by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++ G**) calculations. The computational outcomes for the transition states in the hydrocoupling of anion radicals generated by a one-electron transfer to the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds well agree with the diastereoselectivities in the experimental results previously reported. PMID:17109548

  3. Chemopreventive potential of Annona muricata L leaves on chemically-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hamizah, Sulaiman; Roslida, A H; Fezah, O; Tan, K L; Tor, Y S; Tan, C I

    2012-01-01

    Annona muricata L (Annonaceae), commonly known as soursop has a long, rich history in herbal medicine with a lengthy recorded indigenous use. It had also been found to be a promising new anti-tumor agent in numerous in vitro studies. The present investigation concerns chemopreventive effects in a two-stage model of skin papillomagenesis. Chemopreventive effects of an ethanolic extract of A. muricata leaves (AMLE) was evaluated in 6-7 week old ICR mice given a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenza(α)anthracene (DMBA 100 μg/100 μl acetone) and promotion by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone/ twice a week) for 10 weeks. Morphological tumor incidence, burden and volume were measured, with histological evaluation of skin tissue. Topical application of AMLE at 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced DMBA/croton oil induced mice skin papillomagenesis in (i) peri-initiation protocol (AMLE from 7 days prior to 7 days after DMBA), (ii) promotion protocol (AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil), or (iii) both peri-initiation and promotion protocol (AMLE 7 days prior to 7 day after DMBA and AMLE 30 minutes after croton oil throughout the experimental period), in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) as compared to carcinogen-treated control. Furthermore, the average latent period was significantly increased in the AMLE-treated group. Interestingly, At 100 and 300 mg/ kg, AMLE completely inhibited the tumor development in all stages. Histopathological study revealed that tumor growth from the AMLE-treated groups showed only slight hyperplasia and absence of keratin pearls and rete ridges. The results, thus suggest that the A.muricata leaves extract was able to suppress tumor initiation as well as tumor promotion even at lower dosage.

  4. The heliocentric system from the Orphic Hymns and the Pythagoreans to emperor Julian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Dacanalis, Aris; Dimitrijević, Milan, S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    The evolution of the heliocentric theory in the antiquity has been analyzed, from the first seeds in the Orphic Hymns to the emperor Julian, also called "the Apostate" in the 4th century A.D. In particular the Orphic Hymns, views of Pythagoreans, as well as the heliocentric ideas of Philolaus of Croton, Icetas, Ecphantus, Heraclides of Pontos, Anaximander, Seleucus of Seleucia, Aristarchus of Samos and Emperor Julian were analyzed.

  5. Histone lysine crotonylation during acute kidney injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Andres, Olga; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Cannata-Ortiz, Pablo; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanz, Ana Belen

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially lethal condition for which no therapy is available beyond replacement of renal function. Post-translational histone modifications modulate gene expression and kidney injury. Histone crotonylation is a recently described post-translational modification. We hypothesized that histone crotonylation might modulate kidney injury. Histone crotonylation was studied in cultured murine proximal tubular cells and in kidneys from mice with AKI induced by folic acid or cisplatin. Histone lysine crotonylation was observed in tubular cells from healthy murine and human kidney tissue. Kidney tissue histone crotonylation increased during AKI. This was reproduced by exposure to the protein TWEAK in cultured tubular cells. Specifically, ChIP-seq revealed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. To assess the role of crotonylation in kidney injury, crotonate was used to increase histone crotonylation in cultured tubular cells or in the kidneys in vivo. Crotonate increased the expression of PGC-1α and sirtuin-3, and decreased CCL2 expression in cultured tubular cells and healthy kidneys. Systemic crotonate administration protected from experimental AKI, preventing the decrease in renal function and in kidney PGC-1α and sirtuin-3 levels as well as the increase in CCL2 expression. For the first time, we have identified factors such as cell stress and crotonate availability that increase histone crotonylation in vivo. Overall, increasing histone crotonylation might have a beneficial effect on AKI. This is the first observation of the in vivo potential of the therapeutic manipulation of histone crotonylation in a disease state. PMID:27125278

  6. Motor fuel additive and ori-inhibited motor fuel composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R.L.

    1989-09-26

    This patent describes a composition. It is obtained by reacting, at a temperature of 30{sup 0}C-200C 0.5-2.5 moles of one or more aliphatic carboxylic acids selected from the group consisting of formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, pivalic, acrylic, propiolie, methacylic, crotonic, isocrfotonic, maleic and fumaric acid; and 0.5-1.5 moles of a polyoxyalkylene diamine.

  7. [A fundamental study on a bioassay for the antiphlogistic effect of topically applied antiinflammatory agents (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Hattori, S; Hakoda, T; Miyazaki, M; Tho, T; Furukawa, T

    1979-11-01

    To establish a reliable laboratory assay for quantitating topical anti-inflammatory efficacy, the method of Tonelli et al was modified by employing felt fixed forceps, felt and sharp punch in Wistar rats. Croton oil, applied topically to the rat ear, elicited an acute phlogistic response which was maximal 6 hr after the application. The phlogistic response elicited by a single topical application of croton oil (1, 2, 5 and 10%) was increased in a dose-dependent manner, and croton oil, 5%, induced 63.2% increase of ear weight and was the optimal concentration for the experiment. Using this procedure, the antiphlogistic potencies of two corticoids were assayed under conditions of a blind test. ED50 of betamethasone valerate and diflucortolone valerate was 0.26 mg/ml and 0.0097 mg/ml, respectively, in Wistar rats, and 0.86 mg/ml and 0.016 mg/ml in Sprague Dawley rats, suggesting that diflucortolone valerate has an antiphlogistic potency of 27-56 relative to that seen with betamethasone valerate with minor differences in the strain of the rat. Our method should prove to be a useful assay for rapidly quantitating antiphlogistic activities of topically applied corticoids. PMID:544396

  8. [Neriproct: its anti-inflammatory effect on an experimentally induced hemorrhoid model in the rat].

    PubMed

    Nishiki, K; Kudoh, D; Nishinaga, K; Iwai, K; Nakagawa, H

    1988-10-01

    Several glucocorticoids as a cream formulation were applied to the recto-anus of the croton-oil-induced hemorrhoid rat. Among the steroids tested, i.e. diflucortolone valerate (DFV), prednisolone (PS), hydrocortisone caproate (HC), and hydrocortisone (H), DFV was found to suppress inflammation most effectively. The effect of DFV was not affected by combination with lidocaine. In this model, the analgesic effect of lidocaine was apparently prolonged by an increase of the threshold for pain by the anti-inflammatory effect of DFV. This additive effect is regarded as a merit of the combination in Neriproct. Therapeutic effects of Neriproct and several anti-hemorrhoid drugs were also examined by using a hemorrhoid model with abrasive irritation compared to those obtained by the croton-oil model. In both models, efficacy of Neriproct was superior to that of the other drugs such as Scheriproct, Proctosedyl, Posterisan forte, Borraginol N, Posterisan and Borraza G. Microscopic observation showed that destruction of the mucus epithelium, necrosis of the mucus layer, infiltration of inflammatory cells and vasodilatation in the croton-oil model were also suppressed markedly by Neriproct application. No difference was observed in the efficacy between the cream and suppository formulation of Neriproct. Suppression of wound healing was found with a dosage of DFV lower than those of PS, HC and H. However, the efficacy ratio of the wound-healing suppression and anti-inflammation of DFV was the largest among the steroids tested. PMID:3243509

  9. An Improved Experimental Model of Hemorrhoids in Rats: Evaluation of Antihemorrhoidal Activity of an Herbal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Viswanatha, Gollapalle Lakshminarayanashastry; Thippeswamy, Agadi HireMath; Baig, Mirza Rizwan; Kavya, Kethaganahalli Jayaramaiah; Patki, Pralhad Sadashiv; Shyam, Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To improve the existing experimental model of croton oil-induced hemorrhoids in rats by using Evans Blue (EB) dye extravasation technique. Further, an herbal formulation (Pilex) was evaluated for its antihemorrhoidal activity in this model. Methods. Two sets of experiments were carried out: first to improve the experimental model and to validate the same using Pilex and second to evaluate the effect of Pilex on cytoarchitecture of rectoanal tissue in croton oil-induced hemorrhoids. In both sets, hemorrhoids were induced to all the animals, except normal controls, by applying croton oil via rectoanal region and the effect of Pilex ointment (PO), Pilex granules (PG), and combination of PG and PO was evaluated. In the first set, extravasation of EB dye, TNF-α, IL-6, and rectoanal coefficient (RAC) was determined. In the second set, severity of score, RAC, and histopathology were evaluated. Results. The elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and extravasations of EB dye were decreased with the Pilex treatment. The cytoarchitecture of rectoanal portion of the animals treated with Pilex was near to normal. Conclusion. The improved experimental model of hemorrhoid is useful in quantifying the inflammatory exudates and extent of inflammation. In this improved experimental model Pilex showed antihemorrhoidal activity, which further validates its clinical usage. PMID:25006493

  10. The Effect of Zebra Mussels on Algal Community Structure in an Impounded River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumble, A. F.; Luttenton, M.

    2005-05-01

    The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, invaded the Great Lakes Region in the mid 1980's, and subsequently colonized inland lakes and coastal river systems through secondary invasions. The Muskegon River below Croton Dam was colonized by zebra mussels in 2000 following their introduction into Croton impoundment in the late 1990's. No zebra mussels were found below Croton Dam in 1999 but had increased to 25,000 m-2 by 2001. We examined the affect of zebra mussels on epilithic periphyton communities by comparing plots that were and were not colonized by zebra mussels. Chlorophyll a increased in both treatments over time but was significantly higher in control plots than in zebra mussel plots. The concentration of chlorophyll a in the control plots increased from 14 µgcm-2 to 26 µgcm-2 and the concentration in the zebra mussel plots started at 12 µgcm-2, peaked at 19 µgcm-2, and then decreased to 15 µgcm-2 over a 6 week period. In a related experiment using artificial streams, chlorophyll a increased with increasing zebra mussel density, but differences were not significant. The different trends observed between the two experiments may be explained in part by arthropod invertebrates associated with zebra mussel populations.

  11. Hydrograph sensitivity to estimates of map impervious cover: a WinHSPF BASINS case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, Theodore A.; Somerlot, Christopher; Hassett, James M.

    2003-04-01

    The BASINS geographic information system hydrologic toolkit was designed to compute total maximum daily loads, which are often derived by combining water quantity estimates with pollutant concentration estimates. In this paper the BASINS toolkit PLOAD and WinHSPF sub-models are briefly described, and then a 0·45 km2 headwater watershed in the New York Croton River area is used for a case study illustrating a full WinHSPF implementation. The goal of the Croton study was to determine the sensitivity of WinHSPF hydrographs to changes in land cover map inputs. This scenario occurs when scaling the WinHSPF model from the smaller 0·45 km2 watershed to the larger 1000 km2 management basin of the entire Croton area. Methods used to test model sensitivity include first calibrating the WinHSPF hydrograph using research-monitored precipitation and discharge data together with high spatial resolution and accuracy land cover data of impervious and pervious areas, and then swapping three separate land cover files, known as GIRAS, MRLC, and DOQQ data, into the calibrated model. Research results indicated that the WinHSPF land cover swapping had peak flow sensitivity in December 2001 hydrographs between 35% underestimation and 20% overestimation, and that errors in land-cover-derived runoff ratios for storm totals and peak flows tracked with the land cover data estimates of impervious area.

  12. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Rodrigo; Nascimento, Marcus Vinícius Mariano; de Carvalho, Adryano Augustto Valladão; Valadares, Marize Campos; de Paula, José Realino; Costa, Elson Alves; da Cunha, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Synadenium umbellatum Pax., popularly known in Brazil as “cola-nota,” “avelós,” “cancerola,” and “milagrosa”, is a plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, and several diseases. This study aimed to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. leaves (EES) and its hexane (HF), chloroform (CF), and methanol/water (MF) fractions using the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test, formalin-induced paw licking test, tail flick test, croton oil-induced ear edema test, and carrageenan-induced peritonitis test. EES and MF reduced the number of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes, while CF and HF did not. EES effect on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing was reversed with a pretreatment with naloxone. EES reduced licking time in both phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test, but did not prolong the latency in the tail flick test. These results show that EES presented antinociceptive activity, probably involving the opioid system, anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test, and leukocyte migration into the intraperitoneal cavity. MF also presented anti-inflammatory activity in the croton oil-induced ear edema test. In conclusion, EES and MF have antinociceptive activity involving the opioid system and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:23401717

  13. Neogene to Quaternary evolution of the Calabrian Subduction System, (Central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minelli, L.; Pepe, F.; Bertotti, G.; Faccenna, C.

    2009-04-01

    We construct an ESE striking to WNW geological cross-section across the Calabrian Subduction System (Central Mediterranean) using seismic near vertical profiles and field data. The interpreted profiles were time-to-depth converted, merged and translated in a geological section stretching from the Marsili Oceanic Basin (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea) to the Ionian accretionary complex . Moving toward the east, the resulting section through the Paola, Amantea, and Crati basins, the Coastal Chain and Sila Massif and Crotone basin. The maximum elongation of these basins change progressively moving toward the east: from NNW in the Paola to NS in the Crati to the NNE in the Crotone basins. Data we present suggest that: Across the Calabria Tyrrhenian Continental Margin (CTCM), top of Kabilian-Calabrian Unit (KCU) is laterally variable in depth forming basins, which are separated by major structures with contractional or transcurrent kinematics, filled by Oligo-Miocene clastic to evaporitic deposits up to 1500m thick. Plio-Quaternary deposits display a remarkable variation in thickness from 4.5 km in the Paola Basin to less than 400m in the central sector of the margin. Plio-Quaternary sediments are internally sub-divisible into four sub-units (namely D1-D4) separated by tectonics enhanced angular unconformities. W-ward vergent reverse faults with limited vertical displacement offset the top of KCU as well as the Oligo-Miocene sedimentary and evaporitic units in the eastern side of the Paola basin. On land (Amantea - Crati) and farther to the east (Crotone basin) below a Messinian-Pleistocene deposits the top of KCU is variable structured and covered by a Oligo-Miocene clastic deposits with different thickness. The Plio-Quaternary deposits, unconformably overlay the Messinian and older deposits, show the maximum thickness in the Crotone basin. Two main tectonic unconformities within the Plio-Quaternary deposits have been recognised allowing the separation of this unit into three

  14. (210)Po and (210)Pb in medicinal plants in the region of Karnataka, Southern India.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekara, K; Somashekarappa, H M

    2016-08-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb were estimated in some selected medicinal plants and soil samples of coastal Karnataka in India. The mean activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb varied in the range of 4.7-42.9 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 36.1-124 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) in the soil samples, and 3.3-63.7 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) and 12.0-406 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight), in the medicinal plant samples, respectively. The plants, Ocimum sanctum L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng had significantly higher activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb than other species sampled. In spite of disequilibrium between them, these two radionuclides were well correlated in both soil and medicinal plants. PMID:27155527

  15. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides. PMID:9853421

  16. Momordica cochinchinensis Aril Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Petchsak, Phuchong; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2015-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (MC) has been used in traditional medicine due to its high carotenoid content. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of MC on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A lycopene-enriched aril extract of MC (AE) showed cytotoxicity and antiestrogenicity to MCF-7 cells. On DAPI staining, AE induced cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation were evident. With flow cytometric analysis, AE increased the percentage of cells in an early apoptosis stage when compared with the control group. RT-PCR analysis showed AE to significantly increase the expression of the proapoptotic bax gene without effect on expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. Moreover, AE enhanced caspase 6, 8 and 9 activity. Taken together, we conclude that AE of MC fruit has anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of signaling. PMID:26225702

  17. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations. PMID:25427632

  18. Momordica cochinchinensis Aril Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Petchsak, Phuchong; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2015-01-01

    Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng (MC) has been used in traditional medicine due to its high carotenoid content. The objective of this study was to investigate mechanisms underlying apoptotic effects of MC on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. A lycopene-enriched aril extract of MC (AE) showed cytotoxicity and antiestrogenicity to MCF-7 cells. On DAPI staining, AE induced cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation were evident. With flow cytometric analysis, AE increased the percentage of cells in an early apoptosis stage when compared with the control group. RT-PCR analysis showed AE to significantly increase the expression of the proapoptotic bax gene without effect on expression of the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 gene. Moreover, AE enhanced caspase 6, 8 and 9 activity. Taken together, we conclude that AE of MC fruit has anticancer effects on human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by induction of cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of signaling.

  19. Studies on Kochiae Fructus. V. Antipruritic effects of oleanolic acid glycosides and the structure-requirement.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Dai, Y; Ido, Y; Murakami, T; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M; Kubo, M

    1998-11-01

    We examined the antipruritic effects of various oleanolic acid glycosides from natural medicines such as Kochiae Fructus (the fruit of Kochia scoparia SCHRAD.) and Momordicae Radix (the roots of Momordica cochinchinensis SPRENG.) using a compound 48/80-induced pruritic model in mice. Oleanolic acid 3-O-monodesmosides showed an antipruritic effect, while oleanolic acid 3,28-O-bisdesmosides and their common sapogenol oleanolic acid lacked the activity. This evidence indicated that the 3-O-glycoside moiety and the 28-carboxyl group in oleanolic acid glycosides were essential for exhibiting the antipruritic effect. Furthermore, it was found that the 3-O-glucuronides showed more potent activity than the corresponding 3-O-glucosides.

  20. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant. PMID:26602353

  1. Phenology of two Ficus species in seasonal semi-deciduous forest in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A

    2015-11-01

    We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.

  2. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  3. Investigation of in vivo potential of scorpion venom against skin tumorigenesis in mice via targeting markers associated with cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Al Asmari, Abdulrahman K; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world in spite of the advances made in its management. In this study, we investigated the in vivo anti-tumorigenic potential of the venom obtained from a medically important scorpion species Leiurus quinquestriatus on chemically induced skin cancer in mice. Animals were divided into five groups, with 13 animals in each group. All the treatments were given topically on the shaved dorsal surface of the skin. Animals in Group 1 received vehicle only (0.2 mL acetone). Moreover, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 400 nmol per mouse) was applied to all the animals in the remaining four groups. After 1 week, different concentrations of venom (17.5 μg, 35 μg, and 52.5 μg per animal) were applied to each animal in the Groups III–V. Thirty minutes after the application of venom, croton oil was applied on the same position where venom was administered to the animals of Groups III–V. Animals in Group II were treated as the positive control (without venom) and received croton oil as in Groups III–V. The findings of this study revealed that venom extract of L. quinquestriatus inhibits DMBA + croton oil-induced mouse skin tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity. Venom treatment also decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Immunohistochemistry results showed a downregulation of the expression of molecular markers such as Ki-67, nuclear factor kappa-B, cyclooxygenase-2, B-cell lymphoma-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor, in venom-treated animals. Our findings suggest that the venom of L. quinquestriatus possesses in vivo anticancer potential and may be used in the development of anticancer molecules. PMID:27799739

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of the chloroform extract of Pulicaria guestii ameliorated the neutrophil infiltration and nitric oxide generation in rats.

    PubMed

    Alghaithy, A A; El-Beshbishy, H A; Abdel-Naim, A B; Nagy, A A; Abdel-Sattar, E M

    2011-11-01

    Pulicaria guestii Rech.f. & Rawi is a fragrant, perennial herb, which grows wild, west of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Several reports were published on the anti-inflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactones, phenolics and flavonoids, which constitute the main active constituents of the members of the genus Pulicaria. The present study was designed to explore the potential anti-inflammatory effect of P. guestii in several experimental models. The methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of P. guestii was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. The chloroform extract was analysed on TLC and examined under UV and visible light in presence of AlCl(3) spray. The free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content in the CHCl(3) extract were estimated. The crude methanol extract and the CHCl(3) fraction were examined against carrageenin-induced paw edema and ear edema induced by croton oil application. The crude methanolic extract significantly reduced carrageenin-induced rat paw edema. After fractionation, the chloroform fraction caused significant reduction in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the inflammatory exudates. Topical application of chloroform fraction significantly reduced rat ear edema induced by croton oil application. In the same model, chloroform fraction reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by the significant decrease in myeloperoxidase activity, and ameliorated histopathological changes induced by croton oil application. In lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat air pouch, chloroform fraction significantly reduced the nitric oxide level and tumor necrosis factor-α release. In conclusion, the chloroform fraction of P. guestii extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for this anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. Two Pathways for Glutamate Biosynthesis in the Syntrophic Bacterium Syntrophus aciditrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Marie; Le, Huynh M.; Xie, Xiulan; Feng, Xueyang; Tang, Yinjie J.; Mouttaki, Housna; McInerney, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic metabolism of crotonate, benzoate, and cyclohexane carboxylate by Syntrophus aciditrophicus grown syntrophically with Methanospirillum hungatei provides a model to study syntrophic cooperation. Recent studies revealed that S. aciditrophicus contains Re-citrate synthase but lacks the common Si-citrate synthase. To establish whether the Re-citrate synthase is involved in glutamate synthesis via the oxidative branch of the Krebs cycle, we have used [1-13C]acetate and [1-14C]acetate as well as [13C]bicarbonate as additional carbon sources during axenic growth of S. aciditrophicus on crotonate. Our analyses showed that labeled carbons were detected in at least 14 amino acids, indicating the global utilization of acetate and bicarbonate. The labeling patterns of alanine and aspartate verified that pyruvate and oxaloacetate were synthesized by consecutive carboxylations of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). The isotopomer profile and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of the obtained [13C]glutamate, as well as decarboxylation of [14C]glutamate, revealed that this amino acid was synthesized by two pathways. Unexpectedly, only the minor route used Re-citrate synthase (30 to 40%), whereas the majority of glutamate was synthesized via the reductive carboxylation of succinate. This symmetrical intermediate could have been formed from two acetates via hydration of crotonyl-CoA to 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. 4-Hydroxybutyrate was detected in the medium of S. aciditrophicus when grown on crotonate, but an active hydratase could not be measured in cell extracts, and the annotated 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydratase (SYN_02445) lacks key amino acids needed to catalyze the hydration of crotonyl-CoA. Besides Clostridium kluyveri, this study reveals the second example of a microbial species to employ two pathways for glutamate synthesis. PMID:26431966

  6. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.

  7. Tetrabutylammonium bromide media aza-Michael addition of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide to symmetrical fumaric esters and acrylic esters under solvent-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Imanzadeh, Gholamhassan; Ahmadi, Farzaneh; Zamanloo, Mohammadreza; Mansoori, Yagoub

    2010-10-21

    The aza-Michael addition of 1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalimide with symmetrical fumaric esters has been performed efficiently in a solvent-free system at 100 °C and using 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) as a base in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB). The products were obtained in good to high yields within 2.5-7.0 h. This reaction worked well on linear alkyl fumarates and was not effective with nonlinear alkyl fumarates. Although the reaction was also applicable to acrylates such as n-butyl acrylate, methacrylates and crotonates were not suitable Michael acceptors for this reaction.

  8. Anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactones from Lourteigia ballotaefolia.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Romero, Alfredo; Manchado, Carlos Martinez; Crescente, Oscar; Acosta, Mercedes; Curini, Massimo; Epifano, Francesco; Marcotullio, Maria Carla; Rosati, Ornelio; Tubaro, Aurelia; Sosa, Silvio

    2002-09-01

    Three sesquiterpene lactones were isolated from Lourteigia ballotaefolia (H. B. K.). 9beta-hydroxy-atripliciolide-8- O-tiglate ( 1) was isolated for the first time from this plant and was previously reported in Conocliniopsis prasiifolia (DC) K. et R., 9beta-hydroxy-atripliciolide-8- O-(5'-acetoxytiglate) ( 2) had been already reported in this species. The minor component, 9beta-(tigloyloxy)-atripliciolide, is a new compound. The anti-inflammatory activity of compounds 1 and 2 was evaluated using the croton oil ear test in mice.

  9. ERRATUM: "Cosmic Evolution of Radio Selected Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field" (2009, ApJ, 696, 24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolčić, V.; Zamorani, G.; Schinnerer, E.; Bardelli, S.; Bondi, M.; Bîrzan, L.; Carilli, C. L.; Ciliegi, P.; Elvis, M.; Impey, C. D.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Merloni, A.; Paglione, T.; Salvato, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Scoville, N.; Trump, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The scale of the volume-averaged heating rate for the VLA-COSMOS AGN, presented in Figure 14 of the paper, requires a systematic (positive) correction due to a bug in the code used to produce this plot. The modified figure is shown below. We would like to note that the applied correction does not alter any results presented in the paper, but only strengthens the agreement between the observations and the Croton et al. (2006) cosmological model in terms of the relevance of radio mode AGN feedback in the process of massive galaxy formation.

  10. Acute toxicity, antiedematogenic activity, and chemical constituents of Palicourea rigida Kunth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Vanessa G; da Rosa, Elisa A; de Arruda, Laura L M; Rocha, Bruno A; Bersani Amado, Ciomar A; Santin, Silvana M O; Pomini, Armando M; da Silva, Cleuza C

    2016-03-01

    The phytochemical study of the leaves, roots, and flowers of Palicourea rigida led to the isolation of the triterpenes betulinic acid (1) and lupeol (2), the diterpene phytol (3), and the iridoid glycosides sweroside (4) and secoxyloganin (5). These compounds were identified using NMR 1H and 13C and comparing the spectra with published data. We studied the antiedematogenic activity of crude extracts from the organs, and of different fractions, in mice and found that the n-hexane fraction of the leaf extract significantly inhibited the ear edema resulting from croton oil administration. The crude extract from leaves was not acutely toxic to the mice. PMID:26927220

  11. Arylboration of alkenes by cooperative palladium/copper catalysis.

    PubMed

    Semba, Kazuhiko; Nakao, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-28

    Arylboration of vinylarenes and methyl crotonate with aryl halides and bis(pinacolato)diboron by cooperative Pd/Cu catalysis has been developed, giving 2-boryl-1,1-diarylethanes and an α-aryl-β-boryl ester in a regioselective manner. The reaction is compatible with a variety of functionalities and amenable to be scaled-up to a gram scale with no detriment to the yield. A short synthesis of the biologically active compound CDP840 was performed using the present reaction as a key step. PMID:24810227

  12. Eriophyoid mites from Eastern India: description of three new species (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal. PMID:27395518

  13. (2E,25E)-11,14,17,33,36,39,42-Hepta-oxa-penta-cyclo-[41.4.0.0.0.0]hepta-tetra-conta-1(43),2,5(10),6,8,18,20,22,25,27,29,31,44,46-tetra-decaene-4,24-dione.

    PubMed

    Anh, Le Tuan; Hieu, Truong Hong; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T; Soldatova, Svetlana A; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2011-05-01

    The title compound, C(40)H(40)O(9), is a product of the double crotonic condensation of bis-(2-acetyl-phen-oxy)-3-oxapentane with bis-(2-formyl-phen-oxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane. The title macromolecule includes the 31-crown-7-ether skeletal unit and adopts a saddle-like conformation. The two ethyl-ene fragments have E configurations. The volume of the inter-nal cavity of the macrocycle is approximately 125 Å(3). In the crystal, the mol-ecules are arranged at van der Waals distances. PMID:21754440

  14. (2E,25E)-11,14,17,33,36,39,42-Hepta­oxa­penta­cyclo­[41.4.0.05,10.018,23.027,32]hepta­tetra­conta-1(43),2,5(10),6,8,18,20,22,25,27,29,31,44,46-tetra­decaene-4,24-dione

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Le Tuan; Hieu, Truong Hong; Soldatenkov, Anatoly T.; Soldatova, Svetlana A.; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C40H40O9, is a product of the double crotonic condensation of bis­(2-acetyl­phen­oxy)-3-oxapentane with bis­(2-formyl­phen­oxy)-3,6-dioxaoctane. The title macromolecule includes the 31-crown-7-ether skeletal unit and adopts a saddle-like conformation. The two ethyl­ene fragments have E configurations. The volume of the inter­nal cavity of the macrocycle is approximately 125 Å3. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are arranged at van der Waals distances. PMID:21754440

  15. Syntrophus aciditrophicus sp. nov., a new anaerobic bacterium that degrades fatty acids and benzoate in syntrophic association with hydrogen-using microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. E.; Bhupathiraju, V. K.; Tanner, R. S.; Woese, C. R.; McInerney, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Strain SBT is a new, strictly anaerobic, gram-negative, nonmotile, non-sporeforming, rod-shaped bacterium that degrades benzoate and certain fatty acids in syntrophic association with hydrogen/formate-using microorganisms. Strain SBT produced approximately 3 mol of acetate and 0.6 mol of methane per mol of benzoate in coculture with Methanospirillum hungatei strain JF1. Saturated fatty acids, some unsaturated fatty acids, and methyl esters of butyrate and hexanoate also supported growth of strain SBT in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. Strain SBT grew in pure culture with crotonate, producing acetate, butyrate, caproate, and hydrogen. The molar growth yield was 17 +/- 1 g cell dry mass per mol of crotonate. Strain SBT did not grow with fumarate, iron(III), polysulfide, or oxyanions of sulfur or nitrogen as electron acceptors with benzoate as the electron donor. The DNA base composition of strain SBT was 43.1 mol% G+C. Analysis of the 16 S rRNA gene sequence placed strain SBT in the delta-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Strain SBT was most closely related to members of the genus Syntrophus. The clear phenotypic and genotypic differences between strain SBT and the two described species in the genus Syntrophus justify the formation of a new species, Syntrophus aciditrophicus.

  16. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Pietrovski, Evelise Fernandes; Magina, Michele Debiasi Alberton; Gomig, Franciane; Pietrovski, Caroline Fernandes; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Barcellos, Michele; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Cabrini, Daniela Almeida; Brighente, Inês Maria Costa; Otuki, Michel Fleith

    2008-04-01

    Eugenia brasiliensis Lam., a plant from the south of Brazil, is used in the popular medicine for rheumatism treatment. This study reports that topical application of hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and isolated compounds from E. brasiliensis caused an inhibition of ear oedema in response to topical application of croton oil on the mouse ear. For oedema inhibition, the estimated ID50 values (dose reducing the inflammatory response by 50% relative to the control value) for hydroalcoholic extract and fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane) were 0.17, 0.29, 0.13 and 0.14 mg/ear, respectively, with inhibition of 79+/-7%, 87+/-6%, 88+/-5% and 96+/-2%, respectively. Isolated phenolic compounds (quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin) were also effective in inhibiting the oedema (inhibition of 61+/-5%, 66+/-2% and 37+/-9%, respectively). Moreover, both extract and isolated compounds caused inhibition of polymorphonuclear cells influx (inhibition of 85+/-6%, 81+/-5%, 73+/-6% and 76+/-6%, respectively). The histological analysis of the ear tissue clearly confirmed that the extract and compounds of E. brasiliensis inhibited the influx of polymorphonuclear cells to mouse ear skin after application of croton oil. Furthermore, hydroalcoholic extract was also effective in inhibiting the arachidonic acid-mediated mouse ear oedema (ID50 value was 1.94 mg/ear and inhibition of 60+/-7%). Therefore, these results consistently support the notion that E. brasiliensis possesses topical anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:18380921

  17. Synergistic Effect of Compounds from a Chinese Herb: Compatibility and Dose Optimization of Compounds from N-Butanol Extract of Ipomoea stolonifera

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Congyi; Chen, Yicun; Zhong, Shuping; Zhang, Yanmei; Jiang, Jiyang; Xu, Han; Shi, Ganggang

    2016-01-01

    The herbal medicine Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has previously been shown to have considerable anti-inflammatory potential in vivo and in vitro. To establish a method for exploring the synergistic effects of multiple compounds, we study the compatibility and dose optimization of compounds isolated from n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS). Raw264.7 cell was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of compounds from BE-IS, namely scopoletin, umbelliferone, esculetin, hesperetin and curcumin, using the orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method. To verify the best efficacy of principal constituents in vivo, the uniform design was used in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model. The results from LPS-induced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) show that, esculetin, curcumin and hesperetin were the principal constituents that had synergistic effects when used at the optimal ratio. Additionally, the principal constituents were found to work synergistically in the croton oil-induced mouse ear edema model at low doses. It turned out that the three experimental optimization and analysis methods (orthogonal design, uniform design and median-effect method) can be effectively used to solve both compatibility and dose optimization for combined use of multiple compounds. PMID:27255791

  18. Effect of community structure on the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds. Progress report, March 1989--June 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.

    1991-06-01

    The physiology of fatty acid metabolism and the kinetics of benzoate degradation by anaerobic syntrophic bacteria were studied. We have shown that: a threshold for benzoate degradation by a syntrophic coculture of Syntrophus buswellii and Desulfovibrio strain G11 exists and the value of the threshold depends on the amount of benzoate and acetate suggesting a thermodynamic limitation. Syntrophomonas wolfei has the enzymatic ability to produce formate and that low levels of formate are made during growth in pure culture with crotonate or in coculture with butyrate. However, the high specific activities of hydrogenase compared to formate dehydrogenase indicate that hydrogen rather than formate is the intermediate involved in the interspecies transfer of reducing equivalents. We have isolated Syntrophus buswellii and a novel anaerobic bacteria that catalyzes an aryl-ether cleavage reaction using crotonate as the energy source. Several novel obligately halophilic anaerobes from hypersaline oil reservoir brines were isolated and characterized. Two of these degraded pyrogallate with the production of acetate. We have shown that S. wolfei synthesizes poly-{beta}hydroxyalkanoate (PHA) by two routes, directly from a {beta}-oxidation intermediate without cleaving a C-C bond and by the condensation of two acetyl-CoA molecules. The formation of D-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA needed for PHA synthesis occurs by the activity of a acetoacetyl-CoA reductase rather than a enoyl-CoA hydratase. The genes for PHA synthesis in S. wolfei have been cloned into Escherichia coli.

  19. Inhibitory effect of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on the anti-adrenergic response elicited by ayanin in the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Martín, M L; Carrón, R; San Román, L; Reguero, M T; Arteaga, L

    2002-04-01

    In this study we evaluated the anti-adrenergic response elicited by ayanin, a flavonoid compound isolated from Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, in the pithed rat, and the inhibitory effect of NO synthase inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and its acute toxicity profile in mice. In pithed rats ayanin (5 - 50 mg/kg i. v.) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the pressor and chronotropic responses induced by intravenous noradrenaline administration (0.25 microg/kg). This anti-adrenergic response was completely abolished by prior treatment with L-NAME (10 mg/kg i.v ) and the inhibitory effect of L-NAME was reversed after intravenous administration of L-arginine (100 mg/kg, i. v.). No lethal or major toxic effects were observed in mice receiving i. p. administration of ayanin up to a dose of 500 mg/kg. Our findings confirm that ayanin exerts protective cardiovascular effects against the increase in blood pressure and heart rate mainly through a mechanism that depends on the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway without acute toxic effects. These results suggest that extracts of Croton schiedeanus, the native south American plant from which ayanin was isolated, might be beneficial in cardiovascular disease.

  20. [Anti-inflammatory effects of methylprednisolone aceponate in animals].

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Y; Yamashita, M; Kamitani, K; Nakagawa, H

    1991-11-01

    In the case of dermal application of the drugs to croton oil-induced ear edema in rats and picryl chloride-induced delayed type hypersensitivity in mice, the anti-inflammatory effect of methylprednisolone aceponate (MPA) was slightly weaker than those of clobetasol 17-propionate and diflucortolone 21-valerate, but stronger than those of hydrocortisone 17-butyrate and hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate. Betamethasone 17-valerate applied dermally was less and more effective than MPA to ear edema in rats and delayed type hypersensitivity in mice, respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of MPA was weaker in subcutaneous administration than in topical application to the two inflammatory models. It was suggested that MPA has strong anti-inflammatory effects and weak systemic effects by topical application. Methylprednisolone 17-propionate (MP-17P) and methylprednisolone (MP), unesterified in only the C-21 position and in both the C-17 and 21 positions of MPA, respectively, showed weaker anti-inflammatory activities than MPA by topical application to croton oil-induced ear edema. The ratio of the anti-inflammatory effects by topical application to subcutaneous administration of MPA was higher than those of MP-17P and MP. The excellent characteristics of MPA as a dermal anti-inflammatory drug are suggested to be derived from di-esterification of MP, which has a weak activity intrinsically. PMID:1813371

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of jojoba liquid wax in experimental models.

    PubMed

    Habashy, Ramy R; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E; Al-Azizi, Mohammed M

    2005-02-01

    Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link 1822) Schneider 1907] is an arid perennial shrub grown in several American and African countries. Jojoba seeds, which are rich in liquid wax, were used in folk medicine for diverse ailments. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of jojoba liquid wax (JLW) was evaluated in a number of experimental models. Results showed that JLW caused reduction of carrageenin-induced rat paw oedema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In a test for anti-inflammatory potential utilizing the chick's embryo chroioallantoic membrane (CAM), JLW also caused significant lowering of granulation tissue formation. Topical application of JLW reduced ear oedema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, JLW also reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In addition, JLW ameliorated histopathological changes affected by croton oil application. In the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in air pouch in rats, JLW reduced nitric oxide (NO) level and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of JLW in combating inflammation in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of JLW.

  2. Assessing Receiving Water Quality Impacts due to Flow Path Alteration in Residential Catchments, using the Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolosoff, S. E.; Duncan, J.; Endreny, T.

    2001-05-01

    The Croton water supply system, responsible for supplying approximately 10% of New York City's water, provides an opportunity for exploration into the impacts of significant terrestrial flow path alteration upon receiving water quality. Natural flow paths are altered during residential development in order to allow for construction at a given location, reductions in water table elevation in low lying areas and to provide drainage of increased overland flow volumes. Runoff conducted through an artificial drainage system, is prevented from being attenuated by the natural environment, thus the pollutant removal capacity inherent in most natural catchments is often limited to areas where flow paths are not altered by development. By contrasting the impacts of flow path alterations in two small catchments in the Croton system, with different densities of residential development, we can begin to identify appropriate limits to the re-routing of runoff in catchments draining into surface water supplies. The Stormwater and Wastewater Management Model (SWMM) will be used as a tool to predict the runoff quantity and quality generated from two small residential catchments and to simulate the potential benefits of changes to the existing drainage system design, which may improve water quality due to longer residence times.

  3. Three Methods for Simulating Septic Loading in a Residential Watershed with HSPF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    Suburban development in the New York City Croton water supply district has introduced new pollution sources and runoff flowpaths into the watershed, and ultimately has created new water quality management challenges. Nutrient loading from septic systems, or on-site wastewater systems, is one of the pollution concerns for receiving waters within the Croton supply area, and the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) water quality model is being tested for optimal methods to simulate this distributed loading source. In the first method, HSPF utilizes the available nutrient simulation mechanism within the pervious subsurface and groundwater nutrients routine for residential land cover. In the second method, HSPF utilizes point source loading mechanisms into the receiving open water bodies (channels, lakes etc.) to reflect distributed septic systems effect. And in the third method, HSPF was adjusted to incorporate a new loading mechanism that handles septic system effects in the pervious land area. This research examines the benefits and constraints to management and scientific interpretation of each of the three septic loading simulation methods.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of N-Butanol Extract from Ipomoea stolonifera In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuping; Ji, Bin; Wang, Jinzhi; Bai, Xueting; Shi, Ganggang

    2014-01-01

    Ipomoea stolonifera (I. stolonifera) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese traditional medicine. However, the anti-inflammatory activity of I. stolonifera has not been elucidated. For this reason, the anti-inflammatory activity of n-butanol extract of I. stolonifera (BE-IS) was evaluated in vivo by using acute models (croton oil-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, and carrageenan-induced rat pleurisy) and chronic models (cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma, and complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced rat arthritis). Results indicated that oral administration of BE-IS significantly attenuated croton oil-induced ear edema, decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema, reduced carrageenan-induced exudates and cellular migration, inhibited cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation and improved CFA-induced arthritis. Preliminary mechanism studies demonstrated that BE-IS decreased the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), increased the activity of anti-oxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) in vivo, and reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. Results obtained in vivo and in vitro demonstrate that BE-IS has considerable anti-inflammatory potential, which provided experimental evidences for the traditional application of Ipomoea stolonifera in inflammatory diseases. PMID:24752203

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of methyl palmitate and ethyl palmitate in different experimental rat models

    SciTech Connect

    Saeed, Noha M.; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Abdel-Rahman, Hanaa M.; Algandaby, Mardi M.; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B.

    2012-10-01

    Methyl palmitate (MP) and ethyl palmitate (EP) are naturally occurring fatty acid esters reported as inflammatory cell inhibitors. In the current study, the potential anti-inflammatory activity of MP and EP was evaluated in different experimental rat models. Results showed that MP and EP caused reduction of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the inflammatory exudates. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia in rats, MP and EP reduced plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). MP and EP decreased NF-κB expression in liver and lung tissues and ameliorated histopathological changes caused by LPS. Topical application of MP and EP reduced ear edema induced by croton oil in rats. In the same animal model, MP and EP reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of MP and EP in combating inflammation in several experimental models. -- Highlights: ► Efficacy of MP and EP in combating inflammation was displayed in several models. ► MP and EP reduced carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and prostaglandin E2 level. ► MP and EP decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels in experimental endotoxemia. ► MP and EP reduced NF-κB expression and histological changes in rat liver and lung. ► MP and EP reduced croton oil-induced ear edema and neutrophil infiltration.

  6. Disassembly and reassembly of polyhydroxyalkanoates: recycling through abiotic depolymerization and biotic repolymerization.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jaewook; Strong, Nathaniel I; Galega, Wakuna M; Sundstrom, Eric R; Flanagan, James C A; Woo, Sung-Geun; Waymouth, Robert M; Criddle, Craig S

    2014-10-01

    An abiotic-biotic strategy for recycling of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) is evaluated. Base-catalyzed PHA depolymerization yields hydroxyacids, such as 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), and alkenoates, such as crotonate; catalytic thermal depolymerization yields alkenoates. Cyclic pulse addition of 3HB to triplicate bioreactors selected for an enrichment of Comamonas, Brachymonas and Acinetobacter. After each pulse, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P3HB) transiently appeared: accumulation of P3HB correlated with hydrolysis of polyphosphate; consumption of P3HB correlated with polyphosphate synthesis. Cells removed from the cyclic regime and incubated with 3HB under nitrogen-limited conditions produced P3HB (molecular weight>1,000,000Da) at 50% of the cell dry weight (<8h). P3HB also resulted from incubation with acetate, crotonate, or a mixture of hydrolytic depolymerization products. Poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid-co-3-hydroxyvaleric acid) (PHBV) resulted from incubation with valerate or 2-pentenoate. A recycling strategy where abiotic depolymerization of waste PHAs yields feedstock for customized PHA re-synthesis appears feasible, without the need for energy-intensive feedstock purification.

  7. 7-hydroxycalamenene Effects on Secreted Aspartic Proteases Activity and Biofilm Formation of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Almeida, Catia A.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Rodrigues, Igor A.; Bizzo, Humberto R.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The 7-hydroxycalamenenene-rich essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of Croton cajucara (red morphotype) have been described as active against bacteria, protozoa, and fungi species. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 7-hydroxycalamenenene against Candida albicans and nonalbicans species. Materials and Methods: C. cajucara EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and its major compound, 7-hydroxycalamenene, was purified using preparative column chromatography. The anti-candidal activity was investigated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and secreted aspartic proteases (SAP) and biofilm inhibition assays. Results: 7-hydroxycalamenene (98% purity) displayed anti-candidal activity against all Candida species tested. Higher activity was observed against Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis and Candida albicans, showing MIC values ranging from 39.06 μg/ml to 78.12 μg/ml. The purified 7-hydroxycalamenene was able to inhibit 58% of C. albicans ATCC 36801 SAP activity at MIC concentration (pH 7.0). However, 7-hydroxycalamenene demonstrated poor inhibitory activity on C. albicans ATCC 10231 biofilm formation even at the highest concentration tested (2500 μg/ml). Conclusion: The bioactive potential of 7-hydroxycalamenene against planktonic Candida spp. further supports its use for the development of antimicrobials with anti-candidal activity. SUMMARY Croton cajucara Benth. essential oil provides high amounts of 7-hydroxycalamenene7-Hydroxycalameneneisolated from C. cajucarais active against Candida spp7-Hydroxycalameneneinhibits C. albicans aspartic protease activity7-Hydroxycalamenene was not active against C. albicans biofilm formation. Figure PMID:27019560

  8. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) repellency field tests of essential oils from plants traditionally used in Laos.

    PubMed

    Vongsombath, Chanda; Pålsson, Katinka; Björk, Lars; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Jaenson, Thomas G T

    2012-11-01

    Essential oils of Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae), Croton roxburghii (Euphorbiaceae), and Litsea cubeba (Lauraceae) were tested in the field near Vientiane city, Lao PDR, on humans for repellent activity against mosquitoes. Landing mosquitoes were collected and later identified. The most abundant mosquitoes captured belonged to the genera Armigeres, Culex, and Aedes. All the plant oils tested at concentrations of 1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2) were significantly more mosquito repellent than the negative control. Croton oil was significantly repellent against mosquitoes of the three genera at the highest (6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentration tested. Litsea oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at all (1.7 microg/cm(2), 3.3 microg/cm(2), and 6.3 microg/cm(2)) concentrations tested. Hyptis oil was significantly repellent against Armigeres at 3.3 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2) and against Culex at 1.7 microg/cm(2) and 6.3 microg/cm(2). The oils were analyzed for chemical content of volatiles, mainly terpenes. Main constituents were beta-pinene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from oils of the green parts of H. suaveolens; alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and alpha-phellandrene from fresh bark of C. roxburghii; and alpha-pinene, beta-phellandrene, sabinene, and 1,8-cineol from fresh fruits of L. cubeba.

  9. THE EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION ON THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Patricia E.; Tejada, Carlos; Sánchez, Margarita

    1967-01-01

    In the present experiments, Selye's granuloma pouch technique was applied to the study of the effect of host nutritional state on inflammation and the local tissue response. The normal response of well-nourished laboratory rats fed a diet containing 28% protein to the injection of 1% croton oil into a preformed subcutaneous air sac involved the accumulation of hemorrhagic exudate in the pouch lumen and the progressive thickening of the pouch wall, with the proliferation and maturation of fibroblasts and the eventual laying-down of collagen. In malnourished animals, fed a diet containing only 3–4% protein but adequate in all other nutrients, the above reactions were inhibited. This inhibitory effect was encountered after a relatively short period of deficiency and became more marked as the deficiency progressed. No consistent, clear-cut difference was seen in the leukocytic or neutrophilic response between the two dietary groups after the injection of 1% croton oil. A significantly higher proportion of accidental bacterial infections was found in the pouches of malnourished animals than in those of well-nourished animals. This was considered to be a possible consequence of the depressed inflammatory response in malnourished rats. The advantages of the granuloma pouch as an experimental procedure for the study of local reactions to different noxae, and the influence of malnutrition on these reactions have been discussed and suggestions for future studies presented. PMID:6055756

  10. Hydrologic response as a function of suburbanization in three northeastern watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endreny, T. A.; Hassett, J. M.; Wolosoff, S.

    2001-12-01

    Three small watersheds (< 70 ha) within NYC's 1000 sq km Croton drinking water supply area have been instrumented to investigate how fate and transport processes are affected by suburban density. Instrumentation includes nests of lysimeters, piezometers, wells, surface runoff collectors, throughfall collectors, along with instrumented weirs and meteorological stations Each of the watersheds have similar base soils, undisturbed land cover, topographic relief, and climatic conditions, but range from no development to nearly 7 houses per hectare. The development is comprised of road networks with storm sewer systems and single-family residences with drinking water wells and on-site septic treatment and disposal systems. Baseflow and storm sampling have revealed that water quality constituent concentrations, such as nutrients, organic carbon, and disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation potential, along with flow magnitude are distinct between the three watersheds. This poster explains observed changes in monitored hydrology and chemistry as a function of alterations in internal processing (e.g., fate), and flow paths (e.g., transport). Additional intercomparisons of hydrologic response are made between these three highly instrumented watersheds and 22 Croton headwater watersheds with similar land use categories.

  11. Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of lavender essential oil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gabriela L da; Luft, Carolina; Lunardelli, Adroaldo; Amaral, Robson H; Melo, Denizar A da Silva; Donadio, Márcio V F; Nunes, Fernanda B; de Azambuja, Marcos S; Santana, João C; Moraes, Cristina M B; Mello, Ricardo O; Cassel, Eduardo; Pereira, Marcos Aurélio de Almeida; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2015-08-01

    Several studies have investigated the antinociceptive, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties of compounds found in the lavender essential oil (LEO), however to date, there is still lack of substantial data. The objective of this study was to assess the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of lavender essential oil. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical decolorization assay was used for antioxidant activity evaluation. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested using two models of acute inflammation: carrageenan-induced pleurisy and croton oil-induced ear edema. The antinociceptive activity was tested using the pain model induced by formalin. LEO has antioxidant activity, which is dose-dependent response. The inflammatory response evoked by carrageenan and by croton oil was reduced through the pre-treatment of animals with LEO. In the pleurisy model, the drug used as positive control, dexamethasone, was more efficacious. However, in the ear swelling, the antiedematogenic effect of the oil was similar to that observed for dexamethasone. In the formalin test, LEO consistently inhibited spontaneous nociception and presented a similar effect to that of tramadol. The results of this study reveal (in vivo) the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of LEO and demonstrates its important therapeutic potential. PMID:26247152

  12. Chemopreventive action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Goyal, P K

    2010-01-01

    Syzygium cumini L. is widely used for the treatment of diabetes in various parts of India. The protective efficacy of S. cumini seed extract (SCE) against peroxidative damage contributing to skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was tested in the present study. A single topical application of 7,12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 microg/100 microl acetone), followed 2 weeks later by repeated application of croton oil (1% in acetone three times a week) and continued till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 weeks) caused a 100% tumor incidence. In contrast, mice treated with the SCE (125 mg/ kg/ b.wt./ animal /day) in either the peri (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after the application of DMBA) or post-initiation (i.e. from the day of start of croton oil treatment and continued till the end of the experiment) phases demonstrated significant reduction in cumulative numbers of papillomas and tumor incidence (75%). The average latency period in the SCE treated group was also significantly increased (Pre Group - 11.1 weeks; Post Group - 10.9 weeks) as compared with the carcinogen control group (7.9). Results from the present study indicate that the anticarcinogenic activity of SCE during DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis is mediated through alteration of antioxidant status. Thus, SCE can be considered as a readily accessible, promising novel cancer chemopreventive agent. PMID:20593968

  13. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus-Croton

  14. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus-Croton

  15. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  16. Flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from Artemisia annua L. inhibit inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yu-Jie; Guo, Yan; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Ya-Jie; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Dong; Li, Qi; Liu, Xu-Cen; Kan, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Xin; Kmoníèková, Eva; Zídek, Zdenìk

    2015-08-01

    Background: The aim of our experiments was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin and chrysosplenol D, two flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. Methods: Topical inflammation was induced in ICR mice using croton oil. Mice were then treated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Cutaneous histological changes and edema were assessed. ICR mice were intragastrically administrated with casticin or chrysosplenol D followed by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mouse Raw264.7 macrophage cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D. Intracellular phosphorylation was detected, and migration was assessed by trans-well assay. HT-29/NFκB-luc cells were incubated with casticin or chrysosplenol D in the presence or absence of LPS, and NF-κB activation was quantified. Results: In mice, administration of casticin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) and chrysosplenol D (1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}) inhibited croton oil-induced ear edema (casticin: 29.39–64.95%; chrysosplenol D: 37.76–65.89%, all P < 0.05) in a manner similar to indomethacin (0.5, 1 and 1.5 μmol/cm{sup 2}; 55.63–84.58%). Casticin (0.07, 0.13 and 0.27 mmol/kg) and chrysosplenol D (0.07, 0.14 and 0.28 mmol/kg) protected against LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in mice (all P < 0.05), in a manner similar to dexamethasone (0.03 mmol/kg). Casticin and chrysosplenol D suppressed LPS-induced release of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and MCP-1, inhibited cell migration, and reduced LPS-induced IκB and c-JUN phosphorylation in Raw264.7 cells. JNK inhibitor SP600125 blocked the inhibitory effect of chrysosplenol D on cytokine release. Conclusions: The flavonoids casticin and chrysosplenol D from A. annua L. inhibited inflammation in vitro and in vivo. - Highlights: • We report a new activity of the flavonoids present in Artemisia annua L. • These flavonoids inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. • These flavonoids protect against LPS-induced SIRS in

  17. Efficacy of 11 Brazilian essential oils on lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Santana, Raul Costa Mascarenhas; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Gama, Paola Ervatti; Chaves, Francisco Celio Maia

    2016-04-01

    Herbal extracts have been investigated as an alternative for parasite control, aiming to slow the development of resistance and to obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, in vitro, of 11 essential oils from Brazil on reproductive efficiency and lethality of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The effects of oils extracted from Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Lippia alba, Lippia gracilis, Lippia origanoides, Lippia sidoides, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Croton cajucara (white and red), and Croton sacaquinha on ticks were investigated by the Immersion Test with Engorged Females (ITEF) and the modified Larval Packet Test (LPT). Distilled water and 2% Tween 80 were used as control treatments. Chemical analysis of the oils was done with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Analysis of the in vitro tests using Probit (SAS program) allowed the calculation of lethal concentrations (LCs). Lower reproductive efficiency indexes and higher efficacy percentages in the ITEF were obtained with the oils extracted from C. longa (24 and 71%, respectively) and M. arvensis oils (27 and 73%, respectively). Lower LC50 was reached with C. longa (10.24 mg/mL), L. alba (10.78 mg/mL), M. arvensis (22.31 mg/mL), L. sidoides (27.67 mg/mL), and C. sacaquinha (29.88 mg/mL) oils. In the LPT, species from Zingiberaceae and Verbenaceae families caused 100% lethality at 25 mg/mL, except for L. sidoides. The most effective oils were from C. longa, L. gracilis, L. origanoides, L. alba, and Z. officinale. The LC50 and LC90 were, respectively: 0.54 and 1.80 mg/mL, 3.21 and 7.03 mg/mL, 3.10 and 8.44 mg/mL, 5.85 and 11.14 mg/mL, and 7.75 and 13.62 mg/mL. The efficacy was directly related to the major components in each essential oil, and the oils derived from Croton genus presented the worst performance, suggesting the absence of synergistic effect among its compounds. Since C. longa, containing 62

  18. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect.

  19. Variation in manuka oil lure efficacy for capturing Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and cubeb oil as an alternative attractant.

    PubMed

    Hanula, James L; Sullivan, Brian T; Wakarchuk, David

    2013-04-01

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichoff, is an exotic species to North America vectoring a deadly vascular wilt disease of redbay [Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng], swampbay [P. palustris (Raf.) Sarg.], avocado (P. americana Mill.), and sassafras [Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees]. Xyleborus glabratus is attracted to manuka oil lures, which are commercially available, and phoebe oil. Variable efficacy of manuka oil lures and insufficient availability of phoebe oil prompted us to investigate the reasons behind changes in manuka oil lure efficacy and to test cubeb oil, a readily available essential oil from Piper cubeba L. seeds, as an alternative attractant. Attraction, release rates and durations, and volatile composition of manuka oil lures manufactured in 2008 were compared with manuka oil lures manufactured in 2012, and to whole and a distilled fraction of cubeb oil. Manuka oil lures from 2008 were more attractive to X. glabratus than controls for 8 wk, whereas lures from 2012 were attractive for only 2 wk. Cubeb oil and the distilled fraction of it were as attractive as or more attractive than manuka oil in three trials. In gravimetric studies, manuka oil lures from 2008 and cubeb oil lures continued to release volatiles for 57 d, whereas lures from 2012 stopped after 16 d. The chemical composition of volatiles released from new manuka oil lures from 2008 was similar to 2012; however, a preservative (butylated hydroxytoluene) was detected in the 2008 lures. Cubeb oil was an effective attractant for X. glabratus that lasted 8-9 wk when released from bubble lures.

  20. Enhancement of serological immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by a supplement made of extract of cochinchina momordica seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenwen; Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Liu, Diwen; Hu, Songhua

    2007-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination against FMD is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. This study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (ECMS) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated FMDV antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ECMS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines for its immunopotentiation in pigs. The results indicated that ECMS and oil emulsion act synergistically as adjuvants to promote the production of FMDV- and VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses in guinea pigs. A supplement of ECMS in a commercial FMD vaccine significantly enhanced FMDV-specific indirect hemagglutination assay titers as well as VP1-specific IgG and subclasses in pigs. Therefore, ECMS could be an alternative approach to improving swine FMD vaccination when the vaccine is poor to induce an effective immune response. PMID:17942610

  1. Selecting matched root architecture in tree pairs to be used for assessing N 2 fixation based on soil- 15N-labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Hafedh; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib; Wallander, Håkan; Dommergues, Yvon René

    2005-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that soil- 15N-labelling provides reliable estimates of N 2 fixation in trees by matching N 2-fixing and non-N 2-fixing tree pairs. As root system is a key parameter in determining suitability of the tree pairs, we compared root architecture of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. and Casuarina glauca Sieber ex. Spreng. (two N 2-fixing trees) with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Ceratonia siliqua L. (two non-N 2-fixing trees) at 4-year-old in Mediterranean-semiarid zone. The rhizobium strain used appeared more motile than Frankia strain. A. cyanophylla and E. camaldulensis had extensive rooting area and volume of fine roots, and both species tended to develop marked horizontal rooting, compared to C. glauca and C. siliqua. Characteristics of fine- and horizontal-root components can be used in selecting matched root systems of N 2-fixing and reference-paired trees. Root architecture of C. glauca was more similar to C. siliqua, than to E. camaldulensis, and that of A. cyanophylla was more similar to E. camaldulensis than to C. siliqua. Accordingly, E. camaldulensis is an appropriate reference to estimate actual N 2 fixation by A. cyanophylla, and C. siliqua is an appropriate reference for C. glauca, when using soil- 15N-labelling method in the prevailing site environment.

  2. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  3. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity. PMID:16169172

  4. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. PMID:8771452

  5. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts. PMID:11695884

  6. Plectranthus amboinicus and Centella asiatica Cream for the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yuan-Sung; Chien, Hsiung-Fei; Lu, William

    2012-01-01

    Effects of a topical cream containing P. amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae) and C. asiatica (L.) Urban (Umbelliferae) were evaluated and compared to effects of hydrocolloid fiber wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers. A single-center, randomized, controlled, open-label study was conducted. Twenty-four type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients aged 20 years or older with Wagner grade 3 foot ulcers postsurgical debridement were enrolled between October 2008 and December 2009. Twelve randomly assigned patients were treated with WH-1 cream containing P. amboinicus and C. asiatica twice daily for two weeks. Another 12 patients were treated with hydrocolloid fiber dressings changed at 7 days or when clinically indicated. Wound condition and safety were assessed at days 7 and 14 and results were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were seen in percent changes in wound size at 7- and 14-day assessments of WH-1 cream and hydrocolloid dressing groups. A slightly higher proportion of patients in the WH-1 cream group (10 of 12; 90.9%) showed Wagner grade improvement compared to the hydrocolloid fiber dressing group but without statistical significance. For treating diabetic foot ulcers, P. amboinicus and C. asiatica cream is a safe alternative to hydrocolloid fiber dressing without significant difference in effectiveness. PMID:22693530

  7. Mycorrhiza of the host-specific Lactarius deterrimus on the roots of Picea abies and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi.

    PubMed

    Mühlmann, O; Göbl, F

    2006-06-01

    The ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete species Lactarius deterrimus Gröger is considered to be a strictly host-specific mycobiont of Picea abies (L.) Karst. However, we identified arbutoid mycorrhiza formed by this fungus on the roots of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. in a mixed stand at the alpine timberline; typical ectomycorrhiza of P. abies were found in close relation. A. uva-ursi is known as an extremely unspecific phytobiont. The mycorrhizae of both associations are described and compared morphologically. The mycorrhiza formed by L. deterrimus on both A. uva-ursi and P. abies show typical ectomycorrhizal features such as a hyphal mantle and a Hartig net. The main difference between the mycorrhizal symbioses with the different phytobionts is the occurrence of intracellular hyphae in the epidermal cells of A. uva-ursi. This emphasizes the importance of the plant partner for mycorrhizal anatomy. This is the first report of a previously considered host-specific ectomycorrhizal fungus in association with A. uva-ursi under natural conditions. The advantages of this loose specificity between the fungus and plant species is discussed.

  8. Leaf conductance in relation to rate of CO/sub 2/ assimilation. II. Effects of short-term exposures to different photon flux densities. [Zea mays; Phaseolus vulgaris; Eucalyptus pauciflora

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.C.; Cowan, I.R.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    When photon flux density incident on attached leaves of Zea mays L. was varied from the equivalent of 0.12 of full sunlight to full sunlight, leaf conductance to CO/sub 2/ transfer, g, changed in proportion to the change in rate of CO/sub 2/, assimilation, A, with the result that intercellular partial pressure of CO/sub 2/ remained almost constant. The proportionality was the same as the previously found in g and A measured at one photon flux density in plants of Zea mays L. grown at different levels of mineral nutrition, light intensities, and ambient partial pressures of CO/sub 2/. In shade-grown Phaseolus vulgaris L., plants, A as photon flux density was increased from about 0.12 up to about 0.5 full sunlight, the proportionality being almost the same in plants grown at low and at high light intensity. When photon flux density incident on the adaxial an abaxial surfaces of the isolateral leaves of Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng was varied, g and A also varied proportionally. The leaf conductance in a particular surface was affected by the photon flux density at the opposite surface to a greater extent than was expected on the basis of transmittance. The results indicated that stomata may, in some way, be sensitive to the photon flux absorbed within the leaf as a whole. 5 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  9. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  10. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  11. A controlled study to determine the efficacy of Loxostylis alata (Anacardiaceae) in the treatment of aspergillus in a chicken (Gallus domesticus) model in comparison to ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The poultry industry due to intensive methods of farming is burdened with losses from numerous infectious agents, of which one is the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. In a preliminary study, the extracts of Loxostylis alata A. Spreng, ex Rchb. showed good activity in vitro against A. fumigatus with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.07 mg/ml. For this study crude, a crude acetone extract of L. alata leaves was evaluated for its acute toxicity in a healthy chicken model and for efficacy in an infectious model of aspergillosis (A. fumigatus). Results At a dose of 300 mg/kg, the extract induced some toxicity characterised by decreased feed intake and weight loss. Consequently, 100 and 200 mg/kg were used to ascertain efficacy in the infectious model. The plant extract significantly reduced clinical disease in comparison to the control in a dose dependant manner. The extract was as effective as the positive control ketoconazole dosed at 60 mg/kg. Conclusions The results indicate that a crude extract of L. alata leaves has potential as an antifungal agent to protect poultry against avian aspergillosis. PMID:23114185

  12. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    PubMed

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  13. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities. PMID:22580955

  14. Immunomodulatory activity of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Alex Yuen-Kam; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2006-09-01

    Serine protease inhibitors are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many of them have been purified and characterized from different species. While the physicochemical properties of these protease inhibitors have been extensively investigated, their biological effects, e.g. immunomodulatory effect, remain relatively unexplored. Recently, we isolated a chymotrypsin-specific inhibitor (MCoCI) from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour) Spreng (Family Cucurbitaceae), the traditional Chinese medicine known as Mubiezhi, which has been used as an antiinflammatory agent. In the present study, the effects of MCoCI on different types of cells of the immune system, including splenocytes, splenic lymphocytes, neutrophils, bone marrow cells and macrophages, were investigated. MCoCI was shown to possess immuno-enhancing and antiinflammatory effects. MCoCI could stimulate the proliferation of different cells of the immune system, e.g. splenocytes, splenic lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, in a manner comparable to that of Concanavalin A. Moreover, MCoCI could also suppress the formation of hydrogen peroxide in neutrophils and macrophages. These immunomodulatory effects may explain some of the therapeutic actions of Mubiezhi. PMID:16733830

  15. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis. PMID:23949856

  16. In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Fan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one. PMID:21153837

  17. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer cells via PARP and p53 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Rui; Meng, Lin-Yi; Lin, Zhi-Yan; Shen, Yang; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2012-01-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, which is a kind of fruit and consumed for dietary as well as medicinal uses. In this study, using the human SGC7901 and MKN-28 gastric cancer cell lines, we explored the anticancer activity of the extract from cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS). ECMS inhibited significantly the survival rates of SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners by MTT assay. The typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay after SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells were treated with ECMS for 48 h. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ECMS-treatment blocked the cells at the S phase of cell cycle. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bcl-2 were downregulated notably by ECMS-treatment, whereas those of Fas/Fas-associated death domain, p53, and Bax were upregulated in SGC7901 cells. ECMS dramatically enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 whilst slightly increased caspase-8 activity. Taken together, this study demonstrated that ECMS exerted cytotoxic activities via PARP and p53 signal pathways in the human gastric cancer cells. PMID:23020228

  18. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Min; Syu, Jhih-Pu; Way, Tzong-Der; Huang, Li-Jiau; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Lin, Chung-Tien; Lin, Chih-Li

    2015-11-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti‑glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti‑proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell‑cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy‑mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B‑induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug‑resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ.

  19. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae).

    PubMed

    Davis, Donald R; Wagner, David L

    2011-01-01

    Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica. PMID:21594066

  20. BC3EE2,9B, a synthetic carbazole derivative, upregulates autophagy and synergistically sensitizes human GBM8901 glioblastoma cells to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, CHIEN-MIN; SYU, JHIH-PU; WAY, TZONG-DER; HUANG, LI-JIAU; KUO, SHENG-CHU; LIN, CHUNG-TIEN; LIN, CHIH-LI

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most fatal form of human brain cancer. Although temozolomide (TMZ), an oral alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, improves the survival rate, the prognosis of patients with GBM remains poor. Naturally occurring carbazole alkaloids isolated from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii Spreng.) have been shown to possess a wide range of anticancer properties. However, the effects of carbazole derivatives on glioblastoma cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, anti-glioblastoma profiles of a series of synthetic carbazole derivatives were evaluated in vitro. The most promising derivative in this series was BC3EE2,9B, which showed significant anti-proliferative effects in GBM8401 and GBM8901 cells. BC3EE2,9B also triggered cell-cycle arrest, most prominently at the G1 stage, and suppressed glioblastoma cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, BC3EE2,9B induced autophagy-mediated cell death and synergistically sensitized GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. The possible mechanism underlying BC3EE2,9B-induced autophagy may involve activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the attenuation of the Akt and mammalian target of the rapamycin downstream signaling pathway. Taken together, the present results provide molecular evidence for the mode of action governing the ability of BC3EE2,9B to sensitize drug-resistant glioblastoma cells to the chemotherapeutic agent TMZ. PMID:26329365

  1. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of Thai traditional nootropic remedy and its herbal ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tappayuthpijarn, Pimolvan; Itharat, Arunporn; Makchuchit, Sunita

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasing every year in accordance with the increasing of elderly population and could pose significant health problems in the future. The use of medicinal plants as an alternative prevention or even for a possible treatment of the AD is, therefore, becoming an interesting research issue. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are well-known drugs commonly used in the treatment of AD. The aim of the present study was to screen for AChE inhibitory activity of the Thai traditional nootropic recipe and its herbal ingredients. The results showed that ethanolic extracts of four out of twenty-five herbs i.e. Stephania pierrei Diels. Kaempfera parviflora Wall. ex Baker, Stephania venosa (Blume) Spreng, Piper nigrum L at 0.1 mg/mL showed % AChE inhibition of 89, 64, 59, 50; the IC50 were 6, 21, 29, 30 microg/mL respectively. The other herbs as well as combination of the whole recipe had no synergistic inhibitory effect on AChE activity. However some plants revealed antioxidant activity. More research should have be performed on this local wisdom remedy to verify the uses in scientific term. PMID:22619927

  2. Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  3. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, F. R.; Pagliuca, G.; Multari, G.; Panzini, G.; D’amore, E.; Altieri, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  4. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, F R; Pagliuca, G; Multari, G; Panzini, G; D'amore, E; Altieri, I

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances.

  5. Chemical composition and fumigant toxicity of the essential oils from 16 species of Eucalyptus against Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) adults.

    PubMed

    Juan, Laura W; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo N; Harrand, Leonel; Marco, Martin; Masuh, Hector M

    2011-06-01

    Oils extracted from various species of Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus badjensis Beuzev & Welch, Eucalyptus badjensis x Eucalyptus nitens, Eucalyptus benthamii variety dorrigoensis Maiden & Cambage, Eucalyptus botryoides Smith, Eucalyptus dalrympleana Maiden, Eucalyptus fastigata Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus nobilis L.A.S. Johnson & K. D. Hill, Eucalyptus polybractea R. Baker, Eucalyptus radiata ssp. radiata Sieber ex Spreng, Eucalyptus resinifera Smith, Eucalyptus robertsonii Blakely, Eucalyptus rubida Deane & Maiden, Eucalyptus smithii R. Baker, Eucalyptus elata Dehnh, Eucalyptus fraxinoides Deane & Maiden, E. obliqua L'Hér) were obtained by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of essential oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Essential oils were mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, and p-cymene. Vapors from these essential oils and their major components were found to be toxic to Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) adults. An aliquot of each oil was placed in a cylindrical test chamber, and the number of knocked down flies was recorded as a function of time. Knockdown time 50% was then calculated. Results showed that essential oil of E. polybractea had the highest knockdown activity of 3.44 min. A correlation was observed between the content of 1,8-cineole in the Eucalyptus essential oils and the corresponding toxic effect. PMID:21735933

  6. Dreissena polymorpha Pall. postveligers in submersed macrophyte beds of Put-in-Bay, Ohio, as related to rate and density of settlement, macrophyte preference, water depth, and position within beds

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.L.

    1995-06-01

    Increased water clarity due in large part to the invasion and spread of Dreissena polymorpha Pall., has allowed reestablishment of nearly continuous beds of submersed macrophytes in Put-in-Bay, Ohio. These beds now serve as sites for settlement by Dreissena veligers. Four transects extending from a maximum depth of 4.0 m to a minimum depth of 0.5 m were established in 1994, to document the time of recruitment, density of postveliger settlement, preferred macrophyte as a substrate, and effects of water depth and location within transects on recruitment. Settlement densities were determined for 100 g wet weight samples of macrophytes harvested along transects by snorkel and scuba. Peak settlement occurred 23 August, 11 days after the second planktonic veliger peak, but continued until early October. Maximum densities were greatest in 1.5-3.5 m water nearer the lakeward end of the transects and decreased in 1.0 m water or shoreward in dense submersed macrophyte beds. A maximum density of 15,150 Dreissena/100 g macrophyte occurred on the perennial Myriophyllum spicatum L., although mean settlement densities were greatest for the perennials M. spicatum, Ceratophyllum demersum L., and the annuals Vallisneria americana Michx. and Najas quadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus. Macrophyte preference as a settling substrate is most probably a reflection of relative macrophyte abundance and position within dense beds rather than a particular plant architecture. Assessment of densities after autumnal vegetational growth is not yet complete.

  7. Effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using the modified hydrothermal biochar.

    PubMed

    Zuo, XiaoJun; Liu, Zhengang; Chen, MinDong

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated effect of H2O2 concentrations on copper removal using H2O2 modified hydrothermal carbonization Cymbopogon schoenanthus L. Spreng (HLG). Sorption behaviors of Cu (II) on the modified HLG by 20% H2O2 (mHLG2) could be the most desirable. Based on Langmuir isotherm, the maximum amount of Cu (II) uptake was in the sequence of mHLG2 (53.8mgg(-1))>mHLG1 (44.2mgg(-1))>mHLG3 (42.0mgg(-1))>mHLG0 (35.8mgg(-1)), which was higher than the results from majority of previous studies, suggesting that H2O2 modification advanced sorption capacity of hydrothermal biochars evidently. Effect mechanisms exploration indicated that the difference of Cu (II) removal by biochars before and after the modification was mainly related to functional groups. Carboxylic group was responsible for the best sorption property of Cu (II) by mHLG2, which was attributed to its significant relationships with H2O2 modification and Cu (II) removal. PMID:26894566

  8. Investigation of the CO2 Dependence of Quantum Yield and Respiration in Eucalyptus pauciflora

    PubMed Central

    Kirschbaum, Miko U. F.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    1987-01-01

    In leaves of C3 plants, the rate of nonphotorespiratory respiration appears to be higher in darkness than in the light. This change from a high to a low rate of carbon loss with increasing photon flux density leads to an increase in the apparent quantum yield of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation at low photon flux densities (Kok effect). The mechanism of this suppression of nonphotorespiratory respiration is not understood, but biochemical evidence and the observation that a Kok effect is often not observed under low O2, has led to the suggestion that photorespiration might be involved in some way. This hypothesis was tested with snowgum (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) using gas exchange methods. The test was based on the assumption that if photorespiration were involved, then it would be expected that the intercellular partial pressure of CO2 would also have an influence on the Kok effect. Under normal atmospheric levels of CO2 and O2, a Kok effect was found. Changing the intercellular partial pressure of CO2, however, did not affect the estimate of nonphotorespiratory respiraton, and it was concluded that its decrease with increasing photon flux density did not involve photorespiration. Concurrent measurements showed that the quantum yield of net assimilation of CO2 increased with increasing intercellular partial pressure of CO2, and this increase agreed closely with predictions based on recent models of photosynthesis. PMID:16665319

  9. Effect of chipping on emergence of the redbay ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and recovery of the laurel wilt pathogen from infested wood chips.

    PubMed

    Spence, D J; Smith, J A; Ploetz, R; Hulcr, J; Stelinski, L L

    2013-10-01

    Significant mortality ofredbay trees (Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.) in the southeastern United States has been caused by Raffaelea lauricola, T.C. Harr., Fraedrich, & Aghayeva (Harrington et al. 2008), a fungal symbiont of the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, Eichhoff (Fraedrich et al. 2008). This pathogen causes laurel wilt, which is an irreversible disease that can kill mature trees within a few weeks in summer. R. lauricola has been shown to be lethal to most native species of Lauraceae and cultivated avocado (Persea americana Mill.) in the southeastern United States. In this study, we examined the survival of X. glabratus and R. lauricola in wood chips made from infested trees by using a standard tree chipper over a 10-wk period. After 2 wk, 14 X. glabratus were recovered from wood chips, whereas 339 X. glabratus emerged from nonchipped bolts. R. lauricola was not found 2 d postchipping from wood chips, indicating that the pathogen is not likely to survive for long inside wood chips. In contrast, R. lauricola persisted in dead, standing redbay trees for 14 mo. With large volumes of wood, the potential for infested logs to be moved between states or across U.S. borders is significant. Results demonstrated that chipping wood from laurel wilt-killed trees can significantly reduce the number of X. glabratus and limit the persistence of R. lauricola, which is important for sanitation strategies aimed at limiting the spread of this disease. PMID:24224251

  10. Increased water use efficiency does not prevent growth decline of Pinus canariensis in a semi-arid treeline ecotone in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Patricia; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Matysssek, Rainer; Jimenez, Maria S.; Gonzalez-Rodríguez, Agueda M.; Oberhuber, Walter; Wieser, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Key message Intrinsic water-use efficiency of Pinus canariensis (Sweet ex Spreng.) growing at a semi-arid treeline has increased during the past 37 years. Tree-ring width by contrast has declined, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Context Rising atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) has been related to tree growth enhancement accompanied by increasing intrinsic water-use-efficiency (iWUE). Nevertheless, the extent of rising Ca on long-term changes in iWUE and growth has remained poorly understood to date in Mediterranean treeline ecosystems. Aims This study aimed to examine radial growth and physiological responses of P. canariensis in relation to rising Ca and increasing aridity at treeline in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Methods We evaluated temporal changes in secondary growth (tree-ring width; TRW) and tree ring stable C isotope signature for assessing iWUE from 1975 through 2011. Results Precipitation was the main factor controlling secondary growth. Over the last 36 years P. canariensis showed a decline in TRW at enhanced iWUE, likely caused by reduced stomatal conductance due to increasing aridity. Conclusion Our results indicate that increasing aridity has overridden the potential CO2 fertilization on tree growth of P. canariensis at its upper distribution limit. PMID:27482149

  11. Effect of Hg, As and Pb on biomass production, photosynthetic rate, nutrients uptake and phytochelatin induction in Pfaffia glomerata.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D K; Huang, H G; Nicoloso, F T; Schetinger, M R; Farias, J G; Li, T Q; Razafindrabe, B H N; Aryal, N; Inouhe, M

    2013-11-01

    Plantlets of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) were exposed for 28 days to three different metal/metalloid (Hg, Pb and As) with different levels (Hg 1; As 25, 50, 100 and Pb 100 and 400 μM) to analyze the possible phytochelatin initiation and affects on growth and photosynthetic pigments vis-à-vis metal accumulation potential of plants. The plantlets showed significant Hg, As and Pb accumulation in roots (150, 1267.67 and 2129 μg g(-1) DW respectively); however, a low root to shoot metal translocation was observed. It was interesting to note that all tested macronutrient (Mg, K, Ca) was higher in shoots and just opposite in case of micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn), was recorded highest in roots. The growth of plantlets (analyzed in terms of length and dry weight) was negatively affected by various metal treatments. In addition, the level of photosynthetic pigments alters significantly in response to all metal/metalloid treatment. In response to all tested metal/metalloids in plants only As induced phytochelatins (PC2, PC3 and PC4) in roots, and in shoots, GSH was observed in all tested metal/metalloids. In conclusion, P. glomerata plantlets could not cooperatively induce phytochelatins under any of Hg and Pb levels.

  12. In vitro micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of cis isomers of lycopene exceed those of all-trans lycopene.

    PubMed

    Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Ishida, Betty K

    2008-03-01

    The ratio of cis and all-trans lycopene (LYC) in human and animal tissues exceeds that in foods. The basis for this difference remains unknown, although differences in their stability, transport, and metabolism have been suggested. Here, we systematically compared the digestive stability, efficiency of micellarization, and uptake and intracellular stability of cis and all-trans isomers of LYC and carotenes using the coupled in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell model. Aril and oil from the carotenoid-rich gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were cooked with rice to provide a natural source of LYC and carotenes. The ratio of cis:trans isomers of LYC and beta-carotene was similar before and after simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion with recovery of total carotenoids in the digesta exceeding 70%. Micellarization of cis isomers of LYC during digestion of meals with both gac aril and oil was significantly greater than that of the all-trans isomer but less than for the carotenes. Uptake of cis isomers of LYC by Caco-2 cells was similar to that of carotenes and significantly greater than all-trans LYC. Micellarized carotenoids were relatively stable in micelles incubated in the cell culture environment and after accumulation in Caco-2 cells. These data suggest that the greater bioaccessibility of cis compared with all-trans isomers of LYC contributes to the enrichment of the cis isomers in tissues and that gac fruit is an excellent source of bioaccessible LYC and provitamin A carotenoids.

  13. In vivo evaluation of anthelmintic potential of medicinal plant extracts against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zong-Fan; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yong; Lu, Cheng; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts of Prunus amygdalus Batsch seeds (Semen amygdali), Cimicifuga foetida L. rhizomes (Rhizoma Cimicifugae), Peucedanum decursivum (Miq.) Maxim roots (Radix Peucedani), Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng. seeds (Semen Momordicae), and Bupleurum chinense DC. roots (Radix Bupleuri chinensis) for their in vivo anthelmintic activity against monogenean Dactylogyrus intermedius in goldfish (Carassius auratus). The results showed that the efficacies of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were found to be, in this order, more effective than others with the 48 h-EC(50) and EC(90) values of 3.5 and 6.9, 6.0 and 8.4, 7.4 and 11.2 mg/L, respectively, followed by ethyl acetate extract of R. cimicifugae and chloroform extract of R. peucedani with EC(50) 189.2 and 240.4 mg/L. The promising methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis were subjected to acute toxicity tests for the evaluation of their safety to the host. After 48-h exposure, the mortalities of goldfish were recorded, and the established LC(50) values were 10.1-, 4.2-, and 8.4-fold higher than the corresponding EC(50). These results indicated that the three extracts from R. Bupleuri chinensis exhibit potential to be used as preferred natural antiparasitics for the control of the D. intermedius, especially for the methanolic one.

  14. Enhancement of serological immune responses to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine by a supplement made of extract of cochinchina momordica seeds.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chenwen; Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Liu, Diwen; Hu, Songhua

    2007-12-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination against FMD is a routine practice in many countries where the disease is endemic. This study was designed first to investigate the extract of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng. (ECMS) for its adjuvant effect on vaccination of inactivated FMDV antigens in a guinea pig model and then to evaluate the supplement of ECMS in oil-emulsified FMD vaccines for its immunopotentiation in pigs. The results indicated that ECMS and oil emulsion act synergistically as adjuvants to promote the production of FMDV- and VP1-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and subclasses in guinea pigs. A supplement of ECMS in a commercial FMD vaccine significantly enhanced FMDV-specific indirect hemagglutination assay titers as well as VP1-specific IgG and subclasses in pigs. Therefore, ECMS could be an alternative approach to improving swine FMD vaccination when the vaccine is poor to induce an effective immune response.

  15. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Momordica cochinchinensis to identify genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Rim, Yeonggil; Jang, Hui-Jeong; Kim, Cheol Hong; Park, Jongsun; Kumar, Ritesh; Lee, Sunghoon; Kim, Byung Chul; Bhak, Jong; Nguyen-Quoc, Binh; Kim, Seon-Won; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2012-07-01

    The ripe fruit of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng, known as gac, is featured by very high carotenoid content. Although this plant might be a good resource for carotenoid metabolic engineering, so far, the genes involved in the carotenoid metabolic pathways in gac were unidentified due to lack of genomic information in the public database. In order to expedite the process of gene discovery, we have undertaken Illumina deep sequencing of mRNA prepared from aril of gac fruit. From 51,446,670 high-quality reads, we obtained 81,404 assembled unigenes with average length of 388 base pairs. At the protein level, gac aril transcripts showed about 81.5% similarity with cucumber proteomes. In addition 17,104 unigenes have been assigned to specific metabolic pathways in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and all of known enzymes involved in terpenoid backbones biosynthetic and carotenoid biosynthetic pathways were also identified in our library. To analyze the relationship between putative carotenoid biosynthesis genes and alteration of carotenoid content during fruit ripening, digital gene expression analysis was performed on three different ripening stages of aril. This study has revealed putative phytoene synthase, 15-cis-phytone desaturase, zeta-carotene desaturase, carotenoid isomerase and lycopene epsilon cyclase might be key factors for controlling carotenoid contents during aril ripening. Taken together, this study has also made availability of a large gene database. This unique information for gac gene discovery would be helpful to facilitate functional studies for improving carotenoid quantities.

  16. Immunomodulatory activity of a chymotrypsin inhibitor from Momordica cochinchinensis seeds.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Alex Yuen-Kam; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2006-09-01

    Serine protease inhibitors are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. Many of them have been purified and characterized from different species. While the physicochemical properties of these protease inhibitors have been extensively investigated, their biological effects, e.g. immunomodulatory effect, remain relatively unexplored. Recently, we isolated a chymotrypsin-specific inhibitor (MCoCI) from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour) Spreng (Family Cucurbitaceae), the traditional Chinese medicine known as Mubiezhi, which has been used as an antiinflammatory agent. In the present study, the effects of MCoCI on different types of cells of the immune system, including splenocytes, splenic lymphocytes, neutrophils, bone marrow cells and macrophages, were investigated. MCoCI was shown to possess immuno-enhancing and antiinflammatory effects. MCoCI could stimulate the proliferation of different cells of the immune system, e.g. splenocytes, splenic lymphocytes and bone marrow cells, in a manner comparable to that of Concanavalin A. Moreover, MCoCI could also suppress the formation of hydrogen peroxide in neutrophils and macrophages. These immunomodulatory effects may explain some of the therapeutic actions of Mubiezhi.

  17. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis.

  18. Cochinchina momordica seed extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human gastric cancer cells via PARP and p53 signal pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Rui; Meng, Lin-Yi; Lin, Zhi-Yan; Shen, Yang; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2012-01-01

    Cochinchina momordica seed is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, which is a kind of fruit and consumed for dietary as well as medicinal uses. In this study, using the human SGC7901 and MKN-28 gastric cancer cell lines, we explored the anticancer activity of the extract from cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS). ECMS inhibited significantly the survival rates of SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells in concentration- and time-dependent manners by MTT assay. The typical apoptotic morphological changes were observed by Hoechst 33258 dye assay after SGC7901 and MKN-28 cells were treated with ECMS for 48 h. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that ECMS-treatment blocked the cells at the S phase of cell cycle. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and Bcl-2 were downregulated notably by ECMS-treatment, whereas those of Fas/Fas-associated death domain, p53, and Bax were upregulated in SGC7901 cells. ECMS dramatically enhanced the enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 whilst slightly increased caspase-8 activity. Taken together, this study demonstrated that ECMS exerted cytotoxic activities via PARP and p53 signal pathways in the human gastric cancer cells.

  19. Two New Oleanane-type Triterpenoids from Methanolyzed Saponins of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xua, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the methanolyzed total saponins of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, together with 16 known compounds (3-18). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometric, methanolysis and LC-MS analysis. All the isolates were tested for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, PANC-1, A-549, and SW-480) and the glucose uptake activity. The known compound 6 exhibited toxic effects against HL-60 with an IC50 value of 18.1 μM, while 10 showed cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 and A-549 cell lines, with IC50 values of 34.4 and 32.8 μM, respectively. In addition, the new compound 2 showed glucose uptake activity with a glucose consumption value of 0.29 μM at 10 μM concentration.

  20. Two New Oleanane-type Triterpenoids from Methanolyzed Saponins of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rong; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xua, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Two new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (1 and 2) were isolated from the methanolyzed total saponins of the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, together with 16 known compounds (3-18). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic, including 1D and 2D NMR, mass spectrometric, methanolysis and LC-MS analysis. All the isolates were tested for their cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, PANC-1, A-549, and SW-480) and the glucose uptake activity. The known compound 6 exhibited toxic effects against HL-60 with an IC50 value of 18.1 μM, while 10 showed cytotoxicity against SMMC-7721 and A-549 cell lines, with IC50 values of 34.4 and 32.8 μM, respectively. In addition, the new compound 2 showed glucose uptake activity with a glucose consumption value of 0.29 μM at 10 μM concentration. PMID:27534102

  1. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use. PMID:20645769

  2. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  3. Biology and systematics of the New World Phyllocnistis Zeller leafminers of the avocado genus Persea (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Donald R.; Wagner, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four New World species of Phyllocnistis Zeller are described from serpentine mines in Persea (Family Lauraceae). Phyllocnistis hyperpersea,new species, mines the upper leaf surfaces of avocado, Persea americana Mill., and red bay, Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. and ranges over much of the southeastern United States into Central America. Phyllocnistis subpersea,new species, mines the underside and occasionally upper sides of new leaves of Persea borbonia in southeastern United States. Phyllocnistis longipalpa, new species, known only from southern Florida also mines the undersides of new leaves of Persea borbonia. Phyllocnistis perseafolia,new species, mines both leaf surfaces and possibly fruits of Persea americana in Colombia, South America. As in all known species of Phyllocnistis, the early instars are subepidermal sapfeeders in young (not fully hardened) foliage, and the final instar is an extremely specialized, nonfeeding larval form, whose primary function is to spin the silken cocoon, at the mine terminus, prior to pupation. Early stages are illustrated and described for three of the species. The unusual morphology of the pupae, particularly the frontal process of the head, is shown to be one of the most useful morphological sources of diagnostic characters for species identification of Phyllocnistis. COI barcode sequence distances are provided for the four proposed species and a fifth, undescribed species from Costa Rica. PMID:21594066

  4. Effect of thermal and alkaline pretreatment of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass on biogas production.

    PubMed

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Li, Yongqiang; Hao, Xiying

    2016-01-01

    Giant miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus) and Chinese fountaingrass (Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng), cultivated for landscaping and soil conservation, are potential energy crops. The study investigated the effect of combined thermal and alkaline pretreatments on biogas production of these energy crops. The pretreatment included two types of alkali (6% CaO and 6% NaOH) at 22, 70 and 100 °C. The alkaline pretreatment resulted in a greater breakdown of the hemicellulose fraction, with CaO more effective than NaOH. Pretreatment of giant miscanthus with 6% CaO at 100 °C for 24 h produced a CH4 yield (313 mL g(-1) volatile solids (VS)) that was 1.7 times that of the untreated sample (186 mL g(-1) VS). However, pretreatment of Chinese fountaingrass with 6% CaO or 6% NaOH at 70 °C for 24 h resulted in similar CH4 yields (328 and 302 mL g(-1) VS for CaO and NaOH pretreatments) as the untreated sample (311 mL g(-1) VS). Chinese fountaingrass was more easily digestible but had a low overall CH4 yield per hectare (1,831 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)) compared to giant miscanthus (6,868 m(3) ha(-1) y(-1)). This study demonstrates the potential of thermal/alkaline pretreatment and the use of giant miscanthus and Chinese fountaingrass for biogas production.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Acute Toxicity of the Essential Oil of Allium tuberosum Leaves and Its Selected Major Constituents Against Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jizhe; Liu, Xinchao; Li, Zhen; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate acute toxicity of the essential oil of leaves of Chinese chives, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng (Asparagales: Alliaceae) and its major constituents against Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituents of the oil were sulfur-containing compounds, including allyl methyl trisulfide (36.24%), diallyl disulfide (27.26%), diallyl trisulfide (18.68%), and dimethyl trisulfide (9.23%). The essential oil of A. tuberosum leaves exhibited acute toxicity against Ap. lucorum with an LD50 value of 20.03 μg per adult. Among the main compounds, diallyl trisulfide (LD50 = 10.13 μg per adult) showed stronger acute toxicity than allyl methyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.10 μg per adult) and dimethyl trisulfide (LD50 = 21.65 μg per adult). The LD50 value of diallyl disulfide against Ap. lucorum was 28.10 μg per adult. The results indicated that the essential oil of A. tuberosum and its major constituents may have a potential to be developed as botanical insecticides against Ap. lucorum. PMID:26254289

  6. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  7. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  8. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, A; De la Torre, R A; Alonso, N; Villaescusa, A; Betancourt, J; Vizoso, A

    1996-07-01

    Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae): Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha x piperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf (Poaceae); Passiflora incarnata L. (Passifloraceae); Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae); Piper auritum HBK. (Piperaceae); Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardeaceae) and Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae). A plate incorporation assay with Aspergillus nidulans was employed, allowing detection of somatic segregation as a result of mitotic crossing-over, chromosome malsegregation or clastogenic effects. Aspergillus nidulans D-30, a well-marked strain carrying four recessive mutations for conidial color in heterozygosity, which permitted the direct visual detection of segregants, was used throughout this study. As a result, only in the aqueous extract of one of the plants screened (Momordica charantia) a statistical significant increase in the frequency of segregant sectors per colony was observed, and consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated.

  9. Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Neukirch, Hannes; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Sosa, Silvio; Altinier, Gianmario; Della Loggia, Roberto; Guerriero, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Rings A, D and E of faradiol (1), and ring E of both arnidiol (10) and calenduladiol (4) have been subjected to various selective chemical manipulations to modify polarity, water affinity, H-bonding, sterics, and number of aromatic groups of these anti-inflammatory natural compounds. A total of 15 new and four known pentacyclic triterpenoids have been obtained in this way. Some 13 terpenoids were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activities with respect to inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema in mouse. Three derivatives of 1, the C(16) benzyl ether 15, the C(30) aldehyde 24, and the C(30) primary alcohol 25 showed significantly improved anti-inflammatory potencies, which is relevant for (future) structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies. PMID:17192009

  10. Anodic Asymmetry of Leaves and Flowers and its Relationship to Phyllotaxis

    PubMed Central

    KORN, ROBERT W.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims New approaches are needed to evaluate the various hypotheses of phyllotaxis, and an examination of anodic leaf asymmetry may be one such approach. • Methods Data were collected on the direction of midrib curvature and leaf coil in Syngonium podophyllum, the location of floral buds in Acalypha virginica, the position of secondary leaves of Croton variegatus ‘Banana’ and the relative size of half-lamina in Aglaonema crispum and Calathea ornata. • Key Results All five features were exclusively anodic with respect to the direction of the genetic spiral regardless of whether the spiral was clockwise or counterclockwise. • Conclusions Any phyllotactic mechanism must include some asymmetric component which cannot be explained by the prevalent hypotheses of contact parastichies, inhibitory fields, available space, pressure waves and auxin transport. The most favourable hypothesis is the primary vasculature explanation as it includes an asymmetric feature. PMID:16522652

  11. Flavonoids Affect the Light Reaction of Photosynthesis in Vitro and in Vivo as Well as the Growth of Plants.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Olivares-Palomares, Karen Susana; Aguilar-Laurents, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; King-Díaz, Beatriz

    2015-09-23

    Flavonoids retusin (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) (1) and pachypodol (5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone) (2) were isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. Pachypodol acts as a Hill reaction inhibitor with its target on the water splitting enzyme located in PSII. In the search for new herbicides from natural compounds, flavonoids 1 and 2 and flavonoid analogues quercetin (3), apigenin (4), genistein (5), and eupatorin (6) were assessed for their effect in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain and in vivo on the germination and growth of the plants Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum and Lolium perenne. Flavonoid 3 was the most active inhibitor of the photosynthetic uncoupled electron flow (I50 = 114 μM) with a lower log P value (1.37). Results in vivo suggest that 1, 2, 3, and 5 behave as pre- and postemergent herbicides, with 3 and 5 being more active.

  12. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytopharmaceuticals prepared from Arnica flowers.

    PubMed

    Klaas, Christoph A; Wagner, Gerd; Laufer, Stefan; Sosa, Silvio; Della Loggia, Roberto; Bomme, Ulrich; Pahl, Heike L; Merfort, Irmgard

    2002-05-01

    Phytopharmaceuticals prepared from flowerheads of Arnica montana of Spanish origin and of the new type "Arbo", which can be easily and economically cultivated, were studied for their capability to impair activation of the transcription factors NF-kappa B and NF-AT. Both proteins are responsible for the transcription of genes encoding various inflammatory mediators. Additionally, their influence on the release of the cytokines IL-1 and TNF-alpha were examined. The inhibitory activities correlate with their quantitative and qualitative content of sesquiterpene lactones (Sls). Moreover, it was shown that the inhibitory potency of 11 alpha,13-dihydrohelenalin derivatives being the main Sls in the Spanish flowers depend on their esterfication. Compounds with unsaturated acyl moieties, such as methacrylate and tiglinate, exhibited a stronger activity in the NF-kappa B EMSA as well as in the croton oil ear test in mice than the acetate derivative.

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antifungal furanosesquiterpenoids isolated from Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb.) Engl. resin.

    PubMed

    Fraternale, Daniele; Sosa, Silvio; Ricci, Donata; Genovese, Salvatore; Messina, Federica; Tomasini, Sabrina; Montanari, Francesca; Marcotullio, Maria Carla

    2011-06-01

    The topical anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging and antifungal activities of essential oils and extracts of Commiphora erythraea (Ehrenb.) Engl. resin were investigated. The hexane extract significantly inhibited oedema when applied topically in Croton oil-induced ear oedema assay in mice. The same extract showed antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenging assay. A bioguided separation of the hexane extract led to the isolation of furanosesquiterpenoids 1 and 2 that showed a weak antifungal activity, while compounds 3-5 resulted to be antioxidant (EC(50) 4.28, 2.56 and 1.08 mg/mL, respectively) and anti-inflammatory (30, 26 and 32% oedema reduction, respectively). PMID:21316424

  14. Chemopreventive potential of Tribulus terrestris against 7,12- dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced skin papillomagenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manish; Soni, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Shalini; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    In the present investigation, the chemopreventive potential of aqueous extracts of the root and fruit of Tribulus terrestris (an Ayurvedic medicinal plant) on 7, 12 - dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice was studied. A significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of papillomas was observed, along with a significant increase in average latent period in mice treated orally with Tribulus terrestris suspension continuously at pre, peri and post-initiation stages of papillomagenesis as compared to the control group treated with DMBA and croton oil alone. Treatment with Tribulus terrestris suspension by oral gavage for 7 days resulted in a significant increase in the reduced glutathione content in the liver (P< 0.001 for both root and fruit extracts). Conversely, lipid peroxidation levels were significantly decreased (P< 0.001).

  15. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Vibrational spectra and DFT calculations of sonderianin diterpene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, I. M. M.; Santos, H. S.; Sena, D. M.; Cruz, B. G.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Freire, P. T. C.; Braz-Filho, R.; Sousa, J. W.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Bernardino, A. C. S. S.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Bento, R. R. F.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, the natural product sonderianin diterpene (C21H26O4), a diterpenoid isolated from Croton blanchetianus, with potential application in the drug industry, was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Vibrational spectra were supported by Density Functional Theory calculations. Infrared and Raman spectra of sonderianin were recorded at ambient temperature in the regions from 400 cm-1 to 3600 cm-1 and from 40 cm-1 to 3500 cm-1, respectively. DFT calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p) were performed with the purpose of obtaining information on the structural and vibrational properties of this organic compound. A comparison with experimental spectra allowed us to assign all of the normal modes of the crystal. The assignment of the normal modes was carried out by means of potential energy distribution.

  17. In vivo anti-inflammatory and in vitro antioxidant activities of Mediterranean dietary plants.

    PubMed

    Conforti, Filomena; Sosa, Silvio; Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Uzunov, Dimitar; Tubaro, Aurelia; Menichini, Francesco; Loggia, Roberto Della

    2008-02-28

    Five hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from Calabria region (Italy) used in local traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases were evaluated for their in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity (inhibition of croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice) and in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties (inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation and bovine brain liposomes peroxidation, DPPH radical scavenging). All the extracts showed an anti-inflammatory effect: 300 microg/cm(2) provoked oedema reductions ranging from 21 to 27%. All the extracts exerted also radical scavenging and/or antioxidant properties, the most active plant being Mentha aquatica L. (Lamiaceae) which contained the highest amount of phenolics (337 mg/g) and of flavonoids (15.75 mg/g). Moreover, the content and the composition of sterols were assessed by GC-MS in the examined plants Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) contained the highest number of sterols. PMID:18164564

  18. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases.

  19. Velamo do campo: its volatile constituents, secretory elements, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    El Babili, Fatiha; Roques, Christine; Haddioui, Laila; Bellvert, Floriant; Bertrand, Cédric; Chatelain, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The volatile components from Croton campestris root bark were localized by an anatomical study and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the first time. The roots of this plant showed secretory cells. These volatile constituents, isolated from the dichloromethane extract by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found 69 components. They were characterized, and the major constituents of crude oil root barks were spathulenol (23.3%) and borneol (18.7%). Growth inhibitory activity of the active compounds in solution was evaluated by measuring minimal inhibitory concentrations using a broth micromethod. The minimal inhibitory concentration of root bark volatile constituents was 1.56 μg/mL for Staphylococcus aureus, 3.125 μg/mL for Candida albicans, and 6.25 μg/mL for Aspergillusniger. PMID:22612296

  20. Local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects of NM-135, a new prodrug glucocorticoid, in an experimental inflammatory rat model.

    PubMed

    Ishii, T; Kibushi, N; Nakajima, T; Kakuta, T; Tanaka, N; Sato, C; Sugai, K; Kijima-Suda, I; Kai, H; Miyata, T

    1998-12-01

    The local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects of NM-135 (6alpha,9-difluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-21[[2 ,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(4-methylbenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-pregna-1, 4-diene-3,20-dione) in croton oil-induced granuloma pouches and ear edema in rats were studied. The local anti-inflammatory activity of NM-135 was stronger than that of betamethasone 17-valerate (BV). As to systemic side effects, BV and diflucortolon valerate (DFV) caused thymolysis at the doses required for the anti-inflammatory activity. In contrast, no clear systemic side effect was observed in rats administered NM-135 at the dose producing the anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that NM-135 is a drug exhibiting a high degree of dissociation between the local anti-inflammatory activity and systemic side effects. PMID:9920209

  1. Constraining the last 7 billion years of galaxy evolution in semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Croton, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z = 0 and z ≈ 0.8, as well as the local black hole-bulge relation. We find that in order to be successful we are required to push supernova feedback efficiencies to extreme limits which are, in some cases, unjustified by current observations. This leads us to the conclusion that the current model may be incomplete. Using the posterior probability distributions provided by our fitting, as well as the qualitative details of our produced stellar mass functions, we suggest that any future model improvements must act to preferentially bolster star formation efficiency in the most massive haloes at high redshift.

  2. Galaxy Number Counts Applied to a Semi-Analytic Galaxy Model in the Millennium Run Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklein, Brian; Moody, J. W.; Hintz, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The Millennium Run simulation used more than 10 billion particles to trace the evolution of the dark matter distribution in a ΛCDM cosmology in a cubic region of the Universe over 2 billion light-years on a side. This data was used by Croton et al. as the basis of a semi-analytic galaxy model, allowing the region to be populated with more than 9 million galaxies brighter than Mr = -17.4. We visually analyze this galaxy catalog searching for significant voids and then apply galaxy number count (GNC) analysis to the lines-of-sight to these voids. Using Wolf plots, we investigate whether GNC analysis would allow us to locate voids within the sample without the need to first find them visually.

  3. FT-Raman and FTIR-ATR spectroscopies and DFT calculations of triterpene acetyl aleuritolic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, I. R. S.; Teixeira, A. M. R.; Sena Junior, D. M.; Santos, H. S.; Albuquerque, M. R. J. R.; Bandeira, P. N.; Rodrigues, A. S.; Braz-Filho, R.; Gusmão, G. O. M.; Silva, J. H.; Faria, J. L. B.; Bento, R. R. F.

    2014-01-01

    Triterpenoids comprise an important class of compounds presenting a wide range of biologically important properties. Acetyl aleutitolic acid (AAA) is a triterpenoid isolated from Croton zehntneri, with molecular formula C32H50O4. Its structure has been characterized by NMR spectroscopy, however, there are no papers available regarding its vibrational properties. The Fourier-Transform Infrared with Attenuated Total Reflectance and Fourier-Transform Raman spectra, together with Density Functional Theory calculations of AAA are reported. Vibrational spectra were recorded at 300 K in the regions 600 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1 and 40 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1, for IR and Raman, respectively. Vibrational wavenumbers were predicted using Density Functional Theory calculations with the hybrid functional B3LYP and the basis set 6-31 G(d,p). A complete assignment of vibrational modes is given.

  4. Radio-Mode Feedback in Massive Galaxies at Redshift 0 < z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Elaine M.; Croom, Scott M.; Ching, John H. Y.; Johnston, Helen M.; Cannon, Russell D.; Mauch, Tom

    2010-05-01

    We have carried out a large observational study of the radio luminosities, stellar populations, and environments of massive galaxies over the redshift range 0 < z < 1. Radio jets powered by an accreting central black hole are common in massive galaxies, and there is a large class of “optically quiet AGN,” with radio emission but no optical/IR signature of black-hole accretion. The central black holes in these galaxies are probably accreting in a radiatively inefficient mode, and our results suggest that “radio-mode feedback” as described by Croton et al. is likely to occur in all masssive early-type galaxies at z < 0.8. While it appears that radio-loud AGN occur episodically in all massive early-type galaxies, we also identify a sub-population of galaxies with powerful radio sources and a prominent younger (~ 108 yr) stellar population that may have undergone recent mergers.

  5. Spatial distribution and velocities of satellite galaxies in the Millennium SimulationÂ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales, L.; García Lambas, D.; Navarro, J. F.

    We study the spatial distribution and kinematics of satellites orbiting isolated primary galaxies using a galaxy catalogue constructed applying a semianalytic galaxy formation model to the Millennium Run (Springel et al 2005, Croton et al 2005). In order to compare with observations, satellites samples are constructed by carefully stacking systems of similar halo mass, after appropriate rescaling of their positions and velocities. Our main results are that: (i) the spatial distribution of satellites may be well approximated by an NFW profile with concentration c ~ 6 almost independent of host virial mass; (ii) the velocity dispersion drops substantially from the center outwards, typically by a factor of ~ 2 at the virial radius; and (iii) the velocity ellipsoid is radially anisotropic near the center, becomin gradually more isotropic in the outer regions These trends may very well be obscured in observational samples unless proper care is taken to remove interlopers. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  6. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  7. Projected effects of proposed salinity-control projects on shallow ground water; preliminary results for the upper Brazos River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garza, Sergio

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional digital-computer models were developed for aquifer simulation of steady and transient conditions in which the density effects of salt water are considered. The models were used to project the effects of the 100- year impoundment of salt water in Kiowa Peak Lake and Croton Lake on the freshwater system. Rises in aquifer head of 10 to 50 feet are projected only for areas near each dan and along each lake shoreline. The maximum migration of salt water downstream from each dam is projected to be about 1 mile. The modeling efforts in this study did not include the effects of hydrodynamic dispersion nor consideration of possible changes in the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer due to physical and chemical interactions in the salt-water and fresh-water environments.

  8. Larvicidal activity of few select indigenous plants of North East India against disease vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dohutia, C; Bhattacharyya, D R; Sharma, S K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharjee, K; Gogoi, K; Gogoi, P; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes are the vectors of several life threatening diseases like dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis, which are widely present in the north-eastern states of India. Investigations on five local plants of north-east India, selected on the basis of their use by indigenous communities as fish poison, were carried out to study their mosquito larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Stegomyia aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (lymphatic filariasis vector) mosquitoes. Crude Petroleum ether extracts of the roots of three plants viz. Derris elliptica, Linostoma decandrum and Croton tiglium were found to have remarkable larvicidal activity; D. elliptica extract was the most effective and with LC50 value of 0.307 μg/ml its activity was superior to propoxur, the standard synthetic larvicide. Half-life of larvicidal activity of D. elliptica and L. decandrum extracts ranged from 2-4 days.

  9. Review of antiviral and immunomodulating properties of plants of the Peruvian rainforest with a particular emphasis on Una de Gato and Sangre de Grado.

    PubMed

    Williams, J E

    2001-12-01

    Viral diseases, including emerging and chronic viruses, are an increasing worldwide health concern. As a consequence, the discovery of new antiviral agents from plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. A number of native Amazonian medicines of plant origin are known to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, although only a few have been studied for their antiviral properties and immunomodulating effects. Those most studied include: Sangre de Grado (drago) (Croton lechleri) in the Euphorbiaceae family and Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa) in the Rubiaceae family. This article reviews the chemical composition, pharmacological properties, state of current research, clinical use, and potential antiviral and immunomodulating activity of these and other plants from the Peruvian Amazon.

  10. Methylene-carbonyl condensations of some CH acids with aldehydes under the conditions of phase-transfer catalysis or catalysis by the fluoride ion

    SciTech Connect

    Beletskaya, I.P.; Gulyukina, N.S.; Muhamed Ali Ali; Solov'yanov, A.A.; Reutov, O.A.

    1987-09-10

    The condensation of a series of CH acids (fluorene, phenylacetonitrile, ethene) with aromatic aldehydes was realized in the aqueous sodium hydroxide-organic solvent-phase-transfer catalyst system. 9-Substituted fluorenesdo not enter into condensation under the indicated conditions. The condensation of fluorene, PhCH/sub 2/CN, CH/sub 2/(CN)/sub 2/, and CH/sub 2/(CN)COOEt with benzaldehyde and also of CH/sub 2/(CN)COOEt with cyclohexanone was realized in the presence of tetrabutylammonium fluoride, deposited on silica gel. It was shown that the yield of the product from crotonic condensation in the reaction of CH/sub 2/(COOEt)/sub 2/ with benzaldehyde is small, and this is due to the instability of PhCh = C(COOEt)/sub 2/ under the reaction conditions. Sodiomalonic ester was condensed with benzaldehyde in the presence of titanium tetrachloride or aluminum chloride.

  11. Chemopreventive action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Jannu, L N; Hussain, S P; Rao, A R

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports the chemopreventive property of mace (aril covering the seed of Myristica fragrans) on DMBA-induced papillomagenesis in the skin of male Swiss albino mice. When a single topical application of DMBA (150 micrograms in 100 microliters of acetone) was followed, 2 weeks later, by repeated applications of croton oil (1% in acetone, three times/week) skin papillomas appeared in 100% animals and the average tumors per tumor-bearing animal was 5.67. On the other hand, when animals receiving similar treatments were put on a diet containing 1% mace during the periinitiational phase of tumorigenesis, the skin papilloma incidence was reduced to 50% and the average tumor per tumor-bearing mouse was only 1.75. This decline in papilloma was significant (P less than 0.05). PMID:1900737

  12. [Host plants of Aphis gossypii (Aphididae), vector of virus of Cucumis melo melon (Cucurbitaceae) in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M V; Agüero, R; Rivera, C

    2001-03-01

    Plant species associated with commercial melon crops and surrounding areas were examined to identity the natural host plants of Aphis gossypii Glover. The study was conducted in two farms located in different melon production areas and plant life zones of Costa Rica. Plant species diversity, percent coverage and distribution over time were recorded during one year. Differences between locations were observed. A total of 86 plant species (49 families) and 72 plant species (40 families) were identified associated to the crop in farms A and B, respectively. In both farms a total of 24 species plants (16 families) were colonized by A. gossypii and 16 (10 families) are new reports of host plant species for this aphid. The new reports are: Justicia comata, Tetramerium nervosum, Alternanthera pubiflora, Cassia massoni, C. reticulata, Cleome viscosa, C. spinosa, Croton argenteus, Caperonia palustris, Chamaesyce gyssopilopia, Phyllantus amarus, Sida decumbens, Ludwigia erecta, Passiflora foetida, Guazuma ulmifolia and Corchorus orinocensis. PMID:11795159

  13. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825).

    PubMed

    Santos, Israel J M; Leite, Gerlânia O; Costa, José Galberto M; Alves, Romulo R N; Campos, Adriana R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V; Nunes, Maria Janeth H; Almeida, Waltécio O

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  14. Evaluation of triacontanol-containing compounds as anti-inflammatory agents using guinea pig models.

    PubMed

    McBride, P T; Clark, L; Krueger, G G

    1987-10-01

    A mixture of the aliphatic alcohol, triacontanol, and other chemically associated naturally occurring alcohols was applied to the denuded dorsal cutaneous surface of guinea pigs to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity. In the setting of a chemical irritation with 2% croton oil and in an allergic dermatitis created with dinitrochlorobenzene sensitization and challenge, the triacontanol-containing preparation was significantly more effective than vehicle alone (DHL skin cream) but not as effective as 0.05% Diprolene ointment. Lymphocyte stimulation was studied by tritiated thymidine uptake and morphologic examination for blast transformation. When triacontanol-containing compounds were solubilized in aqueous media, effects on lymphocytes were insignificant. When solubilized in ethanol, there was a marked effect on thymidine uptake but not on blast transformation when compared to parallel controls.

  15. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included. PMID:27169179

  16. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Israel J. M.; Leite, Gerlânia O.; Costa, José Galberto M.; Alves, Romulo R. N.; Campos, Adriana R.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Freita, Francisco Ronaldo V.; Nunes, Maria Janeth H.; Almeida, Waltécio O.

    2015-01-01

    Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. PMID:26664448

  17. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  18. Ground deformations along Ionian coastline of the northern Calabria (Southern Italy) from Capo Trionto to Capo Colonna detected by InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollrath, Andreas; Cianflone, Giuseppe; Bignami, Christian; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Dominici, Rocco; Zucca, Francesco; Stramondo, Salvatore; Baldi, Paolo; Fabris, Massimo; Sepe, Vincenzo; Anzidei, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located along the Ionian coast of the northern Calabrian Arc, in correspondence of the Crotone and Spartivento fore-arc basins. The investigated coastal area represents the western margin of the Gulf of Taranto. The seafloor of this sector has been investigated by several authors during the last three decades and is characterized by numerous submarine depositional systems strictly related to main drainage basins which feed into the Ionian Sea. Northward, the area is limited by the Corigliano Canyon which connects the continental shelf with the Taranto Valley and separates the Cariati and Cirò Ridges. The latter is bounded, along its southern side, by the NW-SE trending Alice Canyon which reaches the inner continental shelf offshore Punta Alice and is not related to an onshore drainage system. Southward, the wide Neto-Lipuda Canyons system originates close to the coastline and is connected to the Neto and Lipuda Rivers. Toward South, this system is separated from the Esaro Canyon by the Luna-Hera Lacinia High. The southernmost canyon is connected to the Esaro River and runs subparallel to the coastline. Previous authors have been highlighted ground deformations, with sometimes associated km-long surface fractures and damages to buildings, in the Cirò coastal plain and in the area southward from Crotone. The cause of these deformation is attributed to megaslides. The multi-temporal (1958, 1985, 1998, 2008) analysis of the coastline variations shows a general erosive trend characterized by m and dm coastline retreats. We applied the multi-temporal StaMPS SBAS technique for two SAR datasets, one acquired from 2003 up to 2010 by Envisat ASAR instrument, and another from 1995 up to 2000 from the ERS satellite (ESA, European Space Agency) to investigate ground displacements in the studied coastal area. The Up component (recording the vertical ground deformation) allows to identify the main subsidence areas in correspondence of the Capo Colonna

  19. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists. PMID:20183203

  20. Addition of methanetrisulfonyl fluoride to unsaturated bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Yagupol'skii, Yu.L.; Gerus, I.I.; Savina, T.I.

    1988-06-10

    The reactions of methanetrisulfonyl fluoride, HC(SO/sub 2/F)/sub 3/ with acrylic acid derivatives lead to addition products containing the tris(fluorosulfonyl)methyl group, while methyl vinyl ketone gives an unstable adduct. The methyl ester of propiolic acid is converted to a mixture of cis- and trans-tris(fluorosulfonyl)-crotonic acid esters. The reaction of cyclohexene with methanesulfonyl fluoride leads to dimerization of the olefin and the cyclohexyl derivative is formed in low yield. Sulfonyl fluoride acts as catalyst for the conversion of cyclohexene to dimer and only a small portion of the cyclohexyl cation reacts with the weakly nucleophilic /sup /minus//C(SO/sub 2/F)/sub 3/ anion.

  1. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Al-Hazimi, Awdah; Al-Mogbel, Mohammed; Hossain, Ashfaque; Bagchi, Debasis

    2012-06-01

    The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papillomagenesis. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor yield and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with 0.5 mg of cardamom powder in suspension continuously at pre-, peri-, and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis compared with the control group. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were also comparatively lower in the cardamom-treated mouse group. Treatment of cardamom suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation level of the liver (P < .01). In addition, the reduced glutathione level was significantly elevated in comparison with the control group (P < .05) following cardamom suspension treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer.

  2. Selective inhibition by magnosalin and magnoshinin, compounds from 'shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), of adjuvant-induced angiogenesis and granuloma formation in the mouse pouch.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Kobayashi, S; Luo, B; Kimura, I

    1990-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of magnosalin and magnoshinin, compounds from the crude drug 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), on angiogenesis and pouch granuloma formation induced by an adjuvant containing croton oil were investigated. Magnosalin inhibited angiogenesis 2.4-fold (intra-pouch) and 9.7-fold (intraperitoneal) more strongly than granuloma formation. The inhibition of angiogenesis by magnosalin was 5-fold (intra-pouch) and 21-fold (intraperitoneal) weaker than that by hydrocortisone. In contrast, intraperitoneal magnoshinin inhibited granuloma formation 2.5-fold more strongly than angiogenesis. The regression coefficients of anti-angiogenesis vs. the inhibition of granuloma formation were 1.79 for magnosalin, 1.11 for hydrocortisone, and 0.61 for magnoshinin. These results show that the anti-chronic inflammatory effect of 'Shin-i' was caused by selective inhibition of angiogenesis by magnosalin and of granuloma formation by magnoshinin.

  3. The Ancient Greek discovery of the nervous system: Alcmaeon, Praxagoras and Herophilus.

    PubMed

    Panegyres, Konstantine P; Panegyres, Peter K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this historical overview is to show that the theories of Alcmaeon of Croton formed an important part of a developing conception of the brain and the nervous system. The vital contributions of Praxagoras of Kos, who suggested the existence of what we now call "neurons", and Herophilus of Chalcedon, who distinguished between sensory and motor nerves and demonstrated the existence of the nervous system by dissection, also established the foundation principles of neuroscience, but their importance is sometimes forgotten. We trace the discovery of the nervous system through an investigation of these three thinkers. Combining astounding philosophical concepts with sharp observation, they conceived and demonstrated the existence of a nervous system by the third century BCE. This discovery is central not only to neuroscience, but also to all of medicine and to our concept of the human organism: it articulated the connection between the mind, the brain, and the body.

  4. Flavonoids Affect the Light Reaction of Photosynthesis in Vitro and in Vivo as Well as the Growth of Plants.

    PubMed

    Morales-Flores, Félix; Olivares-Palomares, Karen Susana; Aguilar-Laurents, María Isabel; Rivero-Cruz, José Fausto; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas; King-Díaz, Beatriz

    2015-09-23

    Flavonoids retusin (5-hydroxy-3,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone) (1) and pachypodol (5,4'-dihydroxy-3,7,3'-trimethoxyflavone) (2) were isolated from Croton ciliatoglanduliferus Ort. Pachypodol acts as a Hill reaction inhibitor with its target on the water splitting enzyme located in PSII. In the search for new herbicides from natural compounds, flavonoids 1 and 2 and flavonoid analogues quercetin (3), apigenin (4), genistein (5), and eupatorin (6) were assessed for their effect in vitro on the photosynthetic electron transport chain and in vivo on the germination and growth of the plants Physalis ixocarpa, Trifolium alexandrinum and Lolium perenne. Flavonoid 3 was the most active inhibitor of the photosynthetic uncoupled electron flow (I50 = 114 μM) with a lower log P value (1.37). Results in vivo suggest that 1, 2, 3, and 5 behave as pre- and postemergent herbicides, with 3 and 5 being more active. PMID:26322527

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Polyphenols-Rich Extract from Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flowers in Acute and Chronic Mice Models

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bang-Tian; Li, Wei-Xi; He, Rong-Rong; Li, Yi-Fang; Tsoi, Bun; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Kurihara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    While beneficial health properties of tea leaves have been extensively studied, less attention is paid to the flowers of tea. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of hot water extract of tea (Camellia sinensis) flowers were investigated. Pharmacological studies found that administration of tea flowers extract (TFE) could effectively inhibit croton oil-induced ear edema and carrageenin-induced paw edema. Furthermore, administration of TFE also protected against Propionibacterium acnes (P. ances) plus lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced liver inflammation by reversing the histologic damage and plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increase. Moreover, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α and interleukin-(IL-) 1β mRNA in mouse liver were markedly suppressed after treatment with TFE in mice with immunological liver inflammation. These results indicated that tea flowers had potent anti-inflammatory effects on acute and immunological inflammation in vivo, and may be used as a functional natural food. PMID:22900128

  6. Use of alternative–complementary-medicine (CAM) in Calabrian children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has not been widely studied among children in Italy. ISTAT-2005 survey showed a prevalence of 10% concerning children treated with CAM. The lack of data about the use of CAM in pediatrics in the South of Italy aimed us to conduct an epidemiological inquiry in Calabria. Methods The study has been conducted from 2009 and 2011 at the Pediatric Units of: University “Magna Graecia”- Catanzaro (CZ), Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital-Catanzaro (CZ), Annunziata Hospital-Cosenza (CS), Jazzolino Hospital- ViboValentia (VV), Riuniti Hospitals- Reggio Calabria (RC) and San Giovanni di Dio Hospital- Crotone (KR). All information was collected through a questionnaire proposed to children’s parents admitted to these hospitals as out-patients or in-patients. Results 1387 parents were approached to complete the questionnaire. 21(1,5%) refused to answer. A total of 1366 questionnaire was analyzed: 378 at CZ , 450 at CS, 131 at KR, 201 at VV and 206 at RC, with a response rate of 98,5%. In total, the percentage of children using CAM varied from 18% in Crotone to 38% in Cosenza. The parents who used CAM for their children were older and with a higher education. Phytotherapy was preferred to homeopathy. The gastrointestinal pathologies and upper respiratory tract are those ones for which frequently parents recur to CAM. Of note we have not to disregard their use “ to strengthen” the immune system. In most of cases CAM have been prescribed by pediatrician. Conclusions Our study remarks that the use of CAM is increased dramatically among the calabrian children in the last years as well as in other countries. Pediatricians need to improve their knowledge about CAM in order to better manage the parental attitude. PMID:23231804

  7. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine.

  8. Chemoprevention of chemical-induced skin cancer by Panax ginseng root extract

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, Pradeep K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer has emerged as a major health problem globally as a consequence to the increased longevity of the population, changing the environment and life style. Chemoprevention is a new and promising strategy for reducing cancer burden. Recently, some natural products have been identified for their chemopreventive activity to reduce the cancer incidence. Ginseng is known for its potential to treat various ailments in human beings. The present study was designed to explore the anticancer and antioxidative potential of Panax ginseng against chemical-induced skin carcinogenesis in mammals. Methods Skin tumors were induced in Swiss albino mice by a single topical application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (100 μg/100 μL acetone) and, 2 wks later, promoted by repeated applications of croton oil (thrice in a wk in 1% acetone) till the end of the experiment (i.e., 16 wk). Hydroalcoholic ginseng root extract at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight/d was orally administered at the peri-initiation, postinitiation, and peri–post-initiation stages. Results Ginseng root extract treatment caused a significant reduction in tumor incidence, cumulative number of tumors, tumor yield, and tumor burden, as compared to the 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene–croton oil-treated control group. Further, biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, vitamin C, and total proteins but a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation levels in both the liver and skin with ginseng root extract treatment, as compared to carcinogen-treated control group. Conclusion These results suggest that P. ginseng has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent that can reduce cancer in mammals. PMID:26199559

  9. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of derivative (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jamerson Ferreira; Nonato, Fabiana Regina; Zafred, Rafael Rosolen Teixeira; Leite, Nayara Maria Siqueira; Ruiz, Ana Lúcia Tasca Gois; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; da Silva, Anekécia Lauro; de Moura, Ricardo Olímpio; Alves de Lima, Maria do Carmo

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to further investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of (E)-N-(4-bromophenyl)-2-(thiophen-2-ylmethylene)-thiosemicarbazone (BTTSC) as well as its antinociceptive effects. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed using the model of ear edema induced by croton oil-induced and also evaluated in models of paw edema carrageenan-induced and by compound 48/80. Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect was performed through formalin test. In the nociception test induced by formalin the BTTSC showed activity in both phases of the pain, highlighting inflammatory pain, where it was able to reduce the time to paw lick 62.3, 84.30 and 100% at doses of 30, 100 and 300mgkg(-1). The anti-inflammatory activity was performed ear edema induced by croton oil, where none of the doses tested was capable of significantly regress edema. The paw edema carrageenan-induced showed activity compound, where the edema was reduced by 81.9 and 83.2% in the first two times of the experiment at the highest dose used. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80, showed that BTTSC after 15min of the inoculum phlogistic agent showed significant reduction of edema with values of 56.53% at a dose of 30mgkg(-1). Our results suggesting this compound exerts its antinociception effects connected with peripheral mechanisms. Furthermore, the compound was able to act in two phases of inflammation carrageenan-induced, highlighting the initial phase. This suggests an action on the early mediators of inflammation. The paw edema assay induced by compound 48/80 confirmed our hypothesis indicating action of the compound via histamine. PMID:27133079

  10. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Manga, H Mavar; Brkic, D; Marie, D E P; Quetin-Leclercq, J

    2004-06-01

    Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is a widely distributed plant in Africa. It is used in the traditional medicine of many African countries for the treatment of bacterial, fungal, parasitic and inflammatory disorders. Aqueous decoction and methanol leaf extracts were tested for their ability to reduce Croton oil-induced oedema in the mouse ear, after topical application. The methanol leaf extract dose-dependently inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice (ID(50)<500 microg/cm(2)). A bio-assay guided liquid-liquid fractionation of this methanol extract gave four active fractions: water insoluble (F1), hexane (F2), ethyl acetate (F3) and water (F4). The hexane fraction showed a very high activity (42% inhibition at 0.7 microg/cm(2)) as compared to the control. The other fractions were less active (F1: 56% at 506.2 microg/cm(2); F3: 57% at 289.3 microg/cm(2); F4: 32% for 203.8 microg/cm(2)) while indomethacin gave 49% of inhibition at 90 microg/cm(2). The activity of F1 and F3 may be at least in part explained by the presence of anti-inflammatory flavonoids (hyperoside and quercitrin, quercitrin being identified in the plant for the first time) while the activity was not correlated to the tannin contents. None of these compounds were detected in the most active F2 fraction. These results support the reported traditional use of this plant against topical inflammatory disorders.

  11. A high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet method for Eschweilera nana leaves and their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Outuki, Priscila M.; Lazzeri, Nides S.; de Francisco, Lizziane M. B.; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A.; Ferreira, Izabel C. P.; Cardoso, Mara Lane C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eschweilera nana Miers is a tree widely distributed in Cerrado, Brazil. Objective: In this study, we aimed to describe its phytochemical properties and antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects for the first time, as well validate an high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible (HPLC-UV-Vis) method for the separation and quantification of the main components (hyperoside and rutin) in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. Materials and Methods: Structural identification of compounds in E. nana extract was performed by analysis of spectral data by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and/or ESI/EM. The HPLC-UV-Vis method was validated according International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) parameters. The 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were used for determination of in vitro antioxidant activities and the croton oil-induced inflammation for evaluation of in vivo anti-inflammatory effects. Results: Hyperoside, rutin, α-amirin, β-amirin, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol were identified in the hydroalcoholic extract of E. nana leaves. HPLC-UV-Vis was validated according to ICH parameters. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo assays demonstrated that the hydroalcoholic extract and methanol fraction showed significant antioxidant and topical anti-inflammatory effects, as they were able to reduce ear edema induced by croton-oil application. Conclusions: This research showed the first phytochemical study of E. nana extract and their biological activities may be associated with the presence of flavonoids in the extracts. PMID:26246741

  12. Use of some novel alternative electron sinks to inhibit ruminal methanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Rust, Steven R; Burnett, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Several compounds were evaluated in vitro as alternative electron sinks to ruminal methanogenesis. They were incubated with ruminal fluid, buffer mixture, and finely ground alfalfa hay for 24 h, at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mM initial concentrations. The propionate enhancer oxaloacetic acid, the butyrate enhancer beta-hydroxybutyrate, and the butyrate unsaturated analog 3-butenoic acid were ineffective in decreasing methanogenesis. Nevertheless, beta-hydroxybutyrate increased apparent fermentation of the alfalfa hay substrate from 58.0 to 63.4%, and 3-butenoic acid seemed to increase it from 62.0 to 73.7%. Almost all of added oxaloacetic acid disappeared during the incubation, while only between 30.3 and 53.4% of beta-hydroxybutyrate disappeared. The butyrate enhancers acetoacetate and crotonic acid, and the butyrate unsaturated analog 2-butynoic acid, decreased methanogenesis by a maximum of 18,9 and 9%, respectively. Crotonic acid at 18 mM initial concentration seemed to increase the substrate apparent fermentation from 57.0 to 68.2%. Between 78.6 and 100% of acetoacetate disappeared during the incubation. The propionate unsaturated analog propynoic acid, and the unsaturated ester ethyl 2-butynoate, decreased methanogenesis by a maximum of 76 and 79%, respectively. Less than 5% of propynoic acid disappeared. The substrate apparent fermentation was decreased by propynoic acid from 62.0 to 57.4%, and seemed to have been decreased by ethyl 2-butynoate from 62.0 to 29.3%. More accurate measurements of the disappearance of some of the compounds studied are needed to better understand how they are metabolized and how they affect fermentation.

  13. Elimination of deleterious effects of DMBA-induced skin carcinogenesis in mice by Syzygium cumini seed extract.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Jyoti; Sharma, Priyanka; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Goyal, Pradeep K

    2011-09-01

    The inhibition of tumor incidence by hydro-alcoholic extract of S.cumini seed was evaluated in mice on two stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by single application of 7, 12-dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (100 µg/100µl of acetone), and 2 weeks later promoted by repeated application of croton oil (1% acetone/thrice in a week) till the end of the experiment (i.e. 16 weeks). Oral administration of extract at a dose of 250mg/kg b.wt./day at the peri-initiational stage (i.e. 7 days before and 7 days after DMBA application), promotional stage (i.e. from the time of croton oil application) and at both the stages (i.e. 7 days prior to DMBA application & continued till the end of experiment) to the mice, recorded a significant reduction in tumor incidence to 37.5, 50 & 25% respectively in comparison to the carcinogen treated control, where tumor incidence was found as 100%. Tumor yield and Tumor burden were also significantly reduced by SCE. Similarly, the cumulative number of papillomas after 16 weeks was 68 in the control group, which was reduced to 15, 21 & 8 in the animals treated with the SCE continuously at peri-, post- and peri- & post- initiation stage respectively. A significant impairment was noticed in the levels of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase & protein and enhancement in LPO in liver and skin of carcinogen treated control mice as compared with vehicle treated mice. All such parameters were returned to near normal value by administration of SCE to DMBA treated mice. These results suggest a possible chemopreventive property of S.cumini against DMBA induced skin carcinogenesis in mice. PMID:21147816

  14. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches’ broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively. PMID:26949967

  15. Insect Herbivores Associated With Ludwigia Species, Oligospermum Section, in Their Argentine Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, M. Cristina; Cabrera Walsh, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    The South American water primroses, Ludwigia grandiflora (Michx.) Greuter & Burdet, L. grandiflora subsp. hexapetala (Hook. & Arn.) G.L. Nesom & Kartesz, Ludwigia peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (Spreng.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae, Section Oligospermum), have become invasive in several watersheds of the United States and Europe. Surveys were carried out in center-east of Argentina to find insect species that might serve as biological control agents for L. g. subsp. hexapetala in California and elsewhere. Stems (0.5–0.6 m) of Ludwigia species, Sect. Oligospermum, were collected in 41 sites and analyzed in the laboratory; immature insects were reared to adults. The plant species found in the area were L. grandiflora (2 sites), L. g. subsp. hexapetala (33 sites), and L. p. subsp. montevidensis (4 sites). There was a variety of insect guilds feeding on L. g. subsp. hexapetala, including six species with stem-borer larvae, one species with fruit-feeding larvae, four species with defoliating larvae, two species with defoliating larvae on young leaves and axil meristems, one species of cell content feeder, and three species of sap feeders. Nine of these species also have defoliating adults. Biological information on most of them is provided. Of these insect herbivores, only two species were also found on L. grandiflora, and one on L. peploides. Several of the species found on L. g. hexapetala, such as the cell-content feeder Liothrips ludwigi (Thysanoptera), the stem-borers Merocnemus binotatus (Boheman) and Tyloderma spp. (Coleoptera), are promising candidates for biocontrol agents. PMID:25502037

  16. Four new carbazole alkaloids from Murraya koenigii that display anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Nalli, Yedukondalu; Khajuria, Vidushi; Gupta, Shilpa; Arora, Palak; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ahmed, Zabeer; Ali, Asif

    2016-03-28

    In our present study, four new, designated as murrayakonine A-D (), along with 18 known carbazole alkaloids were isolated from CHCl3 : MeOH (1 : 1) crude extracts of the stems and leaves of Murraya koenigii (Linn.) Spreng. The structures of the all isolated compounds were characterized by analysis of HR-ESI-MS and NMR (1D and 2D spectroscopy) results, and comparison of their data with the literature data. For the first time, all the isolates were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activities, using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, against the key inflammatory mediators TNF-α and IL-6. The new compound murrayakonine A (), O-methylmurrayamine A () and mukolidine () were proven to be the most active, efficiently inhibiting TNF-α and IL-6 release in a dose-dependent manner and showing decreased LPS induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in human PBMCs. Furthermore, all the isolates were screened for their antimicrobial potential, and the compounds girinimbine () (IC50 3.4 μM) and 1-hydroxy-7-methoxy-8-(3-methylbut-2-en-1-yl)-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde () (IC50 10.9 μM) displayed potent inhibitory effects against Bacillus cereus. Furthermore, compounds murrayamine J () (IC50 11.7 μM) and koenimbine () (IC50 17.0 μM) were active against Staphylococcus aureus. However, none of the compounds were found to be active against Escherichia coli or Candida albicans. PMID:26947457

  17. A method of preserving and testing the acceptability of gac fruit oil, a good source of beta-carotene and essential fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Vuong, L T; King, J C

    2003-06-01

    Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) is indigenous to Vietnam and other countries in Southeast Asia. Its seed pulp contains high concentrations of carotenoids, especially the provitamin A, beta-carotene. In northern Vietnam, gac fruits are seasonal and are mainly used in making a rice dish called xoi gac. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to collect and preserve gac fruit oil, to evaluate the nutritional composition of the oil, and to assess the acceptability of the gac oil by typical Vietnamese homemakers. One hundred women participated in training to learn how to prepare the fruits and operate the oil press. The women also participated in a survey of gac fruit use and their habitual use of animal fat and vegetable oil. Among all the participants in the training and surveys, 35 women actually produced oil from gac fruits grown in the village, using manual oil presses and locally available materials. The total carotene concentration in gac fruit oil was 5,700 micrograms/ml. The concentration of beta-carotene was 2,710 micrograms/ml. Sixty-nine percent of total fat was unsaturated, and 35% of that was polyunsaturated. The average daily consumption of gac fruit oil was estimated at 2 ml per person. The daily beta-carotene intake (from gac fruit oil) averaged approximately 5 mg per person. It was found that gac oil can be produced locally by village women using manual presses and locally available materials. The oil is a rich source of beta-carotene, vitamin E, and essential fatty acids. Although the beta-carotene concentration declines with time without a preservative or proper storage, it was still high after three months. The oil was readily accepted by the women and their children, and consumption of the oil increased the intake of beta-carotene and reduced the intake of lard. PMID:12891827

  18. In vitro micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of cis isomers of lycopene exceed those of all-trans lycopene.

    PubMed

    Failla, Mark L; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Ishida, Betty K

    2008-03-01

    The ratio of cis and all-trans lycopene (LYC) in human and animal tissues exceeds that in foods. The basis for this difference remains unknown, although differences in their stability, transport, and metabolism have been suggested. Here, we systematically compared the digestive stability, efficiency of micellarization, and uptake and intracellular stability of cis and all-trans isomers of LYC and carotenes using the coupled in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell model. Aril and oil from the carotenoid-rich gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) were cooked with rice to provide a natural source of LYC and carotenes. The ratio of cis:trans isomers of LYC and beta-carotene was similar before and after simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion with recovery of total carotenoids in the digesta exceeding 70%. Micellarization of cis isomers of LYC during digestion of meals with both gac aril and oil was significantly greater than that of the all-trans isomer but less than for the carotenes. Uptake of cis isomers of LYC by Caco-2 cells was similar to that of carotenes and significantly greater than all-trans LYC. Micellarized carotenoids were relatively stable in micelles incubated in the cell culture environment and after accumulation in Caco-2 cells. These data suggest that the greater bioaccessibility of cis compared with all-trans isomers of LYC contributes to the enrichment of the cis isomers in tissues and that gac fruit is an excellent source of bioaccessible LYC and provitamin A carotenoids. PMID:18287353

  19. Cochinchina momordica seed suppresses proliferation and metastasis in human lung cancer cells by regulating multiple molecular targets.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang; Meng, Linyi; Sun, Huajun; Zhu, Yizhun; Liu, Hongrui

    2015-01-01

    Cochinchina Momordica Seed, which is the dried ripe seed of Momordica cochinchinensis (Lour.) Spreng, has been used as a mainly anticancer ingredient for many years in China. This study aims at investigating the roles of an ethanol-soluble extract of Cochinchina Momordica Seed (ECMS) in suppressing the proliferation and metastasis of human lung cancer cells, and further elucidating underlying molecular mechanisms. Our researches suggest that ECMS dose-dependently decreased the survival rates of A549 and H1299 cells, and inhibited the migration and invasion in A549 cells. ECMS-induced apoptosis was accompanied by up-regulation of p53, Bax and the down-regulation of Bcl-2, PI-3K/Akt signal pathway, and resulted in the dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and sequentially activated caspase-3 cascade. Pre-treated with specific inhibitors, LY294002 (PI-3K inhibitor) and BAY11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor) could enhance the anti-proliferation effects of ECMS on A549 cells. Furthermore, ECMS could increase the level of E-cadherin and decrease of the level of STAT-3 and MMP-2, and scarcely affected the expression of VEGF, and resulted in the inhibition of migration and invasion. Pre-treated with specific inhibitors, WP1066 (STAT-3 inhibitor) and TIMP-2 (MMP-2 inhibitor) could enhance the inhibitory effects of ECMS on migration. In conclusion, the current data demonstrated ECMS inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells by inducing apoptosis, at least partly through the activation of p53 and inactivation of PI-3K/Akt signaling. STAT-3 and MMP-2 pathways may be partly involved in anti-metastasis activities of ECMS. Hence, ECMS might be a promising candidate for the therapy of the non-small cell lung cancer by regulating multiple molecular targets. PMID:25649746

  20. First Microsatellite Markers Developed from Cupuassu ESTs: Application in Diversity Analysis and Cross-Species Transferability to Cacao.

    PubMed

    Ferraz Dos Santos, Lucas; Moreira Fregapani, Roberta; Falcão, Loeni Ludke; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Costa, Marcos Mota do Carmo; Lopes, Uilson Vanderlei; Peres Gramacho, Karina; Alves, Rafael Moyses; Micheli, Fabienne; Marcellino, Lucilia Helena

    2016-01-01

    The cupuassu tree (Theobroma grandiflorum) (Willd. ex Spreng.) Schum. is a fruitful species from the Amazon with great economical potential, due to the multiple uses of its fruit´s pulp and seeds in the food and cosmetic industries, including the production of cupulate, an alternative to chocolate. In order to support the cupuassu breeding program and to select plants presenting both pulp/seed quality and fungal disease resistance, SSRs from Next Generation Sequencing ESTs were obtained and used in diversity analysis. From 8,330 ESTs, 1,517 contained one or more SSRs (1,899 SSRs identified). The most abundant motifs identified in the EST-SSRs were hepta- and trinucleotides, and they were found with a minimum and maximum of 2 and 19 repeats, respectively. From the 1,517 ESTs containing SSRs, 70 ESTs were selected based on their functional annotation, focusing on pulp and seed quality, as well as resistance to pathogens. The 70 ESTs selected contained 77 SSRs, and among which, 11 were polymorphic in cupuassu genotypes. These EST-SSRs were able to discriminate the cupuassu genotype in relation to resistance/susceptibility to witches' broom disease, as well as to pulp quality (SST/ATT values). Finally, we showed that these markers were transferable to cacao genotypes, and that genome availability might be used as a predictive tool for polymorphism detection and primer design useful for both Theobroma species. To our knowledge, this is the first report involving EST-SSRs from cupuassu and is also a pioneer in the analysis of marker transferability from cupuassu to cacao. Moreover, these markers might contribute to develop or saturate the cupuassu and cacao genetic maps, respectively.